CD-i 180 internals        
In the previous post I promised some ROM and chip finds. Well, here goes. To understand some of the details, you'll need some microprocessor and/or digital electronics knowledge, but even without that the gist of the text should be understandable.

The CDI 181 MMC unit contains the so-called Maxi-MMC board that is not used in any other CD-i player. Its closest cousin is the Mini-MMC board that is used in the CD-i 605 and CD-i 220 F1 players (a derivative of it is used in the CD-i 350/360 players).

The Mini-MMC board uses two 68HC05 slave processors for CD and pointing device control (they are usually called SERVO and SLAVE). The Maxi-MMC board does not have these chips, but it does have two PCF80C21 slave processors labeled RSX and TRANSDUCER that perform similar functions.

From their locations on the board I surmise that the RSX performs CD control functions; I know for sure that the TRANSDUCER performs only pointing device control. The latter is connected to the main 68070 processor via an I2C bus (I've actually traced the connections); I'm not completely sure yet about the RSX.

In order to emulate the pointing devices in CD-i Emulator, I had to reverse engineer the I2C protocol spoken by the TRANSDUCER chip; this was mostly a question of disassembling the "ceniic" and "periic" drivers in the ROM. The first of these is the low-level driver that serves as the common control point for the I2C bus; the second is the high-level driver that is instantiated separately for each type of pointing device. The ROMs support three such devices: /cdikeys, /ptr and /ptr2, corresponding to the player control keys and first and second pointing devices (the first pointing device is probably shared between the infrared remote sensor and the left pointing device port). Both pointing devices support absolute (e.g. touchpad) as well as relative (e.g. mouse) positioning.

Note that there is no built-in support for a CD-i keyboard or modem (you could use a serial port for this purpose).

However, knowing the I2C protocol does not tell me the exact protocol of the pointing devices, which therefore brings me no closer to constructing a "pointing device" that works with the two front panel MiniDIN-9 connectors. Note that these connectors are physically different from the MiniDIN 8 pointing device connectors used on most other CD-i players. According to the Philips flyers, these connectors have 6 (presumably digital) input signals and a "strobe" (STB) output signal. From the signal names I can make some educated guesses about the probable functions of the signals, but some quick tests with the BTN1 and BTN2 inputs did not pan out and it could be too complicated to figure out without measurement of a connected and working pointing device.

There is, however, also an infrared remote sensor that is supposed to expect the RC5 infrared signal protocol. This protocol supports only 2048 separate functions (32 groups of 64 each) so it should not be impossible to figure out, given a suitably programmable RC5 remote control or in the best case a PC RC5 adapter. I've been thinking about building one of the latter.

There is also a third possibility of getting a working pointing device. Although the case label of the front MiniDIN 8 connecter is "CONTROL", the Philips flyers label it "IIC" which is another way of writing "I2C", although they don't give a pinout of the port. It seems plausible that the connector is connected to the I2C bus of the 68070, although I haven't been able to verify that yet (the multimeter finds no direct connections except GND, so some buffering must be involved). If there is indeed a connection, I would be able to externally connect to that bus and send and receive the I2C bus commands that I've already reverse engineered.

If even this doesn't work, I can always connect directly to the internal I2C bus, but that involves running three wires from inside the player to outside and I'm not very keen on that (yet, anyway).

Now, about the (so far) missing serial port. There is a driver for the 68070 on-chip UART in the ROMs (the u68070 driver which is accessible via the /t2 device), and the boot code actually writes a boot message to it (CD-i Emulator output):
  PHILIPS CD-I 181 - ROM version 23rd January, 1992.
Using CD_RTOS kernel edition $53 revison $00
At first I thought that the UART would be connected to the "CONTROL" port on the front, but that does not appear to be the case. Tonight I verified (by tracing PCB connections with my multimeter) that the 68070 serial pins are connected to the PCB connector on the right side (they go through a pair of SN75188/SN75189 chips and some protection resistors; these chips are well-known RS232 line drivers/receivers). I even know the actual PCB pins, so if I can find a suitable 100-pins 0.01" spaced double edge print connector I can actually wire up the serial port.

Now for the bad news, however: the ROMs do not contain a serial port download routine. They contain a host of other goodies (more below) but not this particular beast. There is also no pointing device support for this port, contrary to all other players, so connecting up the serial port would not immediately gain me anything, I still need a working pointing device to actually start a CD-i disc…

There are no drivers for other serial ports in the ROMs, but the boot code does contain some support for a UART chip at address $340001 (probably a 68681 DUART included in the CDI 182 unit which I don't have). The support, however, is limited to the output of boot messages although the ROMs will actually prefer this port over the 68070 on-chip device if they find it.

As is to be expected from a development and test player, there is an elaborate set of boot options, but they can only be used if the ROMs contain the signature "IMS-TC" at byte offset $400 (the ROMs in my player contains FF bytes at these locations). And even then the options prompt will not appear unless you press the space bar on your serial terminal during player reset.

However, adding a -bootprompt option that handles both the signature and the space bar press to CD-i Emulator was not hard, and if you use that option with the 180 ROMs the following appears when resetting the player:
  PHILIPS CD-I 181 - ROM version 23rd January, 1992.

A-Z = change option : <BSP> = clear options : <RETURN> = Boot Now

Boot options:- BQRS
As specified, you can change the options by typing letters and pressing Enter will start the boot process with the specified options.

From disassembling the boot code of the ROMs I've so far found the following options:

D = Download/Debug
F = Boot from Floppy
L = Apply options and present another options prompt (Loop)
M = Set NTSC Monitor mode
P = Set PAL mode
S = Set NTSC/PAL mode from switch
T = Set NTSC mode
W = Boot from SCSI disk (Winchester)

It could be that there's also a C option, and I've as yet not found any implementations of the Q and R options that the ROMs include in the default, but they could be hidden in OS-9 drivers instead of the boot code.

Once set, the options are saved in NVRAM at address $313FE0 as default for prompts during subsequent reboots, they are not used for reboots where the option prompt is not invoked.

Options D, F and W look interesting, but further investigation leads to the conclusion that they are mostly useless without additional hardware.

Pressing lower-case D followed by Enter / Enter results in the following:
Boot options:- BQRSd
Boot options:- BDQRS
Enter size of download area in hex - just RETURN for none
called debugger

Rel: 00000000
Dn: 00000000 0000E430 0007000A 00000000 00000000 00000001 FFFFE000 00000000
An: 00180B84 00180570 00313FE0 00410000 00002500 00000500 00001500 000014B0
SR: 2704 (--S--7-----Z--) SSP: 000014B0 USP: 00000000
PC: 00180D2E - 08020016 btst #$0016,d2
debug:
One might think that entering a download size would perform some kind of download (hopefully via the serial port) but that is not the case. The "download" code just looks at location $2500 in RAM that's apparently supposed to be already filled (presumably via an In-Circuit Emulator or something like it).

However, invoking the debugger is interesting in itself. It looks like the Microware low-level RomBug debugger that is described in the Microware documentation, although I haven't found it in any other CD-i players. One could "download" data with the change command:
debug: c0
00000000 00 : 1
00000001 00 : 2
00000002 15 : 3
00000003 00 :
Not very userfriendly but it could be done. The immediate catch is that it doesn't work with unmodified ROMs because of the "IMS-TC" signature check!

Trying the F option results in the following:
Boot options:- BQRSf
Boot options:- BFQRS
Booting from Floppy (WD 179x controller) - Please wait
This, however, needs the hardware in the CDI 182 set (it lives at $330001). I could emulate that in CD-i Emulator of course, but there's no real point at this time. It is interesting to note that the floppy controller in the CD-i 605 (which I haven't emulated either at this point) is a DP8473 which is register compatible with the uPD765A used in the original IBM PC but requires a totally different driver (it also lives at a different memory address, namely $282001).

Finally, trying the W options gives this:
Boot options:- BQRSw
Boot options:- BQRSW
Booting from RODIME RO 650 disk drive (NCR 5380 SCSI) - Please wait
Exception Error, vector offset $0008 addr $00181908
Fatal System Error; rebooting system
The hardware is apparently supposed to live at $410000 and presumably emulatable; it's identical or at least similar to the DP5380 chip that is found on the CD-i 605 extension board where it lives at $AA0000).

Some other things that I've found out:

The CDI 181 unit has 8 KB of NVRAM but it does not use the M48T08 chip that's in all other Philips players, it's just a piece of RAM that lives at $310000 (even addresses only) and is supported by the "nvdrv" driver via the /nvr device.

In the CD-i 180 player the timekeeping functions are instead performed by a RICOH RP5C15 chip, the driver is appropriately called "rp5c15".

And there is a separate changeable battery inside the case; no "dead NVRAM" problems with this player! I don't know when the battery in my player was last changed but at the moment it's still functioning and had not lost the date/time when I first powered it on just over a week ago.

The IC CARD slot at the front of the player is handled like just another piece of NVRAM; it uses the same "nvdrv" driver but a different device: /icard. According to the device descriptor it can hold 32 KB of data, I would love to have one of those!
          Market Insight: Optoelectronics Market Globally Grow at a CAGR of 16.84% by Revenue During the Forecast Period 2017-2021        

Global Internet of Things (IoT) Market in Healthcare Sector 2016-2020, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the market landscape and its growth prospects over the coming years.

Pune, Maharashtra -- (SBWIRE) -- 02/09/2017 -- Optoelectronics Market research report provides granular analysis of the market share, segmentation, revenue forecasts and geographic regions of the market. Optoelectronics Market report 2017-2021 focuses on the major drivers and restraints for the key players. The Optoelectronics Market research report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of Optoelectronics Warming Devices Industry.

Optoelectronics is the study of combined technology of electronic device and light. It is a sub-field of photonics. The study includes visible light as well as X-rays, gamma rays, ultra-violet (UV) rays, and infrared (IR) rays. Optoelectronic devices act as optical-to-electrical or electrical-to-optical transducers. LED, image sensors, optical switches, laser diodes, and optical isolators are some of the optoelectronics. Analysts forecast the global Optoelectronics Warming Devices market to grow at a CAGR of 16.84% during the period 2017-2021.

Browse more detail information about Optoelectronics Market Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/global-optoelectronics-market-2017-2021-10533722

The research report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the global Optoelectronics industry for 2017-2021.

Key Vendors of Optoelectronics Market:

- Cree
- GE Lighting
- LG Innotek
- Lumileds Lighting
- NICHIA
- OSRAM
- Samsung
- Seoul Semiconductor
- Sony
- Samsung Semiconductor
- OmniVision
- Canon
- ON Semiconductor

Other prominent vendors

Get a PDF Sample of Optoelectronics Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/10533722

The Optoelectronics Market report also presents the vendor landscape and a corresponding detailed analysis of the major vendors operating in the market. Optoelectronics Market report analyses the market potential for each geographical region based on the growth rate, macroeconomic parameters, consumer buying patterns, and market demand and supply scenarios.

Optoelectronics Market Driver:

- Growing adoption of LED for lighting due to government subsidies and projects undertaken
- For a full, detailed list, view our report

Optoelectronics Market Challenge:

- Challenges associated with deployment of fiber optics
- For a full, detailed list, view our report

Optoelectronics Market Trend:

- Upcoming technological trends in LED
- For a full, detailed list, view our report

Purchase report @ http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10533722   

Geographical Segmentation Of Optoelectronics Market:

- Optoelectronics Market in Americas
- Optoelectronics Market in APAC
- Optoelectronics Market in EMEA

The report provides a basic overview of the Optoelectronics industry including definitions, segmentation, applications, key vendors, market drivers and market challenges. The Optoelectronics Market analysis is provided for the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status

Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global Optoelectronics Market including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and import/export. The total market is further divided by company, by country, and by application/type for the competitive landscape analysis.

Have any query? ask our expert @ http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/10533722

Key questions answered in Optoelectronics Market report:

- What will the market size be in 2021 and what will the growth rate be?
- What are the key market trends?
- What is driving this market?
- What are the challenges to market growth?
- Who are the key vendors in this market space?
- What are the market opportunities and threats faced by the key vendors?
- What are the strengths and weaknesses of the key vendors?

Get Discount on Optoelectronics Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-discount/10533722

List of Exhibits in Optoelectronics Market report:

- Exhibit 01: Product offerings
- Exhibit 02: Impact of drivers
- Exhibit 03: Impact of drivers and challenges
- Exhibit 04: Key countries in each region
- Exhibit 05: Global Optoelectronics Market shares by geographies 2017
- Exhibit 06: Global Optoelectronics Market shares by geographies 2021
- Exhibit 07: Geographical segmentation by revenue 2017

About Absolute Report
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For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/market-insight-optoelectronics-market-globally-grow-at-a-cagr-of-1684-by-revenue-during-the-forecast-period-2017-2021-769491.htm

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          Philips Ie33        
We offer largest selection and high quality of ultrasound systems and ultrasound transducers at the affordable prices. Order Now! Ultrasound transducers at kpiultrasound.com
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 05-12-2015 with Wally        
Playlist:

John Frusciante- Murderers - To Record Only Water For Ten Days
Dengue Fever- Golden Flute - The Deepest Lake
Kronen- Transducer Abuser - Peace Of Mind
Giant Sand- Hurtin Habit - Heartbreak Pass
Karl Hector The Malcouns- The Cave - Coomasi
Atomga- Empire - Atomga
Ty Segall- Mister Main - Manipulator
Gillian Welch- Annabelle - Revival
Gregory Alan Isakov- Suitcase Full Of Sparks - The Weatherman
The Budos Band- Magus Mountain - Burnt Offering
The Way Low Down- Punch That Ticket - Take One
Chui Wan- Beijing Is Sinking - Chui Wan
Speedy Ortiz- No Below - Major Arcana
Miraculous Mule- In My Time Of Dying - Mojo Proudly Presents Physical Graffiti Redrawn
Pretty Lights- Yellow Bird - A Color Map Of The Sun Deluxe Version
Goat- The Light Within - Commune
The Babysitters- Dancers Dont Go - Split Seams
Sohail Rana- Badal Aur Bijli - Disco Dildar
Tennis- Solar On The Rise - Ritual In Repeat
Father John Misty- Strange Encounter - I Love You Honeybear
Grizzly Bear- Will Calls Marfa Demo - Shields BSides
Courtney Barnett- Aqua Profunda - Sometimes I Sit And Think And Sometimes I Just Sit
Tatanka- Show Me Love - Tatanka
Twinsmith- Alligator Years - Alligator Years
Maker- Walk Away Son - Maker Vs NowAgain
Foxygen- Cosmic Vibrations - And Star Power
Wild High- Ophelia - Sdreams
Sierra Leones Refugee All Stars- Goat Smoke Pipe - Rise Shine
Scatter Gather- Stay Awhile - Dreams
Panda Bear- Butcher Baker Candlestick Maker - Panda Bear Meets The Grim Reaper
A Tribe Called Red- Electric PowWow Drum - A Tribe Called Red
Excision- Execute Original Mix - X Rated
King Sunny Ade- Dele Davis - Gems From The Classic Years 19671974
Lee Ranaldo Feat J Mascis- Albatross - Just Tell Me What You Want A Tribute To Fleetwood Mac
Lightning Bolt- The Metal East - Fantasy Empire
Delicate Steve- Wally Wilder - Positive Force
Sohail Rana- Tere Saath Mulagaat Ek Raat Ki - Disco Dildar
Bonobo- Jets - The North Borders
Monophonics- Find My Way Back Home - Sound Of Sinning
Mr Scruff- Kalimba - Ninja Tuna
Shakey Graves- Dearly Departed feat Esm Patterson - And The War Came
Rose Windows- The Wanton Song - Physical Graffiti Redrawn
Aoife ODonovan- Fire Engine - Fossils
Houndstooth- Bliss Boat - No News From Home
Breakbot- Lion - Lion


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/20/playlistDate/2015-05-12
          More Spring reading        

Hi folks, here's a nice, juicy reading list for that rainy Saturday afternoon. Well... it has stopped raining here but that should not stop you from reading!

Java

Slightly more hard core Java

Java in the future

A little bit of non-Java

Kubernetes

Systems, data stores and more

Time series

Some fun stuff

Until next time! Ashwin.

          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 04-01-2014 with Wally        
Playlist:

Pretty Lights- Yellow Bird - A Color Map Of The Sun Deluxe Version
Department Of Eagles- Love Me - Sweetheart
Kronen- Transducer Abuser - Peace Of Mind
The Dendrites- Sizzle - Ref 1
Chimney Choir- Flashlight - Compass
The Babysitters- Because Youre Old - Have A Seat
North Mississippi Allstars- Shimmy - World Boogie Is Coming
Head For The Hills- Bosun Ridley - Blue Ruin
Man Mantis- Oscelot - Majestic Dimentions Vol 1
Damien Jurado- Return To Maraqopa - Brothers And Sisters Of The Eternal Son
Kal Cahoone The Dirty Pretty- Sugar For Sugar - The Sickness And The Cure EP
Blockhead- Expiration Date - Downtown Science
- Sweethaven - This Is The Town A Tribute To Nilsson Vol 1
Full Belly- Nairobi Sasquatch - New Voice
Okkervil River- Unless Its Kicks - The Stage Names Bonus Track Version
Johnny Hawksworth Hampton Hawes- Jazz Rule - Spiritual Jazz 4 Americans In Europe
The Clash- Janie Jones - The Essential Clash
The Damned- New Rose - Damned Damned Damned
Descendents- Myage - Milo Goes To College
The Replacements- Left Of The Dial - Dont You Know Who I Think I Was The Best Of The Replacements
Titus Andronicus- My Time Outside The Womb - The Airing Of Grievances Bonus Track Version
Jawbreaker- Sluttering May 4th - Dear You
Weezer- The Good Life - Pinkerton
Desaparecidos- Manana - Read Musicspeak Spanish
The Get Up Kids- Holiday Live - Live The Granada Theater
Superchunk- Detroit Has A Skyline - Heres Where The Strings Come In Remastered
The Ergs- Pray For Rain - Dork Rock Cork Rod
Green Day- Going To Pasalacqua - 1039 Smoothed Out Slappy Hours Deluxe Version
Cloud Nothings- Im Not Part Of Me - Here And Nowhere Else
Modern Baseball- Your Graduation - Youre Gonna Miss It All
Ashwin Batish- Sitar Magic - Sitar Power 1 A Fusion Of Rock And Indian Music
- Yadnus - Myth Takes
Rubedo- My Oh My - Love Is The Answer
JD McPherson- Your Love All That Im Missing - Signs Signifiers
Brad Mehldau- Paranoid Android - Largo
Blitzen Trapper- Faces Of You - VII
- Cler Achel - Help A Day In The Life
- I Said Goodbye To Me - This Is The Town A Tribute To Nilsson Vol 1
Delicate Steve- Tallest Heights - Positive Force


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/20/playlistDate/2014-04-01
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 09-03-2013 with Wally        
Playlist:

John Frusciante- Murderers - To Record Only Water For Ten Days
- Never Worked So Hard - PDX Pop Now 2013 Compilation
Mexican Institute Of Sound- Ms - Politico
Bonobo- Antenna - The North Borders
The Robby Wicks Band- Rock Bottom - Songs From The Biltmore
The Robby Wicks Band- Devil In Your Head - Songs From The Biltmore
Atmosphere- Breathing - God Loves Ugly
- You Know What To Do - PDX Pop Now 2013 Compilation
Blind Pilot- Go On Say It - 3 Rounds And A Sound
Dr Dog- Broken Heart - BRoom Deluxe Edition
Asha Bhosle Kronos Quartet- Dum Maro Dum Take Another Toke - Youve Stolen My Heart Songs From RD Burmans Bollywood
Gotye- State Of The Art - Making Mirrors
El Ten Eleven- Birth Amp Live Remix - Transitions Remixed
Kronen- Transducer Abuser - Peace Of Mind
Dirty Projectors- About To Die - Swing Lo Magellan
Johnny Hawksworth Hampton Hawes- Jazz Rule - Spiritual Jazz 4 Americans In Europe
Chatham County Line- The Legend Of Old 99 - Chatham County Line
- Mystery Life - PDX Pop Now 2013 Compilation
West Water Outlaws- Come On - Real Killer
Man Man- Life Fantastic - Life Fantastic
Scatter Gather- Eat - Just Smile
Various Artists- Battling Giants - PDX Pop Now 2010
Kronen- Artfully Answered - Peace Of Mind
Mike Coykendall- The Hippie Girl feat Eric Earley Zooey Deschanel Ben Gibbard - Chasing Away The Dots
The Orb- Little Fluffy Clouds - The Orbs Adventures Beyond The Ultraworld
Invader- LookKa Py Py - Keep On Struttin
- Band On The Run - Let Us In Americana The Music Of Paul McCartney
Jason Isbell- Traveling Alone - Southeastern
A Tribe Called Red- Electric PowWow Drum - A Tribe Called Red
Phosphorescent- Song For Zula - Muchacho
- Love Is The Greatest Science - Listen To The Music Caltones Jamaican 45s 196669
Paper Bird- As I Am - Rooms
Delicate Steve- Afria Talks To You - Positive Force
The Johnny Otis Show- High Heel Sneakers - Cold Shot
Ringside- Tired Of Being Sorry - Ringside
Gotan Project- La Gloria - Tango 30
Grizzly Bear- He Hit Me - Friend EP
Portugal The Man- Purple Yellow Red And Blue - Evil Friends
David Wax Museum- Will You Be Sleeping - Knock Knock Get Up


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/20/playlistDate/2013-09-03
          Comment on Where Old Meets New: Japanese Classic Car Show by SMD Transducer        
<strong>Wikia</strong> Wika linked to this website
          Comment on F40 Times Sixty Equals Scarlet Fever by Magnetic Transducer        
<strong>Dreary Day</strong> It was a dreary day here yesterday, so I just took to messing around online and realized
           Development of a novel liquid crystal based cell traction force transducer system         
Soon, C. F. and Youseffi, M. and Berends, R. F. and Blagden, Nicholas and Denyer, M. C. T. (2013) Development of a novel liquid crystal based cell traction force transducer system. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 39 (1). pp. 14-20. ISSN 0956-5663
          50606 G4ME Zero Gaming Headset for PC & Mac, White        
50606 G4ME Zero Gaming Headset for PC & Mac, White

50606 G4ME Zero Gaming Headset for PC & Mac, White

Featuring Sennheiser’s “Ergonomic Acoustic Refinement” technology, the G4ME ZERO delivers the ultimate in sonic accuracy and clarity. The updated closed design provided by the custom-made painted steel ear cup grids lets you hear even the faintest detail of your game. Introducing a new era in professional gaming headsets. With G4ME ZERO we have gone back to where we started and completely rethought the concept of comfort for gaming. Our aim was to design the most comfortable and best sounding closed professional headset on the market. We think we’ve done just that. TAILORED EAR PADS The first ever gaming headset to feature multiple layers of fitted ear padding. SENNHEISER TRANSDUCER TECHNOLOGY Extreme clarity and accurate, developed at our own labs. "ERGONOMIC ACOUSTIC REFINEMENT" The Sennheiser technology delivers ultimate sonic accuracy and clarity by channeling signals directly into your ears. XXL EAR PADS Plenty of space around your ears for best fit and comfort. NOISE-CANCELING MICROPHONE Professional-grade noise-canceling microphone with intuitive mute function. CLOSED DESIGN The closed design blocks out all outside noise allowing you to focus on your game. INTUITIVE CONTROLS With volume controls integrated onto the right ear cup, your reaction time is cut down as you won't have to spend time searching the cable for the controls. The G4ME ZERO also features a convenient microphone mute function too. Simply lift the boom arm and you're off the air. COLLAPSABLE DESIGN AND CARRY CASE To ensure your headset is not scratched while you bring it to your LAN event, the G4ME™ ZERO features a unique foldable design which allows you to completely fold it up and store it in the supplied hard carry case. A PERFECT MATCH Sennheiser is the only audio company that makes both the precision microphone equipment your games are recorded on, and the headsets you use to play them. So why would you go for any other gaming headset brand?


          Lead-type precision current transformer (no replies)        
Purpose:



Overcurrent protection circuit for motor and other electrical equipment



Electrical monitoring device for electric energy meter, power transducer and precision power meter, etc.



Features?



PCB in-line installation



Small, beautiful;



High accuracy, wide linear range of output current;



High dielectric strength (4000Vac/1 min) and stability



common mode choke manufacturers common mode choke manufacturers
current transformers China current transformers China
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power inductors suppliers power inductors suppliers
          Artec Piezo Transducer for Standard Guitar        
Artec Piezo Transducer for Standard Guitar

Artec Piezo Transducer for Standard Guitar

Artec Piezo Transducer for Standard Guitar


          BSNL JE EXAM 2016 SYLLABUS AND DATE        

BSNL recruits 2700+  Junior Engineers. Attention to all Fresh Engineering Graduates as well as BSc(Eelectronics), BSc (Computer Science) and Diploma Holders.

  • What is the last date for application? starting date: 10.7.2016  last date is 10.8.2016.
  • How to apply? Go the BSNL website: http://www.externalbsnlexam.bsnl.co.in/ (Registration link will be active only from 10.7.2016 and upto 10.8.2016)
  • When is the exam? Exam will be conducted on 25.9.2016
  • How many vacancies are there? Total No.of vacancies for 2016 is  2700
  • What is the Salary? Starting salary is Rs.13,600 (which means take home salary is more than Rs.30,000)
  • Whether the exam will be easy? Yes, A simple preparation will do. It is worth a try. Dont miss the chance.
  • What is the qualification needed? BTech or BE or 3 year Diploma in one of the following 1. Electrical 2. Electronic  3. Telecom 4. Computer 5. IT 6. Instrumentation 7. Radio  b). BSc (computer Science) c) BSc(Electronics) d). MSc(Electronics)
  • What is the AgeLimit? 18 to 30 years (plus relaxation as applicable to SC/ST/OBC, 5 years for BSNL employees)
  • Whether JTO and JE are Same? No. Junior Engineer is different , Junior Telecom Officer is different. The Name of the Telecom Assistant has been changed to Junior Engineer. JE is lower cadre and JTO is a higher cadre.
  • How to apply? Where to get the application form?Registration and payment of fees are online. So sitting in your home you can apply.
  • Whether this exam will be there every year? Yes
  • What is the Syllabus? How many papers to be written?
  • A single exam for 3 hours. 200 Multiple choice questions will be there. Each question carries one mark:  General Ability 20 questions + Engineering  related 90 questions +Specialization 90 questions.  1/4 mark will be reduced for each wrong answer.
  • What is the application fees? OC/OBC: Rs.1000/- SC/ST: Rs.500/-\
  • How to make the Payment of Fees? via online method using Debit Card, Credit Card or Net Banking
  • Where to download the Original BSNL Recruitment notifications with details  such as Syllabus, exam date,etc ?
                                Click here for the PDF format of  BSNL Notification


   

What is the syllabus for BSNL JE Exam :
A single exam for 3 hours. 200 Multiple choice questions will be there. Each question carries one mark:  General Ability 20 questions + Engineering  related 90 questions +Specialization 90 questions.  1/4 mark will be reduced for each wrong answer.

PART-I:-GENERAL ABILITY TEST : 20 MARKS: The Candidate’s comprehension and understanding of General English shall be tested through simple exercises such as provision of antonyms and synonyms, FIll in the blanks and multiple-choice exercises etc. this shall also include questions on current events, general knowledge and such matters of everyday observation and experience as may be expected of Diploma holder.

PART -II: BASIC ENGINEERING: 90 MARKS :
 1. Applied Mathematics: Co-ordinate Geometry; Vector Algebras, Matrix ad Determinant; Differential calculus; Integral calculus, Differential equation of second order; Fourier series; Laplace Transformer; Complex Number; Partial Differentiion.

 2. Applied Physics: Measurement- Units and Dimensions; Waves, Afcoustics, Ultrasonics; Light; :azer and its Applications; Atomic Structure and Enerty Levels.

3. Basic Electricity: Electrostatics, coulomb’s law, Electric FIeld, Gauss’s theorem, concept of potential difference; concept of capacitance and capacitors; Ohm’s law, power and energy, Kirchoff’s voltage, current laws and their applications in simple DC circuits; Basic Magnetism; Electro Magnetism; Electromagnetic induction; Concept of alternating voltage & current; Cells and Batteries; Voltage and Current Sources; Thevenin’s theorem Norton’s theorem and their applications.


 4. Electronic Devices and Circuits: ClassiFIcation of materials into conductor, semi conductor, Insulator etc. electrical properties, magnetic materials, various types of relays, switches and connectors, Conventional representation of electric and electronic circuit elements. Active and passive components; Semi conductor Physics; Semi Conductor Diode; Bipolar Trnaistor & their circuits; Transistor Biassing & Stabilisation of operating pointl; Single stage transistor ampliFIer FIeld effect transistor, Mosfet circuit applications, Multistage Transistor AmpliFIer; Transistor Audio Power AmpliFIers; Feedback in AmpliFIer; Sinusoidal Oscillators; turned voltage AmpliFIers; Opto Electronics Devices and their applications; Operational AmpliFIer; wave shapping and switching circuits. Block diagram of I.C. timer (such as 555) and its working; Multivibrator circuits; Time base circuits; Thyristors and UJT; Regulated Power supply.

 5. Digital Technique: Applications and advantages of digital systems; number system(binary and hexadecimal); Logic Gates; Logic simpliFIcations; Codes and Parity; Arithmetic circuits; Decoders, Display Devices and Associated Circuits; Multiplexers and De-Multiplexers; Latches and Flip Flops; counters; Shift Register; Memories; A/D nad D/A converters.

PART -III SPECIALIZATION: 90 MARKS
The questions will be asked from the discipline chosen by the candidate according to their Specialized Degree.

1. Electrical :- 3 phase vs single phase supply, Star Delta connections, relation between phase & tine voltage, power factor and their measurements; construction and principles of working of various types of electrical measuring instruments, all types of motor and generator AC & DC transformers, starters, rectiFIers, Inverters, battery charges, batteries, servo and stepper motors, contactor control circuits, switchgear, relays, protection devices & schemes, substation, protective relaying, circuit breaker, generator protection, transformer protection, feeder & lightening protection, feeder & bus bar protection, lightening arrestor, earthing, voltage stabilizer 8 regulators, power control devices 8 circuits, phase controlled rectiFIers, inverters, choppers, dual converters, cycloconverters; power electronics application in control of drivers refrigeration 8 air conditioning.

2. Communication:–Modulation and demodulation- Principles and operator of various types of AM, FM and PM modulators / demodulator; pulse modulation- TDM, PAM, PPM, PWM: Multiplexing, principles and applications of PCM. Introduction of Basic block diagram of digital and data communication systems; coding error detection and correction techniques; Digital Modulation Techniques-ASK, ICW, FSK, PSK; Characteristics / working of data transmission circuits; UART: USART: Modems; Protocols and their functions, brief idea of ISDN interfaces, local area Network; Carrier Telephony- Features of carrier telephone system. Microwave Engineering: Microwave Devices; Waveguides; Microwave Components; Microwave antennas; Microwave communications Systems- Block diagram 7 working principles of microwave communications link.

3. Network, Filters and Transmission Lines:- Two points network; Attenuators; Filters; Transmission Lines and their applications; characteristic impedance of line; concept of re×ection and standing waves on a transmission line; Transmission line equation; Principle of impedance matching; Bandwidth consideration of a transmission lIne. Âš


4. Instruments and Measurements:- SpeciFIcations of Instruments- accuracy precision, sensitivity resolution range, Errors in measurement and loading effect; Principles of voltage, current and resistance measurements; Transducers, measurement of displacement a strain, force & torque measuring devices, pressure measuring devices, ×ow measuring devices power control devices & circuits. Types of AC mill-voltmeters-AmpliFIer rectiFIer and rectiFIer ampliFIer Block diagram explanation of a basic CRO and a triggerd sweep oscilloscope, front panel controls; Impedance Bridges and Q-Meters; Principles of working and speciFIcations of logic probes, signal analyzer and logic analyzer, signal generator, distortion factor meter, spectrum analyzer.


 5. Control system:- Basic elements of control system, open and closed loop system concepts of feedback, Block diagram of control system. Time lag, hysteresis lineartty concepts; Self regulating and non self regulating control systems. Transfer functions of simple control components, single feedback conFIguration. Time response of systems; Stability Analysier: Characteristic equation Routh’s table Nyquist Critereon, Relative stability, phase margin and gain margin. Routh Hurwitz criterion, Root Locus technique, Bode Plot, Polar plot, gain margin and phase margin.

6. Microprocessor- Typical organization of a microcomputer system & functions of its various block; Architecture of a Microprocessor; Memories and I/o interfacing; Brief idea of M/s assembly languages, machines & Mnemonic codes; Instructions format and Addressing mo0de;concept of Instruction set; programming exercises in assembly language; concept of interrupt; Data transfer techniques- sync data transfer, async data transfer interrupt driven data transfer, DMA serial output data, serial input data.

7. Computers:- Computer and its working, types of computers, familiarization with DOS and windowsconcept of FIle, directory, folder, Number systems; Data Communication. Programming Elements of a high level programming language. PASCAL, c; USE OF BASIS DATA STRUCTURES Fundamentals of computer architecture, Processor design, Control unit design; Memory organization. I/O system Organization. Microprocessor-microprocessor architecture; Instruction set and simple assembly level programming. Microprocessor based system design; typical examples. Personal computers and their typical uses, data communication principles, types and working principles of modems, Network principles, OSI model, functions of data link layer and network layer, networking components; communications protocols-X-25, TCP/IP Database Management Systembasic concepts, entity relationship model, relational model, DBMS based on relational model

How many vacancies are there?
 State wise Circle Vacancies  for 2016 are given here. Once   :-
1. Andaman & Nicobar: 12 Posts
2. Andhra Pradesh: 76 Posts
3. Assam: 116 Posts
4. Bihar: 34 Posts
5. Chennai Telephones: 80 Posts
6. Chhattisgarh: 17 Posts
7. Gujarat: 206 Posts
8. Haryana: 160 Posts
9. Himachal Pradesh: 73 Posts
10. Jammu & Kashmir: 79 Posts
11. Jharkhand: 19 Posts
12. Karnataka: 120 Posts
13. Kerala: 100 Posts
14. Kolkata Telephones: 80 Posts
15. Madhya Pradesh: 78 Posts
16. Maharashtra: 224 Posts
17. North East – I: 132 Posts
18. North East – II: 34 Posts
19. NTR: 15 Posts
20. Odisha: 43 Posts
21. Punjab: 400 Posts
22. Rajasthan: 100 Posts
23. Tamil Nadu: 198 Posts
24. Uttar Pradesh (East): 80 Posts
25. Uttar Pradesh (West): 80 Posts
26. Uttaranchal: 29 Posts
27. West Bengal: 115 Posts

ORIGINAL ADVERTISEMENT OF BSNL

BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 1



BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 2


BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 3
BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 4
BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 5
BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 6


          Mic Basics: What Are Transducers?        

In this post, Chris Lyons talks about the transducer found inside of any microphone, dynamic or condenser.

The post Mic Basics: What Are Transducers? appeared first on Shure Blog.


          D'Addario NS Micro Soundhole Guitar Tuner PW-CT-15        
D'Addario NS Micro Soundhole Guitar Tuner PW-CT-15

D'Addario NS Micro Soundhole Guitar Tuner PW-CT-15

Designed specifically for acoustic guitar, ukulele, and other acoustic instruments, the chromatic NS Micro Soundhole Tuner remains perfectly concealed within the instrument’s soundhole for discreet tuning. The non-marring universal mounting clip allows stress-free installation, while the highly sensitive piezo transducer senses vibrations directly from the soundboard for fast and accurate tuning response. The bright, multi-color display allows easy viewing in any environment. It’s so small, convenient, and accurate, you’ll want one for every acoustic instrument you own!    Perfect for Acoustic Guitars, Ukulele, and other acoustic instruments  Fast, accurate response  Non-marring soundhole clip  Multi-color display  Calibration range 435-455 Hz


          Workshop on Vibration Analysis - Prolific Systems And Technologies Pvt. Ltd. , Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Ras al Khaimah, Doha, Riyadh, Jeddah, Dammam, Al Kuwait, Salalah, Manama, Mumbai         

COURSE OUTLINES:   

  • Principles of Vibration
  • Data Acquisition
  • Basic Signal Processing
  • Condition Monitoring
  • Basic Fault Analysis
  • Equipment Knowledge
  • Test Procedures

Basic vibration theory is presented to give each student an understanding of vibration as it relates to machine condition, along with hands-on demonstration and class exercises designed to show proper data collection techniques. Measurement pitfalls are discussed, along with their adverse effect on machine problem diagnosis, and how they are critical to evaluating the severity of problems detectedqdbus org.kde.kded /kded loadModule kdeconnect 

Predictive Maintenance and Machine Vibration

  • Introduction to Maintenance Systems
  • Types of Maintenance Systems
  • Predictive Maintenance Programs (PdM)
  • Vibration Analysis
  • Goals of a Predictive Maintenance Program
  • Continuous Monitoring Systems
  • Periodic Monitoring systems
  • Setup of a Predictive Maintenance Program (PdM)
  • Steps in a Condition Monitoring Program for a Successful PDM
 

Machine Vibration - Basic Theory, Part 1

  • Basics of Vibration
  • Characteristics of Vibration
  • Natural Frequency
  • Displaying Vibratory Motion
 

Machine Vibration - Basic Theory, Part 2

 
  • Amplitude- The Magnitude of the Motion
  • Root Mean Square, Peak, Peak-to-Peak
  • Conversions
  • The Period of Vibration
  • Analysing Frequency Peaks & Amplitude Levels
  • Phase Relationship
 

The Data Processing System

 
  • Data Collection - Analysers
  • Setting up the Analyser
  • Dynamic Range
  • Frequency Definition
 

Data Collection

 
  • Introduction to Data Collection
  • Setting up a PdM Database
  • Downloading a Route
  • Selecting Required Instruments and Transducers
  • Safety Precautions
  • Collection Data
  • Uploading the Route
  • Report Printouts
  • Plot Formats
 

Testing Guidelines for Vibration Acceptance

Testing of New and Rebuilt Machines

  • General Acceptance Testing
  • Acceptance Specifications and Standards
 
 

Cost:

Certified


           Combined resistive and calorimetric sensing of gases using a single silicon micromachined device         
UNSPECIFIED (1997) Combined resistive and calorimetric sensing of gases using a single silicon micromachined device. In: 1997 International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators, CHICAGO, IL, JUN 16-19, 1997. Published in: TRANSDUCERS 97 - 1997 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOLID-STATE SENSORS AND ACTUATORS, DIGEST OF TECHNICAL PAPERS, VOLS 1 AND 2 pp. 935-938.
           Field characterization of an air-coupled micromachined ultrasonic capacitance transducer         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Field characterization of an air-coupled micromachined ultrasonic capacitance transducer. JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, 101 (1). pp. 315-322. ISSN 0001-4966
           Ultrasonic thickness measurement of power station boiler tubes using electromagnetic acoustic transducers         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Ultrasonic thickness measurement of power station boiler tubes using electromagnetic acoustic transducers. INSIGHT, 39 (9). pp. 618-621. ISSN 1354-2575
           A new design of ultrasonic air-coupled ribbon transducer         
UNSPECIFIED (1997) A new design of ultrasonic air-coupled ribbon transducer. In: 1997 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, TORONTO MARRIOTT EATON CTR, TORONTO, CANADA, OCT 05-08, 1997. Published in: 1997 IEEE ULTRASONICS SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS, VOLS 1 & 2 pp. 1029-1032.
           A study of materials at high temperature using miniaturized resonant tuning forks and noncontact capacitance transducers         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) A study of materials at high temperature using miniaturized resonant tuning forks and noncontact capacitance transducers. JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, 102 (3). pp. 1296-1309. ISSN 0001-4966
          Planet Waves PW-CP-10NSM NS Artist Capo with NS Micro Headstock Tuner        
Planet Waves PW-CP-10NSM NS Artist Capo with NS Micro Headstock Tuner

Planet Waves PW-CP-10NSM NS Artist Capo with NS Micro Headstock Tuner

Two of our best selling accessories, the NS Artist Capo and the NS Micro Headstock Tuner, together!  Capo and Tuner bundle Capo designed for use on 6-string electric and acoustic guitars The capo's patented Tri-Action geometry offers easy use and even clamping tension The NS Micro has a built-in piezo transducer picks up instrument’s vibration rather than sound Tri-color reversible backlit LCD screen makes it easy to tune in dark environments while allowing mounting in front, behind headstock, or on the NS Artist Capo Includes NS Micro Tuner mounting bracket and headstock ratchet mount


          CIDZIY at Click Festival 2012        

CIDZIY investigates the relationships between textiles, architecture, improvisation, performance and the body. Woven on a Jaquard loom, using broché technique to weave conductive thread acting as capacitive sensing electrodes, this 6 meters long tapestry acts as a body transducer, transforming movement, proximity, touch and contact into a reactive sound scape evolving over time.

This architecture-scale sensate weave acts as agent co-performing with curious visitors - creating an improvised serendipitous play - where the textile itself, inciting for touch and tactile discovery, transforms physical impulses and frictions into an acoustic performance.

--

Presented at Click Festival 2012 in Helsingør, Denmark (http://clickfestival.dk/)

David Gauthier (CA)
Marguerite Bromley (CA)
Elliot Sinyor (CA)
Joanna Berzowska (CA)
Sha Xin Wei (US)

Cast: CIID Labs


          CIDZIY at Click Festival 2012        

CIDZIY investigates the relationships between textiles, architecture, improvisation, performance and the body. Woven on a Jaquard loom, using broché technique to weave conductive thread acting as capacitive sensing electrodes, this 6 meters long tapestry acts as a body transducer, transforming movement, proximity, touch and contact into a reactive sound scape evolving over time.
This architecture-scale sensate weave acts as agent co-performing with curious visitors - creating an improvised serendipitous play - where the textile itself, inciting for touch and tactile discovery, transforms physical impulses and frictions into an acoustic performance.
--
Presented at Click Festival 2012 in Helsingør, Denmark (clickfestival.dk/)
David Gauthier (CA)
Marguerite Bromley (CA)
Elliot Sinyor (CA)
Joanna Berzowska (CA)
Sha Xin Wei (US)

Cast: CIID Labs


          Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Urethral Rhabdosphincter Morphology in Female Patients With Urodynamic Stress Incontinence        
imageObjectives: During the last 2 decades, ultrasonography has been proposed for the morphologic evaluation of the urethral rhabdosphincter. The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a simple sonographic technique for the assessment of the urethral rhabdosphincter morphology by using a 2-dimensional (2D) transvaginal transducer and to evaluate any associations between the sonographic parameters of rhabdosphincter morphology with the presence of urodynamic stress incontinence (USI). Methods: This was a prospective study of women who underwent urodynamic studies and an introital 2D ultrasonography and divided in 2 groups based on the presence or absence of USI. Measurements included rhabdosphincter thickness at the 3-o’clock (right) and 9-o’clock (left) positions and the rhabdosphincter outer (Π) and inner circumference (π). Based on these values, the mean thickness of the rhabdosphincter (R + L / 2), the rhabdosphincter differential perimeter (Π − π), and area (A − α) were also calculated. Results: Statistical analysis showed that women with a rhabdosphincter area of less than 0.65 cm2, mean thickness of less than 0.24 cm, and differential perimeter of less than 1.08 cm had 3.98, 5.67, and 5.41 times greater odds for USI, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis results showed that the optimal cutoff values for the prediction of USI from rhabdosphincter thickness, differential perimeter. and surface area were 0.24 cm (79.6% sensitivity, 63.4% specificity), 1.08 cm (70.8% sensitivity and 69.1% specificity), and 0.65 cm2 (71.9% sensitivity, 57.1% specificity), respectively. Conclusions: Introital ultrasonography with a 2D transvaginal probe allowed the visualization of the urethral rhabdosphincter morphology in greater than 90% of the cases. Sonographic measurements showed that patients with USI had a thinner urethral rhabdosphincter than did women with a normal sphincteric mechanism.
          Getting Bone Anchored Hearing Aids        
Bone anchored hearing aids are hearing aids that carry sound through the bone of the skull. Conventional hearing aids amplify sound so the user can hear better. With this type of hearing aid, sound is vibrated through the skull, skipping the outer and middle ear. Just imagine hearing your voice loudly even when wearing earplugs - this is how bone conduction works. These types of hearing aids are prescribed to people with unilateral hearing loss, conductive hearing loss and other hearing losses that cannot be fixed with conventional hearing aids.

Getting Bone Anchored Hearing Aids
Getting this type of hearing aid starts with a surgical procedure that imbeds a titanium implant with an external abutment onto the skull. A sound processor is located in the abutment. This processor works as the transmitter of sound, from external sources, to the abutment and then into the titanium implant. The implant then causes the inner ear and the skull to vibrate. This vibration activates the nerves of the inner ear, and causes it to hear.

The process of imbedding the titanium implant is called osseointegration. Bone anchored hearing aids can only be used two to six months after the osseointegration procedure. This is typically an easy one-stage procedure, using only a small amount of anesthesia. Patients can leave after a few hours of rest. The intake of pain relievers may be required for a couple of days.

Osseointegration is a generally safe procedure, with a success rate of above 95%. Failure can be caused by infection - but then, doctors can try the procedure again after curing infections and other side effects. In many of these procedures, the surgeon will put in a second idle receptacle. This idle receptacle will not be used until first one is damaged or fails.

Unlike adults, babies and toddlers go through two stages for the osseointegration procedure. In the first surgical stage, doctors peel back a one centimeter by one centimeter section behind the child’s ears, and then drill holes for the receptors. After six to eight months, the second surgery is done to attach the titanium implant.

For both children and adults, the wounds are allowed to heal for a couple of months before bone anchored hearing aids can be attached and used.

Who Can Get Bone Anchored Hearing Aids
In general, bone anchored hearing aids are for patients who cannot use the conventional hearing aids. They may have inflammation or infection in their ear canal. They may also suffer from malformed ear canals or outer ears. This type of hearing aid is also prescribed for people with deafness only in one ear. Likewise, this type of hearing aid is for people who suffer from bilateral conductive hearing loss because of ossicular diseases.

Risks in Getting Bone Anchored Hearing Aids
Since surgery is involved in getting this type of hearing aid, the patient risks contracting infection while the wound is still unhealed. The wound needs to be cleaned daily. A topical antibiotic should be applied in the affected area as the wound heals. Likewise, care should be taken with the titanium imbed. This should be cleaned daily with a soft brush. Its surrounding areas should also me disinfected regularly.

Care should be taken in handling the hearing aids. Even when these are designed to come off their posts, a slight impact may damage them. Cochlear Limited is the only manufacturer of this type of hearing aid for now. They offer warranty and repair within a period of time.

How Much Will It Cost
In terms of the hearing aid unit alone, cost can reach up to US$5,000. however, with the additional cost of hospitalization and surgery, expenses can add up to $35,000, on the average.

Hearing Aid Models
Since Cochlear Limited is the only current provider of this type of hearing aid, there are limited models to choose from:
1. BAHA Classic and BAHA Compact - These models have been discontinued because of developments in BAHA technology. They remain in use but with limited repair options.
2. BAHA Cordelle - This model is for those with severe hearing loss. Sound is amplified more. The Cordelle model is made up of a transducer and an additional attached unit that is worn around the body.
3. BAHA Divino - This model is digital BAHA model with built-in directional microphone.
4. BAHA Intenso - This model is supposedly the more powerful and clearer model. Feedback issues have also been reduced.


Bone anchored hearing aids are clearly the choice hearing aid for those suffering from severe hearing loss, and outer ear and ear canal defects and diseases. Advancements have made the surgical procedures that go with this type of hearing aid relatively safe.
Learn all about Cheap Hearing Aids or look here for the most popular Hearing Aid Reviews.
           The effect of NO2 on optical absorption in Langmuir-Blodgett films of octa-substituted amphiphilic copper phthalocyanine molecules         
HASSAN, A. K. , RAY, A. K., TRAVIS, J. R., GHASSEMLOOY, Z., COOK, M. J., ABASS, A. and COLLINS, R. A. (1998). The effect of NO2 on optical absorption in Langmuir-Blodgett films of octa-substituted amphiphilic copper phthalocyanine molecules. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical: international journal devoted to research and development of physical and chemical transducers, 49 (3), 235-239.
          Students Compose for Butterflies        

Image of Jesse Stiles and a butterfly

Carnegie Mellon University students have created an ever-changing soundtrack for Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens' Butterfly Forest.

It is the first time a sound installation has been a part of the exhibition, which annually attracts some 125,000 visitors from Memorial Day to Labor Day.

"The sound art installation has really transformed the space," said Jordyn Melino, exhibit coordinator at Phipps Conservatory. "The space is so alive with plants, but sound is really just something that adds that extra element, brings the space to life."

Jesse Stiles, an assistant teaching professor at CMU's School of Music and the Integrative Design, Arts and Technology (IDeATe) Network, said students in the Experimental Sound Synthesis course composed pieces for different areas of the Stove Room's Butterfly Forest. They created computer programs to generate evolving musical sequences from 11 miniature computers within the forest, and installed transducers to the Stove Room's glass panels.

But Stiles said he hopes visitors focus on the ambience rather than the technology.

"Hopefully you would just have a transformative experience where the sound helps you enter a mind frame where you can experience wonder and curiosity," Stiles said.

Melino said staff and visitors have been pleased with the project, which captures aspects of the room, including a stone tunnel and rain chain.

"When you're walking through the stone tunnel, everything gets quiet and you hear this low murmuring sound. It's just a really nice pairing," Melino said. "With the water dripping down the rain chain in the room, that motion of the water and the beat of the water is captured in the sound, as well.

"It's nice to experience those little nuances," Melino said.


          NGC Awarded MK 48 Heavyweight Torpedo Transducer Array/Nose Shell Assembly Production Contract        
The U.S. Navy has awarded Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE: NOC) a $9.6 million contract, with options up to $40.5 million, to produce the Transducer Array/Nose Shell Assembly of the MK 48 heavyweight torpedo. The MK 48 is the primary offensive weapon deployed from all U.S. Navy submarines. The initial contract covers engineering and production of 45 MK 48 torpedo Transducer Array/Nose Shell Assemblies. Three additional options allow for up to 45 units apiece, for a total of up to 180 syste...
          3D Cell Culture Poised to Revolutionize Novel Drug Testing Process        
Cell culture is defined as a process of growing living cells outside their natural environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and nutrition. The cells or tissues thus obtained have applications in several sectors such as research, academics, bioprocessing and manufacturing, cell therapy, and regenerative medicines. Among that, cell culture in three dimension (3D) has been touted as “biology’s new dimension” because of enormous possibilities such as drug discovery, cancer biology, regenerative medicine, and basic life science research.  Application of 3D Cell Culture in Drug Discovery The overall cost of bringing a novel drug to the market exceeds billions of dollars and the development process of a successful compound is extremely lengthy. As a result, researchers are anxious to increase the efficiency of the drug development process and 3D cell cultures are seen as a solution to speed-up the drug testing process (for instance, only 21% of new compounds make it to phase I of clinical trials on an average). The additional dimension of 3D compared to 2D cell cultures influences the spatial organization of the cell surface receptors engaged in interactions with surrounding cells. 3D cell cultures also induce physical constraints to the cells and as a result, these spatial and physical aspects influence gene expression and cellular behaviors. Responses to drug treatments in 3D cell culture have shown striking similarity to what occurs “in vivo” compared to 2D cell culture. Application of 3D Cell Culture in Cell-Based Biosensors Cell-based biosensors are rapidly turning into the building block of drug discovery process by enabling fast and cost effective alternate to large-scale animal testing. The sensing element, known as cultured cells, plays a critical part in detecting fluctuations in the local environment and transferring these changes to a signal transducer interfaced with the subject element. Although both 3D and 2D cell cultures are suitable for exploring cellular responses to drugs, biomaterials, and toxins, only 3D cell cultures exhibit an ordered structure that can closely resemble “in vivo” cell morphology, interactions, and diffusion barriers. Conclusion 3D cell culture points to a revolutionary era in drug discovery and could serve as a bridge between animal testing and human clinical trials. Some of the under-development projects related to 3D cell culture include: kidney-on-a-chip, co-cultured 3D cardiomyocytes, a balancing factor for tumor spheroids, novel endpoints in 3D culture, and applications in 3D bioprinting.

Original Post 3D Cell Culture Poised to Revolutionize Novel Drug Testing Process source Twease
          PGA460-Q1 Automotive Ultrasonic Signal Processor & Transducer Driver        
The PGA460-Q1 device is a highly-integrated system on-chip ultrasonic transducer driver and signal conditioner with an advanced DSP core. The device has a complimentary low-side driver pair that can drive a transducer either in a transformer based topology using a step-up transformer or in a direct-drive topology...
          Microfocused Ultrasound with Visualization and Calcium Hydroxylapatite for Improving Skin Laxity and Cellulite Appearance        
imageBackground: Age-associated skin laxity contributes to worsening of cellulite appearance. This study evaluated the effects of microfocused ultrasound with visualization (MFU-V; Ultherapy) in combination with diluted calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA; Radiesse) on cellulite appearance and on neocollagenesis. Methods: Twenty women (18–55 years old) with skin laxity and moderate-to-severe cellulite on the buttocks and thighs were retrospectively enrolled. MFU-V was applied using 4 and 7 MHz transducers (25 lines/transducer/site) and immediately followed by subdermal CaHA injection (1 ml/buttock or thigh). Photographs at baseline and 90 days were assessed by 2 independent, blinded evaluators using a 5-item cellulite severity scale. One subject scheduled for thighplasty received treatment with 6 different CaHA dilutions (0.3 ml/5 cm2) followed by MFU-V. Tissue specimens from each dilution site were examined under polarized light microscopy to assess neocollagenesis. Results: Both evaluators reported statistically significant improvements compared with baseline for each item on the cellulite severity scale (P < 0.001) with a 4.5-point improvement in mean overall score (P < 0.001) after a single MFU-V/CaHA treatment. At 90 days, histologic analysis showed peak neocollagenesis in samples treated with the 1:1 dilution, whether with CaHA alone or in combination with MFU-V. The highest conversion of collagen type III into collagen type I at month 3 occurred in samples injected with 1:1 and 1:0.6 CaHA dilutions without subsequent MFU-V treatment. Both procedures were well tolerated, and subject satisfaction was high. Conclusions: Combination treatment with MFU-V and diluted CaHA is effective for improving skin laxity and the appearance of cellulite on the buttocks and upper thighs.
          Anarchestra        



We enjoyed seeing and hearing the Anarchestra again at the Tucson Sculpture Festival 2013.  Electric Tiger Productions made a YouTube video of the event:






The Anarchestra creates all of it's sounds from scratch.  It is an orchestra of handmade, welded instruments, which cover all 4 categories of noise makers -- Drums, Percussion (like marimba), Winds (horns, flutes, clarinets), and Strings.  Listen to them all in a YouTube playlist.



Click image above to see a playlist
 of Anarchestra musical instruments --
 slideshows with music

Search YouTube for other Anarchestra videos, including a brief history.

 
Click image above to see
a brief history of the Anarchestra --
slideshow and music


View the Anarchestra at last year's (2012) sculpture festival.

 Anarchestra jamming in 2012


The Anarchestra CDs and MP3s are available on Amazon:


 
Anarchestra music on Amazon 

The Anarchestra relates to other innovative musicians like:
Also look at:

The Anarchestra experimented with 3D printing a dual mouthpiece -- however, the experiment did not work:

3D printed dual mouthpiece


There is a Spotify Anarchestra playlist on Facebook.

*****

The Anarchestra set up at
the Tucson Sculpture Festival 2013


The instrument maker
at the opening



Opening night


Opening night


Opening night


At the end of every day,
there is a small Anarchestra concert





The Anarchestra was experimenting during the festival.  They built a Plate Reverb Device, using the bottle cap microphones, that they built during the CMKT 4 workshop at Heatsync hackerspace in Mesa (near Phoenix) last year.


 The Plate Reverb Device


 The CMKT 4 microphone
hooked up to the large metal plate

Click images below to watch YouTube videos:


Plate Reverb in action


Aluminum plate reverb


Musical instrument changes sound
when dipped in water


Oil drum used as a speaker


h2organ



Finally, a new musical instrument -- Roarick -- developed at the Anarchestra complex during the Tucson Sculpture Festival 2013:







UPdate:  Anarchestra video (made by Special Head long after the Tucson Sculpture Festival) gets over a million hits



Strange Musical Instruments Never Seen Before - 
The Anarchestra

UPDATE 2016:  

The Anarchestra got on the front cover of the Tucson Weekly, July 21, 2016.

Also, the Anarchestra instruments were used by Spanish composer Roque Baños to make the musical score for the major movie Don't Breathe.

          Navico LSS-2 StructureScan® HD w/o Transducer f/Lowrance & Simrad (000-10801-001)        
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LSS-2 StructureScan® HD w/o Transducer

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          Echocardiography        
Introduction
Echocardiography in its current form, has becomean invaluable tool in a modern cardiac intensive care unit environment. Coupled with a clinical examination and monitoring techniques, echocardiography can provide real-time rapid and reliable diagnostic answers that are invaluable to patient care. This noninvasive test can be used to reliably evaluate cardiac anatomy of both normal hearts and those with congenital heart disease and has replaced cardiac angiography for the preoperative diagnosis of the majority of congenital heart lesions. In congenital or acquired cardiac disease, echocardiography may be further used to estimate intracardiac pressures and gradients across stenotic valves and vessels, determine the directionality of blood flow and pressure gradient across a defect, and examine the coronary arteries. Within the realm of critical care, echocardiography is useful to quantitative cardiac systolic and diastolic function, detect the presence of vegetations from endocarditis, and examine the cardiac structure for the presence of pericardial fluid and chamber thrombi. As with all tools, however, a thorough understanding of its uses and limitations are necessary before relying upon the information it provides.

Principles of Echocardiography
Echocardiography uses ultrasound technology to image the heart and associated vascular structures. Ultrasound is defined as sound frequencies above the audible range of 20,000 cycles per second. The primary components of an ultrasound machine include a transducer and a central processor. The transducer converts electrical to mechanical (sound) energy and vice versa. Electrical energy is applied to piezoelectric crystals within the transducer resulting in the generation of mechanical energy in the form of a series of sinusoidal cycles of alternating compression and rarefaction. The energy produced travels as a directable beam which may be aimed at the heart. The sound beam travels in a straight line until it encounters a boundary between structures with different acoustical impedance, such as between blood and tissue. At such surfaces, a portion of the energy is reflected back to the same crystals within the transducer, and the remaining attenuated signal is transmitted distally. Within the ultrasound, machine is circuitry capable of measuring the transit time for the beam to travel from the transducer to a given structure and back again then calculate the distance traveled. A cardiac image is constructed from the reflected energy, or so called ultrasound echoes.
Differing properties of tissues affect the portion of acoustic energy transmitted versus reflected. For example, air reflects the majority of the signal it receives and, therefore, prevents images from being obtained through windows where it is present. Anything hindering or augmenting the reflection of this acoustic signal, such as air, bone, dressings, an open chest, or lines, tubes, or other foreign bodies, will diminish the overall quality of the examination. Therefore, in the intensive care unit, an ultrasound study may be limited by difficulty in finding a good acoustic window to allow for accurate analysis.

The Anatomical Echocardiographic Examination
In order to obtain the best imaging windows, whenever possible, patients are placed in a left lateral decubitus position during a transthoracic echocardiogram. During two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography, all planes are described in reference to the heart and not the heart’s position within the body. For a complete pediatric study, standard views (see Fig.1–5) are obtained from the high left chest just lateral to the sternum (parasternal window), the left lateral chest just inferior and lateral to the nipple (apical window), sub-xyphoid area (subcostal window), and the suprasternal notch (suprasternal window). In patients with more complex anatomy, additional windows, such as the high right parasternal border, may be used to obtain additional information.
parasternal window 
Fig.1 Standard echocardiographic image planes from the high left chest just lateral to the sternum (parasternal window (a) and (b)), the left lateral chest just inferior to the nipple (apical window (c)), sub-xyphoid area (subcostal window (d)), and the suprasternal notch (suprasternal window (e) and (f)). RA right atrium; RV right ventricle; LA left atrium; LV left ventricle; Ao aortic valve; CS coronary sinus; RVOT right ventricular outflow tract; SVC superior vena cava (drawing from Steven P. Goldberg, MD) 

1.  Parasternal Window
In the anatomically normal heart, the parasternal window allows visualization of the heart aligned along its long axis and short axis. In the long axis (Fig.1a), the left ventricular inflow and outflow tracts can be seen well. As a result, comments can be made from this view regarding the aorta, including its annulus, the sinuses of Valsalva, and the proximal portion of the ascending aorta, as well as its relationship to the mitral valve. Additionally, the ballet-slipper appearance of the left ventricle is featured as the inferoposterior wall and interventricular septum are visualized. The anterior and posterior leaflets of the mitral valve can be visualized. By angulating the transducer and performing a sweep, the right ventricle is brought into focus and an examination of both its inflow including the right atrium and tricuspid valve and its outflow tract, including the pulmonary valve can be performed.
The transducer may be rotated 90° providing a series of short-axis views (Fig.1b) that assist in the evaluation of the chambers of the heart, the semilunar and atrioventricular valves, and the coronary arteries. Sweeping from the apex of the heart toward the base will allow a close cross-sectional examination of the ventricular chambers. The normal left ventricle has circular geometry with symmetric contraction, whether it is visualized at the level of the mitral valve, papillary muscles, or apex. In contrast, the normal right ventricle appears as a more trabeculated crescent-shaped structure when visualized at or below the level of the mitral valve. Sweeping farther toward the base of the heart, the mitral valve’s papillary muscles and the valve itself are viewed. Progressing to the base of the normal heart, the tri-leaflet aortic valve takes the center stage with the right ventricular outflow tract and pulmonary wrapping in an inverted “U” anteriorly and leftward. Additionally a portion of the atrial septum and the tricuspid valve may be profiled. Finally, continuing the sweep allows for the examination of the atrial appendages, ascending aorta in cross-section and branch pulmonary arteries.
parasternal window 
Fig.1b (continued)

2.  Apical Window
For those not trained in echocardiography, the images obtained with the transducer in the apical position (Fig.1c) are perhaps the most intuitive as it allows for visualization of all four chambers and valves in the heart with a simple left-to-right orientation. Imaging is begun in the four-chamber view, in which the anatomic right and left ventricles may be identified. Sweeps of the transducer from this position identify the posterior coronary sinus and may indicate abnormalities such as a left superior vena cava or unroofed coronary sinus. Proceeding more anteriorly to a five-chambered view, the atrial and ventricular septa may be visualized looking for defects and the left ventricular outflow tract and ascending aorta may be examined. The four chamber view allows for the examination of the anterior and posterior mitral valve leaflets and pulmonary veins as they enter the left atrium. By rotating the transducer to 90° from the four-chamber view, a two-chamber view of the left ventricle and left atrium can be obtained to evaluate the anterior and posterior left ventricular wall function.
the left lateral chest just inferior to the nipple (apical window) 
Fig.1c (continued)

3.  Subcostal Window
For pediatric patients with complex cardiac anatomy, the subcostal position (Fig.1d and Fig.1.e) provides the most detailed information and is often thebest starting place. In order to obtain images in this position, patients are placed supine with the transducer in the subxiphoid position. In larger cooperative patients beyond the infancy period, image quality may be improved by having the patient participate in the examination with held inspiration that allows the heart to move downward toward the transducer. Initial views in this position should determine visceral situs as well as the relationship of the inferior vena cava and aorta. Subsequent views and sweeps will provide detailed analysis of the atrial septum as well as the images related to the ventricular septum, the atrioventricular valves, atrial and ventricular chambers, and drainage of systemic veins. With the rotation of the transducer both ventricular outflow tracts may be visualized. Additionally in some patients the branch pulmonary arteries and the entire aorta may be examined from this position.
sub-xyphoid area (subcostal window) 
Fig.1d  (continued)
the suprasternal notch (suprasternal window) 
Fig.1e (continued)

4. Suprasternal Window
The views are obtained in this position by placing the transducer in the suprasternal notch (Fig.1.f) with the neck extended. The suprasternal longand short-axis views provide detailed information regarding arch sidedness, anomalies in the ascending and descending aorta and head and neck vessels, the size and branching of the pulmonary arteries, as well as anomalies of systemic and pulmonary venous systems.
the suprasternal notch (suprasternal window) 
Fig.1f (continued)

M-Mode Imaging
One of the earliest applications of ultrasound technology that remains an important tool in the evaluation of cardiac function, dimension, and timing, the M-mode echo provides an “ice-pick” view of the heart. An M-mode echo is obtained with the ultrasonic transducer placed along the left sternal border and directed toward the part of the heart to be examined. A single line of interrogation is repeatedly produced and the resultant image is displayed with time along the x-axis and distance from the transducer along the y-axis (see Fig. 2). M-mode obtains an estimate of ventricular function by measuring the short axis shortening fraction and wall thickness.
M-mode echocardiography obtained in the parasternal short axis through the right and left ventricular chambers at the level of the papillary muscles. LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic dimension; LVESD left ventricular end-systolic dimension
Fig.2 M-mode echocardiography obtained in the parasternal short axis through the right and left ventricular chambers at the level of the papillary muscles. LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic dimension; LVESD left ventricular end-systolic dimension

Doppler Evaluation
Frequently in an intensive care setting the clinician is concerned with new or residual flow disturbances from shunt lesions, an abnormal cardiac valve, or narrowing of a blood vessel. While 2D echocardiography determines anatomical relationships, additional information regarding movement of the blood or myocardium is provided by looking for Doppler shifts in the reflected ultrasound waves. The Doppler principle, first described by Johann Christian Doppler, states that for a stationary object, the frequency of ultrasound reflected is identical to the transmitted frequency. Inherently the heart and the blood it pumps do not fit this basic definition. Therefore, when performing a cardiac ultrasound, the moving objects alter the frequency of the reflected signal (the Doppler shift) according to the direction and velocity with which they are moving in relation to the fixed transducer. Additional insights to intracardiac and vascular hemodynamics may be obtained when velocity data is collected. Doppler data are typically displayed as velocity rather than the actual frequency shift. The velocities can then be translated into pressure data using the modified Bernoulli equation: P1 – P2= 4[(V2)2 – (V1)2]. If one assumes that the level of obstruction and therefore the velocity of V1 is negligible compared with the obstruction at V2 the formula becomes even simpler: DP = 4(Vmax)2. Although the modified Bernoulli equation can only be applied in appropriate situations, it does help predict the pressure drop across an abnormal valve or septal defect to give a general estimate of the severity of the lesion which can prove to be valuable information to help manage patients in the intensive care setting.
Of note, during Doppler imaging it is clinically important to recognize the angle of interrogation of blood flow and its impact on the accuracy of our velocity measures. It is important when performing Doppler studies that the line of beam interrogation should be directly in the line of flow, resulting in as little distortion of data as possible. The more off-angle the approach is, the increasingly more severe the underestimation of the true velocity will be. For practical purposes, an angle of interrogation less than 20° is essential to ensure clinically accurate information.
Two commonly used techniques are pulsed and continuous wave Doppler. Pulse wave Doppler allows determination of direction and velocity at a precise point within the imaged cardiac field. However, it is limited in its maximum detectable velocity by the Nyquist limit making it unusable for quantification of high-velocity flow (e.g., as seen with severe obstruction). In contrast, continuous wave Doppler interrogates all points along a given beam. Continuous wave Doppler imaging is not constrained by velocity limits and can hence record velocities exceeding those of pulsed Doppler imaging. The drawback is that while the line of interrogation is identifiable, knowledge of anatomy must already be obtained to identify the precise location of the maximum velocity. Clinically these two techniques are commonly used sequentially to identify the area of interest and then to obtain the maximum velocity.

1. Color Flow Doppler
Color flow Doppler is powerful technique for obtaining additional hemodynamic and anatomic data for patients undergoing echocardiography in the intensive care unit. Color flow Doppler allows velocity information to be overlaid on a 2D anatomic image therefore providing data regarding intracardiac and extracardiac shunts, valvar insufficiency or stenosis, and vessel obstruction. By convention, shades of red are used in identifying blood flowing toward the transducer and blue to indicate blood flowing away from the transducer. Therefore, color flow Doppler defines the presence and direction of shunts and is used to grade the severity of valvar insufficiency.

Current Clinical Applications
Clinical applications of echocardiography within the intensive care unit may be divided into the following major areas:
1. The diagnosis and post-intervention evaluation of anatomic lesions.
2. Evaluation of cardiac function.
3. Diagnosis of intracardiac masses and extracardiac effusions.
4. Guidance of intervention within the intensive care unit

Anatomic Lesions Pre and Post Intervention
Advances in technology have enabled most congenital heart defects to be diagnosed by echocardiography avoiding the risks, time, and cost of invasive cardiac catheterization. In addition, for infants and pediatric patients admitted to an intensive care unit due to being succumbed to shock, echocardiography may be useful for differentiating anatomic causes of shock from functional causes. Patients with obstruction to outflow on the left side of the heart who go undiagnosed at birth frequently present with signs of diminished cardiac output (CO) or frank shock. These lesions including aortic valve stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, and variations of hypoplastic left heart syndrome may be identified and defined by echocardiogram alone.
Following surgical or catheter-based intervention patients convalesce in the intensive care unit. Most patients undergo a postprocedural echo before getting discharged home to document adequacy of the repair and lack of significant complications. In postoperative patients this assessment may prove more complicated as access to the patient and the correct windows may be severely compromised by dressings, intracardiac lines, and chest tubes. Occasionally postoperative patients in the intensive care unit may be found to have unexpected residual lesions (see Fig.3). For example, following repair of septal defects, echocardiography may be useful to screen for the presence of residual shunts which may be less well tolerated secondary to myocardial changes following cardiopulmonary bypass. Often, the presence of a residual lesion is known in the operating room through transesophageal echocardiography or direct discussion with the surgeon. An important role of echocardiography is to distinguish those lesions with hemodynamic consequences from those whose presence has no impact on postoperative care. Transthoracic echocardiography may be used to diagnose and assess the hemodynamic sequelae of shunt lesions, residual stenosis, and function. More complicated is the assessment of coronary flow, right ventricular dynamics, and distal obstruction following intervention. In patients who are experiencing arrhythmias postoperatively, special attention should be paid to the flow within the coronary arteries to ensure that it has not been compromised or that a line or mass in the heart is not causing ectopy.
Parasternal short axis image in a patient with pulmonary atresia/VSD who acutely decompensated. White arrows demonstrate the large residual VSD than resulted when a patch dehisced. RA right atrium; RV right ventricle; AV aortic valve 
Fig.3 Parasternal short axis image in a patient with pulmonary atresia/VSD who acutely decompensated. White arrows demonstrate the large residual VSD than resulted when a patch dehisced. RA right atrium; RV right ventricle; AV aortic valve
Four chambered view demonstrating color Doppler of tricuspid regurgitation and the corresponding spectral Doppler pattern. 
Fig.4 (a) and (b): Four chambered view demonstrating color Doppler of tricuspid regurgitation and the corresponding spectral Doppler pattern. The velocity obtained by spectral Doppler may be utilized to estimate pulmonary artery pressures in the absence of downstream obstruction. A complete envelope by pulse wave or continuous wave Doppler provides the velocity of the regurgitant jet which may be translated into pressure data using the equation: DP = 4(Vmax)2. RA right atrium; RV right ventricle; LA left atrium; LV left ventricle.

Unanticipated pulmonary arterial hypertension may slow the progress of a patient in the intensive care unit. In the absence of a Swan Ganz catheter or a direct pulmonary arterial monitoring, echocardiography may be used to estimate the pulmonary artery pressures. There are several methods that may be used to determine the pulmonary artery pressures. In a patient with
tricuspid regurgitation, the velocity of the jet estimates the difference in pressure in the right atrium and the right ventricle (see Fig.4). If there is no stenosis of the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary valve, or right ventricular outflow tract, the difference in pressure between the right atrium and right ventricle plus the right atrial pressure (CVP) provides an estimate of the pulmonary arterial pressures. In the absence of tricuspid valve insufficiency, interventricular septal geometry may be used to help quantify the degree of pulmonary hypertension.

Analysis of Ventricular Function
One of the most frequent uses of echocardiography in the ICU is related to the evaluation of ventricular performance. Improvements in technology allow assessment of both systolic and diastolic function with increasing accuracy.
1. Systolic Function
Accurate and timely assessment of systolic function should be an integral part of the medical management of the hemodynamically unstable critically ill patient. Global assessment of LV contractility includes the determination of ejection fraction (EF), circumferential fiber shortening, and cardiac output (CO). There are several methods that may be used to garner this information. Each has its limitations and assumptions which are paramount to understand prior to clinically applying the information gathered. For assessment of left ventricular function, perhaps the simplest quantitative approach is to use M-mode echocardiography (see Fig.3) in either the parasternal short axis at the level of the papillary muscles or in the parasternal long axis at the tips of the mitral valve leaflets to measure the left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) and left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVESD) for the determination of the fractional shortening (FS) percentage.
Fractional shortening is derived by the following:
Normal values for fractional shortening in children and infants vary slightly with age, falling typically between 28 and 44%.
Fractional shortening, therefore, provides a method of assessing circumferential change but has several obvious drawbacks. This method assumes that the ventricle being examined has a circular shape in the axis in which it is examined. As a result, changes in diameter may be mathematically related to circumferential fiber-shortening providing an estimate of ventricular function. Therefore anything that alters the circular shape of the left ventricle (anatomic abnormalities intrinsic to congenital heart disease, pre and afterload changes, or ventricular–ventricular interactions) may affect the assessment of fractional shortening by altering the movement of the septum and causing an under or over estimation of the either end-systolic or diastolic dimension.
A second method of assessing ventricular function is via ejection fraction. Ejection fraction is a volumetric appraisal of ventricular fiber shortening. Echocardiographically the most common method of calculating ejection fraction is the biplane estimation of volumes from the apical four-and two-chamber views. One of the more commonly used mathematical algorithms is the Simpson method in which the left ventricle is traced manually at the end diastole and end systole along the endocardium. Using the method of disks the left ventricle is divided into a series of parallel planes and the resultant disks are individually summed to create each volume. Ejection fraction is calculated using the following equation:
Unfortunately, the determination of an accurate ejection fraction is also subject to ventricular shape with the left ventricle assumed to be its normal prolate elliptical shape. Variations from this shape, which occur frequently in pediatrics, significantly alter the relationship between fiber shortening and volume dependence upon when this equation is applied. In addition, patients in the intensive care environment frequently have suboptimal imaging windows making the endocardium difficult to distinguish and trace.
Not infrequently in active pediatric intensive care units, a patient’s heart and/or lung function must be supported for a period of time. Two such modalities of support are extracorporeal membranous oxygenation and ventricular assist devices. Often the pediatric echocardiographer is asked to assist in the management of these patients by providing insight into the recoverability of cardiac function. This request can be one of the more challenging uses of echo in an intensive care setting. As discussed above, many of the techniques commonly used to determine ventricular systolic function and CO are dependent on the loading conditions of the heart as well as contractility. As a result, both of these support systems which unload the heart in an effort to allow recovery time severely limit echo’s utility as a prognostic indicator. Several newer methods of determining myocardial function including Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI), strain and strain rate, color m-mode, calcium gating, and three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography are entering the realm of echo in the intensive care unit. These newer modalities may prove to be more efficacious than current standard echocardiography is at present.

Diastolic Function
Accurate assessment of diastolic function by echocardiography is an evolving field that has made great strides in the past few years. Diastolic heart failure and its impact on postoperative management also deserve consideration. Spectral Doppler evaluation is a relatively easy and useful method for evaluating diastolic function noninvasively at the bedside. A prominent pulmonary vein atrial reversal wave (a wave) is a marker of diastolic dysfunction. This finding represents marked flow reversal into the pulmonary veins during atrial systole in response to a noncompliant ventricular chamber. The mitral inflow Doppler pattern can also be a useful marker for diastolic dysfunction. Mitral inflow is composed of 2 waves – an E wave representing early passive ventricular filling (preload dependent) and the A wave representing active filling as a result of atrial systole. The E:A ratio, velocity of E wave deceleration and duration of the A wave can be altered in patients with diastolic dysfunction.
Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a newer technique for assessing diastolic ventricular function. TDI allows recording of the low Doppler velocities generated by the ventricular wall motion and directly measures myocardial velocities. In spectral TDI, pulsed Doppler is placed along the myocardial wall (mitral, septal, or tricuspid annulus) recording the peak myocardial velocities. Three waveforms are obtained: a peak systolic wave (Sa), an early diastolic wave (Ea), and an end-diastolic wave (Aa) produced by atrial contraction. The tissue Doppler systolic mitral annular velocity has been shown to correlate with global LV myocardial function [14]. TDI has also been used to estimate diastolic function, and is relatively independent of preload condition. The pulsed Doppler peak early mitral inflow velocity (E) divided by the TD early diastolic mitral annular velocity (Ea) results in a ratio that correlates with the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. The E/Ea ratio is also useful in estimating mean LV filling pressure. At this time, TDI represents one of the most accurate techniques to assess diastolic function and is therefore of particular interest in the critical care population in whom abrupt changes in preload and afterload are common, making Doppler evaluation of diastolic function less reliable.

Detection of Intracardiac Masses and Extracardiac Effusions
An abnormal area of dense reflectance that is well localized within an echo may represent a mass, thrombus, or calcification. In the postoperative or critical care patient with multiple lines in place, especially in the setting of low flow, care must be taken to evaluate these areas for thrombus formation. Echo is the imaging modality of choice for elucidating and evaluating cardiac mass lesions. Differentiating an area of concern from artifact, can be challenging. Areas that move appropriately throughout the cardiac cycle and the presence of an abnormality in more than a single view, suggest a mass rather than an artifact (see Figs. 5a–d). These findings must in turn be distinguished from such anatomical variations as a prominent Eustacian valve or Chiari network.
Demonstrate a thrombus in the right ventricle seen in parasternal short axis  
Fig.5 Demonstrate a thrombus in the right ventricle seen in parasternal short axis (a) and modified four-chamber (b) views. RV right ventricle; LV left ventricle. (c) and (d): Demonstrate a thrombus in the left atrial appendage in both parasternal short axis and a modified four chamber views. RA right atrium; RV right ventricle; AV aortic valve; AO ascending aorta; LV left ventricle.

Major factors that predispose a patient to the development of intracardiac thrombi are the presence of intracardiac lines, diminished CO, and localized stasis in addition to changes within the clotting cascade from sepsis, bypass, intrinsic clotting disorders, or heparin use. Echocardiographic evaluation of patients within the intensive care setting must include an awareness of the increased incidence of thrombus formation and a careful evaluation of areas predisposed to become a nidus for thrombus.
Following cardiac surgery it is not uncommon for patients to develop small collections of fluid in the pericardial space (see Fig.6). Typically, this is of little concern to the clinician; however, in a postoperative patient experiencing tachycardia and/or hypotension, the necessity of recognizing the potential for and screening for cardiac tamponade becomes paramount. In young infants and children, it is frequently difficult to rely on physical exam findings of increased jugular venous pressure or the late finding of pulsus paradoxus. In this instance, a directed and easily performed 2D and Doppler echocardiography can confirm the presence of an effusion and provide accurate assessment of its hemodynamic significance.
Subcostal image demonstrating a large circumferential pericardial effusion (green arrows) 
Fig.6 Subcostal image demonstrating a large circumferential pericardial effusion (green arrows)

The size and extension of a pericardial effusion may be diagnosed from parasternal, apical, or subcostal windows. The apical view is the easiest for obtaining information regarding the effusions hemodynamic significance. From the apical four chamber view both the mitral and tricuspid valve flow patterns are evaluated with the respiratory monitoring in place. Examining the changes in inflow hemodynamics with respiration allows for the evaluation of tamponade physiology. Greater than 25% variability in maximal e wave velocity of the mitral valve with inspiration or 50% of the e wave velocity of the tricuspid valve (see Figs.7a, b) is indicative of significant hemodynamic compromise resulting from the effusion. Additionally, collapse (differentiated from contraction) of the free wall of the right and left atrium (see Figs.8a, b) when the pericardial pressure exceeds the atrial pressure may be seen from this view in a patient with a significant effusion.
Respiratory changes in the mitral and tricuspid valve e wave Doppler patterns consistent with tamponade physiology. 
Fig.7 (a) and (b): Respiratory changes in the mitral and tricuspid valve e wave Doppler patterns consistent with tamponade physiology. The tricuspid valve inflow demonstrates more than 50% variability between inspiration and expiration (a). During mitral valve inflow Doppler, the peak E wave velocity alters more than 30% between inspiration and expiration (b).
Four chambered views 
Fig.8 (a) and (b): Four chambered views demonstrating right atrial and right ventricular collapse (green arrows) as a finding of tamponade physiology. RA right atrium; RV right ventricle; LA left atrium; LV left ventricle.

Echocardiography GuidedProcedures
1.  Pericardiocentesis
Performing “blind” percutaneous pericardiocentesis as a treatment for significant pericardial effusion dates back to the early eighteenth century and it is historically fraught with complications. Improved techniques in the 1970s with the advent of 2D echo allowed more accurate localization of the fluid and the development of echo-guided pericardiocentesis. Echo-guided pericardiocentesis (see Fig.9) has been found to be a safe and effective procedure with insertion of a catheter for drainage used to reduce the rate of recurrence found to complicate simple needle drainage and is considered the primary and often the definitive therapy for patients with clinically significant effusions.
Echoguided pericardiocentesis. 
Fig.9 Echoguided pericardiocentesis. Green arrow is in the pericardial space demonstrating the large fluid collection. Blue arrow is pointing to the needle that has been advanced into the pericardial space to drain the fluid collection. The large effusion allows the echocardiographer to direct the individual performing the pericardiocentesis away from areas that could lead to complications such as perforation of the myocardium.

2.  Balloon Atrial Septostomy (BAS)
Part of any echocardiographic assessment of a patient with congenital heart disease should include evaluation of the atrial septum. Cardiac lesions such as transposition of the great arteries, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and tricuspid atresia require an adequate atrial communication. In the setting of a restrictive atrial septal communication or intact septum, a BAS is required to improve mixing and CO. In the past, the procedure, originally described by William Rashkind was performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory under fluoroscopic guidance. However, during the last decade BAS has been routinely performed at the bedside in the intensive care unit under echocardiographic guidance (see Figs.10a–d). Most commonly either a subcostal view that includes a focused look at the atrial septum, pulmonary vein, and mitral valve or an apical four-chamber view is used. For the echocardiographer, the primary role is to provide continued visualization of the catheters and communicate well with the interventionalist. Advantages of this technique are multifactorial; echocardiography is superior to fluoroscopy during BAS due to a lack of radiation, the ability to perform the procedure at bedside rather than transporting to a catheterization laboratory, and direct, continuous visualization of the atrial septum, pulmonary veins, and mitral valve. The disadvantages of this technique include the potential for interference with maneuverability for both echocardiographer and catheter operator around a small neonate and therefore the risk of contamination of the sterile field. Additionally there is the possibility of poor acoustic windows in an ill neonate who may be mechanically ventilated. However, with proper planning and communication, the limitations of transthoracic echocardiographic guidance of BAS may be minimized.
Subcostal images demonstrating echo-guided balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) 
Fig.10 Subcostal images demonstrating echo-guided balloon atrial septostomy (BAS). (a): shows the initial small atrial communication in both 2 dimensional (2D) and color Doppler imaging. (b): reveals the deflated balloon that has been advanced across the atrial communication. It is important during this portion of the procedure for the echocardiographer to ensure that the balloon has not been advanced across the left atrioventricular valve. (c): demonstrates the inflated balloon within the left atrium. It is important to note the balloon’s position away from the mitral valve and pulmonary veins. (d): demonstrates the atrial communication following septostomy using both 2D and color Doppler imaging. RA right atrium; RV right ventricle; LA left atrium; LV left ventricle; Green arrows atrial communication.

Future Directions
There are several areas of advanced imaging that are becoming more commonplace in the practice of pediatric echocardiography. Primary assessment of cardiac mechanics by evaluating myocardial motion, strain, and strain rate has been validated in healthy children and provides additional information regarding myocardial performance. Three-dimensional real-time echocardiography has a growing role in evaluating anatomic defects, valves, and right and left ventricular function independently of geometric assumptions that constrained the previous methods.

1. Myocardial Mechanics
In the past several years, myocardial strain and strain rate have emerged as promising quantitative measures of myocardial function and contractility. Strain (e) is a dimensionless parameter defined as the deformation (L) of an object relative to its original length (Lo), and is expressed as a percentage. Strain rate (SR) is defined as the local rate of deformation or strain (e) per unit of time, and is expressed in 1/s. Strain and strain rate measurements can be obtained from data acquired by Doppler Tissue Imaging or 2D tissue tracking. Strain and strain rate should be of great help in the future in the evaluation of ventricular function, since conventional M-mode and 2D echocardiography have limitations due to complex morphology of the right ventricle and altered left ventricle morphology that occurs in complex congenital heart defects. Left and right ventricular values of strain and strain rate are available for healthy children.

2.  3D Echocardiography
Off-line 3D reconstruction consists of acquisition of sequential 2D slices which are converted to a rectangular coordinate system for 3D reconstruction and provides accurate anatomic information suitable for quantitative analysis. Left ventricular volume, mass, and function can be accurately assessed using RT3D independently of geometric assumption, and ejection fraction can be calculated. The wideangle mode is often used to acquire the entire LV volume, from which further analysis allows determination of global and regional wall motion. Wall motion is evaluated from base to apex with multiple slices from different orientations. The advantage of 3D over 2D is the ability to manipulate the plane to align the true long axis and minor axis of the LV, thus avoiding foreshortening and oblique image planes. LV volume assessment by RT3D is rapid, accurate, reproducible and superior to conventional 2D methods and is comparable to MRI, which represents the gold standard. Three dimensional reconstruction of the tricuspid valve has been shown to be helpful for anatomical assessment of Ebstein’s malformation or after atrioventricular septal defect repair. 3D Echocardiography is a useful adjunct to standard 2D imaging and should be increasingly used in the future.

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          100668 M 160 Double ribbon mic, hypercardioid        
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          2645 Mkh 40-P48 Direct. Studio Microphone        
2645 Mkh 40-P48 Direct. Studio Microphone

2645 Mkh 40-P48 Direct. Studio Microphone

Sennheiser 2645 Mkh 40-P48 (MKH-40-P48 MKH40P48 MKH40-P48 MKH 40 P48) Direct. Studio Microphone Cardioid RF condenser microphone. For a large number of applications, e. g. as a main microphone, especially in lightly reverberant or acoustically less perfect rooms, with instrumental groups or for speech applications. The MKH 40 has a large number of applications, for example as a main microphone, especially in lightly reverberant or acoustically less perfect rooms, with instrumental groups or for speech applications. Its wide-angled, neutral directional characteristics and high level of reverse attenuation ensure an exceptionally balanced sound. Especially suitable for lightly reverberant or acoustically less perfect rooms Symmetrical transducer technology ensures extremely low distortion Switchable roll-off filter to compensate for proximity effects Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Features:   Maximum front-to-back ratio Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Symmetrical transducer technology ensures extremely low distortion Transformerless and fully floating balanced output Switchable roll-off filter to compensate for proximity effects at a distance of approx. 0.5 m Switchable pre-attenuation Black, anodised light metal bodv What's in the box? 1 MKH 40, 1 MZS 40 shock mount, 1 MZW 41 windshield


          2872 Mkh 30-P48 Direct. Studio Microphone        
2872 Mkh 30-P48 Direct. Studio Microphone

2872 Mkh 30-P48 Direct. Studio Microphone

Sennheiser 2872 Mkh 30-P48 (MKH-30-P48 MKH30P48 MKH 30 P48 MKH30-P48) Direct. Studio Microphone RF condenser microphone with figure-of-eight pick-up pattern. Particularly suited to soloists and small instrumental groups. Can also serve as an 'S' microphone in MS stereo applications as well as a support microphone. The symmetrical transducer design of the MKH 30 produces an unusually wide and smooth frequency response. It is particularly suited to soloists and small instrumental groups and can also serve as an 'S' microphone in MS stereo applications. As a support microphone it is particularly useful in the effective suppression of sounds from adjacent sound sources. Symmetrical transducer design for unusually wide and smooth frequency response Particularly suited to soloists and small instrumental groups High rejection of lateral sounds Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Features: High rejection of lateral sounds Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Symmetrical transducer technology ensures extremely low distortion Transformerless and fully floating balanced output Switchable roll-off filter to compensate for proximity effects at a distance of approx. 0.5 m Switchable pre-attenuation Black, anodised light metal body What's in the box? 1 MKH 30 1 MZS 80 shock mount 1 MZW 41 windshield


          3109 Mkh 50-P48 Studio Directional Microphone        
3109 Mkh 50-P48 Studio Directional Microphone

3109 Mkh 50-P48 Studio Directional Microphone

Sennheiser 3109 Mkh 50-P48 (MKH50-P48 MKH 50 P48 MKH-50-P48 MKH 50P48) Studio Directional Microphone Super-cardioid microphone designed for use as a soloist's or spot microphone for applications requiring a high degree of side-borne sound muting and feedback rejection. Frequency-independent directional characteristics. The super-cardioid MKH 50 offers a higher attenuation of diffusefield and lateral sound than the cardioid microphone. It is principally designed for use as a soloist's or spot microphone for applications requiring a high degree of side-borne sound muting and feedback rejection. The directional characteristics are frequency-independent. Super-cardioid pick-up pattern for higher attenuation of diffusefield and lateral sound Soloist’s or spot microphone for applications requiring a high degree of side-borne sound muting and feedback rejection Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Features: High rejection of lateral sounds Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Transformerless and fully floating balanced output Symmetrical transducer technology ensures extremely low distortion Switchable roll-off filter to compensate for proximity effects at a distance of approx. 0.5 m Switchable pre-attenuation Black, anodised light metal body What's in the box? 1 MKH 50, 1 MZS 40 shock mount, 1 MZW 41 windshield


          3148 Mkh 60-1 Studio Directional Microphone        
3148 Mkh 60-1 Studio Directional Microphone

3148 Mkh 60-1 Studio Directional Microphone

Sennheiser 3148 Mkh 60-1 (MKH60-1 MKH601 MKH 60 1 MKH-60-1) Studio Directional Microphone Lightweight short gun microphone. Versatile and easy to handle. Excellent for film and reporting applications. Superb lateral sound muting. High degree of directivity ensures high sound quality for distance applications. The MKH 60 is a lightweight short gun microphone. It is versatile and easy to handle and its superb lateral sound muting makes it an excellent choice for film and reporting applications. Its high degree of directivity ensures high sound quality for distance applications. Superb lateral sound muting – ideal for film and reporting applications Symmetrical transducer technology ensures extremely low distortion Extremely low inherent self-noise Rugged and weather-proof Features: Extremely low inherent self-noise High sensitivity High directivity throughout the whole frequency range Transformerless and fully floating balanced output Infra-sonic cut-off filter Symmetrical transducer technology ensures extremely low distortion Switchable pre-attenuation, switchable roll-off filter and switchable treble emphasis Rugged and weather-proof Black, anodised light metal body What's in the box? 1 MKH 60, 1 MZQ 40 quick release clamp


          3149 Mkh 70-1 Studio Directional Microphone        
3149 Mkh 70-1 Studio Directional Microphone

3149 Mkh 70-1 Studio Directional Microphone

Sennheiser 3149 Mkh 70-1 (MKH-70-1 MKH701 MKH70-1 MKH 70 1) Studio Directional Microphone Lightweight long gun microphone. Particularly suited to distance microphone positioning. Frequency-independent directivity prevents sound coloration from off-axis sound sources. Exceptionally low inherent self-noise. The MKH 70 is a lightweight long gun microphone. Its excellent directivity is particularly suited to applications undertaken in difficult conditions, such as high background noise and distance microphone positioning. Its frequency-independent directivity prevents sound colouration from off-axis sound sources. Excellent directivity, ideal for distance microphone positioning Frequency-independent directivity prevents sound colouration from off-axis sound source Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Rugged and weather-proof Features: Exceptionally low inherent self-noise Transformerless and fully floating balanced output Infra-sonic cut-off filter Symmetrical transducer technology ensures extremely low distortion Switchable pre-attenuation, switchable roll-off filter and switchable treble emphasis Rugged and weather-proof Black, anodised light metal body What's in the box? 1 MKH 70


          4088-B Directional Headset Mic, Black, MicroDot        
4088-B Directional Headset Mic, Black, MicroDot

4088-B Directional Headset Mic, Black, MicroDot

DPA 4088-B (4088B 4088/B 4088 B) Directional Headset Mic, Black, MicroDot FEATURES: open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts. Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease. The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules. The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal. Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector. In the box: Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)  


          4088-C Directional Headset Mic, Brown, MicroDot        
4088-C Directional Headset Mic, Brown, MicroDot

4088-C Directional Headset Mic, Brown, MicroDot

DPA 4088-C (4088C 4088 C 4088/C) Directional Headset Mic, Brown, MicroDot FEATURES: open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts. Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease. The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules. The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal. Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector. In the box: Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)  


          4088-F Directional Headset Mic, Beige, MicroDot        
4088-F Directional Headset Mic, Beige, MicroDot

4088-F Directional Headset Mic, Beige, MicroDot

DPA 4088-F (4088F 4088 F 4088/F) Directional Headset Mic, Beige, MicroDot FEATURES: open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts. Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease. The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules. The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal. Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector. In the box: Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)    


          4088-F03 Directional Headset Mic Beige 3-Pin Lemo        
4088-F03 Directional Headset Mic Beige 3-Pin Lemo

4088-F03 Directional Headset Mic Beige 3-Pin Lemo

DPA 4088-F03 Directional Headset Mic Beige 3-Pin Lemo d:fineâ„¢ 4088 Directional Headset Microphone Video: DPA 4088 cardioid headband on singer open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes  DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts. Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease. The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules. The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal. Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector. What is in the box: Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen   Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)  


          4088-F10 Directional Headset Mic Beige TA4F Mini XLR        
4088-F10 Directional Headset Mic Beige TA4F Mini XLR

4088-F10 Directional Headset Mic Beige TA4F Mini XLR

DPA 4088-F10 (4088F10, 4088 F10, 4088/F10, 4088-f10) Directional Headset Mic Beige TA4F Mini XLR d:fineâ„¢ 4088 Directional Headset Microphone     open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes  DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts.   Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease.   The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules.   The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal.   Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector.   What is in the box:   Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)


          4088-F34 Directional Headset Mic Beige Mini-Jack        
4088-F34 Directional Headset Mic Beige Mini-Jack

4088-F34 Directional Headset Mic Beige Mini-Jack

DPA 4088-F34 (4088F34, 4088 F34, 4088/F34, 4088-f34) Directional Headset Mic Beige Mini-Jack d:fineâ„¢ 4088 Directional Headset Microphone open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes  DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts. Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease. The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules. The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal. Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector. What is in the box: Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen   Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)


          450367 MCE 58 ENG/EFP condenser mic, omnidirectional        
450367 MCE 58 ENG/EFP condenser mic, omnidirectional

450367 MCE 58 ENG/EFP condenser mic, omnidirectional

Beyerdynamic 450367 MCE 58 (MCE-58, MCE58, MCE/58, mce 58) ENG/EFP condenser mic, omnidirectional microphone Electret condenser microphone for ENG/EFP (omni) The MCE 58 condenser microphone has been specially developed for interviewing and broadcasting.  Its unbalanced output supplies a very high level which allows direct connection to mobile DAT and MD-recorders. The elasticated suspension of the transducer element eliminates unwanted handling noise and built-in active filters suppress unwanted low frequency noise such as traffic rumble. The MCE 58 has a frequency response curve which has been optimised for excellent intelligibility of speech. The non-glare surface is scratch-resistant and will withstand the rough use often associated with news gathering events.  Features:  Omnidirectional polar pattern  High output level  Rugged construction  Slim line design   


          482838 MC 840 Large diaphram condenser mic        
482838 MC 840 Large diaphram condenser mic

482838 MC 840 Large diaphram condenser mic

Beyerdynamic 482838 MC 840 (MC840, MC-840, MC/840, mc 840) Large diaphram condenser mic Top class large-diaphragm condenser microphone Studio or Live Applications  Vocals, Choirs, Instruments  The MC 840 is a very compact large diaphragm studio microphone with a gold vaporised double diaphragm and 5 selectable polar patterns (omnidirectional, wide cardioid, cardioid, hypercardioid, figure 8). On the basis of the MC 740 microphone capsule this new microphone has been equipped with an improved low-noise pre-amplifier and an impedance transformer without transducer. Due to a two-stage roll-off filter (80 and 160 Hz) compensating the close miking effect and a two-stage pre-attenuation (-10 and -20 dB) the MC 840 is a superior microphone for any recording application. It has been designed without compromise to capture every sound detail with absolute clarity and purity. Applications for the MC 840 include recording orchestras resulting in a superb transparent sound. Features Large diaphragm capsule with gold vaporised double diaphragms Elastic capsule mounting Five selectable polar patterns Switchable pre-attenuation for high sound pressure levels   Switchable two-stage roll-off filter


          502083 Mkh 800 Twin Nx Dual Capsule Microphone        
502083 Mkh 800 Twin Nx Dual Capsule Microphone

502083 Mkh 800 Twin Nx Dual Capsule Microphone

Sennheiser 502083 Mkh 800 Twin Nx (MKH 800 TWIN NX MKH-800-TWIN-NX MKH800TWINNX MKH800 TWIN NX)Dual Capsule Microphone The MKH 800 TWIN is a universal studio condenser microphone of exceptional quality. It includes a dual capsule consisting of two symmetrical push-pull transducers with high linearity. This is a "side fire" microphone with the two cardioid pick-up patterns of the transducer aligned back-to-back across the axis of the microphone. The signals of both transducers are not combined in the microphone in order to generate differing pick-up patterns but are available separately as two channels at the microphone output. This allows the pick-up patterns of the MKH 800 TWIN to be remotely adjusted. The signals can be combined in any desired way in the mixing console in order to create all pick-up patterns from omni-directional to figure-8 with an infinite number of intermediate stages. Based on the legendary MKH 800, this microphone opens up to a new dimension of studio recordings. Universal studio condenser microphone of exceptional quality. Pick-up patterns can be remotely adjusted and optimized under monitoring conditions. High transducers linearity minimizes signal distortions. Universal studio condenser microphone of exceptional quality Pick-up patterns can be set and optimised under monitoring conditions. A wide range of mixes for stereo and surround are possible High transducers linearity minimizes signal distortions Features: Color: Nickel The remote adjustability and the variable pick-up patterns make the MKH 800 TWIN a universal main microphone, soloist microphone or supporting microphone. The pick-up patterns can be set and optimised under monitoring conditions. In other words, it is not necessary to fix the pick-up patterns definitively before recording. A wide range of mixes for stereo and surround are possible (including in parallel). Saving of the microphone signals in two channels also allows an unlimited range of mixes to be realised at a later date. The high sensitivity ensures interference-free signal paths as a result of high signal levels. The inherent noise of downstream microphone amplifiers is thus of minor importance. Very low inherent noise prevents the masking of filigree sound structures. The depth of the acoustic can be heard more clearly too. High linearity of the transducers minimises the signal distortions and ensures the transparency of the sound even at high sound levels. The frequency response extends to 50 kHz, thus improving the resolution for complex acoustic details. Stable pick-up patterns minimise sound distortion in the direct and diffuse field. Negative acoustic effects caused by the housing and the sound inlet basket are minimised. The small, slim design and the optionally dark housing design (Nextel) make it visually unobtrusive. What's in the box? MKH 800 TWIN studio condenser microphone MZQ 80 microphone clamp MZS80 shock mount AC 20 adaptor cable (1 x XLR-5 socket to 2 x XLR-3 connector) User manual Aluminium transport case


          502431 Mkh 800 Twin Ni Dual Capsule Microphone        
502431 Mkh 800 Twin Ni Dual Capsule Microphone

502431 Mkh 800 Twin Ni Dual Capsule Microphone

Sennheiser 502431 Mkh 800 Twin Ni (MKH 800 TWIN_NI MKH-800-TWIN-NI MKH800TWINNI MKH_800_TWIN_NI) Dual Capsule Microphone Universal studio condenser microphone of exceptional quality. Pick-up patterns can be remotely adjusted and optimized under monitoring conditions. High transducers linearity minimizes signal distortions.The MKH 800 TWIN is a universal studio condenser microphone of exceptional quality. It includes a dual capsule consisting of two symmetrical push-pull transducers with high linearity. This is a "side fire" microphone with the two cardioid pick-up patterns of the transducer aligned back-to-back across the axis of the microphone. The signals of both transducers are not combined in the microphone in order to generate differing pick-up patterns but are available separately as two channels at the microphone output. This allows the pick-up patterns of the MKH 800 TWIN to be remotely adjusted. The signals can be combined in any desired way in the mixing console in order to create all pick-up patterns from omni-directional to figure-8 with an infinite number of intermediate stages. Based on the legendary MKH 800, this microphone opens up to a new dimension of studio recordings. Features Color: Nickel The remote adjustability and the variable pick-up patterns make the MKH 800 TWIN a universal main microphone, soloist microphone or supporting microphone. The pick-up patterns can be set and optimised under monitoring conditions. In other words, it is not necessary to fix the pick-up patterns definitively before recording. A wide range of mixes for stereo and surround are possible (including in parallel). Saving of the microphone signals in two channels also allows an unlimited range of mixes to be realised at a later date. The high sensitivity ensures interference-free signal paths as a result of high signal levels. The inherent noise of downstream microphone amplifiers is thus of minor importance. Very low inherent noise prevents the masking of filigree sound structures. The depth of the acoustic can be heard more clearly too. High linearity of the transducers minimises the signal distortions and ensures the transparency of the sound even at high sound levels. The frequency response extends to 50 kHz, thus improving the resolution for complex acoustic details. Stable pick-up patterns minimise sound distortion in the direct and diffuse field. Negative acoustic effects caused by the housing and the sound inlet basket are minimised. The small, slim design and the optionally dark housing design (Nextel) make it visually unobtrusive.   What's in the box? MKH 800 TWIN studio condenser microphone MZQ 80 microphone clamp MZS80 shock mount AC 20 adaptor cable (1 x XLR-5 socket to 2 x XLR-3 connector) User manual Aluminium transport case  


          504298 MK 4 Studio Condenser Microphone        
504298 MK 4 Studio Condenser Microphone

504298 MK 4 Studio Condenser Microphone

Sennheiser (504298, 5042 98, 5042-98) The MK 4 is a large-diaphragm true condenser microphone for professional studio recordings. Featuring fine resolution and outstanding sound quality, the MK 4 is easy to handle and excellent value for money, making it an ideal choice for professional project studios and home recordists. It features a 1" true condenser capsule based on the acoustics of the e 965 high-end vocal mic, optimised for recording. The MK 4 is made in Germany, its transducer being manufactured in the same clean room as all high-end Sennheiser condenser capsules.


          504638 EW112 G3-GB Lapel System w ME2 Omni Lapel Mic CH38        
504638 EW112 G3-GB Lapel System w ME2 Omni Lapel Mic CH38

504638 EW112 G3-GB Lapel System w ME2 Omni Lapel Mic CH38

Sennheiser 504638 EW112 G3-GB Lapel System with ME2 Omni Lapel Mic CH38   Presentation System 100 series G3 Range GB (606...648 MHz) Make your presentations come to life. The included omni-directional microphone provides natural speech reproduction while remaining inconspicuously small. The bodypack transmitter has a rechargeable battery option so you can concentrate on your presentation - not on purchasing batteries. Demand the best in wireless presentation technology with quick setup, user-friendly operation, and absolute reliability due to the true diversity receiver. Now featuring wireless infrared transmitter sync for easy setup.   Product Specifications RF frequency range: 516..... 865 MHz Transmission/receiving frequencies: 1680 Presets: 12 Switching bandwidth: 42 MHz Compander: HDX Frequency response: 25.....18.000 Hz Signal-to-noise ratio: > 110 dB(A) THD, total harmonic distortion: < 0.9 %   Receivers Antenna connector: 2x BNC, 50 Ohm Audio output level (balanced): XLR: +18 dBu max Jack: +12 dBu max Audio output level (unbalanced): Jack: +12dBu max 12 V DC Dimensions: 202x212x43mm Weight: ~ 900g   Transmitter RF output power: typ. 30 mW battery AA (Mignon) Power supply: 2x AA batteries Operating time: typ. 8h Input voltage range: 1.8 V line Input voltage range: 3 V eff. line Dimensions: 82x64x24mm Weight: ~ 160g   Clip-on microphone Transducer; Microphone type: permanent polarized 130 dB(SPL) max. AF sensitivity: 20 mV/Pa omni- directional Sound pressure level (SPL): 130 dB(SPL) max. Pick-up pattern omni-directional: omni- directional Channel 38 ready. 42 MHz bandwidth: 1680 tunable UHF frequencies for interference-free reception Enhanced frequency bank system with up to 12 compatible frequencies High-quality true diversity reception Pilot tone squelch for eliminating RF interference when transmitter is turned off Automatic frequency scan feature searches for available frequencies Enhanced AF frequency range    


          New electro-pneumatic transducer helps Oil & Gas industry meet EPA emission requirements        

Applied Control News Update:

EMERSON NEWS RELEASE: Emerson introduces electro-pneumatic transducer to help oil and gas industry meet EPA emission requirements    Fisher i2P-100 electro-pneumatic transducer limits supply gas consumption to less than 6 SCFH MARSHALLTOWN, IOWA (November 4, 2013) — Emerson Process Management … Continue reading

The post New electro-pneumatic transducer helps Oil & Gas industry meet EPA emission requirements appeared first on https://appliedcontrolequipment.com.


          Wyatt Technology Corporation Launches the ViscoStar III Online Vi        
1888 PressRelease - The Next Generation of Viscometers is launched with ViscoStar III by Wyatt Technology for unmatched sensitivity, stability, and broadest range of solvents for macromolecular characterization. Houston, TX - Wyatt Technology, the world leader in instrumentation for absolute macromolecular characterization, announces the launch of the third generation of intrinsic viscosity detectors: the ViscoStar III. Used in conjunction with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) systems and multi-angle light scattering (MALS) detectors, such as the company's DAWN and miniDAWN, the ViscoStar III can determine the molar mass, size and conformation of all types of macromolecules, including polymers and proteins. The ViscoStar III's sensitivity, dynamic range, resolution and stability surpass other GPC viscometers by at least an order of magnitude-all while retaining robustness, ease-of-use and serviceability. Advanced Technology All contemporary online viscometers utilize a capillary bridge for highly sensitive measurement of differential pressures arising from the differences in viscosity of solutions passing through the capillaries. The four arms of the bridge must be perfectly balanced in order to make the most sensitive measurements; however, even a well-balanced bridge is inherently susceptible to systematic noise due to dynamic pressure pulses generated by the chromatography pump. At the heart of the ViscoStar III are two key advances for overcoming these issues: thermal bridge tuning and complete impedance matching. Thermal bridge tuning performs rapid, non-mechanical balancing of the capillary resistances to ensure perfect bridge balance on every GPC run, even after material has accumulated on the capillary walls and skewed the original bridge symmetry. Complete impedance matching goes beyond simple resistive bridge balancing. It symmetrizes the dynamic properties of the capillary bridge and suppresses pump pulses by 100x. And the ViscoStar III does it without introducing the artificial band broadening that is used by other online viscometers to smear out pump pulses at the cost of reduced chromatographic resolution. An additional, proprietary software filter eliminates residual pump pulse levels without any loss of resolution. The bridge-balancing, impedance matching and software filtering features were developed entirely in-house by Wyatt's outstanding R&D staff. "The ViscoStar III is a welcome addition to my macromolecular characterization lab" says Stepan Podzimek of the University of Pardubice in the Czech Republic. Prof. Podzimek, one of the premier authorities on polymer characterization, added "It far exceeds the sensitivity, resolution and chemical compatibility of all other GPC viscometers I have tried, and sets a new standard for such instruments. It even works well with older GPC systems that I would normally consider incompatible with online viscometry due to their excessive pump pulsations. In combination with a HELEOS or TREOS, the ViscoStar III represents a powerful tool for the thorough investigation of polymer conformation and branching and brings new capabilities to all laboratories involved in the characterization of synthetic and natural polymers." More innovation from Wyatt Technology Yet other "firsts" in the ViscoStar III include • The only viscometer with a "dual" Peltier thermal control, which reduces signal drift by 50x relative to competing instruments while allowing for both heating and cooling • pressure transducers with all-316L stainless steel wetted surfaces for reduced corrosion and highest compatibility with the widest range of chromatographic solvents • a system pressure sensor to detect capillary clogs and prevent transducer damage; • a replaceable solvent filter that protects sensitive downstream components • ready access to service all fluidic components. Protein applications "The ViscoStar III is a sensitive, stable and robust instrument. When combined with a DAWN or miniDAWN MALS detector and size exclusion chromatography (SEC), we find it provides a more precise measurement of the hydrodynamic radius of proteins especially at low concentrations, than the more commonly used online dynamic light scattering (DLS)" stated Dr. Michelle Chen, Head of Analytical Services at Wyatt Technology. "With sensitivity down to as little as 0.1 µg of 100 kDa polystyrene, or approximately 1 µg of BSA, and a dynamic range of over 135,000:1, the ViscoStar III will add to our protein and peptide characterization capabilities-in addition to enhancing our polymer analysis." A webinar describing the technological innovations, capabilities and applications of the ViscoStar III will be broadcast on October 19, 2016. Visit http://www.wyatt.com/events/live-webinars.html for details and to register, or view on-demand at http://www.wyatt.com/webinars/polymers beginning October 28, 2016. Additional information on the ViscoStar III may be found at www.wyatt.com/ViscoStar.
          Torque transducer for Monitoring Screwdrivers        
We provide superior technology in all product areas. Our screwdriving technology solutions benefit from the extreme torque accuracy of our shut-off clutch and the renowned robust and reliable design of all our screwdrivers. Screwdriving perfection is our guiding principle and we command undisputed market leadership in many applications. Torque transducer is a basic requirement for the adjustment, monitoring and inspection of screwdrivers, and also for the testing of screw joints.
          Research and realisation of reciprocal electronic circuits for gas ultrasonic flow meter        
The transit-time ultrasonic flow meters often show non-zero-flow rate when the flow is stationary due to the variations between transducers, which results in a zero-flow error. Moreover, the zero-flow error may change along with the measurement environment which causes the zero-drift error. The zero-flow error and zero-drift error will lead to false flow detection and influence the measurement stability at low velocities. Reciprocal operation theory has been proven to be an effective technique to eliminate zero-flow error. Therefore, reciprocal electronic circuits for gas ultrasonic flow meter are designed in this study. The circuits are first modelled in PSpice to validate its effectiveness. It is shown that both the zero-flow error and the zero drift are reduced significantly with the reciprocal circuits. Besides, the optimum matched resistor is determined by simulation. Second, three experiments are carried out to test the reciprocal circuits including transducers paired experiment, temperature test and flow calibration. Finally, it is verified that the reciprocal circuits can improve the measurement accuracy and stability for gas ultrasonic flow meter and the calibration results show that the gas ultrasonic flow meter (USM) with reciprocal circuits can achieve 1.0% measurement accuracy in 0.3-30 m/s.
           Impedance-based detection of DNA sequences using a silicon transducer with PNA as the probe layer         
Macanovic, Alvira (2004) Impedance-based detection of DNA sequences using a silicon transducer with PNA as the probe layer. PhD thesis, Concordia University.
          Substation Equipment        

 

To do its task in a proper way, substations contain much equipment. The most important and common equipment in the transformers substations are the following:


1)    Bus Bars


When a number of lines operating at the same voltage must be directly connected electrically, busbars are used as the common electrical point. Busbars are rigid aluminum or copper bars (generally of rectangular cross-section) and operate at constant voltage and frequency. The incoming and outgoing lines in a substation are connected to the bus bars. Busbars receives power from incoming circuits and deliver power to outgoing circuits.
There are many arrangements of busbars in substations. Some of them are:
1- Simple single bus bar.
2- Sectionalized single bus bar system.
3- Double bus bar system.
4- Double sectionalized bus bar system.

While the system in (2) is commonly used for medium and low voltages (11KV and less), the system in (4) is commonly used for high and extra high voltages (66 KV and more)
2)     Insulators:

The porcelain insulators employed in the substations are of past and bushing type. They serve as supports and insulations of the busbar. A past insulator consists of porcelain body, an iron cap and a flanged cast iron base.
Bushing insulators are used to pass the conductor through a wall or a tank transformer. A bushing consists of porcelain shell body and upper and lower locating washers used for fixing the position of the busbar or rod in shell. For current rating above 2 KA, the bushings are designed to allow the main busbars to pass directly through them. 

3)    Lightning  Arrestors and Surge Arrestors:

Lightning and surge arrestors are shunt resistors used to divert the lightning and high voltage surges to earth and protect other equipment from H.V surges. They are connected generally between phase conductor and ground. They are located where the first equipment is seen from the incoming overhead line and also near transformer terminals phase to ground. There are two types of surge arrestors; Gapped Arrestors and Gapless Zinc-Oxide Arrestors

4)     Isolators (disconnecting switch):

In substation, it is often desired to disconnect a part of the system for general maintenance and repairs. This is accomplished by an disconnecting switches or isolators. They are located at each side of the circuit breaker. They are disconnected after tripping the C.B and closed before closing the C.B. That's why they don't have any rating for current breaking or current making. From the common types of isolators: center rotating horizontal swing isolators, vertical swing and pantograph type isolator (for 420 KV). Isolators are interlocked with circuit breaker
5)    Earthing switch:
Its function is to discharge the trapped charges on the circuit to earth for safety. They are mounted on the frame of isolators.

6)    Current Transformer (CT):
It is used to step down the current for measurement, protection and control. The need for a CT comes from the fact that the measuring, control and protection instruments are designed for working at low ratings (usually 110V and 5A). The C.T usually has three secondary coils; one for measuring, the 2nd for protection and the 3rd for controlling.

7)     Voltage (potential) transformer (PT):

It is used to step down the voltage for measurement, protection and control. Its location is at the feeder side of the circuit breaker. Its secondary voltage is usually 110 V.

8)     Circuit Breaker (C.B):

Circuit breakers are installed to perform the following duties:
§  Switching during normal and abnormal operating conditions
§  Interrupting short circuit currents.
C.Bs are located at both ends of every protective zone. Types of C.B depend on the rated voltage and the medium of arc quenching. Among the types of C.B: SF6, Vacuum, Air blast and minimum oil.


9)     Power transformers:
The power transformer used to step down the voltage from 66 KV to 11 KV. The common connection of the power transformers is delta/star-earthed to trap the zero sequence and third harmonic components and prevent them from reaching the secondary side and thus the distribution networks.            The rating of power transformers depends on the loads of the substation zone. In general the most common used ratings for power transformers used in the distribution substations are 25 and 35 MVA. Power transformers are usually oil filled. They have two or three windings. They are provided with coolers.
Power transformers have tapped windings, which permit adjusting the output voltage to broaden the range of primary voltage inputs. The transformer will have a manual tap changer, which can be operated if the transformer is de-energized. An automatic on load tap changing (OLTC) feature installed on a transformer provides automatic tap changing under load, and normally varies the voltage to 10% of the system’s rated voltage in steps by changing tap connections using a motor-driven, tap-changing switch. Sometimes voltage regulation is needed and the system transformers do not include the OLTC feature. Voltage regulators are used to supply the control for the variations in load.
Industry standards classify transformers as outdoor and indoor transformers. An outdoor transformer is constructed of weather-resistant construction, suitable for service without additional protection from the weather.

10)  Marshalling Kiosk:
They are used in the outdoor substations. They are used to mount both monitoring instruments and control equipment and to provide access to various transducers. Marshalling kiosks are located in the switchyard near every power transformer.
11)   Metering, Control and Relay Panels:
They are used in the indoor substations. They are used to house various measuring instruments, control Instruments and protective relays. They are located in air-conditioned building. Control cables are laid between switchyard equipment and these panels.

12)   Shunt reactors:
They are used with extra high voltage transmission lines to control the voltage during low-load period by compensating the capacitance of the transmission line during these periods.

13)   Series reactors (current limiting reactors):
They are used to limit the short circuit currents and to limit current surges associated with fluctuating loads.

14)  DC Busbars
The trip coils of all circuit breakers operate using a dc supply, thus we need dc busbar in the substation. This is achieved using two auxiliary transformers to step down from 11 KV to 380 V. These transformers feed two rectifying units supplying two chargers. These are charging two battery cells which are kept floating on the supply. If the dc busbars are de‑energized for any reason, the batteries can fill in its place. The 380 voltage supplies necessary lighting, air conditioning, motors for the cooling fans and any other auxiliaries.

15)  Station Earthing System:
It is used to provide a low resistance earthing for doing the following tasks:
§  discharge currents from surge arrestors, overhead shielding and earthing switches
§  for equipment body earthing
§  for safe touch potential and step potential in substation
§  for providing path for the neutral to ground currents for the earth fault protection
Earthing electrodes are placed below the ground level and connected to the equipment structures and neutral points for the purpose of equipment earthing and neutral point earthing. Detailed discussion of earthing schemes is introduced in a coming chapter.
16)   Neutral Grounding Equipment:

They are either resistors or reactors. They are used to limit short circuit current during ground faults. They are short time rated. They are connected between neutral point and ground.

          AE1005 WIIND TUNNEL TECHNIQUES Questions Bank 2014        

AE1005 WIIND TUNNEL TECHNIQUES Questions Bank 2014

Anna University, Chennai

Anna_University,_Chennai_logo

SRINIVASAN ENGIEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING AE1005 WIIND TUNNEL TECHNIQUES

QUESTION BANK (PAR T – B)

UNIT - 1

1. Explain Buckingham PI theorem with example.

2. Define any five non dimensionless members.

3. An aircraft is to fly at a height –

C for completes dynamic similarity. What would be P & V should be used

WT F μα T (T + 7), E = γ , P = ρRT T v γ

of specific heats.

4. A 7.2m height & 15m long spillway discharges 94m3/s discharge under a head of 2.0m.

If 1:9 scale model of this spillway is to be constructed, determine model dimensions, head o ver spillway model & the model discharge. If model experience a force of 7500N.

Determine force on the prototype.


UNIT - 2

5. Explain about losses in subsonic wind tunnel.

6. Give the C lassification of wind tunnel & explain about hypersonic wind tunnel.

7. With a neat sketch explain about types of supersonic wind tunnel.

8. Explain about losses in supersonic wind tunnel.

9. Explain about high speed wind tunnel with neat sketch.


UNIT – 3

10. Derive the expression for test section speed.

11. With a neat sketch explain about calibrations of supersonic wind tunnel.

12. Explain about flow angularity measurements & its types.

13. With a neat sketch explain about turbulence measurements.


UNIT – 4

14. Explain about any one types of wind tunnel balances with neat example.

15. With a neat sketch explain about velocity measurements using LDA.

16. With a neat sketch brief about pressure measurements by using transducers.

17. With a neat sketch explain about force measurements in wind tunnel.


UNIT – 5

18. Explain about optical method of flow visualization.

19. Explain flow visualization method by using smoke & tuft grid techniques.

20. With a neat sketch explain about dye injection techniques.


          AE1005-WIND TUNNEL TECHNIQUES Two Marks Questions With Answers 2014        

AE1005-WIND TUNNEL TECHNIQUES Two Marks Questions With Answers 2014

Anna University, Chennai

Anna_University,_Chennai_logo

SRINIVASAN ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING AE1005-WIND TUNNEL TECHNIQUES

Two Mark Questions

UNIT-1

1. DEF INE MACH NUMBER?

It's defined as the square root of the ratio of the inertia force of a flowing fluid

to the elastic force.

2. DEF INE REYNOLDS NO?

It's defined as the ratio of an inertia force of the flowing fluid and the viscous force of the fluid

3. DEF INE EULER'S NO?

It's defined as the square root of the ratio of the inertia force of a flowing fluid

to the pressure force

4. DEF INE WEBER'S NO?

It's defined as the square root of the ratio of the inertia force of a flowing fluid to surface tension force

5. DEF INE F ROUDE'S NO?

It's defined as the square root of the ratio of the inertia force of a flowing fluid

to the gravity force

6. DEF INE BUCKINGHAMS Л THEOREM?

If there are n variables in a physical phenomenon and if this variables contain m fundamental dimension (M, L, T) then the variables are arranged to (n- m) dimensionless terms, each term is called л-term

7. WHAT IS MEANT BY S IMILARITIES?

Model and prototype have similar properties or model and prototype are similar

8. WRITE DOWN THE TYP ES OF SIMILARITIES?

Ø Geometric similarity

Ø Kinematic similarity

Ø Dynamic similarity


UNIT-2

1. WHAT ARE THE C LASSIF ICATIONS OF WIND TUNNEL?

Ø Low speed wind tunnel,

Ø High speed wind tunnel,

Ø Special type tunnel.

2. WHAT IS F UNCTION OF EFFUSER?

It converts available pressure energy into kinetic energy and its located upstream of the test section.

3. WHAT IS F UNCTION OF DIFFUS ER?

It converts the kinetic energy to pressure energy and it's downstream of the test section.

4. WHAT IS BREATHER?

It is attached with an one way valve so that it take the air and by propeller suction, flow is maintained inside the return type.

5. WHAT ARE THE MERITS AN D DEMERITS OF OPEN CIRCUIT?

§ Construction cost less,

§ It no surging problem is open to the free atm. DEMERITS.

§ Tunnels much noisy,

§ Make cost environment problem.

6. DEF INE ENERGY RATIO.

It is defined as the ratio between the total kinetic energy of the flow to the energy loss.

ER = 1/K0

7. WHAT ARE THE ADVAN TAGES OF BLOW DOWN TYP E WIN D TUNNEL?

§ This is the simplest among the supersonic tunnel and most economic to build.

§ Constant blowing press can be maintaining for considerable running by throttle valve.

8. WHAT ARE THE APPLICATION OF VERTICAL WIND TUNNEL?

Ø It is used to study the spinning motion of the aircraft,

Ø Ejection of pilots from seats,

Ø Parachute flying,

Ø Helicopter operation.

9. WHAT ARE THE LOSSES IN SUP ERSONIC TUNNEL?

ü Friction losses,

ü Expansion losses,

ü Losses in the contraction cone and test section,

ü Losses in guide vanes,

ü Losses in cooling system.


UNIT – 3.

1. WHAT ARE THE TYP ES OF FLOW AN GULARITIES?

· Sphere type yaw meter,

· Claw type yaw meter.

2. WHAT ARE THE TURBULENT MEASUREMENTS?

Ø Turbulence sphere,

Ø Pressure sphere,

Ø Hot wire anemometer.

3. WHAT ARE THE METHO DS TO REDUC E TURBULENCE INSIDE W/T.

§ Using max. no of fan blades,

§ Using a very long and gradual nacelle,

§ Anti swirl vanes,

§ Providing max. Possible distance between propellers and test section.

4. PRINCIPLE OF HOT WIRE ANEMOMETER.

The rate of heat from an electrical heated wire and placed in an airstream is proportional to the velocity.


UNIT-4

1. DEF INE WIND TUNNEL BALANCE?

Wind tunnel balance is a device to measure the actual forces &moments acting on a model placed in the test section stream

2. WHAT ARE THE C LASSIF ICATIONS OF WIND TUNNEL BALANCE?

· Wire type balance

· Strut type balance

· Platform type balance

· Yoke type balance

· Strain gauge type balance

3. WHAT DO YOU MEAN BY WIRE BALANCE?

In wire type wind tunnel balances only wires are used to support the model. All the load components are transmitted to the measuring device by these wires.

4. WHAT ARE THE C LASSIF ICATIONS OF STRUT TYP E BALANCES?

· Yoke type

· Platform type

· Pyramid type

5. WHAT ARE THE TYP ES OF STRAIN GAUGE BALANCE?

· Internal balance

· Semi internal balance

· External balance

6. WHAT IS THE P RINCIP LE OF LIQUID MANOMETER?

The principle is that the pressure is balanced by the weight of a liquid column.

7. WHAT ARE THE TYP ES OF BAROMETERS?

· Syphon barometer

· Fortin barometer

· Aneroid barometer

8. GIVE SOME DISADVANTAGES OF DIAL TYP E PRESSURE GAUGE?

· They must be calibrated periodically to ensure that they continue to read correctly

· The manometers are less expensive when there is a large number of pressures to be read

· Like manometers, they cannot be easily read electronically

9. WHAT ARE THE TYP ES OF PRESSURE TRANSDUC ERS?

They are classified as mechanical, electrical & optical type

10. LIS T OUT SOME ADVAN TAGES OF PRESS URE TRANSDUCERS?

· They provide signal proportional to the applied pressure which can be automatically recorded by acquisition system

· They are relatively low volume devices & consequently respond more rapidly to pressure changes

· They are small enough to be mounted inside wind tunnel models

11. STATE THE PRINCIPLE OF LDA?

The principle is that a moving particle illuminated by a light beam scatters light at a frequency different from that of the original beam. This difference in frequency is known as Doppler shift & it's proportional to the velocity of the particle.

12. WHAT ARE THE SCATTERING SUBS TANCES USED FOR LDA?

· Micro polythene spheres

· Diluted milk droplets

· Diluted smoke particles

· Aerosol

· Fine alumina powder

13. WHAT ARE THE ADVAN TAGES OF LDA?

· It has high frequency response

· It has negligible probe interference

· It is applicable to a wide range of applications

· The measurement with LDA is absolute, linear with velocity & require no pre- calibration

14. GIVE S HORT NOTES ON REF ERENCE BEAM S YSTEM?

In reference beam system the scattered beam of light is optically mixed with original beam & the difference is obtained as the Doppler shift in frequency. This technique is known as heterodyning & it's the characteristic of a photo multiplier.

15. WHAT IS THE ADVANTAGE OF VORTEX S HEDDING TECHNIQUE?

It is capable of measuring low speeds of air which cannot be measured accurately with a conventional manometer.


UNIT-5

1. DEFINE PATHLINE?

The path of a point or particle convected with the flow is called a path line. If we could release a tracer particle at any selected point and record its subsequent path, this would be a path line.

2. DEFINE S TREAKLINE?

It is a curve which represents the instantaneous motion of the fluid particle from the given point.

3. DEFINE S TREAMLINE?

A streamline through a point at an instant in time is the line whose tangent is the velocity at that point and that follows a path through the fluid such that the tangent at every point is the local instantaneous velocity.

4. DEFINE TIMELINE?

A timeline is generated by simultaneously emitting a short burst of tracers along a line perpendicular to the local flow. This marks a line of elements that are in a straight line at the initial time.

5. HOW CAN WE CLASSIFY FLOW VIS UALIS ATION?

The flow visualization can be broadly classified into two, they are

ü surface flow visualization

ü flow field visualization

6. WHAT ARE THE KEY AS PECTS OF SURFACE FLOW THAT CAN BE INVES TIGATED FROM SURFACE FLOW VISUALISATION?

Key aspects of surface flows that may be investigated using visualization techniques

include

ü Stagnation point location

ü Separation lines

ü Location of boundary layer transition

ü Characteristic unsteadiness

ü Extent of separation zones

ü Types of critical points

7. WHAT ARE THE R EQUIREMENTS OF TUFTS?

The Tufts must be of light, flexible material that will align itself with the local surface flow as a result of direct of direct aerodynamic force.

8. WHAT ARE THE MATERIALS USED FOR MAKING TUFTS?

The most commonly used material is light yarn with weights and lengths chosen according to model size and test speed.

9. WHAT ARE THE MATERIALS USED FOR MAKING MINITUFTS?

The tuft material is monofilament nylo n that has been treated with a fluorescent dye.

10. WHAT AR E THE ADVANTAGES OF USING TUFTS?

ü Easily producible

ü Once the tufts are installed the model can be repositioned and indications studied visually & photographed for as long as desired.

11. WHAT AR E THE METHODS OF OPTICAL FLOW VISUALISATION?

ü Shadow graph

ü Schlieren technique

ü Interferometer

12. WHAT AR E THE APPLICATION OF SMOKE VISUALISATION?

Ø Flow over an aerofoil

Ø Study vortex motion

13. WHAT AR E THE ADVANTAGES OF OPTICAL TECHNIQUES?

Ø Non intrusive

Ø Avoiding the formation of unwanted shockwaves

Ø Avoid problems associated with the introduction of foreign particles

14. WHAT IS THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF THE INTERFEROMETER?

From corpuscular properties of light, we know that when light travels through a gas the velocity of propagation is affected by the physical properties of the gas.

C=fλ

15. WHAT IS THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF S CHLIEREN TECHNIQUE?

The speed of a wave front of light varies inversely with the inde x of refraction of the medium through which the light travels.


          Acoustic-Electric Guitar Review! Martin DCPA3 Cutaway Dreadnaught:Classic Martin Tone, Modern Playability        






The vitals...
Price: $2,599 retail; $1,999 street
Likes: unplugged and plugged in sound
Dislikes: I would be nitpicking
More info: Martin DCPA3

by John Gatski

Plugged-in acoustic guitars are an essential part of playing music these days — whether live or recording. In my opinion, the electronics side of the equation is the great equalizer, so to speak. Even lower-cost instruments with onboard pickups can do the trick on a gig or a home-recording session. But to my ears, the exceptional acoustic-electric guitar is one that has the classic acoustic sound, as well as the plugged-in option. My kind of acoustic/electric is the Martin DCPA3 Performing Artist cutaway Dreadnaught reviewed here.

Features
A further evolution of the 16 Series that Martin created in the 1990s, the DCPA3 is an all solid-wood, full-sized cutaway Dreadnaught guitar with onboard Fishman Aura F1 pickup, controls and tuner. The Performing Artist Series guitars are built with modern methods and use a variety of renewable materials and cost-saving design elements in their construction. Hence, they are not as expensive as the traditional-built acoustics. Other PA models also include an 0M-sized cutaway and an Grand Performance cutaway in mahogany, sapele and rosewood bodies. I have played a variety of 16 series guitars since the mid-1990s (even have owned a few), and have marveled at how they sounded at often half the price of a traditional D18, 28 or 35 model.
The DCPA3‘s solid Indian rosewood back and sides and solid sitka spruce top are very much like the traditional, iconic D28. But the DCPA3 utilizes Martin’s mortise-and-tenon, bolt-on neck and the hybrid A-frame bracing of the 16 Series to keep the costs down — as well as give it its own unique acoustic sound with a strummed versatility that the traditional Dreadnaught does not have. Yet the tone still is characteristically Martin.

Aura F1 Onboard Controls

The guitar sports a 25.5-inch scale neck made of “select hardwood”, which is typically Spanish Cedar or genuine mahogany these days. The fretboard measures a comfortable 1 3/4 inches at the nut and 2 1/8 inches at the 12th fret. Although Martin guitar necks were predominately Honduran mahogany from the early 1920s, shortages of that wood has forced Martin and other guitar makers to supplement with other woods, such as Spanish cedar. With Martin, the Honduran mahogany necks are still used on standard models, if available. The more readily-available cedar looks similar to mahogany and is just about as stiff. In fact, Martin used cedar necks in the 19th and early 20th century.

The guitar easily fits into the acoustic strumming world of singer songwriters, Folk, Pop, Country, and Gospel; or you can plug in and amplify the instrument from its pickup or add familiar mic flavors from the digital sample images, courtesy of Fishman.

The neck features a rosewood-veneered DCPA3 headstock with Martin-labeled Gotoh tuners. The MOP fret markers are a bit unique in that they are arrayed on the bass string side. The fretboard (and bridge) is made from a synthetic substance called Richlite, which is hardened paper and resin synthetic material that is considered renewable and, thus, green. It is now showing up on more and more guitars. It looks like ebony and is said to be quite hard, which give a slightly “brighter” character over traditional ebony or rosewood.
The body wood on this DCPA3 sample had great visual appeal with tight-grained Sitka top, devoid of the marked light and dark banding that I see more and more these days on sitka guitar tops. The DCPA3's body and neck binding are made from a durable plastic, Boltaron. There is no decorative back strip to separate the two-piece rosewood back, which I think looks pretty darn cool. The nut is made from white Corian and the saddle from Tusq; both are synthetic materials said to be as dense and hard as bone or ivory.
The guitar top is is finished in a gloss nitrocellulose lacquer — while the back, sides and neck are sprayed with a satin lacquer that gives it a more natural feel. The lower bout metal strap pin doubles as the cable jack. The battery compartment also is housed inside the end-pin. The other strap holder is mounted on the neck heel via a wood screw.
Inside the guitar is a work of perfection: no stray glue traces, the perfing was straight and properly spaced. The test guitar also was properly hydrated right out of the box (the inside wood was naturally dark instead of chalky grey); a too-dry guitar has a thinner sound than a properly hydrated guitar, and often the wood shrinks causing the fret edges to be felt by playing hands.
The electronics are mounted on the under side of the top side above the sound hole with two controls and a small LED display. The DCPA3’s electric side features the well-regarded Fishman F1 Aura pickup/digital preamp system. The preamp system features an undersaddle pickup and digitally sampled 24-bit “images” or sounds of the guitar recorded with nine notable microphones. They include: DPA 4011, AKG C414-B, Neumann U87, Schoeps, CMC64g, Neumann KM84, Shure SM57, Groove Tubes Velo 8T ribbon mic and Earthworks QTC30.

An inside look

Other features include tuner, phase control, EQ and compressor, as well as anti-feedback reduction so you can crank it up on stage without squeal. With just two buttons on the top side of the DCPA3, there is a bit of a learning curve to engage all the functions. (Like learning to set all the functions on your digital clock) But after a few days usage, I was comfortable selecting the various function and mic images I wanted. The included manual explains the various combination of button pushes to get the desired function. If you can operate an iPhone...

The audition
The Martin DCPA3 has a nice feel, and the Performing Artist profile neck is perfect — with low action and the 1 3/4”-to-2 1/8 fretboard is easy to find your way around. In fact, this is one of the best feeling necks that I have ever played on an acoustic guitar! Martin should be commended for the setup; the neck set was perfect with a medium-high saddle; yet the action was so playable. Frets were comfortable as well with no sharp edges. Intonation to the 12th fret was spot on.
With the onboard electronics, the guitar felt a little heavier than a non-electronics laden Martin D-sized acoustic, but it still is pretty easy to maneuver and the DCPA3 felt well balanced when using a strap.
The guitar comes with Martin’s LifeSpan phosphor bronze light gauge strings, which are treated (not coated) to keep them from dulling too quickly from sweat, oil, etc. They come on all non-custom models The strings have a nice balanced sound, but to my ears they did not seem as loud as the same gauge standard Martin’s SP strings, which I eventually replaced them with.

I have played a number of the A-frame braced rosewood Martins with cutaways, and the DCPA3 is very similarly voiced. It has that warm bottom end and lower midrange that personifies the rosewood spruce Martin sound. Finger picking and strumming produces rich tones with just enough top end to make it cut. A pick adds more top end

I have played a number of the A-frame braced rosewood Martins with cutaways, and the DCPA3 is very similarly voiced. It has that warm bottom end and lower midrange that personifies the rosewood spruce Martin sound. Finger picking and strumming produces rich tones with just enough top end to make it cut. A pick adds more top end, but this guitar is not a bright sounding guitar; it has that rich bottom end/midrange sound that you expect from a Martin, but it not as bass bloomy as an HD-28 or my J-40 rosewood Martin jumbo
The hybrid A-framed bracing allows the guitar to be loud enough for playing without amplification and a considerable degree of openness. The Martin that have this bracing always have a bit of low midrange growl, and the DCPA3 was no exception. With moderate to hard strumming, I measured an 87 dB level at 1 meter using an audio analyzer/level meter. Not as loud as a HD28 or D-45, but good enough to play without electronics in small to medium settings.
As mentioned, the supplied review sample had a superb feeling neck — with its “performing artist” profile, providing a low-fast action that rivals any Taylor or Takamine I have played. With may large hands, the positioning on the lower frets felt much less cramped than my Martin J-40’s standard “low-profile” neck — with is slightly narrower dimensions at the nut.
Played through a Yamaha StagePAS portable PA system and my Fender Deluxe 90 solid-state guitar amp (with Eminence classic speaker) that I use for electric-acoustics, I found the under saddle pickup typical of this kind of acoustic guitar transducer: crisp and midrange focused without EQ. Blending in the onboard digital mic “images,” opens it up a bit, and was my preferred recording mode.

By engaging the Fishman mic image modes, a new sonic palette emerges from the DCPA3. Although I am ordinarily a fan of traditional miking methods, I liked the DPA-4011 “image” for that transparent mic’d sound and the Neumann U87, with the compressor engaged, to get a fuller sound.

By engaging the Fishman mic image modes, a new sonic palette emerges from the DCPA3. Although I am ordinarily a fan of traditional miking methods, I liked the DPA-4011 “image” for that transparent mic’d sound and the Neumann U87, with the compressor engaged, to get a fuller sound. Some of the other modes seemed a little too bright for my ears, so I EQ’d the amp and left the EQ flat on the Aura.
By the way, the onboard tuner is excellent; it was easy to tune exactly on pitch with easy nudges of the tuners. The Martin held its tune — even in the fluctuating temperatures of the fickle Washington DC winters.

In our opinion...
All in all, I think the Martin DCPA3 is a perfect electric-acoustic for those that want the Martin tone with slightly livelier air and a full-featured on-board pickup/preamp system. The guitar easily fits into the acoustic strumming world of singer songwriters, Folk, Pop, Country, and Gospel; or you can plug in and amplify the instrument from its pickup or add familiar mic flavors from the digital sample images, courtesy of Fishman. Based on its performance, cost and the fact that Martin still manufactures in the USA, the DCPA3 gets an Everything Guitar Network Grade A award.



John Gatski is publisher/editor of the Everything Guitar Network, and has reviewed guitars and guitar-related products since 1998 A basic rhythm player, Mr. Gatski also collects guitars and restores vintage guitar amps for his own pleasure. He also is publisher/editor of the hi-fi, home cinema, home recording studio review site, Everything Audio Network. Reach him via E-mail at guitarreviews@aol.com

©All original articles on this site are the intellectual property of the Everything Guitar Network. Any unauthorized use, via print or Internet, without written permission is prohibited.


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          HAMMOND CLONE WHEEL ORGANS ARE MISSING THE SOUND OF MAGNETISM...        
There is a sound that is missing from the latest, and most accurate Hammond tone wheel organ imitators to date. What is that sound? Can everyone hear it? Or not hear it that is...

In a recent Youtube video I commented- 

All of my summations of clones:


-if a vegi-burger could speak
-like a fat-free milkshake
- sounds like it's low in iron
- In a side by side test with a real Hammond C3, the Hammond SK2 really does sound identical, but with one vital ingredient missing. Upon closer comparison it came to me that what that ingredient was. It was the sound of magnetism itself! This has prompted me to investigate the possibility of recreating this very subdued, but apparently very necessary magnetic connection using a real electromagnetic transducer revolving in proximity to an electromagnetic pick-up. Do we need 91 of these? Of course not, but having three or four contrasting one another by set frequency ranges overlapping might work a little better."


Sometimes the simplest inventions are the best! 
With that in mind lets consider a very simple multi-frequency tone wheel of sorts, but instead of this tone wheel being a steel disc with a wavy edge in the shape of a sine wave, picture a tone wheel with a magnetically conductive edge that similar to the ever changing surface of a speaker cone.
 

I really have no idea how to use social media to get people thinking on the same page when it comes to exploring what we as musicians want in terms of the best sounding Hammond clone imaginable. What can WE do to realize and materialize EVERYTHING we as musicians want to have available to us? But I picked up a book in regard to how to use social media to make change happen. 

And then I directed them here to my blog...my very overlooked and forgotten about blog, but I certainly didn't think posting all of the following as a Youtube Comment on just one video was giving it the most justice. What sort of justice? The justice of a portable Hammond clone sounding as close to a real Hammond tone wheel organ as possible.

You know, sometimes the simplest inventions are the best!
 I have been observing all of the feedback in regards to the various Hammond clones. Something interesting is that it is the abrasive arguments between the analog purists and the digital purists that has fueled me to want to please both sides. Since very few engineers seem to want to communicate about new and interesting avenues to explore in music electronics where the organ is concerned, I almost feel a certain responsibility to do it myself. I used to be the guy arguing on behalf of the real B3, but my narcissistic analog purist side began to tremble when I discovered the clones were getting better and better. So while still defending the virtues of analog I decided to at least open my ears a little more to where digital was going. Digital got better than good, it seems to have gotten great in just the past few years. But due to hardheaded attitudes of musicians there seems to be these two distinct camps of analog and digital. That's actually a good thing because it's usually the most stubborn who voice the best arguments for their side. A good motto is 'never compromise unless it's to come together for a greater common good'. Well, it's time to come together. Even something as ridiculously simple as a kitchen table creation might bring our camps together to a great common good.

LETS HAVE A GROUP CONTEST! WHO CAN MAKE A SIMPLE ELECTROMECHANICAL TONE WHEEL EMULATOR CLONE WHEEL INPUT DEVICE TO RECREATE MINUTE AUDIBLE EFFECTS OF MAGNETISM IN MOTION?

Everyone likes to be a winner so the clear winner will be everyone who loves Hammond tone wheel organs and/or Hammond clones, but wants to really nail down that last 'sound of magnetism in motion' ingredient to allow ANY Hammond clone manufactured by anybody (including the NORD,KORG,3B,HAMMOND SK-1,XK-1, etc., and even older clones) to sound more authentic.

Many of you are confused by this whole topic because you don't understand what in the heck the sound of magnetism is. So if anyone who does understands wishes to expound on the topic please do so. Perhaps if I add that it is not necessarily 'magnetism' we are hearing, but the audible EFFECTS of the the magnetic relationship of the tone wheel on the magnetic pole in the pick-up. In the end, even if you aren't really sure what is taking place with this relationship you might still be able to fathom the possibility of such an audible relationship if you over exaggerate things a bit.

Criteria:
- The device should allow the line-out signal from any Hammond clone to pass through a revolving magnetic field device without altering the input frequencies in terms of pitch. In other words don't make a vibrato scanner. Think in terms of TONE WHEEL and PICK-UP, but instead of a single passive metallic tone wheel becoming an active player when it is rotated in front of a wire wound electromagnetic pick-up, what we are shooting for is a simple device that takes the entire clone wheel organ output signal and treats/exposes/converts (however YOU decide) to the physical properties of revolving electromagnetism. The output specs should either maintain the same specs as the original clone wheel specs unless they are even closer to the original Hammond tone wheel organ. 

Already existing electromagnetic devices for inspiration can come from:
INPUT TRANSDUCER ( tank reverb, oil filled reverb,microphone,piezo pick-ups/buzzer)
SPEAKERS ( both electromagnetic field coil, and rare earth stationary magnetic )
MAGNAPAN SPEAKERS (ie. Magnaplaner Smg1, look at how/why they work)
MICROPHONES
HEADPHONES ( take full advantage of the possibilities contained within an old pair of earbuds...rare earth magnets in some)
STUDY HOW THE EFFECTS OF ONE DEVICE MIGHT APPLY TO THE OTHER. Laurens Hammond was a master of reuse! He created a Hammond tone wheel organ using his invention of the Synchronous Motor. He used clockwork mechanisms to deal cards in his automatic dealer bridge table. For 3D glasses he utilized treating two identical things ( our two eyes) with opposite colored lenses in order to filter out.
PHONO CARTRIDGES-

If you have any ideas or questions feel free to respond to this blog, or the Youtube video comments in the link-
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gjD9y5CxKVQ



          Bluetooth Transducer Simplifies Equipment Testing        
Bluetooth pressure transducers combine with mobile devices for testing that is easier, more convenient, and accurate.
          Creative Convolution Part 1 - Resonate        


Convolution reverb is a great thing. Its usual use - being able to capture and re-create spatial acoustics, is useful for a range of tasks such as fitting dialogue in a scene, or just creating a sense of space. But it's worth taking a moment to think about what is happening during this process. One sound file is effectively being filtered through another, with the convolution reverb filtering the frequency content of each sample through all the samples present in the IR (a simple explanation, but adequate here). The impulse response files themselves effectively hold a snapshot of the acoustic data of a space, or at least from a point in the space. This data describes how the room responds acoustically to an impulse or short burst of broadband noise. So essentially, you could think of this in a different way, about sound files as containers of information - acoustic information. But this data is made up (like any sound file) of frequency content over time, so the convolution reverb process is potentially useful for much more than just recreating the acoustic space of a room; it is effectively a kind of filter, and that is the main subject here - an exploration of that idea. 

I once heard a really useful definition of timbre: “spectral footprint over time”.
From a sound design perspective getting the correct timbre for a sound is important as it connects the sound to its source. Interestingly, we naturally identify sounds back to their source (or object which created the sound) rather than by their acoustic properties. This explains why timbre is so important - it immediately describes the source, ie hollow or metallic, and gives the listener an impression of what created the sound.
 

If you found your way here, I expect you might be familiar with this SoundWorks video for the making of Inception. I really love the bit at 3:20 where Richard King is describing the subwoofer recordings they made in the warehouse; there is something fascinating about how powerful and complex the natural resonances of the space are.  

 

SoundWorks Collection: The Sound of Inception




I've long had an interest in physical modelling as a technique for designing sounds, so when I saw that video I started wondering what it would take to achieve the same results artificially. Would it be possible to model the space and materials of a location like that and produce some useful sounds? 

I think that understanding some of the principles of physical modelling are useful not just for creating sounds to use, but also to help explain how and why sound works in the way it does. I've done a few experiments in Max using filterbanks and basic waveguides to try and simulate real-world physical resonances with varying degrees of success, but experimenting with convolution about a year ago, I discovered some interesting techniques which are related…it started with a set of recordings like these:

 

These are impacts on various metal objects recorded with a contact transducer. If you’ve ever used one of these, you will know that one of the great things about recordings made in this way, is that they are completely dry, this is because the transducer only picks up the vibrations traveling through the object itself. It means that you can go anywhere to record these sounds, even next to busy roads where a conventional microphone recording would be useless because of noise from the road. So I recorded a whole library of these, experimenting with different objects and different methods of striking them.

It was while doing this that I had the realisation – this process is exactly the same as taking impulse responses of rooms, I was just collecting acoustic data. But when taking an IR of a room, you are collecting data about how the room behaves acoustically, and these recordings contain data about the resonance properties of the material. The broadband noise used in recording an IR in a room, such as a balloon burst, is comparable to the impulse created when striking an object. They are both a burst of broadband noise followed by their effect on something – in the case of the room it is the reverberant characteristics, with a material it is the resonant properties.

Here’s an example of these sort of sounds used as IRs in a convolution reverb, you will hear a dry vocal sample, then the sound of the impact recorded with the contact transducer, then the vocal sample through the convolution reverb with the impact loaded as an IR. You can hear how the original sound is filtered through the resonance properties of the material:



It’s interesting to note how sounds with a long decay still create a sound with a reverb-like quality to it, but sounds with less decay create more of a filtering effect. 

Around this time two other things caught my attention. Firstly, Alex Harker and Pierre Alexandre Tremblay, both from Huddersfield University, released the HISS Tools - a collection of Max objects designed for pretty much any convolution operation you can think of (and a few more besides!). If you’ve used the Max for Live convolution reverb before, they are at the heart of it. For sound designers these are an amazing addition to Max, as they allow anyone to integrate convolution reverb into any patch quickly and easily. Huge thanks to them for making these objects publicly available.

With this in mind I started sketching down some ideas for a Max patch that would take advantage of these. It began as a kind of configurable resonant space, partly inspired by techniques used for mixing sounds together in game audio, and partly from the experiments I’ve been describing. 

The second thing that caught my attention at that time, was this post at Designing Sound by Douglas Murray, focusing on his use of convolution reverb  to create infinite airfill using white noise as a sound source. Up until this time I had been using a range of sounds to ‘excite’ the IRs, but this was another direction, and really made so much sense for creating ambient, atmospheric sounds. It’s a great technique, and as an extension you can increase the resonance by stacking up multiple instances of convolution reverb loaded with the same sound as an IR. Here’s an example similar to before but with one, two, three and four instances of the same reverb running in series.

 
When using white noise as a source, with one instance of reverb you will always hear the noise coming through to some degree, but with two or more instances the sound becomes progressively more filtered and the dominant harmonics of the IR become accentuated.

Be careful if you want to try this inside a regular DAW – there will need to be some heavy gain reduction somewhere in your signal chain, otherwise extreme clipping will result!

Sounds of this kind are really useful for creating evocative ambiances or adding some extra resonance to metal hits and scrapes. I like the idea of having a palette of sounds like these, based just on texture, using these in layers the same way a painter would with oils on a canvas.

So how about expanding this idea? There is certainly scope with this. I spent a bit of time designing sounds for this purpose, and that is definitely worth pursuing, but I’m not going to go too far into them here. Instead, I want to talk about another technique for generating interesting sounds for use as IR’s. Whilst designing specific sounds, I started experimenting with using music tracks as a source for IR's. I’d snip out small sections of music with interesting harmonics then load them as IR's into multiple reverbs and play noise or filtered noise through them. The resulting sound is like a constant smear of all the frequencies present in the music, sounding similar to the results you can achieve with granular synthesis but with a richer sound. Bored of slicing music up manually I made a small utility patch to automate the process. It takes a sound file and chops it into smaller slices. The patch is fairly crude, but it works fine for the purposes of this article. To work flawlessly it really needs to be a phasor-synchronised system, (feel free to improve it if you like, but send me a better version if you do!). It’s reasonably straightforward to use, just follow the instructions.




Here is a link to the patch:

Chopper



So that's a bit about the history of where the idea for this device originated. It actually references a whole bunch of work shared by other people, and tries to bring those ideas together and create something new. For me, this is all about tool building. Taking a process and re-thinking how it could work, combining existing technology in new ways to create new possibilities. It takes this process which in a DAW is very clunky and frustrating and reimagines the process. Everything here would be achievable with separate effects within a DAW, but in reality what you can achieve here in minutes would take hours of setting up and tweaking. 

Here is the result, it is a device which explores resonance, filtering and spatial positioning.





There are three sections to the patch, The sound source, the nodefield and the effects section. The sound source creates the sound used to feed the IR section of the patch. There are currently three options here:
  • Noise Gen - A simple noise generator with amplitude envelope and sweepable filter.
  • Grain Player - A basic granular file player, built around Timo Rosendal’s Grainstretch~ external.
  • Loop Player - A vari-speed looping sound player with pitch and amplitude envelope capabilities.

The middle section or what I've called the node field is the unique part of the device. Here, there are eight FX lanes, each contains 2 IR reverb objects in series. This is the signal flow inside each:




The output volume for each effects lane, or node, can be linked to the node weighting (ie, how far into the node area the crosshairs are). This is a linear value form 0-100% volume. Panning can be linked to the position of each node across the X axis of the node field. If this is turned off, the user can adjust the input volume of each by using the multislider at the top of each fx chain. Pan position can also be linked to the position of each node across the X axis of the nodefield. This generates a stereo field across the X axis of the node field, so sounds can swept across the resonators. There is a central system which distributes audio files to the convolution reverb objects; this allows you to put all the sound files you want to use as IR’s in a folder, point the patch to that folder and then quickly choose between them from a menu system. A pair of LFO's are linked to the position of the cross hairs in the node field, these can be used to sweep across the nodefield, providing a spatial approach to mixing. There is also an envelope control labelled 'input gain scaling' which defines the shape of the gain slope, so you can have linear, exponential or any other gain curve, or even more complex, experimental patterns.

The effects section below comprises of the following:
  • Harmoniser - Splits the audio stream into six, providing pitch shifting, delay and pan on each channel.
  • Filter - A basic multi-mode filter
  • Comb Filter - Sweepable comb filter
  • Distortion - A combined bit crusher and overdrive distortion box. Signal path is crush>drive.
  • 2x VST/AU effects - Load in whatever you like here.
  • IR Reverb - Very basic convolution reverb. Comes pre-loaded with some IR's from the OpenAIR library 
All the effects are combined using a matrix, so you can route audio through them in any combination, in parallel or in series. There is no feedback protection, so be careful there.

I expect you're asking what does it sound like?

Well I've been using it in a particular way, and have had that in mind through the development phase. But really it is just a combination of playback devices and effects, so use it however you see fit. Having said that, here are some examples, these are straight out of the app using the built in effects - no fancy external plugins.

First up, a selection of static drones created with the white noise source. Note how the frequency fluctuations of the white noise add subtle but continuous variation to the drones:



These are some metallic resonances created by using the contact mic recordings above as IR's


Here is an evolving drone which also uses white noise as a source but sweeps over the IR's using the LFO:




This is a granular example. It takes a recording of a music box and plays it backwards with some position variation, it then filters this through some snippets of a female choir used as IR's




Here is some more radical granulation - frozen grain sweeps with some extra harmonic richness from the IR section.



These sequences use white noise as a sound source. The noise has a rhythmic amplitude envelope and filter sweep applied to create an almost steam-like mechanical sound.







This application is fairly complex and dependent on external objects, so it seems best to distribute this as an application. However, the patch itself is licensed under Creative Commons:
 
Attribution-NonCommercial
CC BY-NC

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms. 
Here is a download link to the program. Currently this is Mac only, a windows version to come, I just need to sort out a few issues with that version.

Resonate 1.0

It comes loaded with a selection of the metal impacts, hence the download size, and should start making sounds as soon as you run the program. This is (currently) untested on any machine other than my own, so there may be some bugs - please report them in the comments section.

I'm happy to share the patch with anyone interested, under the license you can alter it but not sell it. You are free of course, to create sounds with the program and use these however you like: commercial or non-commercial.

If you want to explore the patches themselves, you can find them here:


Resonate - All Files

This download should contain everything except the sound library which comes with the standalone. There may be a few externals you need to find, so check the Max window for these.

I hope you enjoy using this tool. I'm genuinely interested in knowing how other people use and approach these tools, so add a comment or drop me a line if you have any feedback.


          Embedded Software Control System Basics        

What Is A Control System?

A control system manages the behavior of other devices or systems.

According to Wikipedia “The term ‘control system’ may be applied to the essentially manual controls that allow an operator, for example, to close and open a hydraulic press, perhaps including logic so that it cannot be moved unless safety guards are in place.”

An automatic sequential control system may trigger a series of mechanical actuators in the correct sequence to perform a task. For example, various electric and pneumatic transducers may fold and glue a cardboard box, fill it with product and then seal it in an automatic packaging machine. Programmable logic controllers are used in many cases such as this, but several alternative technologies exist.


          403660 M 58 Dynamic ENG/EFP mic, omnidirectional        
403660 M 58 Dynamic ENG/EFP mic, omnidirectional

403660 M 58 Dynamic ENG/EFP mic, omnidirectional

Beyerdynamic 403660 M 58 (M58, M-58, M/58, m 58) Dynamic ENG/EFP mic, omnidirectional, 3 pin XLR Dynamic ENG/EFP microphone (omnidirectional) The M 58 has been specifically designed to satisfy the demands of Electric News Gathering (ENG) and Electronic Field Production (EFP) applications. Its sophisticated internal shockmount dramatically reduces handling noise, while the microphone´s frequency response has been tailored to provide broadcasters with a very accurate and intelligible sound. The M 58´s weight-balanced design provides journalists with a high degree of comfort during lengthy interviews. Its rugged construction enables the microphone to withstand physical and environmental punishment typically encountered during field production operations. The M 58´s slim profile and non-glare finish result in a low profile on camera. Features Moving coil transducer Internal shockmount reduces handling noise Extended frequency response with rising high-end for maximum intelligibility Rugged construcion Non-reflective finish   Weight-balanced, slim-profile design


          DPA 5100 Mobile Surround Microphone        
DPA 5100 Mobile Surround Microphone

DPA 5100 Mobile Surround Microphone

DPA 5100 (DPA5100 DPA-5100 DPA/5100) Mobile Surround Microphone FEATURES: Plug-and-play solution Lightweight and portable Rich, smooth and fully enveloping sound Discrete 5.1 analog output – no processing needed The DPA 5100 is an exciting new mobile surround microphone whose compact size and ease of use come at no sacrifice to its stunning sound quality. It can be regarded as a surround ambience adder, ideal for bringing truly engaging surround ambience to sport events, documentaries and other ambience applications for especially HDTV production. No external signal processing is required. The versatile 5100 can be mounted on a camera or microphone stand, suspended, or simply handheld via a hand grip. Extremely lightweight and portable, the unit sports a surprisingly robust build quality that is also highly resilient to inclement weather conditions.A completely self-contained “plug and play” solution for 5.1 audio capture, the 5100 employs five miniature pressure transducers that exhibit extremely low sensitivity to wind and mechanical noise, low distortion, highly consistent low frequency response and large dynamic range. Appropriate channel separation and directionality are achieved through a combination of DPA’s proprietary DiPMicâ„¢ (Directional Pressure Microphone) technology, which mounts interference tubes on the L/C/R omni capsules, and the use of acoustic baffles that further preserve the accuracy of levels between the discrete analog output channels.The 5100’s three front microphones are time coincident to eliminate comb filtering and ensure paramount frequency consistency when downmixing to stereo or mono. In contrast, the rear microphones, which feature standard omnidirectional patterns, are optimally spaced from both each other and the front array to simulate the most natural time arrival differences. The LFE (.1) channel is comprised from a L/R sum, which is then attenuated 10 dB in comparison with the signal from the main channels, in accordance with the 5.1 format.The end result of DPA’s innovative design approach is a surround atmosphere that is rich, smooth and fully enveloping, great in its coherence, channel separation and localization accuracy. The 5.1 output of the 5100 runs through a multi-pin Lemo connector carrying all six channels electronically balanced, while an enclosed five-meter (16 ft), six-pair Mogami cable breaks out to six Neutrik XLR-M connectors. Accessories included: Cable, thread adapter and outdoor cover. Accessories available: stands, cables and windjammer.  


          DPA BLM4060 Boundary Layer Microphone        
DPA BLM4060 Boundary Layer Microphone

DPA BLM4060 Boundary Layer Microphone

DPA BLM4060 (DPABLM4060 DPA-BLM4060 DPA/BLM4060) Boundary Layer Microphone ideal for use in boardrooms, conference facilities, courtrooms, teleconferencing optimized to boost speech intelligibility works with a wide range of connection adapters and power supplies   The BLM4060 Boundary Layer Microphone is ideal for use in boardrooms, conference facilities, courtrooms, teleconferencing and other applications where excellent vocal pickup is required.Microphone The BLM4060 is a transducer designed to work under optimum conditions when placed on a tabletop, but it also performs well on any other hard, flat surface that reflects sound. The microphone element is a prepolarized omnidirectional miniature condenser microphone with a 5.4 mm (0.2 in) vertical diaphragm specially designed for maximum performance. The microphone body consists of a centre rubber disc that holds the microphone element mounted in an elegant stainless steel base. The BLM4060 has a 3 m (10 ft) cable.Position The BLM4060 can be very easily placed in essentially any position on the surface, even close to the edge (See graphs & more). Users will benefit from the special characteristics of the surrounding sound field on which the BLM4060 is mounted: a 6 dB gain of direct sound and only 3 dB gain of the diffuse sound. Therefore, the sound captured has both a greater clarity - especially at high frequencies - and speech intelligibility compared to sound captured above the surface. Accessories A wide range of connection adapters and power supplies makes it possible to use the BLM4060 with any microphone input. It is delivered with a DAD6001 adapter.


          FID88B00 d:fine Single-Ear Directional Headset Mic 4088 Black        
FID88B00 d:fine Single-Ear Directional Headset Mic 4088 Black

FID88B00 d:fine Single-Ear Directional Headset Mic 4088 Black

DPA FID88B00 (FID88 B00, FID88-B00, FID88/B00, fid88b00) d:fine Single-Ear Directional Headset Mic 4088 Black 120 mm Boom MicroDot d:fineâ„¢ 4088 Directional Headset Microphone open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes    DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts. Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease. The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules. The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal. Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector. What is in the box: Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen   Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)


          FID88F00 d:fine Single-Ear Directional Headset Mic 4088 Beige        
FID88F00 d:fine Single-Ear Directional Headset Mic 4088 Beige

FID88F00 d:fine Single-Ear Directional Headset Mic 4088 Beige

ic 4088 Beige 120 mm Boom MicroDot d:fineâ„¢ 4088 Directional Headset Microphone open and natural sound unequalled flexibility and stability available in three colors and three sizes      DPA 4088 is a miniature cardioid headset mic built on the finest DPA experiences in microphone design and manufacturing, providing the best sounding directional headworn microphone available today for performing talent of various sorts. Open, natural and reliable are the most describing words for this microphone. The high quality of the microphone itself means that you will hear the sound of the voice right away - not the microphone. In acoustically demanding live performance environments, where background noise and feedback is a concern, the 4088 will tackle these challenges with ease. The smooth and elegant design of the 4088 makes it the most invisible headworn cardioid microphone today. Sound quality, visual elegance and versatility go hand in hand to transform every show into the performance of a lifetime. The capsule is a pre-polarized first order pressure gradient transducer, hidden in a small and lightweight housing with dimensions just slightly larger than our omni capsules. The mechanical design is based on the proven quality of the 4066 headset microphone. The headset mount is exactly the same; the boom however is 3 centimeters longer in order to meet the need for placement at the corner of the mouth. The flexibility and stability of this construction is unique and has no equal. Available in three colors: black, beige and brown, and also available with connector. What is in the box: Microphone (boom, headset, cable) A pre-mounted pop screen   Five foam windscreens (similar to DUA0560)


          NT1 Kit Microphone Kit        
NT1 Kit Microphone Kit

NT1 Kit Microphone Kit

Rode NT1 Kit (NT1-KIT NT1/KIT NT1KIT) Microphone Kit The NT1 is a revolutionary new 1" diagphram condenser microphone from RØDE. Although the body of the new NT1 closely resembles the NT1-A, the microphone has been completely redesigned from the ground up, with the only shared component being the mesh grille. RØDE’s design engineers approached the NT1 as a marriage of innovation and tradition, starting with the capsule which is a completely new design. Codenamed the HF6, it is the perfect example of RØDE’s fusion of artistic design approaches and cutting-edge manufacturing techniques, and features a sound signature reminiscent of the famous microphones of old while at the same time exhibiting extremely low noise. It has been developed with a focus on detailed midrange response, coupled with silky smooth high frequencies, and warm, round, bass reproduction to make the NT1 an absolute standout in its class. In another world-first for RØDE, the transducer itself is suspended inside the microphone using Rycote’s industry-leading Lyre system, minimizing external vibrations at the capsule level. The capsule is then married to high-grade electronics that have been designed to provide the lowest noise level of any studio microphone available. The NT1 is an incredibly quiet microphone, measuring only 4.5dBA of self-noise. Its body is machined from 6061 aluminium and then nickel plated for resistance against corrosion. Finally it is coated in a durable, military-grade ceramic layer, using advanced electrostatic application techniques developed by RØDE to ensure an extremely hard wearing finish that is resistant to scratches or marks. The NT1 is supplied with the revolutionary new RØDE SMR shock mount. Featuring a unique double-Lyre suspension system, the SMR enhances the existing superior vibration cancellation of Rycote’s Lyre system by using a smaller inner Lyre to act as a tensioning element. This maintains each Lyre in the neutral position where it is most efficient at cancelling vibration. The SMR’s removable all-metal pop filter is as effective as it is visually striking, providing an integrated solution for plosive protection that is easily washable and designed to last as long as the shock mount and microphone. The NT1 is designed and made in Australia, and is covered by RØDE's industry-leading 10 year warranty. *view and save downloads ( full specification) on the right      


          NT2A Microphone Studio Pack        
NT2A Microphone Studio Pack

NT2A Microphone Studio Pack

The NT2-A carries on the tradition forged by the now legendary RØDE NT2. A professional large 1" capsule studio microphone incorporating three-position pick-up patterns, pad and high pass filter switches conveniently located on the mic body. The frequency and transient response of this transducer has been voiced to complement today's modern recording techniques, and yet still evoke the silky smooth character of the legendary microphones of the 50s and 60s. These features provide the flexibility and superlative audio characteristics that make the NT2-A one of the most versatile condenser mics available. Supplied with the SM6 shock mount, dust cover, microphone cable and DVD hosted by Grammy-nominated engineer and producer John Merchant showing a range of recording techniques specific to the NT2-A. The RØDE NT2-A microphone is designed and made in Australia, and covered by RØDE's industry leading 10 year warranty. *view and save downloads ( full specification) on the right  


          NT3 Studio Microphone Multi-Powered Condenser        
NT3 Studio Microphone Multi-Powered Condenser

NT3 Studio Microphone Multi-Powered Condenser

The NT3 is the definition of a studio workhorse. Featuring an end-address 3/4" gold-sputtered true-condenser transducer it provides incredible detail on almost any instrument you can imagine. Intended for studio, stage and location work, this versatile handheld, stand or boompole mounted microphone will give great results on drums, percussion, acoustic guitar, guitar amps, piano and all acoustic instruments as well as detailed voice reproduction when used as a handheld presentation microphone or indoor boom mic. For further versatility the NT3 can be powered by either P48 phantom power, or via a 9V battery for situations when power isn't available via the console or camera. Its rugged and durable all-metal body and mesh head ensure that it is well protected both in the studio and out in the field. The RØDE NT3 microphone is designed and made in Australia, and covered by RØDE's industry leading 10 year warranty. *view and save downloads ( full specification) on the right


          NTK Condenser Microphone with cardioid polar response        
NTK Condenser Microphone with cardioid polar response

NTK Condenser Microphone with cardioid polar response

Like it’s bigger brother the K2, the RØDE NTK is a premium valve condenser microphone designed to provide incredible detail and warmth in the studio. Its cardioid polar pattern is perfect for most single instrument recording scenarios. The electronic circuitry complementing this very sensitive transducer includes a hand-selected twin-triode 6922 valve and audiophile grade components. The result is an ultra-wide dynamic range, low noise, and stunning tube warmth. The NTK's rich valve sound is ideal for vocals, acoustic instruments, drum overheads, guitar amps and pianos. The RØDE NTK microphone is designed and made in Australia, and covered by RØDE Microphones' industry leading 10 year warranty.      


          Michael McCandless: Lucene gets concurrent deletes and updates!        
Long ago, Lucene could only use a single thread to write new segments to disk. The actual indexing of documents, which is the costly process of inverting incoming documents into in-memory segment data structures, could run with multiple threads, but back then, the process of writing those in-memory indices to Lucene segments was single threaded.

We fixed that, more than 6 years ago now, yielding big indexing throughput gains on concurrent hardware.

Today, hardware has only become even more concurrent, and we've finally done the same thing for processing deleted documents and updating doc values!

This change, in time for Lucene's next major release (7.0), shows a 53% indexing throughput speedup when updating whole documents, and a 7.4X - 8.6X speedup when updating doc values, on a private test corpus using highly concurrent hardware (an i3.16xlarge EC2 instance).

Buffering versus applying


When you ask Lucene's IndexWriter to delete a document, or update a document (which is an atomic delete and then add), or to update a doc-values field for a document, you pass it a Term, typically against a primary key field like id, that identifies which document to update. But IndexWriter does not perform the deletion right away. Instead, it buffers up all such deletions and updates, and only finally applies them in bulk once they are using too much RAM, or you refresh your near-real-time reader, or call commit, or a merge needs to kick off.

The process of resolving those terms to actual Lucene document ids is quite costly as Lucene must visit all segments and perform a primary key lookup for each term. Performing lookups in batches gains some efficiency because we sort the terms in unicode order so we can do a single sequential scan through each segment's terms dictionary and postings.

We have also optimized primary key lookups and the buffering of deletes and updates quite a bit over time, with issues like LUCENE-6161, LUCENE-2897, LUCENE-2680, LUCENE-3342. Our fast BlockTree terms dictionary can sometimes save a disk seek for each segment if it can tell from the finite state transducer terms index that the requested term cannot possibly exist in this segment.

Still, as fast as we have made this code, only one thread is allowed to run it at a time, and for update-heavy workloads, that one thread can become a major bottleneck. We've seen users asking about this in the past, because while the deletes are being resolved it looks as if IndexWriter is hung since nothing else is happening. The larger your indexing buffer the longer the hang.

Of course, if you are simply appending new documents to your Lucene index, never updating previously indexed documents, a common use-case these days with the broad adoption of Lucene for log analytics, then none of this matters to you!

Concurrency is hard


With this change, IndexWriter still buffers deletes and updates into packets, but whereas before, when each packet was also buffered for later single-threaded application, instead IndexWriter now immediately resolves the deletes and updates in that packet to the affected documents using the current indexing thread. So you gain as much concurrency as indexing threads you are sending through IndexWriter.

The change was overly difficult because of IndexWriter's terribly complex concurrency, a technical debt I am now convinced we need to address head-on by somehow refactoring IndexWriter. This class is challenging to implement since it must handle so many complex and costly concurrent operations: ongoing indexing, deletes and updates; refreshing new readers; writing new segment files; committing changes to disk; merging segments and adding indexes. There are numerous locks, not just IndexWriter's monitor lock, but also many other internal classes, that make it easy to accidentally trigger a deadlock today. Patches welcome!

The original change also led to some cryptic test failuresthanks to our extensive randomized tests, which we are working through for 7.0.

That complex concurrency unfortunately prevented me from making the final step of deletes and updates fully concurent: writing the new segment files. This file writing takes the in-memory resolved doc ids and writes a new per-segment bitset, for deleted documents, or a whole new doc values column per field, for doc values updates.

This is typically a fast operation, except for large indices where a whole column of doc-values updates could be sizable. But since we must do this for every segment that has affected documents, doing this single threaded is definitely still a small bottleneck, so it would be nice, once we succeed in simplifying IndexWriter's concurrency, to also make our file writes concurrent.
          Camps SN1 Electro Classical guitar - 364,00 €         
thumb

Guitar Camps SN1 Electro-Classsical Guitar. These guitars are the result of many years of research in the incorporation of electronics in the classical guitar since 1977. Special mention to the bridge with 6 contact points for perfect transmission of each string to the transducer, keeping a good contact for years. The Camps SN1 is a perfect guitar for beginners because it is very light and comfortable. The solid cedar or spruce top gives a warm and powerful sound. Mat varnish finish which keeps the natural tone of the wood.
Amplified using an exclusive amplification system with six independent saddles that ensures a perfect balance of every string.


          Ultrasounds in Pregnancy – A Medical Procedure showing the Health of the Fetus        
An ultrasound is a medical procedure that is also called sonography. It employs a screening device that uses high frequency sound waves to produce an image of the inside of the body. The sound waves, which cannot be heard by the human ear, are emitted by a transducer and produce echoes which define the organs and other structures in the body through their shapes, size and consistency.
          Ultrasounds in Pregnancy – A Medical Procedure showing the Health of the Fetus        
An ultrasound is a medical procedure that is also called sonography. It employs a screening device that uses high frequency sound waves to produce an image of the inside of the body. The sound waves, which cannot be heard by the human ear, are emitted by a transducer and produce echoes which define the organs and other structures in the body through their shapes, size and consistency.
          GIFT FOR MOM ลำโพง JBL GO ลดราคาพิเศษ เพียง 990 บาท        
มอบของขวัญแทนความรักด้วยโปรโมชั่นพิเศษเอาใจคุณแม่ ด้วยลำโพง JBL GO ในราคาสุดพิเศษ 990 บาท จากปกติ 1,290 บาท รายละเอียดสินค้า กำลังขับลำโพง : 3 วัตต์ Transducer 40 mm Signal to Noise Ratio : ≥80 dB
          Coreless Open-Loop Current Transducers Based On Hall Effect Sensor Csa-1V        
The paper provides an overview of coreless open-loop current transducers based on Hall effect sensor CSA-1V. Depending on the implementation method and current range, the presented transducers are divided in the four groups. The transducers are capable to measure AC and DC currents ranging from several tens of miliamperes up to several hundreds of amperes. Methods for resolving issues with the skin effect and stray magnetic fields are also presented including the experimental test results. Some of these methods are novelty and have never been presented in literature.
          Realization and optimization of bus bar current transducers based on Hall effect sensors        
In this paper the realization and optimization of two coreless open-loop bus bar current transducers based on a Hall effect sensor are presented. Two types of bus bar are evaluated: flat rectangular and rectangular with a restrictive region in the middle. Both realized transducers are capable of measuring AC and DC currents up to 300 A and 10 kHz frequency with nonlinearity less than 0.3% in the entire range. Several methods for resolving issues with the skin effect and stray magnetic fields are presented along with the experimental test results. Some of the presented methods are novel and have never been evaluated.
          Circular Hall transducer for angular position sensing        
We developed a new integrated magnetic sensor based on the Hall effect, suitable for contactless 360 degrees absolute angle encoding. The sensing device consists of a narrow n-well ring with a chain of 64 contacts equally distributed along the ring. It is connected to on-chip biasing and signal conditioning circuits that provides the magnitude and the phase of the in-plane component of the magnetic field. In a homogenous magnetic field, the transducer angular resolution is 0.01 degrees in the 1 kHz frequency bandwidth and the absolute accuracy is about 1 degrees and 0.1 degrees without and with output offset calibration, respectively.
          How To Level a Fish Finder Transducer        

I’ve got my Humminbird Helix 12 G2N fish finder installed and up and running but am running a bit behind on posting videos and information here at Catfish Edge on the steps I followed and details of using the Helix 12 G2N. When Humminbird released the Helix G2n fish finders I quickly jumped in and...

Continue Reading

The post How To Level a Fish Finder Transducer appeared first on Catfish Edge: Cutting Edge Catfishing.


          Waterproof Single-Channel Datalogger (VW)        
Model 8002-WP-2 (LC-2WP) Waterproof Single-Channel Datalogger.

The Model 8002-WP (LC-2WP*) is a stand-alone, waterproof, single-channel datalogger designed to read both the vibrating wire element and the integral thermistor of any GEOKON vibrating wire sensor. The LC-2WP provides an internal hard wired transducer connection and t..


          Settlement System (VW)        
Model 4660 Settlement System (protective cover cutaway shows vibrating wire pressure sensor).

The Model 4660 Settlement System uses a Pressure Transducer attached to a settlement plate located in the settling ground. The sensor is connected, via two fluid filled tubes extending laterally, to a reservoir located on firm ground away from the area of anticipated movement. Fluid pressure wi..


          ï¼“種類の超音波振動子を利用した超音波装置        

3種類の超音波振動子を利用した超音波装置

3種類の超音波振動子を利用した超音波装置

1)振動子の出力制御
2)マイクロバブルのコントロール
3)オーバーフロ構造
4)超音波専用水槽
5)専用治工具
により
 キャビテーションと音響流を、
 目的に合わせた状態にコントロールできます。

Ultrasonic device using three kinds of ultrasound transducers

この動画の振動子の設置方法は
 3種類の超音波が高調波を含め
 幅広い周波数(スペクトル)で
 水槽の液体に伝搬するように設置しています

注:振動子が、水槽に直接接触しないようにしています

超音波システム研究所
ホームページ  http://ultrasonic-labo.com/

 

 


          è¶…音波(定在波)の制御技術 no.40        

超音波(定在波)の制御技術 no.40

超音波(キャビテーション)を
 適正に設定することで、
 目的に合わせた超音波(定在波)の状態が実現できます

 水槽と液循環に対する
 超音波振動子の設置位置と方法により、
 キャビテーションの伝搬状態を制御しています

It is setting up an ultrasonic wave (cavitation) properly,
The state of the ultrasonic wave (standing wave) united with the purpose is realizable.
The propagation state of a cavitation is controlled by the installation position and method of an ultrasonic transducer for a tank and liquid circulation.

***********************
超音波システム研究所
ホームページ  http://ultrasonic-labo.com/
***********************

 

 


          å°åž‹è¶…音波振動子による「超音波システム」        

小型超音波振動子による「超音波システム」

新しい小型超音波振動子を使用した
 超音波<実験・研究・開発>に適した
 超音波システムを開発しました。

 超音波振動子:40kHz  50W


-今回開発したシステムの応用事例-
 ガラス製の水槽を利用した化学反応実験
 調理用機器を利用した表面改質実験
 「揺動ユニット」と組み合わせて利用した洗浄実験
 各種の攪拌実験
 ・・・・・・・

 小型超音波振動子は
  各種の実験容器に直接入れることが可能になります。
  現在利用している超音波装置に対しても
   場合によっては追加投入することができます。

 これらの組み合わせによる効果は
  伝搬状態の計測・解析により確認しています。


 様々な応用事例が発展しています。

The ultrasonic system suitable for the ultrasonic wave
 <an experiment, research, and development>
   which uses a new small ultrasonic transducer was developed.
Ultrasonic transducer: 40 kHz    50W

Ultrasonic Cavitation Control.
Ultrasonic Sound Flow water effect.
Ultrasonic measurement and analysis techniques.

Vibration Analysis with Ultrasonic.

ポイント
 100W以上の超音波振動子では実現が難しい事項があります
 この点を有効に利用することで
 50Wの超音波振動子の効果は大きく発展しています

超音波システム研究所
ホームページ  http://ultrasonic-labo.com/

 

 


          SystemX Seminar        

Wearable devices are finally transitioning from hype to mainstream, aided by integration of valuable transducers, identification of application and use cases, ramp up of cloud services, and increased public awareness and interest due to Apple's watch introduction. Although still a nascent field, several themes are emerging that this talk will explore. The first is the evolution of capability from performing simple functions such as step count, to becoming contextually aware products. The second theme is the implications of targeting far more than just the wrist for the wearable device's residence. The third arises from the desire for "always on" capability, small size limit, and appeal of charging only every few days. In consequence, power is one of the most important parameters impacting the entire system design.


          C-Ducer B1000 / 3        
Preissenkung am 10.08.2017: C-Ducer B1000/3 Transducer Pickup System m. 3 inch (7,5cm) langen Pickupstreifen für Violine, Banjo, Percussion, incl. B1000 Preamp mit int. Batteriespeisung (3Volt Lithium CR113N) mit mind. 1000...
139 € statt vorher 145 € - Artikelnr. 239001

          Features for coupling surgical instrument shaft assembly with instrument body        
A surgical apparatus comprises a body assembly, an ultrasonic transducer, a shaft assembly, a motor, and a locking feature. The ultrasonic transducer is operable to convert electrical power into ultrasonic vibrations. The shaft assembly comprises a waveguide operable to transmit ultrasonic vibrations. The motor is operable to rotate the ultrasonic...
          Handpiece and blade configurations for ultrasonic surgical instrument        
A surgical apparatus comprises a body, an ultrasonic transducer, a shaft, and an end effector. The ultrasonic transducer is operable to convert electrical power into ultrasonic vibrations. The body comprises a pivotal trigger. The shaft couples the end effector and the body together. The end effector comprises a clamp arm...
          Methods and features for coupling ultrasonic surgical instrument components together        
A surgical apparatus comprises a transducer assembly and a shaft assembly. The transducer assembly is operable to convert electrical power into ultrasonic vibrations. The shaft assembly comprises an ultrasonic waveguide, a sheath, a shroud, and a torque transfer assembly. The waveguide is configured to couple with the transducer assembly. The...
          Nobiletin inhibited tumor angiogenesis in breast cancer cells.         
PMID:  Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Apr 30 ;18(5). Epub 2017 Apr 30. PMID: 28468300 Abstract Title:  Nobiletin Inhibits Angiogenesis by Regulating Src/FAK/STAT3-Mediated Signaling through PXN in ER⁺ Breast Cancer Cells. Abstract:  Tumor angiogenesis is one of the major hallmarks of tumor progression. Nobiletin is a natural flavonoid isolated from citrus peel that has anti-angiogenic activity. Steroid receptor coactivator (Src) is an intracellular tyrosine kinase so that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) binds to Src to play a role in tumor angiogenesis. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a marker for tumor angiogenesis which interacts with Src. Paxillin (PXN) acts as a downstream target for both FAK and STAT3. The main goal of this study was to assess inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by nobiletin in estrogen receptor positive (ER⁺) breast cancer cells via Src, FAK, and STAT3-mediated signaling through PXN. Treatment with nobiletin in MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells inhibited angiogenesis markers, based on western blotting and RT-PCR. Validation of in vitro angiogenesis in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) endothelial cell line proved the anti-angiogenic activity of nobiletin. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and the ChIP assay showed that nobiletin inhibits STAT3/DNA binding activity and STAT3 binding to a novel binding site of the PXN gene promoter. We also investigated the migration and invasive ability of nobiletin in ER⁺ cells. Nobiletin inhibited tumor angiogenesis by regulating Src, FAK, and STAT3 signaling through PXN in ER⁺ breast cancer cells.

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          Comment on The Missing Sentence in Einstein’s General Relativity by Michael Boyd        
Photons [light] has no inertia and photoelectric effect is only a property of non-bonding electron orbitals in matter, not anything to do with gravitation what ever. The simplest flaw I see is it fails to address the anti-symmetric nature between the mass of electrons (electron..........0.00091x10-27 kg ) and protons (proton.............1.6726 x 10-27 kg ) and how that effects the flow [mobility] of the different types of charge, protons[holes] and electrons. Since the form of energy the light weight electrons produce is light [mass-less photons] and the force of energy protons produce is attractive gravity [massive gravitons] therefore I assume EM and gravitation are not directly related, but only indirectly instead. In order to understand why gravity is different [stronger] close-up you have to understand the theory of gravitation being what's called the large extra-dimension... Theoretical physicists Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos and Dvali pointed [2], out that prior to now, gravity had not been measured below a distance of about a millimeter. They whose model is known as ADD, suggest that there could be extra dimensions as large as a millimeter in diameter. In particle physics, the ADD model, also known as the model with large extra dimensions [1], offers an alternative scenario to explain the weakness of gravity relative to the other forces. This theory requires that the fields of the standard model are confined to a four-dimensional membrane, while gravity propagates in several additional spatial dimensions that are large compared to the Planck scale. Theoretical physics typically treats the Planck scale as the highest energy scale and all dimensional parameters are measured in terms of the Planck scale. In models of large extra dimensions the fundamental scale is much lower than the Planck scale. This occurs because the power law of gravity changes. For example, assuming r is the distance between the gravitational induction sensor and the spinning disk; when there are two extra dimensions of size d, the power law of gravity is 1/r4 for objects with r <> d. This relationship suggests if we want the Planck scale to be equal to the next accelerator energy (1 TeV) we should take d approximately 1mm. As suggested by ADD, gravity could be just as strong as the other forces but only felt strongly at short distances. Scientists funded by the European Space Agency have measured the gravitational equivalent of a magnetic field for the first time in a laboratory. Just as a moving electrical charge creates a magnetic field, so a moving mass generates a gravitomagnetic field. According to Einstein's Theory of General Relativity, the effect is virtually negligible. However Tajmar [3] have measured the effect in a laboratory. Their experiment involves a ring of superconducting material rotating up to 6,500 times a minute. My hypothesis is that protons [holes in the semiconductor junction] in all forms of matter and their presence in our location in the universe, this is the source of the attractive force of gravity in the vicinity of matter. My discovery is at 100nm distance away the force of gravity is magnified and can be harnessed to produce gravitomagnetic induction with my invention, the mass spin-valve or gravitational rectifier, due to this gravity large extra dimension. The other novel thing I discovered in the absence of matter produces a repulsive anti-gravity force that is much weaker then the gravity force and balloon like. Electrons however do not contribute enough mass to really effect gravitation in any significant way. See http://www.calfree.com/ProofThatGravityIndependentMagnetism.pdf The GMR head in the device sees the magnetic image at 100nm distance and something else? The way my device distinguishes the EM from the gravitation is using Maxwell's right hand rule for magnetic induction. Using that rule I know the edges of my nano-features on a spinning disk will produce a magnetic induction signal that is dependent on the direction of the magnetization of the magnetic media on the disk which I can control by change the bias applied to the write transducer [a microscopic metal coil] on the head in the disk drive assembly. Notice the direction of the gravitomagnetic signal shown doesn't change however; that's because that force field's direction depends on the presence or absence of matter. Effects of geometry on gravitational fields and time See http://www.calfree.com/FiguresGravityRectifierPZTvGMRpit&bump.pdf The geometry of matter, or lack there of, causes a force field to be produced that I could measure. The reason gravitation is a direct tensor is because it has two components one is the normal gravitational energy produced by the presence of matter's nucleus in the universe and the other what we call repulsive anti-gravity or dark energy is produced by its absence. But the tensor for gravity is much stronger than anti-gravity since the absence of mass produces only about 16% of the magnitude for the same volume (geometry). Some other differences are normal gravity is much stronger below 1 mm from matter than it is above that distance; as is the antigravity force. I found for normal gravity above 1 mm it is consistently linear with distance; while antigravity is ~ 0. That means the force is 1/r^2 above 1mm and 1/r^4 below 1 mm but that means gravity is still linear with distance within both regions of normal gravity space time. Antigravity on the other hand is a third order force repulsive force tensor whose force fields are like that of balloon with their force field's strength being strongest at the membrane of the balloon and weak inside. Regarding the gravitational temporal relation both forms of gravitation experience the same amount of frame dragging as described in Einstein's General Relativity theory; so doesn't that means Time must be the substance between gravitational energy and EM energy that makes up our existence? Time must be a substance. That's because gravitational space time is produced by hole states of matter and electromagnetism spacetime (EM or light) is produced by electron states of matter. QM is built on EM space time; not gravitational space time. However Special Relativity is built on EM space time while General Relativity is built on gravitational space time. The manifold of events in spacetime are a "substance" which exists independently of the matter within it...Special Relativity and General Relativity created a conundrum for Einstein that he tried to resolve unsuccessfully to unit the two theory in to one grand unified field theory. My discovery is that while the speed of light is constant that's not true for gravitation. It can be slower in speed and faster too. Einstein focused to much on the speed of light and not enough on the "holes" all around him. That's where the gravitation is. That "electromagnetism is in spacetime A" let's call that space-time "{EM} space-time", and this is what Einstein's "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Korper"[4] ("On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies") described which reconciles Maxwell's equations for electricity and magnetism with the laws of mechanics, by introducing major changes to mechanics close to the speed of light. This later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity (SR).[5][6] That "gravitation is in spacetime B" let's call that space-time "{G}space-time" and this is what Einstein's General relativity (GR) describes. According to general relativity,[7] the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the "warping of space and time by those masses". When I write about this "manifold of events in spacetime are a "substance" which exists independently of the matter within it" this "manifold of events in spacetime" is this property that makes Time; as we measure it; the emergent {positive arrow of time}. Therefore time is a vector which direction depends on your position in our universe which is created by a change of energy states between gravitation to electromagnetism; and visa versa. Theoretical Implications of Nano-scale Quantum Gravitomagnetism In the event horizon of a black hole gravity is faster than the speed of light. In that domain light is forbidden. Einstein's problem was he only understood the universe from the side of electrons not the holes side that dominates it. If you think of empty space as a high density of holes and matter as regions where electron density is higher then you see Einstein Dirac etc..., where blinded by the light produced by electrons..., that's why they couldn't see the holes in the universe all around them. The mass of a neutron is greater than the mass of a proton because the neutron contains a proton, contains an electron with some subatomic particles. Neutron stars are collapsed matter leaving only neutrons at the atomic scale that makes up the neutron star and black holes are nearly identical but made of protons [holes] instead. Black holes are black not because light doesn't escape but because black holes are made of holes [collapsed protons] where light is not present because there are no electrons to absorb the light for re-emission of the light. My hypothesis is that protons [holes in the semiconductor junction] in all forms of matter and their presence in our location in the universe, this is the source of the attractive force of gravity in the vicinity of matter. My discovery is at 100nm the force of gravity is magnified and can be harnessed to produce gravitomagnetic induction with my invention the mass spin-valve or gravitational rectifier due to this gravity large extra dimension. The other novel thing I discovered is the absence of matter produces a repulsive anti-gravity force that is much weaker then the gravity force and balloon like. Electrons however do not contribute enough mass to real effect gravitation in any real way as far as I can measure. [1] ANTONIADIS, N., ARKANI-HAMED, N., DIMOPOULOS, S., DVALI, G. New dimensions at a millimeter to a Fermi and superstrings at a TeV. arXiv: hep-ph/9804398, 1998. [2] ARKANI-HAMED, N., DIMOPOULOS, S., DVALI, G. The Hierarchy problem and new dimensions at a millimeter. arXiv: hepph/9803315, 1998. [3] TAJMAR, M., MATOS, C.J. Gravitomagnetic Fields in Rotating Superconductors to Solve Tate's Cooper Pair Mass Anomaly. arXiv: gr-qc/060786, 2006. [4] EINSTEIN, A. Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Korper. Annalen der Physik 17: 891-921, 1905. [5] EINSTEIN, A.; GROSSMANN, M. Entwurf einer verallgemeinerten Relativitatstheorie und einer Theorie der Gravitation. Zeitschrift fur Mathematik und Physik 62: 225-261, 1913. [6] EINSTEIN, A. Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie. Annalen der Physik, 49, 1916. [7] HILBERT, D., Die Grundlagen der Physik. Mathematische Annalen, 92, 1924.
          [イヤフォン]SHURE SE535のフィルタ交換による音質カスタマイズ        

f:id:bukiyoubinbou:20140413101953j:image


SE535のフィルタ(Acoustic Damper)を交換してみる試み。


元ネタのHead-fiスレッド。

SE530/535 Acoustic Filter Mod: More SQ improvement than cables? Dampers!


SE535などのSHURE製イヤフォンのノズル部分には、

フィルタが入っていて、そのフィルタを交換することにより、

音質変化を狙おう!って感じの話です。

やってることはSE846はノズル交換と同じですね。


f:id:bukiyoubinbou:20140413101825j:image

交換用フィルタはMouserで購入しました。

http://jp.mouser.com/Knowles/Electromechanical/Audio-Devices/Speakers-Transducers/_/N-awp4u?P=1z0izcaZ1yyy7vrZ1yyy7vqZ1z0iza5&Ns=Impedance|0:title]


330、680、1000、1500、2200、3300、4700Ωの7種類があります。

SE535にはノーマルとLTDバージョンがあるのですが、

680Ωが純正(多少改善点もあるそうですが)で、330ΩがLTD仕様らしいです。


f:id:bukiyoubinbou:20140413101139j:image

一番の難関、取り外しにはUEのお掃除針金を使いました。

しかし私の個体は右だけどうしてもはずれず、

細いクリップで引っかけて力づくで外しました。


f:id:bukiyoubinbou:20140413101429j:image

しかし純正フィルタは外す過程で割れてしまいました。むむ。


私は330、1000、2200、3300の4つを購入して、

330、3300、1000と試して1000に落ち着いています。

2200は予備でとっておいてます。

以下インプレ。3個だけだけど。


・330Ω 銀色

LTD仕様とのことで確かに巷のLTDの評判通り

高音が刺さらない程度によく出るようになります。

高音、金属音重視の人はこちらがおススメ。


・1000Ω 茶色

純正より少し低音の量感がでます。

淡々としてた低音少し音楽的に。

といって高音域が犠牲になった感じもほぼありません。

純正のフラットなところが好きだけど、+αを求める人におススメ。


・3300Ω オレンジ

ぶわーっと低音がでます。オモロイです。

(低音がでるんじゃなくて高音がフィルタで抑えられてるんですが)

10Proみたいって感想も見かけましたが、

10Proのほうが高い音がでてる気もします。(中域がでてないだけかも?w)



おしまい。

SE535をLTD仕様にしたい人とか、モア低音!って人には

フィルタ交換はおススメできます。

劇的に変わるので面白いですしね。


ただ個体差があると思うのですが、

取り外しが少し難しいです。

私が不器用なだけかもしれないですが、

右だけはどうしても壊さずに取り外しができませんでした・・・


フィルタはかなり小さくてFly awayしやすいし、

外す時に壊しちゃうことも充分ありえるので、

余裕をもって多めに買う事をおススメします。

フィルタは200円程度ですが送料が痛いので・・・


チャオ


          K&K Big Twin        
Neu seit 26.07.2003: K&K Big Twin, zwei Tonabnehmer für Kontrabass, Cello, Bongos, Congas, Handtrommeln, Gitarre, Harfe, Saz, Sitar. Befestigung des Tonabnehmers auf der Decke und der Buchse (6,3mm) an beliebiger Stelle...
69,90 € - Artikelnr. 164128

          Shadow SH-SB1 Double Bass Pickup        
Neu seit 31.08.1999: Shadow SH-SB1 Double Bass Pickup, Tonabnehmer, für Kontrabass, Single-Disc-Transducer, Montage zwischen den Flügeln und den Füßen des Steges, incl. fest montierte Ausgangsbuchse mit 6,3 mm Klinke
29 € - Artikelnr. 136359

          Shadow SH-SB2 Double Bass Pickup        
Neu seit 30.10.1997: Shadow SH-SB2 Double Bass Pickup, Tonabnehmer, für Kontrabass, Twin-Disc-Transducer, Montage der beiden Piezos zwischen den Flügeln und den Füßen des Steges, incl. fest montierte Ausgangsbuchse mit...
44 € - Artikelnr. 126434

          Pressure Transducers (VW)        
Model 4500H Pressure Transducer.

The Model 4500H and 4500HH Pressure Transducers are supplied with 1⁄4-18 female NPT (4500H) and
7⁄16-20 60 degree female medium pressure (4500HH) fittings to permit the transducer to be coupled directly into hydraulic or pneumatic pressure lines. Other pipe thread sizes are al..


          Weir Monitor (VW)        
Model 4675LV Weir Monitor.

The Model 4675LV is a water level monitoring system that uses a vibrating wire force transducer to provide a highly stable and sensitive means of monitoring water levels. The main component is a cylindrical weight suspended from the force transducer. The cylinder hangs partially submerged in th..


          High Temperature Pressure Transducers (VW)        
Model 4500HHT Series High Temperature Pressure Transducers.

Geokon’s 4500HHT Series High Temperature Pressure Transducers are designed for monitoring downhole pressures and temperatures in oil recovery systems and geothermal applications, where the temperature may be as high as 250°C. These sensors are supplied with either mineral insulated ca..


          Speeding up sound sampling        

Sound may be weightless, but echosounders aren’t. To study Monterey Bay’s ecology, Scientist Kelly Benoit-Bird uses an echosounder with five different transducers, weighing about 165 pounds.

The post Speeding up sound sampling appeared first on MBARI.


          Students Take First Place at Parker's Stretch Your Mind Challenge        

Winning Team Uses Sensor Technology to Help Prevent ACL Injury

A team of students from Cleveland State University took first place in the national Stretch Your Mind Engineering Challenge sponsored by Parker Hannifin. Team Poly-Scientific Design won the competition with a knee orientation monitoring application which enhances analysis of joint motion and could help prevent sports injuries.

CSU students Nattawat Sunpituksaree, Christopher Schroeck, Brianna McKinney, Gianfranco Trovato and Michael Hanson, under the supervision of faculty advisor Dr. Ton van den Bogert, Professor of Mechanical Engineering in the Washkewicz College of Engineering, designed a device that utilizes polymer sensors to monitor the flexion and orientation of the knee, which are the main contributors to stress levels on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The device will allow coaches and trainers to detect the motions that increase the risk of ACL injury, and teach athletes to modify their motions to reduce the risk of injury.

The team was made up of electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and health sciences majors and is a component of a new CSU student organization, also called Poly-Scientific Design, which seeks to promote multidisciplinary research as a means to solve societal problems.

The Stretch Your Mind Engineering Challenge encouraged students at universities across the U.S. to design an original market solution using Parker’s electroactive polymer (EAP) sensor technology. Teams were required to identify an application, design a solution and plan for its deployment into the market.

“I think we can go toe to toe with any team of students in the country,” said Schroeck, a senior mechanical engineering major.

“The team went much farther than I thought possible.  It was a pleasure to work with such a motivated, hard-working, and smart group of people,” added van den Bogert.

Following the competition, Sunpituksaree was invited to present on the project at EuroEAP 2016, the 6th International Conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer Transducers & Artificial Muscles, in Copenhagen, Denmark. He is currently doing additional research to further development of the product at the Intelligent Material Systems Lab at Saarland University in Saarbrücken, Germany.

For additional information about the Stretch Your Mind Engineering Challenge visit http://blog.parker.com/stretch-your-mind-engineering-challenge-winners-announced.


          Sensing Nerf darts        

If you’re going to build a foam dart range, then at some point you’re going to have to build a some kind of sensor to be able to register the hits at the target. When we originally started this (with MFUKLC), we started by looking around at what other people had already done.

After seeing his presentation at Wuthering Bytes 2016, I found out about a slightly different approach in Seb Lee-Delisle’s Lazer Arcade, which uses piezo contact microphones and multi-lateration to locate the exact position of a hit on a 2D area.

Since we built Made Invaders, we’ve also seen other approaches to sensing foam dart impacts:

While there are newer approaches, we still feel that the one-board analog conditioned signal provides (derived form piezo-transducer-signal-conditioning) the most reliable and robust foam dart impact sensing. Our tests with thousands of impacts in public facing events has shown that the sensor described below registers every valid impact, while rejecting pushes, presses, and even many finger taps.

sensor circuit diagram Piezo impact conditioning circuit

Piezo impact signal

The first part in all these sensors is using a piezo element that is attached to the impact area. When the target object is hit, this causes the piezo element to vibrate, and this results in a voltage signal across the piezo.

piezo element The piezo element

When a voltage is applied across a piezo element, the different charge between the two metal plates either side of the piezo crystal causes the crystal to change shape slightly, making the plates get slightly closer together, or slightly further apart. By changing the voltage at a set frequency, the piezo will induce air pressure changes around it at the same rate, giving out a horrible, square wave sound with that note.

Like many electronic devices though, a piezo element can work as an input as well. If the distance between the two plates changes, this will cause the charges on the plates to change, causing a voltage difference between the two leads. If the piezo is stuck to a surface and then tapped, the output voltage might look something like the image below.

piezo noise signal Piezo impact noise signal compared to time

In this raw form, the main problem that we have with this signal is that it contains both positive and negative voltages. While the energy involved is very small, microcontrollers (as a rule) don’t like negative voltages, so before passing this signal into the input pin of a device, it should at least be rectified to be positive voltages only.

Rectified signal

Making sure there is only positive voltage is the job of diodes D1 and D2.

rectifying diodes Half-bridge rectification

We could force all the voltage to be positive with by using a full bridge rectifier, but I’m not too worried about efficiency. Here, D2 makes sure that the voltage in the upper line is always higher than the bottom (otherwise D2) conducts to equalise the voltage. And D1 makes sure that the signal goes towards the output signal line, rather than just shorting across the piezo.

The circuit uses Shottky diodes for these as they have a low forward voltage (so they don’t reduce the voltage of the signal too much) and they are fast recovery diodes, so they are particularly suited to rapidly inverting voltages.

rectified noise signal Only positive voltages are present in the rectified signal

Voltage clipping

The signal is much better now that there are no negative voltages, but the possibility still remains of having very large voltages as part of the impact signal. While the pulse duration is very short, and therefore the risk of any damage to an attached device is low, we want any sensor output to be safe to go into a microcontroller in all situations, so it would be remiss to leave large voltage inputs as possibility.

In testing, I did see peaks of 30 and 40V from just tapping a piezo with my nail. As the signal is very noisy, the values were not repeatable, but voltages in that range were very common during testing.

zener diode for voltage clipping Zener diode for voltage clipping

A zener diode is specifically designed to allow current to pass in the reverse direction once the voltage passes a set threshold. While this happens with all diodes (the reverse breakdown voltage), zeners are particularly designed so that this happens at a specific, tuned voltage (depending on the specification) and can happen repeatedly, without damage to the diode.

For the circuit I used, I chose a 5.1V zener, to limit the voltage to go directly into a 5V Arduino, but a 3.3V zener would be appropriate for a 3.3V powered device.

clipped signal Rectified signal clipped to maximum voltage

Pulse signal

While the noise signal is now safe to pass into a microcontroller; as it is currently, the microcontroller will still need to do an amount of signal processing to determine the characteristics of the hit. In my initial install, I was feeding the result from 16 sensors into a single Arduino Mega, and wanted to be able to scan through each sensor every 10ms to make sure that I didn’t miss any impacts.

Rather than using the raw signal, the sensor circuit includes a parallel resistor and capacitor pair. Having the capacitor there gives a “charge bucket” into which electrical energy can be stored. And having a high resitance path across the capacitor means that the capacitor will discharge “slowly” at a known rate.

RC pair RC pair

Having this resitor-capacitor (RC) pair allows the incoming voltage signal to charge up the capacitor, while the resistor will slowly equalise the voltage across the lines. The specific pair here (4.7nF & 1MΩ) will cause the capacitor to have discharged by 90% over 10ms, meaning that any input signal will have mostly decayed over 10ms, ready for another signal to be received.

Using the RC pair like this changes the noisy signal into a charge and decay pulse that can be ready by a high impedance (input mode) microcontroller pin.

pulse decay Pulse and decay signal

Reliability

sensor complete Rev2 PCB with OOBB compatible mounting

We actually used this imput directly into the 16 analog inputs of an Arduino Mega for the first version of the foam dart range — although that did require speeding up the analog to digital converter to it’s maximum rate to be able to scan all 16 inputs every 10ms. The code then looked for the signal going above a certain threshold, and counting a hit if it hadn’t already done so within the last 10ms.

fet buffer Inverting FET buffer

This all worked fine for most of the installations, but we were continually re-tuning the threshold level for reliability. For the second version we added a FET buffer on the receiving board, so the signal would be digitally triggered once the voltage reached the on-voltage of the FET (around 0.7V) and fed that into an interrupt pin on the Arduino. As we’d changed to having a controller on each target to run the LED display, and report hits via radio back to the main controller, changing to an interrupt means we always read hits over the impact threshold.

fet buffered logic signal The sensor pulse/decay (red) with the inverted logic output (cyan) from the FET buffer

The FET buffer gives a clear logic low when the sensor pulse goes above 0.7V, which returns to logic high when the sensor pulse drops below 0.7V. And because of this threshold, coupled with the size of the capacitor, it will only trigger from a sharp pulse of a high enough energy. If you hit this sensor with a dart (or flick it very hard with your finger) it will trigger reliably, but if pressed or pushed, the voltage in the capacitor doesn’t reach the trigger threshold, and no signal is passed.

The other change for installation that we did make was to add a single M6 nut glued to the back plate of the piezo. While it does work without, the additional mass across the piezo causes larger deflections in it, giving more energy to the signal and increasing the reliability of the input.


          Nerf Range and MFUKLC        

Aside from the smaller “5-minute projects” that I do, I also like to do a bigger, display project each year to take to shows like MakerFaire UK and MakeFest Liverpool and Manchester. Last year’s was the internet connected train set. This year, it’s a full blown foam dart range, with scoreboard, countdown timer, RFID registration and a build-your-own lasercut challenge on top!


Outside of those events, the range and the train set are available for installs elsewhere. Please contact me if you’d like to see either at your event.


I’ve previously seen piezo sensor based approaches for hit sensing. Similar to knock sensors; but foam dart sensor specific such as Reactive targets for Airsoft and NERF™; which uses an earlier signal conditioning design (archive.org link)

While I had been planning on doing a smaller range as a DoES Liverpool project (a makerspace filled with freelancers seems to do fewer group projects compared to hackspaces peopled by hobbyists), it all got a little out of hand after two symposia in one day.

With a lunch time UK Maker Belt Association (UKMBA) lunch (in a pub) and an Open-Source Hardware User Group (OSHUG) event in the evening, followed by going to the pub afterwards, and it all culminated in a challenge to build laser cut device to fire foam darts, ping pong balls or ball pool balls called the Mega Fun UK Lasercut Challenge (MFUKLC) where all the entries had to be open source.

That gave me both a deadline to finish, and a challenge to create a range that could cope with recording up to 10 hits per second, per sensor for a 30 second period.

Designing the Hardware

This might give you a nice idea of how we approach a project normally. As a first step, I needed to break down the big goal of “make a nerf range” into a number of smaller areas and tasks that I can do one-by-one to build up to the whole at the end.

First up was outlining the electronics and control structure.

You might notice chief noise-maker of .:oomlout:. with me in the video!

The result of this planning was then a series of modules communicating by serial, which would be controlled by a central, control module.

  • Control Module — Arduino Mega (for multiple serial ports) listening for the RFID reader, start button press, and running the status light in the button, sending commands out to the others, and reading results.

  • Target Module — An Arduino Mega (for the number of ports) that makes quick scans across the 16 piezo sensors to count any hits, record the data locally to SD card for analysis later, and count the score to return to the control module.

  • Timer Display and Scoreboard — 3-digit and 6-digit LED displays respectively (using Matt Venn’s big-7-seg displays) that will display a countdown or show the score. Using almost identical code, these displays can display static figures or 1/10 second countdown depending on how they are instructed.

  • USB Serial — to allow the control module to report the score (and RFID identifier) back to an external computer at the end of each go, so that can be sent automatically tweeted to the competitor.

Controller Layout 7 Controller Layout

Open Source

Unlike some projects that claim to be open source “at some date in the future”, the files for the range and the entries for MFUKLC are all available right now at github.com/DefProc/mfuklc/tree/master/range under MIT licence. You can recreate any and all of the parts of the range, control module, enclosures, circuit boards, entries, etc. as you like.


Just to point out that although the range was specifically designed to use Nerf products (and we use Nerf Jolts for competitors) it is not affiliated with Nerf or Hasbro in any way, and is not limited to Nerf products. It works equally well for any foam dart weapon, for even ping pong ball or ball pool balls!


          Comment on L. Eric Cross (1923–2016) discoveries led to piezoelectric transducers for modern medical ultrasound by Balasubramaniam Vaidhyanathan        
Fantastic person, great scientist, innovator and teacher. Had the privilege to meet him and learn & interact with him during my stint at MRL. RIP to the great soul.
          Problem-0100: Electrical Measurements and Instrumentation objective question        

What is a differential transformer?

a. Constant pressure transducer
b. Variable pressure transducer
c. Constant displacement transducer
d. Variable inductance transducer


           MR image-guided investigation of regional signal transducers and activators of transcription-1 activation in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia         
West, DA; Valentim, LM; Lythgoe, MF; Stephanou, A; Proctor, E; Van Der Weerd, L; Ordidge, RJ; ... Gadian, DG; + view all <#> West, DA; Valentim, LM; Lythgoe, MF; Stephanou, A; Proctor, E; Van Der Weerd, L; Ordidge, RJ; Latchman, DS; Gadian, DG; - view fewer <#> (2004) MR image-guided investigation of regional signal transducers and activators of transcription-1 activation in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. NEUROSCIENCE , 127 (2) 333 - 339. 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.05.022 .
          Nelson Sepúlveda        

May 16, 2017

How engineers turned a flag into a loudspeaker 

A paper-thin, flexible device created at Michigan State University not only can generate energy from human motion, it can act as a loudspeaker and microphone as well, nanotechnology researchers reported May 16 in Nature Communications.

The audio breakthrough could eventually lead to such consumer products as a foldable loudspeaker, a voice-activated security patch for computers and even a talking newspaper.A research breakthrough by Nelson Sepúlveda, associate professor of electrical and computer engineering, could eventually lead to consumer products such as a foldable loudspeaker, a voice-activated security patch for computers, and talking newspaper. Photo by G.L. Kohuth, MSUToday.

“Every technology starts with a breakthrough and this is a breakthrough for this particular technology,” said Nelson Sepúlveda, associate professor of electrical and computer engineering and primary investigator of the federally funded project.

“This is the first transducer that is ultrathin, flexible, scalable and bidirectional, meaning it can convert mechanical energy to electrical energy and electrical energy to mechanical energy.” 

Video: How engineers turned a flag into a loudspeaker

In late 2016, Sepúlveda and his team successfully demonstrated their sheet-like device – known as a ferroelectret nanogenerator, or FENG – by using it to power a keyboard, LED lights and an LCD touch-screen. That process worked with a finger swipe or a light pressing motion to activate the devices – converting mechanical energy to electrical energy.

The current breakthrough extends the FENG’s usability. The researchers discovered the high-tech material can act as a microphone (by capturing the vibrations from sound, or mechanical energy, and converting it to electrical energy) as well as a loudspeaker (by operating the opposite way: converting electrical energy to mechanical energy).

To demonstrate the microphone effect, the researchers developed a FENG security patch that uses voice recognition to access a computer. The patch was successful in protecting an individual’s computer from outside users. “The device is so sensitive to the vibrations that it catches the frequency components of your voice,” Sepúlveda said.

To demonstrate the loudspeaker effect, the FENG fabric was embedded into an MSU Spartan flag. Music was piped from an iPad through an amplifier and into the flag, which then reproduced the sound flawlessly. “The flag itself became the loudspeaker,” Sepúlveda said. “So we could use it in the future by taking traditional speakers, which are big, bulky and use a lot of power, and replacing them with this very flexible, thin, small device.”

Imagine a day when someone could pull a lightweight loudspeaker out of their pocket, slap it against the wall and transmit their speech to a roomful of people, Sepúlveda said. “Or imagine a newspaper,” he added, “where the sheets are microphones and loudspeakers. You could essentially have a voice-activated newspaper that talks back to you."

Wei Li, an MSU engineering researcher and lead author of the paper in Nature Communications, said other potential applications of the FENG include noise-cancelling sheeting and a health-monitoring wristband that is voice-protected.

Engineering researchers Wei Li and Nelson Sepúlveda are working toward applications that include noise-cancelling sheeting and a health-monitoring wristband that is voice-protected. Photo by G.L. Kohuth, MSUToday.“Many people are focusing on the sight and touch aspects of flexible electronics,” Li said, “but we’re also focusing on the speaking and listening aspects of the technology.”

The innovative process of creating the FENG starts with a silicone wafer, which is then fabricated with several layers, or thin sheets, of environmentally friendly substances including silver, polyimide, and polypropylene ferroelectret. Ions are added so that each layer in the device contains charged particles. Electrical energy is created when the device is compressed by human motion, or mechanical energy.

The research is funded by the National Science Foundation. Other co-authors are David Torres, Ramon Diaz, and Chuan Wang from MSU, and Zhengjun Wang, Changsheng Wu, and Zhong Lin Wang from the Georgia Institute of Technology.Like a traditional loudspeaker, this sheet-like, flexible device can transmit sound. Created by MSU engineers, the device - known as a ferroelectret nanogenerator, or FENG - can be embedded into a flag or other fabric. It could one day lead to a foldable loudspeaker or an audio newspaper. Photo by G.L. Kohuth, MSUToday.


          Act 3 Scene 5        

The forgotten top floor of the Senate building in one of the colleges of the University of London. The rooms have not been used since the early 1970's when the physics and nuclear research department, under public pressure around the safety concerns of nuclear research being carried out in the crowded urban areas,  moved out from the top floor of the Senate building to an undisclosed underground location in the middle of what used to be marshland in Stratford, but what is now part of the 2012 Olympic village. The reactor is still on the site and is occasionally switched on for tests, but the buildings have been renamed The Claygate Climate Change Centre, and nobody really pays it any attention.

The corridor is dusty and abandoned, there is rubbish and random mess that has not been tidied since the early 70's. An old copy of Beat magazine from August 1971 with the Osmonds on the cover lies torn in a corner while random bits of unidentifiable electronics junk lies scattered in apparently random distribution. 


There is a loud electronic humming noise outside a door marked Artificial Intelligence Research Laboratory. 


Crew and Steve knock timidly on the door. They hear loud sounds of electro static discharges.


Dr Kemble: from within Turn it up, the signal is getting stronger. Yes, I can see something it's coming through. Remarkable. Turn on the modulator.


John Hampton: Which one is the modulator?

Dr Kemble: The black button with the bee sticker on it and the words Bravo.

John Hampton: he presses the button I meant to ask you about that. Why a bee?

Dr Kemble: They were left over from a French teacher I suppose, don't know how they found their way up here. Besides if this should fall into the wrong hands noone would know how to use it without the key.

John Hampton: I see, so what does the turtle with the words 'genial' written underneath do?

Dr Kemble: The turtle cuts out the background radiation. Protects the receptor from stray inputs the same way a shell protects a turtle from attack from animals I suppose, there is a kind of reason and logic behind the indicators but hopefully too obtuse for anyone who might try to steal the machine.

John Hampton: Why would anyone steal the machine, nobody knows about it except for me you, the boys and a wooden puppet.

Dr Kemble: Oh my dear Johnnie, I thought you more than anyone would know by know that someone always knows what you're doing. It's just a question of not giving them any reason to try to disturb you.

John Hampon: So why a bee?

Dr Kemble: Listen, after a few seconds there is a buzzing sound as the modulator starts to work on the signal.

John Hampton: Ahhh.


Suddenly there is a knocking sound.

Dr Kemble: Hmmm, that noise is not normal. There must be a problem with the signal transducer.

John Hampton: It's the door.

Dr Kemble: confused and examining his equipment door? There is no door. You mean the flap for the signal correction panel? It is not making this sound?

John Hampton: returning with Steve and Crew The door door, the door to this room.

Dr Kemble: with delight Ahhh marvelous, now we have test subjects to work with.

Crew: Test subjects? I don't like the sound of that?

Dr Kemble: Why not, we have you to thank for all this and we seem to be making some clear progress. Look!

Crew: looking at the TV screen unable to see anything except for TV static I can't see anything professor.

Dr Kemble: Look there, do you see it?

Dr Kemble points Steve and Crew to a specific area on the bottom edge of the screen. 


Dr Kemble: Look, there particles that are firing here, notice that they are firing in the opposite direction to the other signals.

Steve: Is that it? I thought we were going to be able to see actual pictures of them, not just fast moving white dots. How can we communicate with that?

Dr Kemble: It's early days yet. All of this static you can see here, this is all electromagnetic radiation, some of it from Earth telecommunications, some of it from all the signal sources in the city and roughly one percent is from the big bang you know. Well if we can shield the source collector from all of these sources and somehow strengthen and focus our source then we will be able to develop the signal into something. At least it's possible but it all depends on how strong these spirit signals are, noone has ever recorded such things.

Steve; Actually that's not quite true.

Dr Kemble: turns to Steve and raises an eyebrow Oh? You're referring to the William Crooke no doubt? A brilliant chemist but rather a poor judge of human character, I'm afraid he was duped by some extremely unscrupulous people, much like Conan Doyle another great mind sadly marred by one fatal flaw: an over willingness to believe.

Steve: Actually I had Uri Geller in mind.

Dr Kemble: He was big in the eighties. Used to have a way with spoons. What do you know about him?

Crew: interrupting He worked with The Mossad on psychic affairs, and the CIA.

Steve: Thanks Crew but I was the one talking to the professor. He worked with a man called Andrija Puharich on a round-table project called The Council of Nine. All connected to the Illuminati Astor and Bell families.

Crew: interrupting The Bell family is old, so is Astor, they both go back to Canaan and the ancient middle east. The Bells are related the priests of  Baal bloodline and Astor are the priest of  Astarte.

Steve: Puharich was working on contacting extra-terrestrials who claimed to be the pantheon of the nine archetypal Gods of ancient Egypt. Geller was the channel and he would receive these messages from outer space, then apparently he would start to receive messages directly transferred onto magnetic cassettes. This was all taken very seriously and there was a lot of money involved because these people wanted to get hold of ideas and concepts for new technology and like the Nazis there was a lot of currency to the idea that such insights and information which can revolutionise the world comes from the interested other dimensional beings communicating with humans. Then they changed their story and claimed to be an alien race known as Rhombus 4d from a planet called Hoova.

Dr Kemble: So you're saying the myth of Prometheus might not be merely a myth. That these 'things' out there which communicate with us and help us with our development.

Crew: Yeah. What do you think?

Dr Kemble: I don't have a strong opinion. It's possible of course, but it's equally possible that innate human ingenuity can go a long way in these matters especially when beings claim to come from a planet known for vacuum cleaners. Perhaps they invent that who knows? Along with the Corby trouser press and the Goblin Teasmade.

John Hampton: interjecting Steve raises an interesting point. How do we even know that whatever beings we contact are even rock stars at all? What if it's all part of some deception? We need to be wise to this possibility. There was a chap, a journalist who investigated psychic phenomenon and mediums. He wanted to figure out if the whole thing about spirits was real and whether the mediums who were supposedly in contact with these spirits were sincere. He discovered that the mediums were sincere but the spirits were not. They always pretended to be something or someone they weren't. Fisher spent hours and hours of research investigating the stories from these channeled voices from beyond, and every time, some fact or element of their story was out, he could find no evidence of their actual existences despite the fact that nearly all the details of their story were correct.

Steve: So what happened?

John Hampton: He realised that something else was going on, this wasn't just about whether the mediums were lying or whether spirits really existed. The sheer depth of knowledge exhibited by the spirits assured him they were a real disembodied intelligence, and the complete variance of this knowledge to the lives of the mediums who channeled these intelligences assured him that they had no conscious role in any deception. However the inescapable conclusion he came to was a terrifying one, that not only were these spirits not quite who they said they were but they weren't actually human and never had been. They were something else.

Crew: Demons?

Steve: Aliens?

John Hampton: Who knows? But certainly not human. They were something which needed human attention for some reason to give it reality. It needed to possess people and be communicated with, and it seemed to have access to whole lifetimes of knowledge upon which to create a mosaic of an invented life on Earth so its words from beyond the grave would be listened to. But the spirits Joe communicated with had never existed as humans on Earth.

Steve: What happened?

John Hampton: Joe Fisher killed himself by jumping off a cliff. He told his editor shortly before his death that the spirits were still after him for having written his book exposing them.

Crew: Dayum.

John Hampton: That's right. So whatever comes through that screen, if it ever gets beyond the stage of moving white dots of static then we'd better be circumspect and be on our guard.

Steve: But we met Jim. Jim's real.

John Hampton: Sure, but that's not to say someone might not sneak through who isn't on our guest list.

Crew: Yeah, like Whitney Houston. She sucks. I don't want to see her ghost warbling on my telly, it was bad enough having it as a number one for ten weeks. No escape from that mad screaming ego with voice like a frigging ambulance siren.

Steve: Agreed. No Whitney. And no Jackson. Kid fiddling Pepsi swilling muppet come later day saint. First sign of Jackson's black or white face and I'm putting the boot into that machine.

Crew: Deal.

Dr Kemble: while fiddling and tinkering I appreciate your high standards and stringent entry requirements but there is no question of damaging the equipment I've spent so long messing about with continues fiddling and having a sudden idea spots a biscuit crumb and puts it in the machine. By Jove, I think I've got it.

The screen is suddenly clear of static and a shadowy human form is visible. 

Crew: Wow what did you do? How did you reduce all the signals you mentioned?

Dr Kemble: The technological miracle of biscuits. Just a shot in the dark but a perfectly logical one. The biscuit contains fat much like the human brain and serves equally to filter out any extraneous signals which are not required, while serving to strengthen and channel the internal signals we DO need. Well how remarkable. As a scientist I'm continually amazed what a fine sense of humour the universe seems to have sometimes.

Crew: So who is it? It's not Whitney or Jackson is it because I don't want to talk to them.

Dr Kemble: It's hard to tell, we need some way of creating light relief.

Crew: Like a few jokes? Have you heard the one about the ex-pat business man on the Japanese golf course?

Dr Kemble: No and I don't want to. But that's not what I meant by light relief. I mean shading, we need to find a way of shading the features and creating different tones of shades before we will be able to see anything.

John Hampton: Hmmmm. It needs a filter of some kind. Crew, give me your sunglasses.

Crew: Sure.

John Hampton: putting them on No, these are no good. What about yours Steve?

Steve hands over his sunglasses to John Hampton.

John Hampton: Putting on the sunglasses Oh yes that's the ticket. Here Philip, try these on.


Dr Kemble: Oh my, yes, the polarising lens works perfectly. So who is this young lady?

John Hampton: If I'm not mistaken this young lady is called Amy Winehouse.

Crew: Amy Winehouse? We picked up Amy Winehouse? Oh yeah. Talking to the shadowy figure on the TV. Can you sing Valerie for us? I love that. You were so awesome  Amy, I saw you at Glastonbury. Why did you punch that bloke though? And why did you come into the audience, what were you looking for? starts singing Lionel Ritchie Was it me you were looking for?

Dr Kemble: She can hear you, but we can't hear her. So there'll be no greatest hits shows for the moment until I figure out a way to channel sounds from the ghost world. In the meantime we all need to get hold of a pair of polarised sunglasses.



          Potenciometría-Artículo 24        

Artículo 24: Detección de proteínas con Aptasensors potenciométricas: un estudio comparativo entre polianilina y una sola pared nanotubos de carbono transductores

 

Un estudio de comparación de las características de rendimiento y caracterización de la superficie de dos diferentes sólido contacto aptasensors selectivos de trombina potenciométricos, una explotación de una red de nanotubos de carbono de pared única (SWCNT) y la otra, la polianilina (PANI), ambas actuando como un elemento de transducción se describe en este trabajo. Las propiedades moleculares de ambos SWCNT y superficies PANI han sido modificados mediante la unión covalente de trombina aptámeros de unión como elementos de bioreconocimiento. Los dos aptasensors se comparan y se caracteriza por potenciometría y espectroscopia de impedancia electroquímica (EIS) en base a la respuesta voltamétrica de cationes múltiplemente cargadas de metales de transición (tales como hexaammineruthenium, [Ru (NH3) 6] 3 +) unido electrostáticamente a las sondas de ADN. Las densidades superficiales de los aptámeros se determinaron con precisión por la integración del pico de la reducción de [Ru (NH3) 6] 3 + a [Ru (NH3) 6] 2 +. Las diferencias y las similitudes, así como el mecanismo de transducción, también se discuten. La sensibilidad se calcula como 2,97 mV / década y 8,03 mV / década para el PANI y aptasensors SWCNTs, respectivamente. Estos resultados están de acuerdo con la densidad de la superficie superior de los aptámeros en el sensor potenciométrico SWCNT.

282756.sch.001

Referencia:
D. Cai, L. Ren, H. Zhao et al., “A molecular-imprint nanosensor for ultrasensitive detection of proteins,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 597–601, 2010.

"Protein Detection with Potentiometric Aptasensors: A Comparative Study between Polyaniline and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Transducers"


          Human-motion energy harvester        
Magnetoelastic materials change their shape when zapped with a magnetic field and are widely thought of as a way to produce movement, for example in small robots. But they also work in reverse, producing a magnetic field when they are deformed.

Greg Hampikian and Peter Mullner, both at Boise State University in Idaho say this property can be used to harvest energy from human movement.

They connect the magnetoelastic material to a magnetic transducer that generates a current from changes in a magnetic field.

This approach can create energy from low-level vibrations. The inventors say that relatively small movements are needed to produce an effect, making their devices ideally suited to harvesting power from human movement. That could be useful to stretch the battery life of portable gadgets, or medical implants.

Read the full human-motion energy harvester patent application.

Justin Mullins, New Scientist consultant
          Music to Your Ears: New Transducers Meet Electrostatic Headphones        
An audio technology startup delivers manufacturable transducers for high-end headphones. The following is an excerpt from COMSOL News 2017 Acoustics Edition . By Jennifer Hand Serious hi-fi enthusiasts get excited about the musical experience delivered...
          The Unveiling of the G&Z S850SL        


Ripon, California U.S.A. November  14, 2012 – Guntert & Zimmerman (G&Z) is proud to announce the New S850SL: Mid-Size Slipform Paver with Swing Legs.  With the success of the G&Z S600 in the domestic and international markets, the patented AccuSteer: Slew Drive Track Control Systemand SmartLeg: Swing Leg System have been made available as options on the G&Z S850 in lieu of the reliable and time-tested QUADRA bolster system.

AccuSteer consists of slew drives that are mounted on top of the crawler track yokes that are used to steer the tracks in lieu of steering cylinders.  AccuSteer drives are powered with hourglass worm technology to give long life, high accuracy and extremely high maneuverability.  AccuSteer allows the operator to independently rotate the tracks almost a full circle, providing exceptional on site maneuverability and rapid swing leg relocation for paving and transport without the need to re-pin steering cylinders.

Working in tandem with AccuSteer, SmartLegallows the operator to adjust the swing leg angle on the fly while automatically keeping the crawler track straight ahead.  This offers a high level of flexibility for the contractor to maneuver around track line obstacles (e.g. fire hydrants, airport runway lights, etc.) on the fly and without stopping to make a mechanical swing leg adjustment or re-clocking the steering transducer.  With SmartLeg, the process for transforming the S850SL into the transport configuration can be semi-automated.  This simple process dramatically saves time over other conventional four track slipform pavers.  Using the combination of the 90 degree, AccuSteer and SmartLeg, the four swing bolsters and crawler tracks are semi-automatically walked into the outboard, transport position in approx. 30 minutes.


Where Does the G&Z S850SL Fit in the Market?

As G&Z continues to explore ways to increase available paving time and decrease set up time, the S850SL is designed to fulfill the need for a versatile, maneuverable, time saving mid-size paver that has the ability to achieve good smoothness numbers.  The S850SL Paver is one of the narrowest profile mid-size pavers on the market.  When equipped with special narrow grouser pads, the S850SL can work next to a temporary barrier wall on a companion lane trackline as little as 12” (30cm) wide with and without a DBI.  The S850SL has been engineered to make contractors more productive.  The S850SL time saving options provide the contractor with the opportunity for more paving hours in the day and more paving days during the season.


S850SL Applications

The S850SL Mid-Size Concrete Slipform Paver is an “All-Purpose” mid-size paver.  It is ideal for city streets, secondary roads, highway and airport paving, ramps as well as canal lining applications.


S850SL Specifications

The G&Z S850SLfeatures a patented double telescopic tractor frame, access walkway, and hose hinges for a nominal working range of 12'-0" to 26'-0" (3.66 m to 7.92 m) with up to 7’-0” (2.13 m) of telescopic ability per side - the widest range in the industry. With the addition of optional bolt-in tractor frame extensions, the S850SL tractor can extend up to nom. 39'-5" (12 m).  When the tractor frame is equipped with G&Z’s Patented JC Extender System, major tractor width changes can be done in under one hour.  The S850SL is available with G&Z’s patented and time saving TeleEnd: Telescopic Paving Kit End Sections which allow hydraulic telescopic ability of 3’ (915mm) per end or 4’ (1250 mm) with the New TeleEndXL. The S850SL can be equipped with a mechanical dowel bar inserter (DBI) and can be supplied with hydraulic or electric poker vibrators.  The paving kit, front tie bar inserter and many of the other optional attachments on the S850SLare interchangeable with other G&Z paver models, giving the contractor a more versatile fleet of paving equipment. 


About Guntert & Zimmerman

In 1956, Guntert & Zimmerman (G&Z) pioneered and introduced the first crawler track mounted, concrete slipform paver with automatic line and grade control in the United States.  In 1963, G&Z along with SGME, Belgium successfully introduced the first slipform paver into Europe and set a standard for how concrete roads and airports building.  Today, G&Z’s wide range of productive and dependable concrete paving products make it the most trusted and respected name in the market. Since its founding in 1942, G&Z has been known for its innovative and pioneering spirit by helping to make contractors as productive as possible. G&Z is constantly developing new technology and upgrading its existing product offering which includes a full range of slipform pavers, placer spreaders, mechanical dowel bar inserters (DBI), texture cure machines, and concrete plants. Whether your machine is new or has over 10,000 hours of operation, G&Z guarantees your satisfaction and will provide you service and parts support no matter where you are in the world. G&Z is also a leader in the design and manufacture of canal construction equipment and bucket wheel trenchers along with other special equipment.­­­


For More Information Visit www.guntert.com.

          4 papers accepted for presentation at Transducers 2017        
The following 4 papers have been accepted for presentation at the 19th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers 2017) to be held on June 18-22, 2017 in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. S. Kang, Z. Qian, V. Rajaram, A. Alù, and M. Rinaldi, “Ultra Narrowband Infrared Absorbers for Omni-Directional and Polarization Insensitive Multi-Spectral Sensing Microsystems”; …

Continue reading »

          Review: Sony XB510AS Extra Bass (Sports In-Ear Headphones)        

Kali ini gue ingin mereview salah satu in-ear headphones sudah lama gue tunggu untuk dibeli, Sony XB510AS Extra Bass. Ini merupakan in-ear headphone yang dibuat khusus untuk kalian yang suka dengan kegiatan sport sambil menikmati musik. Sebelum gue review lebih detail, berikut spesifikasi dari Sony XB510AS Extra Bass ini:

Frequency response: 4 -24.000 Hz
Impedance:  56 Ohm (1kHz)
Sensitivity:  106 dB/mW
Transducer principle: Closed Dynamic
Cable: approx. 1.2 m, Litz wire, Y-type
Plug: L-shaped gold-plated four-conductor mini plug
Driver unit: 12mm Dome Type (CCAW)

Oke, tadi di atas merupakan spesifikasi dari Sony XB510AS Extra Bass. Kalau dilihat dari speknya, in-ear headphones ini memiliki kualitas mid-high end. Bisa dilihat dari harga jualnya yaitu Rp. 550.000 - 650.000 tergantung dari tokonya yang menjual. Tapi dengan harga segitu, kualitasnya memang memuaskan dan gak diragukan lagi. Dengan respon frekuensi hingga 4 Hz, suara bass pada musik sangat bisa dinikmati, terutama musik hacep yang banyak suaras ngebassnya. Selain itu, dengan respon frekuensi maksimum yang mencapai 24.000 Hz, anda dapat lebih mendengarkan detail suara pada musik anda. Terdapat pula microphone dengan satu tombol di kabelnya, seperti rata-rata pada headphones saat ini.


Kalau dilihat dari desainnya, in-ear headphones ini agak besar dari in-ear headphones biasanya. Yang membuat ukurannya agak besar tersebut dikarenakan oleh head-cover dan arc pada in-ear headphonesnya. Head-covernya dibuat dengan desain IPX5/7.


Dengan desain IPX5/7 ini, Sony XB510AS ini bisa tahan pada kondisi yang lembab atau basah, dan anda bisa membilasnya dengan air untuk membersihkannya dari kotoran setelah pemakaian (bukan dicelupin ya). Dibilasnya juga bukan kearah lobang suaranya, tapi bagian luarnya saja (head-cover dan earbuds nya). Sedangkan untuk arc nya, berfungsi untuk menjadi penyangga di telinga anda. Sehingga saat anda memakai in-ear headphones ini ketika sedang berolah raga atau lainnya, gak akan mudah lepas dari telinga anda.

Ada 4 pilihan warna untuk Sony XB510AS Extra Bass ini yaitu, hitam, merah, biru dan hijau.


Saat pembelian, anda akan mendapatkan bonus lain seperti, tempat in-ear headphones (soft pouch), penjepit (clip) dan penggulung kabel (gue gak tau namanya, tapi fungsinya sih begitu). Selain itu, disediakan ukuran  kecil (S), sedang (M) dan besar (L) untuk arc dan budsnya yang dapat disesuaikan dengan telinga anda.



Kelebihan
1. Memiliki rentan respon frekuensi yang tinggi 4- 24.000 Hz membuat anda dapat mendengarkan musik dengan kualitas yang tinggi. (Musiknya serasa ada di dalam kepala)
2. Dibuat khusus dengan suara yang extra ngebass.  
3. Memiliki desain IPX5/7, sehingga in-ear headphones ini tahan pada kondisi yang lembab/basah karena keringat atau terhadap cuaca hujan dan salju, serta dapat dibilas dengan air.
4. Ada arc yang dapat menyangga pada telinga, sehingga tidak mudah lepas.
5. Benar-benar kedap suara, sehingga saat mendengarkan musik gak akan terganggu oleh suara dari luar.
6. Jika anda memiliki smartphone Sony Xperia, dengan mengaktifkan fitur DSEE HX, maka anda dapat menikmati musik dengan kualitas yang maksimal melalui in-ear headphones ini.

Kekurangan
1. Ukurannya yang agak besar akan terlihat mencolok saat dipakai. Khususnya bagi pengendara motor, mengunakan in-ear headphones ini dengan helm akan mengalami sedikit masalah untuk menyesuaikannya dengan helm.
2. Terkadang telinga bisa agak gatal di bagian arc nya.


Secara keseluruhannya, bagi anda yang memang pecinta musik, ingin menikmati musik dengan kualitas yang cukup tinggi sambil beraktifitas seperti olah raga, bisa membeli in-ear headphones ini. Selain itu dengan fitur IPX5/7 menjamin ketahanannya dalam berbagai kondisi.
          HVAC Pressure Transducers        
Setra's HVAC/R pressure transducers are extensively used across many verticals of industries. To learn more please contact us.
          Electrical Journeyman - Bergelectric - San Diego, CA        
Feed to, pull into, and terminate wire and cable within control centers, distribution boxes, transformers, transducers, switch gear, receptacles, switches, etc....
From Bergelectric - Thu, 25 May 2017 02:37:59 GMT - View all San Diego, CA jobs
          Journeyman Wireman, Lead Man - Bergelectric - San Diego, CA        
Feed to, pull into, and terminate wire and cable within control centers, distribution boxes, transformers, transducers, switch gear, receptacles, switches, etc....
From Bergelectric - Wed, 17 May 2017 15:18:57 GMT - View all San Diego, CA jobs
          TE Connectivity (TE) Launches New Digital Display Transducer with Rotatable Display for Easier On-Site Process Control        
...billion global technology leader. Our commitment to innovation and execution has placed our customers at the center of the modern human experience – enabling advancements in transportation, energy, data communications, industrial applications, medical care and the home. TE's connectivity and sensor ...


          Dean Markley Artist XM Transducer Pickup        
Tillgänglig sedan 03.08.2016:
35 € - Artikelnr. 396253

          Dean Markley Artist Transducer Pickup        
Tillgänglig sedan 08.05.2014:
39 € - Artikelnr. 340802

          B-Band 22R        
Tillgänglig sedan 16.05.2007:
35 € - Artikelnr. 115400

          B-Band UST-Transducer 29R        
Tillgänglig sedan 16.05.2007:
35 € - Artikelnr. 115401

          Lowrance Elite-12 Ti kartplotter med ekkolodd        

Nøkkelegenskaper

  • Høyoppløselig 12" fargeskjerm med LED-bakbelysning
  • Brukervennlig touchskjerm og knapper
  • CHIRP ekkolodd med StructureScan og DownScan som gir den best mulige gjengivelsen av miljøet under båten
  • TrackBack - bla gjennom historiske bilder fra ekkolodd, SideScan eller Downscan for å gjøre deg kjent med fiske- eller bunnforholdene, og merk stedet med et veipunkt
  • Presis, innebygget GPS-antenne
  • Innebygget trådløs tilkobling til GoFree Cloud for å laste ned useInsight-kart og tredjepartskart fra GoFree-partnere
  • MicroSD-spor
  • Bruker Navinoics kart på MicroSD

I pakken:

  • Lowrance Elite 12Ti
  • Brakett med festeknotter
  • Strøm/NMEA0183-kabel
  • Sikringsholder og sikring
  • 7 til 9-pins adapterkabel for transducere
  • Brukerveiledning, monteringsmal, etc.
21999,-

          Evaluating Microphones and Transducers with Simulation        
Acoustic measurements aren’t always accurate due to imperfections in the measurement tools. To limit incorrect results, devices, such as microphones and vibration transducers, have standards that define their allowable margin of error. Meeting these standards is required, but good measurement tools go a step further and keep their error range consistent over time. To create quality devices, research teams at Brüel & Kjær use multiphysics simulation to model their microphone and transducer designs. A Leader in Measuring Sound and Vibrations: […]
          HART现场总线 - 泓格HART系统整合解决方案        
HART协议 (全名Highway Addressable Remote Transducer, 高速可寻址远程传感器),用于现场智慧仪表和控制端间的一种全球标准通信协议,该协议目前向所有用户免费开放,注册商标和版权为HART通讯基金会(HCF)所有。HART协议采用基于Bell202标准的FSK频移键控信号,在4mA~ ...
          HART现场总线 - 泓格HART系统整合解决方案        
HART协议 (全名Highway Addressable Remote Transducer, 高速可寻址远程传感器),用于现场智慧仪表和控制端间的一种全球标准通信协议,该协议目前向所有用户免费开放,注册商标和版权为HART通讯基金会(HCF)所有。HART协议采用基于Bell202标准的FSK频移键控信号,在4mA~ ...
          HART现场总线 - 泓格HART系统整合解决方案        
HART协议 (全名Highway Addressable Remote Transducer, 高速可寻址远程传感器),用于现场智慧仪表和控制端间的一种全球标准通信协议,该协议目前向所有用户免费开放,注册商标和版权为HART通讯基金会(HCF)所有。HART协议采用基于Bell202标准的FSK频移键控信号,在4m ...
          SN04-N2 NPN NC 4mm Inductive Proximity Sensor Switch 2 Wire DC 10-30V 1.9M Cable        

Specification:

Product  Name Inductive Proximity Switch
Model SN04-N2
Theory Inductance Sensor
Wire Type 3 Wire Type (Brown, Black, Blue)
Output Switching Transducer
Output Type NPN NC
Detecting Distance 4mm
Voltage DC 10-30V
Detect Object Iron
Size 3.6 x 1.8 x 1.8cm/1.4" x 0.7" x 0.7" (L*W*H)
Cable Length 1.9M / 6.2ft
External Material ABS Plastic
Net Weight 61g
Color Green, Black
Package Content

1 x Inductive Proximity Switch

2 x Screws

Description:

  • ABS plastic shell, LED indicator light, angular column type, 2 wire system.
  • When proximity switch is close to some target object, it will send out control signal.
  • Power supply inverted connecting protection, short circuit protection, non-contact detecting device.
  • Used widely in the machine tool industry, frequency counters and other automatic control system.

          Siglas e Termos Gerais de Biologia         


Siglas e termos usados em biologia geral, abrangendo principalmente a imunologia, genética e a biologia molecular. Tem também termos laboratoriais e médicos. São usados em artigos científicos, teses, monografias e TCCs.

a: adenina

aa: aminoácido

AAN: Anticorpos antinúcleo

ACR: American College of Rheumathology, do inglês, Colégio Americano de Reumatologia

ADCC: Citotoxicidade celular dependente de anticorpo

AIDS: Síndrome da Imunodeficiência adquirida.

anti-DNAds: Anticorpo anti-DNA dupla hélice

Aza: Azatioprina

c: citosina

CD: Cluster diferentiation

cDNA: DNA complementar

CFA: ciclofosfamida

CH100: Complemento total hemolítico

CMV: Citomegalovírus

CNV: Copy number variation

CR3: Complement receptor 3

CSA: ciclosporina

CTL: Linfócito T citotóxico

CTLA4: Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4, do inglês, Antígeno 4 de linfócito T citotóxico, também conhecido como CD152

DNA: Ácido desoxirribonucléico

dNTP: Desoxirribonucleotídeos Fosfatados

DRAI: Doenças Reumáticas Autoimunes

DAINR: Doenças autoimunes não-reumáticas

DCFH-DA: 2,7-diclorofluoresceína-diacetato

DGC: Doença Granulomatosa Crônica

DIgG: Deficiência de IgG

DIgG1: Deficiência de IgG1

DIgG2: Deficiência de IgG2

DIgG3: Deficiência de IgG3

DIgG4: Deficiência de IgG4

DIgM: Deficiência de IgM

DP: desvio-padrão

DSIgA: Deficiência seletiva de IgA

EBV: vírus Epstein-Barr

EDTA: Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, do inglês, ácido etilenodiamino tetra-acético

ELISA: Enzyme-Linked Immunoabsorbent Assay, do inglês, Ensaio imunoabsorvente ligado a enzima

ENA: anticorpos contra antígenos nucleares extraíveis

ESID: European Society for Immunodeficiency, do inglês, Sociedade Europeia para Imunodeficiência

et al: e colaboradores

FAN: Anticorpos antinucleares

FcgR: Receptor de porção Fc da imunoglobulina G

FLT3: Tirosino-quinase 3 Fms-relacionado (FLK2STK1CD135 ou FLT3)


g: grama

G: guanina

GLADEL: Grupo Latino-Americano de estudo do lupus

GPI: Glicosilfosfatidilinositol

HCQ: hidroxicloroquina

HCV: Vírus da hepatite C

HEp2: Linhagem de célula de carcinoma laríngeo humano

HIgM: Síndrome Hiper-IgM

HIV: Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana

HLA: Antígenos leucocitários humanos

HNA: Antígeno neutrofílico humano

HPV: Papiloma vírus humano

HTLV: Vírus da leucemia T humana

IC: imunocomplexo

IDCV: Imunodeficiência comum variável

IDD: Imunodifusão dupla

IDP: Imunodeficiência primária

IDD: Imunofluorescência Indireta

IFN: Interferon

IgA: Imunoglobulina isotipo A

IgE: Imunoglobulina isotipo E

IgG: Imunoglobulina isotipo G

IgG1: Imunoglobulina isotipo G subclasse 1

IgG2: Imunoglobulina isotipo G subclasse 2

IgG3: Imunoglobulina isotipo G subclasse 3

IgG4: Imunoglobulina isotipo G subclasse 4

IgM: Imunoglobulina isotipo M

ITAM: Motivo de ativação baseado em tirosina presente em imunorreceptor

ITIM: Motivo de inibição baseado em tirosina presente em imunorreceptor

ITGAM: Gene da Integrina alfa M

LED: Lúpus Eritematoso Discoide

LES: Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico

LFN: leflunomide

MBL: proteína ligadora de manose

MDDC: Células dendríticas derivadas de monócitos (monocytes derived dendritic cell)

MHC: Complexo de Histocompatibilidade Principal

mL: mililitro

µL: microlitro

mM: milimolar

MMF: micofenolato mofetil

MTX: metotrexate

NA1: Neutrophil antigen

NKT: Célula natural killer

PBS: Phosphate buffered saline

PAGID: Pan-American Group for Immunodeficiency, do inglês, Grupo Panamericano para Imunodeficiência

PCR: Reação em cadeia da polimerase

PTPN22: Protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22, do inglês, Proteína tirosino-fosfatase, não-receptor tipo 22(linfóide)

qRT-PCR: PCR em tempo real quantitativo

RNA: Ácido ribonucleico

rs: Related sequence

SDS: Dodecil sulfato de sódio

Síndrome ALPS: Autoimmune Limphoproliferativa Syndrome, do inglês, Síndrome autoimune linfoproliferativa

Síndrome APECED: Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy, do inglês, Poliendocrinopatia autoimune com candidíase-distrofia ectodérmica

Síndrome IPEX: Immunodysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-linked, do inglês, Imunodesregulação, poliendocrinopatia, enteropatia, ligada ao X

SLEDAI: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index, do inglês, escore de atividade momentânea do LES

SLICC-DI: Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics ­– Disease Index, Índice de danos permanentes secundários ao LES

Sm: Antígeno Smith

SMF: Sistema Mononuclear Fagocitário

SNC: Sistema Nervoso Central

SNP: Polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único

SPSS: Statistical Package for Social Sciences

SS-A/ Ro: Síndrome de Sjögren, antígeno A

SS-A/ La: Síndrome de Sjögren, antígeno B

STAT4: proteína Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription, do inglês, Tradutor de sinal e ativador de transcrição

STR: Simple tandem repeats

TE: Tris EDTA

TCLE: Termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido

TM: Transmembrana

TNF: Fator de necrose tumoral

TYK: Tirosina quinase

VNTR: Variable number of tandem repeats

IUPAC: International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

UV: Radiação ultravioleta

UFC: Unidades Formadoras de Colônias


          Oral History!        
Great News! Jackson Ward "Smokey" Moore Jr., has emailed with some recollections about the early use of electrolysis and ultrasonic cleaning methods at INDE...
Smokey is an archaeologist whose work at Independence Park almost four decades ago was the focus of a previous posting. His rememberances clarify and deepen our understanding of the history of archaeological practice in Independence Park, in NPS (the federal agency), in the subdiscipline of historical archaeology, and in archaeology in general.

NPS Public Affairs photo of Jackson Ward 'Smokey' Moore Jr.
in the archeology lab in the Second Bank, circa 1960.

I couldn't be more pleased about this! I had high hopes that this blogging project would operate collaboratively. We have now had instructive commentary and invaluable suggestions from a museum curator, a Pennsylvania-based archaeologist, an archivist from the city, a tour guide specialist, and various members of the interested public -- each of whom has helped to inform this INDE Archives Finding Aid project. Now we are fortunate to hear from someone who helped create the materials that comprise the INDE Archeological Records Collection. He is a wonderful writer to boot!
Smokey has given his permission for this correspondence to be treated as oral history so it too will be preserved as part of the INDE archaeological records collection. The following are excerpts from his correspondence (edited to the topic of archeological lab methods).

Jackson Ward "Smokey" Moore writing to V-I-P Patrice L. Jeppson on Aug. 7th, 2009:

The letter about my magic machine from San Francisco was probably from Paul J.F. Schumacher. He was referring to the electrolysis set up. I introduced it to INDE but it wasn't my idea. At Fort Fredericka NM Joel and I had a lab assistant named Bob Taylor. We had been cleaning iron artifacts by heating them in a pot-bellied stove, dunking them and pounding the crusts off, followed by brass and/or steel brushing. Then we would coat them oil to minimize rusting. After Joel left, I got down a copy of Plenderlieth's volume on museum object treatment. I saw a very complex arrangement of electrical equipment that Plenderlieth used for metal objects. Shaking my head I showed it to Bob. Bob was an island man, part of Cap'n Taylor's clan [deleted bio data] whose background was shrimpboating. After about 15 minutes he turned me and exclaimed "Hell, Cap'n, that ain't nothin but a gussied up batt'ry charger!". He also believed that sodium hydroxide was "plain ole lye." I got the stuff and we used a small aquarium tank to clamp the anodes to. It worked beautifully! I sent one of those [NPS] forms to credit Bob. I think Stan South was fielding those then. A downside-- I'm not sure I didn't uffer some detriment from the gas that the process gave off. [sic ;) ? ]

The Ultrasonic Cleaner was Bruce's [B.B. Powell] introduction. It was great for encrusted button and ceramics and other materials. It worked on small metallic objects too. We had to pare down our expectations for many metal objects though: the transducers sometimes broke! It's hard to recapture exact scenes so I don't remember how well we coped with continuing to use process. Maybe Bruce remembers.



NPS Archeologist Paul Schumacher, circa 1955 (top), NPS Archeologist B. Bruce Powell, circa middle 1960's (bottom).


On August 13th, Smokey added:
...My discussion of the ultrasonic device [in the last email communication excerpted above] was in terms of the circumstances that then prevailed. Our appliance was quite small; I would guess about 8"x11" at most. (Bruce may remember it differently). I haven't kept up those babies. I have seen the ones jewelers use to clean diamond rings, and my Braun 7800 electric razor's head cleaner is a mini ultrason. When I saw the illustration in your blog of the ultrasons used today, I realized that the puny tasks we required then would be pieces of cake. now.


          Could they have invented it?        






"None of our employees have experienced any effects on their hearing from using the ultrasonic cleaner." (INDE Superintendent D.C. Kurjack, writing to the Regional Superintendent in September, 1961).

A wonderful discovery! While inventorying a file of History Office correspondence I came across a 1961 letter from the Park Superintendent that reports on "an ultrasonic cleaning device in use for cleaning archeological artifacts" (above right, click to enlarge). I wondered: Could it be that archaeologists working at INDE came up with this artifact processing method? Today it is common to find ultrasonic cleaners in archaeology labs. For example, the Independence Living History Center Archeology Lab down the street uses one for the first step in the washing of (suitable) artifacts. An ultrasonic cleaner loosens dirt caked onto artifacts minimizing the abrasion from brushes or picks.


The correspondence in this folder is not in chronological order and an earlier letter, dated 1960, is a request from a west coast archaeologist asking "Would [INDE] be kind enough to have Smokey [archaeologist Jackson Ward Moore, Jr.] clean these nails [from a Glacier Bay Cemetery] by his "magic process"..." (emphasis mine). I can check with Smokey and see if this reference is to the ultrasonic cleaning idea. If so, it would be the earliest date recorded for this method among these papers.


Further on in the file I came across a letter and its response relating to archaeologists at Mesa Verde National Park who sent a ceramic sample to INDE for a test cleaning. This correspondence too made me think the idea of ultrasonic cleaning originated at INDE. Then I found the clincher, a letter from an employee at Circo Ultrasonic Corporation (in New Jersey) asking how their device -- a Model PG 60 generator and 60 T transducerized tank of 1-gallon capacity -- had fared when put to this "unusual" task. The response from archaeologist B. B. Powell describes the INDE experiments trying different cleaning agents and the "excellent" results". Also described are the various applications experimented with (the processing of different categories of artifacts -- shell, ceramic, metal, etc.). The artifacts are mentioned as coming from the site of Franklin Court. I have posted some abtracts of that letter below (click to enlarge):
Lastly, I found something that makes it clear that this was indeed a new idea for archaeology!
In the file was an NPS Suggestion Form (10-63, 1955, 99219) with delightful 1950's-era graphics. This form, filled out with a date of October 1960, is a formal suggestion for the use of ultrasonic cleaning in archaeology laboratory work based on experiments done at Independence National Historical Park (click to enlarge):




















This folder of History Office correspondence in the INDE Archives documents the administration of park archaeology circa, 1955-1975. As such, it contains artifacts of the archaeological process. In this case, among other insights, these two-dimensional artifacts document some important (forgotten) history about the field of archaeology. Specifically, these archived documents record the investigation of a new method for archaeological laboratory work that has since become a standard of practice. This advancement in the field of archaeology comes courtesy of INDE archeologists working on historical period sites.
The above referenced materials all come from Folder 1, of a box still being processed at the INDE Archives that is entitled "History Office Correspondence Related to Archeology".

          Thermal Control of a Dual Mode Parametric Sapphire Transducer        
Belfi, Jacopo and Beverini, Nicolò and Michele, Andrea De and Gabbriellini, Gianluca and Mango, Francesco and Passaquieti, Roberto (2009) Thermal Control of a Dual Mode Parametric Sapphire Transducer. arXiv .
          Electrical Journeyman - Bergelectric - San Diego, CA        
Feed to, pull into, and terminate wire and cable within control centers, distribution boxes, transformers, transducers, switch gear, receptacles, switches, etc....
From Bergelectric - Thu, 25 May 2017 02:37:59 GMT - View all San Diego, CA jobs
          Journeyman Wireman, Lead Man - Bergelectric - San Diego, CA        
Feed to, pull into, and terminate wire and cable within control centers, distribution boxes, transformers, transducers, switch gear, receptacles, switches, etc....
From Bergelectric - Wed, 17 May 2017 15:18:57 GMT - View all San Diego, CA jobs
          Glossary of Audio & Video Media Terminology        
A

AC Adapter: A circuit which modifies an AC current, usually converting it to a DC current.

A/D Converter: A circuit which converts a signal from analogue to digital form; the opposite of a D/A converter.

Adobe: A software manufacturer based in San Jose, California, and traded on the Nasdaq National Market under the symbol ADBE. Adobe is a leading provider of media productivity software. More info: Adobe Tutorials, Adobe Premiere, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe ImageReady.

AGC: Automatic Gain Control. A circuit which automatically adjusts the input gain of a device, in order to provide a safe and consistent signal level. AGCs can be handy features, but professional applications often require manual gain control for optimum results.

Aliasing: Distortion of an image file or sound recording due to insufficient sampling or poor filtering. Aliased images appear as jagged edges, aliased audio produces a buzz.

Alpha Channel: A special channel in some digital images reserved for transparency information.

AM: Amplitude Modulation. A method of radio transmission which sends information as variations of the amplitude of a carrier wave.

Amperage: The amount of electrical current transferred from one component to another.
Ambient: The environmental conditions, e.g. surrounding light and sound. More info: Ambient Sound, Ambient Light.

Amplifier: A device which increases signal amplitude.

Amplify: To increase amplitude.

Amplitude: The strength or power of a wave signal. The "height" of a wave when viewed as a standard x vs y graph.

Anamorphic Lens: A special type of wide-angle lens which stretches the width of the image but not the height, creating a widescreen aspect ratio.

Analogue: Information stored or transmitted as a continuously variable signal (as opposed to digital, in which the analogue signal is represented as a series of discreet values). Analogue is often technically the more accurate representation of the original signal, but digital systems have numerous advantages which have tended to make them more popular (a classic example is vinyl records versus CDs).

Antenna: A device which radiates and/or receives electromagnetic waves.

Aperture: Literally means "opening". The camera iris; the opening which lets light through the lens. By adjusting the size of the aperture, the amount of incoming light is controlled. The aperture size is measured in f-stops. More info: Video exposure/iris.

ASF: Windows Media file format ending with the extension .asf. Used for delivering streaming video.

Aspect Ratio: The ratio of width to height of an image. Can be expressed as a number, or a relationship between two numbers. For example, the standard television screen ratio is 4:3 (4 units wide by 3 units high) or 1.33 (the width is 1.33 times the height). The new "wide screen" television ratio is 16:9 (1.78), and many new video cameras have the option to record using this format. Theatrical film aspect ratios vary, but the most common is 18.5:10 (1.85).

ASX: Windows Media file format ending with the extension .asx. This is a metafile which works in conjunction with ASF files for delivering streaming video.

Audio: Sound. Specifically, the range of frequencies which are perceptible by the human ear.

Audio Dub: The process of adding audio to a video recording without disturbing the pictures. The original audio may be replaced, or kept and combined with the new audio.

Audio Insert: A feature of some video equipment which allows audio dubbing.

Automatic functions: Functions which are performed by equipment with little or no input from the operator. Auto-functions can be very useful, but tend to have serious limitations. As a general rule, it is desirable to be able to operate audio-visual equipment manually.

B

Backlight: A light which is positioned behind the subject. It's primary purpose is to make the subject stand out from the background by highlighting the subject's outline.

Backlight Correction (BLC): A feature of some cameras which increases the apparent brightness of the subject when lit from the rear.

Back Focus: The focus between the lens and the camera. Adjusted by a ring at the rear of the lens (the closest ring to the camera body). If the camera appears focused when zoomed in, but becomes out of focus when zoomed wide, the back focus needs adjusting.

Balanced Audio: An audio signal which consists of two "hot" signals plus the shield. The hot signals are inverted relative to each other as they travel along the balanced cable. They are re-inverted when entering an audio device — this has the effect of inverting any unwanted interference, thus eliminating it.

Bandpass Filter: A circuit which filters out all but a certain range of frequencies, ie. it allows a certain band of frequencies to pass.

Bandwidth: A range of frequencies.

Barn Doors: Metal projections attached to the front of a light, which can be positioned in various ways to control the dispersal of the light.

Batch Capture: The process of capturing multiple video clips automatically. A batch command is set up from the capture software which includes in and out points for each clip.

Baud: Unit of signal speed — the number of signal "bits" per second.

Best Boy: On a film set, the assistant to the Gaffer and Key Grip.

Beta (1): A group of video formats developed by Sony Corporation. Beta, Beta SP, Digital Beta and other variations are all professional television formats. Betamax is a failed consumer version, losing to VHS in the 1980's.

Beta (2): A pre-release version of computer software. Often distributed widely without charge, in order to obtain feedback, identify bugs, and attract customers.
Binary: The "base two number system" which computers use to represent data. It uses only two digits: 0 and 1. Binary code represents information as a series of binary digits (bits). In the table below, binary numbers are shown with their decimal equivalents.
Decimal: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Binary: 0 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 1010


Bit: Binary digit. One piece of binary (digital) information. A description of one of two possible states, e.g. 0 or 1; off or on.

Bitmap: A series of digital image formats, which record colour information for each individual pixel. As a result, the quality is very high, as is the size of the file.

Biscuit: Square/rectangular metal part which screws to the bottom of the camera plate, and allows the plate to attach to the head. The biscuit comes as part of the head's package, whereas the plate comes with the camera. The biscuit is the "interface" between the two, and is designed to attach to any plate, and fit into a corresponding slot on the head. When the head's quick-release mechanism is activated, the biscuit, plate and camera are all released as one.

Black balance: A camera function which gives a reference to true black. When auto-black balance is activated (by a switch, positioned with the white balance switch), the iris is automatically shut, and the camera adjusts itself to absolute black.

Black burst: A composite video signal with no luminance information, but containing everything else present in a normal composite video signal.

Black noise: Usually refers to silence with occasional spikes of audio. Other definitions are also in use but this is the most common.

Blonde: A term used to describe tungsten lights in the 2Kw range.

Blue noise: Random noise similar to white noise, except the power density increases 3 dB per octave as the frequency increases.

Bluetooth: A wireless data transfer system which allows devices to communicate with each other over short distances, e.g. phones, laptops, etc.

Blu-ray: A high-definition DVD format supported by a group of manufacturers led by Sony. More info: The Blu-ray Format, Blu-ray vs HD-DVD.

BNC: A type of video connector common in television production equipment, used to transmit a composite video signal on a 75Ω cable.

Bridge: Another term for A/D converter.

Broadband: A general term to describe an internet connection faster than 56K. Broadband usually means 512K or greater.

Brown noise: Random noise similar to white noise but with more energy at lower frequencies.

Bucket: A solid coloured horizontal bar across the bottom of a colour bar test pattern. The most commonly used bucket colour in PAL patterns is red, referred to as a "bucket of blood".

Burn: The process of recording information to an optical disk (CD or DVD).

Bus: Pathway which a signal passes along. For example, the main output of an audio mixer is referred to as the master bus.

C

C: A computer programming language, with variations C+ and C++.

Cable Television: A system of television progam delivery via cable networks.
Camcorder: A single unit consisting of a video camera and recording unit.

Candlepower: A measurement of light, generally that which is output from an electric lamp.

Cans: An informal term for headphones.

Capture Card: A type of computer card with video and/or audio inputs which allows the computer to import an analogue signal and convert it to a digital file.

CCD: Charged Coupled Device.

CCU : Camera Control Unit.

CD Compact Disc. Optical storage device, capable of storing around 600-700MB of data.

Channel (1) : On audio mixers, the pathway along which each individual input travels before being mixed into the next stage (usually a sub-group or the master bus). Each channel will typically have an input socket where the source is physically plugged in, followed by a sequence of amplifiers / attenuators, equalisers, auxiliary channels, monitoring and other controls, and finally a slider to adjust the output level of the channel.

Charged Coupled Device: The image sensing device of video and television cameras -- the component which converts light from the lens into an electrical signal. Made up of pixels - the more pixels, the higher the resolution. CCDs are commonly referred to simply as "chips". They replaced previous tube technology in the 1980's. Larger CCDs can naturally accommodate more pixels, and therefore have higher resolutions. Common sizes are 1/3" (pro-sumer level), 1/2" and 2/3" (professional level). Consumer cameras generally have a single CCD which interprets all colours, whereas professional cameras have three CCDs -- one for each primary colour.
Chroma Key: The process of replacing a particular colour in an image with a different image. The most common types of chroma keys are bluescreen and greenscreen.

Chrominance: Chroma, or colour. In composite video signals, the chrominance component is separated from the luminance component, and is carried on a sub-carrier wave.

Cinematographer: AKA Director of Photography, the person on a film production responsible for photography.

Cinematography: The art and science of movie photography, including both shooting technique and film development.

Clear Scan: A video camera function which allows the camera to alter it's scan rate to match that of a computer monitor. This reduces or eliminates the flicker effect of recording computer monitors.

Codec: Short for compressor/decompressor. A tool which is used to reduce the size of a digital file. Can be software, hardware or a combination of both.

Colour Bars: Click here to see an illustration of colour bars A television test pattern, displaying vertical coloured stripes (bars). Used to calibrate vision equipment. There are numerous variations for different applications.

Colour Temperature: A standard of measuring the characteristics of light, measured in units called kelvins.

Common Mode Signal: A signal which appears equally on both wires of a two wire line, usually unwanted noise. Common mode signals are eliminated with balanced audio cable.

Component Video: A type of high-quality video signal which consists of separate signal components. Usually refers to Y/Pb/Pr, which includes one channel for luminance information and two for colour.

Composite Video: A type of video signal in which all components are recorded or transmitted as one signal. Commonly used with RCA and BNC connectors.

Compression (1): A method of reducing the size of a digital file, whilst retaining acceptable quality. This may be desirable in order to save memory space or to speed up access time. In the case of digital video, large files must be processed very quickly, and compression is still essential for playback on consumer-level computers. Professional digital systems can work with uncompressed video. There are many compression techniques in common use, and digital video often uses various combinations of techniques. Compression can be divided into two types: "lossless" and "lossy". As the names imply, lossless techniques retain all of the original information in a more efficient form, whereas lossy techniques discard or approximate some information. With lossy compression, there is an art to finding a compromise between acceptable quality loss, and file size reduction.

Compression (2): Audio compression is a method of "evening out" the dynamic range of a signal. Compression is very useful when a signal is prone to occasional peaks, such as a vocalist who lets out the odd unexpected scream. The compressor will not affect the dynamic range until a certain user-definable level is reached (the "threshold") - at which point the level will be reduced according to a pre-determined ratio. For example, you could set the compressor to a threshold of 0db, and a compression ratio of 3:1. In this case, all signals below 0db will be unaffected, and all signals above 0db will be reduced by 3db to 1 (i.e. for every 1db input over 0db, 1/3db will be output). Other controls include the attack and decay time, as well as input and output levels.

Contrast Ratio: The difference in brightness between the brightest white and the darkest black within an image.

Convergence: The degree to which the electron beams in a colour CRT are aligned as they scan the raster.

CPU: Central Processing Unit., the "brain" of a computer.

Crab: Camera movement across, and parallel to, the scene.

Crossfade: A video and/or audio transition in which one shot/clip gradually fades into the next. AKA mix or dissolve. More info: The crossfade transition
Crossing the Line: A video transition in which the camera crosses an imaginary line drawn through the scene, resulting in a reversal of perspective for the viewer.

Crossover: An electrical network which divides an incoming audio signal into discreet ranges of frequencies, and outputs these ranges separately.

CRT: Cathode Ray Tube.

Cut (1): An instantaneous transition from one shot to the next.

Cut (2): A location director's instruction, calling for the camera and audio operators to cease recording and all action to halt.

D

D Series Tape Formats: A series of broadcast digital formats, designated D1, D2, etc. Dx is basically a replacement for 1-inch formats. D2 and D3 combine chrominance and luminance information, whereas D1 and D5 store them separately (and are therefore higher quality).

Dailies (1): Daily raw footage shot during the production of a motion picture (AKA rushes or daily rushes).

Dailies (2): Newspapers that are published every day (or 5/6 days per week).

DAT: Digital Audio Tape.

Data Rate: The amount of data which is transferred per second. In a video file, this means the amount of data the file must transfer to be viewed at normal speed. In relation to optical disks, this means the amount of data which can be read or written per second.

DC: Direct Current. The electrical current output by batteries, etc.
Decibel (dB): Logarithmic measurement of signal strength. 1/10 of a Bel.

Deliverables: The final products of the filmmaking process, used to create prints and other material for distribution.

Depth of Field: The zone between the nearest and furthest points at which the camera can obtain a sharp focus.

Depth Perception:The ability to recognize three-dimensional objects and understand their relative positions, orientation, etc.

Device Control: A tool which allows you to control another device. For example, a window within a video editing package from which you can control a video camera.
Differential Amplification: Method of amplifying a signal, in which the output signal is a function of the difference between two input signals.

Digital: A signal which consists of a series of discreet values, as opposed to an analogue signal, which is made up of a continuous information stream.

Digital S : Professional digital tape format, introduced by JVC in the mid-1990s.
Digital Video Editing: Editing using digital video formats and computer software. Also known as non linear editing.

Digital Zoom: A method of zooming which digitally crops and enlarges part of the image. This is not a true zoom and results in loss of quality.

Dissolve: A video transition in which one shot dissolves (fades) into the next. AKA mix or crossfade.

DLP: Digital Light Processing. A television technology that uses a coloured light beam which bounces across an array of hundreds of thousands of hinge-mounted microscopic mirrors attached to a single chip called a "micro mirror device".

Docutainment: From the words documentary and entertainment. A television programme which includes both news and entertainment content, or a blending of both.

Dolly: Any apparatus upon which a camera can be mounted, which can be moved around smoothly.

Dolly Zoom:: A cinematography technique in which the camera moves closer or further from the subject while simultaneously adjusting the zoom angle to keep the subject the same size in the frame.

Downstage: Toward the camera.

Dropout: Loss of part of a recorded video or audio signal, showing up as glitches on playback. Can be caused by damaged record heads, dirty tapes or heads, etc.

Driver: A piece of software which enables a piece of hardware to work with a computer. Usually supplied with the hardware, but can often be downloaded from the vendor's website.

Dry Run: Rehearsal, without recording or transmitting etc.

DTMF: Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency, better known as touch-tone. The standard system of signal tones used in telecommunications.

Dutch Tilt: A camera shot which is deliberately tilted for artistic effect.

DV: Digital Video.

DVCAM: Digital tape format from Sony.

DVCPRO: Professional digital tape format from Panasonic, introduced in the mid-1990s.

DVD: (Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc). An optical disc format which provides sufficient storage space and access speeds to playback entire movies.

DVD Authoring: The process of taking video footage, adding chapter stops, menus, and encoding the footage into MPEG files ready to be burned.

DVD Burning: Taking the authored DVD files and physically writing them to a disk.

Dynamic Loudspeaker: Loudspeaker which uses conventional cone and dome drive elements.

Dynamic Microphone: A moving coil microphone, which doesn't require power.

Dynamic Range: The difference between the weakest and strongest points of a signal.

E

Earth Hum: An unwanted noise which has been induced into a video or audio signal by faulty earthing.

Edit: The process of assembling video clips, audio tracks, graphics and other source material into a presentable package.

Edit Decision List (EDL): A list of all in points and out points for an editing task. Can be stored on a removable disc (e.g. floppy disc). This enables an edit to be constructed in one edit suite, then taken to another (better) suite to make the final version.

ENG : Electronic News Gathering. This term was introduced with the evolution of video cameras for shooting news in the field (as opposed to film cameras). It is still widely used to describe mobile news crews.

Exposure : The amount of light which is passed through the iris, and which the CCD or film is exposed to.

Equalisation: The process of adjusting selected ranges of audio frequencies in order to correct or enhance the characteristics of a signal.

F

Fade: A transition to or from "nothing". In audio, to or from silence. In video, to or from a colour such as black.

Field: In interlaced video, half a video frame. A field comprises every second horizontal line of the frame, making a total of 312.5 lines in PAL and SECAM, 262.5 lines in NTSC.

Film Noir: French for "black film" or "dark film". A term used describe a genre of film popular in America between 1940 and 1960.

Filter: A transparent or translucent optical element which alters the properties of light passing through a lens.

Flanging: In audio work, a type of phase-shifting effect which mixes the original signal with a varying, slightly delayed copy.

Floating Point Color: Available in 32-bit color digital images, floating point space allows colors to be defined as brighter than pure white or darker than pure black. This has advantages in image processing techniques.

Flying Erase Head: In video recorders, an erase head which is mounted on the drum assembly. The erase head wipes any previous recordings as new ones are made. "Normal" erase heads are stationary, and mounted to the side of the head drum. Because of their close proximity to the record heads, flying erase heads provide cleaner edits.

Floor Manager: In television production, the person in charge of the "floor", i.e. the area where the action takes place.

Focal Length: The distance from the centre of the lens to the camera CCD.

Focus: v. The process of adjusting the lens in order to obtain a sharp, clear picture.
adj. The degree to which an image is correctly focused.

FPS: Frames Per Second. The number of video or film frames which are displayed each second.
Frame (1): The edges of a television / video / film image.
Frame (2): To compose a camera shot. More info: Camera framing, Common shot types
Frame (3): One complete video, television or film picture. In video and television, each frame is divided into two interlaced fields. PAL and SECAM systems deliver 25 frames per second, with 625 horizontal scan lines. NTSC delivers 30 fps with 525 lines.

Frame Rate: The number of video or film frames displayed each second (frames per second; fps). PAL frame rate is 25 fps, NTSC is 30 fps, film is 24 fps.

Fresnel: A type of lens with concentric rings which focus the light. Pronounced fra-NELL.

Frequency Response: The sensitivity of a microphone (or other component) to various frequencies, i.e. the amount each frequency is boosted or attenuated.

F-stop: Measurement of aperture. The higher the f-stop number, the smaller the aperture.

F-type : A family of cable connectors, in which the centre (hot) pin is the centre wire of the cable itself.

G

Gaffer (1): Chief electrician on a film set.

Gaffer (2): Industrial-strength sticky tape, AKA duct tape.

Gain: The volume/amplification level of an audio or video signal.

Gauss: (pronounced "gows", abbreviation "G") Unit of magnetic induction.

Gel: (pronounced "jel") Semi-transparent heat-resistant material which is placed in front of a light source in order to modify it's colour temperature or other characteristics.

Geosynchronous: A satellite orbit in which the satellite remains in a fixed position above the Earth.

Graphic Equalizer: A type of audio equalizer which uses a graphical layout to represent the changes made to various frequencies.

Gray Card: A gray-coloured card which reflects a known, uniform amount of the light which falls upon it. Used as a reference to calibrate light meters and set exposure.

Gray Noise: Random noise, similar to white noise, which has been filtered to make all frequencies appear equally loud to the human ear.

Green Noise: An unofficial term referring to the background ambient noise of the world. Can also mean the mid-frequencies of white noise.

Green Room: A room located near the main stage in a studio or concert venue, where artists and guests wait before their appearance.

Green Screen: A film and video technique in which action is shot against a green screen, which is subsequently removed from the image and replaced with a different background.

H

Halogen: Any of the four non-metallic elements flourine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.

Head (1): The component which records an electrical signal onto magnetic tape, or reads a signal from tape into an electrical signal.

Head (2): The part which the camera is mounted on, atop a tripod, pedestal or other mounting. Allows the camera to pan and tilt.

Headroom: The amount of space between the top of the subject's head and the top of the picture frame.

Hertz: Unit of frequency. One cycle per second.

HDBaseT: A digital connection used in home entertainment systems, designed to carry video, audio, ethernet, power and control data over a standard Cat5e/6 cable.

HD DVD: A high-definition DVD format supported by a group of manufacturers led by Toshiba.

HDMI: High-Definition Multimedia Interface. A digital connection used in home entertainment systems.

HDTV: High-Definition Television.

Hi8: An analog video format introduced by Sony in 1989.

HMI: Hydrargyrum Medium-Arc Iodide, a type of light which uses an arc lamp instead of an incandescent bulb to produce light.

Hot (1): An image or part of an image which is excessively bright, i.e. overexposed.

Hot (2): The wire in a cable, and the connecting pins, which carry the signal.

Hz: Hertz. Cycles per second.

I

i.LINK: AKA i.Link or IEEE 1394, Sony's brand name for Firewire. A type of connection used to connect audio/video equipment and computers.

Impedance: A term in electronics which measures the amount of opposition a device has to an AC current (such as an audio signal). Technically speaking, it is the combined effect of capacitance, inductance, and resistance on a signal.

Indeo: A digital video compression format.
Infra-red: Frequencies beyond the red end of the visible spectrum, i.e. frequencies with longer wavelengths than red light. Perceived by humans as heat. Commonly used for remote-control devices.

Infotainment: Television programming which blends information and entertainment.

In-point: The beginning point of an edit.
Interface: The point of contact between a tool and it's operator. A human/computer interface could be a keyboard or a mouse.

Interlace: The method of dividing a video frame into two fields; one made up of the odd-numbered horizontal lines, the other made up of even-numbered lines.

Internet: If you don't know what the Internet is, you're in trouble.

Intranet: A "closed-circuit internet". A local network of computers linked in much the same way as the wider internet.

Iris: The circular opening (aperture) which controls the amount of light passing through to the camera's sensing element or film.

J

Jack: A type of audio connector originally developed for telephone switchboards, and sometimes called a phone connector. Still in common use for musical and other audio equipment.

Jackfield: AKA Patch-panel. A board which accommodates connections between multiple sources.

Jib: A revolvable camera mounting arm, which can be attached to a dolly or crane.
JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group. A standard for still-image compression.

Jump Cut: A video transition in which one shot appears to "jump" to another shot with very similar framing. Usually considered undesirable but can be used for dramatic effect.

Jump the Shark: A colloquial term used mainly in the US, referring to a defining point in a TV or movie series that marks the beginning of a terminal decline in quality and/or popularity. It stems from the Happy Days episode in which the Fonz literally jumps a shark while waterskiing.

K

Kelvin: A unit of temperature measurement. Colour is measured in kelvins.

Key Frame: In some forms of digital compression, uncompressed frames (key frames) are placed at regular intervals (eg. every 6th frame is uncompressed). Each subsequent frame exists as variations on the keyframe, until a new keyframe is introduced. The further apart the keyframes, the worse the overall picture quality.

Key Grip: Person in sharge of constructing and dismantling film sets and dolly tracks.

L

LAN : Local Area Network. A network of computers connected via cables or a wireless system.

LANC: A connection developed by Sony, used to link remote-control units, edit decks, etc.

Lens: A transparent structure made of glass or other material, with at least one curved surface, which causes the light rays passing through it to converge or diverge in a controlled fashion.

Letterbox Format: In video and television, the practice of placing black bars at the top and bottom of the frame, in order to simulate a wide-screen format (as if the viewer were looking through the slot in a letterbox).

Light: That section of the electromagnetic spectrum which is visible, ie. perceptable to the human eye. Specifically, white light contains the wavelengths from 400nm (nanometres) to 700nm. Light travels through a vacuum at approximately 300,000 km (186,000 miles) per second. More info: Lighting tutorials
Lighting, Three-Point: A standard lighting technique using three lights: The key, fill and back lights.

Limiter: A device which limits the level of a signal to a specified threshold.

Loudspeaker: A transducer which converts electrical signals into sound waves.

Lower Third: The lower portion of a video frame which contains graphical information such as station ID, name/title key, etc.

M

M, MII: Professional tape formats from Panasonic. The M format was based on VHS technology, and was introduced at about the same time as Beta (in the mid-1980's). The MII format was introduced a few years later to compete with Beta SP. MII uses a different sized cassette.

MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface. A standard of communication between musical instruments, controllers and computers.

Mid-Shot: A camera framing term, half-way between a wide-shot and a close-up. A mid-shot of a person will show them from about the waist or chest up.

MiniDV: A consumer-level digital video format. More info: The MiniDV Format
Mix (1): A video transition in which one shot gradually fades into the next. AKA crossfade or dissolve.

Mixer: A device which accepts multiple signal inputs (video or audio), processes them, and provides one or more outputs. The outputs are "mixes" of the input sources.

M-JPEG: See Motion-JPEG
Modulate: To "change". A signal can be transmitted via a carrier wave, by modulating the wave to represent the signal.

Monitor: A device used to view a video, graphic or text source, or to listen to an audio source. Video monitors use CRTs (cathode ray tubes), LCDs (liquid crystal displays), and other technologies. Audio monitors generally use cone drivers and horn divers, mounted in speaker cabinets.

Monocular: Related to having vision in only one eye, as opposed to binocular (stereo vision, with two eyes).

N

ND (Neutral Density) Filter: A filter which reduces the amount of light coming through the camera lens, without affecting it's colour temperature.

Noddies: Shots of the presenter / interviewer nodding, smiling, frowning etc. These can be shot after the interview and inserted during post-production.

Non-Linear: Any method of video editing which doesn't require all shots to be assembled in a linear fashion.

NTSC: National Television Standards Commission. Video/broadcast standard used in the USA, Canada, Japan, Mexico, and other countries. Delivers 525 horizontal lines of resolution at 30 fps (frames per second).

O

OB: See Outside Broadcast.

Off-Line: Out of action, not currently useable.

Off-Line Edit: A "draft" edit, usually prepared in an off-line edit suite (at a lower cost), then taken to an on-line facility to make the final cut.

On-Line (1): Operational.

On-Line (2): In multi-camera or multi-tape set-ups, the camera or videotape machine which is currently selected by the director. For example, in an outside broadcast, the on-line camera is the camera which is currently live.

On-Line Edit: The final version of an edit, prepared in a professional edit facility.

Optical: Of light/optics.

Optical Image Stabiliser (OIS): A system of stabilizing a camera image by constantly adjusting the optics.

Optical Zoom: A method of zooming which uses a telephoto lens, i.e. the zoom is provided by the optics rather than digital processing. Optical zoom is better than digital zoom.

Optics: Dealing with properties of light. Camera optics: The components which deal with light rays, before they are converted into electrical signals (i.e. the lens, etc).

Oscilloscope: Device which accepts an electrical input, and represents the variations of the input as a display on a CRT screen.

Out-point: The end point of an edit.

Outside Broadcast: A radio or television program which is broadcast from location, rather than from a studio.

P

PAL: Phase Alternate Line. Video/broadcast standard developed in Germany, and used primarily in Europe and Australasia. Delivers 625 lines at 25 fps (frames per second).

Pan (1): Horizontal camera movement.

Pan (2): The amount which a signal is divided between two pathways. For example, on an audio mixer, an input source can be panned across two stereo channels.

Pan and Scan: A method of converting widescreen film or video to 4x3 aspect ratio in order to be displayed on traditional television sets. The most important area of the frame is selected and the rest discarded.


Pan Pot: Pan Potentiometer. A component which pans a signal across two pathways. Typically a knob or slider. The knob on a domestic stereo which pans between left and right speakers is a pan pot.

Parametric Equalizer: A type of audio equalizer which provides user-adjustable parameters such as frequency and bandwidth. More info: Parametric Equalisers, Sound Equalization.

Patch Panel: AKA jackfield, a panel containing a series of connection points for electronic equipment. This allows equipment to be inter-connected in various configurations.

Pattern Generator: Click here to see a small portable pattern generator. A device capable of outputting various television test patterns. Used to test and calibrate vision equipment.

PCM: Pulse Code Modulation. A digital audio format.

Peak: The highest level of strength of a signal. If the "peak" or "clip" light on an audio mixer is activated, this means the respective bus (channel) is peaking at a dangerous level.
Pedestal (1): A movable mount for studio cameras. More info: Pedestal shot
Pedestal (2): The black level of a video signal.
Pepper Light: A small light, around 200w, used to light small spaces or to highlight certain features.

Persistence of Vision: A widely-accepted but scientifically unfounded theory which states that the human eye (and/or brain) always retains images for a fraction of a second.

Phantom Power: A means of distributing a DC current through audio cables to provide power for microphones and other equipment.

Phasing: In audio work, an effect which utilizes phased wave interaction to create various sweeping sounds.

Pink noise:Random noise, similar to white noise, that contains equal sound pressure level in each octave band.

Pixel: Picture Element.

Podcast: A portmanteau (fusion) of broadcasting and iPod. A system of syndicating multimedia content via the Internet for personal computers and portable devices.

Pot: See Potentiometer.

Potentiometer: Variable resistor. Potentiometers are used to adjust the level of a signal and are typically controlled by a knob or slider.

Power Amplifier: A device which accepts a relatively low level audio signal and boosts it to a level at which it can be output to a loudspeaker.

Power reset: Disconnecting power from a device (usually by turning it off), in order to purge all charges and reset the device to it's default settings.
PPM: Peak Program Meter. An audio level meter.

Pre-Roll: The "lead-in" time at the beginning of a tape edit. When performing an edit, the tapes are rewound a few seconds, then played back before the edit begins. This ensures that the tapes are running at exactly the right speed.
Production: The process of creating a media product, or in some cases, the product itself.

Q

Quantization: The process of converting a continuous range of values into a finite range of discreet values. Used for various applications in digital image and audio production.

Qubit: Short for quantum digit or quantum bit, the basic unit of a quantum computer, equivalent to the binary bit in traditional computers. Can be state 1 or 0 (pronounced ket 1 and ket 0), or a quantum superposition of the two — this allows vastly more possible states than the binary bit.

Quicktime: A digital media format originally developed for the Apple Computer range, but is now also available for other platforms.

R

RAM: Random Access Memory. A system of computer memory in which data can be retrieved in any order with equal speed.

RCA (1): The Radio Corporation of America, an American broadcast company.

RCA (2): A small non-locking connector. Typically used in home entertainment systems.

Real Time: Anything which occurs without delay. A real-time effects proccessor will add effects instantly, without having to wait to render.

Red Head: A term loosely used to describe general-purpose tungsten lights in the 800w range.

Reflector Board: A specially-designed reflective surface which is used as a light source.

Resolution: The amount of detail in an image or signal. On a computer screen, the resolution is the number of pixels. In an analogue video signal, the resolution is the number of horizontal lines. In digital audio, the resolution is the number of samples per second.
"Colour resolution" refers to the colour depth of an image, ie. how many colours are present.

Reverberation (Reverb): The amount of time it takes an emmitted sound to cease bouncing off objects such as walls. In audio work, adding a reverberation effect gives the sound more body and can make it sound as if it was recorded in a large room, hall, etc.

Reverse Cut: A video transition in which the camera "crosses the line", resulting in a reversal of perspective for the viewer. This is generally undesirable as it causes confusion.

RGB: Red, Green and Blue. The primary colours of video.

Rule of Thirds: A technique in camera framing where the frame is divided into imaginary sections to create reference points.

Rushes: Daily raw footage shot during the production of a motion picture (AKA daily rushes or dailies).

S

S-Video: A video signal that carries luminance (Y, brightness) and chrominance (C, colour) values as physically separate signals. Also known as Y/C video. Usually uses a small four-pin mini-DIN connector. First became popular during the S-VHS/Hi8 era.

Sample: A near-instantaneous recording of a signal, measured in thousandths of a second. Digital signals are constructed by sampling analogue signals thousands of times per second. Each of these individual samples are strung together to make a close approximation of the original signal.

Saturation: The level of colour in a vision signal or still image. A highly-saturated signal has very strong colours.

Scene: In film, television or stage, all the action/shots which take place at a certain time and location and comprise a segment of the program.

SCART: A type of multi-pin connector used in home entertainment systems.

Scissor Platform: AKA scissor lift, a mechanical work platform which can be raised and lowered. Sometimes used to elevate a camera position.

SECAM: Systeme Electronique Couleur Avec Memoire. Video standard used primarily by France and various Eastern Bloc countries. Provides 625 horizontal lines at 25 frames per second.

SEG: Special Effects Generator. A device used to create special video effects.
Servo: Remote control of camera functions such as zoom and focus, by means of a motor. Servo controls can be mounted an the lens housing, on the tripod/pedestal handles, or on a remote-control unit.

Setup: The black level of a video signal.

Shot: A continuous piece of video or film footage. Everything you get between pressing "record" and "stop".

Signal Processing Device: Any device which takes a signal input, then modifies the signal before outputting it.

SLR: Single Lens Reflex, a popular type of still photography camera that uses a moveable mirror to synchronize the lens and viewfinder images.

SMPTE: (Pronounced "simptee") Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. A group which has set various video standards.

Snow: Random patterns of black and white dots on a TV screen or vision monitor. Snow can be caused by an improperly tuned television (or very poor reception), an unrecorded video tape, or dirty VCR heads.

Solder: An alloy of tin and lead that melts at a relatively low temperature. Used for securing electrical connections between components and wires.

Sound Reinforcement: The process of amplifying sound for the benefit of a live audience.

Speaker: See Loudspeaker
Stereo (1): Audio which is split into two channels.
Stereo (2): Duplicate images of the same scene, taken to simulate 3-D human vision.

T

Tally Light: A small light on a video camera which turns on when recording is in progress. In multi-camera situations; a light on a camera, or in it's viewfinder, which turns on when the camera is switched on-line or live.

TBC: See Time Base Corrector.

Tele: (Prefix) Producing images or other results from a distance.

Telecast: Material broadcast by television.

Telecine: The process (or equipment used in the process) of transferring film to video and/or television.

Telephoto: Telephotographic.

Telephotographic Lens: Magnifying lens, or combination of lenses.

Teleprompter: Device which scrolls text on a screen, to provide cues for a television/video presenter.

Televise: To transmit by television.

Television: Literally means vision at a distance. The transmission, reception, and reproduction of moving pictures and audio. Refers to both the process in general, and the receiving appliance.

Tele-zoom: Longer zoom, producing greater magnification.

Test Pattern: Pattern of colours, lines and/or shapes designed to assist equipment calibration.

Tilt: Vertical camera movement, i.e. adjusting the framing up and down.
Time Base Error: An error in the technical data of a video signal which causes picture distortion.

Time Base Corrector: A device which adjusts, improves and corrects defects in a video signal. Can be used to synchronise different vision sources before being mixed together, to avoid picture disturbances when cutting from one source to another.

Timecode: An indexing system that assigns a time value to individual frames of a film or video, or sections of an audio file.

Tone (1): An audio test signal. Used to set signal levels, test signal quality, identify signal pathways, etc. More info: Audio Tone

Tone (2): In music, an interval of two semitones.

Tone (3): Quality of a person's voice, e.g. "The newsreader spoke in an authoritative tone".

Tone (4): Description of an attitude, mood, setting, etc. For example, "The tone of the movie was grim", or "The tone of the article was upbeat".

Transcoding: The process of converting one digital format to another, or re-encoding a digital file in order to change one or more parameters.

Transducer: A device which coverts energy from one form into another. For example, a microphone is a transducer which converts acoustical energy into electrical energy.

Transistor: A device used for switching or amplifying.

Transition: The way in which two video shots or audio clips are linked together; for example, instant cut, crossfade, wipe, etc.

Transmitter: A device which converts video, audio and/or data signals into modulated radio frequency signals, and transmits them as radio waves.

Tripod: A three-legged stand for mounting equipment such as a camera, etc.

U

UER: Union Européenne de Radio-Télévision (www.ebu.ch).

UHF: Ultra High Frequency radio waves.

Ultrasonic: Audio frequencies above the upper limit of human hearing (approx 20,000 kHz).

Unbalanced Audio: An audio signal which consists of one "hot" signal plus the shield. This is common in home entertainment systems, as well as other systems with short audio cables. Unbalanced audio cables are prone to external interference, and are not prefered in professional situations.

UV: Ultra-violet light.

UV Filter: A filter which blocks out a certain percentage of ultra-violet light.

V

Vacuum Tube: A multi-electrode valve which controls the flow of electrons in a vacuum from electrode to electrode.

VCR: Video Cassette Recorder.

Vector Image: A graphics image which exists as a series of geometric shapes, rather than as a series of values for each pixel. Has the advantage of being resizable without loss of quality.

Vectorscope: Click here to see a combination waveform monitor and vectorscope. A device which graphically displays information about the chroma (colour) part of a vision signal. Used in conjunction with a waveform monitor (in fact, many devices are switchable between waveform and vectorscope modes).

VHF: Very High Frequency. This is a popular television broadcast band. It is lower than UHF (Ultra-High Frequency), and generally has a higher broadcast range.

VHS: Vertical Helical Scan. In the late1970s, VHS became known as Video Home System. VHS won the format war against Betamax, despite being technically inferior.

Video: There are many definitions of video, most of them rather loose. It essentially means any medium which displays moving images electronically (as opposed to mechanical film).

Video8: An analogue video format introduced by Sony in the 1980s. The first compact cassette format for camcorders.

Video Level: The strength of a video signal. Level is measured in volts/millivolts - the standard broadcast vision level is 1V peak-to-peak, of which 700mV comprises the picture information and 300mV comprises the timing and sync information. Related

Viewfinder: A component of video, television and film cameras. Available as EVF (Electronic Viewfinder) or OVF (Optical Viewfinder). An EVF has a small CRT which displays the camera output (or tape output).

Vision: The picture component of a video, television or film program (as opposed to the audio component).

Vision Control Operator: The person responsible for maintaining the technical quality of the vision signal(s). This may involve controlling some camera's functions remotely (such as iris, colour balance, etc.), as well as making adjustments to any vision source's technical characteristics (such as video level, timing, etc.).

Vision Mixer (1): A device which accepts multiple vision source inputs, manipulates them, and provides one or more vision outputs in real time.

Vision Mixer (2): A person who operates a vision mixer as described above. AKA vision switcher.

VITC: (Pronounced "vitsee") Vertical Interval Time Code. A type of timecode used in some video tape formats.

Vocal: Of the human voice.

Volt: Unit of electromotive force. 1 volt, when applied to a 1 ohm conductor, produces a current of 1 ampere.

Voltage: Electromotive force, in volts.

Voltmeter: A device which measures voltage. One of the functions of a multimeter.

VOX (1): Voice operated switch.
VOX (2): Abbreviation for vocals.

Vox Pop: From the latin phrase vox populi, meaning "voice of the people". The vox pop is a technique used in many forms of media, to provide a "snapshot" of public opinion. Random subjects are asked to give their opinion on a particular topic, and these are presented to the viewer/reader as a reflection of popular opinion.

VT: Video Tape. A magnetic storage medium for video.

VTR: Video Tape Recorder. See also: VCR.

VU: Volume Unit, a unit to measure the volume of an audio signal.

W

Watt: Unit of power; equivalent to one joule per second. 1 watt (W) = 1 volt (V) x 1 amp (A).

Wattage: Amount of electrical power, in watts.

Wave: An oscillation which is propogated from place to place.

Waveform: The shape (form) of a wave, or a representation of this form.

Waveform monitor: Click here to see a combination waveform monitor and vectorscope. An oscilloscope specifically designed to display the waveforms of video signals. Used to monitor signal strength, sync timing, etc.

Wavelength: The distance between any point on a wave and the equivalent point on the next phase.

White balance: A camera function which gives a reference to "true white", in order for the camera to interpret all colours correctly.

White noise: Random noise that contains an equal amount of energy in all frequency bands.

Whizz-pan: A very fast camera pan, usually such that individual frames are severely blurred.

Wide screen: Generally refers to any video aspect ratio greater than 4:3. More info: Aspect ratio, Why go widescreen?

Wideshot (WS): A framing term, meaning a camera shot which shows the whole of the subject. More info: Wide shot, camera shot types
Wipe: A video transition in which parts of one shot are successively replaced by equivalent parts of the next shot.

Wow: Wavering of audio reproduction due to speed fluctuations
.
X

XLR: A lockable connector, available with various numbers of pins (the most common being the 3-pin XLR). Often referred to as a "Cannon" after the original manufacturer of XLR connectors.

XML: Extensible Markup Language, a versatile markup language used in computer programming and web development. More info: XML
X-Y micing (X-Y pickup): A technique that uses two directional microphones aimed in an X or Y pattern to capture stereo sound.

XCU: Script designation for extreme close-up shot. AKA ECU.

XLS: Script designation for extra long shot, AKA extreme long shot, extreme wide shot (EWS).

Y

Y: Luminance. The "brightness" of a signal.

Y/C: Luminance/chrominance. A video signal which consists of two signals: The luminance (brightness) and chrominance (colour). S-video connections use a Y/C signal.

Y-Lead: AKA "Split lead". A lead with one connector at one end, and two at the other. For example, a mono audio output could be split (using a y-lead) into two signals, to be plugged into the left and right inputs of another device.

Yagi: A type of highly directional antenna consisting of an array of straight elements in line with a dipole. The formal name is Yagi-Uda array.

YUV: A type of component video consisting of one luminance signal (Y) and two chrominance signals (U and V).

Z

Zebra Stripes: A feature of professional cameras, which places diagonal lines across any over-exposed parts of the picture in the viewfinder. These stripes will not show on the output/recorded picture, they are only there as a guide for the camera operator.

Zone System: A photographic system which divides light into ten tonal steps, from Zone 0 (absolute black) to Zone IX (absolute white). Zone V is medium gray, the same value found on an 18% gray card.

Zoom: Framing movement, in which the focal length of the zoom lens is altered to make the subject appear closer to, or further away from the camera. Note that this effect is similar, but not the same as moving the camera itself closer to or further away from the subject.

Zoom Lens: A lens with a moveable element, which is able to "zoom" between various focal lengths. This has the effect of making the subject appear closer to, or further away from the camera.

Zoom Microphone: A microphone on a video camera which adjusts it's pickup pattern to match the zoom lens, i.e. the mic becomes more directional as the lens zooms in.

Zoom Ratio: A number indicating the zoom range of a lens, arrived at by dividing the shortest focal length into the longest focal length. A 10 to 100 mm zoom has a zoom ratio of 10x. The number is sometimes stated as a ratio, e.g. 10:1.

          Current Transducers (China)        
We offer a wide range of current and voltage transducers for industry areas like air conditioning equipment, telecommunication and many more .The transducers can be custom design according to the demands. For more information, Contact Us: Chieful Science & Technology Co., Ltd. Website: http://www.chieful.com/ Email: chieful@chieful.cn Phone : 86-25-52773843
          "HBM eDrive Testing" Enhanced Power Analyzer Now Also Available for 6-Phase Machines (And Higher)        

Innovative complete solution for testing electric drives and inverters. Efficiency mapping in minutes rather than days

Darmstadt, Hesse -- (ReleaseWire) -- 06/02/2017 -- HBM Test and Measurement (HBM) complements its "HBM eDrive Testing" enhanced power analyzer with additional functions for testing 6-phase machines. This integrated solution enables torque, electrical quantities, temperatures, CAN bus, and other signals to be measured in an extended range of applications.

"HBM eDrive Testing" is a custom measurement system for testing inverter-fed electrical machines. Unlike conventional power analyzers, "HBM eDrive Testing" provides unique and greatly accelerated data acquisition and analysis options.

"HBM eDrive Testing" ensures efficiency mapping in minutes rather than days, and thus goes far beyond conventional solutions that use power meters and subsequent PC analysis. The modular measurement system can be upgraded from 3 to up to 51 power channels per mainframe at any time. It is ideal for 3-phase applications and, with the latest enhancement, also for applications with multiple channels such as 6-phase machines, hybrid or multiple-motor drives.

In addition to its power analyzer fun HBM eDrive Testing enhanced power analyzer actions, "HBM eDrive Testing" provides all the features of a cutting-edge data acquisition system (DAQ). It allows the synchronous acquisition of electrical signals as well as torque, rotational speed, temperature, CAN bus, vibration, and many other measured quantities. All data is stored in real time, either continuously or driven by set points.

The T40B and T12HP torque transducers (for the highest standards of precision) ensure precise acquisition of mechanical quantities. High-voltage probes with up to 7.2 kV rms enable medium-voltage motors to be directly connected to the measurement system, without affecting the precision of data acquisition or the safety of the user. Unique, isolated digitizers are available for use with motors in the high-voltage range, exceeding 10 kV.

HBM eDrive Testing Power Analyzer and Measurement System

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.releasewire.com/press-releases/hbm-edrive-testing-enhanced-power-analyzer-now-also-available-for-6-phase-machines-and-higher-815303.htm

Media Relations Contact

Gilbert Schwartmann
Head of Marketing Communications
HBM
Telephone: 6151803109
Email: Click to Email Gilbert Schwartmann
Web: https://www.hbm.com


          ULTRASONIC SPEAKERS?        

I've been in the process of designing an experiment that requires precise control over the frequency and amplitude of sound waves and must encompass ultrasonic frequencies, ideally up to 70 kHz. I'm aware that is well outside the range of human hearing and closer to the frequencies used in ultrasonic cleaners. Many bird callers and electronic pest control devices advertise the ability to produce ultrasonic frequencies but it is unclear how much range these speaker possess and if they can be modified for other applications. I have also seen ultrasonic piezoelectric speakers that advertise frequencies up to 70kHz but I am uncertain, again, how limited their range is. Ebay is full of signal generators that can produce sine waves of almost any frequency but I believe these still require a transducer to convert the signal and are probably replaceable by various computer programs.

So this is my question: can anyone with a background in sound engineering or alike recommend a minimally expensive, maximally accurate system to produce pure tones of a precise frequency and amplitude (as well as ultrasound more generally) and a speaker to transmit them?

          Google Glass Kacamata Pintar Google        
Google adalah salah satu terobosan terbaru dari Google dimana Google menciptakan sebuah kacamata yang berbeda dari kacamata biasanya. Google Glass ini dibuat oleh Google sebagai kacamata masa depan yang memiliki fitur canggih dan dapat memanjakan dan memudahkan penggunanya.




Google Glass ini memiliki desain yang elegan, bentuk dari Google Glass ini hampir sama seperti bentuk kacamata pada umumnya hanya saja pada Google Glass ini tidak memiliki bagian lensa. Pada sisi kanan tepat pada bagian mata terdapat layar dengan resolusi 640 x 360 pixel. pada frame bagian belakang tepat dibelakang telinga juga dilengkapi dengan speaker bone transducer sehingga ysuara yang dihasilkan oleh Google Glass langsung disalurkan melalui tulang belakan telinga sehingga hanya pemakainya saja yang dapat mendengarkan suara dari Google Glass.

Google Glass juga dilengkapi dengan kamera 5MP di bagian depan sehingga kita dapat mengambil gambar sesuai apa yang kita lihat. Cara menggunakan kameranya pun hanya dengan perintah suara. kita tenggal mengatakan "Google Glass take a Picture" dengan begitu Google Glass akan langsung mengambil gambar pada objek yang berada tepat didepan kita. Begitu pula dengan merekam video kita hanya perlu memberi perintahj " Google Glass Take a Video" maka Google Glass akan langsung meresponnya dengan mengaktifkan perekam video.

Pada Google Glass ini juga dilengkapi dengan memory flash 16Gb. Ketika menggunakan Google Glass ini harus terlebih dahulu disambungkan pada perangkat berbasis Android atau iOS melalui Bluetooth. Untuk melakukannya anda harus mengunduh aplikasi bernama MyGlass yang dapat di unduh di toko aplikasi masing masing perangkat. Berikut adalah tampilan dari Google Glass


Selain memiliki kegunaan yang sangat bermanfaat Google Glass ini juga menyebabkan pro kontra. Salah satunya adalah soal privasi dan keamanan data dikarenakan jika Google glas ini dipakai oleh orang yang salah maka akan sangat memungkinkan bahwa Google Glass ini akan dipakai untuk tindakan yang negatif atau juga kriminal.

Demoga artikel ini membantu. JBU : )


           Design, Development and Characteristics of an In-Shoe Triaxial Pressure Measurement Transducer Utilizing a Single Element of Piezoelectric Copolymer Film         
Razian, Mohammad A. and Pepper, Matthew G. (2003) Design, Development and Characteristics of an In-Shoe Triaxial Pressure Measurement Transducer Utilizing a Single Element of Piezoelectric Copolymer Film. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 11 (3). 288-293. ISSN 1534-4320. (doi:https://doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2003.818185 ) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)
          HARMAN Professional Solutions to Host In-Booth Seminar Series at NAB 2016        

Experts from Studer and JBL to deliver valuable insights on production, content creation, IP migration, audio monitoring

LAS VEGAS—As the broadcast industry adapts to ever-changing technology, HARMAN Professional Solutions’ broadcast experts are able to provide complete, fully customizable systems for a variety of applications, including TV, radio and live production. At the NAB Show 2016, HARMAN will present informative sessions about the most recent trends in broadcast and the current benefits of HARMAN broadcast solutions within the shifting production environment. Seminars will take place every hour, on the hour in booth #C2923. In addition, the latest products from Studer, AKG and JBL will be on display.

“Our industry is facing enormous change in how content is being produced and how it’s being shared,” Katy Templeman-Holmes, Solutions & Marketing, Broadcast, HARMAN Professional Solutions said. “HARMAN Professional Solutions is pleased to play a role in driving innovation and supporting new workflows, platforms, protocols and ideas. These seminars underscore what we seek to accomplish in the marketplace every day.”

Specialists in broadcast and recording will provide various seminars on the future of broadcast technologies and the state of the industry. Seminars include:

Studer & AoIP | What’s Next in I/O Connectivity

Speaker: Richard Morson, Solutions Manager, Broadcast

Studer has always placed a high priority on ensuring its consoles can interface with as many suitable standards in the industry as possible. This session highlights our connectivity workflow options within the changing IP environment.

Infinity Core & D23 | The Future of Audio Processing

Speaker: Roger Heiniger, Solutions Manager, Broadcast

This discussion looks at the capabilities of the Infinity Core processor and D23 I/O routing system in the production environment. From AoIP integration to facility expansion and remote sessions, we will provide an overview of how this system can streamline your workflow.

Remote Solutions | Connectivity & Control Workflows for Today’s Remote Production Facilities

Speaker: Paul Shorter, Manager, Technical Sales & Support

This session covers working in live remote productions and central control rooms, and how Studer Remote Solutions can ensure connectivity and maximize use of production time.

Next-Gen Audio Monitoring in Broadcast and Post | JBL’s Revolutionary 7 Series Studio Monitor System Meets Monitoring Challenges in the Modern Production Environment

Speaker: Peter Chaikin, Director, Retail Recording Solutions

Learn how JBL’s 7 Series studio monitors leverage the newest transducers and acoustic technologies, HARMAN DSP and Power Amplification to deliver detailed imaging and accuracy in a broad range of work spaces. The complete system is scalable to any size room and any number of channels, from 5.1 to immersive formats.

IP Migration: At What Cost? | A Discussion on Today’s IP Integration Challenges

Speaker: Karl Paulsen, Chief Technology Officer, Diversified

Tackling the oncoming paradigm shift from traditional SDI-video to video-over-IP is no easy task; guaranteed, It’s Going to Change Your Life. The challenges ahead for the entire technology sector of the Media and Entertainment industry are just beginning to surface. 

Determining how, when or if the move to video-over-IP is appropriate demands serious consideration. Get the whole story, learn about the myriad options available and meet the experts who can help you get there, from design through implementation, in this in-depth session.

For a complete schedule of seminar series times, please come see us in booth #C2923 or visit http://www.harmanpro.com/events/nab.

Additionally, Studer’s latest console, the Vista 1 Black Edition, will be showcased for the first time in North America. The Vista 1 Black Edition is an all-in-one compact, flexible mix system for live, broadcast and production. Offering an enriched feature set and retaining the ease of use of the groundbreaking Vista 1 digital mixing console, the Vista 1 Black Edition’s I/O can be expanded using the standard Studer D21m card slot on the rear.

The AKG K872 reference headphones are the latest flagship closed-back headphones and will be on display at NAB. These headphones—which made their debut at ProLight + Sound 2016—were designed for audio engineers and musicians who require the utmost accuracy and detail for critical recording, mixing, mastering and live sound engineering applications. Featuring custom components, including a specially engineered 53 mm transducer, ultra-light open-mesh headband, slow-retention foam ear pads and a convenient carrying case/stand, the K872 combines superior sound quality with exceptional comfort and portability. 

Also featured in the booth is the JBL 7 Series in 5.1 surround. The 7 Series studio monitors are the solution for next-generation multichannel monitoring. Both the LSR708i and the LSR705i in the booth are powered by a Crown DCi 8/300N series amplifier and controlled by a BSS Soundweb London signal processor that handles all the speaker tuning, EQ and bass management within the system. The 7 Series is available for demos throughout the show. 

In addition, the Studer Vista X will be on display in the booth. The Vista X features Studer’s Infinity Processing Engine DSP core, which uses CPU-based processors to provide control of 800 or more audio channels and 12 A-Link high-capacity fiber digital audio interfaces, providing more than 5,000 inputs and outputs.

An open house will also take place at the Soundcraft and Studer truck on April 18, 19 and 20 from 3 p.m. to 7 p.m. NAB attendees are encouraged to attend to see a larger portfolio offering from HARMAN Professional Solutions, including products from Studer, Soundcraft, JBL, BSS and Crown. Studer consoles include the Vista X, Vista V, Vista 1 and OnAir 1500. The truck will be located at the Las Vegas Hard Rock Hotel & Casino.   


          Do-it-yourself Blood Pressure Monitoring Devices could Save Your Life        
Few years back, monitoring blood pressure at home was a task as there were limited blood pressure monitoring devices available in the global market. Today, leading players in the global blood pressure monitoring devices market offer plenty of options. Using various blood pressure monitoring devices at home could save your life and healthcare costs too. The rising aging population, the increasing obese population, and sedentary lifestyle are some of the factors responsible for the growth of people with blood pressure. The rising occurrence of blood pressure is expected to propel the global blood pressure monitoring devices market in the years to come.  Currently, blood pressure monitoring devices such as automated blood pressure monitors, sphygmomanometer, ambulatory blood pressure monitors, and blood pressure transducers are in demand. Leading players in the global blood pressure monitoring devices market are focusing on introducing new blood pressure instrument accessories to match the changing trends. With this, people can measure and better manage their blood pressure at home. The newly introduced blood pressure monitoring devices help people keep a track of their blood pressure status, making treatment more effective.  Measuring your blood pressure at home on a regular basis is the best way to identify relevant problems in order to reduce the risks of serious health issues. Considering the growing need of people to buy their personalized blood pressure monitoring devices, leading players are focusing on introducing new devices in the global market.  Factors Driving Growth of Global Blood Pressure Monitoring Devices Market  The advancements in medical devices have assisted in the growth of the global market for blood pressure monitoring devices. The growing demand for home healthcare is expected to drive the global blood pressure monitoring devices market in the years to come.  The availability of a variety of devices is expected to benefit the market in the long run. Accelerating hypertensive patients are predicted to drive the growth of the global blood pressure monitoring devices market.  Also, with new players entering the global blood pressure monitoring devices market, many new varieties of products are expected to be introduced in the near future. Currently, the global blood pressure monitoring devices market is one of the fastest growing markets in the global medical devices industry.  

Original Post Do-it-yourself Blood Pressure Monitoring Devices could Save Your Life source Twease
          Ultrasound Devices Market on Fast Track Growth in Developing Countries for Modernization of Healthcare        
Ultrasound devices market in developed countries is mostly exhausted. This is mainly due to reasons of modern healthcare that is equipped with state-of-the-art infrastructure and equipment for diagnostics and treatment. However, the need to replace obsolete equipment and install new technology equipment will be beneficial for the ultrasound devices market in these regions. On the contrary, in several developing countries, healthcare is still evolving, thus, it has immense potential for the development of the ultrasound devices market. For instance, as per projections made from a leading market research firm, in China and India the ultrasound devices market will be triple and double their market sizes in 2010 respectively. Globally, the market for ultrasound devices is expected to surpass a valuation of US$10 bn by 2021. Whilst the U.S. holds the largest share of this market, China dominates the market in terms of number of ultrasound.  Ultrasound are sound waves with frequencies excessive than the upper limit of human audible range. Ultrasound is used in several fields and is not different from normal sound in physical properties. Ultrasound devices are functional from frequency ranging from 20 kHz to several gigahertz. The major application of ultrasound devices lies in identifying objects and calculating distances. Amongst several applications, ultrasound imaging finds extensive application in medicine. Industrially, ultrasound devices are used for mixing, cleaning, and for enhancing chemical processes. In the most recent application of ultrasound, scientists are exploring the use of these waves for communication purposes with the help of graphene diaphragms. The key components of ultrasound devices are transducer probe, transducer pulse controls, keyboard/cursor, central processing unit (CPU), display, disk storage device, and printer. The transducer probe accounts as the major element of the ultrasound machine. Top companies that have a significant presence in the global ultrasound devices market are GE Healthcare, Phillips Healthcare, Siemens Healthcare, and Toshiba Medical System among others.

Original Post Ultrasound Devices Market on Fast Track Growth in Developing Countries for Modernization of Healthcare source Twease
          Indian Government to Use Technology to Monitor Chemical Levels in Ganga        
In its mission to clean and protect Ganga, the Union government may take the help of technology to track the level of chemical components in the river and send real-time SMS alerts when quantities exceed the permitted level. According to a top executive of a state-owned company, Uma Bharti, the Union Minister heading the department of Water Resources, River Development, and Ganga Rejuvenation, has invited proposals on the matter from the industry.  State-owned company, Telecom Consultants of India, has submitted a proposal for using transducers in tracking the levels of effluents in the river. Transducers convert the chemical parameters into electrical information, and can process and transmit the data. They can be employed to alert the authorities by sending automated SMSes. According to TCIL CMD Vimal Wakhlu, the status of the river water would be updated online to a centralized server by installing chemical transducers at every outlet to check water quality, and the regulators would be alerted through SMS. The public sector company aims to assist the government in its initiative to clean Ganga by offering expertise through machine-to-machine technology. To reduce the level of contamination in Ganga, the government has mandated the use of treatment plants by the companies and the civic bodies, before discharging waste into the river. However, Wakhlu points out that the project would need about 100,000 transducers. Unavailability of transducers in the country is a restraining factor and an imported transducer costs US$30,000. He is hopeful that under the “Make in India” campaign, if transducers are manufactured locally, the cost would come down and the effectiveness of the project will help in cleaning other rivers such as Yamuna. 

Original Post Indian Government to Use Technology to Monitor Chemical Levels in Ganga source Twease
          Acoustic monitoring of laboratory hydraulic fracture growth under stress and pore pressure        
Fluid-driven fracturing is used in a wide range of applications, including oil and gas extraction, geothermal energy recovery, and CO2 sequestration. In order to efficiently fracture the targeted rock formation, theoretical models provide estimates of the fracture size and shape. Carrying properly scaled laboratory experiments, on the other hand, allows to validate theoretical predictions by providing complete datasets of individual experiments performed under controlled conditions, and therefore to better understand the physics of fluid-driven fracturing. The DelFrac Consortium at TU Delft pioneered this field by building an acoustic monitoring setup inside a triaxial press applying three independent stresses on a cubic specimen (Groenenboom, 1998). At the Geo-Energy Lab, we intend to further investigate the solid and fluid mechanics of hydraulic fractures by building a novel experimental setup in our EPFL facility. The fracturing setup will consist in a triaxial frame designed to accommodate cubic-shaped specimens of up to 250 mm in length, and to apply up to 20 MPa independently on each axis. We will also have the ability to pressurize a pore fluid up to 5 MPa inside the frame in order to simulate in-situ conditions. Our current high-pressure pump can inject fluids with a maximum pressure of 51 MPa and a flow rate ranging from 1 μL/min to 90 mL/min through a high-pressure line and a cased wellbore inside the specimen. We will monitor the growth of the fracture with a combination of compressional and shear piezoelectric transducers for a total of 64 units, that can be used to both generate and measure acoustic energy. We use a function generator connected to a high-power amplifier to generate an excitation signal, which is then routed to one of 32 excitation transducers through a multiplexer. The other 32 transducers are connected to a high-speed acquisition board in order to simultaneously record the measured ultrasonic signals. By carefully placing the transducers on all six faces of the specimen to be fractured, we expect to record transmitted, reflected and diffracted acoustic events (Figure 1). We intend to use these three types of event in order to estimate the spatial extent of the fracture, as well as its thickness along raypaths. Transmission measurements, where the wave travels across the specimen, provide fracture thickness information (Groenenboom & Fokkema, 1998; Kovalyshen et al., 2014). Diffraction events, where the wave propagates to the tip of the fracture and then towards the side of the block, carry information about the tip position, and in turn give an estimate of the fracture size (Groenenboom et al., 2001). Reflection events, where the acoustic energy is reflected back toward the same side of the block, let us discriminate between dry and fluid-filled fracture in the case where a fluid lag is present at the fracture tip.
          THE BABY SWALLOWS ARE OUT OF THE NEST (AND ZOOMING AROUND THE HARDWARE STORE PHOTO BLOG)        

Hi Everybody!!
I went back to the Hardware Store in town to see the baby swallows. The three had left the nest, but were zooming around having a good time. The mom was sitting on another nest. The store door under the nests rings a bell when it opens. Many people go in and out all day. I am just amazed these birds choose to live and nest so close to humans in the city! I asked 5 people who came out of the store, what they thought about the birds nesting so close. All of them said: What birds? What nest? People just do not seem to notice life around them. (Of course I have to chuckle as I am the one designated to have my head in the clouds!) I encourage you all to: Open Your Eyes!!!! These are beautiful birds to observe. Enjoy!














https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_perception

Visual perception

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment by processing information that is contained in visible light. The resultingperception is also known as eyesightsight, or vision (adjectival form:visualoptical, or ocular). The various physiological components involved in vision are referred to collectively as the visual system, and are the focus of much research in psychologycognitive scienceneuroscience, and molecular biology.

Visual system[edit]

Main article: Visual system
The visual system in humans and animals allows individuals to assimilate information from their surroundings. The act ofseeing starts when the lens of the eye focuses an image of its surroundings onto a light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye, called the retina. The retina is actually part of the brain that is isolated to serve as a transducer for the conversion of patterns of light into neuronal signals. The lens of the eye focuses light on the photoreceptive cells of the retina, which detect the photons of light and respond by producing neural impulses. These signals are processed in ahierarchical fashion by different parts of the brain, from the retina upstream to central ganglia in the brain.
Note that up until now much of the above paragraph could apply to octopimolluscswormsinsects and things more primitive; anything with a more concentrated nervous system and better eyes than say a jellyfish. However, the following applies to mammals generally and birds (in modified form): The retina in these more complex animals sends fibers (theoptic nerve) to the lateral geniculate nucleus, to the primary and secondary visual cortex of the brain. Signals from the retina can also travel directly from the retina to the superior colliculus.
The perception of objects and the totality of the visual scene is accomplished by the visual association cortex. The visual associaton cortex combines all sensory information perceived by the striate cortex which contains thousands of modules that are part of modular neural networks. The neurons in the striate cortex send axons to the extrastriate cortex, a region in the visual association cortex that surrounds the striate cortex.[1]

Study[edit]

The major problem in visual perception is that what people see is not simply a translation of retinal stimuli (i.e., the image on the retina). Thus people interested in perception have long struggled to explain what visual processing does to create what is actually seen.

Early studies[edit]


The visual dorsal stream (green) and ventral stream (purple) are shown. Much of the humancerebral cortex is involved in vision.
There were two major ancient Greek schools, providing a primitive explanation of how vision is carried out in the body.
The first was the "emission theory" which maintained that vision occurs when rays emanate from the eyes and are intercepted by visual objects. If an object was seen directly it was by 'means of rays' coming out of the eyes and again falling on the object. A refracted image was, however, seen by 'means of rays' as well, which came out of the eyes, traversed through the air, and after refraction, fell on the visible object which was sighted as the result of the movement of the rays from the eye. This theory was championed by scholars like Euclid and Ptolemy and their followers.
The second school advocated the so-called 'intro-mission' approach which sees vision as coming from something entering the eyes representative of the object. With its main propagators AristotleGalen and their followers, this theory seems to have some contact with modern theories of what vision really is, but it remained only a speculation lacking any experimental foundation.
Both schools of thought relied upon the principle that "like is only known by like", and thus upon the notion that the eye was composed of some "internal fire" which interacted with the "external fire" of visible light and made vision possible.Plato makes this assertion in his dialogue Timaeus, as does Aristotle, in his De Sensu.[2]

Leonardo da Vinci: The eye has a central line and everything that reaches the eye through this central line can be seen distinctly.
Alhazen (965–c. 1040) carried out many investigations and experiments on visual perception, extended the work of Ptolemy on binocular vision, and commented on the anatomical works of Galen.[3][4]
Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) is believed to be the first to recognize the special optical qualities of the eye. He wrote "The function of the human eye ... was described by a large number of authors in a certain way. But I found it to be completely different." His main experimental finding was that there is only a distinct and clear vision at the line of sight, the optical line that ends at the fovea. Although he did not use these words literally he actually is the father of the modern distinction between foveal and peripheral vision.[citation needed]

Unconscious inference[edit]

Main article: Unconscious inference
Hermann von Helmholtz is often credited with the first study of visual perception in modern times. Helmholtz examined the human eye and concluded that it was, optically, rather poor. The poor-quality information gathered via the eye seemed to him to make vision impossible. He therefore concluded that vision could only be the result of some form of unconscious inferences: a matter of making assumptions and conclusions from incomplete data, based on previous experiences.
Inference requires prior experience of the world.
Examples of well-known assumptions, based on visual experience, are:
  • light comes from above
  • objects are normally not viewed from below
  • faces are seen (and recognized) upright.[5]
  • closer objects can block the view of more distant objects, but not vice versa
  • figures (i.e., foreground objects) tend to have convex borders
The study of visual illusions (cases when the inference process goes wrong) has yielded much insight into what sort of assumptions the visual system makes.
Another type of the unconscious inference hypothesis (based on probabilities) has recently been revived in so-calledBayesian studies of visual perception.[6] Proponents of this approach consider that the visual system performs some form of Bayesian inference to derive a perception from sensory data. Models based on this idea have been used to describe various visual perceptual functions, such as the perception of motion, the perception of depth, and figure-ground perception.[7][8] The "wholly empirical theory of perception" is a related and newer approach that rationalizes visual perception without explicitly invoking Bayesian formalisms.

Gestalt theory[edit]

Main article: Gestalt psychology
Gestalt psychologists working primarily in the 1930s and 1940s raised many of the research questions that are studied by vision scientists today.
The Gestalt Laws of Organization have guided the study of how people perceive visual components as organized patterns or wholes, instead of many different parts. Gestalt is the German word "Gestalt" that partially translates to "configuration or pattern" along with "whole or emergent structure". According to this theory, there are six main factors that determine how the visual system automatically groups elements into patterns: Proximity, Similarity, Closure, Symmetry, Common Fate (i.e. common motion), and Continuity.

Analysis of eye movement[edit]

See also: Eye movement

Eye movement first 2 seconds (Yarbus, 1967)
During the 1960s, technical development permitted the continuous registration of eye movement during reading[9] in picture viewing[10] and later in visual problem solving[11] and when headset-cameras became available, also during driving.[12]
The picture to the left shows what may happen during the first two seconds of visual inspection. While the background is out of focus, representing theperipheral vision, the first eye movement goes to the boots of the man (just because they are very near the starting fixation and have a reasonable contrast).
The following fixations jump from face to face. They might even permit comparisons between faces.
It may be concluded that the icon face is a very attractive search icon within the peripheral field of vision. The foveal vision adds detailed information to the peripheral first impression.
It can also be noted that there are three different types of eye movements: vergence movements, saccadic movements and pursuit movements. Vergence movements involve the cooperation of both eyes to allow for an image to fall on the same area of both retinas. This results in a single focused image. Saccadic movements is the type of eye movement that is used to rapidly scan a particular scene/image. Lastly, pursuit movement is used to follow objects in motion.version 1.7.0-alpha3. Fortunately, the iterative approach of clojure taken since 1.3 means that upgrading from one version to the next usually only needs a change in your project.clj file (as well as working interop accross versions, which is always nice).

There are some neat changes in 1.7, the most notable being the addition of transducers. I recommend reading through the introduction to transducers at http://blog.cognitect.com/blog/2014/8/6/transducers-are-coming and the video from strange loop at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6mTbuzafcII.

A much smaller addition to 1.7 is the introduction of the update function in clojure.core. update is directly equivalent to update-in but operates on a single key.

When you wrote:

(-> input-map
    (update-in [:my-counter-key] inc))

You will now be able to write:

(-> input-map
    (update :my-counter-key inc))

This has been a long-wanted change and brings update on par with get, and assoc which have their -in suffixed equivalents.

One direct consequence of the change is that if you have a namespace that exposes an update function, you will need to deal with the fact that it will now clash with clojure.core/update since clojure.core is referred by default in all namespaces.

You have two strategies to deal with that fact:

  • Rename the function (which can be a bit intrusive)
  • Prevent clojure.core/update from being referred in your namespace

For the second strategy, you will only need to use the following form in your namespace declaration:

(ns my.namespace
 (:require [...])
 (:refer-clojure :exclude [update]))

If you don’t, your library consumers will have to deal with messages such as:

WARNING: update already refers to: #'clojure.core/update in namespace: foo.core, being replaced by: #'foo.core/update
WARNING: update already refers to: #'clojure.core/update in namespace: user, being replaced by: #'foo.core/update

          Garis Besar Sistem Komunikasi Data        


 1. EVOLUSI SISTEM KOMUNIKASI DATA
Sistem komunikasi data dapat dimulai dengan sistem yang sederhana misalnya menyambungkan dua komputer yang letaknya berjauhan, dikembangkan menjadi internet akses yaitu jaringan yang memungkinkan kita mendapatkan akses ke informasi yang tersedia pada berbagai macam komputer yang tersambung pada jaringan Internet.

Akibatnya komunikasi data memberi keuntungan dalam penghematan waktu dalam hal:

Pengumpulan dan persiapan data:
Bila pada saat pengumpulan data digunakan suatu intelligent terminal maka waktu untuk pengumpulan data dapat dikurangi sehingga dapat mempercepat proses.
Pengolahan data:
Karena komputer langsung mengolah data yang masuk dari saluran transmisi.
Distribusi:
dengan adanya saluran transmisi hasil dapat langsung dikirimkan kepada pemakai yang memerlukannya.

Sekarang dapat disimpulkan bahwa tujuan komunikasi data antara lain ialah:

· Memungkinkan pengiriman data dalam jumlah yang besar secara effisien, tanpa kesalahan dan ekonomis dari satu tempat ke tempat yang lain.
· Memungkinkan penggunaan sistem komputer dan peralatan pendukungnya dari jauh (remote computer use)
· Memungkinkan penggunaan sistem komputer secara terpusat maupun secara tersebar sehingga mendukung manajemen dalam hal kontrol (baik sentralisasi maupun desentralisasi )
· Mempermudah kemungkinan pengelolaan dan pengaturan data yang ada dalam berbagai macam sistem komputer
· Mengurangi waktu untuk pengolahan data.
· Mendapatkan data langsung dari sumbernya (mempertinggi kehandalan).
· Mempercepat penyebarluasan informasi.

2. APLIKASI KOMUNIKASI DATA
Dengan melihat kegunaan dari komunikasi data maka perannya dalam beberapa hal cukup menonjol misalnya:
§ Pengumpulan data (data collection)
§ Tanya -jawab (Inquiry & Response
§ Storage dan Retrieval
§ Time sharing
§ Real time data processing dan process control


3. ASPEK TEKNIK
Ditinjau dari sisi teknik peralatan pengolah data menggunakan sinyal digital sedang sebagian besar peralatan telekomunikasi masih menggunakan sinyal analog, sehingga kadang-kadang diperlukan konversi antara yang satu dengan yang lain.


4. KOMPONEN DASAR SISTEM KOMUNIKASI DATA
Untuk berlangsungnya komunikasi data diperlukan sedikitnya 3 komponen utama yaitu transmitter (pemancar), receiver (penerima) dan media penghubung untuk keduanya.
Tugas ketiga komponen dasar tersebut adalah:
1. Sumber (transmitter atau pengirim) => pembangkit atau pengirim informasi.
2. Medium transmisi => saluran tempat informasi tersebut disalurkan ke tempat tujuan.
3. Penerima => alat yang menerima informasi yang dikirimkan.

5. SINYAL DAN DATA
Dalam komunikasi data harus dibedakan antara data dan sinyal. Data didefinisikan sebagai besaran yang mempunyai atau membawa pengertian sedangkan sinyal adalah representasi data tersebut dalam bentuk besaran listrik seperti tegangan atau arus. Besaran listrik inilah yang dapat diolah, diukur ataupun dikirimkan ke tempat lain. Pengembalian sinyal menjadi data kembali memungkinkan penyebarluasan dari data tersebut. Data bila dirangkai akan menghasilkan informasi. Baik data maupun sinyal dapat berbentuk analog ataupun digital. Data digital bukan berarti bahwa sinyalnya harus digital. Representasi data menjadi sinyal merupakan proses yang tidak saling bergantung akan tetapi ditentukan oleh pertimbangan teknik dan ekonomik. Data analog ialah data yang mempunyai nilai yang kontinu untuk selang waktu tertentu. Contoh data analog misalnya temperatur, tekanan, kecepatan, suara, video dan lain sebagainya. Data digital akan mempunyai nilai diskrit yang besarnya tertentu dan tetap untuk selang waktu tertentu misalnya jumlah huruf dalam satu kata, bilangan, dan sebagainya. Sinyal analog merupakan sinyal listrik yang besarnya berubah-ubah setiap saat misalnya tegangan yang berubah tiap saat. Sinyal analog dapat digambarkan sebagai sinyal yang mempunyai bentuk gelombang sinus. Sinyal digital adalah sinyal yang besaran listriknya berbentuk pulsa yaitu gelombang yang misalnya tegangannya tetap selama jangka waktu tertentu. Sinyal digital biasanya merepresentasikan bilangan biner 1 dan ditandai dengan kehadiran pulsa serta bilangan biner 0 yang ditandai dengan tidak adanya pulsa atau pulsa yang lain bentuknya dari pulsa untuk bilangan biner 1..Secara teknik data analog akan direpresentasikan dengan sinyal analog melalui transducer yang sesuai demikian pula data digital akan direpresentasikan ke dalam sinyal digital melalui proses yang dikenal sebagai encoding. Bilamana data analog ingin direpresentasikan dengan sinyal digital ia harus melalui proses coding, sedangkan data digital yang ingin direpresentasikan ke dalam sinyal analog akan mengalami proses modulasi.



          How To Level a Fish Finder Transducer        

I’ve got my Humminbird Helix 12 G2N fish finder installed and up and running but am running a bit behind on posting videos and information here at Catfish Edge on the steps I followed and details of using the Helix 12 G2N. When Humminbird released the Helix G2n fish finders I quickly jumped in and...

Continue Reading

The post How To Level a Fish Finder Transducer appeared first on Catfish Edge: Cutting Edge Catfishing.


          Pressure measurement by Piezo-electric transducers in reciprocating combustion engines        
Khayat, Masin N. (1969) Pressure measurement by Piezo-electric transducers in reciprocating combustion engines. Masters thesis, Durham University.
          Mini Acoustic Guitars        
Ever since the origins of the modern guitar in the 18th century, the instrument has been available in various sizes. Antonio d Torres gave the modern classical guitar its form as we know it today. The modern classical guitar has a scale of 648 to 650 mm, which is roughly 26 inches. Full size electric guitars have a slightly shorter scale. Most Fender instruments are 25 1/2” while Gibson has maintained the 24 1/2” scale.



Sizes of Classical Guitars

Classic guitar builders have offered guitars that are 1/4 sized, 1/2 sized, 3/4 sized, and full size for players of different ages and differing physiques.



1830 Stauffer Terz


In the 1930’s C.F. Martin introduced the Terz guitar. It was based on the size of the Terz or Treble classical guitar. Joseph Stauffer, from whom C.F. Martin senior learned his craft, had built Terz guitars. So it would stand to reason Martin would continue the tradition.





Martin 5-18 Terz Guitar


The Martin Terz was a 3/4 scale guitar and offered in different styles. The 5-18 was probably the most popular. Marty Robbins used his on stage. This guitar was designed to be tuned three frets above standard pitch.





1937 Gibson L-00


In 1932 Gibson introduce the L-00 Flat top guitar. This was a small bodied instrument, and one of the nicer versions of the L series. By 1937, Gibson offered this model in a 3/4 sized option.





1950 Gibson LG-2 3/4 size

In 1933 Gibson had also introduced the very fancy LC model in a 3/4 sized version. In 1942 Gibson offered the LG-2 and by 1949 it was available in a 3/4 size version. This is the guitar that Arlo Guthrie favors.


Arlo Guthrie LG-2 

In 2002 Gibson decided to reintroduce this very model when Arlo Guthrie contacted Gibson’s craftsmen to ask for help In reconstructing a guitar that his father Woody had given him as a present. After painstakingly rebuilding the instrument, Gibson decided to offer the same guitar to the public as the Arlo Guthrie LG-2 3/4. This list price was $2079, but they are available for much less.


Back in 1945, following the World War II, Harmony guitars of Chicago was back in business and reintroduced The Stella guitar. Stella had been a brand offered as far back as 1899 by the Oscar Schmidt Company. When the company went bankrupt in the 1930’s, Harmony guitars stepped in a acquired their assets.

Harmony "Stella"  H929

The 3/4 sized Stella H929 was in the line up from 1945 through 1970 and was popular as a student model. The guitar was made mainly from birch and used all solid woods. It was ladder braced. Despite being 3/4 sized, it still had a 24 1/2” scale.





Bob Taylor working on a guitar
Bob Taylor was working for a small guitar manufacturing business in 1972 when he was only 18 years old. Within two years, Bob, and co-workers Kurt Listig, and Steve Schemmer bought the company. They needed a band name to put on the guitars.

Schemmer Guitars and Listig Guitar did not seem to sound as marketable as Taylor Guitars. So Taylor Guitar it was. None of the men had studied Martin’s guitar making techniques, so their ideas were fresh and had a new approach. By 1983 Taylor and Listig bought out Schemmer’s stake in the company.

1996 Baby Taylor (Baby on head stock)

Back in 1996, at a time when most of us were interesting only in dreadnought sized guitars,  the Baby Taylor made its debut and starts a new trend in guitar manufacturing.


Baby Taylor neck
Taylor Guitars had already come up with an interesting concept in its bolt-on neck, which utilized precision cut spacers and bolts to attach the neck to the guitars body, which made neck adjustments quick and painless and this same process was applied to the Baby Taylor.

The instruments heelless neck attaches to the guitars body by means of two screws that are flush with the fretboard and located between the 15th and 16th fret.

Baby Taylor arched back
The guitars back and sides are made of 3 layers of laminated sapele wood and the instruments back is slightly arched. Other guitar companies, such as Guild, Framus, and Gibson, have used this same method of arching the back through heated pressing for strength, so the back requires no internal back bracing.

The guitars top is made of solid Sitka spruce. Black matte veneer covers the headstock that bears the decal with the Taylor logo.

The guitar comes with its own gig bag.

Taylor Swift Baby Taylor

The Baby Taylor has a 22 3/4” scale on its diminutive 15 3/4” by 12 1/2” body. The guitar was an instant hit and notice was taken by many other guitar manufacturers. The first year offered the Baby Taylor sold over 1,000 units. Sales of the tiny guitar increased from there.




Martin guitars offered the Backpacker around 1993. Chris Martin IV had visited luthier Robert McNally’s booth at the 1993 NAMM convention where the luthier was displaying his 3 string Strumstick.

Bob McNally with a Strumstick
The original instrument was based on the mountain lap dulcimer, but was meant to be played like a guitar. A deal was struck up at this show for 5,000 units to be made. The neck was changed to a six string guitar design and it was dubbed The Backpacker.


1995 Martin Backpacker


Although the guitar did not have the greatest tone or volume, its compact size, and durability made it successful. The Backpacker was even taken into outer space by one of the astronauts.








Martin 5-15 & Backpacker

The design changed in 2002 when the instruments body was enlarged to enhance the tone and make the instrument easier to hold. Martin has also offered this same instrument with nylon strings, and a mandolin, and ukulele version.





Martin LXM
In 2003 Martin took the concept of a small guitar a step further a with the introduction of the Martin LXM. The LXM or Little Martin is designed as a modified 0-14 fret tenor Martin shape. The scale is 23’ in length. The entire guitar is constructed of high-pressure-laminate or HPL, which is essentially the same process used for making Formica. The neck on the Little Martin is made of Rust birch laminate. The fretboard is constructed of black Micarta, while the nut is made of white Corian. The saddle is made of white Tusq. The tuners are made by Gotoh.

Martin LXME


The original version was only offered as an acoustic instrument. Later on the LXME came with Fishman transducers and Mini Q electronics. The LXM models all come with a gig bag.






Martin LX1



The Martin LX1 is the same style of guitar, but it has a solid Sitka spruce top.








LX1E Ed Sheeran model

Ed Sheeran began his busking career using a Little Martin and Martin guitars offers the Ed Sheeran X signature series LX size guitar with built-in Fishman Isys T electronics.


Martin LX1e


Martin also makes the LX1e electric acoustic models, which feature a solid spruce top.









2013 Taylor GS Mini
In July of 2013 Taylor Guitars introduced the GS Mini guitar. After experimenting with changes to the Baby Taylor, a new design, the Grand Symphony, was decided on. The GS has a different body shape and different bracing.

The top is made of solid Sitka spruce and the back and sides are sapele laminate. The body is approximately 2” larger than the Baby Taylor. The scale is 23 1/2”, and the body is an inch deeper than the Baby Taylor. Once again, it features the arched back design.

Taylor GS Mini E


The neck on this model, although a bolt-on featuring Taylor’s NT design, does have a heel. The action is low and feels quite good. The original models were only offered as acoustic guitars, but could be equipped with the optional ES-Go acoustic pickup.





ES-Go Pickup System

This unit is built exclusively for the GS Mini guitar. The ES-Go is stacked humbucking magnetic pickup which clips onto a bracket in the sound hole that is underneath the fretboard section. Once in place, the player swaps out the end pin and replace it with the one attached to the ES-Go unit. It is made to be paired with Taylor’s “V” cable, which has a volume control. The unit sells for an additional $100.

Taylor GS Mini Mahogany-Spruce


Since its inception, Taylor has improved this guitar, by offering it with optional body woods, such as a mahogany top or spruce top with laminated walnut back and sides. The electronics have also been updated.




2015 Taylor GS Mini E
The Taylor GS mini e is now is available with a built-in Taylor Expression System 2 electronics, which places 3 pickup sensors behind the guitars bridge. Taylor feels this is superior to under the under the saddle method that many designers have used. This also comes with a built-in preamp.

This option adds $100 to the guitars price, but eliminates the need for putting on or removing the ES-Go unit.

Back in 1997, just a year after Bob Taylor introduced the Baby Taylor, Tacoma Guitars of Seattle Washington introduced The Papoose mini guitar.

The Tacoma Factory - Frets magazine
Tacoma Guitars was a division of The Tacoma Lumber Company.  In 1991 this company was processing hardwood that was milled into piano soundboards exclusively for the Young Chang Piano Company of South Korea.

The lumber company's general manager, J.C. Kim persuaded Young Change to build a guitar manufacturing plant nearby, and the company started turning out some rather unique instruments. Among these was the tiny P1 Papoose guitar that was designed by luthier Terry Atkins and George Gruhn.

1997 Tacoma Papoose


The Tacoma P1 Papoose had a short scale neck with only a 19.1” scale, and  it was built to be tuned a fourth higher that normal guitar tuning. In other words, the strings were tuned from A to A.






Paisley Soundhole on Papoose
This guitar introduced the Paisley sound hole, which became a Tacoma trademark, and the Voiced Bracing Support system. This was a system designed to minimize the bracing as much as possible down to what the instrument needs to remain stable.

Back of 1997 Papoose



The heelless neck on the Papoose was bolted on and secured by two screws. The bridge was uniquely shaped and had 3 unusual C-shaped cut-outs to secure the strings. Some later models came with bridge pins.




Papoose 12 String
The Papoose was available in a variety of sound board woods. Tacoma also came out with the P112 Papoose 12 string. Towards the end of the line, Tacoma had introduced and electric version of The Papoose.

Young Chang put the company up for sale in 1999 and it was sold to Fender Musical Instruments Corporation in 2004.

Sadly in 2008 Fender closed the plant and laid off the staff. Though the Papoose is no longer produced, it can still be found on auction sites at a fairly reasonable rate.

Since the Baby Taylor and the Little Martin have proved to be successful, many major guitar manufacturers, too numerous to mention, have developed and offer 3/4 sized mini acoustic guitars in their line up.

Dean Flight



Among them Dean Guitars offers the Dean Flight that retails for around $150 USD. It is a laminated guitar with a 22” scale. The neck is mahogany, and the headstock is done in the Dean-wing style. It comes with a gig bag.





Fender MA-1
Fender offers the MA-1 Parlor 3/4 size guitar. The top is laminated Agathis and the back and sides are laminated Sapele. As with most of the mini acoustic guitars a gig bag is included.



Yamaha JR1



Yamaha’s product is the JR1 Mini Folk.




Luna Safari




Luna Guitars offers a similar 3/4 sized guitar called the Muse Safari guitar.








Takamine GX18CE-NS

Takamine has the GX18CE-NS, which retails around $400, but it does have a solid spruce top, rosewood fretboard and electronics with a built-in preamp.


KLOS Mini guitar


One of the more unique mini guitars comes from a company called Klos. Their instrument has a carbon fiber body. The neck is made of mahogany and topped with a rosewood fretboard.






KLOS Mini guitar
Despite being small in size, the scale is 24 3/4”. Plus the neck is removable. It comes with a gig bag and sell direct from the manufacturer for around $600 USD.






          General Engineering        

GENERAL ENGINEERING

1. The probability of hitting a target from one gun 9/10, from another gun is 7/10. If both gun are fired at the same time, the probability of hitting the target is
(A) 2/20
(B) 63/100
(C) 16/20
(D) 63/20

2. If the three vectors a, b and c are coplanar , then the missed product a x b. c is
(A) Zero
(B) Non-Zero
(C) Unity
(D) None of these

3. When a body hits an obstacle, the force with which it hits the obstacle depends upon its
(A) average velocity
(B) velocity at the instant of collision
(C) initial velocity
(D) all of these

4. The wavelength of visible light is of the order of
(A) 1µm
(B) 100 µm
(C) 1mm
(D) 1 Å

5. Whenever a source of sound moves towards an observer
(A) the frequency heard by the observer is less than that of the source
(B) the frequency heard by the observer is greater than that of the source
(C) the frequency heard by the observer is unchanged
(D) the wavelength of sound heard is greater than that of the sound emitted

6. Moving electric charges will interact with
(A) electric field only
(B) magnetic field only
(C) both of these
(D) none of these

7. Gamma radiation is most similar to
(A) sound waves (B) X-ray
(C) Alpha particles (D) neutrons

8. The fundamental particle responsible for keeping the nucleus together is
(A) meson
(B) anti proton
(C) positron
(D) muon

9. Air contains 21% oxygen by volume and the rest nitrogen. If the barometer pressure is 740 mm of Hg the partial pressure of oxygen is close to
(A) 155 mm of Hg
(B) 310 mm of Hg
(C) 465 mm of Hg
(D) 162 mm of Hg

10. In the electrolytic cell
(A) electrical energy is converted into chemical energy
(B) chemical energy is converted into electrical energy
(C) mechanical energy is converted into potential energy
(D) potential energy is converted into kinetic energy

11. The force required to maintain a body at constant speed in free space is equal to 
(A) the mass of the body
(B) zero
(C) the weight of the body
(D) the force required to stop it

12. If the length of a spring is halved, the spring constant becomes
(A) half
(B) 1/4th
(C) double
(D) four times

13. The coefficient of static friction depends on
(A) the material of the bodies in contact
(B) the quality of surface finish of the bodies
(C) the presence of foreign matter between the surface
(D) all of these

14. The units of angular impulse in SI system are
(A) Nms
(B) Ns
(C) Nm/s
(D) Ns/m

15. Stainless steel contains iron and
(A) Chromium and nickel
(B) Chromium and carbon
(C) Nickel and carbon
(D) Chromium and manganese

16. The property of material by which it offers resistance to scratching or indentation is called
(A) Brittleness
(B) Hardness
(C) Toughness
(D) Resilience

17. The failure of a material due to repeated stressing is known as
(A) Creep
(B) Fracture
(C) Fatigue
(D) Brittle Fracture

18. The electric device which blocks DC but allows AC is called
(A) Capacitor
(B) Inductor
(C) Amplifier
(D) Transducer

19. When a charge is moved from one point to another in an electric field, the work done is
(A) independent of the path
(B) zero along the direction of the field
(C) measured in Joules per metre
(D) measure in Volt per metre

20. A capacitor with lowest leakage is
(A) Paper
(B) Ceramic
(C) Polyester (D) Mica

21. A zener diode operates
(A) In an extremely high forward bias
(B) In an extremely low reverse bias
(C) In an extremely low forward bias
(D) In a reverse bias higher than laid down voltage

22. The specific gravity of a lead acid cell is often used as a measure of its
(A) Rate of discharge
(B) Operating temperature
(C) State of charge
(D) Life expectancy

23. An uniformly distributed load is one which
(A) Acts at a point on a beam
(B) Spreads uniformly over the whole length of a beam
(C) Varies uniformly over the whole length of a beam
(D) loads the beam from one end only

24. A steam engine device which keeps the speed of the engine, all loads, constant is known as
(A) Flywheel
(B) Eccentric
(C) Connecting rod
(D) Governor

25. The refrigerant hiving the lowest freezing point is
(A) Ammonia
(B) Carbon dioxide
(C) Freon – 11
(D) Freon – 22

26. Heat and work are
(A) Path functions
(B) Properties of a substance
(C) Point functions
(D) Absolute units


          Benchmark Shows Valid Results for a Piezoelectric Transducer Design        
Many modern devices leverage piezoelectricity. When analyzing the design of such devices, you want to be confident in the reliability of the obtained results. By utilizing the COMSOL Multiphysics® simulation software, you can achieve accurate results quickly. To prove it to you, we have created a benchmark model of a piezoelectric transducer. Piezoelectricity Powers Innovative Technology Imagine a smart flooring technology that generates power from people’s movements. As their footsteps apply stress to the floor, a certain degree of energy […]
          Simulation Improves Range of Motion in Piezoelectric Actuators        
Piezoelectricity finds use in a variety of engineering applications. They include transducers, inkjet printheads, adaptive optics, switching devices, cellphone components, and guitar pickups, to name a few. Today’s blog post will benefit both beginners and experts in piezoelectricity, as we highlight some of the fundamental elements of piezoelectric theory and basic simulations, along with a novel design for improving the range of motion for piezoelectric actuators. The Mathematical Conventions of Piezoelectric Theory Before we start discussing piezoelectric physics, let’s first […]
          Electronic Pressure Transducer/Switch        

The TDEPD electronic pressure transducer/switch introduces a patented, programmable display that can be set to revolve, hold at a fixed angle, or inverted for upside-down installations of the sensor. The sensor can be programmed to signal the pressure, condition, and readiness of a fluid power system. The unit includes Spike Monitoring Technology, which when coupled […]

The post Electronic Pressure Transducer/Switch appeared first on Fluid Power Journal.


          Hearing Aid Implants        

Hearing aid implant is a cross-breed device which provides a therapeutic option for those patients who are not satisfied with hearing aids as they do not adequately distinguish sounds. Hearing aids typically are miniature amplifying devices worn outside the ear by people who have some natural hearing. Cochlear implants are surgically implanted within the ear so as to enable those patients who have no hearing left to pick up and distinguish middle and higher frequency sounds. These bypass the damaged portions of the ear and directly stimulate the auditory nerve, and the electrical impulses are sent to the brain via wires implanted in the ear.

The hearing aid implant is a new alternative to the traditional hearing aid providing superior acoustics. It consists of two components: an internally implanted receiver and an external audio processor which work synergistically in order to enhance the middle ear hearing function in patients with some residual natural hearing.

The external processor nestles behind the ear and transmits sounds across the skin to the receiver. These signals are converted into vibrations by the receiver and transmitted into a miniature transducer in the middle ear via a thin wire, which mechanically vibrates the ossicles.

As the energy is directly transmitted to the middle ear bones, problems related to poor acoustics, background noise and general discomfort are eliminated. As the process bypasses both the auditory canal and the eardrum, the resultant sound clarity is much better.

Specialists believe that patients can hope for a significant improvement in the ability to understand speech, especially in a noisy situation, decreased feedback as well as a significant reduction in infections and discomfort. The implant has a thin electrode, occupies less space in the inner ear, and is implanted by special surgical techniques thus preserving natural hearing.

Researchers believe that this is due to a synergistic effect achieved by preserving natural hearing and coupling it with the cochlear implant, resulting in a device which amplifies low frequencies while simultaneously stimulating middle and high frequencies electronically.

The implantation of the hearing aid implant is an outpatient procedure and takes about two hours. The cost of the implant is around $10,000, but the device proves to be more cost effective than a conventional hearing aid as its life is ten years as against the three to four years that a hearing aid lasts.

The use of this device is still investigational, and given that there have been no randomized case control trials demonstrating it efficacy and potential risks, patients are advised to thoroughly discuss its relative merits and drawbacks with their otolaryngologist before considering the procedure. Anecdotal reports suggest that the most common serious complication is loss of the residual hearing in the ear receiving the implant. Significant hearing loss has been reported in 10 percent to 15 percent of recipients.

The hearing aid implant can prove to be a blessing for the particular subgroup of patients it targets by amplifying as well as electrically transducing the frequencies lost to the hearing impaired ear.

Margaret White is a medical correspondent based in Beverly Hills and covers medical issues. In a series of articles she will be covering problems associated with hearing loss and hearing aids. Her article is based on an interview with Warren Willard owner of Hearing ABC. You can take a Free Online Hearing Test at Hearing ABC to check your audio perceptiveness.

Margaret White is a medical correspondent based in Beverly Hills and covers medical issues. In a series of articles she will be covering problems associated with hearing loss and hearing aids. Her article is based on an interview with Warren Willard owner of Hearing ABC. You can take a Free Online Hearing Test at Hearing ABC to check your audio perceptiveness.



Hearing Aid Repair High Point NC
          K&K Pure Mini Gold Strap Button        
available since 06.06.2017: K&K Pure Mini with Gold Strap Button (Pure Western Mini), passive 3-head transducer for steel-string acoustic guitars, to be mounted inside the instrument, with gold-coloured strap button / output...
117 € - item no. 415849

          Takamine TP0894 Soundboard Transducer        
available since 09.03.2017: Takamine TP0894 Soundboard Transducer, addition to CTP-3 and CT4-DX preamps from zakamine, additional transducer for Takamine guitars, alone without function, is placed under the ceiling
145 € - item no. 409762

          Multi-Modality Technologist (Per Diem, Days) - BOSTON MEDICAL CENTER - Boston, MA        
Utilizes accessory equipment such as transducers, printers, Hologic and PACS workstations. Boston Medical Center (BMC) is more than a hospital....
From Boston Medical Center - Wed, 19 Jul 2017 15:05:02 GMT - View all Boston, MA jobs
          KOAR Bone Conduction Bluetooth Headset for $76        
Experience the Future of Sound with This Durable Bone Conduction Headset
Expires December 31, 2017 23:59 PST
Buy now and get 48% off



KEY FEATURES

Boasting patented transducers that use bone conduction technology to convey crystal clear sound directly to your inner ears, these futuristic headphones allow you to fully hear your surroundings and talk with friends while you listen to your music. With Bluetooth technology and IP67 water resistance, this headset will play your soundtrack anywhere.
  • Lightweight titanium memory metal provides a comfortable & durable fit during exercise, travel or everyday wear
  • Bluetooth technology lets you listen to all Bluetooth compatible devices w/o wires
  • LiquiPel technology repels water & sweat
  • Built-in mic lets you talk hands-free
  • Rechargeable battery lasts over 6 hours on a single charge & is ready again after a 2 hour charge
  • Rugged, sealed design & IP67 water resistance gives the headset a long life

    PRODUCT SPECS

    • Material: Lightweight titanium memory metal
    • Weight: 1.7 oz
    • Bone conduction technology
    • Bluetooth 4.1
    • Apt-X audio decoding
    • Functions: volume +/-, Bluetooth pairing, play/pause/skip, speakerphone
    • Battery type: Built-in rechargeable 1000mAh Li-ion battery
    • Battery life: up to 6 hours
    • Charge time: 2 hours
    • Built-in microphone
    • IP67 water resistance

    Compatibility

    • Smartphones
    • Tablets
    • Computers

    Includes

    • KOAR kBone Bone Conduction Bluetooth Headset
    • Micro-USB charging cable
    • Earplugs
    • User Manual

          Raymarine RV-100 RealVision 3D hekkgiver        

Raymarine har designet en hekkgiver spesielt for Axiom-serien. Denne ekkoloddgiveren er gyro-stabilisert for å kompensere for båtens bevegelser, og gir "life like" 3D ekkoloddbilder.

RV-100 er multifunksjonell, og er både CHIRP DownVision, CHIRP SideVision, High Frequency CHIRP og RealVision3D - i en og samme giver.
Kabellengde 8meter

Passer til Raymarine Axiom 7RV, 9RV og 12RV

Price: 3599,20 Special Price: 3120,-
Special Expires On: 31. aug. 2017


           Wideband characterization of air coupled transducers         
Gachagan, Anthony and Galbraith, Walter and Hayward, Gordon (1994) Wideband characterization of air coupled transducers. In: 1994 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 1994. Proceedings. IEEE, pp. 483-486. ISBN 0780320123
          Reverb Tank - MOD®, 9BC2C1B        
  • Replacement Reverb Tank for 9BC2C1B
  • Solid, Sturdy Construction
  • Long (16.75") 3 Spring Unit , Medium Decay (1.75 to 3.0 seconds)
  • Input Impedance 190 Ohms, Output Impedance 12000 Ohms
  • Input Insulated/Output Grounded
  • Horizontal, Open Side Down Mounting Plane

Compatible Amps Include: VOX AC30TBR (‘91-’93 Vintage top Boost Reverb) , Gibson Super Goldtone GA-30RV , Gibson Super Goldtone GA-60RV

The MOD® Reverb Tanks are high quality upgrade units. Some of the major differences between the MOD®s and other reverb tanks are that the Transducers are wired directly to their respective RCA jacks as opposed to current production tanks where Transducers are connected by a detachable plug to their respective RCA jacks. This makes the tanks less receptive to any outside interference. The original Hammond Accutronics tanks from the 1960s were also wired directly to their respective RCA jacks. In addition very close attention has been paid to the spacing and size of the lamination of the Transducers resulting in a more vintage like tone.

Questions about reverb tanks? Please see Accutronics Products and Specifications. For an in detail write-up about reverb tanks please see Accutronics Products and Specifications.


          Reverb Tank - MOD®, 9EB3C1B        
  • Replacement Reverb Tank for 9EB3C1B
  • Solid, Sturdy Construction
  • Long (16 ¾") 3 Spring Unit , Long Decay (2.75 to 4.0 seconds)
  • Input Impedance 800 Ohms, Output Impedance 2575 Ohms
  • Input Insulated/Output Grounded
  • Horizontal, Open Side Down Mounting Plane

The MOD® Reverb Tanks are high quality upgrade units. Some of the major differences between the MOD®s and other reverb tanks are that the Transducers are wired directly to their respective RCA jacks as opposed to current production tanks where Transducers are connected by a detachable plug to their respective RCA jacks. This makes the tanks less receptive to any outside interference. The original Hammond Accutronics tanks from the 1960s were also wired directly to their respective RCA jacks. In addition very close attention has been paid to the spacing and size of the lamination of the Transducers resulting in a more vintage like tone. Questions about reverb tanks? Please see Accutronics Products and Specifications. For an in detail write-up about reverb tanks please see Spring Reverb Tanks Explained and Compared


          MatrikonOPC unveils secure OPC connectivity for wind power plants with OPC Server for IEC 61400-25        
EDMONTON, ALBERTA, June 8, 2010 – MatrikonOPC™ announces the release of their OPC Server for IEC 61400-25. This server provides secure access to wind power plant control data for systems that may not support the IEC 61400-25 but require access to the wind turbine data. This OPC Server expands Green and Renewable Energy initiative systems’ ability to share data between systems that support IEC 61400-25 and those that do not.

This OPC Server supports IEC 61400-25-1 and IEC 61400-25-4 Annex C using Manufacturing Message Specification (MMS) over TCP/IP. IEC 61400-25-1 and IEC 61400-25-4 are the key protocols used in wind power plant systems to allow multi-vendor wind turbines to freely share, control and monitor data via a single consistent protocol.

The OPC Server for IEC 61400-25 takes open data sharing to the next level by providing secure and reliable data sharing between all IEC 61400-25 compliant systems such as: RTUs, Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs), PLCs, meters, transducers, relays and other automation components in the enterprise such as HMIs, Historians and ERPs which typically do not support IEC 61400-25. This is the missing piece in today’s wind power automation systems that bridge data gaps between plant floor and the top floor.

“The key to a viable and sustainable Green and Renewable Energy initiative is efficiency. Thanks to OPC and the way MatrikonOPC implements and support it, users can confidently gather, analyze and act upon the data that is key to their operation—reducing maintenance costs of automation and process control systems. The OPC Server for IEC 61400-25 allows our customers to build more efficient wind automation solutions that will help grow their business,” said Sean Leonard, Matrikon’s Vice President of OPC products.

Features supported:
  • Client-Server Architecture using MMS over TCP/IP
  • IEC 61400-25-1 communication protocol for wind power plants monitoring and controlling
  • IEC 61400-25-4 Annex C: IEC 61400 over MMS according to IEC 61850-8-1
  • Interoperable with HMI and Historians systems such as Citect, OSIsoft PI and any OPC client application
  • Channel redundancy with multiple devices
To learn more about the OPC Server for IEC 61400-25, please navigate to: http://www.matrikonopc.com/opc-drivers/opc-iec-61400-25/base-driver-details.aspx

About MatrikonOPC (a division of Matrikon Inc.) MatrikonOPC provides software to access device data using the OPC standard. Their promise is to help clients unlock the potential of their data and provide them with vendor neutral training and superior client care. MatrikonOPC builds close relationships with their customers, which allows them to have a true understanding of their business. MatrikonOPC helps them attain operational efficiency from both a technical and business perspective. With offices in Canada, the United States, Europe, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East, they provide local presence on a worldwide scale. MatrikonOPC is committed to connectivity. Visit MatrikonOPC at www.MatrikonOPC.com.

MatrikonOPC and Matrikon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Matrikon Inc.

For more information, contact:
Wassim Daoud
Online Marketing Communication Specialist, OPC
+1 780-448-1010 extension 4632
wassim.daoud@matrikonopc.com


For business and investor related information, contact:
Andrea Nwobosi
Corporate Communications & Investor Relations
+1 780-448-1010 extension 4587
andrea.nwobosi@matrikon.com
          MatrikonOPC offers OPC connectivity for IEC 61850 Protocol        

EDMONTON, ALBERTA, Mar 23, 2010 – MatrikonOPC™ is pleased to announce the release of their OPC Server for IEC 61850. IEC 61850 is the international standard for substation automation engineering systems. It defines the communication between substation devices such as IEC 61850 compliant RTU, IED (Intelligent Electronic Device), PLC, meter, transducer, relay, etc. and the related distributed generation systems. The IEC 61850 standard is designed for the protection, control and monitoring of substation information, information exchange and configuration.

 

The MatrikonOPC Server for IEC 61850 supports all IEC 61850 compliant devices. It enables users to integrate these devices to the other automation components in the enterprise such as HMIs, Historians, ERP and more. With its ability to securely provide open connectivity between all data sources and decision-making points for businesses utilities, the MatrikonOPC Server for IEC 61850 is a main building block in the Smart grid initiative.

 

“MatrikonOPC is committed to delivering maximum value to all of our customers. With the release of our OPC Server for IEC 61850, Energy and Utilities providers will be able to leverage their engineering systems with a secure and reliable communication tool in order to achieve operational excellence,” said Sean Leonard, Matrikon’s Vice President of OPC products.

 

To learn more about MatrikonOPC Server for IEC 61850, please navigate to:

http://www.matrikonopc.com/opc-drivers/opc-iec-61850/base-driver-details.aspx

 

About MatrikonOPC (a division of Matrikon Inc.)

MatrikonOPC™ provides software to access device data using the OPC standard. Their promise is to help clients unlock the potential of their data and provide them with vendor neutral training and superior client care. MatrikonOPC builds close relationships with their customers, which allows them to have a true understanding of their business. MatrikonOPC helps them attain operational efficiency from both a technical and business perspective. With offices in Canada, the United States, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the Middle East, they provide local presence on a worldwide scale. MatrikonOPC is committed to connectivity.  Visit MatrikonOPC at www.MatrikonOPC.com

 

MatrikonOPC and Matrikon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Matrikon Inc.

 

For more information, contact:
Wassim Daoud
Online Marketing Communication Specialist, OPC

+1 780-448-1010 extension 4632
email: wassim.daoud@matrikonopc.com

 

For business and investor related information, contact:

Nicole Sayler

Corporate Communications & Investor Relations

780-945-4010

nicole.sayler@matrikon.com


          komunikasi data dan array        
KOMUNIKASI DATA
A. Komunikasi Data
Istilah telekomunikasi berarti komunikasi dengan jarak. Kata data mengacu pada informasi yang ditampilkan apapun bentuk yang disetujui oleh pihak yg membuat dan menggunakan. Komunikasi data adalah pertukaran data diantara dua perangkat melalui berbagi bentuk media transmisi seperti kabel.
Topik yg didiskusikan pada bab ini:
1. Komponen
2. Representasi Data
3. Aliran Data
B. Jaringan
Sebuah jaringan adalah kumpulan perangkat (sering disebut sebagai nodes) yg dihubungkan oleh jalur komunikasi. Sebuah node dapat berupa komputer, printer, atau perangkat apapun yg mampu mengirim dan atau menerima data yang dibuat oleh node lainnya pada jaringan.
Topik yg didiskusikan pada bab ini:
1. Proses terdistribusi
2. Kriteria Jaringan
3. Struktur Fisik
4. Model Jaringan
5. Jenis – jenis Jaringan
6. Interkoneksi pada Jaringan : Internetwork





C. Internet
Internet telah merevolusi berbagai aspek dlm hidup kita. Internet adalah sebuah sistem komunikasi yang membawa informasi ke ujung jari kita dan diorganisasikan untuk kita gunakan.
Topik yg didiskusikan pada bab ini:
1. Sejarah singkat
2. Internet Hari ini
D. Protocol dan Standard
Pada bagian ini, kita akan menjelaskan dua hal yang banyak digunakan : protocol dan standard. Pertama, kita jelaskan protocol, dimana sinonim dengan aturan. Kemudian kita diskusikan standard, dimana sinonim dengan aturan yang disepakati.
Topik yg didiskusikan pada bab ini:
1. Protocol
2. Standard
3. Orgranisasi Standards
4. Standar Internet
MODEL JARINGAN
A. Tugas terlapis
Kita menggunakan konsep lapisan pada kehidupan kita sehari2. Sebagai contoh, mari kita lihat dua orang teman yang berkomunikasi melalui surat pos. Proses untuk mengirimkan surat ke teman akan menjadi komplek jika tidak ada layanan yg tersedia dari kantor pos.




Topik yg didiskusikan di bagian ini:
1.Pengirim, penerima dan pembawa Hirarki
B. Osi Model
Berdiri pada thn 1947, the International Standards Organization (ISO) adalah badan multinational yg mengkhususkan pada persetujuan seluruh dunia pada standar internasional. Sebuah standar ISO yg membahas semua aspek pada jaringan data adalah Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. Model ini pertama kali dikenalkan pada akhir 1970.
Topik yg didiskusikan di bagian ini:
1. ArsitekturBerlapis
2. Proses Peer-to-Peer
3. Encapsulation
C. Lapisan pada OSI Model
Pada bagian ini kita akan menjelaskan secara singkat fungsi setiap layer pada OSI model.
Topik yg didiskusikan di bagian ini:
1. Physical Layer
2. Data Link Layer
3. Network Layer
4. Transport Layer
5. Session Layer
6. Presentation Layer
7. Application Layer





ARRAY

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
An array is a systematic arrangement of objects, usually in rows and columns. Specifically, it may refer to:
Contents
[hide]
• 1 In computer science
• 2 In mathematics and statistics
• 3 In technology
• 4 In astronomy
• 5 In biology
• 6 In music
• 7 Other

[edit] In computer science
Generally, a collection of data items that can be selected by indices computed at run-time, including:
• Array data structure, an arrangement of items at equally spaced addresses in computer memory
• Array data type, used in a programming language to specify a variable that can be indexed
• Associative array, an abstract data structure model that generalizes arrays to arbitrary indices
or various kinds of the above, such as
• Bit array or bit vector
• Dynamic array, allocated at run time
• Parallel array of records, with each field stored as a separate array
• Sparse array, with most elements omitted, to store a sparse matrix
• Variable-length array
• Jagged array, where the rows have different lengths individually



or various related concepts:
• Array processor, a computer to process arrays of data (not to be confused with a processor array)
• Array programming, using matrix algebra notation in programs (not the same as array processing)
• Array slicing, the extraction of sub-arrays of an array
or also:
• Global Arrays, a library for parallel processing
• Intel Array Visualizer, a piece of scientific graphics software
[edit] In mathematics and statistics
• An array or matrix (mathematics) e.g. a Monge array, a Costas array
• A standard array in coding theory
• In statistics, arrays are a name for some kinds of Category:Experimental design
• Intersection array a concept of category theory
• The thinned array curse or sparse array curse, a theorem about elecromagnetic waves
[edit] In technology
Various arrangements of multiple individual components to create a single system, such as:
• An antenna array, such as a phased array, a tower array, etc.
• A speaker array, used to produce directional Sound
• Asynchronous array of simple processors
• Ball grid array, pin grid array, and land grid array, ways to connect integrated circuits
• Cache Array Routing Protocol (CARP)
• Color filter array, placed over an imaging array
• Disk array, such as the RAID
• Field emitter array, an electron source
• Gate array, including a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)
• Halbach array, an arrangement of magnets
• Linear diode array used in image scanners
• Microphone array, such as a line array
• Microelectronic array for biological monitoring
• Parametric array of transducers
• Phased-array optics
• Photovoltaic array
• Processor array (not to be confused with an array processor)
• Programmable Array Logic (PAL), a systematic way to implement boolean functions.
• Reconfigurable datapath array, a flexible data processing architecture
• Staring array, an imaging sensor
• Systolic array, a hardware architecture
• Towed array sonar
• Wi-Fi array, a wireless networking device
• Video Graphics Array (VGA), a display adapter and video format, and many variants thereof (EVGA, FWVGA, QVGA, QXGA, SVGA, SXGA, SXGA+, TXGA, UVGA, XGA, XGA+, ...)
• ICL Distributed Array Processor, an array processor for the ICL
and also
• Array gain, a telecommunications parameter
• Array processing of multichannel signals (not to be confused with array programming)
           Observer-based tuning of two-inertia servo-drive systems with integrated SAW torque transducers         
O'Sullivan, T and Bingham, Chris and Schofield, N (2007) Observer-based tuning of two-inertia servo-drive systems with integrated SAW torque transducers. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 52 (2). pp. 1080-1091. ISSN 0278-0046
          Snecma boosts engine testing abilities        
FRANCE -  Aerospace propulsion systems expert, Snecma has enhanced its engine testing capabilities with sub-miniature charge accelerometers. Supplied by Brüel & Kjær, the piezoelectric charge Accelerometers are utilised for testing Snecma’s new engines, LEAP and Silvercrest. These transducers offer low noise, high frequency range and precise sensitivity. They are easily mounted onto engines, for measuring and analysing the effects of shock and vibration. They are highly rob...
          Garmin 400C Sonar        
Garmin Fishfinder 400CGarmin Fishfinder 400C Sonar without Transducer Ideal for fresh and saltwater fishing with dual frequency, dual beam transducers. Spot the big one on the 400’s crisp, ultra-bright 4″ QVGA color sunlight viewable display. Use with dual frequency, dual beam transducers (not included) make this a good choice for fresh and saltwater fishing. When set [...]
          Empty green plots         
i keep encountering empty green plots. I'm trying to model a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer in time domain using MEMS module. I just cant figure out the problem. Any help will be greatly appreciated.

          Standard Passive Buzzer - 4,99 €         
thumb

Buzzer is an integrated structure electronic transducers, DC voltage supply, widely used in computers , printers, copiers , alarms, electronic toys, automotive electronic equipment , telephones, timers and other electronic products for sound device .


          Sennheiser Launches It’s New Reference-level HD 800 S Headphones At Headroom        
London’s headroom show, which offers music lovers the chance to try the largest range of demonstrable headphones in the UK, has been chosen by Sennheiser to debut the new reference-level HD 800 S headphone. (£1,200). The new HD 800 S is precision-built in Germany and features a striking industrial design. Its transducer is encased by stainless steel, while …
          TAP Pre-B Preamplifier        
Neu seit 12.05.2015: TAP Pre-B Vorverstärker, dynamischer, kleiner Vorverstärker, geeignet für alle Pickups und Transducer, geringer Scheinwiderstandsausgang, passend für alle Verstärker- und Konsoleneingänge, mit...
59 € - Artikelnr. 364072

          Programming Clojure        

Drowning in unnecessary complexity, unmanaged state, and tangles of spaghetti code? In the best tradition of Lisp, Clojure gets out of your way so you can focus on expressing simple solutions to hard problems. Clojure cuts through complexity by providing a set of composable tools--immutable data, functions, macros, and the interactive REPL. Written by members of the Clojure core team, this book is the essential, definitive guide to Clojure. This new edition includes information on all the newest features of Clojure, such as transducers and specs.


          Multi-Modality Technologist (Per Diem, Days) - BOSTON MEDICAL CENTER - Boston, MA        
Utilizes accessory equipment such as transducers, printers, Hologic and PACS workstations. Boston Medical Center (BMC) is more than a hospital....
From Boston Medical Center - Wed, 19 Jul 2017 15:05:02 GMT - View all Boston, MA jobs
          Just because I like Top Gear doesn’t mean that I’m a Misogynist, or does it?         

When you read my blogs you would probably get the impression that I am a misogynist “Woman Hater” but you would be wrong, I am exactly the opposite! I can find a quality I like about even the most appalling Harpies. Over the years this has been my biggest downfall, and just because I like one quality doesn’t mean to say they don’t drive me mad with numerous other things I don’t like.

I think I’m a good host, I don’t ask a lot from a house guest or girlfriend, just two rules, don’t touch the remote controls, and when I’m watching a program, only talk during commercials, if you have something urgent to say Text me, now is that too much to ask? Just to clarify “You’re a shit boyfriend, I never want to see you again, and I’m going home “ is not an urgent message, I could get the gist from the, Tuts, the door slamming and the tyre squeal, without missing any of the program .

In my defence it’s imperative that you watch a Motoring Program (Top Gear) live because If I had a quid for every time I’ve sat down to watch a film or TV program that I set my video to record, and just before the end “somebody” has changed the channel and Coronation Street, Eastenders or some other drivel comes on, I would be a millionaire. Even Sky Plus Falls foul of the 8 Oclock weekdays phenomena when two equally shit Womens programs are broadcast on different channels, so instead of Wayne Carini in an Episode of Chasing Classic Cars, you get a message saying this “Program failed to record due to a Programming Conflict” (Which roughly translated means, we did manage to record your Girlfriends Programs But Hey, Have a Great Night!) ”

When a Womans watching a program, it’s like turning a shark on its back, (I watch The Discovery Channel a lot too) they go into an almost catatonic state, except for the odd “Bastard” muttered at the guy in the program who's done something to upset one of the female characters, then they give a sideways glance in your direction which really means “You even think of doing that and I will be after you with the kitchen scissors!

When you’re watching a program it’s a different thing, women can multitask, for multitasking substitute “do several things that annoy you all at the same time” they can read a magazine, hum a tune, and flick the pages over so fast that each page sounds like a whip crack. Incidentally did you know that a whip cracks, because the end is travelling faster than the speed of sound and it creates a mini Sonic Boom, if you didn’t know that, the chances are its because you were watching the program "Little Known Facts" with your girlfriend.

They don’t speak too often but when they do, it’s at the precise moment that Jeremy Clarkson is sharing some very important information and you miss it, no point in saying “shush” as that just makes things worse, “Shush, why Shush, what’s happening, what’s he talking about that’s so important that I’ve got to shush, has Richard Hammond invented a cure for Cancer? By which time you’ve missed what he was saying anyway and you are even more in the dog house. Then just when you don’t want it, it’s time to go to bed, and you get the Library treatment, which was precisely what you wanted when you were watching TV

 I have a pair of Bose “Quiet Comfort Noise Cancelling Headphones” which I always take on Holiday. They work by use of analog circuits or digital signal processing. Adaptive algorithms are designed to analyze the waveform of the background aural or nonauralnoise, then based on the specific algorithm generate a signal that will either phase shift or invert the polarity of the original signal. This inverted signal (in antiphase) is then amplified and a transducer creates a sound wave directly proportional to the amplitude of the original waveform, creating destructive interference. This effectively reduces the volume of the perceivable noise. Translated this means they eliminate the sound of the plane’s engines, and you don’t have to turn the volume of the in-flight movie up to an unacceptable level.

As I said before I really do like Women, it would probably be less stressful for me If I didn't and I was to become a Monk, but that’s not the life for me so In order to survive I believe that Mother Nature has taken pity on me and allowed my hearing to evolve. I seem to have developed noise cancelling ears. Although my hearing is perfect, my ears work in exactly the opposite way to my Noise cancelling headphones. I can hear every note of a Formula One cars engine as the gears change, the pitch alters and it screams down the track. Watching the opening sequence of Point Break, I can hear the next cartridge slide into the chamber as he cocks his pump action shotgun, in preparation for his next shot. I hear his bullet tear through the target and the hollow tinkling of a spent bullet casing ejected from Johnny Utah's (Keanu Reeves) semi automatic Sig Sauer P226 9 mm, as it hits the ground, bouncing  twice before it settles and becomes silent.




No matter how softly they talk, I never miss a word spoken by Jeremy, Richard, James, Tiff and Jason. If she’s sat opposite me I can see my girlfriend’s lips moving but I can’t hear a word she’s saying until the commercial break or 'Jessica' by the 'Allman Brothers' starts to play.

Noise cancelling ears do have a couple of disadvantages, and I must remember to write to the TV broadcasters and ask if they could put subtitles on the screen when Vicky Butler-Henderson is on Fifth Gear and the same when Rachel Riley is on The Gadget Show so that I know what they’re talking about.

          Sennheiser RS 165 On-ear Wireless Headphones Digital        
Sennheiser RS 165 On-ear Wireless Headphones Digital

Sennheiser RS 165 On-ear Wireless Headphones Digital

Headphone system with rich, bold sound. Get more from your TV and home audio today! Sennheiser's RS 165 is a superb digital wireless headphone system for movie watching and music. Its ergonomic, closed, circumaural design reduces background noise while providing an exceptionally comfortable fit, so that you can focus on enjoying your favorite television programs and movies. Easy to use and intuitive, all you need to do is to connect the included multi-purpose transmitter to your home audio or entertainment system. And because these headphones are from Sennheiser, you can count on a vibrant, detailed sound reproduction. You’ll also be free to move around, since the RS 165 provides a robust, digital wireless audio transmission with minimum latency, and there is a bass boost listening mode for added power. Sennheiser’s RS 165: Get more from your TV and home audio today! Closed, circumaural headphones with excellent digital wireless audio transmission High-quality Sennheiser transducers and a selectable Bass Boost mode for vibrant sound Intelligently designed controls for maximum ease of use Multi-purpose transmitter – also functions as ‘easy-charge’ cradle and docking station Multi-receiver transmission – transmitter supports up to two pairs of headphones simultaneously Ergonomic design for enhanced wearing comfort 2-year warranty


          Several members of the International Transducer Orchestra        

Cast: nikoladze

Tags: notam, Norwegian, Centre, Technology, Music, Arts, contemporary music, transducer, max msp, artistic project, Koka Nikoladze, Bernt Isak Wærstad and International Transducer Orchest


          IOT Auckland meetup        
Hi I'd like to let Geekzone know about a Meetup and LinkedIn group I'm forming in Auckland. First meeting is pencilled in for 25 May. Here are links https://www.linkedin.com/groups/8521258 http://www.meetup.com/IOT-Auckland/ Please get in touch with me if you are working on a project and would like to either talk about it, or are looking for help. IOT Auckland will cover technology, applications and industries relevant Internet of Things topics. If you think you should join, then that means you need to. Click on it! Are you.... • developing IOT technology and need to increase your range of skills or find best practise? • an expert in a specific area,that could be communications, transducers, hardware platforms, cloud architecture, cybersecurity, data analysis, etc? • working in an industry and want to understand how IOT technology could increase productivity, solve a problem or increase exports? You can benefit by sharing your knowledge, problem or opportunity for an application. In the group you'll find common interests, encouragement and discoveries that will accelerate your personal and business success. We will have regular meetups in Auckland with presentations on relevant topics. These will describe a technology, an application or an industry solution. You'll also be able to network with technologists, entrepreneurs and like minded business people. When you join the IOT Auckland group please write a brief profile describing what you are working on, technology expertise, customer industry and what you want to achieve by taking part. Thanks and welcome.
          1000’s of Standard Piezo Transducers, Components, and Assemblies in New Piezoelectric Solutions Catalog        

Industry, OEMs, and research benefit from PI’s many years of design and manufacturing experience of piezoelectric components.

(PRWeb March 24, 2017)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2017/03/prweb14181436.htm


          New Flexible Printed Circuits on Piezo Transducer Components, Facilitate Electronics Integration from PI        

Value Added Piezo Element Assembly Speeds up OEM Integration, Saves Cost

(PRWeb August 31, 2016)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2016/09/prweb13652621.htm


          Philips Showcases Data-Driven Cardiology Solutions at ACC.17        
Philips, cardiology solutions, ACC.17, Azurion angiography system, iFR outcomes results, IntelliSpace Cardiovascular

March 24, 2017 — At the 2017 American College of Cardiology's Annual Scientific Session & Expo (ACC.17), Philips showcased a broad range of integrated, patient-centric solutions designed to address the prevention, diagnosis, minimally invasive treatment and chronic care at home of cardiac conditions.

Philips exhibited the company's advanced, connected health offerings in the cardiology space at ACC.17, including:

  • Azurion – The company’s recently launched, next-generation image-guided therapy platform allows clinicians to easily and confidently perform a wide range of routine and complex procedures, helping them to optimize interventional lab performance and provide superior care. Azurion is powered by ConnectOS, a new operating system that provides a seamless integration of real-time information from all relevant technologies in the interventional lab.
  • Evolution 3.0 – Philips introduced the X8-2t Live 3D TEE (transesophageal echo) transducer, which allows for new levels of live 3-D imaging with new 3-D TEE features, including a new acoustic design with higher frequencies and bandwidth to provide increased resolution and tissue filling. Fast, easy and confident transthoracic and transesophageal echo allows clinicians to diagnose surgical pathology in real time.
  • HeartModel AI – The company’s Anatomical Intelligence Ultrasound (AIUS) application brings advanced automated quantification, 3-D views, robust reproducibility and significant time-savings to echocardiography quantification.
  • IntelliSpace Cardiovascular – Provides access to advanced cardiovascular informatics applications, brings multimodality images and clinical tools together in a single workspace for integrated clinical decision support. It seamlessly integrates with the IntelliSpace Portal advanced visualization solution, IntelliSpace ECG (electrocardiogram) data management solution, and the Philips Xper Information Management cath lab workflow solution.
  • DreamStation BiPAP autoSV Advanced – Designed to deliver optimal ventilation with minimal intervention for patients with central sleep apnea, complex sleep apnea and periodic breathing. Philips' clinically proven algorithm provides support when needed to help reduce events and normalize ventilation, and works with the patient's breathing pattern to minimize applied pressure, pressure support and machine breaths which can help patients experience comfortable, restful sleep.

Philips also highlighted new iFR (instant wave-Free Ratio) outcome results from over 4,500 patients. The data, which represent the largest randomized coronary physiology outcome studies to date, has the potential to help shape revascularization guidelines.

Read the article “Easier to Use iFR Equal to Outcomes of FFR in Coronary Lesion Evaluation.”

In addition to presenting data around the benefits of iFR technology, Philips hosted "Cardiology Talks," a program of short talks and conversation on key findings, trends and ideas impacting the cardiology specialty today. During the 20-minute sessions, clinicians, scientists and thought leaders shared their experiences and perspectives, discussed innovations, and invited attendees to join in the conversation.

For more information: www.usa.philips.com/healthcare


          An Answer for Saltwater Fishing        

The Eagle Sea Champ 2000C is a great tool for any fisherman from the beginner to the professional. It allows for many features that can easily help you be more successful on the water. You’ll find that it has a great selection of features to use as well. Here, we’ll talk about some of the 2000C's features that we think help it to stand out as an excellent fish finding tool.

The Sea Champ 2000's display is probably the first feature you will notice. It is a large seven inches which gives you the quality size display that you need to see those details this Eagle fish finder provides. It is ultra bright so as to be visable in any type of environment (nothing worse than having equipment you can’t use because the sun is too bright!) It is a full VGA, 256 color matrix LCD and it is in high definition 480V by 640H resolution. It features a backlight so that you can fish in the dark as well as the sun (great for those early mornings or evening trips!) This all translates into a great quality screen that is clear, crisp and easy to use. You’ll benefit from the size and the clarity of this screen as it will allow you to see clearly what’s happening below.

Other features that make the 2000C DF so great include its ability to record. This is a great tool for any fishing trip as it will allow you to play back details to give you more of a look at your objects.

But, what we really have to mention is the sonar on this fish finder. It has a depth capability of 1500 feet! The Seachamp technology separates fish from nearby structure and bottom and to show underwater targets in different sizes of fish symbols. This high performance dual frequency transducer is simple awesome. It gives you the depth you need to see what’s happening far below your boat. And, it offers this reliability as you race over the waves at up to 70 miles an hour. This fish finder will allow for the most sensitive of fish finding.

Anyone who is looking for highly usable tools to locate their fish simply needs to check out this one! Highly recommended as a tool for the hard-to-please saltwater fisherman.


          Installing a Lowrance 7TI on a Hobie Outback        
Hey guys James Snyder here with the Headwaters Fishing Team. I recently upgraded to the Lowrance 7 ti want wanted to give a detailed how to on what i used and how i did it.

Parts used-
Lowrance 7ti
http://www.lowrance.com/en-US/Products/Fishfinder-Chartplotter/elite-7-ti-en-us.aspx

Heavy duty Ram Mount 1.5 ball
 http://www.rammount.com/part/RAM-101-LO11

Yak Attack 1.5 ball
 http://www.yakattack.us/SB15_12_p/sb15-12.htm

Yak Attack Gear tack - cut to fit
http://www.yakattack.us/GT90_08_p/gt90-08.htm

Berley Pro total scan transducer mount
 https://www.berleypro.com/product/totalscan-ready-transducer-mount-suits-hobie/

12v 22ah battery
https://www.amazon.com/Rechargeable-Replacement-KEYKO-KT-12220-Terminal/dp/B01LXNS894/ref=sr_1_9_a_it?ie=UTF8&qid=1481936088&sr=8-9&keywords=12v%2B22ah&th=1

water proof quick connector
https://www.amazon.com/Huicocy-Waterproof-Electrical-Connector-Marine/dp/B01DILSJ0A/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1481936117&sr=8-1&keywords=12v+waterproof+connector

Ring terminals
 https://www.amazon.com/Gardner-Bender-10-106-Terminal-Yellow/dp/B000LNOJYY/ref=sr_1_8?ie=UTF8&qid=1481936143&sr=8-8&keywords=ring+terminals

silver soldier
https://www.amazon.com/Kester-83-4000-0000-Solder-Pocket-Diameter/dp/B00068IJNQ/ref=sr_1_4?ie=UTF8&qid=1481936172&sr=8-4&keywords=silver+solder

heat shrink tubing
 https://www.amazon.com/JawayTool-Assortment-Electrical-Connection-Diameters/dp/B018G6CQAG/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1481936194&sr=8-1-spons&keywords=heat+shrink&psc=1

Hobie through hull kit
 http://www.austinkayak.com/products/12509/Hobie-Thru-Hull-Wiring-Kit.html?utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=Shopping:%20ACK%20PLA&scid=scplp292988&sc_intid=12509_10705_1&gclid=CI3C39GD-tACFQ6Zfgod9ikMIA

Hobie Multi wire through hull kit

soldiering iron
phillips screw driver 

after unpacking everything i took my quick disconnect and the fuse holder provided with the fish finder and tinned the ends 
useing the silver soldier i prepped the wires by adding soldier to the wire tips (tinning)
i heated both of the wires to allow the soldier to become fluid and joined the two wires together and let cool

pro tip: apply heat shrink to the wires before soldiering-
i then soldiered up the power cable to the other side of the quick connector in the same way

add ring terminals to the positive and negative wire and test fit on the battery.

i had a lowrance elite 4 hdi allready installed and needed to remove the power and transducer from that unit as well as the old ram mounting system

unscrew the 3 mounting screws on the lowrance transducer cover

this is what happens when you dont clean out your transducer correctly

remove the wireing from the old transducer

you can see here why a berley pro transducer mount is required

sorry its upside down ill fix later- full kit from berley pro- extremely well made!

attach total scan transducer to the mounting plate using supplied screws from lowrance kit

reinstall transducer mounting plate and traducer cover with original screws and screws from the berley pro kit. 

using the Hobie through hull kit run  the wire from under the kayak through the kayak

run all 3 wires from inside of hull using the Hobie 3 wire through hull kit and install ram mount with yak attack 1.5 ball

the lowrance 7ti mounts easy on the ram mounting arm 

hook up the battery and connect connectors to fish finder and turn on

this unit is very popular for kayak fisherman!

the lowrance 7ti is a fairly easy install with the kit i have assembled here and i hope this helps you in your future fish finder installs. i will follow this up with a review on the system after i have a month or 2 of using the unit and have first hand knowledge of how it works. thanks for taking the time to read my install guide and if you have any questions feel free to hit me up on Facebook or Instagram
Facebook - James Snyder
https://www.facebook.com/james.snyder.739?fref=ts
Insta- Yakin_James

also look for more awsome how toos and product reviews here on our team blog and dont forget to give a like to
Headwaters Kayak shop
https://www.facebook.com/headwaterskayak/
Headwaters Fishing team
https://www.facebook.com/Headwaters-Kayak-Fishing-Team-303065546417594/?fref=ts
and follow us on you tube
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCYodbaugFoQAvGL2StgQ3tQ


thanks for checking us out! - James Snyder Headwaters Kayak Fishing Team






          Feelfree Kayaks new Overdrive Pedal System         
This July Nick Cohoons and I had the privilege to fly out to Orlando Forida and attend the 2016 Icast fishing show. This was definitely the year of the pedal drive with almost every major manufacturer bringing a pedal option to market. In a field stacked with innovative designs the one that really set itself apart was the new Feelfree Overdrive system. Several factors made this system stand out: the ability to upgrade an existing kayak model with a pedal drive, the adjustability of the seat to dial in the ergonomics, and the addition of the Motorhead unit, which allows you to switch the drive from pedal driven to motor driven seamlessly. A lot of engineering went into this system and the result is a truly unique design that allows anglers to get into the sport and upgrade as they go.


Looking over the display boat the first thing I noticed is the boat itself. It was a standard desert camo Lure 11.5 with a rudder. In 2015 when Feelfree switched over to the new Sonar Pod, the intent was always to be able to upgrade to a pedal drive in the future. While every other manufacturer went the route of all new platforms for their pedal drives, Feelfree designed their system to work around their incredibly successful Lure line of kayaks. This means those of you who already have a Lure 11.5 or 13.5 with a Sonar Pod will be able to buy the Overdrive kit and drop it right in. It also means you are starting off with a proven paddle kayak and not sacrificing performance when floating rivers, skinny water fishing, or in heavy weeds.
I think the direction Feelfree took with the Overdrive System puts them into a unique position in the market, and paints a picture that they want to support their existing customers base, and not just profit from selling them another boat.


I had a few very candid conversations with head engineer Peter Murphy about the project. He explained to me a few of the major hurdles he had to overcome in order to pull this off.

One of the hurdles that he had to deal with was the ability to adjust the paddler to the pedals and to ensure that the ergonomics were ideal for pedaling, and paddling. They did this with a bracket that clicks into the notch where the rear of the gravity seat usually clips into. This bracket attaches easily to the seat and allows you to click the seat forward and backward in order to get the proper reach for the pedals. They also take advantage of the Feelfree Gravity Seat which allows for height adjustment to dial in the ergonomics and helps you get your hips in the most comfortable position for pedaling. This was something I struggled with in other pedal yaks. I always found myself compensating for my height by slouching in the seat. With the Feelfree you will be able to completely dial yourself in to the boat by adjusting the seat up and down and forward and back.



The most progressive thing about the Feelfree Overdrive System and the largest piece of engineering was the Motorhead unit. This electric drive unit plugs into the pedal system and turns the existing pedal drive into an electric trolling motor. The Motorhead clicks into the drive the same way a battery would click into a cordless drill. When in pedal mode the drive sits in the first click, when moved into the second click the drive disengages the pedals and takes over propelling the kayak, making it a seamless transition from pedal to power. It will come with a wired in remote control that allows you to adjust your speed and control forward and reverse. At Icast they had this setup on one of the boat's tracks with a Rail Blazer electronics holder, which looked clean and worked well. Final details about price and what all will be included in the kit is to be announced, and we will update our info when we get that. One thing we know for sure is that it works well. Jim Hager from Feelfree Kayaks sent us this video clip and says his GPS clocked him at 6 MPH on the water.



The last hurdle the engineers had to deal with was converting a foot controlled rudder to a hand controlled rudder. They did this by using the optional rudder that has been the standard upgrade on the Lure for years. They added a lever that attaches to the gunnel of the boat and clamps on to the rudder cable. Although I could tell it was 3D printed and prototyped, it was simple and effective in how if functioned. Most importantly it allowed for the standard foot controls to work when paddling. Here is my interview with Peter Murphy, the head engineer of the Overdrive project.


Other unique features:
-Pitch adjustment on the prop, which allows you to dial in the amount of grip the prop has depending on your leg strength or endurance.
-Transducer Mount on the front of the drive.
-Storage box that will slide into the pedal drive where the motor goes if you are doing pedal power only. (they didn't have this to show, but told us that it would be standard in the pedal drive kit)

At an Icast where pedal powered kayaks were all the rage, I feel like the Feelfree Overdrive stood alone as the most innovative. I know thousands of Lure 11.5 and 13.5 owners are going to be so stoked to be able to keep the boat they love, but now have the ability to pedal, paddle, or motor it. We are excited to see what this new drive means for the future of Feelfree and pedal kayaks as a whole. It sure is an exciting time to be a part of the kayak fishing industry!






          BUZZ 2 click – magnetic buzzer transducer        

Are you working on a project that needs simple audio signaling? If you are, then BUZZ 2 click is what you are missing. Buzzers are customarily added in projects as some sort of a warning signal. Alarm clock applications, timers, medical applications, home alarms, and more. BUZZ 2 click BUZZ 2 click carries the CMT-8540S-SMT […]

The post BUZZ 2 click – magnetic buzzer transducer appeared first on MikroElektronika.


          Stereocene: The Future of The Ecosystem        


 During the "golden age" of science fiction, a popular theme was that of silicon-based life. Above, you can see a depiction of a silicon creature described by Stanley Weinbaum in his "A Martian Odissey" of 1934. The creature was endowed with a metabolism in which it would "breathe" metallic silicon, oxidizing it to silicon dioxide, hence it would excrete silica bricks: truly a solid-state creature. It is hard to think of an environment where such a creature could evolve, surely not on Mars. But, here on the Earth, some kind of silicon-based metabolism seems to have evolved during the past decades. We call it "photovoltaics." Some reflections of mine on how this metabolism could evolve in the future are reported below, where I argue that this new metabolic system could usher a new geological era which we might call "Stereocene", the era of solid state devices.
 


Abridged version of a paper published in 2016 in "Biophysical Economics and Resource Quality"

Ugo Bardi
Dipartimento di Chimica - Università di Firenze

The history of the earth system is normally described in terms of a series of time subdivisions defined by discrete (or “punctuated”) stratigraphic changes in the geological record, mainly in terms of biotic composition (Aunger 2007ab). The most recent of these subdivisions is the proposed “Anthropocene,” a term related to the strong perturbation of the ecosystem created by human activity. The starting date of the Anthropocene is not yet officially established, but it is normally identified with the start of the large-scale combustion of fossil carbon compounds stored in the earth’s crust (“fossil fuels”) on the part of the human industrial system. In this case, it could be located at some moment during the eighteenth century CE (Crutzen 2002; Lewis and Maslin 2015). So, we may ask the question of what the evolution of the Anthropocene could be as a function of the decreasing availability of fossil carbon compounds. Will the Anthropocene decline and the earth system return to conditions similar to the previous geologic subdivision, the Holocene?

The earth system is a nonequilibrium system whose behavior is determined by the flows of energy it receives. This kind of system tends to act as energy transducer and to dissipate the available energy potentials at the fastest possible rate (Sharma and Annila 2007. Nonequilibrium systems tend to attain the property called “homeostasis” if the potentials they dissipate remain approximately constant (Kleidon 2004). In the case of the earth system, by far, the largest flow of energy comes from the sun. It is approximately constant (Iqbal 1983), except for very long timescales, since it gradually increases by a factor of about 10 % per billion years (Schroeder and Connon Smith 2008). Therefore, the earth’s ecosystem would be expected to reach and maintain homeostatic conditions over timescales of the order of hundreds of millions of years. However, this does not happen because of geological perturbations that generate the punctuated transitions observed in the stratigraphic record.

The transition that generated the Anthropocene is related to a discontinuity in the energy dissipation rate of the ecosystem. This discontinuity appeared when the ecosystem (more exactly, the “homo sapiens” species) learned how to dissipate the energy potential of the carbon compounds stored in the earth’s crust, mainly in the form of crude oil, natural gas, and coal). These compounds had slowly accumulated as the result of the sedimentation of organic matter mainly over the Phanerozoic era, that is over a timescale of the order of hundreds of millions of years (Raupach and Canadell 2010). The rate of energy dissipation of this fossil potential, at present, can be estimated in terms of the “primary energy” use per unit time at the input of the human economic system. In 2013, this amount corresponded to ca. 18 TW (IEA 2015). Of this power, about 86 % (or ca. 15 TW) were produced by the combustion of fossil carbon compounds.

The thermal energy directly produced by combustion is just a trigger for other, more important effects that have created the Anthropocene. Among these, we may list as the dispersion of large amounts of heavy metals and radioactive isotopes in the ecosphere, the extended paving of large surface areas by inorganic compounds (Schneider et al. 2009), the destruction of a large fraction of the continental shelf surface by the practice known as “bottom trawling” (Zalasiewicz et al. 2011), and more. The most important indirect effect on the ecosystem of the combustion of fossil carbon is the emission of greenhouse gases as combustion products, mainly carbon dioxide, CO2, (Stocker et al. 2013). The thermal forcing generated by CO2 alone can be calculated as approximately 900 TW, or about 1 % of the solar radiative effect (Zhang and Caldeira 2015), hence a nonnegligible effect that generates an already detectable greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. This warming, together with other effects such as oceanic acidification, has the potential of deeply changing the ecosystem in the same way as, in ancient times, LIPs have generated mass extinctions (Wignall 2005; Bond and Wignall 2014).

Burning fossil fuels generate the exergy needed to create industrial structures which, in turn, are used to extract more fossil fuels and burn them. In this sense, the human industrial system can be seen as a metabolic system, akin to biological ones (Malhi 2014). The structures of this nonbiological metabolic system can be examined in light of concepts such as “net energy” (Odum 1973) defined as the exergy generated by the transduction of an energy stock into another form of energy stock. A similar concept is the “energy return for energy invested” (EROI or EROEI), first defined in 1986 (Hall et al. 1986) [see also (Hall et al. 2014)]. EROEI is defined as the ratio of the exergy obtained by means of a certain dissipation structure to the amount of exergy necessary to create and maintain the structure. If the EROEI associated with a dissipation process is larger than one, the excess can be used to replicate the process in new structures. On a large scale, this process can create the complex system that we call the “industrial society.” The growth of the human civilization as we know it today, and the whole Anthropocene, can be seen as the effect of the relatively large EROEI, of the order of 20–30 and perhaps more, associated with the combustion of fossil carbon compounds (Lambert et al. 2014).

A peculiarity of the dissipation of potentials associated with fossil hydrocarbons is that the system cannot attain homeostasis. The progressive depletion of the high-EROEI fossil resources leads to a progressive decline of the EROEI associated with fossil potentials. For instance, Hall et al. (2014) show that the EROEI of oil extraction in the USA peaked at around 30 in the 1960s, to decline to values lower than 20 at present. A further factor to be taken into account is called “pollution,” which accelerates the degradation of the accumulated capital stock and hence reduces the EROEI of the system as it requires more exergy for its maintenance (Meadows et al. 1972).

Only a small fraction of the crustal fossil carbon compounds can provide an EROEI >  1, the consequence is that he active phase of the Anthropocene is destined to last only a relatively short time for a geological time subdivision, a few centuries and no more. Assuming that humans will still exist during the post-Anthropocene tail, they would not have access to fossil fuels. As a consequence, their impact on the ecosystem would be mainly related to agricultural activities and, therefore, small in comparison with the present one, although likely not negligible, as it has been in the past (Ruddiman 2013; Mysak 2008).

However, we should also take into account that fossil carbon is not the only energy potential available to the human industrial system. Fissile nuclei (such as uranium and thorium) can also generate potentials that can be dissipated. However, this potential is limited in extent and cannot be reformed by Earth-based processes. Barring radical new developments, depletion of mineral uranium and thorium is expected to prevent this process from playing an important role in the future (Zittel et al. 2013). Nuclear fusion of light nuclei may also be considered but, so far, there is no evidence that the potential associated with the fusion of deuterium nuclei can generate an EROEI sufficient to maintain an industrial civilization, or even to maintain itself. Other potentials exist at the earth’s surface in the form of geothermal energy (Davies and Davies 2010) and tidal energy (Munk and Wunsch 1998); both are, however, limited in extent and unlikely to be able to provide the same flow of exergy generated today by fossil carbon compounds.

There remains the possibility of processing the flow of solar energy at the earth surface that, as mentioned earlier on, is large [89,000 TW (Tsao et al. 2006) or 87,000 TW (Szargut 2003)]. Note also that the atmospheric circulation generated by the sun’s irradiation produces some 1000 TW of kinetic energy (Tsao et al. 2006). These flows are orders of magnitude larger than the flow of primary energy associated with the Anthropocene (ca. 17 TW). Of course, as discussed earlier on, the capability of a transduction system to create complex structures depends on the EROEI of the process. This EROEI is difficult to evaluate with certainty, because of the continuous evolution of the technologies. We can say that all the recent studies on photovoltaic systems report EROEIs larger than one for the production of electric power by means of photovoltaic devices (Rydh and Sandén 2005; Richards and Watt 2007; Weißbach et al. 2013; Bekkelund 2013; Carbajales-Dale et al. 2015; Bhandari et al. 2015) even though some studies report smaller values than the average reported ones (Prieto and Hall 2011). In most cases, the EROEI of PV systems seems to be smaller than that of fossil burning systems, but, in some cases, it is reported to be larger (Raugei et al. 2012), with even larger values being reported for CSP (Montgomery 2009; Chu 2011). Overall, values of the EROEI of the order of 5–10 for direct transduction of solar energy can be considered as reasonable estimates (Green and Emery 2010). Even larger values of the EROEI are reported for wind energy plants (Kubiszewski et al. 2010). These values may increase as the result of technological developments, but also decline facing the progressive occupation of the best sites for the plants and to the increasing energy costs related to the depletion of the minerals needed to build the plants.

The current photovoltaic technology may use, but do not necessarily need, rare elements that could face near-term exhaustion problems (García-Olivares et al. 2012). Photovoltaic cells are manufactured using mainly silicon and aluminum, both common elements in the earth’s crust. So there do not appear to exist fundamental barriers to “close the cycle” and to use the exergy generated by human-made solar-powered devices (in particular PV systems) to recycle the systems for a very long time.

Various estimates exist on the ultimate limits of energy generation from photovoltaic systems. The “technical potential” in terms of solar energy production in the USA alone is estimated as more than 150 TW (Lopez et al. 2012). According to the data reported in (Liu et al. 2009), about 1/5 of the area of the Sahara desert (2 million square km) could generate around 50 TW at an overall PV panel area conversion efficiency of 10 %. Summing up similar fractions of the areas of major deserts, PV plants (or CSP ones) could generate around 500–1000 TW, possibly more than that, without significantly impacting on agricultural land. The contribution of wind energy has been estimated to be no more than 1 TW (de Castro et al. 2011) in some assumptions that have been criticized in (Garcia-Olivares 2016) Other calculations indicate that wind could generate as much as about 80 TW, (Jacobson and Archer 2012), or somewhat smaller values (Miller et al. 2011). Overall, these values are much larger than those associated with the combustion of fossil fuels, with the added advantage that renewables such as PV and wind produce higher quality energy in the form of electric power.

From these data, we can conclude that the transduction of the solar energy flow by means of inorganic devices could represent a future new metabolic “revolution” of the kind described by (Szathmáry and Smith 1995). (Lenton and Watson 2011) that could bootstrap the ecosphere to a new and higher level of transduction. It is too early to say if such a transition is possible, but, if it were to take place at its maximum potential, its effects could lead to transformations larger than those associated with the Anthropocene as it is currently understood. These effects are hard to predict at present, but they may involve changes in the planetary albedo, in the weather patterns, and in the general management of the land surface. Overall, the effect might be considered as a new geological transition.

As these effects would be mainly associated with solid-state devices (PV cells), perhaps we need a different term than “Anthropocene” to describe this new phase of the earth’s history. The term “Stereocene” (the age of solid-state devices) could be suitable to describe a new stage of the earth system in which humans could have access to truly gigantic amounts of useful energy, without necessarily perturbing the ecosystem in the highly destructive ways that have been the consequence of the use of fossil fuels during the past few centuries.

References (see original article)

          Electrical Journeyman - Bergelectric - San Diego, CA        
Feed to, pull into, and terminate wire and cable within control centers, distribution boxes, transformers, transducers, switch gear, receptacles, switches, etc....
From Bergelectric - Thu, 25 May 2017 02:37:59 GMT - View all San Diego, CA jobs
          Journeyman Wireman, Lead Man - Bergelectric - San Diego, CA        
Feed to, pull into, and terminate wire and cable within control centers, distribution boxes, transformers, transducers, switch gear, receptacles, switches, etc....
From Bergelectric - Wed, 17 May 2017 15:18:57 GMT - View all San Diego, CA jobs
          Commercial AV System Los Angeles        
we covers all Commercial AV System Los Angeles needs range from the utilization of interactive Smartboard or Mondopad schoolroom and conference room tools to multiple electro-acoustic transducer mixture and audio process.
          BOLT Technology Corp - a Undervalued Stock?        
BOLT Technology Corp - a Undervalued Stock? (http://www.bolt-technology.com/)

- Low PE-G ratio 0.20 and PE multiple 4.03
- Strong fundamentals with good profit growth
- Market capitalization - $67.36 million (as of Dec 12) with no debts

Strong Fundamentals - Company’s growth

BOLT’s sales were up by almost 110% to $61.6 million in 2008 from the year 2006. Net income was $14.5 million in 2008, an increase of more than 200% for the same period.

The company has no debts, which shields BOLT from the global credit crunch. Moreover the cash & cash equivalents for the most recent quarter ended increased to $20.3 million and working capital increased to $41.5 million for the quarter ended Sep 30, 2008.

However the company reported a sales decrease of 21% in its sales for the most recent quarter ended Sep 30, 2008. This is due to decrease in sales of new air guns. The sales was dropped by 51% in this category for the period, mainly due to the uneven sales pattern for new air gun sales, which is expected to rebound in next quarters.

BOLT is optimistic about its fiscal year 2009 sales, though it believes that recent economic crisis and fall oil prices could affect the top line sales. Oil explorations by the companies may get affected due to the global economy slow down and decrease in oil demand by developed countries.

Profitability

A good Return on Equity at 26.2% for fiscal year 2008 shows the company’s good profitability. Net profit margin was 23.6% for the year 2008, a consecutive third year growth.

Valuation

The company is undervalued with a P-E multiple of 4.62 (for the market price of $7.85 on Dec 12), compared to the S&P’s 12.5. The P-B value is at 1.21 (whereas the S&P’s is at 2.8).

BOLT’s share was trading a little above the book value $6.47. The P-S ratio is at 1.09 (slightly above 1).

PE-G ratio is valued at 0.23 (much below 1), also clearly indicate that this stock is undervalued. (Assuming the earnings growth of 20.5%, average of last 3 years net earnings growth)

Factors for future growth

Global oil prices are expected to be back to the range of $50 per barrel in 2009[1]
According to World Geophysical News, the number of seismic crews in each region ranges between 11 and 68 (higher than the previous year). At least 18 new vessels are expected to be on stream during the period Q3 2007 - 2009[2]
As most of the developed economies are already declared into recession, the demand for oil from the US, UK and Japan are expected to come down in 2009-10. This could affect the sales for BOLT from these countries. However the crude oil demand from developing economies such as India and China are predicted to be robust. (BOLT’s sales from China and India were $4.3 million and $0.4 million respectively; almost 7% and 1% of total sales during the year 2008). Hence oil exploration companies may book more orders from these countries in 2009/10.
Moreover OPEC is already declared a production cut of 1.5 million barrels per day as a part of measure to help the oil prices to rebound. OPEC is expected to announce more production cuts in its December 17 meeting. This may help the oil prices to bounce back atleast in 2009. BOLT’s sales will improve once the oil prices are back at a decent level.
Countries like India and China are still expected to grow at 7-8% GDP in 2009. Global economy is also expected to stabilize in 2009/10, boosting more demand for crude oil.

Customers
A more than 50% of sales come from five major customers for BOLT. Two new customers have been added in 2008. All the major customers (such as Schlumberger Limited) are into the oil services industry. Hence once the oil prices bounce back, the top line revenues for BOLT is expected to improve drastically.
Profile
Bolt Technology is the leading energy source supplier to the marine seismic industry. The Company recently acquired A-G Geophysical Products (in 1999) and Real Time Systems (in 2007).
A-G Geophysical Products is the leading supplier of underwater cables, connectors, hydrophones and depth and pressure transducers to the marine seismic industry. Real-Time Systems develops, manufactures and sells controllers and synchronizers for air guns. The Company’s products are mostly used in offshore marine seismic surveys. BOLT started its operations in 1960.

[1] http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,24764335-664,00.html
[2] http://www.energycurrent.com/index.php?id=2&storyid=3506
          Michael Mateas responds        
by
Michael Mateas
2004-01-09

Phoebe Sengers’ paper describes a new practice of Socially Situated AI (SS-AI), and provides a concrete example of this practice in action. As Sengers points out, SS-AI shares an affinity with other culturally-oriented AI practices, including Simon Penny’s, Warren Sack’s, and my own practice, Expressive AI (E-AI) [Mateas 2000]. In this response I’d like to briefly explore some of the similarities and differences between SS-AI and E-AI. I’ll first provide a brief description of the two practices and then examine similarities and differences in four different thematic categories. Sengers provides three postulates for SS-AI:

1. An agent can only be evaluated with respect to its environment, which includes not only the objects with which it interacts, but also the creators and observers of the agent.

2. An agent’s design should focus, not on the agent itself, but on the dynamics of that agent with respect to its physical and social environments.

3. An agent is a representation.

Rather than thinking of an agent as an autonomous thing-in-itself, it is now considered as a communication between a human designer of the agent and an audience which views the agent. This moves the focus of agent design from autonomy to human readability.

E-AI is a new interdiscipline of AI-based cultural production combining art practice and AI research practice. E-AI also changes the focus from an AI system as a thing-in-itself (presumably demonstrating some essential feature of intelligence), to the communication between author and audience. The technical practice of building the artifact becomes one of exploring which architectures and techniques best serve as an inscription device within which the authors can express their message. This explicit manipulation of the authorial and interpretive affordances of AI architectures requires a reflective stance in which the stories narrating the operation of the machine, and which give the machine meaning, are self-consciously designed. Instances of E-AI include Office Plant #1 [Bohlen and Mateas], a sculptural installation which responds physically to the content of email being received at the computer terminal where it is “planted,” and Terminal Time [Mateas, Vanouse and Domike], a mass audience interactive story generation machine which constructs ideologically-biased documentary histories in response to audience feedback. E-AI does not single out a particular technical tradition as being peculiarly suited to culture production. Rather, E-AI is a stance or viewpoint from which all of AI can be rethought and transformed.

Critical technical practice

Both SS-AI and E-AI are instances of what Agre calls critical technical practice (CTP). Agre defines CTP to refer to a scientific and technical practice which engages in a continuous process of reflective critique of its own foundations. This reflective critique consciously constructs new, contingent myths to heuristically guide the practice. No fixed-point is ever sought or found. A CTP is in a continuous state of revolution.

A critical technical practice would not model itself on what Kuhn called “normal science,” much less on conventional engineering. Instead of seeking foundations it would embrace the impossibility of foundations, guiding itself by a continually unfolding awareness of its own workings as a historically specific practice. It would make further inquiry into the practice of AI an integral part of the practice itself. It would accept that this reflexive inquiry places all of its concepts and methods at risk. [Agre, p. 23].

In Sengers’ case, a recurring failure of autonomous agents (their incomprehensibility to human observers) led to reflection, using the tools of schizoanalysis and analysis of institutionalization, on the underlying assumptions of autonomy in AI, which in turn led the way to a new architecture and design approach focused on agents-as-communication. In my case, a focus on the interpretive and authorial affordances of AI systems leads to reflection on and explicit design of the rhetorical systems by which the meaning of AI systems are narrated.

Primacy of agency

SS-AI focuses on agents, that is, software which can be understood as an intentional entity, like a human or animal, responding to and pursuing goals in an environment. In particular, SS-AI replaces “autonomy” with “communication” as the driving design consideration in the construction of agents. Within the AI community, the debate between situated and Good Old Fashioned AI (GOFAI) is organized around the notion of an agent. Historically, situated AI appeared as a reaction to recurring problems appearing in GOFAI in the design of complete agents, particularly robots. In recent years much AI research has been organized around the metaphor of “agent,” to the extent that a popular introductory AI textbook describes itself on the cover as “The Intelligent Agent Book” [Russell and Norvig]. However, AI-based cultural production is broader than agent design. For example, while Office Plant #1 can be understood as an agent, Terminal Time is not an agent (at least it can’t be understood as an agent without broadening the notion of agent until it is vacuous), and yet is indisputably an instance of AI-based cultural production. Agency, and associated concepts such as autonomy, is only one rhetorical cluster within the broader discourse of AI. An AI-based artist aligning herself too strongly with the notion of agent may miss out on a rich field of alternative strategies for situating AI within cultural production.

How fundamental is SS-AI’s focus on agency and the associated critique of autonomy to SS-AI as a practice? What would it mean to extend SS-AI to other metaphor clusters within AI? In the three postulates of SS-AI, if one just replaced the word “agent” with the phrase “AI system,” what would this change? Do the three postulates summarize the results of the analysis of autonomy (ie. schizoanalysis, the analysis of institutionalization, the application of narrative psychology) or do they serve as a framework within which many humanistic interventions (perhaps not organized around the notion of agent) can be made, with the analysis of autonomy as a concrete instance?

Disciplinary relationships

Simon Penny describes his art practice as sitting on three legs: technical practice, art practice, and cultural theory. This same formation is found in E-AI. Cultural theory serves as the transducer, the relay between art practice and technical practice.

Criticism (i.e. demystification) alone is not enough to be CTP. The toolbox of the critical theorist is primarily a toolbox of negation. There is certainly a mass of naturalized ideology surrounding technical practices, and negating this naturalized ideology, and thus opening the path to alternatives, is precisely what makes critical theory part of CTP. But a CTP also continues to produce positive knowledge within its domain. E-AI continues to produce AI research which can be understood as new knowledge by other AI practitioners. But this new knowledge is now being produced within the maelstrom of an always contingent, infinitely ramifying self-reflective loop rather than from the stable, unmoving comfort of naturalized bedrock. Knowledge production is not a project of negation, but rather of construction. Tools of negation alone will not suffice.

In E-AI, the three-legged stool of art, AI and cultural theory provides a combination of tools of construction and tools of negation. Art and AI provide two “positive” modes of knowledge production which mutually inform and alter each other; critical theory keeps things boiling, preventing sedimentation and the eventual naturalization of a bedrock, providing a language for uncovering and articulating assumptions, and serving as a transducer/relay between the two practices.

This tripartite structure is visible in both Sengers’ and Agre’s work. In Sengers’ case, schizoanalysis and the critique of institutionalization (critical theory) diagnoses a problem in reactive agent architectures, while Brunner’s narrative psychology (psychology) – when understood within the heuristic matrix established by the schizoanalysis of agents – produces new knowledge in both AI (a technical solution and, more importantly, a story about that technical solution) and narrative psychology (it says something new about Brunner’s theory through concrete actualization). In Agre’s case, deconstruction (critical theory) is used to invert hierarchical oppositions latent in AI research (particularly the inside/outside master narrative of mind/world), while phenomenology of everyday life (ethnography, micro-sociology), when understood in the heuristic matrix produced by the deconstructive analysis, produces new knowledge in both AI (a technical solution and accompanying story about the technical solution) and ethnography (it says something new about ethnographic understandings of life routines through concrete actualization).

Representation

Both E-AI and SS-AI are in complete agreement that an agent (or more generally, an AI system) is a representation. E-AI practice is concerned with articulating doubled rhetorical and technical machines which provide an appropriate framework within which an experience for an audience can be authored. The system (and accompanying rhetorical formation) must function (be readable and inscribable) for both the author and audience. In Sengers’ case, the technical support for signs, signifiers, transitions and meta-controls, when coupled with the accompanying story about the incomprehensibility resulting from black-boxing and the need to support intentional (narrative) understanding of agents, provides a framework for agent design which is readable and inscribable by agent designers. Agent designers can then use the framework to build agents that in turn are readable and inscribable, on a different semiotic level, for the agents’ audience.

References

Agre, P. 1997. Computation and Human Experience. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Boehlen, M., and Mateas, M. 1998. “Office Plant #1: Intimate space and contemplative entertainment.” Leonardo, Volume 31 Number 5: 345-348.

Mateas, M. “Expressive AI.” 2000a. SIGGRAPH Art and Culture Papers, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000.

—., Vanouse, P., and Domike S. 2000b. “Generation of Ideologically-Biased Historical Documentaries.” In Proceedings of AAAI 2000. Austin, TX, pp. 236-242.

Russell, S., and Norvig, P. 1995. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, N.J.

Lucy Suchman responds

Phoebe Sengers responds


          Evaluating Microphones and Transducers with Simulation        
Acoustic measurements aren’t always accurate due to imperfections in the measurement tools. To limit incorrect results, devices, such as microphones and vibration transducers, have standards that define their allowable margin of error. Meeting these standards is required, but good measurement tools go a step further and keep their error range consistent over time. To create quality devices, research teams at Brüel & Kjær use multiphysics simulation to model their microphone and transducer designs. A Leader in Measuring Sound and Vibrations: […]
          How do women fare when breast cancer is detected on US?        

Women whose breast cancers are detected with screening ultrasound generally...



          00cxae Reviewed        

Try out the Martin 00CXAE Black here



Martin 00CXAE Black


When professionals look for the best guitar, they look no farther than the Martin 00cxae. The black body, in thin form, has a unfinished laminate neck. The neck is slightly oval in shape and the headstock is a solid, standard taper. 20 frets in total, 14 of which are in the clear. Giving a very elegant look, the guitar's neck is a combination of classically-aligned wood pieces. The top base and side and back body are made out of Jett black HPL. The most discerning features of the guitar are its gold and black herringbone rosette, bowtie plates, and graphite bridge. Customers from all over the globe will love this guitar.

The Martin 00cxae has a stylish, laminated neck. The laminations, which run longitudinally from top to bottom, give the appearance of wood grain. To allow the player to have a comfortable grip on the guitar, the neck is left unfinished. Not only is the guitar beautiful and elegant but extremely playable. The functional 4 and Fishman transducer gives you complete ease to make adjustments to your amplifier. Just adjust the tuner, saddle, and nut and you'll get the perfect sound you were looking for. Martin Guitar Company has once again provided a functional guitar at an affordable price.

Just plug in the 00cxae and play! Although you can play it unplugged, it is not very loud and would not be very useful at your next campfire, sing-along, or bluegrass jam. Plugged in, its sound is resonant and well balanced, with each string sounding clear and rhythmic. Its sound is so amazing that even at the highest pitch, it is fully capable of sustaining balanced bass and remarkable bite. Not even a trace of boxines can be found in the martin guitar black. No other guitar in 00cxae price range compares.

With the zoom A2 preamp, you can get almost any kind of sound imaginable with just a simple tweaking of the strings. Half the fun is experimenting! If you want a brighter sound, go for the phosphorous/ bronze strings. But if you're looking for a mellower tone, the normal ones will do. Whether you play blues, country, folk, jazz, bluegrass or rock, the 00cxae is the guitar for you.

Whether you enjoy sitting or standing while playing, the Martin Guitar Company has given the 00cxae a very fine finish. Although a perfectionist may find the strings slightly two narrower, most guitarists will find no problems. Even beginners will get addicted to the 00cxae. You can find a full Martin guitar review on various websites, giving you a greater understanding of the guitars functionality. With a more clear understanding of the guitars benefits, you can feel comfortable knowing you made a great choice. Try it out!

Check out the Martin 00CXAE guitar




          How to Build Your Own Speakers: Step-by-Step DIY Tech        

The electronic components inside a loudspeaker are actually quite simple. The drivers and crossovers pictured here are available in a $369 kit. (Photograph by Chris Eckert)

It was back in 1924 that a couple of researchers from General Electric, Chester Rice and Edward Kellogg, patented what remains the basic design for virtually all the world's loudspeakers. In the 84 years since, engineers and enthusiasts have invested a lot of thought and energy in the refinement of Rice and Kellogg's concept, creating a valuable knowledge base for the do-it-yourself crowd.

I should know--I recently built the speakers pictured on these pages, and in the process I learned quite a bit about the art and science of a good speaker.
Click to enlarge
INSIDE YOUR SPEAKER
How a few well-matched components make beautiful music together. (Photo by Chris Eckert. Illustration by Keltie + Cochran)

At its core a loudspeaker is a surprisingly simple device. The key elements are the drivers, crossovers and the cabinet. The cone or dome drivers are transducers that transform the electrical signal into the physical movement of air (i.e., sound). Crossovers act as an electrical filter to split the signal and direct the portions of the audio-frequency range to the drivers best equipped to handle them. But coaxing rich and beautiful sound out of these elements requires a bit of harmonic alchemy. Every decision you make--from the combination of drivers and crossovers to the material you use to build the cabinet--influences the performance and character of your speakers.

Hardcore speaker hobbyists take delight in figuring all this out for themselves, designing and building the crossovers and enclosures from scratch to see what comes out. If that's your leaning, Parts Express is a well-stocked and reliable source for speaker builders and a good place to start.

But if that's too hit-or-miss, you can buy a speaker kit that comes with all the components, plus either a preconstructed cabinet or drawings to build your own. For this project, I opted for one of these hybrid kits, from North Creek Music Systems in Old Forge, N.Y. This little firm is run by George Short, a speaker engineer whose kits use his own driver and crossover designs but require you to buy cabinets elsewhere, or build them using the provided detailed woodworking plans. The benefit is that someone with know-how and good ears has gone through the time-consuming and costly process of "voicing" the speaker--engineering, auditioning and then re-engineering it until the desired sound is achieved.

My own speaker-building ambitions were no grander than to have a little fun, learn a bit and come out with a pair of bookshelf speakers I could put in my home office. I selected North Creek's Okara II "Ikemo" kit, a ported design that delivers decent bass (down to about 60 Hz) from a small 0.25-cu.-ft. cabinet measuring 12 1/2 x 7 1/2 x 9 5/8 in. Its 5 1/2-in. woofer has a lightweight pressed-fiber cone coated with polypropylene, and the tweeter is a 1-in. silk dome. Silk is a material favored by many audiophiles for delivering superb midrange- and high-frequency detail without sounding bright or hard, the way some metal domes can.

The kit costs $369 for the pair and comes with everything except lumber and wood glue: drivers, crossovers, port tubes, acoustic stuffing and gaskets, the terminal cup for hooking up the wires from your amp and miscellaneous hardware. The simple crossovers--one each for the woofer and tweeter in each speaker--come with the coils, capacitors and resistors hard-wired on perforated breadboards. That saves some work, but these still must be mounted in the cabinets and wired to the drivers.

Building the cabinet was the most time-consuming part of the project, but it allowed me to customize the look of my speakers. Initially, I intended to build the cabinet from solid hardwood, but North Creek's plans recommend a combination of 3/4-in. medium-density fiberboard (MDF) backed with a layer of 3/4-in. birch plywood on the front fascia and back pieces. It turns out that MDF is not only cheaper, easier to mill and less susceptible to warping and shifting than hardwood, but the difference in densities of the MDF and plywood also reduces cabinet vibrations when you layer them together. To add rigidity, there is a plywood crossbrace running internally across the width of the box.

I painted the fascia and back MDF panels matte black and veneered the top, bottom and sides to effect the look of a hardwood finish. By scouting the Web I found an outstanding Italian-made composite veneer called Alpiwood, distributed by Brookside Veneers in Cranbury, N.J. It's an environmentally responsible material made from plantation-grown poplar that's been dyed and grained to match about 30 different common and exotic hardwoods, and it even comes prefinished with a polyurethane coating. The bird's-eye maple I chose has a tough laminate substrate and ships with a plastic sheet adhered to the finish to protect it during installation. You peel off the sheet after you've cut and applied the veneer--the stunning result is hard to distinguish from real finished hardwood.

One other tip: Invest in a Jasper circle-cutting jig for the driver, port and terminal-cup holes. The jig (model 400, partsexpress.com) is a legendary speaker-building tool that gets screwed to the base of the router to make perfect circle cuts that would otherwise be manually jigsawed. It costs $27 and is worth every penny.

After assembling the cabinet, I used construction adhesive to mount the tweeter and woofer crossovers inside the cabinet to the back and bottom walls, respectively. There's an odd bit of business in the kit's instructions about filling the rear-firing port tube with several dozen plastic straws that confused me at first, but a call to North Creek revealed that the straws help fine-tune the speaker's low-end bass limit. Then I connected the wires from the crossovers to the drivers on one end and the terminal cup on the other. And, finally, the woofers, tweeters, terminal cup and rear-firing port tube were glued and screwed into place.

After spending less than $100 for wood, on top of the cost of the kit, I ended up with a high-performance system that sounded better than most $500 speaker pairs I've heard. Though bass was limited by the speaker's size, it was well-balanced, without the inaccurate, bloated sound you hear with cheap speakers purposely pumped up to overcompensate for their size. The midrange was musical and open, free of the harsh colorations you sometimes hear on vocals. High frequencies were nicely detailed, if a little laid back, and held together well at moderately high volumes for such a compact speaker.

For me, speaker building was a rewarding mix of woodworking and electronics--beautiful and functional at the same time. When friends and family come to visit and comment on the rich, bird's-eye maple cabinets, I'll tell them, "Yeah, I built those. But just listen ..."

Speakers
The Jasper Circle Jig: A lifesaver!


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Drilling guide holes for the jig's pivot pin.


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Left: The jig goes for a spin atop a fascia panel.
Right: A milled fascia piece showing holes plus countersinks. Note the dog-ears manually rasped into the tweeter hole to account for its side-mounted terminals. This was not mentioned in the instructions, which seemed to have been written long ago, and on several occasions didn't fully account for the peculiarities of the included parts. But half the fun is wingin' it.


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Gluing and clamping the fascia.


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Matte black spray paint for the fascia and black panels. In the end, getting an acceptably smooth finish required two coats of spray primer and a couple of coats of black enamel.


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Prep for assembly includes dry-fitting all the pieces and tweaking panels as needed for a perfect fit.


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For efficiency, assembly involves gluing and clamping the panels together with butt joints, then putting in temporary drywall screws to keep the glue joints tight while you remove the clamps and move on to the next panel. After the glue drys, the screws come out and the holes and countersinks are filled with wood putty.


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Box assembly.


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Screw removal and puttying of the screw holes in preparation for veneering. The putty is sanded flat once dry.


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Top: Rough-cutting veneer and its thick laminate substrate with multiple passes of a sharp utility knife.
Bottom: Contact cement is applied to both surfaces and the veneer carefully aligned and layed down. A new rolling pin with an unblemished surface was used to apply maximum pressure rather than the small rubber J-roller commonly used for veneer; the veneer's protective sheathing made it possible to do this without damaging the finish.


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The veneered box, still with protective plastic sheathing on the veneer, after all sides are completed. In between panels, the overhanging edges of the veneer were carefully trimmed with a router equipped with a flush-trim bit.


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Gluing the fascia to the front inner-brace, and the finished cabinet ready for components.


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Components and completed cabinet ready for final assembly.


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Dry positioning the crossovers before cementing to the cabinet walls.


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Stuffing the port tube with plastic straws cut to 3-in length.


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Top: Installing the port tube: applying rubber gasket sealing tape, drilling holes in the outer flange, and mounting.
Bottom: Once the tube is in, construction cement is applied to the tweeter crossover through the terminal cup hole. Once dry, the speaker is flipped over and cement is applied to the woofer crossover through the woofer hole.


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Top: The crossovers cemented in final position as viewed through the woofer hole.
Bottom: Crossover input wires are fed through the terminal cup hole


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Connecting the crossover input wires to the speaker terminals with a nutdriver, then mounting the cup.


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Top: Wires for the drivers are fed through the fascia holes.
Bottom: Acoustic stuffing is cut and placed behind the driver holes.


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Gasket tape is applied to both cutouts before mounting the drivers


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The crimped crossover wires are connected to the drivers and the drivers are screwed down.


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Done!

          Comment on L. Eric Cross (1923–2016) discoveries led to piezoelectric transducers for modern medical ultrasound by Balasubramaniam Vaidhyanathan        
Fantastic person, great scientist, innovator and teacher. Had the privilege to meet him and learn & interact with him during my stint at MRL. RIP to the great soul.
          Raymarine Axiom multifunction navigation system coming soon!        

Introducing the new Raymarine Axiom, a powerful new multifunction navigation system from Raymarine. With built-in RealVision 3D™ sonar, quad core performance and the the all new LightHouse 3 operating system, Raymarine Axiom will transform your time on the water. Available in 7”, 9” or 12.1” multifunction display options.

The Raymarine Axiom has capabilities that can grow with you, as needed. Expandable with the full range of Raymarine accessories, including Quantum radar, CHIRP Sonar, FLIR thermal cameras, audio integration, instruments, cameras, and Evolution autopilot. With standard Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connectivity allowing connection to the latest Raymarine apps for tablets and smartphones.

Axiom features

New LightHouse 3 OS - fast, fluid, and easy to learn with an uncluttered interface is easily personalized for your style of navigating.

Rugged Display - all-glass display optimized for flush or surface mounting. Sleek buttonless design with swipe-to-power control.

Easy Fish Identification - Easily identify structure and locate fish with the life-like clarity of RealVision™ 3D sonar.

Wide Spectrum CHIRP Sonar - Transmits on 60 different frequencies for the most life-like sonar imagery and simply the best fish targeting.

Powerful 4 Channel Sonar - Supports RealVision 3D, CHIRP DownVision, SideVision, High Frequency CHIRP, and 600 Watt (50/200 kHz) sonar.

Gyro-Stabilized Sonar Technology - Gyro stabilization compensates for boat movement, delivering life-like 3D sonar imagery.

All-in-One Tranducers - RealVision 3D Transducers combine CHIRP DownVision, CHIRP SideVision, High Frequency CHIRP, and RealVision 3D into a single transducer housing.

All-in-One Tranducers - RealVision 3D Transducers combine CHIRP DownVision, CHIRP SideVision, High Frequency CHIRP, and RealVision 3D into a single transducer housing.

The Raymarine Axiom will be available online and in-store soon.


          New Lowrance Elite Ti 9 & Elite Ti 12 Coming soon!        

The Lowrance Elite Ti family just got BIGGER. Introducing the new Elite Ti 9 and Elite Ti 12 widescreen displays. With high end features at an affordable price make the the Elite Ti series a clear choice for serious anglers.

The Elite Ti series has more viewing options than any competitor and comes standard with CHIRP sonar across more frequencies. With exclusive and instant TrackBack™ sonar history recall and compatibility with the TotalScan™ all-in-one Skimmer@reg; transducer, providing CHIRP and StructureScan® HD with SideScan and DownScan Imaging&trade. All Elite Ti models use proven high-resolution imaging frequencies — both 455 and 800 kHz — for StructureScan HD, DownScan Imaging and DownScan Overlay™ for super-fine, incomparable detail. Only StructureScan HD imaging makes available the widest side-scan range in fishing. With a max range of 300 ft. to each side of the boat, Elite-Ti is easier to use, eliminating multiple passes. You will spend less time idling and more time fishing with Elite Ti.

Superior networking features including NMEA 2000® (excluding Elite-5 Ti) and wireless connectivity that not only delivers notifications about new software updates, but allows you to download new software directly to the display, for the Elite Ti and all connected NMEA 2000 devices. Elite Ti features onboard Service Assistant and Network Analyzer Wi-Fi service tools, enabling you to send system reports, screenshots and software version information directly to Lowrance Customer Service. Wi-Fi also connects you to the GoFree® Shop, allowing you to upload sonar data or download custom maps from your Insight Genesis™ account. Bluetooth® wireless capability enables control of C-Monster® controlled single- or dual- Power-Pole® installations directly from the Elite-Ti touchscreen.

The Elite Ti Series features a clean, rugged design. Just what you would expect from Lowrance. Matching great performance and exceptional features with easy-to-use operation.

The new Ti series will be available early next year.


          Music to Your Ears: New Transducers Meet Electrostatic Headphones        
An audio technology startup delivers manufacturable transducers for high-end headphones.
          Duplex ultrasound advanced form of ultrasound technology veins call        

Duplex ultrasound peripheral vascular arterial disease

The detection of blood flow and the presence of certain veins call for a very advanced form of ultrasound technology. When most people think of ultrasound, they think of the fairly limited ultrasound used to detect babies in the womb of mothers.

Duplex ultrasound varies greatly from the traditional ultrasound used to check on unborn babies as well as common gynecological disorders such as ovarian cysts, in that it combines two forms of technology. Duplex combines conventional ultrasound technology with Doppler ultrasonography.
Doppler Ultrasound Technology

Traditional ultrasound uses sound waves to bounce off of blood vessels and create a picture within the body. Doppler ultrasound records sound waves as they reflect off of moving objects rather than just stationary blood vessels. It can reflect off of blood and other things moving within the body and measure speed and other aspects of flow.

When Duplex is used
There are a number of different reasons duplex ultrasound may be used. The various types of duplex include;
o Arterial and venous duplex-this is used to view blood vessels and flow in the abdominal area.
o Carotid duplex-used to view the carotid artery in the neck. This artery is essential to life.
o Duplex ultrasound-used for examination of the extremities such as arms or legs.
o Renal duplex-examines the kidneys and their accompanying blood vessels.
How the Test is done

If your doctor orders a duplex ultrasound, it will likely be performed in the ultrasound or radiology department. Tests done for cosmetic vein procedures might be performed in the office or medical spa the treatment is being done at.
During the exam:

o You will be wearing a medical gown and gel will be spread over the area that will be examined.
o A wand, called a transducer, will be moved over the area and it sends out sound waves.
o A computer measures sound waves and changes them into pictures.
o You will hear a swishing sound which is the sound of your blood moving through the arteries and veins.
During certain tests, doctors may wish to calculate an ankle-brachial or ABI index. This is done by wearing blood pressure cuffs on your arms and legs. This test checks for the possible presence of peripheral vascular arterial disease.

For more information on duplex ultrasound as used for the treatment of serious various veins, visit the website of the dermatology experts at Zimmet Vein & Dermatology.

          Portable ultrasound machine pass through liquids and soft tissues        

Portable ultrasound machine how ultrasound machines work

The joy that overcomes couples when having a baby is unmatched in any other walk of life. On the contrary, pregnancy is one of those life-changing events that will prove to be overly costly. Many partners will opt to buy their own machine in order to keep a keen eye on the baby while it is still in the womb.
It was invented in the 1960s, and, over the course of the last 40 years, has changed with advances in technology. Here's how ultrasound machines work:

o use same techniques as sonar, which was developed for ships at sea.
o The process begins with a machine called a transducer. This machine, when placed over the belly, emits sound and listens for returning echoes that bounce back.
o The sounds that bounce back are analyzed by a computer within the machine, and then transformed into moving images. This is what creates the image of an infant inside the womb.
Ultrasound waves are meant to pass through liquids and soft tissues, which is why they are so effective during the course of a pregnancy. In addition, ultrasound machines are often used when studying soft organs in patients.
Portable

Recently, the use of portable has been on the rise. Upon their invention, portable ultrasounds were very costly and not nearly as efficient or accurate as the traditional ultrasound machines. As technology has grown, so has the ability and power of these transportable devices. Portable ultrasound machines give people the ability to see images of their unborn child while in the comfort of their own home.

Globally, these machines have given a plethora of opportunity to both doctors and patients. Millions of people in third world countries don't have the means of using ultrasound machines, which is often problematic for those who are pregnant. Portable ultrasound machines give people, who would normally never have a chance to use an ultrasound machine, the ability to check the infant's health while it is still in the mother.
Advances in modern medical technology have reached out all across the world. Perhaps one of the most influential inventions was the portable ultrasound machine. Because of this device, fewer babies are being lost during the course of pregnancy, not only in the United States but all over the world.

Advances in modern medical technology have reached out all across the world. Perhaps one of the most influential inventions was the portable ultrasound [] machine. Because of this device, fewer babies are being lost during the course of pregnancy, not only in the United States but all over the world.

          Nova Mythos 10        

10” / 2-way self-powered loudspeaker
The all-new MYTHOS 10 powered 10" / 2-way loudspeaker is an uncompromising monitor, fullrange speaker and mid/high cabinet in systems - all-in-one. MYTHOS 10 delivers sonic clarity and performance beyond. The self-powered MYTHOS 10 loudspeaker is the ideal allround solution for the up-market user. Whether on stage or installed, the ultra lightweighted MYTHOS 10 convinces with a full package of features, delivering spectacular and precise sonic performance. MYTHOS 10 is the ideal solution for musicians, DJs, mobile entertainers and rental companies. NOVA´s newest generation of DSP technology handles all the processing within the cabinet and allows for full control of power, limiters, amplitude and phase equalization. MYTHOS 10 is based on tour-grade wood enclosures, sophisticated high-sensivity transducers and latest bi-amped 1.000 W power modules (class-D).

DTA2 technology
The DTA2 digital time alignment algorythms provide for 100% matching, time-corrected and synchronized signals. DTA2 combines the woofer with the high frequency driver to an acoustically detected single-point source across the entire listening area. DTA2 inaugurates a next level of sonic clarity and total performance.

IDSE digital sound editor
The powerful IDSE intelligent digital sound editor enables effective on-board optimization. The edit