âSEJARAHÂ LAPTOPâ Pada tahun 1970an Alan Kay dari Xerox Palo Alto Research Center memiliki suatu visi untuk sebuah komputer jinjing yang tudak memerlukan kabel, seukuran buku catatan. Ia menamakannya Dynabook. Dynabook milik Kay ini di ciptakan dengan kemampuan network wireless. Dan hal ini mulai menngerakkan roda perkembangan sebuah komputer jinjing yang sebenarnya seperti sekarang ini. […]
We have a Xerox model 4112 copier that we are using for Network Scanning.Â In the Centreware access window for the copier, on the Scan tab, under Filing Options, there is a File Name field.Â By default, this field just shows as "DOC".Â I am looking for any info on what I can use for a wildcard name format in there to populate the date and time onto newly scanned documents.
On Xerox model 5675 and 5687, we can access Centreware and populate this same field with this format %m-%d-%y_AT_%H-%M-%S and get a file name which displays the date and time.Â
Just need to figure out what to change to get the Xerox 4112 to give the same type of name.
For our 4th Copywriting Tune-up this month, we return to the Silicon Valley 150. I wanted to get outside my comfort zone which is the learning domain. There are times when not being the expert is a plus and this is one of them.
Yours truly knows enough relational database theory to be dangerous and writing dynamic web pages is fun once in a while, but Iâm no maven on the enterprise data integration products Informatica offers.
As with many enterprise software companies, the copy on Informaticaâs website is stiff. This article proves you can loosen up a bit and still maintain a very respectful corporate tone. Better still, your prospects will respond because youâre talking to them and not some third person academic (no slight to professors or teachers - Iâm one myself).
Like our last tune-up, weâll look at a corporate overview. I consider corporate overviews important because, for many readers, this is their first exposure to the company. This makes it imperative they "put their best foot forward."
This tune-up consolidates all of the principles weâve addressed this month. The challenges are to:
Eliminate the passive voice to make it easy to understand
(for a quick explanation of the passive voice, see my tune-up of the Hewlett Packard white paper on Halo, their collaboration platform)
Inject action into the copy so itâs more alive and less like a statue
Maintain a corporate tone
Informatica Corporate Overview
Informatica Corporation delivers data integration software and services to solve the problem of data fragmentation across disparate systems, helping organizations gain greater business value from all their information assets. Informatica's open, platform-neutral software reduces costs, speeds time to results, and scales to handle data integration projects of any size or complexity. With a proven track record of success, Informatica helps companies and government organizations of all sizes realize the full business potential of their enterprise data. That's why Informatica is known as the data integration company.
Overview: Why Informatica is The Data Integration Company
Solve the problem of fragmented data across disparate systems. Help your organization capture the whole value of its information assets. Reduce costs, speed time to results, and scale for data integration projects of any size or complexity. Use the open, platform-independent solutions of Informatica to make it happen.
Tap into a proven track record of success. Realize the full potential of your enterprise data. This is why organizations of all sizes from every sector trust Informatica to be their "data integration company."
The Before snippet is weighed down with Â¼ of its sentences in the passive voice. The After snippet switches to active voice and the passage becomes 10 times more readable.
While it may be possible to bring down the grade level some more, given the highly esoteric nature of Informatica products, eliminating jargon could do more harm than good by transforming the piece into training as opposed to selling.
The Headline: Stallion or Statue?
The Before snippet gives us the usual corporate heading and itâs straightforward, for sure. Even in this context, I think the headline should do more than simply label the section it covers. Whatâs the purpose of an overview in the first place? It must whet the readerâs appetite for more.
I admit, the headline in the After snippet could be catchier and it lacks an action verb. If I were working at Informatica, Iâd know who approves this stuff and have an idea of how far to push the limits of "corporate safeness."
Still, this headline performs far more than just labeling. Informatica chose to conclude its overview by referring to itself as "the data integration company." Sounds like an important phrase and maybe itâs a tag line they use elsewhere so, I decided we should get the reader onboard with this notion sooner rather than later.
After all, if your company were branded "the data integration company," you would occupy hallowed ground in the same way Kleenex, Xerox and WebEx do in their niches. Best of all, your competitors would hate you for it.
Treat Readersâ Eyes with Respect
The Before snippet compacts everything into a single paragraph. Itâs already a long page with scrolling. No need to get claustrophobic. In fact, given how many headers follow this paragraph, it might have made sense to provide a sub-menu or some in-page links near the top so readers could go directly to their point of interest.
Unlike dead air on radio which can lose listeners instantly, white space on the page arranges information into manageable chunks and supports the readerâs effort to make sense of it. This is complex material â give the brain a chance to catch up with the eye.
Let Readers Catch their Breath â Write Shorter Sentences
The Before snippet immediately bombards readers with lengthy clauses like "delivers data integration software and services to solve the problem of", "data fragmentation across disparate systems" and "helping organizations gain greater business value fromâ¦"
Notice the After snippet uses more sentences and how theyâre shorter in length. By starting shorter sentences with verbs, we sharpen our focus on a single benefit. Given few reasonably intelligent people can hold on to two or more bullet points in their head at a time, we should avoid packing sentences with lengthy clauses.
Speak from Your Readerâs Point of View Using Action Sentences
Our last tune-up explains how focusing on action forces us to think from the readerâs point of view. In the Before snippet, none of the sentences begin with a verb. The After snippet starts all but one of its sentences with a verb. Doing so forces you, as a writer, to think, "Whatâs in it for me, the reader?"
Even if this is not a sales letter, it is sales literature and it should promote some call to action whether itâs reading more, entering data into a form, or navigating to another part of the site.
True, the After snippet does not prompt an explicit action but it does accomplish two things. First, it makes a concise yet powerful case for the branding its headline calls out. Second, it creates interest so the reader will read on.
Moreover, action sentences from your readerâs point of view give you license to use the second person voice. Addressing readers with "you" and "your" creates a hotline from your pen to their minds and maybe even their hearts.
Address Readers Using Second Person Voice without Triggering Sales Hype
For some reason, enterprise software companies labor under the pretense they must write in third person and passive voices or risk coming across as wild-eyed hucksters unworthy of further attention.
Thankfully, itâs easy to address your readers directly without losing credibility. The After snippet maintains a corporate tone while using a second person voice throughout.
One little secret to striking this balance â even if you leave out "you" and "your" in a sentence, so long as you start it with an action verb, youâll achieve what I call, "implied second person voice." This allows for sparing use of "you" and "your."
Implied second person voice with occasional use of "you" and "your" will raise your credibility because readers find your literature easier to understand yet free from sales hype.
Write for Both Kinds of Readers â Scanners and Scrutinizers
Scanners skim the headlines and read a little body copy here and there. Scrutinizers read every line with rapt attention. Satisfying both types of readers makes sub-heads vital to your success.
For both types of readers, sub-heads act as "connective tissue." Scanners want to skim the headline and sub-heads and come away with a meaningful insight into your offer or value proposition. Scrutinizers want continuity as they complete a section of body copy and move on to the next sub-head.
On the Informatica overview page, following the opening paragraph is the sub-head, "Market Leaders Rely on Informatica."
From the scannerâs point of view, the page so far reads, "Informatica Corporate Overview" and "Market Leaders Rely on Informatica." Scanners will view this as lifeless because there are no action verbs or second person voice. Worse still, the two headers have no meaningful connection to each other. Theyâre nothing more than labels.
From the scrutinizerâs point of view, the Before snippet fares a little better. The last sentence asserts Informatica is the data integration company and then we have the sub-head, "Market Leaders Rely on Informatica." Not tight but not totally disjointed either.
If the After snippet continued on, I would re-write the next sub-head as "Join the Market Leaders Who Rely on Informatica."
Scanners would read, "Overview: Why Informatica is The Data Integration Company" followed by, "Join the Market Leaders Who Rely on Informatica." One head naturally leads into the next. The sub-head starts with an action verb. This "ratchets up" the intensity as we move along. Chances are better a scanner will think, "Hey, I better get on top of this before our competitors do."
Scrutinizers would read "This is why organizations of all sizes from every sector trust Informatica to be their âdata integration companyâ" followed by, "Join the Market Leaders Who Rely on Informatica." The flow here is tight. For good measure, scrutinizers will read body copy invoking the word "trust" followed by the sub-head using, "rely." Two very emotion-laden verbs without triggering sales hype.
Evoke More Emotion with your Choice of Words
The Before snippet uses the term "platform-neutral" whereas the After snippet opts for "platform-independent." The term "neutral" is, well, neutral. "Independent" evokes feelings of empowerment. The latter has a far more positive connotation and it reflects better on Informatica.
Never Diminish Thyself
Avoid using your companyâs name in the possessive form. In the Before snippet, we read, "Informatica's open, platform-neutral softwareâ¦" This has the same effect as tilting a movie camera down on its subject â the subject looks diminished because the viewer can "look down" on it.
The After snippet reads, "Use the open, platform-independent solutions of Informatica to make it happen." By placing the item possessed first and following it with "of Informatica," the effect is equivalent to tilting a movie camera up at its subject â the subject looks powerful and important because the viewer must "look up" to it.
Enterprise software companies need to take off their self-imposed straightjackets when presenting themselves. Sure, one could argue, Informatica, like many enterprise software companies, is doing just fine with stiff copy because their success is a combination of technical innovation, strong management leadership and savvy salespeople in the field.
Then again, clear, crisp copy can make everyoneâs job easier with softer landings during lean times and accelerated sales when bull markets run. To me, investing in great copy sounds like buying a call option â you canât lose anymore than you spent to acquire it and the upside is unlimited.
A mouse. Removable data storage. Networking. A visual user interface. Easy-to-use graphics software. âWhat You See Is What You Getâ (WYSIWYG) printing, with printed documents matching what users saw on screen. Email. Alto for the first time combined these and other now-familiar elements in one small computer.Revolution: The First 2000 Years of Computing The innovations of computing past can offer fresh perspective and provide inspiration to a new generation of innovators. The Center for Software […]
No stranger to HubSpot, sales strategist Jill Konrath is a longtime friend of the company who has appeared on our blogs, as a guest on Marketing Update, and at past INBOUND events. She is also one of the funniest, most irreverent, and most trusted advisors on all things sales and social selling. With a storied sales career starting at Xerox, today Jill is also the author Selling to Big Companies and SNAP Selling. We are excited to have Jill speaking at INBOUND 2014, and grateful she took the time to share her online reading favorites and tips.
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Hari ni 24 Mei 2016 - genaplah usia 4 tahun. Alhamdulillah..
Macam biasa. Tak ada big party celebration. Cuma cadangnya malam ni nak makan kat luar je lah. And asalnya nak buat sambutan sket kat school Saif hari ni tapi sebab mama n papa busy sket so kita postpone lah buat hari Khamis nanti.
Untuk sambutan kat school nanti, mama plan nak DIY semuanya! Goodies dan kek semua nak DIY je. Jimat sket. Tengahari ni baru nak pergi beli barang-barang goodies.
Sticker untuk goodies mama design simple aje. Then print je. Printer color sendiri hokey! Tapi printer ni memang sengaja aku letak kat office supaya senang aku nak print apa2 yang perlukan color (personal), so guna printer ni lah.
Design guna photoshop je
Ni la printer color laser aku. Cap Fujixerox. Sdn Bhd ye. Yang belah kiri tu barulah printer ofis tapi black&white je la.
Sticker yang da siap print dan potong. Lenguh tangan potong satu-satu ni. Aku bajet nak buat untuk 70++ budak kat tadika tu termasuk teacher.
Ok. Tu je nak cerita buat masa ni. Nanti kalau tak lupa, aku update rupa goodies n kek DIY aku tu ye. Huhuhu..
I been to Chicago and I been to Detroit
But I never had a good time till I got up in Illinois
- Skip James, âIllinois Bluesâ
You are watching me, runny nose and throbbing headache, wheel an 80-lb. suitcase (for which United Airlines charged me a $25 overweight fee on the flight from Buffalo - still cheaper and more trustworthy than shipping) down Halsted Avenue in Chicago on a brisk sunny April Tuesday morning. The suitcase is freighted with books, and the books freighted with just about every spare moment Iâve had from my college teaching job for the last five years. Others write them, but I (with a small number of trusted associatesAs of August, 2006, these associates include Geoffrey Gatza, Florine Melnyk, Ed Taylor, and Kevin Thurston.) do just about everything else - editorial, layout, design, proofreading, working with printers, advertising, marketing, and, here, selling. This is not the picture I had in my mind of what an English professor does when I began a PhD program twenty years ago. (Jesus, twenty years ago?) Itâs not that I didnât think of English professors involving themselves in the making of new literature, even the production of new literature. I attended programs and studied with professors for whom small press writing was the only new American writing worth troubling with - and now here I am. I just always imagined Iâd have grad students to do the actual shlepping around.
I am Dr. Ted Pelton, founder and Executive Director of Starcherone Books, a 501(c)(3) organization that utilizes publishing to fulfill its educational objectives of increasing awareness and appreciation of the avant-garde and innovative fiction that mainstream presses no longer have much interest in publishing, if they ever did. Later in the day I will speaking to a room full of graduate and undergraduate students at the University of Illinois-Chicago before heading on the next day to the &Now Conference at Lake Forest College, a half-hour North of the city. When I tell the assembly today about small press publishing, the images in my listenersâ minds will have to do with piles of manuscripts, desktop publishing programs, and the like. No one will ask about luggage. Itâs just as well.
This trip is the third of four with Starcherone this Spring: Tallahassee and Austin done, Boulder to come. I caught the cold ten days ago on a flight back from New York where I had read from my own new novel to an audience of 5 people, one of whom was Tod Thilleman, publisher of Spuyten Duyvil Books, another Nava Renek, an SD author, and a third was the woman waiting to close up the place when we were finished. When I later today appear on a panel with Gina Frangello, founder/publisher of Other Voices Books, she will do me two better, delivering her talk with strep throat and having recently given birth. Making literature today is hard work, but small press publishers are headstrong stock, daunted neither by hardship or illness in their self-styled fight against corporate sameness.
That last is a rather nice reportage journalism sentence, donât you think?
Mike Neuwirth of Bridge Magazine and Michael Leary of Flood Editions are the other panelists with Gina and I in a sixth floor multipurpose room in one of the towers that make up the University of Illinois campus. All of us do slightly different things. Bridge went from a journal-styled paperback format a couple of years ago to its current newsprint magazine format with a circulation of 30,000. They are the most mainstream presence on our panel, seemingly with a âreal peopleâ audience rather than this crowdâs usual specializations and art ambitions - Neuwirth freely banters about the types of issues one would see in Publisherâs Weekly, while nonetheless trumpeting small press successes. The question of audience is a significant one in the small press world. Some see their roles as working to create art, with a select initial audience and the hope more will catch on, but nonetheless assuming the traditional avant-gardistâs approach that the work comes first, and good work will attract good readers. Others say that the literary establishment has grown so petrified and risk-averse that it can no longer even tell the central stories of our time. These presses seek to be popular, perhaps even to âcatch on.â But as a result, such publications may select material away from the harder edge experimental work of the moment, work which is likely to turn off the typical reader looking for a breezier experience with his or her reading material. We are all caught somewhere between these two poles because it is hard to sustain any American enterprise without engagement with free enterprise, with all its attendant mercantile assumptions. You donât choose one or the other, but you are always conscious of both, however you choose to manuever.
(Itâs a problem not only limited to fiction. I am reminded of this music example: while no one would argue the Beatles werenât good, one still laughs when Mark E. Smith of The Fall declaims of them and post-Beatles commercial groups: âAll the English groups/Act like peasants with free milk/On a route/On a route to the loot/To candy mountain/Five wacky English proletariat idiots.â)
Anyway, Mike Neuwirth tells a story about Joe Meno, a Chicago author I havenât heard of (which in itself doesnât mean much, there being many different worlds within the so-called small press world). Itâs the kind of story small pressers love to hear and tell: how Meno published two books with big Harper-Collins but it was only when he did his third book with Akashic that the books started to sell, thanks to the individual attention given to authors and their titles by small presses. But then Akashic, from where I sit, is practically a mainstream press. Yes, theyâre so-called indie, but, with an alternative pedigree more descended from the successes of Pearl Jam than Oulipo, theyâre the type of New York indie alt-press media darlings an establishment scene - Publisherâs Weekly, The Nation, the Association of American Publishers - understands and is more likely to embrace; in other words, they are culturally but not necessarily formally progressive, and accepting of and positioned to succeed within a certain engagement with free enterprise. Menoâs book in question is called Hairstyles of the Damned: you get the picture. No, theyâre not the enemy. Yes, maybe I am just jealous.
On the other end of the spectrum is Michael OâLeary of Flood Editions, purveyors of beautifully designed, high-minded poetry by the likes of Graham Foust, Lisa Jarnot, Pam Rehm, Ronald Johnson, and other avant-garde heroes, many from my own Buffalo, dear Beat poetry-mad Buffalo, a city where you can draw three hundred people to the 80th birthday party of Robert Creeley a year after heâs been dead and two years after he moved to Rhode Island. OâLeary is quiet in the brouhaha that follows, being a poetry guy and thus seeing widespread popularity as something other people think about, fiction people, or students in creative writing programs who still imagine they will have audiences, who havenât yet been trampled on by the invisible stampedes of neglect. âAll writers feel neglected,â Ronald Sukenick (postmodern hero novelist/Fiction Collective co-founder/American Book Review publisher) once said in a workshop class I took and I have quoted it often, having grown up in an age where I feel those wounds as acutely as he did. Like earlier today, stumbling down the avenue with heavy bag and headcold. Or when I will pay the airline the excess baggage fee again on the way back, bringing home most of my books from the road.
âThe brouhaha that followsâ â¦ well, not exactly a brouhaha, but Mike Neuwirth takes issue with my statement that the average fiction title in the United States sells only about 300 copies, my point being that ALL new fiction publishing, even the divisions of Murdoch and Bertlesmann with their many imprints and stacks of tomes in Borders and Barnes & Noble, is dying, and if theyâre only selling 300 copies, hell, I can do that. And this statistic is what Cris Mazza (my host, novelist, short-story writer, UIC fiction prof) tells me her students (fearful perhaps their parents were right - there truly is nothing in this âart thingâ) most buzz about after the fact, so when I return home I try to substantiate this figure - God I wish I had been a good scholar and written down where this stat came from, publishers being so guarded about sales figures (as opposed to âprint runs,â which they love to release and ballyhoo).The small presses, without the establishment resources at their command, must generally rely on anecdotal information regarding othersâ sales. Here, for instance, is an excerpt from an email I received yesterday from one of our new authors: âI had a long chat with J. [an agent] not long ago in which he told me about a certain young, fairly-well-hyped writer of literary fiction who had a book on McSweeneyâs and whose next book came out this spring on a big NY house; this latter book got a good amount of attention from literary blogs when it was released. J. had lunch with the bookâs editor a while back, who told him that the book has sold 80 copiesâ¦â One of the reasons, of course, that sales of individual fiction titles are so poor is that the current paradigm for corporate publishers is to keep new books available for only 3-6 months and if they donât sell in that time, publishers remainder them and move on. Thus they provide a potential edge for small presses which generally keep books available for longer terms or even perpetually. I like to quote Emerson against this mainstream publishing trend, indicating that the way literature actually works isnât in keeping with mainstream corporate publishing assumptions: âNever read any book that is not a year old.â But when I return home I do find this statement on the net: 93% of fiction published in the US for which ISBNs were provided (thus not counting chapbooks or micro-press books) sell fewer than 1000 copies, according to a presenter at the Nielsen BookScan-sponsored Book Summit 2005, and this 93% of titles accounts for 13% of sales. Publishing is sort of like wealth today in America: the few are consolidating their power, making a very few people/titles mega-rich and saying to the rest of us and what was formerly called Our National Literature, go fuck yourself.For the purposes of this article I tried to find out how much BookScan charges for their sales tabulation information. An email query led to a salesperson who, four emails later, would not quote me a figure unless I agreed to set up a demo of the service and start a contract. Many aspects of the publishing industry similarly structure access through financial hurdles. All US ISBN numbers, the way one is entered into the national bookselling marketplace, are controlled by a single company, R. R. Bowker. Bowker sells 10 ISBNs at $27 each, 100 ISBNs at $9.15 each, or 10,000 at 34Â¢ each. Being a small press is something like having to purchase your start-up office furniture exclusively at the price-gouging rates of Rent-to-Own. When I was a PhD student, I worked on Herman Melville, perhaps this countryâs greatest novelist but a weirdo in his own time, to be sure, whom some contemporary reviewers feared had gone insane (especially after he wrote Pierre) and who was no great friend of the publishing industry of his own moment. But here is my point: would a situation whereby D. H. Lawrence, in 1920, nearly three decades after Melvilleâs death, discovered Mardi, Omoo, and Moby-Dick, be possible today? Such a scenario only exists if the books get printed to begin with. And if this printing happens, which publishers are the ones most likely to make this possible? Ones whose responsibility is first to literature or those whose responsibility is first to their corporate parents? Who is likely to publish a novel today for whom there is little or no contemporary audience, but which might one day be discovered, in the context of a survey work on classic American Literature, in the year 2045? If there is, on the shoulders of contemporary small publishers, a need to give voice to the culturally marginalized, Ã¡ la Akashic, there is also a need to give venues to ânew compositions in the arts,â as Gertrude Stein called them when she said that such works âwere outlaws right up until the moment they were considered classics, with hardly a moment in between.â
In Chicago, my own press has the most affinity with Gina Frangello and Other Voices which began as a literary magazine and now scrapes together funds to put out one short fiction collection a year, determined by an annual contest with the first winner being Tod Goldbergâs Simplify. Of greater interest to me, though (judging books by their covers), is Frangelloâs own book, My Sisterâs Continent, a complex and challenging-looking (compliments in my vocabulary) novel based on Freudâs Dora case, published by Chiasmus Press. Chiasmusâs publisher Lidia Yuknavitch is prevented from joining the panel from her home in Portland, Oregon, but her statement, read aloud to the gathering by OV Editor Marina Lewis, says Chiasmus was founded to resist the corporatization of literature, and to publish new work she believes in which isnât finding venues elsewhere. No mention of sales or profits. That, I nod, is what it is all about. Other voices.
What helps fiction sales - blogs, readings, reviews? What do you think of print-on-demand? Do writers who want to get published realize that they have a duty as well to support the small press economy? Will we be able to withstand the pressures of a society that is increasingly anti-reading? Do we have to increase numbers or is it possible to exist in hundreds of separate fiefdoms of audiences which share and communicate with each other and remain viable without appeasing the monster of expansion, the ineluctable direction of capitalism, always urging bigger, wider, more massive? But if that is not what literature is, should we admit and stake our claim on the proposition that literature and the expansive designs structured by capitalism are inversely proportional?
Questions fill the room. I havenât even gotten to Lake Forest yet.
And now, through the magic of editing, I am in Lake Forest, an opulent Northern burb. The streets between downtown Lake Forest, the college a mile in one direction and the conference center a mile in another, are not lined with streetlights because the owners of the fabulous mansions in these environs donât want people walking around in their neighborhoods at night. Walk, dear? I wonât hear of it. If you have anyplace you absolutely have to get to, just take the Mercedes. Or better yet, have Juan drive you. Strange place for a gathering of visiting art freaks, music-mixers, post-metafictionists, hybrid fusionists, pomo parodists, indie pirates, and the like - and so say all the visiting art freaks, music mixers, post-metafictionists, hybrid fusionists, pomo parodists, indie pirates, and the like to each other upon their arrivals here, preparing to take stock of our own glorious wealth.
I have never finished a book by William Gass. He goes on too long for me - and yes, I am aware of this contradiction, in that I said above how much I liked the difficult in writing. Call it a matter of taste. Wait, no, I did finish On Being Blue, the one book of his in which he seemed to momentarily allow himself slenderness of expression. Beautiful book, that. I did also like âIn the Heart of the Heart of the Country,â his long story in the same-named collection. In any case, William Gass becomes the hero of my first afternoon at &Now in an opening panel that also features the not inconsiderable talents of Shelley Jackson and Nambi Kelley (more of each anon). Gass in person is remarkable: 80 years old, hale, lucid, wispy white bowl haircut, dark-rimmed round glasses, wise sad eyes and wry playfulness causing him to resemble an emissary from another age - Buster Keaton as an emeritus professor. His remarks indicate that he himself regards his presence as a visitation from elsewhere: the avant-garde of our fathers and grandfathers. He tells us of the differences between our lands: then, there was something more of a cohesion between different artists; now, there are more types of art and media available for expression, diffusion, multiplicity.
Shelley Jackson is next. It is my first exposure to her work, though I am aware of at least one of her projects, a story in which the words were tattooed on the skin of volunteers, a living work that at the same time is impossible to receive except in fragments. Shelley is striking to look at, any place one looks. On her own inside wrist is tattooed âSKIN,â appropriately. Her hair is the color of fire - not a uniform color, that is, but composed of reds, oranges, yellows, and browns. Yet, despite her formidable visual presentation, she begins to speak somewhat waveringly, reassuringly to some degree: sheâs nervous. Her work, she says, seeks to position itself against a fairly complacent contemporary writing world which she finds âdedicated to an illusory image of its own purity.â One anti-literary project was the tattoos; another is her creation of what she calls âThe Interstitial Library,â a theoretical project in the spirit of Blanchotâs and Roland Barthesâs similar conceits about bodies of text around and beyond us at all moments. Jackson and her collaborator, Christine Hill, imagine a library that exists in the interstices between presently existing books in the worldâs physical and virtual libraries. As Jackson is equally an artist and a writer, as well as a skilled web designer, the library grounds itself in the actuality of a website. But from there it goes out again into the imaginary, as both regards works and their possible existences: âIts vast holdings are dispersed throughout private collections, used bookstores, other libraries, thrift stores, garbage dumps, attics, garages, hollow trees, sunken ships, the bottom desk-drawers of writers, the imaginations of non-writers, the pages of other books, the possible future, and the inaccessible past.â
Nambi Kelley is last. As befits an artist who does a great of her work around the world in acting workshops intended to foster, as she puts it, âglobal communities,â Nambi Kelley refuses to allow us to remain seated, academic-style, in this conference room. A slender, small-framed woman in fingerless knit gloves and a ball of twisted braids atop her head, she asks first what African-American playwrights we are familiar with; she is featured herself in a current L.A. production of August Wilsonâs Joe Turnerâs Come and Gone. Her presence here has theatricality - she stands and speaks, her hands dance in the air. She throws an object into the crowd - make up a story, she instructs, throw it to someone else. The game ends too early - I mean, in this room we could do it all day. But the point is made - in a world where manufacturers tell us art is this or that outside ourselves, we should not forget this basic essence of expression. Duh â¦ people!
William Gass now has his heroic moment, fielding a question from the crowd meant to trip us up: Arenât you just saying what everybody says? In the corporate boardrooms of America, arenât they just figuring out ways to make it new? Arenât we all always already homogenized? Havenât they taken away our language, those geniuses of capitalism, havenât they rendered us impotent, anything we might say here only sounding the same as what weâre always being told and sold? Gass is not to be so easily dismissed, and indeed he turns the tables, calmly, serenely. Any derision I give his response here is my own, because Gass himself stays above anger, indignation, resentment. Dear boy, he says to the questioner, They only do that in the attempt to sell us products. Donât mistake the language they steal from us as anything but new bottles into which they serve their old wine. Oh, but heâs so much more articulate, refined, cool, and cutting, leaving the room still with wonder. I get too involved in the emotion of the moment to record for posterity his actual words. I am too much the foot soldier to remember to be the scribe.
Which becomes my problem over the next few days. I participate, and only as an afterthought restore myself to the position of feigned-objective observer. It also becomes clear to me, when on the last day I hear people talking about the electronic music and video presentations theyâve witnessed here, that I attend a different festival than a lot of the others. I attend events concurrent with other events, and can only be that one person I am; I ignore too much, fail to witness too much, donât take account of all I am involved in, and it slips past me, leaving me with only these few sad notes, so much less than what is actually occurring. Sticking close to fiction on both days, among the concurrent sessions I miss are those engaging literature and multimedia, performance poetry, experimental film, mathematically engendered writing by women, and a host of other media, operations, and art-form combinations.
My apologies to all those who were at &Now and donât appear in this account, either because I didnât attend your session, took poor notes, or couldnât fit you into the final article. I should have been a better chronicler than I am. A team of chroniclers!
Itâs a fallacy that the dead live in the distant past, Shelley Jackson tells us from the podium that evening, star of the first plenary. Some are from only a minute ago. I love the performance that follows - Jackson reading from a text that brings together the website we see projected above her, also of her own design, her work in progress, The Shelley Jackson Vocational School for Ghost Speakers and Hearing Mouth Children. The siteâs url is now lost to me, but this is what I recall seeing: an official seal such as one might find gracing an old brick-and-mortar academic hall, one that introduces the visitor to a school devoted to capturing the voices of the dead as miniature physical objects rendered in wax, objects which have also been sculpted by Jackson who works simultaneously as author, artist, and web designer. The objects themselves, or the images of them that we see, are haunting in their echoes of our dream-images of the unseeable, conditioned by 19th-century spirit photography and similar to paranormal explorations that pseudo-sciences have engaged in over the centuries; this sense is reinforced by Jacksonâs schematic drawings of bodies and inventions used in the refinement of sound-objects generated by the dead, rendered in effective imitative detail. Her imaginations are bodied forth in very convincing craftspersonship.
Jackson also engages a rich paradox in the life of the avant-garde artist: the artist looks forward, toward creating the new, but the very act of being an artist puts one in an irresistible dialogue with the dead - at least partly because many of our resources are given us by those who have passed from the living world: âEverything you know about yourself,â reads Jackson, âis by-gone. You are your own ghost.â Why should we not also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Because we speak their languages; since we may well be animated by them, what could we recognize purely as our own? In the style of the channeler of the paranormal, Jackson then proceeds to lead the auditorium in an exercise whereby we allow the dead to speak through us. We are instructed to relax, let the sound come from deep in the throat, etc., and in the dimmed room we begin to hear others and ourselves intone strange moans from some other place. And/or, we play along, and in the front of the room Jackson can hardly keep from laughing at our successful channelings. The power of Jacksonâs work is in its ability to engage its audienceâs sense of play with the daunting, tantalizing unknown. She is a significant artist whose work breaks boundaries in the received conceptions of the separability of writing, art, and electronic media, without losing sight of the interests of literature. This is how new literature is made.More of Jacksonâs work can be seen at http://www.ineradicablestain.com.
To be fair, given my anti-corporate screed above: Jacksonâs new novel, her first, Half-Life, is out this month from HarperCollins, and obviously I do not consider this an example of bad corporate publishing. Jackson, like Ben Marcus, is an example of a significant contemporary literary artist who is supported by the commercial publishing industry. But then again, they may also be exceptions that prove the rule.
I attend a panel the next morning scheduled for 9:30 but I get in a few moments after it has started, having set up my table and tried to construct a means by which, as unlikely and unsuccessful an endeavor as it sounds, customers might leave money for Starcherone books while I am off galavanting elsewhere. My book table is flanked on the right by the Brooklyn crew from Spuyten Duyvil and on my left by the terrific array of poetic objects produced by Miekal And, Maria Damon, and associates (an incidental note: it is very hard to effectively google a man with the last name âAndâ), including one I pick up for purchase: a 1992 Xexoxial Editions compilation entitled Magnified Section. This book features work by, among others, Critical Art Ensemble, a group with one member, Steve Kurtz, currently enmeshed in legal difficulties, with charges filed against him by the FBI and Department of Homeland Security Joint Terrorism Task Force for illegally trading in biological substances that actually are legal for trade, a prosecution that is widely seen in the artistic community as ideologically based.For more information see the CAE official website. In short, Magnified Section is one of those great publications one can only find done by a micro-press: simultaneous art object and slapdash, cheap material production but gloriously beautiful, with an orange and yellow splattered cover resembling those 60s abstract films with projected light through blood or paint blotches. Inside, a kind of anarchist aesthetic of xeroxes, early computer graphics, found art, and fake slogans: âGod for Bid,â âAntigens and Contagions,â âDriftless Permaculture,â etc. The entirety seems to come not from New York (though some contributors are evidently headquartered there, but from odd places like LaFarge, Wisconsin, and Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Art, poetry, social document of who knows what, all in one. Wild.
My morning running like a sentence I canât find the end of, I enter late a room where Ralph Berry, Director of FC2 and Professor of English at Florida State University, is already giving his paper.
Berry is one of my heroes in the small press publishing world. Over the years, FC2 has published, in its current imprint or as Fiction Collective/Black Ice Books (two other names by which it has gone the past 30 years), many of the greats of a strand of innovative fiction almost completely ignored by commercial publishers: Raymond Federman, Ronald Sukenick, Ursule Molinaro, Gerald Vizenor, Marianne Hauser, Harold Jaffe, and many others. Yet despite its long and critically respected history, FC/FC2 has, particularly in the last decade, gone nearly invisible in the mainstream literary world. So woeful has this neglect become that perhaps the best and most significant aspect of Ben Marcusâs attack on Jonathan Franzen in Harperâs (with which I was in general agreement) was that a mainstream glossy New York magazine was finally forced to print the name FC2, which Marcus mentioned in passing in the article. Despite Harperâs styling itself a culturally progressive magazine, I canât recall ever seeing them acknowledge the literary margins before (I do recall one, but only one, instance in The New Yorker). Berry himself is a Southern Gentleman of the type I never knew existed, or would have thought had long since ceased to exist (growing up in suburban New York teleculture Hee Haw and the Klan were my predominant images of Dixie); Berry is passionately committed to art, entirely open in his intellectual conversation, yet soft-spoken, dignified, and polite to a fault. I pick up some of the thread of his argument: he is discussing the role of the fraudulent in art, given the potential for the relativity of interpretation since Duchamp, Cage, and others made the very nature of artistic craft problematic. He then transitions into discussing art that produces its own theory as it produces itself, citing the FC2 book, Blue Guide to Indiana by Michael Martone, as a case in point. This faux-travel guide, a formal pastiche of the actual Blue Guide series of travel guides, locates its subject where all Martoneâs work locates itself, in Indiana, or rather under the linguistic sign âIndiana.â Berry points out that Martoneâs is not so much a âfiction about Indianaâ as âa real travel guide to a not-yet-existent Indiana.â I have heard Berry say elsewhere (and perhaps he has said it in the part of the talk I missed) that such fictive gaming is not, as would perhaps appear to the uninitiated, an end in itself, but a means by which we are led to reflect on the fictive operations all around us. After all, stories of any kind come to us through processes of digestion, selection, characterization, and, at their most insidious extremes, spins and the deliberate constructions of organs of official sense-making: governments, the press, etc.
Suspicions of how discourse constructs contemporary accepted realities and the ways in which novels work to reveal these processes becomes a shared contention of all three talks. Brian Evenson, fiction writer, translator, and Chair of the Literary Arts Program at Brown, is next, speaking of the difficulties of defining the novel genre. In one sense, the question of what a novel is, he says, already has an answer in the forming of that question: a novel is that which looks like a novel. But a novel may also, as Bakhtin wrote many decades ago, be any text which exhibits heteroglossia, language in all its variations. The novel, said Bahktin, was the form that made itself most welcome to the inclusion of various discourses (Martone or Jackson are certainly examples, though of course the latter employs fictive-based media forms rather than what one would typically say pertain to a ânovelâ) and positions itself against monologism, âa false, single view of the world.â While Evenson notes Bakhtin has his problems - he left unexamined his valuing of the novel among other genres, as well as his devaluing of poetry - his construction of what is novelistic remains compelling. The work of defining genre, nevertheless, is always a continual one, with finer and finer distinctions coming into play. In a sense, purporting to be a science, it is finally a pseudoscience whose classifications are ultimately always problematic. Evenson closes by citing a contemporary example of a hard-to-classify but nevertheless successful novel, Patrik OurednÃkâs Europeana: A Brief History of the Twentieth Century. Constructed with âmetahistorical but undifferentiated information,â OurednÃkâs book utilizes actual (and in some cases somewhat fanciful) history to create a seemingly unreal picture of the world of the previous century. His work is a type of making strange that is different from the recent fictional trend of looking at the world from a slightly futuristic point in time by destabilizing or re-fixing the past from our own moment in time; such destabilization happens with the help of a discursive strategy that is not precisely history because its selection of details includes those that would not be included typically in a history:
The Americans who fell at Normandy in 1944 were sturdy young men and they measured an average of 173 cm tall, and if they were laid one after another, with the soles of their feet to the crowns of their heads, together they would measure 38 kilometers. The Germans were also sturdy young men, and the sturdiest of all were the Senegalese riflemen in World War One. They measured 176 cm, and so they were sent into the front ranks to scare the Germans. It was said that in World War One people fell like seeds, and later the Russian Communists calculated how much fertilizer a kilometer of corpses would yield, and how much they could save on expensive foreign fertilizer if they used the corpses of traitors and criminals. (qtd. in Bolton)
Steve Tomasula, who teaches at Notre Dame and, like Evenson, is both an FC2 author and a college professor, picks up the thread of the novelistic in presumably stable discourse by choosing as his subject Alan Sokalâs infamous fraudulent essay on quantum gravity in Social Text; in Sokalâs own words, âa pastiche of left-wing cant, fawning references, grandiose quotations, and outright nonsense â¦ structured around the silliest quotations I could find about mathematics and physics.â Sokalâs intent was to argue the limits of postmodern theories of the instability of signification; he wished to reaffirm the facthood of at least an aspect of scientific truth beyond the alleged instability of signification systems which reify or describe such truths. To Tomasula, Sokalâs linguistic experiment shows the opposite of what he intended: âFrauds in scientific journals show us that there is at least as much desire â¦ as anything else in the selection of articlesâ purporting truth claims, and such desires are the inescapable condition of interpretation. There is no outside to this postmodern formulation of the conditions of knowledge-gathering, which Tomasula delivers succinctly in four propositions:
Reality is constituted in language.
Language is subject to interpretation.
Interpretation is contingent upon subjectivity.
Subjectivity is subject to temporality.
This last, âtemporality,â is the position of the observer, Ã¡ la Heisenberg, at any particular moment - the observerâs experiences, tools, and desires. Modernity, as Tomasula concludes, in concert with his fellow panelists, means having to question everything in a contingent sphere of particular interests and discourses. A construction of the novel vital to our time must participate in such an understanding of the nature of representations, and such novels that do this are to be valued for continuing to do important work in the course of human understanding.
The Women of FC2
I now spend the next two days checking out all the new fiction I can, particularly by writers with whom Iâm unfamiliar. First is a trio of women published by FC2 - Lucy Corin, Jessica Treat, and Debra DiBlasi.
Corin is a package of surprises: an assistant professor at UC Davis with trimmed hair and round glasses, she looks from certain angles like a Harry Potter-ish boy naif. But later in the evening, Iâll discover that she shoots a wicked game of pool. Reading from Everyday Psychokillers: A History for Girls, Corinâs sentences sound at some moments like sheâs channeling Lewis Carroll, at others like a language-conscious feminist sociologist two drinks into a cocktail party. One comic text that she reads is fashioned as a list: âThings I donât do except mockingly.â âTimes I watch with detached indifference as my house gets more disgusting.â Good stuff: female lives caught in worlds of male assumption and construction, the work of disentanglement in which any womanâs subjectivity is necessarily engaged.
Next, Jessica Treat, not necessarily as experimental as other FC2 writers, but an accomplished storyteller, wryly aware of the issues involved in her workâs presentation: âI was on the phone last night with my girlfriend and she was telling me why it [my writing] was experimental. I remember the word âsubtleâ.â I am a fan of these subtleties in Treat, and am on record as such: she appears in Starcheroneâs new anthology of hybrid prose, PP/FF (Conners).
Finally, Debra DiBlasi, who is the most formally inventive of the three, at least from what I see in this sampling. She discusses her use of âStoryspace,â the first-generation hypertext software, then goes into a story about gaps, lacunae, places where you get lost in life or in text. She reads selective sentences from a story and there is no loss of experience, the presentation imagistic, cerebral. âI stopped stuttering when she [my sister] ran away from home. It was like she took away the gaps.â
Afterward, DiBlasi stops at the Starcherone table and we discuss doing an anthology of erased text. It may never happen, but itâs a great idea.
The Spuyten Duyvil reading the next morning begins with an impassioned, half-lunatic blast from SDâs mercurial director, Tod Thilleman, so full of accusation and bravado that Tsipi Keller to his right is spurred to spontaneous applause half-way through the rant. I donât feel like Iâm quite awake but manage to get down a couple of his sentences: âIâm trying to understand what I am doing by publishing all these books.â Itâs true - as indie publishers go, very few if any out-produce SD. Starcherone does four books a year, FC2 does six; Spuyten Duyvil, publishing fiction, poetry, limited edition art books, and occasional non-fiction, does close to twenty. Thilleman has been called to this, he tells us, by the abdication of literature by mainstream publishing: âPublishing is not literature. Publishing may used to have been literature, but now itâs an industry, the publishing industry.â
The books that SD does (at least those whose authors are on display here) are less deliberately experimental than those of FC2, with the exception of Christian TeBordo (whose Conviction and Subsequent Life of Savior Neck is classic self-reflexive, trip-over-itself metafiction; heâll be an interesting writer to watch as he develops) and, to a certain extent, Noam Mor, Eugene Garber and Tsipi Keller both read from books that are literary but not particularly formally challenging, inasmuch as one can tell from the presentations. Garberâs novel is a lyrical, period love story set in fin de siÃ¨cle Vienna (sample set-up sentences: âAnna worries about having a soul. Turn of the century women in Vienna worried about this sort of thing.â); Kellerâs is the second volume in a cleverly written trilogy about women struggling with possession of their bodies and desires in the contemporary US (sample sentence about neon billboards on a nightclub strip: âNipples pointed every which way, owing perhaps to the hasty way in which they were stuffed into the bra.â).
Again the question is raised: why are these authors of very capably written, intellectually entertaining novels on the outside of the literary establishment?
Noam Mor takes up the job of answering. His own reading has been of a disturbing piece of interweaving voices featuring at one point a rather John Hawkes-like description of a termite queen (sample: âEven after I beheaded her, she kept birthing.â). Todayâs book marketplace, he says, is even more cynical and profit-driven than one imagines if one just sees it as having mainstream tastes and shunning the experimental. Rather, it appears to be entirely driven by sales and marketing strategies, ignoring (as Thilleman earlier suggested) concerns of the literary entirely. Sales reps see niches - the single career-woman niche, the young phenom niche, the celebrity-in-a-different-field niche, Fatherâs Day, Motherâs Day, etc. - and ask, does your book have certain properties? âGood books,â publishable commodities, are those books that appeal to these markets; lacking these, a book is unlikely to be picked up.
Is it possible that the role of the small presses has expanded to the point where they are needed to save mainstream literature? Industry defenders might counter that, at a time when there are more books being published in the US than ever, we may have too many authors in the US - that is, more writers than there are readers to support them. But is this surfeit of authors, if such exists, a product of niche-marketing as opposed to a problem such marketing is an attempt to solve (after all, much of the new books in the overloaded marketplace seem to be of the Britney-and-her-mother-co-write-a-book-about-Motherâs Day variety)?See Amazon for Britney and Lynne Spears, A Motherâs Gift: a novel, here. Incidentally, so weâre all clear on how the bread is buttered, Publisherâs Weekly reviewed this title, but they have never reviewed a title published by Starcherone Books, despite our repeated attempts to contact them and follow their fetishistic review submission instructions to the letter. Are the interests of literature muscled out by the book industryâs more persuasive desire to get non-book-buyers to buy books (for instance, as happened with Harry Potter, where suddenly it was as important for every child to have these books for Christmas as it was in previous Christmases for them to have Cabbage Patch or Tickle Me Elmo dolls)?
I often wonder whether publishing and promoting avant-garde writing, activities Iâve always understood to be forward-looking and progressive, arenât actually conservative acts - not politically conservative, mind you, but conservative in the sense of trying to save, or conserve, culture. I have written occasionally about this tendency of late, calling it pastmodernism: âItâs strange to me what we do,â I wrote in an early entry of the blog Lance Olsen and I founded this past May, Now What: A Collective Blog of Alternative Prose Writers and Publishers. âWe are forward-looking in an activity plainly our culture is leaving behind â¦. [I]n the position of salvaging, of casting backward, of recovery, of withstanding erosion.â
We may have reached a moment in cultural history where a certain type of looking backward has become inseparable from and as revolutionary as so-called looking forward.
Evening Gass & Afternoon Nambi
âYou first meet a painting like a pie in the face.â
William Gass is well into the first eveningâs reading of an essay that sometimes seems like a story, or a story that sometimes seems like an essay, or perhaps just a kind of linguistic variety show, which waxes lyrical at times and at others detours into limericks about nuns, sailors, and the Pope. It occurs to me that his particular talent is that different audience members seem to be reacting to different moments in his performance, perhaps as a result of the fact that what he has to say is evocative of all the materials and sounds and textures of what makes writing, art, and music alive for all of us, in different ways, as here attested by a man who has lived a life in the arts, and as a writer. Which is not to say that the seventy minutes he reads doesnât seem like seventy minutes. It does.
I am more taken the next day by the late afternoon performance of Nambi Kelley who reads, voices, and sings from her work as a playwright, including a hip-hop reenvisioning of Antigone, backed by jazz guitarist and drums. I fear this reading is going to succumb to preciousness at the start - âShe got to bury her uncle but her brother doesnât want her to?â - but soon the language and Kelleyâs passion take control and lead to an artistic epiphany: the violence that seems so full of meaning in Greek tragedy experiences a sea change when transposed to the modern urban environment, the place generally characterized as one of âsenseless violence.â Violence is violence: it is always senseless, and always brings about devastating and wrenching suffering and pain, as well as plots for revenge, the stuff of history and drama. As in much of Greek drama, the fight against war and killing is likely to be led by disempowered women rising above their socially constrictive roles.
I think of Cindy Sheehan.
I drift back to my book table and check my cash cup. Little surprise, very few dollars have found their way there. I ask Tsipi Keller, who is now minding the Spuyten Duyvil table to one side of me, how they have done for sales. Very well, it turns out. I turn to the other side and ask Mikael And. He is also grinning. It is now clear to me that Starcherone has given up sales revenue so that I can keep up my schedule of attending numerous events, driven by the assignment to document this festival for electronic book review. Hear that, Tabbi? You owe my press money!
As I fret about this, Dimitri Anastasopoulos comes by my table to remind me of a favor I promised him. I know Dimitri and his wife Christina Milletti from Buffalo. To my mind they are experimental fictionâs most striking couple: Dimitri tall and sturdy with curls of black hair that make him always look like heâs just returned from sailing; Christina with even more notable coiffure, pink at the moment, and thus visible in any crowd, as when Geoffrey Gatza and I once picked her out in the lobby of the Chicago Hilton during AWP from a hundred yards away and ascending, riding up the escalator and looking back, stilled as twin wives of Lot. Both are fiction writers, Dimitri the author of the novel, A Larger Sense of Harvey (lovingly called by Rain Taxi, âan eccentric high-dive into languageâ (Czyz)); Christina of the recently released short story collection, The Religious and Other Fictions. Dimitri now hands me a statement I am to read aloud prior to his reading with Dave Kress and Edward Desautels, âAn Exhibition of Information Produced by Fiction Machines.â
The statement challenges remarks made by British novelists V.S. Naipaul and Ian McEwan, to the effect that in the post-9/11 world we now live in such complex times that fiction no longer is as effective a means of rendering contemporary reality as nonfiction. The âfiction machinesâ designed by the Anastasopoulos, Kress, and Desautel are attempts to write different forms to embody âthe complexities of todayâs worldâ (Donadio âIrascibleâ) and to respond to McEwanâs desire âto be told about the world.âSimilar assumptions are at work in McEwanâs formulation of the problem. Said McEwan, as qtd. in Donadio: âFor a while I did find it wearisome to confront invented characters â¦ . I wanted to be told about the world. I wanted to be informed. I felt that we had gone through great changes and now was the time to just go back to school, as it were, and start to learnâ (âTruthâ). The idea that fiction of necessity employs âinvented charactersâ is put to the test if oneâs examples of ânovelsâ include those created by OurednÃk, Martone, or David Markson, for instance. All the texts/machines have missing or occluded subjects and are the most varied and far-ranging in subject matter of any group of performances Iâve seen thus far. Kressâs involves the tale of a CD anonymously received in the mail, featuring music either from a band he himself was once in, or a âhalf-acoustic, half electric fiddle band from Finland,â and concludes with him reading a text with a band playing over the reading, with voices echoing between the music and text. Desautelâs piece is an âinvestigation artifact,â the instructional apparatus from a segment of the national security thicket, an exquisite piece of political paranoia, except that, as his own text says, âwe no longer speak of paranoia in the pejorative â¦ without paranoia there is no security.â Finally, Anastasopoulos reads from âA Notebook for Expectant Fathers,â which begins as a playful mock-scientific guide to the signs of gestation in expectant fathers, and becomes a parable of the demands of helplessness, the impossibility of doing anything when all you can you do is nothing, as your baby in the scientifically-visualized womb is seen gulping its own urine and a doctor intones knowingly, disturbingly, uninterpretably, âYour baby has an enormously large bladder that is grossly efficient.â
It is now a kind of common currency to say that fiction is no longer as pertinent as nonfiction. Here, Rachel Donadio, in The New York Times: âLike painting, the novel isnât dead; it just isnât as central to the culture as it once was. In our current infotainment era, in which the line between truth and âtruthâ is growing ever more blurry, readers thirst for a narrative, any narrative, and will turn to the most compelling oneâ (âTruthâ). But Donadio and others of a mainstream bent quickly substitute âfictionâ with an unproblematical form of ânarrativeâ in such formulations, assuming realistic tale-telling. Here, a quote by Gass is appropriate: âThe dominant form of the 20th century novel is the 19th century novelâ (qtd. in Tomasula). Let me stray away from my usual attack on how mainstream publishing favors more transparent, easier narratives, and instead take a cue from Anastasopoulos to ask what is meant by this idea of nonfiction at all. If, as Berry has it, the role of innovative or experimental fiction is to lead us directly to contemplation of the fictive operations all around us - selection, editing, narrative position and bias, naming the structures of the world we are asked to accept as givens, etc. - where then do these things go, the very nature of how discourse is made, when so-called âfictionâ disappears? The presumption that ânonfictionâ somehow rids us of all the complications attendant to the making of any assertion is naive at best and at worst a recipe for How to (Continue to) Be Oppressed. Innovative fiction writers contend that Naipaulâs demands that writing reflect the complexity of todayâs world require not the abandonment of artistic gestures but demanding and making more complex constructions than we are told constitute âthe novelâ at present. When fiction is seen primarily as an escape, a form of entertainment, then its ability to be relevant will indeed be questionable. Much small press writing deliberately configures its function as a serious one, involved with the national psyche, indeed perhaps with disabusing us of greater fictions which have gripped us as a nation, as seen above in Desautelsâs appropriative language. Likewise, Spuyten Duyvil has taken to using the slogan, âLiterature is not what a society pretends,â which simultaneously points to a great deal of fictionalizing, or pretending, going on in the culture at large, and to an antidote in the art of fictionalizing, the making of literature. A true literature invents out of the materials of culture and endeavors not ust to participate in but to reveal the fictions that frequently are foisted upon us for reasons of mystification, power, and profit.
The End of the Day/End of the Night
I am shot, the way one is shot at conferences and festivals of the intellect, where the mind spends all day as a Rock-em-Sock-em Robot, thudding and being thudded, getting your block knocked off and making noises in your head like a reel being quickly emptied of line, then having your block pressed back into place to resume being concussed with ideas. One more session. I sit at my table for a few moments and actually sell a few books. Chat. Yes, OK, now itâs time. People scurry away, the break between sessions ended, new ones are starting again. Dazed, I get up and stumble to the first classroom I see and open the door.
Itâs the door I entered seven hours ago to hear Tod Thillemanâs morning harangue. But now itâs transformed. Darkened, there is very little seating space: the room is jammed with people, boxes of books, a podium, a projector shining images on the screen, more boxes of books. A man is uncrating these and handing them out around the room. In the front of the room, opposite the speaker at the podium, a ballet dancer does stretches against the white dry-erase board then, finishing these, various dances. The projection directly onto the board features a man reading Brecht essays, aloud, but softly, so it is hard to make out words. In front of the projection is a TV, where we hear a woman reading what seems to be a foreign language, too softly for the words to be made out.
At this point, a man enters the classroom, moves to the podium in front, and begins to lecture on the history of the theatre. I now recall that I had seen him seated outside the room as I made my way in. The man handing out books is now in front of me and hands me The Time-Life Book of Traditional American Crafts. Now, up front, the dancer gets atop a table and rolls around, not sexually, but certainly very physically. Another woman who had been off to the side now appears, wearing a fur boa, and begins singing a torch song. At this point I try to hear what the speaker is saying at the podium, and through the growing cacophony I hear, âHiroshima,â âexploitation,â âpeoplesâ mutual relations.â He is now up to number 20 in what is evidently a series of theses. As more people now come in the door behind me, I am forced to move. I squeeze up toward the front of the room, where I climb up on a table that had been pushed against the wall to make room. I sit on the table with my back against the wall. The action I am now closest to is the singer:
You love me
You love me
Then you snub me
I laugh out loud. The projected video now shows a Chicago street scene. The TV shows yet another reader of some text, probably the fourth or fifth in succession. Jessica Treat is seated on my left. She turns to me as I madly scribble in a small black notebook:
âWhat are you writing?â
The answer isnât as interesting as Iâd like it to be, given the goings on:
âI was asked to report on this conference for electronic book review.â
A man I had previously taken for another audience member now begins playing discordant trumpet.
Interpretation: Entitled âThe Failure of Modern Politics,â the performanceâs contention that, in essence, we are all in contemporary society overstimulated, preoccupied, and subject to too many competing claims was not particularly a new notion, and so I canât say the meaning of anything in that room was startling. The theatrical experience, on the other hand, felt startling, and anything but exhausted. I felt unexpectedly elated.âThe Failure of Modern Politicsâ by Stephen Lapthisopon, with Charlene Brooks, Stephen Burns, Mark Hanner, Tracy McCabe, and Eli Robb.
But I now was that much more ready for an ending, and was looking forward to the evening reception. Soon, there I was, in a stately campus hall, at the far end of everything, greedily slurping chablis.
The last thing I wanted was to be confronted by there was more art.
But here again is Davis.
I have not mentioned Davis Schneiderman, which is perhaps another demonstration of how far from the actual experience of an event a written account can be, because once I got North of Chicago, Davis had been everywhere. Review the tape. Here now at the start of the opening panel, before Gass, Jackson, and Kelley begin to speak, is Davis, welcoming us, thanking us for attending, giving thanks as well to the team of students, faculty, staff, and sponsors who have allowed the event to go off. Fast-forward as I arrive the next morning to set up my book table and hereâs Davis again, directing traffic to appropriate places and offering coffee. Davis is at panels all day; Davis is making sure the equipment works; Davis is pointing us in the direction of local restaurants.Davis, too, is the author/editor of the ingenious anti-novel, Multifesto: A Henri dâMescan Reader. One has heard all tales throughout an avant-garde upbringing of how this or that gesture in the history of the book has drawn attention to the physical objectness of the literary creation; Schneidermanâs Multifesto has a permanent footnote in my own mental catalogue of such: its covers are sandpaper, meant to insult whatever texts one places next to it on oneâs shelf. And âHenri DâMescan,â the previously little-known author-provocateur whose biography somersaults any attempt at easy synopsis, is also, by glorious coincidence, an anagram of âSchneiderman.â
Davis finds the room where I am hiding out (with others, it should be said) away from whatever might be planned to take place and sheepishly tells us, âThe performance is about to start.â Several times, so that there is no escape.
Dutifully, the pack of academics and artists who were hiding out with me all move toward the central room in the hall.
There we find LaTasha N. Nevada Diggs, poet, musician, and self-proclaimed âwannabe linguist.â
The brief performance that follows is stunning. Diggsâs poetry, sung to her own accompaniment on electronic control panel featuring a sophisticated electronic delay mechanism called a âchaos pad,â is macaronic verse of words and phrases cobbled from phrasebooks of marginalized languages throughout the world: Hawaiian, Samoan, Cherokee, and others, infused with hip-hop strategies. Diggs herself comes arrayed for the occasion: an African-American woman from Harlem, she wears an ornate headress that makes her appear like some sort of pre-Western-contact shaman. The sound fits the look: like nothing else I have ever heard, I am first in line to buy her CD.An example of Diggsâs macaronic verse is seen and heard in âGamelonâ here, though without the electronic music background. &Now has surprised til the end.
Final Judgment: The Lesson of &Now
Donât get tired. Creative enthusiasm in the spirit of any or all arts constantly reinvents and reinfuses itself. That is all you know and all you need to know.Somewhere in there was my own panel, presenting readings by
Remediation is an important book. Its co-authors, Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin, seem self-conscious of this from the outset. The bookâs subtitle, for example, suggests their intent to contend for the mantle of Marshall McLuhan, who all but invented media studies with Understanding Media (1964), published twenty years prior to the mass-market release of the Apple Macintosh and thirty years prior to the popular advent of the World Wide Web. There has also, I think, been advance anticipation for Remediation among the still relatively small coterie of scholars engaged in serious cultural studies of computing and information technology. Bolter and Grusin both teach in Georgia Techâs School of Language, Communication, and Culture, the academic department which perhaps more than any other has attempted a wholesale make-over of its institutional identity in order to create an interdisciplinary focal point for the critical study of new media. Grusin in fact chairs LCC, and Bolter, who holds an endowed professorship at Tech, is a highly-regarded authority for his work on the hypertext authoring system StorySpace and for an earlier study, Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing(1992), to which Remediation is a sequel of sorts. [Bolterâs book is reviewed by Anne Burdick in ebr, eds.]Â The book therefore asks to be read and received as something of an event, an extended statement from two senior scholars who have been more deeply engaged than most in defining and institutionalizing new media studies.
Much of Remediationâs importance is lodged in the title word itself. New media studies has been subjected to a blizzard of neologisms and new terminologies - many of them over-earnest at best - as scholars have struggled to invent a critical vocabulary adequate to discuss hypertexts and myriad other artifacts of digital culture with the same degree of cogency found in a field such as film studies. Bolter and Grusin clearly want âremediationâ (the word) to stick, and the volumeâs rhetorical momentum is often driven by simple declarative clauses like â[b]y remediation we meanâ¦â and â[b]y remediation we do not meanâ¦â Though the cumulative weight of these phrasings helps remind readers that they are in the presence of two critics in full command of their subject matter, the repetitive stress on âremediationâ also produces some odd moments, such as this one from the preface:
It was in May 1996, in a meeting in his office with Sandra Beaudin that RG was reported to have coined the term remediation as a way to complicate the notion of ârepurposingâ that Beaudin was working with for her class project. But, as most origin stories go, it was not until well after the fact, when Beaudin reported the coinage to JB, who later reminded RG that he had coined the term, that the concept of âremediationâ could be said to have emerged. Indeed, although the term remediation was coined in RGâs office, neither of us really knew what it meant until we had worked out together the double logic of immediacy and hypermediacy. (viii)
[ Bolterâs more recent collaboration with Diane Gromala, Windows and Mirrors (2003) applies the concept of immediacy/hypermediacy to graphic design. See Jan Baetensâ ebr review ]
This is writing that itself bears the mark of multiple mediations, from the willfully passive construction of its syntax (âthat RG was reported to have coinedâ¦â) to the flutter of the keyword remediation from an italicized presentation to scare quotes and back again. I dwell on such details not to be clever, but rather because those visible stress-marks, and the placement of this vignette in the volumeâs preface (where it is labeled, tongue-in-cheek, as an âorigin storyâ) both underscore the extent to which language itself is about to be recycled and repurposed in the project that follows. For remediation is not in fact a neologism or a new coinage but rather a paleonym, a word already in use that is recast in wider or different terms: remediation is a word commonly encountered in business, educational, and environmental contexts to denote remedy or reform. Bolter and Grusin do acknowledge this later in the book by discussing remediationâs usage by educators (59), but âremediationâ (the wordâs) status as a paleonym itself becomes questionable when we realize that Bolter and Grusin clearly expect Remediation (the book) to perform exactly this kind of reformative work - most broadly as a corrective to the prevailing notion of the ânewâ in new media.
For all of this anxiety surrounding its presentation and pedigree, remediation in Bolter and Grusinâs hands is a simple (but not simplistic) concept, and therein lies its appeal:
[W]e call the representation of one medium in another remediation, and we will argue that remediation is a defining characteristic of the new digital media. What might seem at first to be an esoteric practice is so widespread that we can identify a spectrum of different ways in which digital media remediate their predecessors, a spectrum depending on the degree of perceived competition or rivalry between the new media and the old. (45)
This is, as Bolter and Grusin acknowledge, an insight also shared by McLuhan, who famously declared that the first content of any new medium must be a prior medium. But whereas McLuhan once divided the media sphere into âhotâ and âcoolâ media based on the degree of participation they required (non-participatory media were, somewhat paradoxically, âhot and explosiveâ in McLuhanâs lexicon, while interactive media were termed âcoolâ), Bolter and Grusin parse various media forms against what they term the logics of immediacy and hypermediacy.
Immediacy denotes media that aspire to a condition of transparency by attempting to efface all traces of material artifice from the viewerâs perception. Immersive virtual reality, photo realistic computer graphics, and film (in the mainstream Hollywood paradigm) are all examples of media forms that obey the logic of immediacy - the expectation is that the viewer will forget that he or she is watching a movie or manipulating a data glove and be âdrawn intoâ the environment or scene that is depicted for them. Hypermediated phenomena, by contrast, are fascinated by their own status as media constructs and thus call attention to their strategies of mediation and representation. Video games, television, the World Wide Web, and most multimedia applications subscribe to the logic of hypermediacy. And, as Bolter and Grusin are quick to claim, âour two seemingly contradictory logics not only coexist in digital media today but are mutually dependentâ (6). This co-dependency inaugurates what they refer to as the âdouble logic of remediation,â which finds expression as follows: âEach act of mediation depends on other acts of mediation. Media are continually commenting on, reproducing, and replacing each other, and this process is integral to media. Media need each other in order to function as media at allâ (55).
Once articulated, the ideas behind remediation are quickly grasped and readers may find themselves seeing (I stress becauseÂ Bolter and Grusinâs critical orientation is overwhelmingly visual) remediations everywhere. It also becomes clear, as Bolter and Grusin themselves suggest, that remediation is the formal analogue of the marketing strategy commonly known as repurposing, whereby a Hollywood film (say) will spawn a vast array of product tie-ins, from video games to action figures to fast-food packages and clothing accessories. This practice raises a daunting set of questions for those concerned with matters of textual theory, for if we grant that a film (or an action figure) can be a text, we are then obliged to re-evaluate much of what we think we know about textual authority and textual transmission in this late age of mechanical reproduction - by what formal, material, or generic logic could we define the ontological horizon of the repurposed text known as âStar Wars?â Likewise, when one refers to âWired,â is one speaking of just the printed newsstand version of the magazine or is one speaking of the multivalent media property that now cultivates a variety of vertically integrated distribution networks, including: an imprint for printed books about cyberculture, HardWired; an online forum and Web portal, HotWired; separate Web presences for the magazine itself as well as affiliated online ventures (which include WiredNews), LiveWired, and Suck); and two search engines, HotBot and NewsBot. That recognition of this broader media identity is central to any discussion of Wired the magazine is dramatized by the fact that as of this writing the URL http://www.wired.com deflects visitors from the site of the magazine proper to the aforementioned WiredNews - which only then offers a subordinate link to the Web presence for the newsstand version of Wired (which is itself of course an electronic remediation of the printed content). In retrospect, it seems odd that Bolter and Grusin do not make more of Wired, both because of the complex media ecology outlined above and because in it we have an artifact of print culture that, largely on the basis of graphic design and strong marketing, has remediated the experience of âcyberspaceâ so successfully that the word âwiredâ itself has become a popular synecdoche for the Information Age.
Some extended case studies of that sort (MTV would have been another natural) might have added much to the book, but instead its middle section is taken up by more generic surveys of various media forms - computer games, photo realistic graphics, film, television, virtual reality, the World Wide Web, and others - and these are a mixed lot. The chapters on computer games, graphics, television, and film are generally strong. Bolter and Grusin have an enviable feel for the subtle relationships that obtain between media forms, and they are at their best during moments such as a discussion of Myst when they argue convincingly that the game - frequently remarked upon for the ârealismâ of its graphics - succeeds not via the logic of immediacy, but rather by remediating the immediacy of Hollywood film; they press the point home by observing that there are in fact hundreds of examples of video games adapted from mainstream films (98). Their argument about virtual realityâs lineage in film is equally suggestive: âOne way to understand virtual reality, therefore, is as a remediation of the subjective style of film, an exercise in identification through offering a visual point of viewâ¦ In their treatments [ Brainstorm, Lawnmower Man, Johnny Mnemonic, Disclosure, Strange Days ] Hollywood writers grasped instantly (as did William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer) that virtual reality is about the definition of the self and the relationship of the body to the worldâ (165-166). What is compelling here is not so much the notion that virtual reality is about âthe definition of self and the relationship of the body to the world,â but rather the confidence with which Bolter and Grusin are able to identify a specific filmic technique - the subjective camera, prominent in all the titles mentioned above - and align it with the popular rhetoric surrounding virtual reality, thereby foregrounding the artificial imperatives of both media forms.
But at times the middle chapters also seem sparsely developed. That same chapter on virtual reality, for example, is only seven pages long (including illustrations), and it includes no discussion of any functional VR systems beyond mention of research by Georgia Techâs Larry Hodges. Likewise, the only electronic artist to receive any individual treatment in the chapter on digital arts is Jeffrey Shaw, who is perhaps best know for an installation piece entitled The Legible City, now a decade old. At other times, elements of the historical record which it would have been desirable to have on hand are simply missing. A discussion of the video game Pong, for example, offers the tantalizing suggestion that its fundamentally graphical orientation, compared to contemporary UNIX and DOS command line interfaces, âsuggested new formal and cultural purposes for digital technologyâ (90). Yet we are not given any specific date for Pongâs first release, or for the releases of its many subsequent versions and variations (which it would have been interesting to track across different platforms); nor do we learn who first programmed the game, or where, or why. Absences of this kind detract from the usefulness of the middle sections as basic references for students of new media.
Given the scope of the attempted coverage in Remediationâs middle sections - where the topics range from Renaissance painting and animated film to telepresent computing and âmediated spacesâ (e.g., Disneyland) - lapses of the kind I note above are perhaps inevitable. And indeed, very early on in the book Bolter and Grusin offer a familiar kind of disclaimer: âWe cannot hope to explore the genealogy of remediation in detail. What concerns us is remediation in our current media in North America, and here we can analyze specific texts, images, and usesâ (21). But this emphasis on the âspecificâ is itself a scholarly move that, as Alan Liu and others have demonstrated, bears with it deep implications for any critical project conducted under the broad sign of cultural criticism, a point to which I will return (below).
But some remaining features of the book deserve notice first: Remediation is lovingly illustrated, and Bolter and Grusin deserve credit for the care with which the images were selected and reproduced. The juxtaposition of the front page of USA Todayâs printed edition with the home page of USA Today on the web (40-41) or the comparison of stills from a 1980 CNN air check with a more contemporary broadcast format from CNN in 1997 (190-191) do as much to underscore the essential rightness of the core remediation concept as any number of expository passages in the text. The first and third sections of the book also include reference pointers to relevant passages from the survey of media forms in the middle section - these are âthe printed equivalent of hyperlinksâ (14), and some readers may find them occasionally convenient. Remediation âs third and final section examines logics of remediation in relation to contemporary conceptions of the self (readers who have already done their homework with Sandy Stone or Sherry Turkle may find themselves skimming these pages). The bibliography, with about 175 entries, is useful. And finally, there is the obligatory glossary; it will mark a significant milestone in the maturity of new media studies as a discipline when one can publish a book in the field without feeling the need to define for the lay-reader âvirtual realityâ or âMOOâ (or âmedia,â for that matter: âPlural of mediumâ ).
Near the end of the book, Bolter and Grusin offer an account of the media coverage of Princess Dianaâs funeral precession: âBecause the funeral itself occurred for American audiences in the middle of the night, CBS decided to run a videotape of the whole ceremony later in the morning. At that same time, however, the precession was still carrying Dianaâs body to its final resting place. The producers of the broadcast thus faced the problem of providing two image streams to their viewersâ (269). The solution CBS adopted was to divide the screen into two separate windows, one displaying the funeral ceremony and the other the procession. Bolter and Grusin point out that this move marks a shift from the desire for immediacy and âauthenticityâ of experience that normally governs live TV to a logic of hypermediacy that places the emphasis on the media apparatus itself; but the more interesting point, I think, is that this particular broadcast solution was viable because CBS could count on its audience having already been exposed to bifurcated screen-spaces through the assimilation of the computer desktop and its attendant interface conventions into the cultural mainstream. Bracketing technical considerations, it seems reasonable to argue that CBS could not have opted for the two-window solution in an earlier era of television because the visual environment would have simply been too alien from their viewersâ expectations. Bolter and Grusin go on to note that, âother and perhaps better examples (both of hypermediacy and remediation) will no doubt appear, as each new event tops the previous ones in its excitement or the audacity of its claims to immediacyâ (270). Had this closing chapter been written today, Bolter and Grusin would have almost certainly chosen as their example the multi-window displays that facilitated the so-called âsurrealâ split-screen television coverage of the House Judiciary Committeeâs impeachment hearings and Operation Desert Fox (the American and British air strikes on Iraq) in December of 1998.
That the conflicting logics of immediacy (in the desire for live âeyewitnessâ coverage of two major news events transpiring simultaneously) and hypermediacy (in the spectacle of video feeds from Washington and Baghdad both on the screen at the same time, each in a separate content window, the display filled out by a lurid background âwallpaperâ graphic) manifested themselves so dramatically in one of the most notable media events of recent memory surely confirms the usefulness of remediation as a critical armature for contemporary media studies. But it is worth noting that Bolter and Grusin explicitly describe their technique in Remediation as genealogical (âa genealogy of affiliations, not a linear historyâ ), and therefore Iâd like to close this review with some additional words about genealogy, and its suitability to new media studies by contrast with other varieties of historicism.
Genealogy as a critical mode comes to us from Foucault; it is most closely associated with his later books such as Discipline and Punish and the three volumes of the History of Sexuality. Genealogy is distinct from Foucaultâs other famous method, archeology, deployed most fully in works like The Order of Things and The Birth of the Clinic. Foucaultâs most sustained articulation of genealogy is to be found in a 1971 essay entitled âNietzsche, Genealogy, History,â whose opening lines are these: âGenealogy is gray, meticulous, and patiently documentary. It operates on a field of entangled and confused parchments, on documents that have been scratched over and recopied many timesâ (76). A few pages later, we read:
Genealogy does not resemble the evolution of a species and does not map the destiny of a people. On the contrary, to follow the complex course of descent is to maintain passing events in their proper dispersion; it is to identify the accidents, the minute deviations - or conversely, the complete reversals - the errors, the false appraisals, and the faulty calculations that gave birth to those things that continue to exist and have value for us; it is to discover that truth or being does not lie at the root of what we know and what we are, but the exteriority of accidents. (81)
Bolter and Grusin acknowledge this same essay, and indeed quote from it in their first footnote. Yet it seems questionable how much the âgenealogyâ of Remediation really resembles what Foucault imagined by the term. True, Bolter and Grusinâs narrative of media forms is not linear (or rather, it is not chronological), but their narrative is also âdocumentaryâ only in the most casual sense and it operates at a level of detail far removed from Foucaultâs trademark archival research. Indeed, of the many books published on topics related to new media studies in recent years, none of them, it seems to me, has yet matched the level of documentary (archival) research evident in a work such as Michael A. Cusumano and David B. Yoffieâs Competing on Internet Time: Lessons from Netscape and its Battle with Microsoft(1998). A typical passage from Cusumano and Yoffie (who are business professors) reads like this:
In August 1994, the Seattle-based start-up Spry became the first company to market a commercial version of Mosaic. At least half a dozen non-NCSA-based browsers were also available or in the works. In addition to Netscapeâs Navigator, competitors also included Cello, developed at Cornell; BookLinkâs InterNet Works; the MCC consortiumâs MacWeb; OâReilly and Associates Viola; and Frontier Technologiesâs WinTapestry. By early 1995, PC Magazine declared that 10 Web browsers were âessentially completeâ[â¦] In April 1995, Internet World counted 24 browsers, and by the end of the year CNET had found 28 browsers worthy of review. Very few of those products had any appreciable market share. (95-96)
How soon we forget. Cello, WebTapestry, even Mosaic. Where are they now? Whole generations of software technologies (compressed with the week- and month-long micro-cycles of âInternet Timeâ) are already lost to us. But surely this level of detail - conspicuous in the InterCapped names of bygone products and technologies, punctuated by the antiquarian version numbers of specific hardware and software implementations - ought to be a key element of any historical method, genealogical or otherwise, that critics working in new media studies bring to bear.
Let me suggest that the start-up work of theorizing digital culture has by now largely been done, and that serious and sustained attention to archival and documentary sources is the next step for new media studies if it is to continue to mature as a field. Freidrich Kittlerâs Discourse Networks 1800/1900 already does some of this work. And we could also do worse than Internet Time for a summation of the pace of scholarship in new media studies to date, with fresh books (books: the medium signifies) on matters cyber, virtual, or hyper appearing almost weekly. But where in all this are the careful analyses of the white papers and technical reports (for example) that must lie behind the changing broadcast strategies Bolter and Grusin point to at CNN? Where are the interviews with the networkâs executives and with their media consultants and market analysts? Rather than speculate broadly about computer graphics or theories of digital reproduction, why not perform a detailed case study of one particular data format, such as JPEG or GIF (both of which have a fascinating history) or a particular software implementation such as QuickTime, which has been enormously influential to multimedia development as it has evolved through multiple versions and generations? Certainly there are practical constraints that might mitigate against such projects: would Apple unlock its technical reports and developersâ notes on QuickTime for a scholar writing a book? It is hard to know, but: Netscape did it for Cusumano and Yoffie.
A few more thoughts in this vein. Compared to other scholarly fields, new media studies has thus far operated within relatively limited horizons of historicism. Historical perspective in books on digital culture generally takes one of two forms: it is either broadly comparative or it is transparently narrative. Bolterâs earlier book, Writing Space, is a classic example of the former mode, contextualizing hypertext (very usefully) within a much longer history of writing. Sandy Stoneâs pages describing the final days of the Atari Lab in The War of Desire and Technology at the Close of the Mechanical Age is an example of the latter narrative mode, as is the writing in such pop-history books as Simon and Schusterâs Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet. But both the comparative and the narrative modes encourage a relatively casual kind of historiographic writing. N. Katherine Haylesâ just-published How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics, which I am reading now, is perhaps the beginning of something new, offering a more rigorous kind of historical inquiry. thREAD to the Linda Brighamâs review of Hayles But Hayles still does not approach the level of self-reflexivity evident in a work like James Chandlerâs England in 1819: The Politics of Literary Culture and the Case of Romantic Historicism, published last year by Chicago, in which Chandler historicizes history itself as a peculiarly Romantic category of knowledge, while simultaneously undertaking a meticulous investigation of the events of a single pivotal year in the development of British Romanticism. A brief passage from the preface, to suggest the flavor of the volume:
Within part 1, the first section, âWriting Historicism, Then and Now,â tries to establish a way of talking about âdated-specificityâ in literary-cultural studies that makes patent the repetition between the âspirit of the ageâ discourse of British Romanticism and the contemporary discourse of the âreturn to historyâ in the Anglo-American Academy. The second sectionâ¦moves from the notion of historical culture implicit in that âdated specificityâ to consider the representation practices that such a notion of culture presupposes or demandsâ¦ Then, having established how one might understand England in 1819 as a historical case, its literature as a historicizing casuistry, I turnâ¦to explicate a series of works, all produced or consumed in that year, as cases in respect to that larger frame of reference. (xvi-xvii)
Chandler is ultimately ambivalent about the academyâs current insistence on âdated specificityâ (including the sort I have been calling for above), as is his fellow-Romanticist Alan Liu in âLocal Transcendence: Cultural Criticism, Postmodernism, and the Romanticism of Detail,â a seminal essay which ought to be required reading for anyone working in a field of cultural study, including media studies. Liu makes the telling point that recent critical-historical modes, from Foucauldian genealogy to cultural anthropology and the literary New Historicism, all thrive on an unexamined rhetoric that consecrates what he terms the âvirtuosity of the detailâ (80), a rhetoric which Liu is then able to convincingly align with the most familiar tenets of Romantic âlocalâ transcendence, such that: âinsignificance becomes the trope of transcendent meaningâ (93).
Liuâs critique is too complex and finely-developed to go into here any further, but it underscores a fundamental crisis in new media studies today: the field, having really flourished only since the early nineties, has on the one hand not yet had occasion to undertake the kind of detailed case histories I advocate above; yet case studies (their âdated specificityâ) are, on the other hand, already themselves being historicized as of a particular institutional moment. There is, for example, something to be learned from the curious genealogy of the font family known - fateful name - as Localizer (see FontFont). Released in 1996, the Localizer font mimics late-seventies LCD technology in an era when state-of-the-art digital typesetting permits perfect anti-aliasing. (Localizer is of course a classic remediation. Its design notes read in part: âwe thought this would be the future, then it wasnât, but it didnât matter after all, so here it is.â) Layers and layers of media history are perhaps held in delicate high-res suspension among such exteriorities of accidents. Yet at present, new media studies apparently lacks the deep historical self-reflexivity necessary to undertake a genealogy of the Localizer font that would not also appear naive in the face of a critique such as Liuâs.
All of this is not to be taken as a criticism of Remediation itself, for Bolter and Grusin would surely (and fairly) object that a book engaging the particular issues I have been raising here was simply not the book they set out to write. Nonetheless, the probable success of a book such as Remediation only intensifies the realization that new media studies now faces disciplinary challenges that go far beyond building a critical vocabulary and syntax. I will go on record as saying that in order for new media studies to move beyond its current 1.0 generation of scholarly discourse - a discourse which is still largely, though not exclusively, descriptive and explanatory (all those glossaries!) - the field must make a broad-based commitment to serious archival research. Of course the archive is more likely to be found at venues such as Xerox PARC or IBM or Microsoft or Apple - or in a Palo Alto garage - than at the library and rare book room. But case studies of specific hardware and software implementations, and of the micro-events in the commercial and institutional environments in which those implementations are developed and deployed are absolutely essential if we are to begin achieving deeper understandings of the impact of new media on the culture at large. (An example of one such âmicro-eventâ: March 31, 1998. Netscape Communications Corporation posts the source code for its 5.0 generation of browsers on its public Web site in an attempt to recapture market-share from Microsoft. This, I submit, is the real stuff of which new media history is being made.) Those case studies can - should - be theoretically informed, building on the groundwork of a book such as Remediation.
There is no task more important for new media studies than demystifing the unequivocally material processes of development now at work in the high-tech industry. Doing that work, and doing it right, will take time - archive time, not Internet Time.
Bolter, Jay David and Richard Grusin. Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998. [Note: All citations in this review are from a pre-press review copy of Remediation, provided by the MIT Press.]
Chandler, James. England in 1819: The Politics of Literary Culture and the Case of Romantic Historicism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
Cusumano, Michael A. and David B. Yoffie. Competing on Internet Time: Lessons from Netscapes and Its Battle with Microsoft. New York: The Free Press, 1998.
Foucault, Michel. â Nietzsche, Genealogy, History.â The Foucault Reader. Ed. Paul Rabinow. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984. 76-100.
Hafner, Katie and Matthew Lyon. Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996.
Hayles, N. Katherine. How We Became Post-Human: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
Kittler, Freidrich. Discourse Networks 1800/1900. Trans. Michael Metteer. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990.
Liu, Alan. âLocal Transcendence: Cultural Criticism, Postmodernism, and the Romanticism of Detail.â Representation 32 (Fall 1990): 75-113.
McLuhan, H. Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1964, 1994.
Stone, Allucquere Rosanne. The War of Desire and Technology at the Close of the Mechanical Age. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1995.
The NCAA on Wednesday (Aug. 1) selected former U.S. Sen. George Mitchell as the independent athletics integrity monitor at Penn State. His five-year appointment begins immediately. As athletics integrity monitor, Mitchell will evaluate Penn State's compliance with NCAA sanctions and the athletics integrity agreement it will execute with the NCAA and the Big Ten Conference. "We look forward to working with former Maine Sen. George Mitchell, who will coordinate with the University, including the Athletics Department, to ensure that the University complies the terms of the athletics integrity agreement," said Penn State President Rodney Erickson. "His extensive experience on the boards of major companies such as Xerox, FedEx, Staples and Disney, and deep understanding of the sports industry, make him uniquely qualified for this position. University representatives hope to meet with Sen. Mitchell soon to discuss how we will work together."
Sebagai pengusaha sukses, pria ini mendapatkan banyak penghargaan dan pengakuan dari dalam maupun luar negeri. Ia sangat mengutamakan nilai-nilai naluri, loyalitas, dan rasa percaya dalam merekrut karyawan. Karyawan dipacu untuk mengembangkan kreativitas mereka dengan menghargai inovasi bisnis mereka untuk diuji coba. Langsung saja di bawah ini sekilas tentang biografi William Soerjadjaja.
William Soerjadjaja lahir di Majalengka, 23 Desember 1923 dan meninggal di Jakarta, 2 April 2010 pada usia 86 tahun adalah seorang pengusaha Indonesia yang menjadi terkenal karena suksesnya membangun PT Astra Internasional, sebuah perusahaan besar di Indonesia. William dikenal dengan sebuatan "Oom Willam". William dilahirkan dengan nama Tjia Kian Liong, sebagai anak kedua dari enam bersaudara. Namun di antara saudara-saudaranya, ia adalah anak laki-laki yang pertama. Kedua orangtuanya meninggal pada waktu ia berusia 12 tahun. Ayahnya meninggal dunia pada Oktober 1934, disusul oleh ibunya pada Desember 1934. William, dalam usia yang masih sangat muda, melanjutkan usaha ayahnya, berjualan hasil bumi seperti minyak kacang, beras, dan gula. "Dengan berdagang, saya dapat membantu kehidupan saudara-saudara saya," ujar anak kedua dari lima bersaudara keluarga pedagang ini, suatu ketika. Ia tampaknya mewarisi bakat dagang ayahnya.
Sewaktu bersekolah di HCZS (Hollands Chinesche Zendingsschool) di Kadipaten, pada masa penjajahan Belanda, ia sempat tidak naik kelas. Namun karena ketekunannya, ia berhasil melanjutkan pendidikannya ke MULO di Cirebon. Namun kembali ia tinggal kelas. Dari pelajaran-pelajaran yang diberikan di sekolah, William paling menyukai pelajaran ekonomi dan tata buku. Dengan kedua pelajaran inilah ia membangun seluruh usahanya.
William kemudian pindah ke Kota Bandung, disana ia bertemu dengan jodohnya, Lily Anwar, dan mereka menikah pada 15 Januari 1947. Pernikahan mereka berlangsung dengan sangat sederhana. "Kami ke kantor catatan sipil naik becak. Kami menikah tanpa dihadiri tamu undangan. Kami pun hanya mengenakan baju biasa saja. Benar-benar sangat sederhana. Tidak ada tukang potret yang hadir, itu sebabnya kami tidak punya potret pernikahan. Setelah selesai nikah, kami pulang ke Jalan Merdeka naik becak lagi," begitu kisah William.
Pernikahan ini dikaruniai empat orang anak, yaitu Edward Soeryadjaja (17 Juli 1942), Edwin Soeryadjaya (21 Mei 1948), Joyce (14 Agustus 1950), dan Judith (14 Februari 1952). Belum dua minggu menikah, William berangkat untuk belajar di Belanda untuk mempelajari ilmu penyamakan kulit. Ia lalu mendirikan pabrik penyamakan kulit pada tahun 1949. Tahun 1948, ketika Edward lahir, kedua pasangan ini hidup dengan berjualan kacang dan rokok yang dikirim dari Bandung. Mereka hidup dengan penuh perjuangan, kerja keras, dan doa. Dalam kehidupan yang sangat sederhana, mereka masih dapat menyewa satu kamar di sebuah hotel di Amsterdam. Pola hidup hemat ini tampak jelas ketika pada suatu kali keluarga muda ini pergi ke Basel, Swiss. Dalam perjalanan yang berlangsung satu minggu itu mereka hanya hidup dengan roti, bubur, dan susu untuk berhemat. Bulan Februari 1949 keluarga William kembali ke Indonesia.
Begitu kembali ke Tanah Air tahun 1949, William mendirikan industri penyamakan kulit, yang kepengurusannya dia serahkan kepada seorang kawannya. Tiga tahun kemudian, William mendirikan CV Sanggabuana, bergerak di bidang perdagangan dan ekspor-impor. Cuma celakanya, dalam menggeluti bisnis ini, ia ditipu rekannya. "Saya rugi jutaan DM," ujar William.
Lima tahun kemudian, atau tepatnya tahun 1957, bersama Drs Tjia Kian Tie, adiknya, dan Lim Peng Hong, kawannya, William mendirikan PT Astra Internasional Inc. Bisnis perusahaan barunya ini pada mulanya hanya bergerak dalam pemasaran minuman ringan merek Prem Club, lalu ditambah dengan mengekspor hasil bumi. Dalam perkembangan berikutnya, lahan garapan usaha astra meluas ke sektor otomotif, peralatan berat, peralatan kantor, perkayuan, dan sebagainya. Astra tumbuh bak "pohon rindang", seperti yang ditamsilkan William sendiri.
Keberhasilan Astra ketika itu, diakui William, tidak terlepas berkat ada kebijaksanaan Pemerintah Orde Baru, yang memberi angin sejuk kepada dunia usaha untuk berkembang. Salah satu contohnya tahun 1968-1969, Astra diperkenankan memasok 800 kendaraan truk merek Chevrolet. Kebetulan, saat itu pemerintah sedang mengadakan program rehabilitasi besar-besaran. Saking banyaknya yang membutuhkan, kendaraan truk itu laris bak pisang goreng. Apalagi, ketika itu terjadi kenaikan kurs dollar, dari Rp 141 menjadi Rp 378 per dollar AS. "Bisa dibayangkan berapa keuntungan kami," ujar Oom Willem, panggilan akrabnya, kala itu. Sejak itu pula Astra kerap ditunjuk sebagai rekanan pemerintah dalam menyediakan berbagai sarana pembangunan.
Dalam perjalanan selanjutnya, Astra tak hanya sebatas memasok, tetapi juga mulai merakit sendiri truk Chevrolet. Lalu, mengageni dan merakit alat besar, Komatsu, mobil Toyota, dan Daihatsu, sepeda motor Honda, dan mesin fotokopi Xerox. Yang berikutnya pula, akhirnya lahan usaha yang baru ini menjadi "mesin uang" dari PT Astra Internasional Inc. Masih ada satu bisnis Astra yang lain, yaitu agrobisnis. Astra yang omzetnya pada tahun 1984 mencapai 1,5 miliar dollar AS masuk ke agrobisnis dengan membuka kawasan pertanian kelapa dan casava seluas 15.000 hektar di Lampung. Namun, bukanya tanpa alasan Astra masuk ke sektor agrobisnis. "Agrobisnis yang mengusahakan peningkatan produksi pada sektor pertanian itu merupakan gagasan pemerintah yang patut ditanggapi berbagai kalangan wirausahawan Indonesia," kata William dalam ceramahnya di Universitas Katholik Parahyangan tahun 1984.
Pada tahun itu juga Astra membeli Summa Handelsbank Ag, Deulsdorf, Jerman. Pengelolaan bank yang tak ada kaitannya dengan bisnis Astra ini diserahkan kepada putra tertuanya, Edward Soeryadjaya, sarjana ekonomi lulusan Jerman Barat. Di bank ini William mengantongi 60 persen saham yang dibagi rata dengan Edward. Cuma, sayangnya, Edward kurang berhati-hati dalam menjalankan roda usaha perbankan itu. Edward terlalu royal dalam mengumbar kredit. Akibatnya, tahun 1992 bank ini dilanda utang yang begitu besar dan untuk melunasinya, terpaksa William melepas kepemilikannya di Astra.
William pasrah. Ia selalu kembalikan kepada Tuhan. Ia selalu berpegang pada prinsip: Manusia berusaha, Tuhan menentukan. Yang paling penting baginya ketika itu adalah nasib para karyawan dan nasabah Bank Summa. Ia teramat sedih membayangkan pegawai sebanyak itu harus kehilangan mata pencahariannya. Oleh karenanya ia rela menjual saham-sahamnya di Astra guna memenuhi kewajiban Bank Summa.
Banyak spekulasi yang berkembang ketika Oom Willem terpaksa menjual sahamnya di Astra. Spekulasi yang banyak diyakini orang adalah adanya rekayasa pemerintah untuk menjatuhkan Oom Willem. Namun, Oom Willem sendiri tidak pernah merasa dikorbankan oleh sistem. Semua itu dianggapnya sebagai konsekuensi bisnis. Ia tidak mau larut dalam tekanan spekulasi dan keluhan. Melainkan ia pasrah dengan tulus kepada kehendak Tuhan. Dengan ketulusan itu pula, ia terus melangkah maju ke depan dengan pengharapan yang hidup. Dan, kini, salah satu kepeduliannya yang terbesar adalah bagaimana Astra dapat terus berperan sebagai agen pertumbuhan ekonomi nasional, yang antara lain dapat membuka lapangan kerja lebih luas.
Memang, membuka lapangan kerja, adalah salah satu impiannya yang tetap membara dari dulu hingga kini. Sebuah impian dan obsesi yang dilandasi kepeduliannya kepada sesama. "Salah satu hasrat saya dari dulu adalah membuka lapangan kerja," katanya. Apalagi kondisi Indonesia saat ini, yang dilanda krisis ekonomi, yang berakibat bertambahnya pengangguran.
Impian inilah yang mendorong Omm Wilem membeli 10 juta saham PT Mandiri Intifinance. Di sini, ia mengumpulkan dana untuk diinvestasikan ke dalam pengembangan usaha petani-petani kecil dan small and medium enterprises (usaha-usaha kecil dan menengah). Agar dapat menciptakan lapangan-lapangan kerja baru dan meningkatkan daya beli masyarakat, yang pada akhirnya akan mengangkat bangsa ini dari keterpurukan.
Namun, yang patut dipuji dari sikap William semasa kejayaannya di Astra adalah kepeduliannya terhadap rekannya, pengusaha kecil. Dalam suatu tulisannya di harian Suara Karya, "Peranan Pengusaha Besar Dalam Kerja Sama dengan Pengusaha Kecil demi Suksesnya Pelita IV", mengetengahkan bentuk-bentuk kerja sama antara yang besar dan yang kecil. Misalnya, menjadikan perusahaan besar sebagai market dari perusahaan kecil dalam bentuk leadership dan menjadi perusahaan kecil sebagai bagian dari service network produk perusahaan besar.
Sikapnya yang lain, yang juga patut ditiru, adalah kepeduliannya terhadap dunia pendidikan. William merelakan tanahnya di Cilandak, Jakarta Selatan, terjual dengan harga "miring" bagi pembangunan gedung Institut Prasetya Mulya, lembaga pendidikan yang dimaksudkan mencetak tenaga-tenaga manajer yang andal. Sejumlah konglomerat juga ikut membidani lembaga. William sendiri kala itu duduk sebagai Wakil Ketua Dewan Pembina.
Sikap religiusnya pun merupakan salah satu contoh yang baik dalam menjalankan roda usahanya. Penganut Protestan yang teguh ini percaya betul bahwa keberhasilan yang diperolehnya , selain kerja kerasnya bersama semua karyawan, juga berkat rahmat dari Tuhan, bukan semata dari dirinya.
Semangatnya dalam menempuh bisnis pun patut dijadikan panutan. Kalau ia terjegal dalam kancah bisnis, itu bukanlah akhir dari perjalanan bisnisnya, melainkan justru awal dari kebangkitannya. William Soeryadjaya, pendiri PT Astra Internasional Inc (sejak tahun 1990, Tbk), meninggal dunia hari Jumat (2/4/2010) pukul 22.43 di Rumah Sakit Medistra, Jakarta Selatan. William sebelumnya beberapa kali dirawat karena sakit. Terakhir, ia dirawat tanggal 10 Maret dan sejak hari Kamis (1/4/2010) dirawat di unit rawat intensif (ICU). Jenazah disemayamkan di rumah duka RSPAD Gatot Subroto, Jakarta Pusat, hingga Senin (5/4/2010).
William yang lahir di Majalengka, Jawa Barat, 20 Desember 1922, adalah pribadi yang rendah hati dan bersahaja. Keberhasilannya membangun Astra Internasional tidak pernah diklaim sebagai keberhasilan dirinya. Ketika ditanya mengenai keberhasilannya, ia mengatakan, âKeberhasilan Astra berkat kerja keras semua karyawan dan rahmat Tuhan, bukan karena keberhasilan saya pribadi.â
William juga seorang visioner yang seakan mengerti ke mana bisnis akan bergerak. Ia juga adalah salah satu pelopor modernisasi industri otomotif nasional. Ia membangun jaringan bisnis dengan core product di sektor otomotif. Namun, memang, pertumbuhan bisnisnya tidak pernah lepas dari campur tangan pemerintah.
Keberhasilannya dalam berbisnis menjadikan ia menduduki banyak jabatan penting di sejumlah perusahaan, terutama yang berbasis otomotif.
William menjadi orang pertama Asia yang menjadi anggota Dewan Penyantun The Asia Society yang didirikan John D Rockefeller III di New York, AS, tahun 1956. Ia menarik diri dari dunia bisnis tahun 1992 ketika Bank Summa milik anaknya, Edward, kolaps dan harus dilikuidasi sehingga memaksanya melepas 100 juta lembar saham Astra Internasional guna melunasi kewajibannya. Beliau meninggal pada usia 78 tahun tepatnya hari Jumat (2/4/2010).
sumber : http://www.kolombiografi.com/2013/12/biografi-william-soerjadjaja-pendiri-pt.html
UnaÂ quinta opciÃ³n de color, mayorÂ tiempo de funcionamiento de la impresiÃ³n y mÃºltiples opciones de velocidad caracterizan la nueva prensa digital iGen5 de Xerox. SegÃºn InfoTrends, el mercado de la producciÃ³n digital color de alta gama pasarÃ¡ de unos 60 mil millones de pÃ¡ginas en la actualidad a 87 mil millones en 2018 en todo el ...
This is from the chapter on Sly Stallone:No Wonder I Never Wanted An Easy-Bake Oven.
Iâm not in great shape. The only time anyone wrote âlots of absâ next to my name was in my attendance report from high school. So I joined a gym. You canât not join a gym in Los Angeles. The authorities will find out and suddenly youâre on a billboard that says Got Fat?
So I Got Serious and hired a trainer, or rather hired the one that Ballyâs Gym assigned to me. He'd been Mr. Bulgaria twice; Mr. Northern California in the early 90s and wrote three fitness books, which was three more than I'd written. I felt sorry for him; his business card was an unevenly sliced-up piece of Xerox paper. He was earnest and committed, probably had a family waiting in a cramped one-bedroom apartment somewhere in Koreatown, expecting him to put borscht on the table. He had that sad, vacant look that people who do not ever expect to catch up with life have. I have the same expression after Iâve had sex.
Mr. Bulgaria loved working out and assumed I did also because why else would I be at the gym?
Sidebar: Cute guys, the smoothie bar and cute guys. Oh yes, and cute guys.
I donât understand why people love to sweat. âIt gets out all the toxins.â If there are toxins leaking out of any part of me it means my alcohol levels are dangerously low so point me in the direction of a martini.
Maybe Iâd love working out if I enjoyed eating. Then there would be a goal, to lose weight or keep a steady weight. But I hate eating even more than I hate working out. Hand me a pill marked LUNCH and Iâm done until Iâm handed a pill marked DINNER. Give me a purple drink like the one in the movie Barbarella. Jane Fonda drinks it when she wakes up from a hundred and fifty-four hour nap. Sounds like a perfect place to live; you drink your meals and get to nap for six days in a row. That movie was made in 1963 so apparently the future has let us down. And by us I mean me.
I donât like to discuss food, shop for food or try the food at the trendy new restaurant in Who Cares, Connecticut. I lived with a man who used to drive me crazy because while we were eating breakfast heâd ask me what we should do for lunch. At lunch, heâd ask me what we should do for dinner. At dinner, heâd ask me what we should do for breakfast. No, weâre not still together, why do you ask?
When I do manage to eat something I inhale the whole thing and am then surprised to discover that it *serves 4.* Four what, anorexics? I can hardly wait until Iâm rich enough to have Ina Garten move in. Itâs the only reason Iâm still breathing in and out.
The only machine I used regularly at the gym was the water fountain but I kept going because of the cute guys. And the smoothie bar. And oh yes, the cute guys. But sometime in the last few years the cute boys emigrated to marriage and the gym became a meeting place for old Chinese women. Mr. Bulgaria deftly escorts me through them as if heâs afraid I'll stop and spontaneously break into a mah-jongg game.
The gym rat in our family is my sister Lindy, who once graced the cover of Muscle and Fitness magazine. Her nickname in college was The Body. My nickname in college was Can You Introduce Me to Your Sister. She goes around spewing communist propaganda like, âIâm really craving an apple.â Please, Johnny Appleseed didnât crave an apple. If youâre at her house and want something fattening to eat, you have to lick the grease off her stove. Sheâs always telling me I donât work out enough, that I donât do enough aerobics. Like getting up from the couch and lying back down twenty times a night isnât aerobic. Every time we have an earthquake I grab my Shake Weight so as to maximize the effects of the shifting tectonic plates. If thatâs not dedication to exercise then I donât know what is.
âHow do I look in this bathing suit?â I once asked her.
âYou look fabulous.â Then ten days later she saw me in shorts and said, âYou look terrific; not like you did in that bathing suit.â
As for the rest of our family, we would rather die with a stent in our hearts than a deltoid on our wherever the hell the deltoid goes...
Compramos cartuchos de toner y tintas vacios diferentes marcas:
hp.lexmark,samsung,dell,brother,canon y xerox.
no los tires nosotros te los compramos.!!!
contamos con servicio a domicilio dentro del df y area metropolitana.
tambien vendemos cartuchos de toner y tintas originales de todas la marcas..
o si lo prefieres vendemos cartuchos reciclados y compatibles nuestro trabajo va garantizado al 100% ya que contamos con mas de 10 aÃ±os de experiencia en el ramo de los re manufacturados.
Â¡Â¡Â¡ re manufacturamos tu mismo cartucho!!!!
estamos ubicados en calle 26 de enero de 1857#1725 colonia leyes de reforma del. Iztapalapa ( sobre rojo gom
By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Published: August 26, 2009 Filed at 7:13 p.m. ET
SAN MATEO, Calif. (AP) -- A 17-year-old boy accused of detonating two pipe bombs at a Northern California high school while armed with a chain saw, sword and explosives appeared in court Wednesday on charges of trying to murder two faculty members. Alex Youshock, a former student at Hillsdale High School in San Mateo, did not enter a plea to charges that included exploding or attempting to explode bombs in a school to terrorize others and possession of dangerous weapons -- the sword and chain saw. [NY Times, 8/26/09]
*** A sword???????
I wish I had been there. I wish I had been there to scream, "Who do you think you are, Highlander?"
I want to know what happens when this crap goes down. Is defending yourself against imminent death in your job description?
Have you ever seen your job description?
No, neither have I. But we all sign a quote-unquote "contract" every year. Where else in American do you sign a contract SIGHT UNSEEN?
We want to know how much we will be PAID if we have to blockade the door, throw ourselves in front of a bullet.
We're not joking. How many people have been reprimanded for not following the "code blue," or "lockdown," or "the sniper is nearby" procedures? And if we can be reprimanded, scolded, or made to feel as if we aren't doing our jobs, then we want:
1) hazard pay
2) real training, not the joke training we all get
3) an opt out
4) a lawyer to explain to us EXACTLY what we are quote-unquote required to do and NOT required to do
4) a guarantee that if we do put ourselves in harms way to save a student or students, our families will receive a FRIGGIN' LOT OF MONEY.
The question becomes 'are you willing to die for these people?' For little children, probably 100 percent of us would answer yes. But we have heard colleagues, quite reasonably say, "You know what--some of these overgrown thugs have treated us so horribly, in what space-time continuum am I going to die for them? "
And having your own children is a game changer. No, I'm not dying for some of the worst people I will ever meet and leave MY children without a parent. Guess what--I'm not dying for some of the BEST people I will ever meet and leave my child without a parent. We are not the police. Yes, teachers have children, too. Dumb administrator moment: Our VP scolded us for not taking the most idiotictraining seriously, with the admonition, "I have a child, and I'mscared to think some of you would be in loco parentis.
Well, you know what--we have children, too, and they way you have trained us 1) endangers all of us, including our own children, and 2) Who the H-LL do you think you are? You think we should die to save YOUR child? No.My child is coming home to see her Mommy tonight.
Get a grip on reality, America. We are not paid enough to do this. Maybe you need to hire Blackwater.
Just once--JUST ONCE, I wish that when a lockdown drill or what have you is announced, an entire faculty would sit down in the hall with signs that say, "We have no idea how to protect this building."
Peter says, "I work in a district where a guy off the street walked into the girl's locker room after hours and just sort of hung out. That could have been a tragedy." *** It's very, very true--we don't deserve more money. We should stay after school, after having worked for EIGHT HOURS, and be the police, as well as tutor, coach, paint floats, Xerox, grade....
I am sorry, but you are thinking it wrong too:
it was invented long ago by apple ( cof cof ) , and its called wimp.
WIMP and actually most of the other stuff was invented at XEROX Parc, but apple was one of the first with actual commercial success with those concepts.
sorry , but you understood it wrong also
that was why i wrote "by apple ( cof cof )" ...
that xerox invented the wimp is widely known , so i thought that just a "(cof cof)" would sufice... it didnt i guess
Komputer pertama dari semua jenis, adalah kalkulator sederhana. Bahkan alat ini dikembangkan dari alat-alat mekanis ke alat digital elektronik. Berikut adalah sejarah singkat PC :
1617 = John Napier menciptakan "Napier's Bones", balok kayu yang digunakan untuk menghitung.
1642 = Blaise Pascal memperkenalkan mesin penambahan digital, Pascaline.
1822 = Charles Babbage membuat Difference Engine dan berikutnya Analytical Engine, sebuah mesin komputasi yang sesungguhnya bersifat general-purpose.
1906 = Lee De Forest mematenkan vacuum tube (tabung hampa) triode, digunakan sebagai switch elektronik pada komputer elektronik yang pertama.
1937 = John V. Atanasoff mulai mengerjakan Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC), yang nantinya secara resmi dinilai sebagai komputer elektronik yang pertama.
1943 = Alan Turing mengembangkan Colossus, sebuah komputer pemecah kode rahasia milik Inggris yang didesain untuk men-decode pesan-pesan rahasia Jerman.
1945 = John van Neumann menulis "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC", dimana ia menjelaskan secara garis besar arsitektur komputer modern stored-program.
1946 = ENIAC diperkenalkan, sebuah mesin komputasi elektronik yang dibuat oleh John Mauchly dan J. Presper Eckert.
1947 = Pada tanggal 23 Desember, William Shockley, Walter Brattain, dan John Bardeen, dengan sukses menguji transistor point-contact, memperkuat adanya semikonduktor.
1949 = Maurice Wilkes merakit EDSAC, komputer stored-program praktikal yang pertama, di Cambridge University.
1950 = Engineering Research Associates of Minneapolis membuat ERA 1101, salah satu komputer yang pertama kali diproduksi secara komersial.
1952 = UNIVAC I yang dikirim ke Biro Sensus AS adalah komputer komersial yang pertama yang menarik perhatian publik.
1953 = IBM meluncurkan komputer elektronik pertamanya, 701.
1954 = Transistor junction berbasis silikon, disempurnakan oleh Gordon Teal dari Texas Instruments, Inc., membuat biaya produksi berkurang dengan cukup signifikan.
1954 = Kalkulator magnetik drum, IBM 650, mengokohkan diri sebagai komputer pertama yang dibuat secara massal, setiap tahunnya perusahaan menjual 450 unit.
1955 = Bell Laboratories mengumumkan komputer pertama yang fully transistorized, TRADIC.
1956 = Para peneliti MIT membuat TX-0, komputer pertama yang general-purpose dan dapat diprogram, yang disertai transistor.
1956 = Era penyimpanan disk magnetik menurun dengan dikeluarkannya 305 RAMAC oleh IBM, untuk Zellerbach Paper di San Francisco.
1958 = Javk Kilby menciptakan sirkuit pertama yang terintegrasi di Texas Instruments untuk membuktikan bahwa resistor dan kapasitor dapat tersedia di bagian yang sama dengan bahan semikonduktor.
1959 = Mainframe seri 7000 dari IBM adalah komputer perusahaan pertama yang transistorized.
1960 = Bell Labs mendesain Dataphone, modem komersial yang pertama, secara khusus untuk mengkonversi data komputer digital ke sinyal analog untuk transmisi jaringan jarak jauhnya.
1960 = Pelopor minikomputer, PDP-1 dari DEC, terjual dengan harga $120,000.
1961 = Menurut majalah Datamation, IBM memiliki 81,29% saham dari pasar komputer pada tahun 1961, tahun dimana IBM memperkenalkan 1400 series.
1964 = Superkomputer 6600 dari CDC, didesain oleh Seymour Cray, melakukan sampai tiga juta instruksi per detik - kecepatan pemrosesan tiga kali lebih cepat ketimbang pesaing terdekatnya, IBM Strech.
1964 = IBM mengumumkan System/360, keluarga dari enam komputer yang kompatibel dan 40 peripheral yang dapat bekerja bersama-sama.
1964 = Pemrosesan transaksi online membuat debutnya di sistem reservasi SABRE milik IBM, di-setup untuk American Online.
1965 = Digital Equipment Corp. memperkenalkan PDP-8, minikomputer yang pertama kali sukses secara komersial.
1966 = Hewlett - Packard memasuki bisnis komputer general-purpose dengan HP-2115nya untuk komputasi, menawarkan kekuatan komputasional yang sebelumnya ditemukan hanya di komputer yang jauh lebih besar.
1969 = Cikal bakal dari sesuatu yang nantinya menjadi Internet, mulai muncul ketika Departemen Pertahanan Amerika membangun empat node(titik koneksi yang dapat menciptakan, menerima, atau mengulang sebuah pesan) di ARPAnet: dua di kampus Universitas Kalifornia (Satu di Santa Barbara dan satunya lagi di Los Angeles), dan dua lainnya masing-masing di SRI Internasional dan Universitas Utah.
1971 = Sebuah tim di San Jose Laboratories milik IBM, menciptakan floppy disk 8.
1971 = Iklan pertama untuk mikroprosesor, Intel 4004, muncul di Electronic News.
1971 = Kembak-1, salah satu komputer personal yang pertama, diiklankan sebesar $750 di Scientific American.
1972 = Hewlett-Packard mengumumkan HP-35 sebagai komputer "cepat, dengan slide rule elektronik yang akurat dengan memory solid-state yang serupa dengan komputer.
1972 = Mikroprosesor 8008 milik Intel membuat debutnya.
1972 = Steve Wozniak membangun "blue box", sebuah generator bunyi untuk membuat panggilan telepon gratis.
1973 = Robert Metcalfe menemukan metode Ethernet untuk koneksi jaringan di Xerox Palo Alto Research Center.
1973 = TV Typewritter, didesain oleh Don Lancaster, memberikan display pertama untuk informasi alphanumerik di television set biasa.
1974 = Para peneliti di Xerox Palo Alto Research Center mendesain Alto, workstation pertama dengan mouse built-in untuk input.
1974 = Scelbi mengumumkan komputer 8H miliknya, komputer AS yang pertama kali diiklankan secara komersial berdasarkan mikroprosesor, Intel 8008.
1975 = Lahirnya Telenet, jaringan paket-switching komersial yang pertama dan ekuivalen publik dari ARPAnet.
1975 = Popular Electronik edisi bulan Januari, menyorot Altair 8800, yang didasarkan pada mikroprosesor Intel 8080.
1975 = Prototype visual display module (VDM), didesain oleh Lee Felsenstein, menandai implementasi pertama dari display video alphanumerik yang memory-mapped(Alokasi terhadap bagian dari suatu RAM komputer, yang menentukan area mana dari komputer yang dapat digunakan untuk tujuan-tujuan khusus), untuk komputer_komputer personal.
1976 = Steve Wozniak mendesain Apple I, sebuah komputer single-board.
1976 = Disk drive dan disk fleksible 5Â¼ diperkenalkan oleh Shugart Associates.
1976 = Cray I mengumumkan dirinya sebagai vector prosesor yang untuk pertama kalinya sukses secara komersial.
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Brass horns and the clash of melody and hip-hop beats set the stage as the jazz and funk-infused film Brothers Hypnotic plays the audience into another world.
The film, which screened on April 8 as part of the Little Theatre's One Take: Stories Through the Lens documentary series, is directed by first-time director Rueben Atlas. It gives a short chronicle of the triumphs and hardships of Hypnotic Brass Ensemble, an eight-member band composed not only of musicians, but brothers. In this 90-minute documentary, Atlas captures the brothersâ strong bond, as well as the relationship they have with their ever-influencing father.
These sons of legendary musician Phil Cohran unite through the power of music along with the omnipresent reminder from their father that their true and lasting purpose is to inspire other people.
This comes easy for the South Side Chicago-based group.Â Atlas, able to capture the brothersâ past and poverty-entrenched childhood, reveals that these struggles often teach the brothers how to deal with life and their road to recognition.
Growing up, the brothers were immersed in the melodies of funk, jazz, and rock, playing to the rise of the sun in their fatherâs early morning class. The anti-establishment truths Cohran instilled in them during that time prepared the brothers for a journey of self-love and ownership.
The most noteworthy aspect of the film is the amount of trust given to Atlas by the brothers, documenting their story while also keeping the integrity of the raw emotion surrounding their journey.
Often shown playing in the streets and occasionally live venues, the brothers refuse to conform to other peopleâs values, even to the extent of taking their own European tour. The tension between living out their fatherâs legacy and creating a legacy of their own is seamlessly spread throughout the film.Â
Hypnotic Brass Ensemble will be playing live in this summerâs Xerox Rochester International Jazz Festival on June 27th. Donât miss a chance to check out this electrifying band, a group that is legend in its own right.
Rachel Henderson and Janelle Thomas both attend Roberts Wesleyan College, currently completing degrees in Communication.Â Rachel is an avid experiencer of all things, explaining her love for the surrounding arts culture in Rochester. Janelle revels in reading, movie-going, and traveling.
Ubuntu speaks particularly about the fact that you can't exist as a human being in isolation. It speaks about our interconnectedness. You can't be human all by yourself, and when you have this quality â Ubuntu â you are known for your generosity. We think of ourselves far too frequently as just individuals, separated from one another, whereas you are connected and what you do affects the whole World. When you do well, it spreads out; it is for the whole of humanity.
From a quotation by Desmond Tutu
The purpose of this post is to revisit a model of learning that I put together as part of some study for a coaching qualification that I completed in 2013. The model that I produced I've called NODES in recognition of the fact that, for me, much if not all of what I learn is accomplished in relationship with others. It emerged as a means of conceptualising a number of things that felt important to me about the process of learning: I learn with and from others, and the resposibilities of learning: if I am learning from others then I have a responsibility to be generous in sharing what I am learning.
I've embedded a link to a Slideshare presentation about NODES and the underpinning ideas, from which I have drawn, to develop the model.
I want to draw attention to a conversation that I listened to in December 2014 when the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Most Reverend and Rt Hon Justin Welby, was interviewed for the BBC Desert Island Discs programme. In the conversation the presenter Kirsty Young asked the Archbishop a question about prayer:
KY "How do you know when a time of prayer has finished? How do you know when enough is enough?
JW: "I don't think enough is ever enough in prayer. Because prayer is about engaging with Jesus Christ, us allowing his presence to shape us and to bring what is in us to him or just to enjoy his presence and there's never enough of that and certainly not in this job is there ever enough of it and so I don't think I can answer it because I don't think I've got to enough of it yet."
I thought that this was an interesting response for a number of reasons: The Archbishop was underlining the importance of relationships and inter-relationships, the need to engage in a relationship openly, whether through conversation or simply enjoying being with another person; to being open to our thoughts and feelings and to allow these thoughts to be shaped by others; to take seriously our own experience and to make it available to others so they too can use the ideas to develop their own experiences. In sum, it was pointing the way towards what it means to be human and therefore, in the context of who was saying it, how to live in the image of God.
To the secular
From the secular domain of everyday workplace learning, here are three examples of how Rio Tinto, Xerox and LV= are solving problems by invoking the spirit and the practice of NODES.
Fixing the brakes on a bulldozer: a Community of Practice (CoP) success storyfrom Rio Tinto link
Mending photocopiers: an Infographic from Xeroxlink
Helping customers get the right information: a case study from LV= link
Conclusion - enough is never enough
It is in the Archbishop's response to the question 'How do you know when enough is enough?' that I relate something of my own experience of what it means to learn with and learn from others. From the cosmic to the commonplace, from the spiritual to the secular, it is in the work of networking with others that we create the spaces and the opportunities to learn continuously and ongoingly. In that sense enough is never enough.
I'm almost caught up on my blog reading since getting back from vacation and I've
spotted a couple of items I'd have blogged responses to if I was around. Since I don't
have the time to write full blog posts on each of these items, here are links to the
posts and brief outlines on what I thought about them
The way he does that is to measure entropy (yup that same old
same old Claude Shannonâs information theory which you learned in one of the CS courses)
of entities like documents (D), users (U) and tags (T). His research group crawled
the entire del.icio.us archive and then calculated the entropies. Hereâs what they
â¢ H(D|T) specifies the social navigation efficiency. How efficient is it for us
to specify a set of tags to find a set of specific documents? We found that
in del.icio.us that it is getting less and less efficient.
This makes sense when you think about it. Let's say the first set of
users of del.icio.us came from a homogenous software
development background and started applying the tag "xml" to mean items about the
eXtensible Markup Language. Later on as the community grew, a number of gamers joined
the site and they now use the tag "xml" to refer to items about the game X-Men
Legends. Now if you are one of the original geek users of the site, the URL http://del.icio.us/tag/xml no
longer is just about markup languages but also about video games. To actually find
items strictly about the eXtensible Markup Language you may have to add other tags
as refinements such as http://del.icio.us/tag/xml+programming.
What this means is that to the oldest users of the site, the quality of the tagging
system will seem to degrade over time even though this is a natural consequence of
growth and diversifying its user base. Of course, this is only a problem if a lot
of people use del.icio.us to find all items about
a topic (i.e. browsing by tags) as opposed to just storing their individual bookmarks
or subscribing to the bookmarks of people they know and trust.
It seems Google announced some sort of Microsoft Office killer last week. You can
read Don Dodge's Why
Microsoft will not fall into the Innovators Dilemma and Robert Scoble's Microsoft
has no innovatorâs dillema? for two conflicting opinions on how this affects Microsoft.
Personally, I think I've overdosed on the amount of times I've read the words innovator's
dilemma in association with this announcement while catching up on email and blogs.
What is funny about this situation is that almost everyone I've seen who throws the
term around doesn't seem to have read
the book. It is quite interesting to see Don Dodge write sentences like
Microsoft will do everything possible to preserve these businesses while
transitioning to the new Live strategy.
and then follow that up with
"No Innovators Dilemma here" without seeing the obvious contradiction in his words.
Lots of doublethink at
work it seems.
A side effect of reading this set of blog posts is that I found Don Dodge's Innovate
or Imitate...Fame or Fortune? which praises being a fast follower as being more
valuable than being an innovator. I've found that a lot of people at Microsoft point
to past and recent successes such as XBox, Microsoft Office and Internet Explorer
as proof that being a "fast follower" is the best strategy for Microsoft. There are
three key problems with this kind of thinking
It assumes your competitors are incompetent. This may have worked in the old days
but with competitors like Google and Apple Inc, it isn't the case anymore.
It requires that you have an ace up your sleeve that significantly one ups the competitors
when you ship your knock off (e.g. integrating disparate applications into an Office
Suite and pricing it lower than competitors, integrating product into the operating
system, integrating a rich and social online experience into what was previously a
solitary experience etc).
It ignores the fact that "first mover advantage" is actually true for applications
that have network effects which
is definitely the case for social software which a lot of software has become today.
Why is it that gender (and less often race, nay, skin-color, see below) are the
only physical characteristics that lots of otherwise smart people appear to chime
in support for diversity of?
E.g. as long as we are trying for greater diversity in superficial physical characteristics
(superficial because what do such characteristics have to do with the stated directly
relevant criteria of "technical expertise, speaking skills, professional stature,
brand appropriateness, and marketability" - though perhaps I can see a tenuous link
with "rainbow" marketing), why not ask about other such characteristics?
Where are all the green-eyed folks?
Where are all the folks with facial tattoos?
Where are all the redheads?
Where are the speakers with non-ear facial piercings?
Surely such speakers would help with "hipness" marketing.
I found this post to be disingenious and wondered how anybody could downplay the gender
and racial bias in the "Web 2.0" technology conference scene by equating it to a preference
for green eyed speakers. So I decided to throw in my $0.02 on this topic...again.
After the last ETech, I realized I was seeing the same faces and hearing the same
things over and over again. More importantly, I noticed that the demographics of the
speaker lists for these conferences don't match the software industry as a whole let
alone the users who we are supposed to be building the software for.
There were lots of little bits of ignorance by the speakers and audience which added
up in a way that rubbed me wrong. For example, at the 2005 Web
2.0 conference a lot of people were ignorant of Skype except as 'that startup
that got a bunch of money from eBay'. Given that there are a significant amount of
foreigners in the U.S. software industry who use Skype to keep in touch with folks
back home, it was surprising to see so much ignorance about it at a supposedly leading
edge technology conference. The same thing goes for how suprised people were by how
teenagers used the Web and computers. Additionally, there are just as many women
using social software such as photo sharing, instant messaging, social networking,
etc as men yet you rarely see their perspectives presented at any of these conferences.
When I think of diversity, I expect diversity of perspectives. People's perspectives
are often shaped by their background and experiences. When you have a conference about
an industry which is filled with people of diverse backgrounds building software for
people of diverse backgrounds, it is a disservice to have the conversation and perspectives
be homogenous. The software industry isn't just young white males in their mid-20s
to mid-30s nor is that the primary demographic of Web users.
Personally, I've gotten tired of attending conferences where we heard more about technologies
and sites that the homogenous demographic of young to middle aged, white, male computer
geeks find interesting (e.g. del.icio.us and tagging)
and less about what Web users actually use regularly or find interesting (hint: it
isn't del.icio.us and it sure as fuck isn't
With the launch of iPhone 6 and Apple Watch, the question is whether Apple is an innovator rather than a follower - or in Joe Hockey's terms (Australia's Treasurer) a 'lifter' or a 'leaner'.
One of my friends on facebook, a former Apple fan, recently posted:
I loved how everybody pointed out yesterday that there isn't a single feature on the "new" iphone that hasn't been standard on Android since 2012.
So - I looked at some reliable tech blogs, and found out that by-and-large he was right. Is my faith, and apparent devotion (my business and I own 7+ Apple devices, and no longer have any PC's) misplaced?
But as Charles Arthur of the Guardian points out the leader/follower dichotomy - is far too simple an analysis as he reviews Apple's history:
The lesson is that calling Apple a âfollowerâ overlooks what it does best, which is wrap excellent usability into top-quality design, often alongside an innovative interface and then keep iterating to produce a hugely popular product that also wrings huge amounts of money from people. To the latter point, consumers seem satisfied with what Apple offers. Its shares of total sales in PCs and phones has ticked up steadily over the years. Its share of tablet sales is falling along with overall device sales, though that may be due to people simply not renewing them: tablets do not really wear out in the way that phones do. For those reasons, it is dangerous to dismiss what Apple does as âfollowingâ. Its track record, combined with the products it showed during its event on Tuesday, has the potential to have enormous and long-term effects.
So maybe this Android versus iOS is another age old story. Like Betamax v VHS its quite often not the first to market or the most technically advanced that becomes the success?
Here's the whole article. And for the basis of the GUI, mouse and how Xerox gave it away, then try this wry article in cracked
Review - Filmfare-2008 Worst Bollywood Awards-2008
Dear All .well,few days back i hav watched star screen award( n yesterday filmfare also) ...i got an idea.. a real business idea..A 24 hour channel on bollywood film awards...lolzz....seriously, ... see the number of award functions these days, Iâm sure i can run a 24Ã7 channel and have enough footage for the whole year.lol
It took Dilip Kumar 8 years to get 8 awards for the best actor. Today, it takes only one year to get that many. Ridiculous, simply ridiculous - it seems like a fashion - âjeb mein bahut paisa hai.. chalo awards function shuru karte hainâ.yup guys have some brains(Iâm talking to the organizers of shitty, no-one-cares award shows).Because of some people like these, the whole award things is a now a freakinâ joke.â..Have you ever thought that why Amir dont attend any of these award function.The reason will be clear to you after reading this whole post.
I canât recall...actually I feel the pains to compile the list of all the awards and give my comments on them. For some of you who donât know how bad the situation is, hereâs some painful things im presenting before you:
1.Filmfare Filmfares are technologically the most advanced awards in the world. Seriously. You would not believe that they were using a high fundoo computer program few years back for determining their awards. Here is snippet of their computer program I found when I hacked their system (confidential) :P:
if (film.productionhouse = âbig bannerâ) then (best picture = film.name best actor = film.hero best actress = film.heroine best director = film.director);
High tech, isnât it? if u see few years back scenerio..same code they were using(Ek lo, teen muft). bt thank god this year they have made sum changes in code..The Indian viewing public is so stupid (Don was a hit and Omkara below average.. need I say more?)
still they had made a shit this year too ...In the best film category, Black Friday,Parzania,Dharm,johny Gaddar have been left out in favor of Om Shanti Om.(what the heck was tht). My problem is that OSO is an average movie, but not worthy of a best film nomination though entertaining, OSO is ordinary cinema. In fact, it doesnt sounds gud for the industry that is promoting RDB and Lage Raho,ignoring good films.Black Friday is a path-breaking film and deserves the honors. Too bad it is pitied against TZP. Another thing..i think u all must have noticed..that there was no nomination clip of TZP.
2. Star Screen Awards well in this show the most shitty thing was ......Darsheel Safary, better known as Ishaan Awasthi, has NOT BEEN NOMINATED in the best actor category. Instead, he has been nominated as the Best Child Actor. What nonsense on Earth is that? When a 64 year old Amitabh Bachchan can be nominated against a 20 something Shahid Kapur, why canât an 11 year old be nominated alongside? Does the best Actor award come with the sign ADULT ONLY? The boy has also been left out from the Best Newcomer category..!!
3. IIFA Awards 4. Zee Cine Awards 5. Sansui Awards 6. GIFA Awards 7. Apsara Awards 8. Bollywood Movie Awards
there are so many award fuction i have listed few...bt now im not going to comment any of them..b'cause its wasting of my precious time on such shitty things..which i can use in making this post more intresting. well,I know sponsorships are nice, but please donât over do it..like adding their name in the name of function. It doesnât sound nice when the most prestigious film award in the country is called something like âFair and Lovely Filmfare Award or just imagine what will happen if any undergarments company will sponser these award shows..he he...Jocky Filmfare Award.
So frnds for my award function i hav got sponsorship from a Juta- Chappal vendor of Teliyarganj Allahabad. NoW I am going to introduce ...A new award Function called...
Orkut Lakhani Shoes Bollywood Awards-2008 Sponsored By- Maharaja Lakhani Shoe Store, Teliyarganj, Allahabad Media Partners- Orkut.com Special event Sponsorship by- Kajal Photostate,MNNIT Directed By- who ?? Ofcourse u shld know..lolz
Rules And Regulations now i am going to announce few rules of this prestigious award function.
1-If you are shocked at my choice of the best actress and the best supporting actress, I shall give you a hint about the selection criteria - it is not good acting. Go for figure!:P
2-Best Actor in a comic role and Best Actor in a negative role are stupid awards. so these have been cancled.An actor is an actor. Tragic, comic, positive, negative should not matter. They were created in the days when Prem Chopra was always a bad guy and Mehmood was always the funny sidey. They were to honor these artists. Today, the filmâs âheroâ can be a gunda (Omkara) or a terrorist (Fanaa). He can even have an affair (Kabhi Alvida Naa Kehna). So the award for the comedian and the villian makes no sense today. If you still wanna keep them,.then in 2008 we should also have awards like Best Actor in the role of a Hockey Coach, Best Actor in the role of an arts teacher,best mom, best dad...lolz
3- Well this year i am announcing awards only listing below..
# Worst Picture # Worst Actor (Male) # Worst Actor (Female) # Worst Song that everyone else liked # Most Nonsensical Lyrics # Most Nonsensical Film Title
4-We also have 2 special awards.I tried alot for sponsorship and at last i got it sponsored by Xerox photocopiers-Kajal photostate(Near my hostel) 1. Xerox Best Film 2. Xerox Best Music
5-As for the other awards like screenplay, editing, I simply donât know how to judge them. So I wonât. 6-If you disagree with my nominations,then you are wrong :).
So here goes the Awrads and nominations.
Worst Film * Heyy Babyy *Saawariya (is it a movie or a music album?) * Salaam-E-Ishq * Ta Ra Rum Pum * Welcome
Worst Actor (Male) (I have not seen the film, but wearing a hairband brings him an automatic nomination..lol) * Abhishek Bachchan - Jhoom Barabar Jhoom * Akshay Kumar - Welcome * Himesh Reshammiya - Aap Kaa Surroor..(he he..) * Saif Ali Khan - Ta Ra Rum Pum * Salman Khan - Salaam-E-Ishq
Worst Actor (Female) * Priyanka Chopra - Salaam-E-Ishq * Rani Mukerjee - Laaga Chunari Mein Daag * Rani Mukerjee - Ta Ra Rum Pum * Vidya Balan - Heyy Babyy * Vidya Balan - Bhool Bhulaiyaa
Most Nonsensical Lyrics * Javed Akhtar - Dard-E-Disco / Om Shanti Om (no one else comes close..he is topping without any comptition.. no point nominating any others)
Most Nonsensical Film Title *Ta Ra Rum Pum(what the heck is that?) * Aap Kaa Surroor - The Movieeeee - The Real Luv Storieeeeeee (wat a name..lol) * Team - The Force * Ram Gopal Varma Ki Aag * Shaka Laka Boom Boom (seems a movie of a magician...im also inspired by it planning to make..Udan Choo..lolz)
Xerox Award for the Best Picture * Hitch (I mean Partner)â¦ i come to know abt it. thnaks to itwofs.com!
Xerox Award for the Best Music Director * Pritam Chakraborty with so far 14 tracks in the last year copied from music all the way from Egypt - Korea.. I say so far because we do not know the sources of the others yet. And yes my friends, the 14 include songs from Bhool Bhulaiyaa, Jab We Met, and Life In A Metro. Thanks to itwofs.com for documenting his research.
ohh im very very srry ..i forgot to mention there is one more award ..that is
Shahrukh Khan Award
Winner - Ofcourse None other than our own King Khan -Shahrukh.... lolz
This award to be given to SRK every year so that I donât have to think of any new shitty award every year to give him, like Zee does, for eg. Award for 2 hits in a year, Fun entertainer of the year.. wat the f**k.. does that mean?
neway for the SRK fans.i want to say that i am also a grt SRK fan..No doubt he is a gud actor..dont take me wrong. as in last post comment few have written.bt few things i dont like..that i have mentioned in my earlier posts.
Neways next year we can think for the Best awards also.b'cuase many awards function already have given those this year and i am quite late.I was working on this post since 1 month.bt many things came in between like CT's and CULRAV (our college cultural fest)..so i was not able to post on time.Neways
Congratulations to all the winnersâ¦!! thanku tata bie bie frnds..its 6:15 AM now..so gudmornig..Happy Shivratri...stay tunned !!
O jornal britÃ¢nico "News of the World" se viu obrigado a se desculpar por publicar sem sua permissÃ£o o diÃ¡rio de Kate McCann, a mÃ£e da pequena Madeleine, desaparecida em maio de 2007 no sul de Portugal
sem deixar rastro.
Os trechos, publicados na ediÃ§Ã£o do domingo passado, que revelavam os pesadelos de Kate McCann, pertenciam ao diÃ¡rio que a polÃcia portuguesa confiscou e tirou xerox quando ainda considerava o casal McCann suspeito do desaparecimento da menina.
"Apresentamos a Kate nossas mais sinceras desculpas", escreve hoje o dominical, que acrescenta que publicou os trechos com a melhor das intenÃ§Ãµes e na crenÃ§a de que tinha sua permissÃ£o para fazÃª-lo.
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Welcome to âA Song of Nice and Fireâ Upworthyâs weekly series recapping one of the most brutal shows on TV. Since brutality is not really in our wheelhouse, Eric March has taken it upon himself to dig deep, twist and turn, and squint really hard to see if he can find the light of kindness in all the darkness. He may not always succeed, but by gosh if he wonât try his best.
Hereâs what he found on this weekâs "Game of Thrones."
In an episode that saw handful of fan favorite (and decidedly non-favorite) characters outmaneuvered, boxed in, and poisoned, I'll admit there really wasn't much loving kindness to go around.
Still, it's my job to find whatever glimmer of niceness there is, and because I like my health plan, I reached way down deep and found ... some very nice moments in season seven, episode three of "Game of Thrones."
OK, really, really, really deep.
1. Sansa makes sure her knights are warm 'n cozy!
"No, I haven't read Reinhold Niebuhr, what does he have to say about neo-orthodox realist theology?" Image by Helen Sloan/HBO.
With Jon gone having his dire warnings laughed off and his boat curiously appropriated, would Sansa rise to the challenge of leading the North?
Unsurprisingly, yeah, duh.
At rise this week, we find her striding through Winterfell serving orders to the castle's various similar-looking maesters, making sure the hay goes where it needs to go and, most importantly, getting her southern palls to strap leather on their armor so they don't freeze to death.
Look at those leadership skills blossoming!
Of course, she still has to endure Littlefinger's incessant monologuing. "Every possible series of events is happening all at once," he says, reminding Sansa that, yes, he is taking that freshman philosophy seminar and, yes, he did do all the reading this week.
This is really your game, guy?
It's going to work, isn't it?
2. Some random Ironborn dudes are kind enough to hoist Theon out of the sea!
Oh good, Theon gets to keep on living!
Theon and Yara, seen here in happier times. Image by Helen Sloan/HBO.
A gaggle of clanky boatsmen do the erstwhile heir to the Iron Islands a solid by not just sailing by and letting him drown. They do manage to insult him in the process, but even still, it's more than Theon deserves.
His Uncle Euron, meanwhile, gets a parade down the one street in King's Landing we all know ... and sister Yara gets to join for free! Unfortunately, she has to endure it from the cheap seats where you get rotten vegetables hurled at you. After a long journey, though, maybe it was nice to briefly sniff a decaying tomato or two?
I'd go for it.
3. Cersei allows herself to briefly experience empathy!
"Even though we're enemies, you and I, I understand the fury that drives you."
That line, delivered to a shackled and gagged Ellaria Sand, clocks in at precisely two seconds â the longest sustained appreciation Cersei has ever expressed for another human being's perspective.
Just thinkin' up ways to torture you. Image by Helen Sloan/HBO.
Yes, the very next thing she does is condemn Tyene to a painful death of unknown duration and Ellaria to hanging out with her dead daughter's corpse for weeks or years or decades, but hey! I got Cersei on this week's list of nice moments. Cersei! I didn't even have to cheat.
Oh, and sub-nice thing shoutout to Davids Benioff and Weiss for choosing not to subject us to another implied, gratuitous rape-and-torture-by-Mountain. The scene was clearly, totally headed there until all of a sudden it wasn't and, well ... phew! Good call, everyone.
4. Daenerys treats Jon to an all-you-can-mine obsidian buffet!
The dragon's share of the episode is taken up by a long-winded meeting between Jon Snow and his Aunt Dany (here's the long-speculated, Bran-affirmed family tree from last season's finale) who, strangely, is skeptical about this whole "White Walker" thing despite giving birth to three flying, fire-breathing, sky dinosaurs like, last week. Perhaps it's because she's skeptical of the messenger â the beardy guy with the wolf snuggie who calls himself "king" and won't pledge his allegiance despite the dozens (hundreds) of curvy blades within torso-piercing range.
Image by Helen Sloan/HBO.
Still, the would-be queen needs allies, and so, after apologizing for the time her dad napalmed Jon's grandpa and uncle to death, she tells him to help himself to all the dragonglass he wants and get the heck out.
Sure, she doesn't want the stuff or even really know what it is, but she can tell the guy is earnest, and besides, you gotta respect anyone who comes so far south with a dead animal on their neck.
That's just fashion-forward.
5. Jamie kills Olenna the nice way!
"Oh, one more thing real quick." Image by Helen Sloan/HBO.
The bad news? Cersei manages to foil Tyrion's too-clever-by-half sewer invasion plan by sending the bulk of her army to murder an old lady.
The good news? Jaime is the one who gets to do the murdering, and as a certified Reformed Bad Guy in Good Standing, he lets the Queen of Thorns take the (relatively) easy way out.
I suppose it's nice that Bran complimented Sansa's dress, but did he really have to bring up her wedding day? Yeah, he wasn't around for the aftermath, but dude is all-knowing and all-seeing. Come on.
It's cool that Archmaester Ebrose doesn't expel Sam from the Citadel. As long as the Xerox machine is up and running, Sam should be all good.
Jaime Lannister actually sends his regards to Robb Stark. Nice of him not to hold grudges.
Whew. That was a stretch, y'all!
See you next week when hopefully someone picks Grey Worm up in a Jeep, Bronn stitches Randyll Tarly a lanyard for his broadsword, and Varys makes a friend who doesn't run around vaguely forecasting his doom. Should be fun!
We have been inveighing against the use of the term, "holdouts," to describe Willets Point property owners who are not on;y unwilling to seel their property, but even more importantly, have yet to be approached by EDC to negotiate a sale-as is required by the Eminent Domain Procedure Law. The urgency of the issue is magnified by the fact that the city is holding an eminent domain hearing on Wednesday.
The Flushing Times has the story: "The hearing, scheduled from 4 p.m. to 8 p.m. March 2 in the auditorium of the library, located at 41-17 Main St., will be the only official opportunity for Willets landowners and business owners, as well as any other concerned citizens, to voice their views about the $3 billion plans to representatives of the city Economic Development Corp. and Cornerstone Group, the firm handling relocation of area businesses."
Ah yes, the Cornerstone Group-the same pretenders who EDC put in charge of the relocation of the businesses that were thrwon out of the Bronx Terminal Market. As we pointed out five years ago about these no-bid favorites: "There is a constant reference to the Cornerstone Group as the cityâs relocation expert. Still? Doesnât our âsenior counselâ realize that these dopey consultants had labored long and hard Xeroxing advertisements from the local newspapers and passed off this effort as relocation (of course she does, she just doesnât give a damn)?"
But we digress. The issue here is the city's flauting of the very law it is sworn to uphold-and we will now rely on the wisdom of one of the foremost experts on the EDPL, Mike Rikon, to explain just how tainted this process has been ever since the city council passed the Willets Point ULURP appliocation in the fall of 2008. Once the council passed the application, the eminent domain procedures in the EDPL should have been initiated in order for the city to be in compliance with the law.
Here's Rikon's analysis: "The Council of the City of New York adopted Resolution No. 1759 on December 18, 2008. This Resolution with other related Resolutions adopted the Willets Point Urban Renewal Area.The Resolution approved the Urban Renewal Plan, the Resolution states, âthe Plan requires the acquisition and subsequent disposition of property within the Willets Point Urban Renewal Area.âThis is the predicate authorization to condemn."
Once the authorization is in place, then the next steps are clear-to everyone bu the city, it appears: "When the City Council authorizes acquisition of private property, the City is required to comply with the Eminent Domain Procedure Law.That law requires the appraisal of the properties to be acquired and the written offer of an amount that represents 100% of the highest approved appraisal."
Instead, the city did the complete opposite, in a move rife with favoritism and potential corruption:
"When the City Council authorizes acquisition of private property, the City is required to comply with the Eminent Domain Procedure Law.That law requires the appraisal of the properties to be acquired and the written offer of an amount that represents 100% of the highest approved appraisal. It is no secret that those owners who obtained favorable deals were also those that supported members of the City Council that wrote an âadamant oppositionâ letter signed by 29 members to prevent the projectâs approval.But the Project was approved after the negotiated agreements were made.
The Cityâs improper conduct in ignoring the lawâs requirement of written offers based on fair market appraisals and equal treatment to all property owners is inexcusable.The law was adopted to prevent corruption and special deals."
But, as we pointed out last week in regards to the disgraceful treatment of Carlos Canal and Flushing Towing, favoritism and inequity is at the heart of this entire process: "EDC lied to Canal-and took him through a two year sham relocation process. But Canal shouldn't feel too bad. EDC has lied to the city council, lied to the court, and lied to almost every other land owner that wasn't singled out for favored nation status-lying to Canal is part of a systematic pattern of dishonesty that will be challenged in court."
Of course, as we have pointed out continually, the city also told one and all that condemnation-a supposed last resort-would not begin until the city got approvals for those crucial ramps. That position held until it became clear that the ramp approvals-thought to be a slam dunk by EDC-all of a sudden became problematic after WPU exposed the deficiency of the traffic data submitted by the agency's compromised consultants. These so called experts, so unused to anyone challenging their work, must have been stunned when WPU's Brian Ketcham exposed it as a sham-and the agency itself has been playing catch up ever since.
So the move to the EDPL hearing, in spite of the fact that the remaining property owners have yet to even get the required appraisals, no less an offer, is one of desperation on the part of EDC-a desperation so profound that this rogue group is willing to roll the legal dice by violating what it has alocuted to the court about the ramp approvals proceeding any eminent domain process.
We'll give Rikon the last word: "Condemnation is a very significant power.It enables a condemnor to forcibly take title to someoneâs land or businessIf this awesome power is to be used by the government, it must be used carefully, legally and only when necessary."
1. Di Jepang, angka â4â³ dan â9â³ tidak disukai, sehingga sering tidak ada nomer kamar â4â³ dan â9â³. â4â³ dibaca âshiâ yang sama bunyinya dengan yang berarti âmatiâ, sedang â9â³ dibaca âkuâ, yang sama bunyinya dengan yang berarti âkurushii / sengsaraâ. 2. Orang Jepang menyukai angka â8â³. Harga-harga barang kebanyakan berakhiran â8â³. Susu misalnya 198 yen. Tapi karena aturan sekarang ini mengharuskan harga barang yang dicantumkan sudah harus memasukkan pajak, jadi mungkin kebiasaan ini akan hilang. (Pasar = Yaoya = tulisan kanjinya berbunyi happyaku-ya atau toko 800). 3. Kalau musim panas, sinetron di TV seringkali nampilin hal-hal yang berbau seram (hantu). 4. Drama detektif di TV, bunyi sirene (kyukyusha) biasanya muncul pada menit-menit awal. Di akhir cerita, sebelum perkelahian mati-matian biasanya penjahat selalu menceritakan semua rahasia kejahatannya. 5. Cara baca tulisan Jepang ada dua : * sama dengan buku berhuruf Roman alphabet, huruf dibaca dari atas ke bawah. * yang kedua adalah dari kolom paling kanan ke arah kiri, sehingga bagian depan dan belakang buku berlawanan dengan buku Roman alphabet (halaman muka berada di âbagian belakangâ). 6. Kita (orang Indonesia) dan rekan-rekan dari Asia Tenggara lainnya umumnya kalau memperkenalkan diri (jiko-shokai) sering memulai dengan âminasan, konnichiwaâ atau âminasan, konbanwaâ. Mungkin ini karena kebiasaan bahasa Indonesia untuk selalu memulai pidato dengan ucapan selamat malam, dsb. Tapi ternyata janggal untuk pendengaran orang Jepang, karena mirip siaran berita di TV. Seharusnya dimulai dengan langsung menyebut nama dan afiliasi. Misalnya âTanaka ken M1 no Anto desuâ¦.dst.â, tidak perlu dengan âMinasan..konnichiwaâ¦â. 7. Kesulitan pertama yang muncul dalam urusan administratif di Jepang, kalau ditanya nama keluarga anda apa ?, karena kita tidak ada keharusan di Indonesia dan beberapa negara Asia Tenggara untuk mencantumkan family name. 8. Kalau kita memperoleh undangan yang meminta konfirmasi hadir atau tidak, biasanya kita harus mengirimkan balik kartu pos. Salah satu manner adalah mencoret huruf å¾¡ pada pilihan : å¾¡æ¬ å¸ /åºå¸. Juga mencoret akhiran æ§ pada nama kita yang tercantum sebagai pengirim pada kartupos tersebut. Ini adalah adat Jepang, agar kita selalu rendah hati, yang ditunjukkan dengan menghindari/mencoret å¾¡ dan æ§ pada kartu pos balasan. 9. Kalau kita membubuhkan tanda tangan, kadang akan ditanya orang Jepang : ini bacanya bagaimana ? Kalau di Jepang saat diperlukan tanda tangan (misalnya di paspor, dsb.) umumnya menuliskan nama mereka dalam huruf Kanji, sehingga bisa terbaca dengan jelas. Sedangkan kita biasanya membuat singkatan atau coretan/paraf sedemikian hingga tidak bisa ditiru / dibaca oleh orang lain. 10. Acara TV di Jepang didominasi oleh masak-memasak. 11. Fotocopy di Jepang self-service, sedangkan di Indonesia di-service. 12. Jika naik taxi di Jepang, pintu dibuka dan ditutup oleh supir. Penumpang dilarang membuka dan menutupnya sendiri. 13. Tanda tangan di Jepang hampir tidak pernah berlaku untuk keperluan formal, melainkan harus memakai cap (hanko/inkan). Jenis hanko di Jepang: * jitsu-in, adalah inkan yang dipakai untuk keperluan yang sangat penting, seperti beli rumah, beli mobil, dsb. Jenis ini diregisterkan ke shiyakusho (di patenkan). * ginko-in, adalah jenis inkan yang dipakai untuk khusus membuat account di bank. Jenis ini diregisterkan ke bank. * mitome-in, dipakai untuk keperluan sehari-hari dan tidak diregisterkan. Jadi satu orang kadang memiliki beberapa jenis inkan, untuk berbagai keperluan. 14. Naik sepeda tidak boleh boncengan (kecuali memboncengkan anak-anak).(éè·¯äº¤éæ³ï¼ï¼æ¡ç¬¬ï¼é ãè¦åï¼æ¡ ä¹è»äººå¡å¶ééå --> sepeda tidak boleh dipakai boncengan, kecuali yang memboncengkannya berusia lebih dari 16 tahun dan anak yang diboncengkan berusia kurang dari satu tahun dan hanya seorang saja yang diboncengkan. Bila dilanggar, dendanya maksimal 20 ribu yen. 15. Ajakan makan bersama belum tentu berarti anda ditraktir, tapi bisa jadi bayar sendiri-sendiri. 16. Di Jepang sulit mencari mesin ketik. 17. Pernah nggak melihat cara orang Jepang menghitung âsatuâ, âduaâ, âtigaâ,â¦. dengan jari tangannya ? Kalau rekan-rekan perhatikan, ada perbedaan dengan kebiasaan orang Indonesia. Orang Indonesia umumnya mulai dari tangan dikepal dan saat menghitung âsatuâ, jari kelingking ditegakkan. Menghitung âduaâ, jari manis ditegakkan, dst. Kalau orang Jepang, setahu saya, kebalikannya. Mereka selalu mulai dari telapak tangan terbuka, dan cara menghitungnya kebalikan orang Indonesia. Saat bilang âsatuâ, maka jarinya akan ditekuk/ditutupkan ke telapak tangan. Misalnya Nggak percaya ? Coba dehâ¦jikken dengan teman Jepang anda. 18. Cara menulis angka : 7 (tujuh). Kebiasaan orang Indonesia selalu menambahkan coret kecil di kaki angka 7 (mirip huruf âNUâ katakana : ã). Di Jepang selalu dididik menulis 7 persis seperti huruf ketik (tanpa coretan nya orang Indonesia), jadi mirip huruf katakana âFUâ (ã) atau âWAâ (ã¯).
On Monday we had the opportunity of meeting with Steve Capps, an RIT alumni who has a startup in the Bay Area known as PayNearMe. Capps moved straight from RIT to Xerox, then worked for Apple, and after spending some time in Paris, was coaxed by Apple to return to his former position. Capps shared […]
The two Johns, Flansburgh and Linnell, choke themselves in this photo by Chris Cuffaro (December 1990).
I saved pretty much everything, every insignificant little scrap of paper, from my early days as a fan of the alternative rock duo They Might Be Giants in the 1980s and '90s. I have already shared some of that material with you here and here, but there is much more of it in my archives. Hence this third (and probably not final) post. Hopefully, there is still significant interest among TMBG fans to continue this series.
Just to show you I was not kidding when I said I saved everything from that era, here is a packing slip that was included with a TMBG baseball cap I ordered in 1992. I'm including it here because of the whimsical coffee cup design and to give you some insight into how low-tech TMBG's merch business was in the early '90s.
An official TMBG packing slip (1992).
And, yes, I still have -- and wear -- the hat.
Wearing my "TMBG: Building Better Music" hat (2017).
In the pre-internet era, They Might Be Giants kept fans updated by means of printed newsletters like the one below. This particular example is from early 1990, a crucial time in the band's history. John Flansburgh and John Linnell had made the move from Bar/None Records to Elektra Records by then, and TMBG had just released Flood, its major label debut and still its best-selling album. With tracks like "Birdhouse In Your Soul" and "Particle Man," the LP brought They Might Be Giants lots of new fans, a fact that is addressed in the newsletter.
But the fan club was still a humble, homemade operation by today's standards. Note the request for fans to send in two SASEs (that's "self-addressed stamped envelopes" for you youngsters). The back side of the newsletter makes reference to the aborted Purple Toupee EP and mentions a possible B-side anthology from Bar/None. That turned out to be Miscellaneous T from 1991. (More on that later.) Other items of note: updates about Flansburgh's new glasses and Linnell's new sax, plus a whimsical Mark Marek drawing of the title character from the 1942 children's book The Poky Little Puppy. TMBG appropriated that image, originally created by Swedish-American illustrator Gustaf Tenggren, and used it on merchandise in the late '80s and early '90s. And, as always, there are coffee cups.
TMBG newsletter from early 1990 (page 1).
TMBG newsletter from early 1990 (page 2).
What else do I have to share today? Well, here's a tour itinerary from December 1988. TMBG would have still been promoting Lincoln at that time. You can tell this list was typed on an actual typewriter, with a crudely xeroxed "They Might Be Giants" logo stuck to the top of the page. This was a very busy month for the Johns, taking them across the United States. They had very little time off to relax and enjoy the holidays that year.
Beyond that, this scrap of paper is like a glimpse into a lost world. Club Lingerie, a former hot spot on the Sunset Strip in Los Angeles, is long gone. So is the I-Beam in San Francisco. Ditto One Step Beyondin Santa Clara. The Starry Night in Portland bit the dust in 1991. The Sundance Saloon in Bozeman, Montana seems to have gone the way of all flesh decades ago, maybe not even surviving past 1988. Wally Gators in Madison, Wisconsin is likewise defunct.
Maybe the most puzzling listing is for a December 21, 1988 appearance on the MTV talk show Mouth To Mouth. Anyone remember this one? It was hosted by a comedian named Steve Skovran, who went on to be a prolific TV writer-producer (Seinfeld, Everybody Loves Raymond, etc.). The short-lived, totally forgotten show featured comedy by Skovran, live performancesby rock bands, and animated bumpers by Bill Plympton.
A TMBG tour itinerary from December 1988.
Speaking of Lincoln, here's a press release from Bar/None regarding that album. It's a nice little snapshot of where the band was nearly 30 years ago, thrilled to have shared the stage with LL Cool J and Suzanne Vega. Also dig this bit of wisdom from Flansburgh: "I think we've also learned that our arrangements might actually be less fussy than they used to be. We tend to leave the kitchen sink in the kitchen now."
A press release for Lincoln from Bar/None Records (1988).
I've been debating how best to present some of these newsletters, since the text is smaller and may not be legible if shrunken down to blog-friendly size. And yet, I still want to preserve the original formatting of the pages. So rather than chop them up into pieces, I've decided to present them at a smaller size while encouraging readers to CLICK on them to see them at a larger size. Is that acceptable?
Okay, then, here is a newsletter whimsically titled "The Might Be Times" from December 18, 1990. This had been a year of triumph for They Might Be Giants, with Flood and "Birdhouse In Your Soul" burning up the charts in England. This newsletter gave the boys a chance to crow about their success, while also working in some information about Dial-A-Song and Miscellaneous T.
Conveniently printed on the back of the December 1990 newsletter was the Winter 1991 newsletter. This was more housekeeping-type stuff about the mailing list itself, with reminders about address changes and the like. But there is some background information about William Allen White, the Kansas newspaper editor whose image was used in many TMBG videos and concerts in the early days. Again, you'll have to click on this to see it at a legible size.
You thought we were done? Don't be silly. The TMBG discography is now so unwieldy that it takes a team of experts to keep track of it all, but in the early days, the band's entire output could fit comfortably onto a single piece of paper. The fan club occasionally sent out copies of the discography back then, allowing fans to keep up with all the releases, and here's an example from 1990. Again, you'll need to click to see them at a legible size. I guess what's interesting here is that the discography is broken up into two sections. The material from 1985-89 (the indie years) is on one side, and the material from 1990 onward (the major label years) is on the other. Also take note of the cartoon Johns from the "Hotel Detective" music video.
Getting back to the band's innovative music videos, TMBG put out a VHS compilation of them called simply The Videos 1986-1989. The following ad for the tape could scarcely be more bare-bones, but that's how They Might Be Giants rolled back then. The Videos 1986-1989 was originally VHS-only but later came out on laserdisc. I swear I had a copy of the LD version but must have gotten rid of it years ago, probably when it was made obsolete by the Direct From Brooklyn DVD and, of course, YouTube. Silly me. The thing is now a collector's item, fetching up to $80 on Ebay. Whoops.
This was TMBG's entire video output circa 1989.
I think I'll close with a reprint of They, an elaborate TMBG newsletter from the fall of 1991. Once again, you're going to have to click on these pages to see them at a more legible size. The fan club newsletters varied wildly in size and format from issue to issue. They seems like an attempt to create a standard magazine-type template, but it didn't last beyond this one issue. TMBG didn't have a new Elektra album to promote that year, but they did have the Miscellaneous T compilation from Bar/None. In addition, the fan club assembled two pages of "Arcana From The Archives" to share with fans. Some really fascinating little oddities here, concerning Dial-A-Song, Lincoln, and more. The last page of They is the typical "TMBG Information Bulletin," this time giving a progress report on Apollo 18 and teasing a TMBG songbook that never happened.
And then, my friends, there is this quaint announcement:
It's hard to believe it's been five years since TMBG's first album came out, but it has, so we decided to have a party. John & John and lots of past and present folks from TMB Productions, Bar/None Records, Hornblow Music Management and Dubway Studios (where They Might Be Giants was recorded) gathered at a Manhattan eatery earlier this month along with family, friends and assorted hangers on to celebrate the fifth anniversary of the Giants' debut album. It was great seeing all those folks together again for the first time and a swell time was had by all.
Could they have known they'd still be doing this three decades later?
They Might Be Giants had an active mailing list for over a decade.
I wrote yesterday about my early experiences as a fan of They Might Be Giants and how the band communicated with its fans by means of a mailing list through the late 1980s and '90s. Today, I thought I'd share with you some more TMBG related goodies from the past. Here, for instance, is a letter from 1988 announcing the formation of a fan club, then called The Official TMBG Correspondence Department. This endeavor would later become known as The TMBG Info Club.
A letter from Melony V.W. (1988)
That particular missive was xeroxed, but the following postcard is handwritten. It's from Glenn Morrow, the head of Bar/None Records, TMBG's label at the time.
A postcard from Glenn Morrow. (1988)
The "new TMBG album" he's referring to is Lincoln, released in September 1988. By June of the next year, the band was still releasing singles off that sophomore LP. "Purple Toupee" got its own music video, but a promised EP never materialized. But the group did send out a press release concerning the song. I'm showing you the envelope it came in because of the purple stamp on the outside.
"Purple Toupee" press release envelope. (1989)
And here's the press release itself, printed on now-faded purple paper. The letter explains some of the historical references in the song and encourages fans to request the Adam Bernstein-directed video on MTV. I don't remember the clip getting a lot of play there, though.
"Purple Toupee" press release. (1989)
Naturally, a big part of the TMBG Info Club was promoting official Giants merch. And to do that, you need a catalog. Here's one of the earliest I can find, probably from 1989. Back then, "The Whole They Might Be Giants Catalog" could fit on a single sheet of paper, front and back. Lincoln was a new album back then, and the group only had a small selection of T-shirts. The most interesting item in the catalog is the TMBG fez, which I never actually purchased.
TMBG merchandise catalog. (1989)
"TMBG approved headgear": The $15 fez. (1989)
Note the address: "TMB Productions, Dept. PPFNP." That abbreviation stands for Pure Pop For Now People, a reference to a 1978 Nick Lowe album. I must admit, I bought my fair share of merchandise from these catalogs over the years. The EPs (or maxi-singles) were mainly available on cassette and vinyl in those days, but TMBG also experimented with putting them out on absurdly tiny 3" CD singles. The format never caught on, for good reason, but I still have a few of them. The CD versions all came out, I believe, in 1989. As you can see from the catalog above, the "Hotel Detective" single quickly became a collector's item.
"Don't Let's Start" CD single. (1989)
"(She Was A) Hotel Detective" CD single. (1989)
"They'll Need A Crane" CD single. (1989)
I think I'll close out this survey with a couple of miscellaneous postcards from the past, both advertising the TMBG offshoot Mono Puff, a side project for John Flansburgh. Here are some cards advertising the group's albums Unsupervised (1996) and It's Fun To Steal (1998). You might want to click on this image to see it at full size.
Postcards advertising Mono Puff. (1996-1998)
Wait, just one more thing. I thought I'd share with you this red stamp from an envelope that once presumably contained a TMBG fan club newsletter. As you can see, the mailing came from Newark, NJ. You can see the familiar "melting snowman" logo and the old Dial-A-Song number.
JULIA DE LACERDA - VocÃª criou o Viva La Brasa, em marÃ§o de 2005, em meio a um momento muito particular da sua vida e vocÃª fala bastante sobre a sua vida particular nas primeiras postagens do blog. Mas como surgiu a ideia de escrever um blog?
A very sad bowl, titled "I miss my mommy".....papier mache, child's drawing (xeroxed!) painted newsprint, mod podge, colored tissue. a cowl made from cotton yarn, size 15 circular needles. 45 stitches, knit knit knit knit until you stop. Look what a half and half container can become....half and half carton, glue, modpodge, colored tissue. little light up houses made from felt (a vintage mohair scarf). These are teeny, and can fit in your hand.
With the launch of iPhone 6 and Apple Watch, the question is whether Apple is an innovator rather than a follower - or in Joe Hockey's terms (Australia's Treasurer) a 'lifter' or a 'leaner'.
One of my friends on facebook, a former Apple fan, recently posted:
I loved how everybody pointed out yesterday that there isn't a single feature on the "new" iphone that hasn't been standard on Android since 2012.
So - I looked at some reliable tech blogs, and found out that by-and-large he was right. Is my faith, and apparent devotion (my business and I own 7+ Apple devices, and no longer have any PC's) misplaced?
But as Charles Arthur of the Guardian points out the leader/follower dichotomy - is far too simple an analysis as he reviews Apple's history:
The lesson is that calling Apple a âfollowerâ overlooks what it does best, which is wrap excellent usability into top-quality design, often alongside an innovative interface and then keep iterating to produce a hugely popular product that also wrings huge amounts of money from people. To the latter point, consumers seem satisfied with what Apple offers. Its shares of total sales in PCs and phones has ticked up steadily over the years. Its share of tablet sales is falling along with overall device sales, though that may be due to people simply not renewing them: tablets do not really wear out in the way that phones do. For those reasons, it is dangerous to dismiss what Apple does as âfollowingâ. Its track record, combined with the products it showed during its event on Tuesday, has the potential to have enormous and long-term effects.
So maybe this Android versus iOS is another age old story. Like Betamax v VHS its quite often not the first to market or the most technically advanced that becomes the success?
Here's the whole article. And for the basis of the GUI, mouse and how Xerox gave it away, then try this wry article in cracked
Actively support system implementations that impact the GL and financial reporting as necessary. Senior Manager/Controller, Corporate Reporting & Policy(.... From Xerox Corporation - Fri, 04 Aug 2017 14:20:42 GMT - View all North York, ON jobs
As a minor Marvel U.K. fan, I was on board to preorder Death's Head II for both its solicitations based on my past experience with the cheesier original version of the character and the tiny but rad looking sketch of the new Chromium Age version used in the copy. I was blown away when the mini-series finally came out drawn by an exciting new find, Liam Sharp, who combined the flash of Jim Lee with the sinewy punk rock Frazetta feel of Simon Bisley. I kept up with Sharpe from then on, to Frontier, Verotik, and wherever. When I heard he was coming to town, I knew I had to get a piece, and it seemed obvious he should do the toughest of all the Colonial Marines!
I liked Vasquez straight away when I saw Aliens thirty years ago, and she's since become a cultural icon. Despite the actress being Jewish, my Mexican girlfriend bought her as one of her own, and dismissed the recent P.C. police murmurings about whitewashing. It would be an issue today, but in 1985 England? Not so much. I had some ideas about how Sharp's take might turn out, maybe emphasizing action and employing her smartgun. I was very happily surprised to see him offer a more pensive Vasquez, staring out from some sort of fence or barrier. The approach emphasized her humanity over being the smack-talking Valkyrie that usually comes to mind, recalling her deep affection for her comrades and her penchant for self-sacrifice in their defense (not to mention her her defiant resignation during the final assault on the marines' stronghold. I have major reservations about the current sword-slinging incarnation of Wonder Woman, whose book Sharp just took over as part of the DC Rebirth initiative. Sharp's thoughtful approach here (and his writing partner Greg Rucka) gives me heart that the Amazing Amazon I love is still being published, and what I've seen of Sharp's work on the book looks to be a career best for both the artist and Princess Diana.
I took the page up to the actress who played Vasquez, Jenette Goldstein, who expressed the most enjoyment and interest of any of the cast toward these commissions. She asked questions about who the artist was and what the image represented, as well as both admiring his technique. I kept the Sharp in hand for more of both Space City Con & Comicpalooza than most any other piece, and it generated the most comments from the other artists. Also, I brought my girlfriend to meet Goldstein, and she was wearing a souvenir t-shirt from our European vacation a few years ago. Goldstein noted, "You don't look like a Poland," to which the girlfriend swiftly replied "You don't look like a Vasquez," which we all got a chuckle out of (with assurances that no offense was intended, and that the actress' portrayal of a Latino had both of our seals of approval.) Goldstein tried to take a cell phone pick of the art, but I happened to have a xerox of it handy, so it was nice to offer her a souvenir of Houston in reciprocity for signing my stuff. I have to say, my best experience with the Aliens cast was with Jenette Goldstein, and she's still a favorite!
As I usually do with commissions, I spent a fair amount of time researching the prospective artists to decide which characters best suited their individual styles. Matt Haley is one of my favorite comics artists, and one of the very few for whom I'll buy a comic for their art alone. This would be my first chance to get a Haley, and he's especially good at drawing women, so it wasn't a hard decision to select him for the main subject, Ripley. When I approached Haley, he confessed to having a soft spot for Sigourney Weaver, and was enthusiastic about the piece. In fact, he was hired to draw her for "comic book" interstitial scenes in the upcoming Walter Hill film Tomboy, a Revenger's Tale, but had not gotten to meet her or find out whether she liked his portrayal of her. Star Michelle Rodriguez was more obviously approving, having gotten Haley to paint a portrait of her to keep. Haley really wanted to paint Weaver as well, and I suspect for however much he might have aimed to do good work for me, his efforts were at least partly driven to audition for Weaver, if I could get the piece into her hands.
I'd originally planned to do another multi-character artist jam along the lines of the J'Onn J'Onzz Family Portrait I had done last year, but Haley effortlessly talked me into allowing him to do a fully inked rendering of both Ripley and Newt that would extend to a "take home" project and a FedEx shipment ahead of Comicpalooza and the arrival of the Aliens cast to Houston. Obviously, Haley was a man of his word, producing an excellent cover quality piece that puts most of Dark Horse's published efforts to shame, complete with a background and a cameo appearance from an Alien warrior. The likenesses are solid and the personalities are dead on. I especially loved the touch of adding Casey, the plastic doll head that was Newt's only toy and "companion" after the massacre of her family at Hadley's Hope. For once, the Kinko's Xerox of the original 11" x 17" shrunk down to letters size to fit on my scanner was reasonably faithful, probably because the ink work is pitch black. In fact, my scan grayed it out some, so I had to contrast it back. The scan loses some of the pencil gray shading, but otherwise what you see is what I got. Usually there's at least one naysayer when I get a commission, but this one has met with only universal praise.
Virtually every square inch of the image space was utilized, so when I brought it to Carrie Henn, the actress who played Rebecca "Newt" Jorden, I asked her to sign the back. She was I think the first autograph I collected, and helped start the pattern of the actors adding the character name below their signature in quotation marks. She was nice and seemed to like the piece, plus I got a certificate of authenticity with her picture and a little hologram sticker on it.
The next day was Saturday, and the only chance to get Sigourney Weaver to sign for her character, Ellen Ripley. The girlfriend and I arrived at least a half hour early, but there was still a long line of people like us with various speed passes that allowed access to the hall before those with regular badges. We made a beeline to Weaver's section, despite it being a bit of a crap shoot, since she was only scheduled to sign for one hour before the Aliens panel and then two more afterward (plus some photo ops somewhere in there.) I didn't realize that as part of my specific admission package, I got to leap frog over a lot of angry people who thought they were already in the maximum speed lane. I felt more than a little bit guilty bypassing them (plus I had to abandon my girlfriend with little warning,) but I also wanted to get this key autograph out of the way. On the plus side, I was through her line with a signed commission by a half hour into the regular floor hours, giving me clear sailing for my next time-sensitive autographs. On the down side, I didn't get any companion certificate, Weaver was doing no personalizations, and her handlers were only allowing about 10-15 seconds of face time with the actress. I used this very narrow window to tell her about how the piece she was signing was by the guy who did the interstitials on the movie she just did and how he'd love to paint her someday and I literally took more time typing this sentence than I was allotted to speak it coherently. I did my best to deliver that message for Matt Haley though, so I can take a measure of pride in coming through even to that marginal degree!
T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents #6 (1966) JCP Features The T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents #1 T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents #6 (2011) T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents #6 (2014)
T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents #6 (Tower, 1966, 25Â¢) In the interest of full disclosure, I have to point out that this issue was probably the first of the original Silver Age series I ever owned, purchased at SDCC in 2000 during my only wonderful trip there. There's a lot of positive association for me, but at the same time, I feel I can objectively say that it's a great issue. I don't know that I ever made the connection between the Red Dragon's appearance as I read it (a reprint story in #20 from issue #3) versus "Dynamo and the Sinister Agents of the Red Star," but this titular disciple put the original villain to shame. Red Star has a better costume, contrasting against Dynamo's blues, and his martial arts finesse allows him to work over the powerhouse using his own misguided muscles. For me, this is a quintessential Dynamo yarn, with troubled romance, job problems, very cheeky humor, charming Cold War super-spy tropes, and heroic difficulties that embarrass and stymie without making Len Brown look like a meathead. The women are strong, sexy and respectable, the villains cunning, and the art by Wally Wood and Dan Adkins stunning. I also have to point out the silent semi-splash where Dynamo is fired like a torpedo toward the enemy submarine. It's only two-thirds of the page, but by using the surrounding panels for set-up and the simple restraint of not using the same trick anywhere else in the story, it has vastly more impact than one of Ivan Reis' lovely but limp mini-portfolios DC has the nerve to call comic book these days.
Since I have the actual Tower comic for once, I'll point out the presence of a house ad here for Dynamo #1, which you could get free with a ten issue subscription commitment to T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents for just $2.50. It was strategically placed after the Dynamo story, opposite an ad for Balentine Books' Edgar Rice Burroughs collection. Later in the issue, they plug Dynamo #1 again as a twenty-five cent single issue direct mail offer to "Avoid the disappointment of your newsstand being 'sold out,'" along with Find the Enemy... Fix the Enemy... Fight the Enemy #1.
Given what a blatant rip-off of the Flash he is, and how I've never liked speedster characters, I have to admit that the Lightning strip was one of the most consistent in quality of the early going. Steve Skeates, Mike Sekowsky & Frank Giacoia clearly had a solid Flash run in them, and they were all moonlighting from DC Comics anyway, but absent that opportunity they deliver the goods here. Guy Gilbert is frankly not as bright as Barry Allen by half, but his military background offers a different path toward problem solving that entertains. Sekowsky brings his wily, rocky vibe to the premise, making up for the lack of Flash Facts with shaggy dog charm and a greater propensity for violent overtures. "The Origin of the Warp Wizard" could have easily been a dog, especially with the villain looking like Doc Brown on crack in a bland all purple get-up, but he sells himself with his wry grin and mad twinkle of the eye. It's still odd though how for a dude being slowly killed by his powers, Guy never once takes the Lightning costume off and seems completely disconnected from the T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Squad. I miss them.
"T.H.U.N.D.E.R. vs. Demo" once again answers questions I'm not sure anyone was asking, but Woody seemed bound to ride herd over the shoddy continuity between the strips in the team feature through the power of the retcon. Demo's appearance in the previous issue didn't seem like it was going to amount to much more than a Gil Kane showcase, but here it becomes the spine of a key event. Having gotten a taste for NoMan's invisibility, Demo sets out to steal all of Professor Jennings' creations from the individual super-agents, which sets off a string of events that returns his girl Friday Satana in a new role and would lead somewhat to a major character death in the next issue. Where I complained about the inks of Wally Wood & Dan Adkins overwhelming others, John Giunta's dated, cluttered style benefited much from their strong influence. Demo starts a line trope here, but there's cute wrinkles in this story that later derivative works could have used.
Speaking of John Giunta, Menthor became "his" character after Sekowsky moved permanently to the Lightning strip, and it did nothing to correct the character's disastrous drift off course. Menthor was the anti-Dynamo, Len Brown being a Peter Parker-like relatable schlub who was capable of overwhelming good, but only ever reaped the whirlwind of unlucky turns and harsh criticism for his efforts. John Janus was supposedly a virtual Adonis who pleased his superiors endlessly, but his stories always seemed to pivot on his being an arrogant douchebag who loses his telepathic helmet to one dubious dope after another. In "The Carnival of Death," the mentalist Zizaqz might as well have been the Entrancer in disguise, and he wasn't even targeting Menthor for a plot-- the idiot just created a situation Zizaqz could exploit. As usual, Janus spends most of the tale trying to shake a mental whammy, recapture his belongings, and bring the bad guys in. When that sort of thing happens to Dynamo, he struggles against long odds. With Menthor, he again keeps a portion of his powers even without the helmet, and still fails at most of his mission goals. The cluttered, coarse art as inked by Carl Hubbell looks a bit like Frank Robbins, but without the idiosyncrasies that make him interesting. There are actually a few amusing turns in this script, but the character and art mute any pleasure they might have brought.
Thanks to my reading multiple chronologies of T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents at the same time, I almost missed Steve Ditko's debut work on the series with NoMan in "To Fight Alone." It occurs to me that he would have probably been able to salvage Menthor, who in practice was the most Randian hero of the group, but in principle was supposed to be an evil agent driven to good by technological compulsion. Can't imagine that sitting well with Ditko. Anyhow, despite a script credited to Steve Skeates, it seems unlikely that Ditko didn't have something to do with an anarchist cult leader hypnotizing upright citizens into giving up their hard earned material possessions. Even if that was already in the script, Ditko's presentation makes it all his own. Ditko seems uncomfortable with NoMan's hooded cape, and I'm not sure the glowing eyes he gains here quite work, but the mood and storytelling on display suit the Invisible Agent. There are some fantastically dramatic angles and novel techniques employed that wow, and I appreciate Tower's willingness to let the art tell the story in many silent action sequences. A strong closer for the issue!
JCP Features #1 (John C. Productions Inc., 1981, $2.00) In rereading the Deluxe and the Archie/Red Circle comics, I realized I'd judged John C. Carbonaro's genuine contributions too harshly against the razzle-dazzle of Singer's. On revisiting this magazine, I wonder how much it contributed to that critique, since it is friggin' terrrr-ib-ble. Total amateur hour torture session. I published reviews of the fifth issues of T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents at the end of March, and had read ahead to review some seventh issues by mid-April. This round of reviews were written then, except for this magazine's, and trying to sporadically read it held up posting for two months! I haven't read every T.H.U.N.D.E.R. comic yet, but this is the worst that I have read, and I feel confident that when I'm done it will continue to hold its all time standing at the very bottom.
Why is it so bad? For starters, it's just cheap and shabby. There's a nice painted cover, but it's marred by the crumby hand lettering in the the large ugly yellow boxes pasted all over the piece. The inside cover editorial is typeset, and I mean it looks like someone xeroxed the template, fed the paper into a typewriter, and wrote out the editorial and indicia in one rip. There's poor hand lettering through the black & white story, with ill-advised freehand recreations of old Tower logos. The first "story" spotlights Raven, and is written by Warren editor Chris Adames. It is pure, dry exposition recapping the Tower run in a few pages, mixing hand and typed lettering. Lou Manna would go on to do decent work on the Archie issues, but here he offers a collection of ugly swipes from the old comics. He's inked by Mark Texeira at the coarse dawn of his career, though his embellishment is a highlight compared to co-finisher Pat Gabriele, a never-was with a handful of low rent credits. This is followed by a second "story," which is actually a continuation of the first, and sees a shifting of job duties to Tex pencils, Gabriele inks/edits, and a script by occasional Warren writer Kevin Duane. Ostensibly about Dynamo, it's really just a five page bridging sequence to set up the action for NoMan (mostly by the same team in the same roles.) Where the Tower stories would have been separate single stories, these are unsatisfying, disjointed chapters in one long, damp narrative.
I lost track of where we were. Installment six? Lightning? Yeah, or course Guy Gilbert whines about his impending death due to his usage of super-speed. It isn't the scripter's fault that this same scene would play out in nearly every Agents comic until the character was finally dropped in the late '00s, but the only thing added to the lot was Lightning's being able to run from Earth to outer space thanks to "newly designed antigravity gloves." Even in comic books, the suspension of disbelief has its limits.
For thirty-some pages that feel like twice if not thrice that, the Agents exposit or numbly battle inconsistently drawn aliens (reptiles? subterraneans?) and robots while mouthing off crap to fill up space. Then the tiniest of big bads turns up on the last few pages, there's an explosion, and the story ends with... another dialogue balloon of exposition and a crap line from Dynamo to fill space. Oh, and a third of the final page is devoted to a horrible sketch by Kelly Freas of Pat Gabriele offering a brick of typeset words of acknowledgment. Following were a two page reprint excerpt of a Fly story by Simon & Kirby and a ten page Black Hood reprint by Morrow, Adams & Giordano. Just to remind you how professionals do things.
T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents #6 (DC, 2011, $2.99) Worst issue of the series to date. Wally Wood didn't seem to have a problem with illustrating extended sequences of people in offices wearing business attire discussing stuff, but that always gave way to something exciting, usually involving cool looking things having knuckles smashed against their mouths. By comparison, Nick Spencer is a pleasure denier. All of the key action in this issue takes place off-panel, and much of the issue is devoted to characters explicitly not even discussing what happened. Seriously-- characters bring stuff up, and then other characters just say "tut-tut-- mum's the word," and then there's some nudging and winking. Like, six instances of that, and then an Arkham City sneak preview starts. Cafu & Bit illustrated the entire issue this month, so I didn't catch what I guess was an anti-climax to the main story, followed by an Iron Maiden five-pager that also ends so abruptly I was all "whaaat" when Batman and the Joker showed up-- rifling the pages looking for an actual conclusion to the issue in hand. Nothing happens in this issue but characters staring at their navels over stuff the audience only sort of get having happened, and then Iron Maiden rips off the Wonder Woman in Vietnam segment of The New Frontier.
T.H.U.N.D.E.R. Agents #6 (IDW, 2014, $3.99) Phil Hester has fun reimagining and critiquing a Silver Age villain, which translates to the page. I'm still enjoying the art of Roger Robinson, which I can take more seriously than the book's previous toycentric look. I'm digging most of the redesigned Agents, though I'm still struggling with Robo-Dynamite. A new "old" Agent gets introduced that checks two boxes on the Equal Employment Opportunity questionnaire, and while a bit self-righteous, she's still an improvement over other recent attempts. Can't get behind Weed's altered look though, and in fact he reminds me more of Perez's Raven than a character Woody modeled after himself. Body type is another path for diversity, and all these agents are too uniformly buff. There's a modest undercurrent of political commentary, and subplots brewing, that make this volume seem like it's catching up in quality to the DC incarnation without the vaporous decompression that hurt that run.
Returning to the theme begun last review of Andrew Currie sucking on the Subscription variant cover, this no background having, altogether incomplete group shot added insult to injury by not even being colored. I ordered this sight unseen, which will not happen again. Friggin' IDW is on my list, man!
Pop quiz: What do IBM, Pepsi-Co, Dupont, Campbell Soup, Xerox and Kraft Foods have in common? Theyâre all led by female CEOs. In fact, with the appointment of Marissa Mayer as CEO and President of Yahoo! in July, women have upped their game on the Fortune 500 list, with 20 [...]
Seara trecuta am avut o discutie foarte interesanta cu un client. Un tanar. Generatia Colectiv. Mi-a facut o extraordinara placere atat persoana, cat si gandirea. Si, prin el, cred ca Romania are o sansa in viitor. Voi scrie astazi un articol diferit. Poate va iesi un editorial, ca tot este la moda, sau poate altceva. Dar vom vorbi de ce este bine sa mergi la avocat, atunci cand ai probleme de natura juridica.
Romanii sunt, prin esenta, saraci, dar si buni la toate. Saracia i-a invatat sa fie buni la toate. Google ii ajuta, bine sau rau, nu conteaza, ca oricum romanul nu are de unde sa stie daca informatia data este 100% corecta. Romanii isi fac singuri remediile pentru raceli, boli, isi fac singuri injectia, repara chiuvete, monteaza cazi, lustre, parchet, regleaza geamuri, chiar daca nu au nicio pregatire in asta! Romanii toti sunt extrem de descurcareti si au solutii - ori improvizeaza - orice. Lita de la panoul electric, priza, teava de gaz, tencuieli sau reparatii, umpleri sau reglari de centrale termice, ba chiar isi fac singuri casa. De la zero! Cat de greu este sa faci betoane, nu?! Invata de pe youtube sau google. Insa, crezand ca fac ceva ieftin, ieftin dureaza. De multe ori costurile "refacerii" sunt inzecite, alteori insutite. Nu vorbesc de riscurile pierderii de vieti, bunuri sau alte nenorociri ce se pot evita, cu un cost oarecare. Sigur, totul costa, nu este nimic gratis. Nici painea. Nici biletul de transport. Nici chiar iubirea, in zilele noastre. Dar, invatand sa folosim specialisti, putem castiga mai mult. Amatorii costa insutit mai mult decat specialistii. Este dovedit. Prin urmare, de ce trebuie sa angajam un avocat?
1. Cine este avocatul?
Avocatul este, in primul rand, un om obisnuit. Un om care a invatat mai mult despre un domeniu nobil - drepturile si obligatiile cetateanului, decat oricare altcineva.
Apoi, ca si medicul, ca si instalatorul ori tamplarul, ca si ceasornicarul ori preotul - este un specialist.
El vinde cuvinte si acte.
Este amuzant sa spui ca face bani din vorbe, nu? Dar in spatele oricarei discutii veti afla sinteza legislativa complexa a cazului dvs - ce e posibil si ce nu, cum s-ar rezolva sau ce sanse sunt. Estimarile si solutiile lui tin de rutina unei meserii de toceala. Ceea ce google nu va face niciodata. Nici youtube. Pentru ca, in spatele cuvintelor lui se afla ani de studiu si de experienta. Zeci sau sute de oameni cu care vorbeste intr-un an. Povestile lor de viata sunt toate transpuse in studii variate.
Avocatul este - sau trebuie sa fie - o biblioteca ambulanta de legi si norme, pe care sa le stie si sa ti le explice atunci cand vii la el. Cand il intrebi "ce este de facut" iti cauta cea mai potrivita solutie, in toata stiinta lui. Este precum ai da un search pe google despre cum sa montezi un stergator la parbriz. Ai avea in cateva secunde raspunsul la intrebare. Raspunsul sigur, personalizat nevoilor tale. Ai avea o idee despre durata, costuri, etape, implicatii. Un peisaj de ansamblu, o "oferta" nepretuita, pe care nu ti-o poate da nimeni altcineva.
2. Cu ce se ocupa avocatul si cum ne poate ajuta?
Poti sa-l cauti atunci cand ai nevoie de acte sau dreptate. Ori atunci cand ai nevoie de aparare. Ori cand vrei sa ii auzi parerea despre o problema juridica care iti nelinisteste somnul.
Insa, il poti cauta oricand ai nevoie de cineva care:
Sa iti recupereze creantele de la debitori, contracte de imprumut, etc. Aici stie ce cale de recuperare este cea mai potrivita, cea mai scurta. Cea mai sigura. Dar mai stie sa se adapteze la orice particularitate a cazului tau.
Ai nevoie sa iti faci o firma. El stie cel mai bine ce acte iti trebuie, ce cod CAEN este necesar activitatii tale, ce regim de impozitare ai de ales, stie sa-ti intocmeasca dosarul astfel incat sa nu pierzi timpul pe drumurile intortocheate ale birocratiei romanesti, stie cat te costa, cat dureaza.
Vrei sa divortezi, sa stabilesti incredintarea copiilor tai sau pensia alimentara, ori cand vrei sa iti faci partajul dupa divort.
Ai nevoie de asistenta la negocieri de contracte de imprumut, de credit, ori de munca.
Esti chemat la cercetare disciplinara la serviciu
Vrei sa emiti somatii, notificari sau scrisori ori proceduri prealabile actelor de a caror rezolvare nu esti multumit
Vrei sa semnezi un act, contract, acord ori intelegere si ai nevoie de atestare juridica a datei, continutului si identitatii semnatarilor
Vrei sa inchei o tranzactie judiciara
Esti implicat intr-un proces sau vrei sa demarezi un proces
Vrei sa iti redacteze o actiune, intampinare ori un apel sau recurs
Vrei sa te asiguri ca ceea ce semnezi corespunde juridic nevoilor si puterilor tale si nu exista clauze ascunse, ori pe care nu le intelegi
Vrei sa iti stii drepturile si obligatiile intr-o anume situatie
Vrei sa preintampini orice sansa de risc
Practic, oricand ai de a face cu o problema juridica, poti apela la un avocat. Chiar daca nu iti permiti unul de la A-Z, macar trebuie sa iti aloci resursele pentru o informare completa si corecta.
In toata saracia, este recomandat macar sa iti asiguri redactarea actiunii ori intampinarii sau a cailor de atac (apel/recurs) de catre un avocat. Ori o consultanta juridica.
Printr-o minima cheltuiala - comparativ cu anvengura sau costurile unui dosar complex - isi maximizezi sansele ori iti minimalizezi riscurile, daca hartia ta vorbeste limba judecatii. Stim cu totii ca dosarele se judeca de judecatori - de aceea este foarte important ca actiunea ori intampinarea, ori apelul sau recursul dvs sa vorbeasca pe limba lor! Din pacate nu exista vreun serviciu Google care sa "traduca" limba juzilor, altul decat avocatii.
Preturile unei consultatii (de 1 ora) variaza intre 100 lei si cateva sute de Euro, dar poti intreba costurile atunci cand doresti sa iti faci programarea si poti refuza politicos intalnirea, daca sumele nu sunt pentru posibilitatile tale. Si poti cauta in alta parte, pe altcineva, insa, pretul mic, sau foarte mic nu inseamna intotdeauna servicii pricepute, precum nici pretul mare, ori foarte mare, nu echivaleaza, neaparat, cu servicii de excelenta. Am intalnit, in meseria mea, deopotriva, avocati foarte bine pregatiti si rutinati, cu suflet si pasiune la 100 lei/ora, dar si avocati nepregatiti, mandri de ei si vanituosi pentru simplul fapt ca activau intr-o casa de renume si percepeau 280 euro/ora.
Pretul unei redactari de actiune variaza si el, cu tarife plecand de la 300 lei, in functie de complexitatea spetei. Maximul e diferit si face diferenta. Cu cat este mai complex dosarul - pretentiile sunt ridicate, partile sunt multe sau implica statul, instanta este de rang inalt, istoricul este amplu, actiunea implica calcule sau anexe, dosarul este stufos, etc, cu atat volumul de munca creste, prin urmare si costul unei asemenea redactari. Dar, opinez ca orice boala am avea, nu se trateaza cu ceaiuri de 5 lei.
De asemenea, pretul creste daca timpul preseaza. Orice lasati pe ultimele 1-7 zile duce la un cost suplimentar, datorat urgentei. Chestiunea cu urgenta trebuie inteleasa din perspectiva planning-ului fiecaruia. Orice om are o lista de infaptuit, intr-un anumit termen. Ceea ce survine peste aceasta lista, duce la presiune, timp suplimentar, deci costuri. Nu amanati!
3. Ce trebuie sa facem cand mergem la avocat?
Cand mergeti la biserica - luati lumanari, la doctor - cardul de sanatate sau fisele medicale, la mecanic - duceti masina, dar la avocat? La avocat mergeti cu toate actele in discutie, de la a-z, in copii xerox. Copia o lasati avocatului, daca va cere. Nu lasati niciodata originale, dar sa le aveti intodeauna la dvs, pentru confruntarea cu copiile. Asigurati-va ca stiti bine povestea, daca mergeti pentru altcineva.
Aveti in seama ca daca nu va pregatiti copiile, pentru xeroxarea documentelor dvs veti putea datora bani. Sa nu uitam ca totul costa. Avocatul nu va poate face xerox-urile gratuit - hartia, tonnerul, curentul, chiar si aparatura, totul costa. Si tariful nu este cel din targ, cu 0,15 bani/foaie! Avocatul nu are firma de xerox, deci costurile lui sunt cel putin duble.
Sunt avocati - ori case de avocatura - care va taxeaza suplimentar pentru fiecare telefon, email, fax ori corespondenta emisa in cazul dvs., ori alte costuri tehnice. Nu va fie rusine sa intrebati daca exista asemenea tarife si cat costa. Ce limita de conversatii lunare aveti si cat estimeaza ca vor costa toate aceste servicii secundare. De regula aceste servicii sunt incluse in onorariul final de dosar. Alteori pot fi separate ori conditionate. Intrebati!
Daca aveti procesul deja deschis va recomand sa va duceti cu o copie completa din dosarul instantei - mai putin xeroxati citatiile sau actele de procedura precum sunt dovezile de comunicare de acte ale instantei. Celor ce nu au bani de xerox complet, de la a-z, macar sa xeroxeze actiunea, intampinarea, raspunsul la intampinare si toate incheierile de sedinta. Daca vor mai fi acte de prezentat, avocatul va spune ce nevoi sunt.
Cu cat avocatul dvs este mai cunoscut - sau vizibil pe internet, ori TV - ori cu cat are mai multe diplome pe pereti, cu atat costul lui creste, intrucat toate acestea l-au costat si pe el, timp si bani, alocati studiilor, renumelui sau specializarii. Insa, trebuie sa tineti seama de toate aceste detalii atunci cand alegeti!
4. Ce mai trebuie sa stim?
In primul rand, asigurati-va ca avocatul ales de dvs este specializat pe problema dvs.
Atunci cand sunati si va faceti o programare, descrieti pe scurt problema dvs - sunt x, vreau sa am o discutie pe executare silita, am primit o somatie de la un executor...
Dupa descrierea scurta a problemei, intrebati avocatul daca este specializat pe acest domeniu. Avocatii, de regula, sunt general-specializati, insa aplecarea frecventa catre anume domenii, atat prin rutina, cat si prin experienta dobandita, il face mai cunoscator in anumite genuri de probleme.
Nu solicitati consultatii juridice prin telefon!
Oricat ati fi de inghesuit financiar, nu fortati limita! Nu cereti sfaturi prin telefon unui avocat! Nu incepeti cu "sunt Y, v-am gasit telefonul pe internet, am si eu o intrebare!" Nu se cade si veti fi surprins, fie de refuz, fie de raspunsul evaziv de genul "va pot programa la discutii". Nu o luati in nume rau! Avocatul nu are voie, prin Statut, sa asigure consulatii juridice prin telefon, ori gratuite!
Nu sunati seara, dupa orele 18.00 sau in weekend, ori sarbatorile legale!
Oricat ar fi de urgenta, importanta ori deosebita problema dvs, respectati orele de munca! Nimeni nu poate face nimic pentru dvs dupa ce pleaca de la birou, cand este liber ori in sarbatorile nationale! Cel mult dati un sms cu problema dvs pe scurt si rugati sa fiti contactat, ori scrieti un mail si va va raspunde!
Regula aceasta nu este decat una de bun-simt, caci si noi, la randul nostru, nu ne-am dori sa fim deranjati de la job, in afara acestuia, nu? Tuturor ne place sa beneficiem de timpul liber, detasati de orice problema de serviciu, corect?
Cand aveti fixata o intalnire - NU INTARZIATI sau NU VENITI MAI DEVREME.
La avocat nu este ca la doctor - mergeti la ora 15.00 si intrati la 17.35. Orele lui sunt stabilite initial - clientul se programeaza din timp cu 1 ora sau 1.30, ori mai mult. Cand vi s-a stabilit ora, sa fiti siguri ca ora aceea este fixata in cuie. Orice intarziere a dvs ii da avocatului agenda peste cap.
Daca ajungeti mai devreme, nu-i nimic! La avocatii care se respecta, veti avea cu siguranta un loc de asteptare.
Daca intarziati ori nu puteti veni SUNATI CU MINIM 3 ORE INAINTE
Este bine sa ne respectam! Nu doar ca il respectati pe avocat, anuntand, dar respectati si pe ceilalti cetateni care vin dupa sau inainte de dvs. Ori dati sansa, altora, sa ajunga la intalnire in locul dvs, daca nu mai puteti ajunge. Avocatul este un "bun al societatii", de serviciile sale trebuie sa beneficieze, la alegere, oricare dintre noi. Lipsa dvs, neanuntata, poate echivala cu refuzul dat unui alt cetatean, care, desi era intr-o cauza disperata ori urgenta, nu a putut fi programat peste dvs. in ziua respectiva.
Avocatul este direct interesat sa va castige dosarul, pentru palmaresul lui!
Nu uitati ca dosarul dvs, pentru avocat, este o provocare! El pleaca la drum cu ideea absoluta de a castiga batalia! Niciodata nu veti intalni un avocat care sa vrea sa piarda vreo lupta! Si pe premisa asta sa ganditi ca, atunci cand plecati la drum, este cel mai putin probabil om dintre oameni, care sa vrea sa va "infunde".
Plangeti, daca simtiti. Descatusati-va emotiile fara jena.
Daca ati ajuns la un avocat bun, veti simti nevoia sa va descarcati emotiile, daca sunteti o fire sensibila. Un avocat bun are mereu pe masa o cutie de servetele. Preventiv. Nu va sfiiti sa dati frau liber emotiei. In fata mea au plans, deopotriva, si femei si barbati. Nu este slabiciune, este descarcare! In plus, ganditi-va ca avocatul, ca rol in Statutul sau, este confidentul cel mai de taina. Daca aveti incredere, plangeti! Fericiti cei ce vor rade la urma!
Nu mintiti! Nu omiteti adevarurile care nu va plac!
Astazi sau maine, avocatul tot va afla adevarul dvs.! De la voi, sau de la altii, il va afla! Nu cred ca va doriti sa stricati o relatie profesionala pentru omisiunea de a spune lucrurilor pe nume! Cand va afla adevarul, va asigur ca nu va mai avea incredere in dvs si nici nu va mai putea fi la fel de sincer. Ori se va retrage! Nu uitati ca e om! In plus, stiind adevarul dvs, va sti cum sa evite lucrurile!
Nu intarziati cu platile. Nu ramaneti dator!
Avocatul traieste din serviciile dvs. Cu asta isi plateste sediul, impozitele, creditele sau isi creste familia. Este unica lui sursa de venit. Daca ii veti ramane dator sau il veti ocoli cu platile, fiti sigur ca va sista orice ajutor, imediat si fara vreo notificare sau explicatie. Ba chiar va pune in executare silita intelegerea. Nu cu rautate, ci pentru acoperirea ei. E o regula de bun simt. Toti am face la fel.
Aveti incredere in el! Nu il dezonorati, nu il amenintati!
Daca l-ati ales, este bun. Sau era la momentul alegerii dvs. Pe parcurs, daca credeti ca va inseala increderea, daca il banuiti de orice, spuneti-i! Spuneti-i ca nu il mai doriti sa va apere si ca doriti incetarea contractului! Alegerile omului pot cunoaste schimbari. Poate nu exista "simbioza", ori atractie, ori comunicare. Sau rezultat?! Nu amenintati - amenintarea contra avocatului constituie infractiune si se pedepseste cu inchisoarea. Si credeti-ma ca o va face! E meseria lui!Incheiati lucrurile la fel de frumos cum le-ati inceput.
Nu il trageti raspunzator de rezultat.
Castigati sau pierdeti, oricand ar fi, numai judecatorul iti da solutia, nu avocatul. Daca stii ca s-a straduit, ca a fost prezent la termene, ca a scris si ca a facut ce s-a putut, nu il blama pe avocat! Nu el face judecata!
Sunteti multumit, recomadati-l!
Avocatul nu are voie, prin lege, sa isi faca reclama. Daca credeti ca este bun, daca il apreciati ori daca sunteti multumit, recomandati-l! Scrieti pe forum-uri numele lui. Acesta este unicul fel in care l-ati putea recompensa, dar, totodata, ati ajuta si alti cetateni la nevoie sau in cumpana, cu un avocat bun. Bine, mai merg si ghivecele de flori ori buchetele, la doamne, ori ceva bautura, la domni, dar pentru un avocat bun, o recomandare este mai mult decat o mie de cuvinte de apreciere.
Si noi, romanii, trebuie sa invatam ca amatorii costa mai mult, la final, decat orice alt , chiar si neindemanatic, specialist.
Courtesy of Bob Michatek Kathy and Bob Michatek moved to Sun City 10 years ago.
Courtesy of Bob Michatek Kathy and Bob Michatek blended their families 20 years ago.
Having blended their talents and families together 20 years ago, Kathy and Bob Michatek make a good team at home and at work.
Kathy, 65, has more than 20 years in realty while Bob, 68, is the tech guy who spent 30 years as an engineer with Xerox. Ten years ago, the two decided to head south, leaving New York and settling into the active community of Sun City.
Living in a retirement community didnât stop the Michateks from working. In 2003, Bob opened his own business in Bluffton, Computer Doc, which offered Dell products and office supplies, including Xerox machines.
Bob later sold the business to his stepson, Brian Messman, who focuses on videography and programming through his company, Page 1 Media.
Page 1 Media seeks to help companies, municipalities and nonprofits make the first page of Google, Yahoo and other Internet search sites.
Joining the Don Ryan Center
Messman learned a lot from his stepfather and has given back to his parents through his video production company.
âThey have been tremendous partners in business for me. They have been a wealth of knowledge and the best resources and references anyone could have,â Messman said. âThrough Page 1 Media, weâve recently have been working together on a series of real estate videos and promotional videos to help home buyers and sellers make more informed real estate decisions.â
Messman and his company recently joined Blufftonâs Don Ryan Center for Innovation through the help of Bob.
A public-private partnership between the town of Bluffton and Clemson University, the Don Ryan Center provides resources for entrepreneurs, inventors and small business people.
The center links participants to intellectual property, technology evaluation, product development services, seed financing, business mentorships, corporate relationships and hands-on consulting support.
Bob had been part of Beaufort Countyâs technology committee in the early 2000s.The technology committee of local leaders, residents and educators created a plan to put Beaufort County up to speed on new technology and attract high-tech industry to the area.
Through his time on the committee, Bob received the opportunity to meet with the late Don Ryan, for whom the center is named. Ryan co-founded CareCore National in 1994 and under his leadership it became one of the leading specialty benefits management companies.
After bringing the company to Bluffton, Ryan became involved in the efforts to recruit similar companies to the area. He donated the office space to the center
âI met with Don Ryan and really knew about the technology center before it even came about,â Bob said. âI suggested to Brian that he should join and his crew really has a lot of talent that can help businesses get on the first page of Internet searches.â
Using âtech-savvyâ talents
With Messman taking over the tech business, Bob had more time to teach at the University of South Carolina Beaufort as an adjunct professor. He started teaching introduction to computer, computer systems and management systems six years ago.
âI still enjoy keeping up with the tech gizmos and gadgets,â Bob said.
With tech talents running in the family, Bob and Messman have helped Kathy incorporate the advancing technology trends into her job â real estate.
Bob joined Kathyâs ventures five years ago as a real estate agent.
âI enjoy helping people find not only their future home, but also community,â Kathy said. âThrough Bobâs help I can share more about the classes at the USCB, the culture of the Lowcountry and show clients the diversity here.â
While the couple stays busy working, theyâre grateful to have their blended family nearby. Kathyâs sons live in the Lowcountry while Bobâs daughters live in near Columbia.
âWeâre fortunate to have an area where families live close and where all of us can be successful with new careers,â Kathy said.
Realizam ca avem o problema si nu o putem rezolva singuri, pentru ca nu intra in competentele noastre. Daca realizam. Este un taram nou, despre care cu totii am auzit sume si costuri, care ne sperie. Ne gandim ca nu ne permitem. Ca este un lux sa iti iei un avocat. Ba chiar credem cu tarie ca aceasta breasla ne jupoaie de piele, ne vinde si ne tradeaza. Si totusi, stim ca cel mai bine este sa vorbesti cu acel "demon" al viselor tale negre. Si poate... chiar sa ii adresezi infricosatoarea intrebare "cat costa?!". Iti spune un tarif si atunci realizezi ca nu e "dracul cel mai negru", sau, din contra, inghiti putin in sec. Cat costa, deci, un avocat? Cum isi socoteste tariful? Se imbogateste cu mine? Haideti sa discutam astazi despre aceasta tema. Sa incepem.
Cum se stabileste onorariul unui avocat?
Conform Statutului profesiei de avocat, art 132, avocatul are dreptul la onorariu Åi la acoperirea tuturor cheltuielilor fÄcute Ã®n interesul clientului sÄu.
Prin urmare, onorariul este stabilit in functie de mai multe criterii.
1. Timpul si volumul de munca. Cu cat speta este mai indelungata, cu atat intra un volum mai mare de munca.
2. Natura, noutatea si dificultatea cazului. Prin "natura" se intelege categoria de actiune ce va fi intreprinsa (divort, evacuare, anulare, pretentii, etc), fiecare dintre aceste categorii suportand un anumit grad de dificultate.
Niciuna dintre spete nu este identica cu alta de acelasi fel! Deci, avocatul,nu poate niciodata folosi un tipizat comun in toate dosarele de acelasi gen!Spre deosebire, activitatea notariala presupune exclusiv numai tipizate, recompletate ori de cate ori se solicita si pentru care se aplica aceleasi taxe.
3. Importanta intereselor din cauza. Cu cat intersele sunt mai mari, cu atat creste si presiunea psihica a avocatului, cu atat clientul devine mai incrancenat si se ridica mai multe probleme de rezolvat.
4. Notorietatea, titlurile si experienta avocatului ales. Cu cat avocatul detine o calificare mai mare, cu atat sansa de reusita a cazului va creste, dar tot atat cresc si tarifele. Ratiunea este simpla - fiind un avocat considerat "bun", selectia clientelei se face si pe criterii financiare, altfel, nu ar mai avea timp nici pentru a bea apa.
5. Valoarea totala a avantajelor pe care le-ar putea primi un client, in urma muncii sale. Cu cat avantajele sunt mai mari, cu atat importanta creste, proportional cu interesele clientului.
6. Urgenta. Cu cat veniti mai tarziu la un avocat, sau in ultima clipa, cu atat cresc sansele ca onorariul final sa creasca.
Cum alegem avocatul?
Ratiunea alegerii unui avocat este identica cu cea de a alege orice fel de produs sau serviciu de pe piata. Cu cat preturile sunt mai mici, sau aproape de minimul pietei, cu atat produsul respectiv are o calitate indoielnica, nu-i asa? Iti doresti o calitate indoielnica cand iti cumperi ceva?! Dar atunci cand iti pui in joc viata, drepturile, proprietatile, copii, bunurile, etc?!!
1. Un avocat bun stie sa-si aprecieze corect onorariul si nu inseamna ca este cel mai ieftin!
2. Un avocat bun nu este intotdeauna cel mai in varsta! De regula, media de varsta a unui avocat bun se situeaza intre 30-55 de ani! Dupa 55 de ani capacitatea omului de munca scade dramatic. Cheftul, dispozitia, capacitatea de acumulare a noilor tehnici si reglementari, concentrarea, spiritul combativ, sanatatea, toate scad dupa aceasta varsta. Perspectiva pensionarii, retragerii, satisfactiile unor ani lungi de practica, nepotii, etc sunt cauze care scad in orice domeniu interesul pentru a profesa "ca in anii tineretii". Degeaba am alege un avocat in varsta, considerandu-i experienta fastuoasa, daca puterea sa de munca si concentrare este redusa. Video-ul parintilor nostri inca functioneaza, nu-i asa?! Dar ce pacat ca nu mai exista casete video... Si de ce incepand cu 30 de ani?! Pentru ca atunci un avocat, ca orice alt meserias, si-a depasit toate pragurile de formare, si-a dobandit o liniste sufleteasca si un cumul suficient de experienta de baza, a prins gustul succesului dar si al esecului, e deplin maturizat si deschis spre seriozitatea acestei profesii. Atunci este in varful energiei si detine adrenalina necesara razboaielor.
3. Un bun avocat este avocatul care nu-Åi minte clientul doar pentru ca acesta sÄ se simtÄ confortabil, ci cel care Ã®i spune cu sinceritate adevÄrul. Chiar daca doare, chiar daca te simti pus la punct, sau mustrat, avocatul bun este in primul rand sfatuitorul tau! Trebuie sa-si permita sa te atentioneze, sa te informeze si sa fie deschis cu tine! Trebuie sa stie sa-ti vorbeasca cu cuvintele tale si sa-ti raspunda la toate intrebarile! Nu trebuie sa te indemne la procese, decat atunci cand apreciaza ca este singura cale! - ca un doctor - nu te opereaza decat daca trebuie!
4. Un avocat bun nu se intalneste cu clientii prin baruri, restaurante sau terase, la el acasa sau pe treptele Tribunalului! Te invita la sediul sau, unde are toate conditiile necesare activitatii - o masa de consiliu, un xerox, calculator/laptop, internet, instrumente de scris, etc.
5. Un avocat bun nu te racoleaza pe strada, sau pe holurile tribunalelor! Il gasesti mai greu, la recomandari sau pe internet, citindu-i articole publicate sau auzind despre el.
6. Un avocat bun este si un bun psiholog. Stie, cunoaste, asculta, intelege, ajuta. Cand te intalnesti sau vorbesti cu el, trebuie sa ii simti apropierea de tine, sa simti implicarea lui, sa stimti ca iti este alaturi si ca nu esti doar "un client", "un oarecare". Sa ii simti bucuria sau tristetea unei vesti ce ti-o transmite. Sa il simti ca "traieste" alaturi de tine clipele de proces.
Femeie sau barbat?
In aceasta profesie predomina femeile. Dar nici barbatii nu sunt mai prejos. Am cunoscut de-o potriva femei si barbati avocat la fel de buni. Si cred ca alegerea sexului avocatului ar fi la fel cum am alege doctorul ginecolog, sau urolog. Este un subiect intim.
Insa, imi permit sa-mi expun o parere personala. Alegerea avocatului in functie de sexul acestuia depinde in primul rand de natura problemei si de conceptiile clientului. Daca este o problema delicata, fina, sensibila, stim cu totii ca femeile ar indeplini cu succes aceste sarcini. Femeile avocat sunt puternice, bataioase, acide, iuti, dar si sensibile si atasate. Barbatii avocat sunt intalniti mai adesea in ramurile de drept mai dure - penale, de exemplu - sau acolo unde nu sunt implicate prea multe emotii. Din ce am intalnit pana acum, mi-am format parerea ca barbatii sunt mai distanti, mai reci, mai autoritari si mai putin flexibili ca femeia avocat. Totusi, nu putini barbati sunt printre cei mai bine cotati avocati ai contemporanitatii.
Insa, eu recomand in cazurile de divort (cu sau fara incredintare de minor), pentru ca sunt subiecte extrem de fine, ca femeile sa-si aleaga femei, iar barbatii sa-si aleaga barbati. De ce?! O mama sau o sotie nu poate fi inteleasa decat de o femeie, un sot sau tata nu poate fi inteles decat de un barbat. In toate relatiile de familie cred cu tarie ca alegerea trebuie sa tina cont si de omul de dincolo de avocat. Cat de mult se va "mula" contextului. Trebuie sa stiti ca Avocatul are acces la informatiile "de viata" ale clientului sau. Se comporta ca un confident esential. Detalii (pe care uneori poate nu le-am spus nici celor mai apropiate fiinte) pot fi spuse avocatului. De aceea apreciez, in relatiile de familie, ca este necesar sa alegeti cu atentie persoana care credeti ca va "simpatiza" cu voi.
In restul situatiilor, sexul avocatului nu are relevanta, atata timp cat are pregatirea necesara acelui litigiu.
Cat ne costa un avocat?
Dupa cum spuneam, costurile depind de mai multi factori. Insa, exista totusi si o practica generala asupra onorariilor, pentru diverse activitati prestate. Aceasta practica a aparut prin 1999, in Baroul Bucuresti, care publicase o lista de tarife minimale, si recent, in 2012, Baroul Neamt a dat publicitatii o grila de tarife minimale, pe care o puteti studia aici
In mare parte, aceste onorarii se practica si in Bucuresti, doar ca aici preturile practicate sunt cu cca 30% mai mari, ca urmare a influentelor Capitalei asupra costurilor.
Cateva exemple, mai uzuale:
O sedinta de consultare costa incepand .............................................cu 150 de lei.
Un studiu dosar costa incepand ...........................................................cu 200 de lei.
O redactare de actiune noua incepe ...................................................cu 400 de lei
O deschidere de dosar in executare silita incepe ............... .............cu 350 de lei
Un divort fara minori incepe ................................................. ...........cu1.200 de lei
O contestatie la executare porneste ................................................cu1.500 de lei
O redactare de contestatie impotriva unui Proces Verbal ...............cu 300 de lei
Suspendare unei executari silite incepe .............................................cu 700 de lei
Litigiile de munca pleaca ........................................................ ......... cu 1.200 de lei
Despagubirile pe legi speciale incep .............................................. cu 1.500 de lei
Un termen de judecata/judecatorie ......................................... ........ cu 200 de lei
Deoarece Consiliul Concurentei a considerat ca nu este legal sa se impuna praguri minime, cetateanul nu poate sa stie niciodata cat il costa minim, desi acest serviciu este un drept constitutional, care cu siguranta si obligatoriu ar trebui sa aibe costuri minime, pentru ca un client sa stie exact de la cat incepe demersul. Aceeasi practica de costuri minime exista si la notariate si executori judecatoresti. De aceea cand mergem la un notar, putem stii din start cat ne-ar costa. Numai in acest domeniu planeaza o nebuloasa totala, nebuloasa care, pe multi ii sperie. Realitatea acestor costuri nu este deloc infricosatoare. Este adevarat ca pot sa fie dosare si cauze care sa coste si 2.000 si 7.000 de lei. Pot costa si 3.000 Euro, insa... pana nu intrebati, nu veti sti niciodata cat costa! Nu va puteti lua dupa cunostinte sau prieteni "experimentati". Niciun proces nu este ca alt proces si niciun tarif ca cel precedent! Puteti beneficia de promotii, reduceri, plati in transe, cine stie?! Macar sa aveti curajul sa intrebati! Si la doctor cand mergeti dati o taxa. De ce nu ati face-o si pentru sanatatea drepturilor si a patrimoniului dvs?!
Este drept ca exemplele de onorarii ce vi le-am publicat sunt doar orientative. Preluate din grila publicata de Baroul Neamt si adaptata la costurile Bucurestiului. Aceste sume sunt sume generale, orientative si nu genereaza obligatii contractuale pentru nimeni. Au strict caracter de reper orientativ. Si revin la ce spuneam anterior... cu cat pretul este mai mic, cu atat produsul este mai slab calitativ!
Se imbogateste avocatul pe seama mea?
Nu. In proportie de 90% nu. Cei 10% care fac bani uriasi din aceasta profesie sunt doar "sus pusi". De acei 10% nu va puteti atinge, nici cu gandul si nici cu mintea. Sunt prea "sus" sa fie atinsi de omul de rand, pentru ca nu si-ar permite. Cu ei lucreaza corporatiile, bancile, partidele politice, institutiile statului... deci... "sus". Aceia fac milioane de euro pe an din avocatura. Nu conteaza cat sunt de buni. Poate sunt. Poate nu. Insa noi astazi vorbim de cei 90% dintre avocati. Oameni la fel ca oricine - cu familie de intretinut, cu rate, credite si ipoteci, cu sau fara probleme de sanatate, oameni obisnuiti, care se trezesc la aceeasi ora 6 dimineata si care ajung acasa intotdeauna dupa ora 19.00 si care nu au serile liniste, pentru ca mai mereu exista "o urgenta", un om arestat, o executare silita, un copil furat, o sotie batuta, o batrana jefuita, etc... Singura diferenta intre ei si dvs este profesia. Viata si grijile nu ocolesc pe nimeni.
Cat se duce la stat din onorariul de avocat?
Toate onoariile ce vi se solicita sunt purtatoare de taxe si impozite. Ca orice om sau institutie, avocatii platesc, din onorariul ce vi se spune urmatoarele:
10% contributie la casa de asigurari a avocatilor
16% impozit pe profit
6.5% asigurari de sanatate
24% TVA (daca este cazul)
25% chirie, telefon, internet, service sediu
deci... intre 58 si 82% din onorariu sunt numai cheltuieli.
News Highlights- Headline Earnings Per Share (HEPS) swings to a profit of 71c- Basic Earnings Per Share (EPS) reduced to a loss of 54c- 123% EBITDA growth to R840 million- Group continues to focus on the disposal of non-core operations as going concerns- Appointment of new Chief Executive and move to independent management and change in contol structure completed- R400m capital investment will accelerate growth initiatives within core operations- Streamlining and simplification of corporate and executive structures continues with increased focus on customer engagement
JSE listed Allied Electronics Corporation Limited (Altron) today announced its annual results for the year ended 28 February 2017.
While challenging trading conditions impacted the groupâs performance, the group has made good progress in divesting of its non-core assets and has significantly reduced losses from these operations. In particular, the group expects to complete a number of these disposals in the new financial year, with continued focus being placed on the disposal of Powertech Transformers and Altech Multimedia.
From a total operations perspective, Altronâs revenue for the year under review declined by 26% to R19.7 billion and earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation (EBITDA) increased by 123% to R840 million. Basic earnings per share (EPS) reduced to a loss of 54 cents from the loss of 259 cents reported in the prior year. Headline earnings per share (HEPS) improved to a profit of 71 cents from the loss of 145 cents posted in the prior year.
âOur core businesses delivered a credible performance in a challenging economic environment, with the telecommunications operations displaying growth on the back of strategic contract wins in the public sector space, most notably the City of Tshwane municipal broadband network, the eThekwini Municipality digital radio network for municipal public safety and utility services, and the Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa signaling and communication network. The performance of the non-core assets, which predominantly operate in the manufacturing sector, were much improved from the prior year, but remain loss making and traded below expectations,â said Mteto Nyati, Chief Executive of Altron.
âAs a group, we continue to focus on building intellectual property in our identified strategic growth areas of safety and security, healthcare management, financial services, and training and development. This intellectual capital, combined with our global alliances with leading international original equipment manufacturers, positions Altron as a digital transformation partner to business and government,â he added.
âFurthermore, we will continue to aggressively drive cost efficiencies; recruit, develop and retain top talent; build a trusted ICT brand; and accelerate growth. As we move into the new financial year there will be an increased focus on customer engagement which will be driven by collaboration between Altron businesses to identify synergies in order to move our business operating model from a point-solutions provider to an end-to-end solutions provider,â he concluded.
Financial overviewIn order to provide shareholders with a clearer understanding of the impact of the discontinued operations on the group, the financial results have been split between continuing and discontinued operations. The continuing operations comprise the information technology and telecommunications businesses of the group, while discontinued operations include the whole of Powertech, Altech Autopage, Altech Multimedia and Altech Node.
Core operationsThe core operations delivered a credible performance at an operating level.
Altech Netstar reported a 5% increase in revenue due to marginal increases in both subscriber numbers and average revenue per user. Subscriber churn has been reduced following various interventions, although the significant reduction in new vehicle sales has impacted new subscriptions. EBITDA increased by 6% compared to the prior year with a small increase in EBITDA margins.
Altech Radio Holdingsâ delivered pleasing results with revenue up by 18% and EBITDA up by 12%. The increase in activity levels is primarily attributable to the commencement of the City of Tshwane broadband project in December 2016, the build phase of which will continue for three years.
Bytes Systems Integration delivered results below expectations with revenue up only 3%, but EBITDA down by 3% compared to the prior year. As a business that is dependent on large IT projects, it continues to face challenges as a result of the ongoing project award delays.Arrow Altech Distribution posted excellent results with revenue up 44% and EBITDA up by 54%. The business has successfully grown market share and expanded into new areas aligned to the global Arrow Inc business model.
Bytes Document Solutions performed in line with expectations with its revenue decline affected by the closure of the NOR Paper business in June 2016. Excluding the effect of NOR Paper, the core Xerox business saw revenue decrease by 4%. The reduction in EBITDA was largely due to the loss of contracts at the end of the prior year, but also affected by the weakness of the Rand in the first half of the year.The Bytes Managed Solutionsâ revenue and EBITDA decline was due to the loss of several large contracts at the end of the prior financial year. However, progress is being made on replacing this business in other market segments.
Bytes Universal Systems, which includes the operations of Alliance, BUS Telecoms (formerly Altech Isis) and the old Bytes Universal Systems, had a challenging second half due to various project delays, resulting in a 5% decline in revenue and a 14% decline in EBITDA.
Bytes Secure Transaction Solutions, which includes the businesses of Bytes Healthcare Solutions, Altech NuPay and Altech Card Solutions, continued to perform exceptionally well, growing revenue by 19% and EBITDA by 10%. Altech NuPay had a particularly strong year, growing EBITDA by almost 40%.
The Bytes UK operations reported a 14% increase in revenue and a 4% improvement in EBITDA despite the strength of the Rand in the second half of the financial year.
Bytes People Solutions maintained revenue and EBITDA at prior year levels following the successful expansion of the previous year. While some headwinds were faced, the operation is growing its presence in key customers.
Non-core operationsThe non-core operations, while presenting an improved result from the prior year, remain loss making.
Altech UEC delivered a much improved performance with revenue up 19% to R1.2 billion and EBITDA recovering to R3 million compared to the R160 million loss for the prior year. The business continues to make positive progress having significantly reduced its cost base and has won several contracts in adjacent manufacturing areas.
Powertechâs results were significantly affected by the disposal of its Powertech Cables operation on 30 June 2016, with a number of its other operations reporting improved results despite challenging economic conditions. Revenue reduced by 36% to R4.6 billion while EBITDA losses reduced from R156 million to R67 million.
Powertech Transformers had another difficult year but managed to increase revenue and reduce EBITDA losses. The recent increase in demand from Eskom, albeit in smaller units, raises expectations of a recovery in the local industry.
The Powertech Batteries group performed well during the year in challenging market conditions, growing revenue by 1% and EBITDA by 3%. This was assisted by lower input costs on the strength of the Rand in the second half of the year.
Powertech System Integrators had a challenging year as it disposed of various businesses. Strike Technologies was sold in June 2016, with Technology Integrated Solutions (TIS) sold in November 2016. The sale of Powertech IST is expected to be concluded in the coming months. The operation went through a significant cost reduction exercise ahead of the disposals due to reduced revenue levels and these factors resulted in a 24% decline in revenue and a R53 million EBITDA loss for the year.
The remaining Powertech businesses recorded mixed results. Switchgear had a disappointing year due to tender delays, while there was an improved result from Crabtree, with Swanib Cables being affected by economic conditions in Namibia linked to the drought.
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Goodbye GED. Weâll have to find another way to describe the high school equivalency diploma. Turns out, GED is a brand name like Xerox, Dumpster and Kleenex. The group that now administers the exam will soon become a strange hybrid of a non-profit/for-profit aligned with Pearson publishing, which dominates so much of our education system.
I. âWhite Noise/White Heat,â or Why the âPostmodern Turnâ in Rock Music Led to Nothing but Road - A Preface (of sorts)
TEN YEARS BURNING DOWN THE ROAD
I wrote âWhite Lightâ near the end of the 80s, which had surprisingly proved to be perhaps rock musicâs most fertile and innovative decade. I originally wrote the essay as a feature article that appeared in American Book Review in the Spring of 1990 (McCaffery, âWhite Noiseâ). I was aware that ABR readers were book-lovers not rock fans, and my main goal in developing the essay that way - i.e., presenting an extended analogy between the innovations found in recent music by radically inventive rock and jazz musicians and those ABR readers would already associate with âpostmodernâ literature - was simply to use âthe Postmodern Turnâ phrase in my essayâs title as a âhookâ that would draw readers in and introduce them to artists like Laurie Anderson, Patti Smith, John Zorn (all discussed at some length in âWhite Noiseâ), and dozens of others who had emerged within Americaâs enormously exciting pop underground music scene that I had immersed myself in during the 1980s. My immersion came about one night around 1980 in Manhattan when my friends Kathy Sagan and Lou Stathis took me to see my first âNew Waveâ rock show. The headliner that night was Ultravox, whose synthesizer-driven sound (a novelty at that time) fascinated me by somehow expressing such energized intensity AND mechanized dehumanization. But what really got my attention that night was the opening act by âNash-the-Slashâ (I never did find out who this was or what his real name way - if anyone out there knows, please contact me!). You could say that Nash was a one-man band, or a new kind of cyborgian musician; or (as I did at the time) as a âpostmodernist musician and performance artistâ; today I would say Nashâs act was a perfect example of âavant-popâ (see appendix listing for âAvant-Popâ). But whatever you call it, Nashâs performance was my first encounter with the kind of radically innovative music that I was trying to point to a decade later with my phrase âthe Postmodern Turn in Rock Music.â
Nash walked out on a stage looking like Claude Raines in the old The Invisible Man movie: wearing a black tuxedo and top hat, his hands and head completely swathed in bandages. For the first few minutes of his act, he silently began generating a kind of surrealist swirl of backup sounds by tweaking various dials and knobs on an elaborate set of synthesizers, computers, tape loops, drum machines, and other mechanically-produced sound generators. After he finally got the groove he wanted, he walked through the crowd to the back of the hall and turned on a movie-projector, which began to play a grainy, black-and-white silent film that flickered into life on the back of Nashâs tuxedo as he strode, silently, eerily, back to the stage. It was only after Nash had positioned himself in the middle of his mechanical band-members that I finally recognized that the film (now being projected onto Nash standing motionless at center stage was Dali and Bunuelâs surrealist classic, Un Chien Andalouss (1928). He then proceeded to play the first piercing notes of an extended series of haunting, soaring, surrealist soloâs that accompanied the rest of the film. For the next 30 or 40 minutes I was mesmerized - here was a brand of avant-pop that acknowledged its awareness of and borrowings from the lineage of the great modernist avant-garde, and then synthesized these influences within the sounds and rhythms of contemporary rock. The result was both fascinating from an intellectual or aesthetic standpoint and yet emotionally engaging as well. I left the club that night too dazed and dazzled to be able to analyze or categorize what I had just seen and heard. The only thing I was sure of that night was that I had discovered a music scene capable of making me think and feel - and that I wanted to find more of it.
In re-reading âWhite Noiseâ from todayâs post-millennial perspective, Iâm struck first of all by the tone of confidence and enthused optimism that permeates the entire essay - the almost casual assurance of the essayâs opening where postmodernism is defined, the easy assumption throughout that it is possible to draw analogies about the âinnovative featuresâ of fundamentally different media, such as music and fiction, forms which have evolved aesthetic traditions and conventions (and hence innovations) unique to their nature within radically different historical and aesthetic contexts. Likewise, this authoritative rhetoric may well convince at least some readers of what is likely the essayâs most problematic (and fundamental) feature of all: its underlying thesis that âpostmodernismâ is a useful and appropriate term to describe innovations occurring in rock music, a form which presumably never had a modernist phase at all since it didnât even exist until the mid-50s, well after modernism.
At any rate, this sense of assured self-confidence about postmodernism would certainly not appear in any essay I was writing today about recent developments in rock music; in fact, if I were writing such an essay today I would omit âpostmodernismâ entirely because I no longer believe that I (or anyone else for that matter) can articulate with any degree of coherence or specificity what âpostmodernismâ is, or was, what itâs supposed to mean, or, indeed, whether it ever existed at all. Actually, I spent much of the 90s trying to deconstruct postmodernism, which increasingly seemed to be a bag of hot air that somebody needed to let the air out of. Postmodernism is a term I myself helped to promote back in the 70s to describe the new sorts of innovation fiction that began appearing back in the 60s. But by the 90s, the term âpostmodernismâ increasingly didnât seem to refer to anything specifically - even as the meanings and definitions associated with it have continued to multiply wildly. And not only have these meanings expanded (and replicated, virally) but they have also seemed to be drifting in the direction of being associated with a kind of radical skepticism, trendy nihilism and relativism, and empty pluralism - a line of cultural thinking concerning contemporary culture that I not only donât agree with but actively wish to disassociate myself from [see âFuneral Oration for Postmodernism: A Sad (but timely) Farewell,â included in the Appendix ].
WHEN THE PARTYâS OVER
Likewise, anything I might write today about rock music of the past decade certainly wouldnât have the almost giddy sense of enthusiasm you find expressed throughout âWhite Noiseâ about what was happening in rock during the 80s. I just donât feel nearly as âplugged inâ to the music scene today as I did ten years ago. Part of that may have to do with getting older, plus after I moved way out to the desert it became a huge hassle to see any live music, so instead of seeing two or three shows a week, as I did all through the 80s, Iâve probably only seen two or three shows a year. This doesnât include Springsteen shows - I saw all his shows in L.A. and San Diego during both The Ghost of Tom Joad and the reunion tour with the E-Street band. Otherwise, other than seeing a few Japanese noise bands in Tokyo he only live acts Iâve seen were Patti Smith, Lucinda Williams, and Laurie Anderson. But I donât think the physical separation really has much to do with my general lack of enthusiasm about rock recently - for instance, I was a lot more separated from the rock scene when I starting writing the first draft of âWhite Noiseâ back in March 1989 - not only was I half-way around the world from that scene (I was in Beijing, teaching courses in Postmodern American Culture as a Fulbright Professor at Beijing Foreign Studies University), but my only access to recorded music was a couple dozen bootleg cassettes Iâd bought in Thailand, and a weekly one-hour radio show supposedly featuring British and American rock (âWe rock you HARD!â the DJ announced) but which in practice consisted mostly of golden oldies by John Denver and the Carpenters (the current favorites of Chinese youth). A somewhat harder edge very of rock music was, however, very much a part of the charged, rebellious atmosphere surrounding the student protests that spring; for instance, you could hear the stirrings and rumblings of the protests every night at my university being expressed in the sounds of songs by Chinese rock star, Chi Jian (âheâs like Bruce Springsteen,â one of my students proudly explains) coming out of the dorm windows. Hearing those sounds made it easier for me to feel connected to rock music and more than made up for the albums and fancy sound system and Vandersteen speakers I had left behind in California.
Anyway, Iâd argue that the real source of the problem lies more in the music scene itself than with me. In retrospect, the Spring of â89 when I was writing âWhite Noiseâ seems like a major dividing line, the closing of an era - not just for music but for a lot of other things as well, like the end of the Cold War. In the case of rock, once the 90s begin you see a kind of slow-but-steady erosion of the significance of rock music generally. Established older guys like Bono of U2, Dylan, Lou Reed, Nick Cave, Neil Young (the 90s were a great decade for Neil Young), Tom Waits, and Springsteen all released great albums during the last ten years, but you havenât had many major new talents appearing who could infuse the scene with the sense of excitement and possibilities the way that, say, the Sex Pistols or the Clash or Springsteen and Bowie all did in the mid-70s. There are exceptions of course - Nirvana would be the most obvious example, but youâve also had P. J. Harvey and Beck and several other new arrivals who have done wonderful work [see my updated list in the Appendix ] - not to mention some of the really weird, esoteric stuff I donât have access to that Iâm sure is being cooked up somewhere in somebodyâs garage or computer. In the early 90s Cobainâs incandesce and the brilliance of Nirvana (and maybe Pearl Jam) generated so much light and heat that nobody noticed how dark and cold the music scene had become - that is, not until Cobainâs death seemed to pull the plug, and the music industry started frantically looking around for someone to replace him (of course they couldnât), and ever since then youâve had this whole succession of âBIG NEW THINGSâ or âBIG NEW SOUNDSâ who, for me anyway, havenât lived up to the expectations all the music industry hype created for them. Record executives today admit that the only sure thing these days in terms of sales are the easy-listening (and hugely profitable) Pop (Brittany Spears, Backstreet Boys, Spice Girls, Destinyâs Child) and rap, and as a result signing and promoting new rock bands is a low priority. Meanwhile, other than a few people like Nine Inch Nails, Hole, Sleeter Kinney-Martin, the âalternativeâ music scene is pretty much of a joke (when you hear something being referred to as âalternativeâ these days, you can be almost certain itâs not alternative in any real sense) - or rather, âalternativeâ has become a marketing strategy, an image of rebellion that can be used to peddle derivative banalities to audiences, mostly kids, who are still gullible enough to think that having a rap song blaring out of their expensive car speakers makes them seem ârebellious.â
Call it what you will (I personally call it the Alt-Lite Syndrome), but whatever you call it, it SUCKS.
HEY HEY, MY MY: ROCK AND ROLL WILL NEVER DIE:
Since most of my comments thus far about âWhite Noiseâ have been fairly critical, to be fair to myself - and ensure that this Preface leaves my readers with the sort of upbeat and energized feelings that great rock tunes are supposed to - I would like to add here at the end that I think this essay raises important issues and presents relevant examples from the music of the 80s to illustrate its points. Most of my objections to this essay would be eliminated if I could substitute âAvant-Popâ for âpostmodernismâ throughout. For a different reading of âWhite Noise,â see AUTODECONSTRUCTIVE READING OF WHITE NOISE in the appendix. I also recommend: Updated LIST OF MUSICIANS AND WORKS.
II. White Noise/White Heat: The Postmodern Turn in Rock Music
Letâs say, simply for a point of departure, that the slippery âessenceâ of postmodernism has to do with a radical intensification of self-consciousness and intertextuality - a reflexiveness and interplay that are deliberately built into artistic works and that activates some (though not all) of the patterns of audience response. Letâs assume that postmodernist self-consciousness and intertextuality are related to analogous features in earlier art works - parody, collaboration, the use of allusion and meta-stances of self-reference - but that in postmodernism these devices become defining features of, even the rationale for, artistic existence. Thus, postmodernism uses the related strategies of collage, intertextuality, reflexivity, and pastiche to present their elements - the characters and events in literature and film, the themes, leitmotifs, melodies and riffs in music, the visual materials in painting and sculpture, together with the âselfâ responsible for the creation of these elements - as heterogeneous collections of cultural accumulations. This presentation is crucially different from earlier ones in that it is not done in the service of the transformation of cultural (and, later, technological) difference into a new aesthetic âwhole.â Rather, postmodernismâs self-conscious intertextuality results in an aesthetic foregrounding of the self and reality as artifice, as a cut-up, as a displaced version of an âauthenticityâ now only evoked nostalgically. Such presentations not only directly challenge traditional notions of artistic unity and coherence but fundamentally require postmodernist artists to re-examine what artistic âoriginalityâ and aesthetic âintegrityâ mean. At the heart of this re-examination lies the central issue of composition itself: of how a work of art comes into existence, and the role of the artist in guiding and creating that existence.
As we all surely know by now, the swirl of interactions and influences that have given rise to postmodern aesthetics are enormously complex. For a general summary of my own views concerning the key influences that have contributed to the rise of postmodernism, see âIntroductionâ to Postmodern Fiction: A Bio-Bibliographical Guide, ed. Larry McCaffery (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, l986), pp. xi-xxviii. They include developments in linguistics and philosophy of language, quantum mechanics and relativity theories, the massive social and political disruptions that have occurred since the l960s, as well as the numerous ways different genres have mutated and cross-fertilized one another. Equally important have been the ways that technology has changed our relationship to the commodification and reproduction of cultural and artistic images, words and sounds - and the way that, in the process, technology has profoundly problematized not only such concepts as human memory and artificiality but has altered the way we perceive human life and value. The changes being wrought by technology were, of course, already being explored by artists of the l920s (and earlier) and by critics such as Walter Benjamin; but these issues have become absolutely central to the postmodernist debate that has emerged among recent artists and critics such as Jean Baudrillard, Giles Deleuze, FranÃ§ois Lyotard, Fredric Jameson, and Arthur Kroker. In a general way, what many of these critics are indicating is that postmodern aesthetics can be viewed as a shared response among artists to what Fredric Jameson has termed âthe logic of postindustrial capitalism.â See Fredric Jamesonâs âPostmodernism, or The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism,â New Left Review, No. l46 (July-August l984), pp. 53-94. Postmodernism, then, represents a diffused but common recognition that we are in the midst (in Jamesonâs words) of âa prodigious expansion of culture throughout the social realm, to the point at which everything in our social life - from economic value and state power practices and to the very structure of the psyche itself -can be said to have become âculturalâ in some original and as yet untheorized senseâ (Jameson, 87).
The remainder of this essay will be devoted to discussing some of the implications of postmodern aesthetics, as I have been generally outlining it, as these implications have become increasingly apparent in popular music, including rock music, jazz, and the numerous unclassifiable hybrid forms that have recently appeared. What seems undeniable is that contemporary musicians working in these areas have begun producing music that deals with many of the same techniques and questions that we see in postmodernist painting and cinema, in fiction and poetry: notions of pastiche, fragmentation, appropriation, cross cultural influences, market pressure, authenticity, sign systems, the media, public image and private imagination. Postmodern music responds to and emerges out of our brave new technological age of media (and mediated) experience; it is produced in an age of mechanical reproduction which, as Walter Benjamin theorized nearly 50 years ago, Walter Benjamin, âThe Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,â in Illuminations, ed. Hannah Arendt, trans. Harry Zohn (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, l968), pp. 219-226. has seen the unique status of the work of art being challenged by the technological transformation of our social world. Though I will be focusing on music, I will also be suggesting that in our current age of electronic reproduction and replication, postmodern artists in general are responding to the idea that the unique status of not only art but also of human beings themselves is being challenged and redefined by these same technological transformations.
Probably more than in literature, it has been in the realms of music, the cinema (perhaps especially science fiction cinema), Vivian Sobchackâs extended analysis of how recent science fiction films display the logic of postmodernism (in her Screening Space: The American Science Fiction [New York: Ungar, l988]) has numerous applications for what has been occurring in the music industry. See in particular her chapter, âPostfuturism,â pp. 223-309. television, and video that we observe aesthetics reacting most directly and vibrantly to our shared postmodern condition. The reason for this heightened sensitivity in these realms has to do with the fact that music, television, video art, and the cinema have all increasingly incorporated the new electronic technologies into their very modes of production, distribution and exhibition. The case of music - a genre whose impetus is to create a sensuous, non-verbal, utterly individualized impact that bypasses rational analysis - seems especially interesting in this regard, for here we see the clashes and paradoxes of individual expression and its mechanical reproduction exhibited in perhaps its most extreme form. The history of the evolution of rock and jazz during the past 30 years, for example, displays a revealing movement away from the modernist impulse that gave rise to both forms - i.e., the impulse to create a music which produces an âauthenticâ (if highly subjective, even irrational and confused) human response to the forces of dehumanization, mechanization and other features of the modern age. Both rock and jazz were initially âfolk artsâ whose traditions and precepts were opposed to the conventional norms of âseriousâ music. Both forms foregrounded vitality and passion at the expense of formalism, emphasized improvisation and collaboration rather than rigid classical notions of composition and structure; and both began to experiment with features of technology - the use of electric amplification, studio recording methods (the use of multi- tracking and other manipulations of sound), and lighting techniques - primarily to highlight the ânaturalâ features of their music.
Up until the late l960s, technology, then, was being used to create a greater sense of power and clarity, and in certain cases a greater sense of complexity, but it had not yet begun to fundamentally alter for jazz and rock musicians the essential nature of their medium. We can see this very clearly if we look at the transformations effected by technology on rock music from the time usually cited as its official inception (the Elvis Presley Sun Sessions in late l954) up through the mid-l960s, when technology began to effect major changes in the way rock musicians thought about what they were doing. When Elvis Presley gave semi-official birth to rock music, he did so by instinctively combining the features of various American musical idioms (black gospel, blues and rhythm-and-blues, and white country-and-western) into a distinctively new form. The instruments used in Presleyâs band, and in the bands of other key early rock figures (Chuck Berry, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Little Richard), were the standard instruments of black rhythm and blues: rhythm and lead guitars, drums, usually a piano, occasionally a saxophone. When these instruments and the lead singerâs voice were amplified electronically, the purpose of this amplification was typically very direct: to make the sounds louder. By the mid-l960s, when Bob Dylan, the Beatles, and other musicians began to transform rock-and-roll into a considerably more complex and sophisticated form (now called ârockâ), technological advances were a chief factor in producing this increased sophistication (the other key feature in rockâs transformation - i.e., the quantum leap in poetic density supplied by Dylan, John Lennon, Jim Morrison, and other rock âpoetsâ - of course, entered from outside the technological realm; in this regard, certainly it was significant that many of the key bands from this era, such as The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Kinks, The Doors, and The Who, were fronted by young men who were art or cinema school alumni). But as in the case of Dylanâs seminal electric rock albums (Bringing It All Back Home [l965], Highway 6l Revisited [l965], and Blonde on Blonde [l966]), and The Beatlesâ remarkable sequence of experimental albums (Revolver [l966], Sgt. Pepperâs Lonely Heartsclub Band [l967], and The White Album [l968]) demonstrates, these technical advances (primarily the use of over-dubbing and multi-tracking effects) were essentially in the service of achieving what I would describe as âmodernist aimsâ: for example, the introduction of various, often highly unusual sound effects via over-dubbing and the thickening of sound textures via multi-tracking, all of which were woven into a tightly organized musical composition. This is not to say that the Beatles didnât occasionally compose songs of a more radical nature, as the âpostmodernistâ example of âRevolution No. 9â (from The White Album) clearly demonstrates.
By contrast, the same year that the enormously popular and influential Sgt. Pepperâs Lonely Hearts Club Band was released, the Velvet Underground released Andy Warhol Presents the Velvet Underground and Nico, an album whose appearance went virtually unnoticed but which contains the true origins of postmodern rock. Any discussion of âthe true origins of postmodern rock,â however, should also acknowledge the equally seminal experimental work of Jimi Hendrix (in albums such as Are You Experienced [l967], Axis: Bold As Love , and especially Electric Ladyland) which, like the work of the Velvets, used technology in the aims of transforming the ways artists and listeners would relate to musical sounds. Like fictional innovators from the same period (Robert Coover, Donald Barthelme, John Barth, and Thomas Pynchon, for example), the Velvet Underground systematically and self-consciously began to re-examine and then openly disrupt their genreâs conventional assumptions about formal unity and beauty, about the âproperâ ways to manipulate their mediumâs elements into a structure, and about the nature of the creative âselfâ and âauthenticity.â Sponsored initially by Andy Warhol, whose role in the postmodernist breakdown of the division between avant-garde and the mainstream is central and ongoing, the Velvets mixed musical styles (folk, minimalism, thrash, jazz, gothic rock) and messages in a way ideally suited for expressing the multiple, contradictory textures of postindustrial urban life. In their early performances in Warholâs multi-media happenings (the âPlastic Exploding Inevitableâ), the Velvetsâ music was presented within a dissolving, multi-genre display of Warhol movies, dance, light shows, and improvisational poetry - a bewildering cacophony of avant-garde noise, light, humans interacting with images and sounds, and the Velvetsâ deliberately dissonant, minimalist three-chord progressions. For a more complete description of the Warhol-produced Plastic Inevitable Explosion performances, see Victor Bockris and Gerard Malangaâs Up-tight: The Velvet Underground Story (New York: Quill, l983).
These performances were composed of discrete parts - photographers taking photos of the audience, dance, different Warhol movies being continuously projected onto the bodies of musicians and other performers, etc. - all presented in a non-hierarchical simultaneity that defiantly refused to cohere in any traditional sense. Although the Velvets were, like the Beatles, interested in the way technology could be used to produce unusual sound effects and distortions, they used technology to capture a raw, ânakedâ sound; thus, in songs like âSister Rayâ and âEuropean Sonâ (both influenced by jazz innovator Ornette Colemanâs equally unconventional notions of dissonance and harmony) they experimented with the effects of repetition, of the accumulated and chance effects of feedback, even the concepts of boredom and willful crudity (cf. Warholâs movies such as Sleep and Empire from the same period), so that a tension develops between the tight, monotonous formal structure and bursts of piercing sounds and pure noise. Often playing with their backs to the audience, and occasionally abandoning the stage altogether while their guitars continued to shriek and drone on, the Velvets also foregrounded the concepts of rock musicians as image or mechanical simulacrum (essentially an extension of Warholâs fascination with the mechanical and reproducible qualities of life and art, the artist-as-machine) in ways that anticipated the more elaborate and playful methods of David Bowie, punk musicians, and more recently, Madonna. In short, the Velvet Underground ushered in the postmodern era of self-conscious, self-referential rock - the rock music that would segue into the glam and punk phenomena of the l970s, into the New York art rock scene of the same period that produced Patti Smith, the New York Dolls, Jim Carroll, and Talking Heads, and which during the 80s would eventually mutate into the rap/scratch/dub and funk collage-sounds of urban blacks, the performance art music of Laurie Anderson, and the peculiar synthesis of jazz/pop/rock of John Zorn, Lester Bowie, and Hal Willner. The topic of the intersection of postmodern aesthetics and contemporary music is large and contains multitudes. Dick Hedbigeâs pioneering study of punk music as a âstyleâ of postmodernism is an excellent starting point for any serious discussion of this topic (Subculture: The Meaning of Style [New York: Metheun, l979). Other musicians and musical trends certainly worthy of further analysis along these lines might include: David Bowie; The New York Dolls (and its lead singer, David Johannsen, who has now resurfaced as the meta-lounge lizard performer, Buster Poindexter); Kip Hanrahan (unduly neglected); Carla Bley and Mike Mantler; Prince; Pere Ubu; Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire and various other âIndustrial Noiseâ bands; David Byrne and the Talking Heads; Kate Bush, Karen Findley, Joanna Went, Diamanda Galas, Nina Hagen and other women artists who combine elements of performance art and music; Captain Beefheart; Frank Zappa; Michael Stipe and R.E.M.; Robert Wilson; The Lounge Lizards; Brian Eno; The Coolies; Metallica, Suicidal Tendencies, Mega Death, Sonic Youth and other âspeed metalâ bands; Tom Waits; Eugene Chadborne; Richard Kostelantetz; Public Image, Ltd.; Lyle Lovett; Randy Newman; the various Black urban ârap,â âscratch,â and âdubâ forms; cyberpunk science fiction (most of whose practitioners were originally members of rock bands); The Residents; Ned Sublette; Jimi Hendrix; the âMusic and Poetry of the Keshâ (a cassette included in Ursula Le Guinâs Always Coming Home; Henry Rollins and Black Flag; Jim Carroll; Gil Evans; Skinny Puppies; various comedians and meta-comedians who blend comedy, music and performance in their work (Andy Kauffman and Steve Martin, for example). Significant, too, has been the use of rock, jazz and other musical forms - as well as the use of rock musicians as actors - in theater and cinema; these uses have now gone well beyond the familiar function of music as providing âbackgroundâ or âatmosphere,â to the point where music and musicians now are playing a major collaborative and intertextual role. And, of course, MTV (which now includes a regular program entitled âPostmodern MTV) provides a 24-hour-a-day illustration of many of these interactions.
The sketchy listing of postmodern rock musicians that I have just supplied should make it clear that, as with their counterparts in fiction, there is no single line of postmodern musical evolution. Although nearly all of the above named figures experimented with the new technologies available within musical studios (and eventually within the film studios, as MTV and rock concert movies became central marketing devices and further narrowed the gap between music and image, art and advertising), what most closely unites postmodern musicians was a more general openness to experimentalism, cross-genre effects, and an ever-greater self-scrutiny and willingness to demolish the conventional boundaries of their form. The legacy of Pop Art has also continued to play a role in experimental rock and jazz as contemporary musicians, like their counterparts in fiction and painting, found themselves simultaneously immersed in and critical of mass culture - a culture âindustryâ of ever-expanding proportions which seemed increasingly impossible to ignore. In postmodern fiction, poetry, art, and music, then, there emerges a parallel attitude - arising from a mix of affection, put on and put down, and joyful freeplay - toward the images, sounds, and language that we consume as they consume us. The same elements of consumption, for better or worse, now define Western culture. In all these postmodernist art forms we see artists deciding to plunge into, digest, and often subvert the profusion of visual, sonic, and information sources that bombard us every day. The result is an immersion within and command of the imagery, sounds, and verbal elements that comprise the postmodern milieu we all inhabit. This is a milieu of near-infinite reproducibility and disposability, a literal and psychological space that has been radically expanded by recent video, computer, digital, XeroxTM, and audio developments, by technologyâs growing efficiency in transforming space and time into consumable sounds and images, and by the populationâs exponentially increased access to cultural artifacts, which can be played, re-played, cut-up, and otherwise manipulated by a casual flick of a switch or joystick.
The very best way to understand the full implications of this postmodern turn in popular music would be to turn on and tune in to the rap masters and video jockeys (V-Jâs) that use radio or television to cut-up, juxtapose, and juggle dozens of media sources and references in a rapid-fire display of intertextual pyrotechnics. But since such a scrutiny lies beyond the print-bound medium in which this essay is delivered, I will illustrate some of the points Iâve been making by referring briefly to three individual musicians, Patti Smith, Laurie Anderson, and John Zorn, saving my most extended remarks for Zorn, one of the most original composers in contemporary music no matter what label we wish to assign to his work. Anyone familiar with the work of Patti Smith and Laurie Anderson knows that their public images and choice of musical idioms are very different. Smith emerged as a central figure of the mid-70s New York punk scene; a published poet, actress (she appeared in numerous underground videos and in Sam Shepardâs The Tooth of the Crime) and rock critic, Smithâs musical performances blended punkâs abrasive sounds with a lyrical content and style heavily influenced by Rimbaud (punkâs avatar), Genet, Shepard, and William S. Burroughs. Her works were partly sung and partly delivered as angry, delirious poetry readings that exploded into magnificent crescendos of hurt, love, and bewilderment. Drawing upon some of the composition methods of Burroughs, Smith often applied cut-up methods to her songs, as she ranged across the history of rock music and lyrics for snippets of words and musical phrases that interacted with her own language and dense, mysterious thickets of sound patterns, tempos and rhythms. For a more complete discussion of Smith and her relationship to âpunk aesthetics,â see Larry McCaffery, âThe Artists of Hell: Kathy Acker and âPunkâ Aesthetics,â in Breaking the Sequence: Womenâs Experimental Fiction, ed. Ellen G. Friedman and Miriam Fuchs (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, l989), pp. 215-230.
Like Patti Smith, Laurie Andersonâs career has its roots in the New York art scene of the early 70s. And there are other significant points of comparison: both developed ambiguous, androgynous stage personas that confounded sexual stereotypes; both were influenced by the Beat authors (and by William S. Burroughs in particular), as well as by Dada; and both relied upon lyrical styles that emphasized collage and reflexiveness as a means of exploring their mutual, obsessive fascination with language generally, and particularly with the failure of language to communicate our most basic fears, longings, and sensory impressions. Much more than Smith, however, Andersonâs music needs to be seen in the wider context of performance art. The components of Andersonâs synthesis - a mixture of literature, theater, music, photography, stand-up comedy, film, architecture, poetry, fantasy, and dance - are, in effect, a veritable landscape of contemporary art, literature, and music. Especially in her large scale performance pieces that were eventually collected into her magnus opus - the two-evening, eight-hour long United States, Parts I-IV (which includes most of the songs that appeared in her first two surprisingly popular albums Big Science (l982) and Mr. Heartbreak (l985) - we see Anderson developing multi-media arrangements of text, image, movement, and musical sounds that employ technologies to present a bemused, often bitterly funny view of technology. Like Michael Stipe of REM, David Byrne of Talking Heads, Captain Beefheart, Brian Eno, and many other recent composers, Andersonâs approach to songwriting takes its cue more from sculptural and painterly notions than from narrative. As she weaves together vignettes, found language and oblique references into verbal and musical collages, Anderson relentlessly circles upon issues central to postmodernism: the slipperiness of language, the way that our alienation and confusion are produced by Big Science and the media, how words and images are created in todayâs world - and how we are inundated and affected by them.
This brings us to a consideration of John Zorn, whose two recent albums, The Big Gundown (l986) and Spillane (l987), perfectly illustrate the postmodern turn Iâve been pointing to in recent music. Zorn is an alto saxophonist and one of avant-garde musicâs most daring composers and original theorists. Although he is usually associated with the current enormously vital jazz scene of lower Manhattan, Zorn in fact has been producing a body of work that systematically demolishes genre distinctions and high brow/low brow divisions, while it opens up radically new approaches to organizing sounds. In collaboration with musicians such as drummer Bobby Previte, saxophonist Tim Berne, keyboardist Wayne Horvitz, and guitarists Bill Frisell and Fred Frith, Zorn has created a music whose âcontentâ and methods of improvisation and composition grow naturally out of our media ageâs longing to recuperate the past and its restless need for new stimuli. Like postmodernist painters and writers of the 60s, Zorn takes for granted his audienceâs familiarity with what Robert Coover has called the âmythic residuesâ of society Robert Coover, âDedicatoria y Prologo a don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra,â in Pricksongs and Descants (New York: Plume, l969), p. 78. - those shards of cultural memory and artifice that simultaneously help organize our responses to the world and tyrannically limit the options of those responses. Like Donald Barthelme and Coover, Warhol and Jasper Johns, Zorn asks his audience not to attempt to deny or ignore these elements (inevitably a fruitless task since society requires such materials) but to play with them and recognize our perceptual relationship to them. Zorn also recognizes that traditional sources of these mythic residues - the Bible, myth, the revered classics of art, painting, music, and literature - have become gradually superceded by the materials and structures of mass and popular culture. Zornâs response to this situation is a quintessentially postmodern one: rather than despair over this âfall,â he creates an exuberant and vital new synthesis of materials, whose sources range from Charles Ives, Harry Partch, surf music, bebop, 60s rock, Japanese music, blues, and Carl Stalling (the composer of the Loony Tunes cartoon soundtracks and, to Zorn, a neglected American genius). Jasper Johnsâ use of targets and the American flag, Warholâs use of soup cans and other familiar visual icons, Dennis Potterâs use of l930s popular film and musical elements (in his Pennies from Heaven Herbert Rossâs 1981 film version of Potters TV mini-series, Pennies from Heaven , was the most innovative and intricately worked out movie musical (or, more precisely, meta-musical) of the 80s. Pennies from Heaven featured Steve Martin (in the performance of his career) as a sheet salesman during the Depression, who drifts into the cheerful fantasy world of the popular songs of the day whenever he needs to escape from a dour existence. Stunning musical numbers, lip-synced from the originals, contrast sharply with the Edward Hopper-esque vision of the period, and provide a perfect illustration of the sort of cross-genre effects that have been central to contemporary cultural aesthetics. Equally innovative was Francis Ford Coppolaâs misunderstood, Noh-theater-influenced One from the Heart [1982; with a fabulous soundtrack with duets by the unlikely pairing of Tom Waits and Crystal Gail]. The Coppola-Noh Theater connection illustrates that while globalization no doubt has many defects, it certainly promotes rapid exchange of cultural information that, at least theoretically, should result in change, new mixes emerging, more possibilities explored, in music as well as all the other arts. and The Singing Detective television series), and Barthelmeâs and Cooverâs use of fairy tales all displayed the way artists could use such âpublicâ materials as a springboard for sustained improvisational purposes. Such materials, while normally seen as being fixed or confined in terms of their âmeaningâ and arrangement, actually contain an inexhaustible source of hidden resonances and recombinatory arrangements.
Zornâs application of these notions is most fully realized in The Big Gundown and Spillane. The general concept for these two albums arose as a result of Zornâs work on Hal Wilnerâs tribute projects for Thelonious Monk and Kurt Weill. Wilner, who has also produced similarly dazzling and unconventional tribute albums for Fellini film composer Nino Rota and Walt Disney songs, selected a wide variety of jazz, rock, pop and avant-garde musicians to do arrangements and interpretations of the songs that frequently resulted in startling transformations and variations of the songs that had grown stale or overly familiar. Although some critics view these tribute compositions as blasphemous or as merely extended jokes or parodies, what was actually afoot here should be obvious to anyone with even a passing acquaintance with poststructuralist critical jargon: âthe death of the author,â difference, jouissance, the âslippageâ and endless play of signifiers, the denial of textual closure, and so on, all help account for Wilnerâs basic intuition that no text (musical or otherwise) has a final meaning or interpretation - and that no interpretation, not even the authorâs or composerâs, can be privileged over any other. As it turns out, Zornâs arrangement of Weillâs âDagmar Krauseâ and Monkâs âIn Walked Budâ were so successful that when producer Yale Evely suggested he arrange an entire album of music by Ennio Morricone (best known for his scores of films by Sergio Leone, Bernardo Bertolucci, and Brian DePalma) Zorn agreed.
The results can be compared with something like Italo Calvinoâs experimental fiction If on a winterâs night a traveler, with Zorn taking listeners on a tour of musical territories weâve all visited before but never experienced in quite this way. Morriconeâs own musical compositions are usually unsettling, peculiar transformations of popular American idioms (analogous, say, to Sergio Leoneâs surreal, Italian versions of Americaâs Wild West mythologies), and, reworked by Zornâs radical composition methods, these works undergo a sea change into something utterly distinctive. Zorn, who has acknowledged his debt to jazz composer and arranger Gil Evans (see, for example, Evans own masterful recuperation of Jimi Hendrixâs music, The Gil Evans Orchestra Plays the Music of Jimi Hendrix [l974]), says in the liner notes to the album that he hears music in âblocks of sound,â and he orchestrates accordingly. Thus, the individual âquotedâ materials in The Big Gundown appear and then dissolve into one another at varying paces; some are inverted, others speeded up or slowed down, while many of them are further transformed by the insertion of bizarre vocal, instrumental, and other sound effects.
It is in the 30-minute title track of Zornâs Spillane album, however, that we can hear this âblocks of soundâ approach to organizing sounds working most successfully. The title refers to hard-boiled detective novelist Mickey Spillane, and the composition itself is a kind of mulligan stew of musical ingredients that Zorn serves up as a musical banquet tribute to Spillane. In his album liner notes, Zorn explained the composition methods involved. âJohn Zorn on his Musicâ [liner notes]. John Zorn, Spillane. Electra/Nonesuch, 1987. After he had thoroughly researched his subject - which turns out to be not only Spillane but the whole tradition of detective fiction and its film noire relative - Zorn wrote his findings on filing cards. Some of these cards contained biographical data; others were sounds that Zorn associates with Spillane, his work and detective films (windshield wipers, rain falling, screams, gunshots, phone rings, bar crowds, and so on). Zorn then meticulously organized these cards into the order that eventually created the linear progression of the composition. Zorn explains in the liner notes to Spillane that, âSometimes I bring in written music and I run it down to the players, layering and molding it as it is being played. Other times Iâll simply say something like, âAnthony, play some cheesy cocktail pianoâ or, âBill, go and improvise My Gun is Quick,â and weâll do take after take until weâre all happy that every note is perfect.â Interestingly enough, although the complex, rapidly evolving textures of âSpillaneâ sound as if they been achieved by tape editing, Zorn announces proudly that it was done âthe hard way, manâ - by recording each section in a live performance, without relying on overdubbing layers of instrumentation.
Like most of Zornâs other pieces, Spillane is a mixture of improvised and notated elements, including brief prose texts by Arto Lindsay that are read by Jonathan Lurie in a voice that is eerily and hilariously appropriate for the ambiance being established. The results are roughly equivalent to the âprose assemblagesâ one associates with the language poets such as Ron Silliman and Bruce Andrews and with fiction writers such as Kathy Acker, Harold Jaffe, and Donald Barthelme, in which a single theme or image is used to hold together otherwise disparate materials (obviously there are equally valid analogies that one can make with painterly and sculptural assemblages). MTV-like in its rapid pacings and the heterogeneous nature of its materials, âSpillaneâ evolves and moves forward as a free-associative work that presents a composite aural portrait of its subject in a spirit of playful homage and exuberance. Operating at the boundaries of postmodernismâs reinvestigations of artistic originality and compositional processes, John Zornâs music perfectly illustrates the ways that developments within popular music have been busy assimilating the chief aesthetic and cultural evident in other contemporary art forms.
APPENDIX: ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED ENTRIES
ART and Cinema School. There can be little doubt that the feedback loop of influences and borrowings occurring between rock and the art world during the 60s and 80s was a crucial factor (though there were others, of course) in the excitement, creativity, and openness to experimentalism that characterized rock during both of these mind- and genre-expanding periods. Indeed, despite its populist origins, and the general âanti-artâ flavor of much of its posturing, rock music has since the mid-60s been co-evolving with avant-garde branches of the art world, cinema, and jazz by establishing a feedback loop of influences and borrowings that have been mutually supportive. There have been many factors contributing to the general lack of vitality in rock music during the post 80s decade but certainly one reason is that thereâs been a parallel absence of life in the avant-garde art scene during the same period - and an absence, as well, of any single charismatic figure from the avant-garde possessing the kind of broad cultural influence that figures like Warhol and Cage did in the 60s and 70s, and Burroughs did during the punk and post-punk New Wave period of the late 70s and 80s.
An AUTODECONSTRUCTIVE Reading of the Original 1989 âWhite Noiseâ Essay. I should note that the rhetorical assurance in âWhite Noiseâ can be read as being as part of a larger strategy of dramatic irony - i.e., that while purporting to use âpostmodernismâ as a central trope (possibly as a âcome onâ to entice his musically-challenged book-reading âpreyâ), the text of the original essay may actually be an elaborate joke, one which displays or performs a number of postmodernismâs worst features for deconstructive purposes. For instance, consider the implications of the unusual way postmodernism is constructed or defined at the very outset of the essay, whose use of conditional âLetâs sayâ¦â immediately established that all claims being made about postmodernism here are conditional. Likewise, note the way that the frequent placement of quotation marks around âpostmodernismâ for ironic purposes suggests the term is being used ambiguously or inappropriately - and eventually eats away at postmodernismâs foundations until the whole structure collapses. The effect is analogous to the way demolition experts bring down enormous structures by detonating a small but strategically placed number of explosions. Then: BOOM, the ugly, outdated building disappears in a cloud of smoke, and when the air clears, you can start putting up a newer, better, more suitable building.
AVANT-POP, or Reconfiguring the Cultural Logic of Hyperconsumer Capitalism. Avant-Pop combines Pop Artâs focus on consumer goods and mass media with the avant-gardeâs spirit of subversion and emphasis on radical formal innovation. The âcontentâ of Pop and Avant -Pop overlap to the extent that they both focus on consumer products - particularly media âproductsâ (television shows, movies, pop music, etc.), advertising images, and other pop cultural materials. Avant-Pop also shares with Pop Art the insight that pop cultural imagery has considerable untapped potential as a medium for artistic expression - that mass produced materials could be shown to be aesthetically interesting and appealing once they were removed from their familiar commercial context. On the other hand, whereas Pop Artists tended to appropriate pop cultural materials as something to be faithfully duplicated and left untransformed, Avant-Pop tends to rely on considerably more flexible strategies which often amount to active collaborations with, rather than neutral presentation of, the original materials.
Avant-Popâs emphasis on collaborative strategies would also seem to differentiate it from the avant-garde. Like the avant-garde, Avant-Pop often relies on the use of radical aesthetic methods to confuse, confound, bewilder, piss off and generally blow the fuses of ordinary citizens exposed to it (a âdeconstructive strategyâ) - but just as frequently it does so with the intention of creating a sense of delight, amazement, and amusement (âreconstructiveâ). This willingness to enter âenemyâ territory for any reason other than to plant a bomb was, of course, foreign to the avant-gardeâs ways of thinking, but in fact this tendency emerged largely due to a basic realignment which had been occurring between the avant-garde and mass culture. Instead of being engaged in a Darwinian survival of the fittest struggle for dominance, these two avowed, life-long enemies have co-evolved so that by the early 1980s, they existed in a new relationship to one another - a web of interactively that created a feedback loop in which information, stylistic tendencies, narrative archetypes, and character representations were rapidly exchanged with one another in such a way as to be ultimately mutually supportive. It seemed strange, but the enemy was no longer the enemy. In fact, if either of them died the other would be either severely weakened or (in the case of the avant-garde) die off completely. [See also Lester BOWIE ]
Selective BIBLIOGRAPHY and DISCOGRAPHY (Includes List of Works Consulted).
Anderson, Laurie. Big Science. Warner Brothers, 1982.
____________. Mr. Heartbreak. Warner Brothers, 1985.
____________. United States, I-IV. Warner Brothers, 1984.
___________. United States, I-IV [book version released with the album]. NY: Harper and Row, 1984.
Benjamin, Walter. âThe Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.â In Illuminations Hannah Arendt, ed. Trans. Harry Zohn. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, l968, pp. 219 - 226.
Bergman, Bill, and Richard Horn. Recombinant Do Re Mi: Frontiers of the Rock Era. NY: Quill, 1985.
Bockris, Victor and Gerard Malanga. up - tight: The Velvet Underground Story. New York: Quill, l983.
Cage, John. Year from Monday. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Coover, Robert, âDedicatoria y Prologo a don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra.â In Pricksongs and Descants (New York: Plume, l969), p. 78.
Costello, Mark and David Foster Wallace. Signifying Rappers: Rap and Race in the Urban Present.
Cross, Alan. The Alternate Music Almanac. Collectorâs Guide Publishing, Inc., 1995.
Foege, Alec. Confusion is Next - The Sonic Youth Story. NY: St. Martinâs, 1994.
Gendron, Bernard. âJamming at Le Boueuf: Jazz and the Paris Avant-Garde.â Discourse 12, 1 (Fall/Winter 1989 - 90): 3 - 27.
Hedbige, Dick. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. New York: Metheun, l979.
Jameson, Fredric. âPostmodernism, or The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism.â New Left Review, No. l46 (July - August l984), pp. 53 - 94.
Marcus, Greil. Lipstick Traces: A Secret History of the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989. Rock musicâs finest critic traces a lineage for the evolution of the punk aesthetic and world view to some surprising places, including the Paris Commune of the 1870s and the rise of the Situationist movement.
_________. Mystery Train: Images of America in RockânâRoll. Fourth revised edition. NY: Plume; 1975, 1997.
McCaffery, Larry. âThe Artists of Hell: Kathy Acker and âPunkâ Aesthetics.â In Ellen G. Friedman and Miriam Fuchs, eds., Breaking the Sequence: Womenâs Experimental Fiction. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, l989, pp. 215 - 230.
__________. âIntroduction.â In Larry McCaffery, ed., Postmodern Fiction: A Bio-Bibliographical Guide, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, l986), pp. xi - xxviii.
__________. âStill Life After Yesterdayâs Crash (Editorâs Preface]. After Yesterdayâs Crash - The Avant-Pop Anthology. NY: Penguin, 1995, pp. xi - xxxi. [This introduction to the first mainstream anthology of Avant-Pop fiction provides a useful overview of the evolution and significance of the Avant-Pop sensibility.]
__________. âWhite Noise/White Heat: The Postmodern Turn in Rock Music,â American Book Review 12:1 (March/April 1990), 4, 27.
__________. âWhite Noise: Die postmoderne Wende in der Rockmusik.â Littre International 52 (Spring 2001): 90 - 94.
Rose, Tricia. Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press, 1994. Placing rap within the context of the recent evolution of black music and of the contemporary culture emerging from the urban ghettoes, Roseâs study was one of the first, and still probably the best, critical studies of rap.
Sobchack, Vivian. Screening Space: The American Science Fiction. New York: Ungar, l988. Zorn. John. âJohn Zorn on his Musicâ [Liner notes]. Spillane. Electra/Nonesuch, 1987.
____________. The Big Gundown: John Zorn plays the music of Ennio Morricone. Icon Records (Electra/Nonesuch), 1976.
Lester BOWIE. I borrowed the term âavant-popâ from the title of a 1986 album by Lester Bowie, the great jazz trumpet player and composer best known for his work with the wildly inventive Art Ensemble of Chicago. Listening to the ways Bowie used the basic structures and âcontentâ of such familiar pop tunes as âCrazyâ and âBlueberry Hillâ as a springboard for producing a collaborative, improvisatory new work was instrumental (no pun intended) in beginning the process of my thinking of what I was to later term âThe Avant-Pop Phenomenon.â The results of Bowieâs treatments of this earlier material were at once zingingly ironic and funny, and yet also genuinely expansive. Subjected to Bowieâs alchemical imagination, the bland and utterly familiar elements of these simple pop tunes had undergone a remarkable sea change into some fresh and surprising - these materials which had seemed so simple and exhausted were in fact capable of being recycled in such a way that had opened up them, exposing the numerous layers of resonances and aesthetic possibilities that had been lying there all along, invisible to most peopleâs eyes, but patiently waiting for just the right moment when an aesthetic explorer such as Bowie might come along who was capable of recognizing their untapped possibilities.
It immediately occurred to me that such methods were analogous to those being used by postmodern fiction writers like Kathy Ackerâs âre-writesâ of classic novels (e.g. Great Expectations and Don Quixote), or the various âcover versionsâ of Biblical stories, myths, and fairy tales by Donald Barthelme, Robert Coover, John Barth, and Steve Katz. In this regard, Bowieâs approach to composition is exemplary of Avant-Pop aesthetics in general: rather than ignoring pop materials, or introducing them as some
Well, back to the fray this week after a two week break - though my wife, nephew and I did pop in for a cup of tea last week. Â The volunteers managed fine without me though they said they missed my pc skills and my knack for dealing with council machinery - a few swear-y words and a quick kick usually does the trick. Â
To celebrate Hugh Falconer's 200th birthday on 29th Feb we held a birthday card competition and so the volunteers sorted through the entries over the last fortnight and came up with the winners. Â In the 5 - 12 age group the winner was Jenny Mitchell of Dallas Primary School and in the 13 - 17 category the winner was a joint entry by Hannah Rossiter and Kirstin McGrath of Forres Academy.
Whilst I was away the volunteers not only judged the card competition but also spent their time making more bookmarks for giving away at workshops/visits etc, printing some more tee-shirts, choosing objects for the summer exhibition and, of course, Â creating yet another version of descriptor labels for the upstair cases. Â They had problems getting the printers to work though and that had to be left until this week. Â Mind you, I'm still stumped by the xerox printing centre - it keeps asking for A4 to be loaded! Â I think if we need b&w printing done its better to do things on our own laptop and dedicated printer. Â No doubt there will be a full investigation into things when the professionals return from sickness and maternity leave.
So, this week it was a case of dry mounting the descriptor labels and picking more objects for the summer exhibition - an expanded "Forres High Street" exhibition. Â It was such a miserable day that everyone was a bit put off by the weather so there wasn't the usual energy in the lab. Â The new gate which has been put up at the entrance proved even more difficult to open (and shut) in the torrential rain. Â Only on a council gate would you have the padlock on the inside!
Big news this week though is that we are going to change the volunteer sessions to Friday mornings between 10:30 and 12:30. Â Though I had initially wanted the change so that we wouldnt be trying to share the same space as the museums officer it turns out the new day better suits most of the volunteers anyway. Â
We're still coping without the two museum professionals. Â This maybe shows that the Friends are now capable of holding our own and can play a large part in giving the town and surrounding areas a pretty decent museums service. Â Its quite shocking though that so little money is spent on the service. Â What happened to education, education, education? Â We've long since thrown of the stuffy academic image and thanks especially to Mark Macleod, our last Project Development Officer, have shown groups and schools that we can be a fun place to learn. Â Better stop or this will turn into a rant.
XMPie, a Xerox Company, today announced it will be showcasing its award-winning Campaigns-on-Demand feature at the coming AlphaGraphics 2017 Annual Conference in Orlando, Florida. Campaigns-on-Demand (âCoDâ), winner of a 2016 Graph Expo MUST...
NORWALK, Conn., Feb. 3, 2017 â XMPie, AÂ XeroxÂ Company, has been placed by Gartner, Inc. in the Leaders Quadrant of the 2017 Magic Quadrant for Customer Communication Management (CCM) Software. In the report, 15...
Joi, 8 octombrie 2009, la ora 16.00 se va deschide a zecea expozitie din seria Young Romanian Art, ce are loc in Noua Galerie a ICR Venetia. Expozitia se numeste âslightly boredâ, fiind o expozitie de grup, ce cuprinde lucrari de Alina Samoschi, Dragos Platon si Claudiu Ciobanu.
Ne scaldam in plictiseala ca intr-o piscina mai mare. Fiecare din noi are cate un loc bine precizat. Cineva sta langa calculator. Altcineva e in picioare, langa xerox. Vorbim cu totii la telefon. Daca ne-ai intreba ce facem, cum ne simtim, am incerca poate sa facem lucrurile sa para un pic mai blande si am spune ca suntem usor plictisiti.
Chiar si afara, imbracati in hainele noastre de firma, pozand cu zambetul pe buze. Si acolo stam cu totii in acelasi lichid. Apa inchide nuantele hainelor pana ce ele devin cu totul albe. Din ele ramane doar un contur.
Superficiali si inutili, sau poate doar amuzati pana la suprafata, parem eleganti, ingandurati, profesionisti. Ne place sa credem poate ca suntem doar usor nemultumiti.
Young Romanian Art este proiectul de rezidenta al lui Mircea Nicolae, organizatorul si curatorul celor 14 expozitii din perioada iulie - octombrie 2009. Aceasta serie de expozitii cu durata de o saptamana urmareste promovarea artei tinere romanesti in timpul Bienalei de Arta de la Venetia 2009.
The Alternative Rock explosion of the early 90s was fueled by a wave of great singers. After a lost decade of metallic shriekers and New Wave gurglers-- which some call the 80s-- there was suddenly an embarrassment of strong voices revitalizing rock music, especially hard rock music. Most of these had cut their teeth on punk and hardcore and subsequently learned to trim back the fat and excess that torpedoed their 70s forebears. They also learned to step around the wretched excesses that ran the 80s metal explosion into the ground; cookie-cutter sameness, image over substance, half-written songs, cliche piled on cliche. Alternative rock would itself get watered down and xeroxed into oblivion, especially as careerists figured out a way to counterfeit the formula (I'm looking at you, Candlebox and Seven Mary Three) and record companies signed up every pseudo-grunge band they could find (and strong-armed other acts to hop on the bandwagon). By the end of the 90s it all devolved into an obnoxious fratboy rock (I'm looking at you, Limp Bizkit and Creed) that reached its inevitable apotheosis at the disastrous Woodstock '99 (held on a decommissioned military base). But before that all went down some of the most vital and exciting rock music of all time was produced. Alternative Rock, or more accurately GenX Rock, has taken its place in the classic rock canon. Tracks by Nirvana, Soundgarden, Stone Temple Pilots and the Red Hot Chili Peppers are snuggled in tightly between all the Led Zeppelin, Aerosmith and Pink Floyd cuts overplayed on FM radio. But five of the most remarkable vocalists of that era- Kurt Cobain, Layne Staley, Jeff Buckley, Scott Weiland and now Chris Cornell--- are lost to us. And the 9-ton Tyrannosaurus lurking in the back of the concert hall is that modern plague, clinical depression. It's a subject I'm all too familiar with. It's the witches' curse on Generation X. Chris Cornell was an enigmatic figure among the Grunge pantheon. If Kurt Cobain was the snotty punk, Eddie Vedder the self-serious poet, Layne Staley the tortured howler and Scott Weiland the Joker in the pack, Cornell was an entirely unique presence, as was Soundgarden. Tall, lean but ripped, possessing an odd, androgynous beauty and an enviable black mane, he came across as aloof, Olympian. His piercing, multi-octave voice felt like a weapon, more like an incarnation of Apollo the Destroyer than Ozzy Osbourne. Similarly, Soundgarden was perhaps the most effective translator of the power of early Black Sabbath yet, but were brainy, difficult, challenging. They were unmistakably Heavy Metal-- in the original, Blue Cheer definition of the term --but didn't shriek the usual ditties about dick size and date rape. It was pretty clear they had no time for that kind of nonsense (See "Big Dumb Sex"). It was clear they took as much inspiration from King Crimson and Black Flag as from Zeppelin and Sabbath. Their first major single was an epic environmentalist jeremiad that goofed on Metal's "kill-your-mother-music" reputation by screaming "you're going to kill your mother" in the refrain. The mother here being Mother Earth, of course. Predictably, Chris Cornell's corpse was literally not cold yet before the modern ambulance chasers of the Internet were declaring it was obviously an Illuminati sacrifice. One hilarious YouTard video went on about how there was no other explanation for Cornell's death, that he'd have no reason to kill himself. Obviously someone who never actually listened to a single stitch of Soundgarden. Like Ian Curtis-- who hung himself 37 years almost to the day before-- many of Cornell's lyrics read like suicide notes. After all, this is a man who kicked off one of his biggest hits with the couplet "Nothing seems to kill me/ No matter how hard I try." Two of his other big hits "Black Hole Sun" and "Fell on Black Days" are practically master classes in the art of expressing the utter hopelessness ("'Neath the black the sky looks dead") that can overtake you when a depressive episode strikes. The same goes for Soundgarden's breakout hit, "Outshined," practically a hymn about searching for a crack of sunlight while waiting a dire episode out. "The Day I Tried to Live" is even more astonishing, a documentary retelling of those mornings when depression- aggression turned inwards- becomes aggression turned on the world outside. Cornell was very candid about his struggles with depression. In an interview with Rolling Stone he discussed the inspiration for "Fell on Black Days":
This reissue includes several versions of "Fell on Black Days," which is pretty dark. What inspired it?
â¨Well, I had this idea, and I had it for a long time. I'd noticed already in my life where there would be periods where I would feel suddenly, "Things aren't going so well, and I don't feel that great about my life." Not based on any particular thing. I'd sort of noticed that people have this tendency to look up one day and realize that things have changed. There wasn't a catastrophe. There wasn't a relationship split up. Nobody got in a car wreck. Nobody's parents died or anything. The outlook had changed, while everything appears circumstantially the same. That was the song I wanted to write about.
No matter how happy you are, you can wake up one day without any specific thing occurring to bring you into a darker place, and you'll just be in a darker place anyway. To me, that was always a terrifying thought, because that's something that â as far as I know â we don't necessarily have control over. So that was the song I wanted to write.
It wasn't just for the gloom-metal gimmick of Soundgarden that Cornell laid bare his struggles. They crept into tracks he recorded with Audioslave- the supergroup made up of Cornell and the musicians of Rage Against the Machine, including their biggest hit "Like a Stone." Cornell was also candid about his history with clinical depression, which he traced back to a somewhat hardscrabble upbringing.
Cornell abstained from drug use for a time following an adverse reaction to the hallucinogenic PCP, but the frightening, dissociative experience, coupled with the trauma of his parentâs divorce, plunged him into a severe depression. âI went from being a daily drug user at 13 to having bad drug experiences and quitting drugs by the time I was 14 and then not having any friends until the time I was 16. There was about two years where I was more or less agoraphobic and didnât deal with anybody, didnât talk to anybody, didnât have any friends at all.â
And clearly showing that he also struggled with suicidal ideation, Cornell foreshadowed his own end in an interview with Guitar.com, saying, âYouâll think somebody has run-of-the-mill depression, and then the next thing you know, theyâre hanging from a rope." Writer Kate Paulk wrote about the black dog of depression recently and offered up an apt metaphor lifted from pop culture:
Letâs start by clearing up one thing. Sadness, grieving in response to a lossâ¦ that is not depression. Itâs sadness. Grief. It passes with time, and even at its worst there are moments of joy and hope. Depression is not like that. Everything is poisoned.
J. K. Rowling is describing depression when she describes the Dementors and their impact. Get too near a Dementor and every good feeling, every happy memory will be sucked out of you.
This is precisely what depression does. There is an absence of hope, an inability to believe that there can ever be anything positive in your life again. That isnât sadness or grief, and it isnât necessarily expressed by tears.
Cornell was also a substance abuser and dove headlong into an opioid addiction after Soundgarden split in 1997. It may well have come from a chronic pain issue, closely related to chronic depression:
People with depression show abnormalities in the bodyâs release of its own, endogenous, opioid chemicals. Depression tends to exacerbate painâit makes chronic pain last longer and hurts the recovery process after surgery.
âDepressed people are in a state of alarm,â said Mark Sullivan, a professor of psychiatry at the University of Washington. âTheyâre fearful, or frozen in place. Thereâs a heightened sense of threat.â That increased threat sensitivity might also be what heightens sensations of pain.
Opioids certainly aren't very effective painkillers in the long term but they are very effective anesthetics when you're struggling with chronic depression.
Opioids treat pain, but depression and pain are often comorbid, and some antidepressants relieve neuropathic pain even in the absence of depression. Depression involves dysfunction in monoamine systems, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and hippocampal neurogenesis, but could it also be rooted in a deficit of endorphins, or even an endopharmacological withdrawal state?
Before the modern antidepressant era, depression was often treated with opiatesâwith a sometimes heavy price of addiction.
The real hell of opioids is that they rewire your brain, causing the natural processes that regulate depression and euphoria to atrophy. Depression can skyrocket when you stop taking them, since your brain basically forgot how to produce sufficient amounts of the neurotransmitters that manage your moods.
u-agonists relieve depression-like behavior acutely, but tolerance develops, and depression is worse on withdrawal from long-term administration. Delta-agonists appear to improve mood, while kappa-agonists worsen it. There is evidence that opioid dysfunction accounts for lack of pleasure in depression, while problems with dopamine impair motivation. Opioid systems, then, participate in many mood-related functions. They are examples of evolutionary repurposing of neurotransmitters that originally evolved for one purpose to meet a variety of other needs.
Cornell died on the evening May 17th, 2017, shortly after performing a concert with Soundgarden in Detroit, MI. His death was met with shock by many; his representative described it as "sudden and unexpected," adding that the singer's family will be "working closely with the medical examiner to determine the cause."
Hours after his death was reported, the Wayne County Medical Examiner's office ruled Chris' death a suicide by hanging. According to Us Weekly, a family friend had found Cornell on the bathroom floor of his MGM Grand hotel room. ABC News also reported that two Detroit papers claimed that Cornell was found with "a band around his neck," though Detroit Police spokesman Michael Woody could not confirm that information.
Cornell's wife, Vicky, released a statement on his death on Friday, May 19th, 2017, in which she cast doubts that his suicide was intentional. In fact, on the day of his death, Vicky claimed they had "discussed plans for a vacation over Memorial Day and other things we wanted to do." "When we spoke after the show, I noticed he was slurring his words; he was different. When he told me he may have taken an extra Ativan or two, I contacted security and asked that they check on him," she said.
"What happened is inexplicable and I am hopeful that further medical reports will provide additional details," she continued. "I know that he loved our children and he would not hurt them by intentionally taking his own life."
I think the fact that Cornell ad-libbed verses from "In My Time of Dying" over a rendition of "Slaves and Bulldozers" during the closing encore in Detroit gives a fairly compelling signal that he had resolved himself to a course of action that night. Despite an incredibly shaky performance he seemed in good spirits to some, all too common with depressives resolved to suicide. But others noticed he seemed irritable and unfocused, forgetting the lyrics. He complimented the Detroit audience and then said, "I feel sorry for the next city." An extra Ativan or two is unlikely to induce suicide. But long-term use of it (it's recommended that lorezepam-- a member of the highly-problematic benzodiazepene family-- be used only a short term basis) might. And it's very possible he took an extra dose of the drug to gird his loins for a decision he had already made:
Suicidality: Benzodiazepines may sometimes unmask suicidal ideation in depressed patients, possibly through disinhibition or fear reduction. The concern is that benzodiazepines may inadvertently become facilitators of suicidal behavior. Therefore, lorazepam should not be prescribed in high doses or as the sole treatment in depression, but only with an appropriate antidepressant.
Depression and suicidal ideation go hand in glove. And there are all kinds of psychiatric drugs that tell you upfront that suicidal ideation is a major side effect. How that doesn't keep them off the market is a mystery to me. The other problem is that people who obsess on suicide usually don't talk about it with people close to them since they realize that confessing to it will very likely act to derail what they have been planning. And again, professionals will tell you that very often when a depressive has resolved themselves to suicide they can often seem very cheerful and upbeat, since they believe that their suffering will soon end. So the question becomes if a rich, celebrated and handsome rock star can't find a reason to stay alive, what hope is there for the rest of us? Well, it's a lot more complicated than that. Aside from his struggles with clinical depression, Cornell was also beset by tragedy, losing people closest to him to early death. The first of these was his roommate Andrew Wood, the flamboyant singer for legendary Seattle band Mother Love Bone who died of a heroin overdose in 1990. Cornell was so shaken by Wood's death that he formed a defacto supergroup with members of MLB and recorded the now-legendary Temple of the Dog album as a tribute, which produced the grunge anthem "Hunger Strike" (featuring a duet between Cornell and future Pearl Jam star Eddie Vedder). Temple of the Dog in fact led to the formation of Pearl Jam, facilitated by the introduction of Vedder to the Seattle scenesters by drummer Jack Irons, a member of the original Red Hot Chili Peppers who also played with Pearl Jam and Joe Strummer, among an army of others. Strangely enough, Irons has his own struggles with depression. As did Joe Strummer, for that matter. The Muses choose broken vessels. It's a Secret Sun truism. Cornell was so shaken by Wood's death that it would haunt Soundgarden songs as well.
The song you workshopped the most was "Like Suicide." In the liner notes, you say it kind of became a metaphor for how you were feeling at the time about late Mother Love Bone frontman Andy Wood.
Yeah, the lyrics were actually this simple moment that happened to me. I don't know that I ever directly related it to Andy, though there are a lot of songs that people probably don't know where there were references to him or how I was feeling about what happened with him. I just think that that was something that happened to me that was a traumatic thing and that I had a difficult time resolving it. I still never really have. I still live with it, and that's one of the moments where maybe in some ways it could have shown up, but I'm not really sure specifically where.
Another body blow was the 1994 death of Kurt Cobain, another friend who died in time to cast a pall of existential darkness over Soundgarden's epochal Superunknown album, released a month before Cobain's death. So even as Soundgarden were enjoying their moment, death and tragedy revisited Cornell. (Cobain had his own issues, exacerbated by years of opioid abuse, but there are those of us who don't buy the suicide angle in this particular case). It had to hurt, especially since Cobain had told Cornell that Soundgarden has inspired him to form Nirvana in the first place. Superunknown was an instant classic, easily one of the top 10 Hard Rock albums ever recorded, hammering you with one killer track after another. Along with Stone Temple Pilots' Purple album, Pearl Jam's Vitalogy and several others it established 1994 as the watershed for Alernative Rock, despite Cobain's death and Nirvana's dissolution. Soundgarden's 1996 follow-up Down on the Upside, failed to capitalize on its predecessor's momentum, and seem to showcase a band uncertain of direction and sense of purpose. No one was really surprised when Soundgarden broke up the following year. Oddly enough the breakup seemed to go down almost exactly three years after Kurt Cobain's death.
But Tragedy wasn't finished with Cornell yet. Shortly after Soundgarden broke up Cornell would lose another soulmate.
He lost two friends within the space of a few years. Cobain died in 1994 and, three years later, singer-songwriter Jeff Buckley, practically a brother to Cornell, drowned while swimming in a tributary of the Mississippi in Tennessee.
"Kurt was fairly quiet and introverted most of the time. Jeff was the opposite. He was very much full of life and had a lot to say. He was somebody in love with experiencing everything. Within a very short time, he had all these famous old rock stars coming to his shows. Which put a a lot of pressure on him. People talked about his concerts the way they used to talk about Hendrix: they'd sit there, wide-eyed, telling you stories about him. He definitely had an aura. It's impossible to say what it is exactly a guy like that has, that is so attractive to other people. But he had more of it than anyone I had ever met."
Of course, this brings all this squarely into the Secret Sun wheelhouse.Cornell would be haunted by Buckley's death, writing the aching "Wave Goodbye" (in which he seems to channel Buckley's ghost) for his first solo album and acting as a de facto executor-slash-curator for Buckley's posthumous releases.
This tells us a lot, since the 20th anniversary of Jeff Buckley's death is coming up fast and furious. Cornell showed he was clearly still haunted by Buckley's passing when he brought the late singer's old landline phone onstage with him during his 2011 acoustic solo tour.
KALAMAZOO â I've had several people ask about the red phone that was on stage during Chris Cornell's 130-minute set at the Kalamazoo State Theatre last week. Cornell never addressed it during the show and it never rang, so I didn't think much of it. After another reader asked Monday, I looked into it.
According to a representative with the New York-based Press Here Publicity, which handled promotion for Cornell's solo tour, the phone belonged to singer/songwriter Jeff Buckley.
As Secret Sun readers will remember, the last song Jeff Buckley sang before his death was "Whole Lotta Love", a blues standard that Led Zeppelin turned into what one critic called "a themonuclear rape." And it would be "In My Time of Dying," another old blues standard that Led Zeppelin turned into a jackhammering stomper that acted as Cornell's own self-elegy. This, along with the timing of Ian Curtis's own death by hanging in 1980 seems a bit too synchronized for Cornell's death to be some kind of mad whim because he took too much Ativan. As painful as it might be to admit, it seems as if this was probably a very long time coming. After all, this is the man who wrote "Pretty Noose." So it seems apparent that it wasn't the Illuminati but in fact the demon possession of depression that took Chris Cornell away from his family. With many of his closest friends gone and the glory days of the 90s more and more a fading memory in a world itself gripped by chronic depression, I can't say I'm surprised by the suicide ruling. The life of the rock star in 2017 is a galaxy away from the golden age of the rock star in 1977. It's become a grueling job in the age of streaming and piracy, since you need to make all your money on the road now. Spending your life traveling from one brutalist concrete box to another when you're fifty-two is surely a lot less appealing than when you're twenty-two. If there's any good to come of this tragedy it's to understand that depression isn't some kind of scarlet letter, it's an inevitable result of what one scientist called "the greatest blind experiment in history," the bombardment of our brains and bodies with every manner of stimulus and stress imaginable, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year and then some. Having spend my teenage years in the white-hot cauldron of hardcore punk I can tell you that that kind of hyperstimulation had -- how do I put this? --less than a salutary effect on a lot of people I knew. Seeing that same formula translated into the mainstream culture goes a long way in explaining why depression has become the great mass epidemic of our time. Now it's claimed another trophy and we're all the poorer for it. But as the Greeks and Romans once said, vita brevis ars longa. French philosophers once said that the invention of motion pictures had conquered death, that people would now live on forever once they were recorded. I guess the same goes for recorded music as well. So I think it's safe to say that after three decades of music, Chris Cornell has earned his place among the immortals. Let's hope someone learns something from his story.
In UI design, what scenario should hollow icons and solid icons be applied to? Some believe that the hollow icons are visually more complex than the solid icons, while the solid icons are in fact more recognizable.
The opinions of designers on this topic varies. Some designers think that the hollow icons is made by lines, as a result of which, they are more difficult to recognize. However, they gives users a feeling of ease and exquisiteness. Others deem that the recognizability has nothing to do with this topic, but depends on the shape, color and other factors of the icon.
1. The function of icons.
First, this topic focuses on a specific type of icons: functional icon. Letâs take a look at the basic functions of this type of icons.
Functional icons are common in life, usually seen in the airport, stations, hotels, shopping malls and other large public places, providing guidance to people, as shown below:
In UI design, icons are one of the most common elements. The use of the icon originated in the Macintosh 1.0, even in the earlier Xerox graphical interface began. They are often given functions like action, description and so on.
Since the release of the smart phone system so far, the style of graphical interface has completed the transformation from the material design to the flat design evolution. With the introduction of ios7, almost all of the icons in Apps are becoming more and more flat and slim. The reason of it is that the over-eye-catching icons usually reduce the readability of the contents.
In general, the most basic function of the icons is to convey the information quickly.
In today's design work, the matching of icons and texts has reached a point of obsession. In fact, it is enough to express some abstract concepts with text. Putting an icon aside actually helps nothing about making users build connections between the icon and its function.
Nevertheless, icons are still relatively important. The function of icons is far more than âtelling users the meaning on the first sightâ. In addition, there are also many important features like immediate locating, content layer distinguishing and interface rhythm increasing.
Take a prototype example on Mockplus for example, if you just see the icons without the texts, the meaning of them is quite obscure. However, the functions of icons are more than that. The icons in the prototype is solid. The icons and the text together form a unity, in which the icons plays a role of alignment. If you remove the icons, the information in the list will be indistinguishable and there will be a visual confusion. Users will face more difficulty when focusing on the options on a line.
2. Are solid icons more recognizable?
Given that you were summoned by the call of nature and rushed into the big mall to find the rest room. Solid icons or hollow icons? Which can be recognized more quickly?
Solid icons are indeed more recognizable in the perspective of visual attraction. The following picture shows the influence of the elements that are attractive to the human eye (sorted from left to right):
Hollow icons attract the eye by their shapes while the solid ones do the same by their color. As a result, hollow icons are more difficult to recognize.
As early as the iOS7 system was introduced, there have been some discussion about this topic. Curt Arledge, an experienced designer who graduated from Viget, wrote an APP specifically, and did 1260 recognition tests for solid and hollow icons , look at the test results:
The results found that the difference of the speed of recognizing these two types of icons is just 0.1 seconds.
In the first group, the solid icons won. These icons are derived from life, the icons kept their original meanings. The recognition speed depends on how much the color and shape attract the eyes. So the solid icons are easier to recognize.
It is worth noting that the three hollow icons are more recognizable in the second group.
These three icons are abstracted from subjects in real life, among which the speech bubble does not exists at all. Designers create this icon in the graphical interface and endow it with a meaning; The forms of garbage bin and keys are various in life, so the icons of them are abstract summaries of them. In this case, the shape of the icons allows users to quickly identify the meaning of the icons, while the colors has become a factor of interference.
So, for icons expressing the same meaning of the original subjects, solid icons are more recognizable. For icons that endowed with abstract meanings, hollow icons are better.
Whether you specifically own a business or company or you just want to make sure that your office has the best equipment, shopping for printers is a huge task. Whether itâs a printer for small business or one for a large corporation, these business printers need to do lots of jobs, including printing in many different ways, scanning and working as office photocopiers. Some office printers are also in charge of sending faxes. When it comes to finding the best office printer for your office, use the following guidelines.
We are looking for a Team leader to join the multicultural and dynamic team, with opportunities to learn and develop his/her skills within Xerox.
As a Customer Service Representative, you are responsible for handling incoming traffic (by telephone, mai...
QÃ«llimi i Xerox ShkodÃ«r Ã«shtÃ« zgjerimi dhe diversiteti.
KÃ«rkoni njÃ« vend pune? Apliko nÃ« Xerox, ne tÃ« presim ty!
Tek Xerox do tÃ« gjeni: - Fushata nÃ« GjuhÃ«n Italiane dhe Gjermane
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Xerox ShkodÃ«r operon me fushatat Inbound nÃ« gjuhÃ«n Italiane.
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A prefeitura de Nova IguaÃ§u convocou na semana passada mais uma leva de docentes aprovados no concurso de 03 de junho de 2012. No Edital nÂº 018/2015 constam 182 nomes para cobrir as carÃªncias e desistÃªncias da Ãºltima convocaÃ§Ã£o.
Tenemos venta de cartuchos re manufacturados de excelente calidad por el momento los modelos mÃ¡s solicitados son los a continuaciÃ³n detallados hp: 78a, 38a, 49a, 42a, 85a, 05a, 12a epson: s050167 xerox o samsung: 3210, 3220. Todos cuentan con garantÃa por escrito si le llega a fallar se lo cambiamos.
Canon C LBP 360 PS/LBP 2030/HX; Apple Color LaserWriter 12/660; IBM NP Color Printer; Lexmark Optra C/Optra C pro,5045-001; Dec Color LSR 2000; Nashutec C903; Rex Rotary C 5503;Gestetner C 6703; Digital Equipment Color Writer LSR 2000
HP Color LJ-4500 N/4500DN; Canon CLBP 460PS/EP-83
HP Color LJ-4600/4600DN/4600DTH/4600HDN; Canon Imageclass C2500, Canon EP-85
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compramo: hp, canon, lexmark, brother, samsung, dell, xerox. Recoleccion a domicilio. No importa donde te encuentres.
-tambien vendemos cartuchos originales (hp, canon, lexmark, samsung, epson,etc..)
o si lo prefieres contamos con cartuchos remanufacturados100% garantizados!!!
todo trabajo va garantizado el 100% ya que contamos con 10 aÃ±os de experiencia!!!
nos ubicamos en calle 26 de enero de 1857 #1725
col. Leyes de reforma delegaciÃ³n iztapalapa cp 09310
o en la sucursal metro nativitas (calzada de tlalpan esq. Eje 5sur direcciÃ³
Here at Printerbase, we love to work hard and play hard thanks to Xerox, and as a result, we were able to put on a fantastic fun day today. We split into our teams and established team names â Team … Continue reading →
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After the announcement over a year ago, Xerox has finally completed its separation into two standalone publicly traded companies, Xerox and Conduent. Xerox has sales of around Â£9bn and will continue to handle document technology such as print and copy … Continue reading →
As of 21st November 2016, over 75,000 patients of Imperial College Healthcare trust now have access to email reminders and notifications for their medical appointments. This revolutionary progression in healthcare communication comes as the NHS Trust and Xerox partner up … Continue reading →
Pappy's Golden Age Blogzine continues to emerge as the premier treasure trove for stereotypes-seeking cultural studies workers probing the backstory for anti-Mexican loathing--enjoying a Trump-led renaissance these days.
Turns out the fat, corrupt, racist/rapist (Trump, not the "Spider"), did not have to dig too deep to conjure frightening hallucinations of swarthy, scary ethnic criminality. Below appear some choice page selections--the whole epic tale is available here.
The March-April edition of Prize Comics Westernhit the newsstands in January of 1950 and this issue has a treasure trove of findings for you, my fellow stereotype-hunters! Penciled by M. Bailey, the story has everything--gore, hangings, treachery etc.--most of it perpetrated by angry, racist gringo Californians hot on the lusty trail for gold, Mexican blood and more!
The star/victim of "Robin Hood of the Sierras" is Joaquin Murrieta, "bandit"/national hero/corrido-fodder from California history. More on Murrieta here.
An added treat for followers of the #bizarrecaucasianbestiary hashtag on Blogger, Tumblr, Instagram, and Facebook? None other than "Sandy" the self-wetting rubber doll! Ack!
I remember the day clearly, the contours of the memory etched onto my synapses with a glaring lucidity.I am a new professor at SDSU in the Fall of 1991ârecently of UConn, I have opted to leave my job there midstream and cast my lot with fun-in-the-sun Southern California.In the English Department at SDSU, my administrative coordinator was Barb Schloss, no oneâs foolâshe was a tough as nails, SoCal blonde, who liked things done the right wayâher way! Picture Janet Leigh from Touch of Eviland Psychobut with the impatience of a German train conductor.
I strolled into the office, then in the bewildering Adams Humanities building, with my new syllabus for my first class at SDSUâat the time, I was into the cut-and-paste-look of 80s-era âzines and my syllabus looked more like an Austin, Texas rock poster than a proper college syllabus.
I canât find that syllabus in the sprawl of my office, but here is one, from a year later that captures some of that look and another, more recent, and online, that sought to capture that vibe.
Back to my story.So I walk up to Barb with my syllabus and she takes one look at it and is not happy. âEnglish Professors donât put pictures on their syllabiâIâve never seen anything like this; English Professors donât do art.â To this day, the words echo through my consciousness.
The short of it is that she refused to gum up her precious Xerox/Risograph machines with my semiotic (and in her view, semi-idiotic) drivelâI had to run down to Kinkoâs and print them out myself.
That incident stayed with me the next year when I started to "do art."I resolved to only publish my art under the name Guillermo Nericcio GarcÃa, my primo/cousin/artist-nom-de-plume and alter-ego.To this day I maintain a website for his identity.
With my traveling Mextasy show (see the earlier blog posting on Arrob@ below), I have since expanded the part of my universe that dabbles in artâif you are ever traveling (from London to Columbus, Ohio, to Manhattan, to Leiden), look for my âDawgâ tag on the walls and corridors of local dive bars.
All of this as a preface to a brief gallery of my posters that I maintain online.
Please go there and see the whole collectionâhere I will only reference some of my favorite posters with a line or two about their origins.
Right now I am writing a new book via email with Frederick Luis Aldama, whose prolific textual output makes Jacques Derrida seem like a slacker.The book is called BrownTV and is a theory-laced, illustrated conversation about Mexicans, Mexican-Americans, and other Latinx bodies on the boob tube from the 1950s till today. One of the key figures I talk about in the book is heartthrob Erik Estradaâyou can see the impact he had on me in this illustration.I love collage as an art praxis and am even fonder of vintage ads from the 1940s-50s.In my art, I like to juxtapose yesterday with the more recent past, always in an effort to foreground spectators, spectators that are always implicit, invisible, or absent in graphic representations of ethnic American bodies.You can see me toying with this above with Estrada the object of affection for gaggles of adoring white housewives, Stepford âdamesâ besotted with the brown vatoâs hot, Latino charmingness.
Hereâs my description from The Eyegiene/Mextasy Poster Shoppe y Tiendita: âYet another ridiculous mashup from the imagination of Guillermo Nericcio GarcÃa--this time the half Vulcan, half Human Spock is revealed for what he was, a weakly ciphered fictional meditation on the mestizaje! That's right, Jewish-American actor Leonard Nimoy, the first primetime Chicano--ni de aquÃ, ni de allÃ¡!âOf course the description is tongue-in-cheek, but not totally.The appeal of the âhalf-breed,â of the alien mestizaje, in American pop-culture is fodder for current and future American Studies dissertations and books.
The result of my imagination, a ripped-out, torn magazine ad for Brooks Brothers, a fat sharpie pen, and tape, Not Chicano #2 was the second in a series of graphic experiments that ended up in the traveling Mextasy exhibition.A blend of the obvious (no way those two gabachos are Chicano!), and, perhaps the more subtle (ânot Chicanoâ a possible double double-negative in the Sartrean sense of the âethnic-existentialâ), it remains one of my best-selling, most requested graphic inventions.
Watch this space for more to come in the near future at Arrob@.
Just have time for a quick posting today on one of my all-time favorite Mexican/Hollywood superstars, Lupe Velezâas an added treat, I include a reposting of a February piece on Lupe from my Tex[t]-Mex Galleryblog, where I have been blogging since late 2006! Thatâs rightâa decade of postings on âMexican,â Mexican, and Latinx (Latina/o for the older set) artifacts. One of my reliable sources of material on Hollywood Mexys is the Heritage Auction houseâthis morning they dropped this gem into my in-box:
Time and again I have tipped my sombrero to the remarkable treasures to be found at Pappy's Golden Age Comics Blogzine, but now he has outdone himself with a post that jibes/gels/fuses with my #textmex and #mextasy researches/art/presentations and more.
A few years after I published Tex[t]-Mex: Seductive Hallucinations of the âMexicanâ in America, Rachael Brown, an artist and professor at South Texas College in McAllen, Texas, asked me if I ever had thought of turning my book into a gallery exhibition. The answer was a resounding "no." I had spent 16 years bringing that magnum opus on Latina/o stereotypes to lightâthe last thing I wanted to do was to cart up my hoardings of Latina/o art and stereotypes artifacts and put them up in a museum.
Another thing: I am an English professor. While I was a cartoonist in high school, the Ivory Tower has inculcated in me the methodology of the scholar. Museums, galleries, didactics, and the like were mysteries to me. But I did it, and it was a successâhereâs a short list of the universities where Mextasy has seen the light of day:
Not too shabby, right, for an English professor! Also, I think I owe Rachael Brown a ton of money.
Lately though, the Mextasy circus/bandwagon has slowed and my analog amassing of stuff has died down as well. But habits die hard, so I have continued amassing a digital online collection of semiotic stereotype-laced wonders. This includes negative Debby-downer anti-Mexican hate stuff like this sign from a Dallas restaurant:
and ultra progressive art by Latinx seers whose visionary canvases help us to, er, whitewash, the damaging violence stereotypes wreak on our tired synapsesâhere, for example, the work of Izel Vargas from the lower Rio Grande valley:
One of the newest places I have been amassing digital artifacts is on Instagram, where I have met scores of cool graphic artists. Here are some of my recent postings.
My good friend Bola Juarez discovered a treasure trove of original movie posters from the span of the 20th century in an old movie house in southern Mexico near ChiapasâI am going to be helping to mount this treasure find as a museum exhibition:
Hereâs another shot of this awesome, amazingly preserved artifacts that document a slice of the history of cinema in Mexico:
Having abandoned the Jamaican tropics for the snowy peaks of Switzerland, the legendary reggae producer Lee Perry - aka Scratch, the Upsetter, the Super-Ape, Pipecock Jackson, Inspector Gadget, the Firmament Computer, and a cornucopia of other monikers and aliases - now makes his home in one of the quietest corners of Europe. A version of this piece originally appeared in 21C, issue 24, 1997Itâs an odd but somehow fitting environment for Perry - not because precision clocks and banks have much to do with the intense, spooky, and profoundly playful records heâs known for, but because Lee Perry had always been something of a stranger in a strange land.
Though still capable of turning out brilliant tunes like âI Am a Madmanâ and âSecret Laboratory (Scientific Dancehall),â Perryâs current output pales next to the pivotal music he made in the 1960s and 70s, especially the Rastafarian psychedelia he cooked up at his Black Ark studios in the mid 1970s. During that incredibly prolific period (he produced over 1000 sides in ten years), Perry fused his eccentric spiritual vision with powerful protest music, made some of the most surreal experiments with dub reggae, and sculpted the first (and arguably greatest) records by Bob Marley and the Wailers. Utilizing low-tech studio equipment with a brilliance and panache that continues to astound record producers and music fans today, Perry earned a place alongside Phil Spector and Brian Wilson as a visionary studio wizard who transformed pop music production into an art form all its own.
These days, itâs Perry himself who is the work of art. He appears in public festooned with pendants, parts of machines, bits of tape, patches, buttons, and reflective mirrors. Everywhere he goes, it seems, he leaves a collage of scribbled notes, cryptic graffiti, scrap-metal idols, paintings of lions and food. Responding to interviewers with a flurry of rhymes, riffs, and puns, Perry turns innocent questions into a cosmological launching pad, revealing what John Corbett describes as âa world of hidden connections and secret pacts:â (128) multinational conspiracy theories, Old Testament prophecies, scatological rants, Rastafarian poetry, incantations of the Jamaican folk witchcraft known as obeah.
All this takes Perry to the edge of madness - at once his apparent mental instability and his intensely performative, almost shamanic, relationship with the chaos of creation. As Corbett points out, New World black culture has long linked the rhetoric of madness with excellence and innovation - musicians especially are praised for being âout of control,â âcrazy,â âwild.â While Perryâs hermetic language games and comic-book metaphysics certainly owe something to his daily intake of what one observer described as an âinordinate amount of high quality herb,â his mischievous irony also shows all the signs of the trickster incarnate. Even his âmadnessâ may be a trick. Some colleagues report that when itâs time to talk business, Perry drops the loopy patois and cuts to the chase; the head of Heartbeat Records says that he âplays fool to catch wise.â
Perry is also a kind of Caribbean techgnostic, deploying his almost supernatural imagination within the technological context of the modern recording studio. With its soundboards, mics, effects processors, and multiple-track tape manipulations, the studio is clearly a kind of musical machine. However passionate and spontaneous pop songs may sound on the radio, the music itself is as much a product of engineering as of performance. Despite their crude equipment, reggae producers like Perry, King Tubby, and Bunny Lee became artists in their own right - especially when it came to dub, the instrumental offshoot of reggae concocted entirely in the studio.
Modern Jamaican music begins with signals and machines. In the mid to late 1950s, when a diminutive Lee Perry first arrived in Kingston from the sticks, the popularity of mento - an upbeat and topical Afro-Caribbean music similar to Trinidadian calypso - was giving way to a rage for American rhythm&blues. At that time, powerful and increasingly independent U.S. radio stations were turning away from the old national radio networks towards an inexpensive and popular alternative: DJs playing records for local markets. For the first time, signals were beamed directly at African-American communities. And when the weather was right, Jamaican kids churning through their radio dials would tune into Southern radio stations, and they went especially wild for the gritty, saucy sounds of New Orleans R&B.
From this enthusiasm sprang Jamaicaâs âsound systemsâ - mobile discos that would invade halls and auditoriums with high-wattage amplifiers, turntables, DJs, imported American vinyl, and massive speaker stacks. Besides transforming the invisible figure of the radio DJ into a performer, sound systems also gave their American grooves an unmistakable Jamaican twist by severely pumping up the bass. Amplifying their woofers to the max, sound systems transformed R&Bâs low end into a veritable force of nature - the kind of bass that does not just propel or anchor dancers but saturates their bones with near cosmic vibrations.
In the late 1950s, the sound systems were ruled by a host of colorful characters like Duke Reid, who lorded over his âTreasure Isleâ dances with a cartridge belt, an enormous gilt crown, and a shotgun that he would occasionally brandish when the competition between sound systems boiled to a head. These fierce rivalries had an obviously economic edge, but their roots lie in the competitive performance traditions of many West African cultures. The fight over customers waged by sound system producers was also a style war, their fabricated alter egos, costumes, and elaborate verbal boasts taking on an almost ritualistic - yet constantly reinvented - dimension. Such style wars show up in various guises across the African diaspora, from the taunts and âdissesâ of rappers to the yearly carnival competitions of Trinidad and Brazil, when various roving âbandsâ try to top each other and woo the crowd with music, dance, and costume. As Lee Perry said, âCompetition must be in the music to make it go.â (Grand Royal 1995: 69)
Jamaica sound systems were unique in that this premodern, almost âtribalâ competition was played out across the modern landscape of mechanically reproduced recordings. Rivalries were not so much a âbattle of the bandsâ as a kind of technological and information warfare: who had the heaviest bass, who had the hottest records. In the 1950s, many DJs considered their imported sides exclusive, buying up all available copies of a new record or flying to the States to buy fresh discs. Spies would show up at rival sound system parties, peering at the record labels over the DJâs shoulder, and in response, DJs would scratch off labels or stick on false ones.
Here was an environment where a trickster like Lee Perry could thrive. Rejected by Duke Reid, who was spooked by something in his eyes, Perry went to work for Clement âSir Coxoneâ Doddâs rival âDownbeatâ system, where he served as a talent scout, runner, gofer and occasional monkey-wrencher. Perry told one interviewer how he once put out the rumor that a certain fellow was selling really âdread sides.â Duke Reid went and bought them all without listening to them first. âAnd they all old stuff, duds!â For such antics, Dukeâs men once stormed a Downbeat party and started punching people out, knocking Scratch unconscious.
With the decline of R&B in the US market and Jamaicaâs independence from Britain in 1962, homegrown mutations begin to dominate sound systems. The most prominent was ska, a hopped-up, horn-driven and very danceable music whose intense offbeat punches one apocryphal story attributes to the interference patterns that sliced up radio signals from the States. Perry started churning out ska at Coxoneâs Studio One, cutting edgy and punchy songs like âBy Saint Peterâ and âChicken Scratchâ - the latter earning âScratchâ his most lasting nickname.
Perry always had something of a persecution complex, and frequently turned on former friends and business partners. In part this reflects the cut-throat environment of the Jamaican record industry, where what Dick Hebdidge describes as âtough and wilyâ producers often acted like pirates. But with Perry - who once knowingly sold thousands of copies of Bob Marley and the Wailersâ Soul Revolution II with the wrong record inside - one can also see the mischievous and occasionally malicious hand of the trickster. Perry certainly incorporated personal attacks into his âmadâ persona: a number of Perry songs badmouth former associates or mumble threats concerning obeah men, while the 1985 cut âJudgment Inna Babylonâ accused the head of Island records of literally being a vampire.
After splitting acrimoniously from two top studios, Perry started up his own Upsetter studios in 1968, and soon released a tune attacking his former boss Joe Gibbs. Anticipating todayâs sampling craze, âPeople Funny Boyâ included a crying baby in the mix in order to show how âupsetâ Perry was. But âPeople Funny Boyâ also slowed down and reshuffled the usual rock steady rhythm, a bass-heavy rhythm that by the late 1960s had replaced the more simplistic beats of ska. In doing so, Perry helped engineer the beat that would come to dominate Jamaican music in the 1970s: reggae.
Though reggae recalls the relaxed rhythms of the old secular mento music, it has a meditative sustenance that some compare to religious church music or the Nyabhingi drumming of Rastafarian gatherings. Perry claims he just wanted to top his rivals with a new sound that had a ârebel bassâ and a âwaxy beat - like you stepping in glue.â But the inspiration he cites was a Pocomania revivalist church he passed one night after drinking some beer:
(I) hear the people inside make a wail and say, âletâs make a sound fe catch the vibration of the people!â Them was in the spirit and them tune me spiritually. Thatâs where the thing comes from, âcos them Poco people getting sweet. (Grand Royal 1995: 62)
Pocomania was one of a number of independent revivalist churches that sprung up during Jamaicaâs âGreat Awakeningâ of the 1860s, churches which exuberantly fused African and Protestant performance styles, images, and traditions. Pocomania leaned to the African side of things, its Pentecostal-style services owing an obvious debt to African possession ceremonies. Worshippers would dance counter-clockwise to powerful drums while breathing very deeply; this âtrumpingâ would sometimes brings on possession - the âlittle madnessâ that lent the church its name.
So at the root of the reggae we have a little Lee Perry madness, a tale of catching vibrations and tuning into spiritual trance. But Perry played a far more direct role in developing the religious dimension of reggae when he began writing and recording songs with Bob Marley and the Wailers. The Wailers were a talented Studio One group known for sweet vocals, American soul covers, and a rebel stance. As residents of Trenchtown, Kingstonâs most notorious slum, the Wailers were associated with Jamaicaâs ârude boysâ - tough, poor and restless urban kids who flaunted authority (and sometimes the law). By the late 1960s, Marley and the Wailers were also turning toward Rastafari, a rebellious and extraordinary religious counter-culture that wove together Black Pride, an âEthiopianâ reworking of Biblical tenets, and a prophetic opposition to âBabylonâ - the Rastafarian archetype of the modern nation-state, with its police, economic injustice, and corrosive lifestyles. Perry collaborated with the future superstar on some of his earliest and most powerful songs, tunes that mixed sharp social commentary (âa hungry mob is an angry mobâ) with an ardent yearning for Jah.
Since the trappings of Rastafari have been packaged by the international reggae market and embraced - often superficially - by legions of white college kids, punks, and hippies, we should scratch a bit beneath the surface of this vital New World religion. Like Americaâs Black Muslims, the roots of Rastafari lie with the ethno-religious worldview sculpted by the Jamaican reformer Marcus Garvey. Founding the Universal Negro Improvement Association in 1914, Garvey attempted to uplift and unite New World Africans by emphasizing the superiority of the black man and the glories of African civilization. Anticipating the Africentricity of today, Garvey preached the love of a black deity, a âGod of Ethiopia.â He also called for repatriation to the motherland, even founding a shipping and transportation company called the Black Star Line with the intention of transplanting New World blacks to Liberia.
But Garvey never visited Africa, and his vision of Ethiopia had more to do with the visceral power of the religious imagination than with the concrete geo-political realities of an African continent struggling with the ravages of European colonization. By Garveyâs time, Black Christian churches had already embraced the Biblical Ethiopia as a potent allegorical image of spiritual fulfillment, the millennial âZionâ that offered both a redemptive future and a glorious origin. Though Garveyâs call for repatriation offered black folks an apparently concrete solution to the nightmare of abduction and slavery, the Africa he offered was a landscape of religious desire - a virtual world.
When Garvey quit Jamaica for the United States, he reportedly left his followers with this potent prophecy: âLook to Africa for the crowning of a Black King; he shall be the Redeemer.â In 1930, when Haile Sellasie - aka Ras Tafari - was installed as King of Ethiopia, Garveyâs Jamaican followers believed they had found their living god, and Rastafari was born. Ethiopia has been Judeo-Christian longer than most nations on the earth, and Sellasieâs bloodline was supposed to stretch back to King Solomon, his official titles - like âKing of Kingsâ and âLion of the Tribe of Judahâ - drawn directly from Biblical prophecy. Reading their own political and cultural desires into theses Rorschach blots of messianic allegory, Rastafarians transformed the distant king into the Book of Danielâs bearded Ancient of Days, âthe hair of whose head was like wool, whose feet were like unto burning brass.â
As with Elijah Mohammedâs Black Muslims, the early Rastafarians also racialized their theology. As the religious scholar Leonard Barrett explains, âthe Whiteâs god is actually the devil, the instigator of all evils that have come upon the world, the god of hate, blood, oppression, and war; the Black god is the god of âPeace and Loveâââ (Barrett 1977: 108). Though contemporary Rastafarians speak of âOne Godâ more than a black god, itâs important to note the loosely âgnosticâ elements here. Along with the Manichaean tension between the two gods, we have the old gnostic vision of a dark tyrant god who rules over souls in exile. According to Barrett, the early Rastafarians believed that slavery was initially a punishment for their sins, but that âthey have long since been pardoned and should have returned to Ethiopia long agoâ (111). Only the evil trickery of the slavemaster prevents them from returning to the heavenly home where their living King awaits.
Both the separatist practices and the emotional core of Rastafarian life can be traced to this deeply felt sense that the Rastaman is in Babylon, but not of it. As Silja Joanna Aller Talvi writes, âFrom the Rastaâs perspective, the whole world is full of Babylon, and Babylon systems are constantly seeking to oppress (or âdownpressâ) and exploit the African.â Rejecting the authorities of this world, Rastafarians attempt to create a separate âGod-like culture,â in part by embracing the organic world of nature as a kind of anti-modern alternative to Babylon. Most Rastafarians are vegetarian, eat only âitalâ (fresh and healthy) food, and reject commercial products and medicines; many also grow their hair in dreadlocks - the ânaturalâ shape of long kinky hair thatâs washed but neither combed, cut or treated. Though Rastafari was spawned in the slums, many âlocksmenâ abandoned the urban hustle for lives as fisherman or simple farmers; those who remained were shunned by most respectable Jamaicans as âBlackheartsâ or boogiemen.
Though the movement had a handful of charismatic leaders early on, and today includes organized sects like the Twelve Tribes of Israel and even members of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, most Rastafarians abhor institutions, grounding their faith in their own direct participation in the divinity and holiness of Jah. As Ras Sam Brown said, âThe Rastafarians movement is not a movement with a central focusâ (Barrett 1977: 173). Somewhat like the early gnostic sects, most Rastafarians also believe that the Bible is an intentionally âmistranslatedâ document whose scrambled signals must be read selectively and allegorically in the light of personal revelation.
One of the brightest guiding lights of Rastafari is the flame of the âchalice,â stuffed with sticky marijuana buds that crackle during inhalation. Addressing the sacramental use of marijuana among Rastafarians, Barrett argues that âthe real center of the movementâs religiosity is the revelatory dimensions brought about by the impact of the âholy herb.ââ Long a Jamaican folk medicine, marijuana was probably introduced to the island by indentured East Indian Hindus, who gave the plant its popular name âganjaâ and may have inspired its religious use (many of Indiaâs wandering mendicant âsadhusâ also wear dreadlocks, eat vegetarian food and smoke hashish in a religious context). For all their glassy, bloodshot stares, itâs wrong to think of Rastafarians as âstonersâ; hardcore adherents consume ganja as a sacrament and rarely use other drugs or alcohol. One Rasta explained the role of ganja in strongly gnostic terms, though it is a gnosticism shot through with Rastafariâs powerful social consciousness:
Man basically is God but this insight can come to man only with the use of the herb. When you use the herb, you experience yourself as God. With the use of the herb you can exist in this dismal state of reality that now exists in Jamaicaâ¦When you are a God you deal or relate to people like a God. In this way you let your light shine, and when each of us lets his light shine we are creating a God-like culture. (Barrett 1977: 217).
Barrett explains that to the Rastafarian, âthe average Jamaican is so brainwashed by colonialism that his entire system is programmed in the wrong wayâ¦To rid his mind of these psychic forces his head must be âloosened up,â something done only through the use of the herbâ (216). As one Montego Bay âdreadâ described the plant ally, âIt gives I a good meditation; it is a door insideâ (130).
Of course, music can also serve as a door inside. The chants and âchurchicalâ beats of traditional Nyabhingi drumming played a vital role in Rastafarian âGrounations,â communal celebrations notable for their ital feasts, ganja smoking, and mystical theologizing. Though not directly influencing the reggae beat, Nyabhingiâs meditative rhythms did infuse reggae with the sense that music can help âloosen upâ the shackles of everyday consciousness, sparking the inner light of righteous contemplation.
Bob Marley was not the first musicians to bring Rastafari into Jamaican dance music, but with earthy hymns like â400 Years,â âAfrican Herbsmanâ and âDuppy Conquerorâ, he and Perry injected folkloric nectar into their spare and sinewy arrangements with divine panache. Like American soul, but even more so, reggae would rapidly become a commercial product of the popular recording industry that nonetheless derived much of its power and appeal from a deeply religious set of images and desires. By no means was all reggae Rastafarian, but with âmessageâ producers like Perry leading the way, Jamaica would produce perhaps the juiciest spiritual protest music of the 1970s. By the time of his death at the end of the decade, Bob Marley would rear his lionlike mane over a global stage as the first Third World pop star, his plaintive âredemption songsâ spreading the message of Rastafari across a shrinking planet desperate for spiritual heroes.
Though Marleyâs records were cleverly packaged by Islandâs Chris Blackwell for a white rock audience, much of their appeal derives from the unshakable authenticity of the man, the righteous integrity he shared with many of reggaeâs stars. In the â70s, the cries and beats of Jamaicaâs new âroots musicâ seemed to spring, not only form the hearts of suffering black folks, but from the island soil itself. You could hear these roots in the musicâs moist guitars and stoned pace, its ânatural mysticâ vibrations, and its crunchy, spongy beats (Marley called it âearth-feeling musicâ). And you could feel the roots as well in the virtual Africa that hovered on the messianic horizon of the music, an ancient motherland and future kingdom built from the gnostic longings of souls exiled in the brave New World of Babylon.
But dub music, reggaeâs great technological mutant, is a pure artifact of the machine, and has little to do with earth, flesh, or authenticity. To create dub, producers and engineers manipulate preexisting tracks of music recorded in an analog - as opposed to digital - fashion on magnetic tape (todayâs high-end studios encode music as distinct digital bits rather than magnetic âwavesâ). Dubmasters saturate individual instruments with reverb, phase, and delay; abruptly drop voices, drums, and guitars in and out of the mix; strip the music down to the bare bones of rhythm and then build it up again through layers of inhuman echoes, electronic ectoplasm, cosmic rays. Good dub sounds like the recording studio itself has begun to hallucinate.
Dub arose from doubling - the common Jamaican practice of reconfiguring or âversioningâ a prerecorded track into any number of new songs. Dub calls the apparent âauthenticityâ of roots reggae into question because dub destroys the holistic integrity of singer and song. It proclaims a primary postmodern law: there is no original, no first ground, no homeland. By mutating its repetitions of previously used material, dub adds something new and distinctly uncanny, vaporizing into a kind is doppelgÃ¤nger music. Despite the crisp attack of its drums and the heaviness of its bass, it swoops through empty space, spectral and disembodied. Like ganja, dub opens the âinner door.â John Corbett even links the etymology of the word âdubâ with duppie (Jamaican patois for ghost). Burning Spear entitled the dub version of his great Marcus Garvey album Garveyâs Ghost, and Joe Gibbs responded to Lee Perryâs production of Bob Marleyâs âDuppie Conquerorâ with the cut âGhost Capturer.â Perry described dub as âthe ghost in me coming outâ (Toop 1995: 129). Dub music not only drums up the ghost in the machine, but gives the ghost room to dance.
Though he became one of its most surreal experimenters, Lee Perry did not invent dub reggae. That honor goes to Osbourne Ruddock, aka King Tubby, an electrical engineer who fixed radios and other appliances in Kingston in the 1950s and who built his own sound system amplifiers to get the big bass sound. A musical genius, Tubby was also a gearhead, a tinkerer, an experimental geek. After discovering that he could remix the backing track of a popular tune into a new piece of music, Tubby played these âdub plate specialsâ to enthusiastic crowds at his Home Town Hi-Fi dances, where Tubby would stand behind his customized mixing console, tweaking the beats on the fly while the DJ U Roy âtoastedâ over the rhythms.
Jamaican trends spread like wildfire, but Tubby stayed ahead of the dub game by working with top producers like Bunny Lee and Lee Perry while endlessly tinkering with what Prince Buster called the âimplements of sound.â Tubby constantly toyed with his four-track console, jury-rigging echo delay units and created sliding faders that allowed him to bring tracks smoothly in and out of the mix. He also just played tricks with the machine, generating his famous âThunderclapâ sound by physically hitting the spring reverb unit, or using frequency test tones to send an ominous sonar through the depths of dubâs watery domain. Though Tubby gave his records names like Dub from the Roots and The Roots of Dub, he had genetically engineered those roots into wires.
However, dub did restore the roots of reggaeâs own âdread ridimsâ by conjuring the ghost of West African polyrhythms via the unlikely mediation of the machine. Though modern Jamaican dance music adheres to the same 4/4 beat that drives most popular music, reggae was already unusual in accenting the second and fourth beats of the measure and in âdroppingâ the initial beat, all of which produced the musicâs unmistakable pulse. By anchoring the beat with the bass guitar rather than the drum kit, reggae also freed up the drums to explore subtler and more complex percussive play. As Dick Hebdidge points out, by the end of the â70s, drummers like Sly Dunbar were playing their kits like jazz musicians, improvising on cymbals, snares and tom toms to âproduce a multi-layered effect, rather like West African religious drummingâ (Hebdidge 1987: 82).
Dub launched these already tangled ridims into orbit, using technological effects to thicken the beats and to stretch and fold the passage of time. Besides stripping the music down to pure drums and bass and adding raw percussion, Dubmasters introduced counter-rhythms by multiplying the beats through echo and reverb while splicing in what the producer Bunny Lee called âa whole heap a noise.â And by abruptly dropping guitars, snares, hi-hats and bass in and out of the mix, they created a virtual analog of the tripping, constantly shifting effects of West African polymetric drumming. Though the hallucinogenic effects of dub are usually attributed to its âspaceyâ effects and the role of ganja in both its production and consumption, the almost psychic pleasures of the music also arise from its silly putty beats and their ability to yank the rug out from under your deeply ingrained sense of a central organizing rhythm.
By giving flight to the producerâs technical imagination, dub sculpted a sort of science-fiction aesthetic alongside reggaeâs crunchy Africentric mythos. As Luke Erlich wrote, âIf reggae is Africa in the New World, dub is Africa on the moonâ (Corbett 1994: 23) Just look at the cover art: Mad Professorâs Science and the Witchdoctor sets circuit boards and robot figures next to mushrooms and fetish dolls, while Scientist Encounters Pac-Man at Channel One shows the Scientist manhandling the mixing console as if it were some madcap machine out of Marvel comics. Itâs important to note that in Jamaican patois, âscienceâ refers to obeah, the African grab-bag of herbal, ritual, and occult lore popular on the island. And as Robert Pelton points out, the figure of the scientist is not so distant from the spirit of the trickster that runs throughout this tale: âBoth seek to befriend the strange, not so much striving to âreduceâ anomaly as to use it as a passage into a larger orderâ¦like the scientist, the trickster always yokes just this world to a suddenly larger worldâ (Pelton ????: 268).
And Lee Perry continued to serve as reggaeâs trickster king. Not only did he make some remarkably spare and intense forays into dub, but he applied dubâs spectral aesthetics to the rest of his increasingly surreal, popular, and unorthodox productions. In 1974, the producer built Black Ark Studios, destined to become the launching pad of reggaeâs most surreal and moving tunes. A year later, he acquired a demo version of a unique phaser from the States; using it alongside with a Roland Space Echo - a primitive drum machine with loads of reverb - Perry whipped up multi-layered cakes of noise, polyrhythms, ghostly percussion and sounds lifted from other records. He took advantage of anomalies, especially of his limited 4-track. As the producer Brian Foxworthy explains, Perry would fill up th