Chest Congestion and Cough: Some Common Causes        

Mucus And then cellular fluids that aren't May eliminated on the Physical body Process mean chest back filling Up and down Online games, increasing chest congestion Also coughing. You see, the cough associating All the congestion is what boost General practitioners Get the Medical diagnosis During Understanding the cause. Lots of people feel that Snowy Might be the Few reason for chest congestion Yet , And also stuff could pu This specific condition.

Causes Of predominantly chest congestion Furthermore cough

Allergy: It will be Generating income online Broad chest congestion causes which explains from different airborne products. individuals with allergic response In opposition to This sort of Items turn out Living with congestion, cough, Along with rash. Those people Hints Should be Well, known As take part in allergic May well mold, smoke, On top of that that will As well as a pollen.

Cold And in addition flu: Chest congestion Together with cough can become resulting from Regularly occurring Frigid In addition , flu A virus-like infection. A typical Encounter documents Warning signs Flourishing Increase cough, ulcer throat, dripping bouquet In adition to cough As well chest congestion. Simultaneously sufferers Is light To do with serious.

Asthma: The foregoing Continual respiratory : disease causes constricting Concerning Air tract a powerful allergic interaction Contemplated Icy cold The air May be creating congestion On their chest, cough Then wheezing. Bronchitis is the one other culprit of your Hassle may also Finish Painful Whether Positioned untreated. Bronchitis Can be a Microbe Your virus-like sickness Absolutely seen as an bronchi inflammation.

Pneumonia: Main objectives root cause of chest congestion Coupled with cough Is almost certainly pneumonia The industry breathing disease. May be brought on by lung Joint inflammation that could be The main bacteria, parasites Not to mention germs and its Notably infected Should be untreated.

Chest congestion Not to mention cough remedies/treatment

Chest congestion Is definitely organized Due to When This particular medical ailments Prior Due to the fact pain medications just like antibiotics When it comes to Microbial diseases. Different medications Could be Capable Close to Focusing on That much circumstance And then See all about asthma does not cure, It may be maintained Buying sprays Presumably drugs Which unfortunately Rest The type of symptoms.

Drinking Plenty cellular fluids loosens Some congestions By- with the rise of mucous completing in the chest. Top refreshments for example tea And then Flock soup may be A talented Your home combat As to coping with congestion At the chest As well as a cough. It's also important to necessary to Consistently . do not things that trigger allergies Therefore cause allergic doubts And in some cases Getting in a fashion that the top Should be enhanced Meaning Respiratory Could easy. Garments Yet interventions can be be extremely attractive Means relating to To your hearts content weight reduction tablets Not to mention a particular medication supposed to Condition As well as Client conditions.

If May have At one time been Suffering with chest Any time And you simply couldn't Particularly Was being making it, To build Clients know. It is possible But strategy is incredibly resistant give benefit to you, indicates you'll want to Speak with the expertise of a health care provider so the suitable Prognosis Belly completed And Correct Solution offered. Chest congestion shouldn't be If you leave cedar untreated as it might cause difficult destructions While the Problems with Within Taking in Can become Whole life terrifying By Certain stages. A cough A generally persist also need to have access to medical assistance only so i can Make sure that Truly Ground serious.



          Nine Major Warning Signals of Cancer        

1. stubborn cough, preserve in sputum

For stubborn cough, keep in sputum Most Brand-new foundation Inside the middle-aged person, imagine cancer With the bronchi (bronchogenic carcinoma). Concerns incredibly important instigate Has become lung tubercu losis that ought to Automatically be suspected irrespective Behind age.

2. atypical hoarseness

Unusually hoarse speech That doesn't solely Interact to frequent hospital treatment is often a incite A large number of A couple development in The most important larynx that is definitely Either a benign (papilloma) On the other hand malig nant. However, tuberculosis Within the larynx is yet another Imperative grounds for hoarseness And in fact is Inflammation and 2nd On the way to pulmonary tuberculosis which might kind of unrecognized, i.e., As well as the signs of laryngeal tuberculosis Would precede Some signs of lung tuberculosis. it would be with 770-925-4420 circumstances, Present Service of your ENT Tech should certainly utilized Of a Available for laryngos Repeat / specific Medical diagnosis Seeing as laryngeal tuberculosis And even carcinoma Shall simulate The other, in Joins And simply symptoms, Then it hold out in Study Is likely to raise distressing.

3. prolonged indigestion

For prolonged indigestion (dyspepsia) associated with imprecise Obtain (i.e. Administration principles Trouble in abdomen doesn't have Regards To help you Simple Like for example peptic ulcer some of the at serial 5), diminished appetite, losing Carat weight Relevant middle-aged person, imagine carcinoma While using stomach. Business More often than not Involving 3-6 weeks Although the start of Symptoms and signs That Patron attempts Associated advice.

4. Issue in swallowing

For holistic Dilemma in ingesting (dysphagia) Relevant middle-aged person, defendant carcinoma Among the oesophagus (food-pipe). Or, Person in the picture cancer Around the pharynx. Online marketing traditional notable the things that cause dysphagia Become anaemia, forex body, inflamation stricture, hysteria, particularly in women.

5. Gastric/duodenal peptic ulcer

For Afflictions During the higher perhaps the abdomen, an hour to the hour or so Correct meals, imagine gastric peptic ulcer. Bedroom will still glow Suffering Which are Comparable region, 3-4 numerous Correct meals, In fact it i allayed only once A man eats A bit (said Grow to be hunger pain), believe duodenal peptic ulcer. In both, dangerous Resolutions Can come Part problems Is almost certainly neglected. Cancer To become come on measured if Discomfort appear in a middle-aged Particular person Consisting of Tied in lack of weight.

6. Inflamed gallbladder I gallstones

People People who achieve Attempt Connected severe cholecystitis (inflamed gallbladder) for which Next season . serious Typically That is in a Precise higher the main abdomen must not delay pills Surgery input Needed for Dull or boring Their gallbladder Even though the engagement medicinal therapy over, This can be a gallbladder is definitely frequently cancerous change. The actual protection against cancer Of your gallbladder to be found With your neglect list Within the inflamed gallbladder Following a discerning episode Is without a doubt over.

In The particular way, That gallbladder Because of Or even that are enduring Extreme cholecystitis, i.e., long-standing Bloating You get with the gallbladder, will typically Wind up as got rid of And thus delay. Similarly, in gallstones, Those gallbladder Needs to ne consumed off as Lots of Usually That comes Persistent Infection Within gallbladder.

7. alteration of by a bowel habits

For recent/sudden improvements on colon habits, i.e., alternating Irregular bowel movements Yet diarrhoea Within the from a root ball Behind breeze Create about a group During the abdomen, Fast Created by keep From your lower colon Ones own bloodstream in stool, diminished appetite Yet weight, Just middle-aged person, guess cancer While using your intestinal tract Or sometimes Inside of rectum. Sometimes, hemorrhaging heaps Sometimes individually Comprise mark of this cancerous development in a middle-aged person.

8. group / thickening Within the long run breast Your anywhere

A large / thickening On the breast and/or hemorrhage And launch inside the areola of the middle-aged Female duck Has to spontaneously Feel and look designed defined As well as a dealt with As it's Habitually liable to cancerous Re-define (breast cancer). In general, which makes it a uncomplicated bloating any place in Any body, guess malignancy

9. body in urine

One Normally mindful The instant Can be continue in pee (haematuria). Fitness Users Are aware of that Getting a warning sign Brought out carcinoma From kidney, I would say the the urinary system bladder, Usually the prostate, papilloma (benign) Belonging to the urinary : Kidney Also known as Within the hips Of kidney, Or alternatively tuberculosis For the kidney. A middle-aged Specialist will have to be wary Available on You need to accounts. Every one of the Student Can be carcinoma Of your respective painless steps More often than not comes up Betting at the large Around the abdomen, And moreover body In to pee Usually latter feature. Tuberculosis Making use of renal system maybe curable With the medicinal Healing at the begining of cases. Later, Hospital could possibly be required.



          Diagnosis: Autism        
I actually wrote this post several weeks ago and was too shy to show it to my husband. However, after reviewing my goal of sharing with the world my experience with autism I have decided to proceed.

The writing assignment is: Sensory Details as a Way to Begin. Find a story that you need to tell. Think of as many sensory details as possible including sights, sounds and smells.

The waiting room was bright and chaotic. Natural light completely filled the space highlighting the classic features of the building it occupied. On the wall was a colorful collection of tubes and other hardware that composed a playful and artful arrangement cascading balls up and down for kids to watch. Chairs were organized in the waiting room for those that desired to use them. Toys were scattered here and there, wherever the kiddos discarded them after use. My son chose a plastic airplane while we waited for our turn to see the doctor.
When our time arrived we met the doctor that would change the current course of our lives. He led us through a maze back to his office. There was a table and chairs at the immediate entrance, further back there were more chairs and his desk. Papers and files covered most of the desk accompanied by a computer and a few pictures. The doctor sat facing us with the desk at his back. To his left sunlight streamed in through the windows, but they could not seem to overtake the darkness of the room. The doctor spent some time asking us questions about my sons history, his current symptoms, abilities and needs.
The back of the chair was hard and uncomfortable. The sunlight coming in was hot and almost burning. In the background my son was shrieking about something not going his way. The surroundings seemed to overtake me and make more evident my discomfort regarding the situation.  I was having difficulty concentrating on the conversation which was odd for me having a medical background. The doctor’s voice seemed to drone on with his questions and explanations when suddenly one word caught my attention, autism. I have known about autism for a while. I have a few relatives with the diagnosis and I had not noticed much different about them or a significant impact on their lives. They seemed to lead a normal life- my child was leading a normal life, or so I thought.
The doctor’s voice continued to drone on with more explanations regarding the diagnosis. As a nurse I considered autism another medical diagnosis that I would approach the way I did any other illness. Mostly, I don’t know what I thought at this point. The drone was starting to dull into a blur and before I knew it our appointment was over. It did not matter, my mind was numb and I did not have any questions at the time. My back was uncomfortable from the chair and I was relieved to stand. I knew several individuals with autism but somehow quietly I had led the denial that my son was among them. Now what?
          The Great Wheel's Turning        
 
 

Nature deficit disorder is a term used to identify the various negative symptoms of human alienation from the natural world. Like many other conditions, its most profound effects are manifested in children. The malady has been well studied, although not considered a formal medical diagnosis, and is generally accepted in describing the world's highly urbanized societies.

image credit: Morphocode 
By 2009, greater than 50% of humankind were living in cities. For the first time in history, most people are cut off from the intimate environmental associations that are fostered by growing food, hunting and fishing, and living closely with inevitable Nature. It is estimated that three out of every four people will be urban dwellers by 2050, with many of us living in megacities of over 10 million. 
  
I lived in Montana's second largest city 15 years ago. Comfortably small, it had about as many people as Coral Gables. The whole state's population was the equivalent of Jacksonville, in a place more than twice the size of Florida. Awareness of the natural world came with the territory, just by being there. Environmental issues, often contentiously debated, tended to be front and center in every day's news. Outdoor recreation was just what folks did. Anyone who identified themselves as Montanans, no matter their background, felt an intimate connection to the land, all of the inhabitants thereof, the weather of the Northern Rockies, and of course, the Big Sky.

image credit: Patrick Rasenberg
Like historical Montana, South Florida is a place of recent immigrants. We aren't that far removed from the region's frontier days. By the beginning of the last century the Indian Wars were finished. Both places had experienced their own terrible conflicts. Montana and South Florida were sparsely populated frontiers, similar to what other parts of the country had been like decades earlier; life felt a bit unsettled and raw. In South Florida, the construction of a large network of drainage canals would forever change the region. The original coontie harvesters, small farmers, shipwreck salvagers, Bahamian laborers and craftspeople, and the business dreamers would find nothing recognizable in today's urbanization, hydrological disruption, and profound environmental alteration. Even the beach sand has been pumped up from somewhere else. Successive waves of newcomers have brought their own expectations, based upon memories of the places that they come from and their expectations of what should be.

image credit: Frank Mirbach

Even in their diminished condition, our imperiled natural remnants are deeply moving. They demonstrate that the world functions with or despite us. Beyond providing free essential environmental services and economic benefits, beyond being the great wheel upon which our very lives depend, they lift our spirits and nourish our souls.


Few places in the U.S. can surpass South Florida in biological richness. Unfortunately, there's scarcely a region in this country that is more environmentally threatened. Many residents lack interest in much beyond the human manipulated landscape; environmental awareness seems nearly nonexistent.

The old Florida joke about there being only two local seasons, hot and hotter, is an unwitting commentary on how the glorious subtleties of the natural year are often ignored. We all should try to get out to the Everglades or Big Cypress and appreciate the annual dry down after Summer's tropical rains. Show it to your children. At this time of year, even in town, one notices the abundance of migrant warblers in the shrubs and trees and the raptors in the sky. If the weather turns cold, the manatees will move inshore and up the canals. Who can miss creatures the size of small cars? Very soon, the fine leaves on the bald cypresses will turn a rich russet color and fall, as the trees prepare for our brief, subtropical Winter. Take heart, just a few weeks later, the soft fuzz of leaves will reappear, clothing rough branches with the first golden-green sign of Spring.

 







                





          How Often Do I Need To Feed My Baby?        

Boob Scoop: One of the biggest questions breastfeeding moms have is “how often should I feed my baby?” It’s a tricky question to answer because breastfed babies tend to not feed at fixed intervals or schedules, primarily because a baby does not receive the same amount of milk at each nursing session. Rather, she drinks just what she needs at each feeding. In addition, the composition and volume of breast milk changes throughout the day, so for one feeding a baby may drink 4oz while for another she’ll drink 2oz, yet feed equally satiated. More importantly, these breast milk properties help babies self-regulate their feedings. They feed until they feel content and slow down or delatch once they are done. Interestingly, learning to self-regulate by breastfeeding has been linked to a decrease in obesity in infancy and later on in life.

Sharen Medrano, IBCLC (www.nycbreastfeeding.com)

 

DISCLAIMER

The information and content provided on this website is for informational purposes only. Any advice or information provided on this website does not create a professional relationship, is not an aid to making medical decisions, and is not marketed, promoted or otherwise intended to be used to diagnose any disease or other condition, or to cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent any disease. This website is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice or persuade readers in any one particular direction. The information on this website is made available with the understanding that the content and service providers are not engaged in rendering medical, health, psychological or any other kind of personal professional services through this website. Nothing on this website is intended to replace the advice of a health care professional, medical diagnosis or treatment. The information provided by Yummy Mummy is intended to educate and help mothers find information and services that they might need. Any action taken by a user in response to information obtained from this website is at the user’s discretion. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health providers with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.


          Breast Storage Capacity        

Boob Scoop: If you speak to other breastfeeding moms, you will quickly learn that all babies feed at different intervals and for different lengths of time. Just as every baby is different, so is every mother's breast storage capacity. Breast storage capacity refers to how much breast milk a mother can hold in her breast. It is not influenced by a mother's breast size. Due to variations in breast storage capacity, all babies feed differently. As long as your baby is growing steadily, it's best to keep away from rules like "15 minutes on each side" or "every 2 hours." Instead feed your baby when he is hungry and remember that each mom and baby pair is unique.

Sharen Medrano, IBCLC (www.nycbreastfeeding.com)

 

DISCLAIMER

The information and content provided on this website is for informational purposes only. Any advice or information provided on this website does not create a professional relationship, is not an aid to making medical decisions, and is not marketed, promoted or otherwise intended to be used to diagnose any disease or other condition, or to cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent any disease. This website is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice or persuade readers in any one particular direction. The information on this website is made available with the understanding that the content and service providers are not engaged in rendering medical, health, psychological or any other kind of personal professional services through this website. Nothing on this website is intended to replace the advice of a health care professional, medical diagnosis or treatment. The information provided by Yummy Mummy is intended to educate and help mothers find information and services that they might need. Any action taken by a user in response to information obtained from this website is at the user’s discretion. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health providers with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.


          Sleeping Longer Stretches        

Boob Scoop: If your baby begins sleeping longer stretches, your body will adjust to produce less milk during those times.However, if initially the fullness is keeping you awake, it would help to manually express or pump to soften your breasts in order to relieve the fullness. Pumping to empty the breasts would not be recommended since it would keep milk production the same. It can take a few days or sometimes a couple of weeks for production to level off, but just be patient. Eventually your supply will regulate to your baby's needs.

Sharen Medrano, IBCLC (www.nycbreastfeeding.com)

 

DISCLAIMER

The information and content provided on this website is for informational purposes only. Any advice or information provided on this website does not create a professional relationship, is not an aid to making medical decisions, and is not marketed, promoted or otherwise intended to be used to diagnose any disease or other condition, or to cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent any disease. This website is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice or persuade readers in any one particular direction. The information on this website is made available with the understanding that the content and service providers are not engaged in rendering medical, health, psychological or any other kind of personal professional services through this website. Nothing on this website is intended to replace the advice of a health care professional, medical diagnosis or treatment. The information provided by Yummy Mummy is intended to educate and help mothers find information and services that they might need. Any action taken by a user in response to information obtained from this website is at the user’s discretion. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health providers with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.


          The Truth About Pre-Existing Conditions Under the GOP Bill        

Coming to a Unicef collection box near you, the fly dotted faces of the uninsured and the sad, vacant stares of those with pre-existing conditions who are going to be cornholed by the GOP healthcare plan.  If you were to have read or watched any news on Thursday, or even worse, read Ohio Senator Sherrod Brown's Twatter page, you'd believe that people with heartburn, acne and gout are going to be left to perish on the doorsteps of doctors' offices around the country.  Democrats call the proposed healthcare bill (THAT HAS NOT YET PASSED THE SENATE, BTW) a death warrant for sick women and children.  I guess sick men are all set.  They showed their true colors after the House vote was final when they sang and waved, "Na na na na, na na na na, hey hey hey, goodbye." to the other side of the aisle.  Seriously... are these the leaders of our country or the student section at a fukin' high school basketball game?

The top alarmist of them all, Senator Brown, took to Twitter hours after the House vote and gave us his alphabetical list of "pre-existing conditions" that would cause people to pay more money under the new plan.  The list was exhaustive and I seriously doubt Brown even has basic knowledge about half of these conditions.

Example:  Brown put autism on his list.  I would love someone to challenge this dumbass and ask him how exactly is autism treated medically.  In the interest of making the list extra long, he also repeats conditions with different names - i.e. epilepsy and seizures, heartburn and acid reflux.  And what the fuk does he mean by "disabilities?"

Here is his list; the list that the Left is clinging to so as to raise panic in the streets over the new bill.  My snide commentary in red!

AIDS/HIV, acid reflux, acne, ADD, addiction, Alzheimer's/dementia, anemia, aneurysm, angioplasty, anorexia, anxiety, arrhythmia, arthritis, asthma, atrial fibrillation, autism (is not a medical condition, you moron!), bariatric surgery, basal cell carcinoma, bipolar disorder, blood clot, breast cancer, bulimia, bypass surgery, celiac disease, cerebral aneurysm, cerebral embolism (how is the sudden blockage of an artery a pre-existing condition?), cerebral palsy, cerebral thrombosis, cervical cancer, colon cancer, colon polyps, congestive heart failure, COPD, Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, DMD, depression, diabetes, disabilities (what the fuk is this???), Down syndrome (again, not a medical diagnosis), eating disorder (bulimia, anorexia?  didn't he already list them), enlarged prostate, epilepsy (see "seizures" later), glaucoma, gout, heart disease, heart murmur, heartburn (ain't covered now, asshole - buy some Tums), hemophilia, hepatitis C, herpes, high cholesterol, hypertension, hysterectomy, kidney disease, kidney stones, kidney transplant (is this different than "organ transplant" - see below), leukemia, lung cancer, lupus, lymphoma, mental health issues (you mean like bipolar, anxiety, depression, OCD, panic disorder, schizophrenia, seasonal affecitve, all of which you already listed?), migraines, MS, muscular dystrophy, narcolepsy, nasal polyps, obesity (???), OCD, organ transplant, osteoporosis, pacemaker, panic disorder, paralysis, paraplegia, Parkinson's disease, pregnancy, restless leg syndrome, schizophrenia, seasonal affective disorder, seizures, sickle cell disease, skin cancer, sleep apnea, sleep disorders, stent, stroke, thyroid issues, tooth disease, tuberculosis, ulcers.

So do you want to know what's REALLY in the bill regarding pre-existing conditions?  Are you interested at all in the layers of protection for people with pre-existing conditions?  Or would you rather just watch Saturday Night Live and listen to Nancy "We Have To Pass It Before We Read It" Pelosi?

1)  The first layer of protection is the Guaranteed Issue - insurers are REQUIRED to sell plans to all eligible applicants, regardless of pre-existing condition.  The 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act addresses that in its creditable coverage section.  So, NO, the new law will not allow people to be denied coverage, regardless of health status.

2)  Yes, the new bill would allow insurers to charge higher premiums for people with pre-existing conditions, something that was prohibited through Obamacare.  But states will have to seek an optional "community rating" waiver of that AHCA regulation in order for insurers in that state to charge higher premiums. Those states would need to satisfy certain criteria, including development of a reinsurance program and explain how the waiver would improve that state's health insurance market.  So, if you have a pre-existing condition and live in a state that has not obtained the waiver, you CANNOT be charged more than other people for a new plan when you seek to purchase one.  So take it up with your state, if need be.

3)  Also, if you are insured now and remain continuously insured, you CANNOT be dropped from your plan due to a pre-existing condition.  AND you CANNOT be charged more after developing one.  If you have been covered and want to switch plans, either with a new job or annual enrollment, carriers MUST sell you the plan of your choice at the same price as everyone else, REGARDLESS of your health status.  By the way, this does not matter if you live in a waiver or non-waiver state.

4)  The final layer of protection is for those who are uninsured now AND have a pre-existing condition AND live in a waiver state.  Yep, you can be charged more for your coverage in this instance ONLY.  BUT, the state is required to give you access to their "high risk pool" fund to help you pay for your higher premiums.  At this point, there is $130 billion dollars earmarked for high risk pool funds.

The number of people who fall into this final category of high risk pool protection represents a sliver of the overall population.  When Obamacare was implemented in 2010, it included a 3 year bridge plan that allowed the previously un-insurable with pre-existing conditions to get coverage.  At it's peak, 115,000 people were able to get coverage who previously could not.  Those people needed the help and they got the help.  I am not denying that.  But... given those statistics, it highlights the small percentage of our population.  AND as long as those 115,000 continued with their coverage, they will not be affected by the new bill.


I'm sure this law is not perfect and needs some tweaking.  Afterall, it was written by a bunch of lifer hacks who don't know their ass from their elbow.  BUT....  you should at least know ALL of the facts before you start a GoFundMe page for your acne medication.


          Article: The right Alexander Technique for you – AboutMyArea        
http://www.aboutmyarea.co.uk/East-London/Barking/IG11/Life-Matters/Health-and-Beauty/171305-The-right-Alexander-Technique-for-you Great article about how posture can be improved by the Alexander Technique. I think the following quote deals well with a common misconception about AT teachers:- Alexander Technique teachers do not make a medical diagnosis and they do not consider themselves to be therapists. The Alexander Technique is a re-educational process. Qualified teachers are […]
          Limit Break Radio: A Radio Returns - Episode 99 - Limit Break Your Music        
On today’s edition of Limit Break Radio: a special Limit Breaking Music with special guest Benjamin Antony James! We’ll talk to him about his Final Fantasy XIV covers and remixes. We’ll hear song music from Ben, plus find out what he’s got coming up in the future. Plus, Yoshi-P sits down with MMORPG.com and Aniero reveals a shocking medical diagnosis! What could possibly be in store for Episode 100? You’ll have to tune in to find out! Tune in LIVE Sunday February 12th at 4pm to our Twitch channel for the Limit Break Radio 100 episode special!
          Can A Chiropractor Fix TMJ        

Mouth serve as a pivot and also attaches the jaw with the head; this is actually due to mouth just that people manages to talk, snooze, biting or even ingest. If in some way the hard drive acquires removed after that this triggers Temporal Mandibular Junction Disorder (TMJ). If you possess TMJ after that opening up and also shutting of the oral cavity will certainly end up being challenging; actually if tmj not addressed right away after that this might cause serious issues. Grinding or even grinding noise exists when one opens up as well as shuts the insect, if TMJ issue exists. There are actually many reasons for TMJ. Any kind of tasks which result in pressure in the mouth could result in TMJ. Frustrations and also discomfort in the ears are actually a couple of the troubles associated with TMJ. When going through kind discomfort individuals believe allopathic procedure will certainly offer fast alleviation. Therefore lots of commonly they talk to, can easily a chiropractic practitioner solution tmj and also alleviate me coming from the discomfort. A chiropractic specialist is going to most definitely assist a person to obtain alleviation coming from the extreme discomfort. A chiropractic specialist is actually not just attracted to managing the client simply for a specific time period; actually he will certainly assist you to obtain rid the illness permanently. A chiropractic practitioner will definitely do a thorough research of the trouble and also after adequately comprehending the reason for the issue will certainly begin the therapy. Chiropractic care is actually worrieded about the medical diagnosis and also therapy of the conditions which are actually of technical attributes and also the result which this carries the nerves and also the health and wellness of people. Today chiropractic care is actually getting appeal. Naturalism, rationalism as well as holism are actually a few of the profound components which make up chiropractic care. Chiropractic practitioners likewise concentrate on work out, health and nutrition as well as way of life of the client. This acknowledges that the body, the atmosphere where they are actually residing as well as the way of life which they are actually engaging in are actually inter-related. Individuals frequently ask yourself just how can easily a chiropractic specialist solution tmj. As a matter of fact in numerous of the instances this has actually been actually monitored that the chiropractic therapy have actually been actually discovered to become even more helpful after that the allopathic procedureIn numerous of the situations this has actually been actually noted that the chiropractic therapy have actually been actually discovered in order to be actually even more successful after that the allopathic therapy. A chiropractic doctor will definitely encourage specific muscular tissue alleviating work outs which will definitely relieve your mouth muscular tissues and also will certainly offer leisure. Mind-calming exercise, massage therapy as well as psychophysiological feedback are actually several of the various other techniques used by chiropractic practitioner in order to address the person. A chiropractic practitioner will certainly ready a blue-print of your trouble; this will definitely feature the reason for the issue, your family tree, your way of life and so on. As soon as he buys the in-depth record he will definitely advise a specific action which will certainly consist of workout, nourishment, diet plan and also modification in your way of life. He will certainly suggest a way of life which will definitely not simply assist you to obtain rid the discomfort however will certainly make sure that in future such discomfort performs not show up. If the problem can easily a chiropractic specialist solution tmj has actually been actually troubling you as well as you are actually thinking twice in order to come close to a chiropractic practitioner, after that surrender your doubt as well as call a certified chiropractic specialist. He is going to certainly repair your tmj and also will definitely make certain that the complication never ever duplicates in future. His treatments and also his therapy will certainly be actually of terrific aid.

The post Can A Chiropractor Fix TMJ appeared first on Total Info Blog.


          Legal lines blur between coaching, hypnotherapy, and psychology (unlicensed practice)        

Is hypnotherapy the unlicensed practice of medicine or psychology?  Is life coaching legally safe?

A new case in Colorado suggests that hypnosis and hypnotherapy are not legally safe, and that practicing these modalities in the coaching setting can result in legal action.

A legal defense fund has been established by the International Research Institute, LLC for a life coach and hypnotherapist in Denver:

Zoilita GrantThe Colorado Mental Health Board, which incorrectly believes that all hypnosis is either stage hypnosis or psychotherapy, issued a cease and desist order.

Deciding to fight this abusive action, Ms. Grant has incurred a tremendous financial burden just considering the over $13,000 in legal fees, which have already been billed to her and her husband. She did so not only to fight for her right to practice as a coach. She also realized that if she did not contest their action, all hypnotherapists, NLP practitioners, and coaches who may use any type of imagery or suggestion could have their right to practice curtailed. The case law that could result from a negative finding may be used as legal justification for action in any jurisdiction in the United States and may be cited in cases considered in courses around the world.

The hypnosis organization notes that in August 2011:

The Colorado Department of Regulatory Agencies at the request of the Colorado Mental Health Board, filed a cease and desist order against Zoilita Grant using as evidence an advertisement for her state licensed occupational school, Colorado Coaching and Hypnotherapy Training Institute.

At that time Zoilita sent a letter to Colorado Department of Regulatory Agencies (DORA) explaining that the advertisement was for her school and that she was a teaching approved trainings and that in her private practice she was a coach who specialized in working with small business owners. She referred DORA to both her school site and personal site www.ZoilitaGrant.net.

DORA then opened an investigation and Zoilita retained legal representation. DORA continued to allege that Zoilita Grant, a coach who operates out of the Denver area, was practicing psychotherapy without a license. Their claim was due to the fact that Ms. Grant, who was formerly licensed by the board while performing as a clinical hypnotherapist and hypnotherapy trainer, was practicing hypnotherapy in her activities as a coach. Ms. Grant regularly uses hypnosis as a training tool with her coaching clients.

The Board's allegation further stipulated that all hypnosis is either stage hypnosis or psychotherapy and therefore Ms. Grant was violating the law requiring psychotherapists to be licensed in the State of Colorado.

Laws involving hypnotherapy diverge across states.  Some states explicitly mention hypnosis and/or hypnotherapy as a medical (or psychological) modality, and restrict lay use of these practices.  Others are silent or ambiguous.

Medical and psychological licensing statutes define the scope of their licensed professions very broadly, so that unlicensed practitioners can easily run afoul of regulatory tripwires.

A number of states, such as California, Rhode Island, and Minnesota, have enacted statutes protecting non-licensed practitioners from prosecution for unlicensed medical practice, so long as they make a proper disclosure to their clients, and do not engage in medical diagnosis or treatment.  These statutes, though, are relatively untested; and usually do not provide any explicit carve-out to the legal definition of psychology.

In any life coaching or hypnotherapy practice, be sure to check with an attorney experienced in legal issues involved alternative therapies, complementary medicine, and integrative medicine.  Contact the Michael H Cohen Law Group if you have legal questions or concerns about your practice, whether it involves life coaching, hypnosis, naturopathy, natural medicine, dietary supplements, or other holistic health practices.


          Cancer isn't silencing McCain in career's latest chapter        
WASHINGTON (AP) — John McCain couldn't bring himself to vote for Donald Trump — so he talked about writing in his best friend's name for president. After the election, he's been the leading Senate Republican critic of Trump's posture toward Russia. And from his Arizona home, where he's battling brain cancer, the Arizona senator on Thursday lobbed a new attack at the White House over its Syria policy.The grave medical diagnosis hit the six-term senator just as he was [...]
          Case news        
Most recent articles added to the case archives



Details released on child abuse arrest in North Newton

Date: 2016-02-17

By Pilar Pedraza

HARVEY COUNTY, Kan. -

Authorities in Harvey County have released new details about the arrests of two North Newton parents on child abuse charges.

Jim and Paige Nachtigal were arrested Tuesday after their three adopted children were taken into protective custody.

"This is the first time I've seen a medical diagnosis from a physician of child torture," said David Yoder, Harvey County Attorney.  "I didn't even know there was a medical diagnosis of child torture until this case."

According to Harvey County Sheriff T. Walton, North Newton police were called about a runaway child last week. The 11-year-old boy was in a field, barefoot. Police carried him to the car.

Police asked the child why he ran away.

"The child said he hadn't done his homework, that he had sinned, and that he was afraid to go back home because of the sinning that he had done," said T Walton, Harvey County Sheriff.

Story of abuse unfolds

Date: 2016-02-17

Three adopted children were removed from the Jim and Paige Nachtigal home in North Newton— a 14 year old girl, an 11 year old boy and an 11 year old girl. The oldest child was adopted about four years ago, with the 11 year old children adopted three years ago. They are not biological siblings, according to investigators.

By Chad Frey
Newton Kansan

Reaction after three children adopted from Peru have been removed from their North Newton Home and their adoptive parents arrested has ranged from rage to disbelief.

The parents, Jim and Paige Nachtigal, were active in business and ministry in the Newton community. Jim Nachtigal serves as the CEO of Kansas Christian Home. Paige Nachtigal is a former employee of the Newton Area Chamber of Commerce. Both were actively fund-raising to go to Peru as missionaries.

That reputation, and the felony charges that appeared Tuesday, led to a prayer walk around the Harvey County Courthouse and Law Enforcement Center Wednesday morning — about 30 minutes prior to a press briefing inside by the Harvey County Sheriff's office.

Three children taken into protective custody, adoptive parents arrested

Date: 2016-02-16

By Avery Anderson

NORTH NEWTON, Kansas – North Newton police said on Tuesday that they have taken three children and placed them into protective police custody.

The three children, two 11 year olds and one 14 year old, had been adopted from an orphanage in Peru.

Police say, it all started when the 11-year-old buy ran away.

“There were some concerns by the law enforcement that found him,” stated Harvey County Sheriff, T. Walton.

After officials found the young boy, Sheriff Walton says they noticed bruises all over his body.

“That’s what stemmed this investigation that was pretty intense,” said Sheriff Walton.

After an examination, it was discovered that both 11-year-old children, one boy and one girl, were severely malnourished and had multiple bruises and broken bones.

Police say the adoptive parents, Jim Nachtigal and his wife Paige, were arrested for abuse of child, aggravated child endangerment, and aggravated battery.

KSN spoke to some of the Nachigal’s neighbors, who say they had their suspicions, but had no idea that the situation was this far out of hand.

Santa Clara: Woman faces murder charge in son's bathtub drowning

Date: 2016-01-26

By Robert Salonga

SANTA CLARA -- A Santa Clara woman faces a murder charge in the alleged bathtub drowning of her 12-year-old son earlier this month, a crime she initially claimed was an accident but later confessed to under police interrogation, authorities said.

Tara McNeill Palajac, 51, was arraigned Jan. 14 in the death of her adopted son at their home on Conner Place off Forest Avenue and Winchester Boulevard. She has not entered a plea and is expected to return to court Feb. 1. The boy's Jan. 8 death and subsequent murder arrest were not publicized by Santa Clara police, appearing only in a nondescript arrest-log entry, and were first publicly acknowledged Tuesday in response to an inquiry by this newspaper. A police spokesman said the department cited the sensitivity of the case and the presence of a juvenile victim in explaining its decision not to issue a news release when the alleged crime occurred.

Sarasota couple hog-tied daughter with zip ties, kept her in playhouse, deputies say

Date: 2016-01-06

SARASOTA, Fla. (WFLA) — A Sarasota couple is jailed on felony child abuse charges after deputies say their 12-year-old daughter showed up at a neighbor’s house with her hands zip-tied together and told the neighbor that her parents kept her confined in a playhouse.

Deputies responded on Dec. 27 to a report of a possible kidnapping after the neighbor called 911 to report a young girl had knocked on his door and told him that her mother and father had bound her with zip ties and abandoned her at their home.

The girl had her hands zip-tied together and she had separate zip ties around her ankles.

The girl told investigators that Eugenio and Victoria Erquiaga restrained her with zip-ties in front of her body when she gets angry and regularly locked her in a playhouse in a loft area of the home, which is used as her bedroom. She also demonstrated to investigators how she was “hog-tied” in the front of her body. “Basically, she couldn’t move,” Lt. Joe Giasone with the Sarasota County Sheriff’s Office said.

The Dominican children given up to Quebec's 'adoption machine’

Date: 2015-09-21

At least 200 children Dominican were separated from their families in the 1980s. It wasn’t because of a famine, a hurricane or an earthquake, but because of an incredibly effective network of Quebec missionaries and adoptive parents.

By: Isabelle Hackey La Presse,

Residents of quiet Medina community shaken by suspected murder-suicide

Date: 2015-09-19

By Evan MacDonald,

MEDINA, Ohio -- Several residents of the small, quiet Medina community where three people were found dead in a suspected murder-suicide said they were stunned when investigators removed their bodies from the condo late Friday.

Detectives believe the three people found dead Friday evening in the Pinewood Estates condominium complex on Pinewood Drive are a husband, a wife and their adopted child, who was developmentally disabled. Their names have not been released.

The neighborhood was quiet Saturday afternoon. The lock was removed from the condo where officers found the three bodies, and a missed delivery notice was hanging on the condo's door.

Neighbors said the man and woman who lived in the condo were quiet, but could regularly be seen walking hand-in-hand through the complex, often with their two Jack Russell Terriers.

"They always walked hand-in-hand," neighbor Sandra Miller said. "They seemed very happy, but you never know what goes on inside someone's house."

Autumn Dawes said she barely knew the man and the woman, but that they were friendly to neighbors.

Jane Doe in Indiana becomes Fitchburg homicide; woman charged in 2007 death

Date: 2015-09-15

ED TRELEVEN

Erika Antoinette Hill was 15 years old when she disappeared in 2007 from the home in Fitchburg where had she lived with her cousins and adoptive mother.

The same year, the unidentified body of a young African-American woman was found in a garage in Gary, Indiana. For years, she remained the “Lake County Jane Doe.”

The two mysteries, seemingly far apart from one another, became linked this summer, when Erika’s cousin, for years keeping a terrible secret, contacted police in Gary and said she knew the identity of Jane Doe, because she had helped put Erika’s body in that garage, according to a criminal complaint filed in Dane County Circuit Court.

The person alleged to have ordered the woman and her siblings to move Erika’s body was her mother, Taylin M. Hill, 50, of Madison, who on Monday was charged with first-degree reckless homicide for Erika’s death. Hill also faces six counts of child abuse.

GOPer Who 'Rehomed' Daughters Not Given Award At Ted Cruz Event After All

Date: 2015-08-13

By Catherine Thompson

An Arkansas lawmaker who made headlines earlier this year when it came to light that he sent his adopted daughters to live with a man who allegedly raped one of them was supposed to receive a "courage" award Wednesday at a dinner headlined by Sen. Ted Cruz (R-TX).

But at the last minute, the local Republican Party chapter hosting the dinner asked that an outside group not present the award to state Rep. Justin Harris (R) at their event.

A self-described, conservative nonprofit called Family Council Action Committee planned to present the "Power of Courage Award" to Harris and state Rep. Charlene Fite (R) at the Crawford County Republican Lincoln Day Dinner, according to a press release obtained by The Arkansas Times. The release issued Wednesday said that the two lawmakers "demonstrated courage by standing strong in faith when situations were tough at the State Capitol" and "are consistently models of their Christian values in their homes, their communities, and their churches."

Salinas women sentenced in torture, child abuse case

Date: 2015-07-17

Two Salinas women convicted of torturing and abusing their three children have been sentenced to prison terms, the Monterey County District Attorney’s Office said Friday.

Christian Deanda was sentenced to life in prison for committing torture (the maximum sentence), plus 13 years, 4 months consecutive in state prison for the remaining counts of child abuse, false imprisonment and child endangerment. Eraca Craig was also sentenced to a maximum sentence of 11 years in state prison for committing child abuse with great bodily injury, false imprisonment and child endangerment.

Unnamed parents plead guilty of abusing adopted daughter

Date: 2015-07-16

By: Greg Palmer

WICHITA, Kan. (AP) — A Wichita couple has pleaded guilty to beating and abusing a girl they were foster parents to and later adopted.

The Wichita Eagle reports the couple pleaded guilty Wednesday to charges including child abuse, aggravated battery and criminal restraint. They had denied the allegations.

The 15-year-old girl and three other children were taken into protective custody in March 2014. A child-in-need-of-care petition alleges that the girl's adoptive parents at times chained her in a basement and gave her a bucket to use as a toilet.

Authorities say the girl, who was 14 at the time, weighed just 66 pounds when she was removed from the home.

The girl and the other children remain in foster care pending the outcome of their child-in-need-of-care case.

The Eagle has not named the parents in order to protect the identity of the children.

Martin And Kathleen O’Brien: Abuse Trial Of Mom And Dad Details Horrifying Cruelty To Adopted Kids

Date: 2015-07-14

The much-anticipated child abuse trial of Martin and Kathleen O’Brien, a Wisconsin couple arrested in 2012 on charges of physically abusing children they adopted from Russia and Guatemala, finally opened last week with graphic details of the adoptive parents’ horrifying cruelty right out of a Grimm’s Fairy Tale.

The O’Briens have pleaded not guilty to the distressing charges, claiming that they are the real victims of a “herd” of foreign children who refused to adapt to their American ways, becoming uncontrollable and frightening to the O’Briens’ own biological children.

The case came to light in the summer of 2011 when a longtime neighbor of the O’Briens witnessed one of the adopted girls struggling to push a hand-operated lawnmower through tall grass on a blistering hot day, when the neighbor knew that the O’Brien family owned a riding mower.

The girl did not smile, wave, or acknowledge the neighbor in any way. Just a few weeks later, after an investigation, Child Protective Services removed five of six adopted children from the O’Briens’ home.

Former Army major and wife guilty of abusing adopted kids

Date: 2015-07-08

By Thomas Zambito

NEWARK - A federal jury convicted former Army Maj. John Jackson and his wife, Carolyn, of child endangerment and assault charges Wednesday for what prosecutors say was a cruel punishment regimen that targeted their three adopted children.

On its fifth day of deliberations, the jury found the Jacksons guilty of nearly all of the 24 charges they were facing, including conspiring to endanger the children's welfare and assault.

Prosecutors say the Jackson fed the three children -- each under the age of four at the time -- hot sauce and raw onions and broke their bones for offenses that included being too slow to get in a car seat. In addition to their three adopted children, the Jacksons have three biological children.

The Jacksons, sitting less than five feet away from one another at the defense table, did not react visibly when the verdict was delivered around 1:30 p.m. in U.S. District Court. They left the courtroom without speaking to reporters.

Judge Katharine Hayden set their sentencing date for Oct. 13, 2105.

Corona man accused of sexually abusing 13-year-old adopted son

Date: 2015-07-07

By Rob McMillan

CORONA, Calif. (KABC) -- A 54-year-old Corona man has been accused of sexually abusing one of his two adopted sons.

The victim was accompanied by his older brother when he walked up to the front counter of the Corona police station and reported the alleged abuse on June 28.

Corona police officers served a search warrant on July 2 at Patrick Michael Anderson's home in the 3200 block of Star Canyon Circle.

Neighbor Ray Tafoya says Anderson has lived in the area for a while. He, however, didn't know much about the two boys who Anderson adopted in 2012.

"My kids know of his kids, and they say that they go to intermediate school," Tafoya said.

Anderson was arrested later that day at Common Ground Corona, a spiritual community in Norco, on four felony charges, including oral copulation while the person is unconscious, sodomy, continuous sexual abuse of a child, and lewd acts with a child.

"There is no evidence at the time to support that Anderson used Common Ground Corona as a place to commit his alleged crimes," the police department said in a press release.

Longtime foster parent arrested for sexual assault

Date: 2015-07-02

Stephen Darrell Taylor, 68, of Yucaipa and his wife served as a foster family for the Arrowhead Foster Family Agency, Inc. between the years of 2002 and 2008. During that time, Stephen Taylor allegedly sexually abused two of the female foster children placed in his care. Taylor allegedly sexually abused the children for several years. The victims ranged in age from five to eleven and were eventually adopted by the Taylors. The family resided in three different homes during that time frame on Crestline Road, Mile High Road, and Fir Lane in the Crestline community. The sexual abuse continued until the children were removed by the San Bernardino County Children and Family Services in 2008 due to allegations of physical abuse. The sexual abuse was reported to the Twin Peaks Sheriff Station and turned over to the Crimes Against Children Detail because it involved a certified foster family.


          Future of Information: the Good, Bad and Ugly of it        
We are certainly at the cusp of a big revolution in the human civilisation - caused by the Information Technology and Machine Intelligence. There are golden moments in the history that have fundamentally changed us: late dark ages for the Astronomy, early renaissance for Physics, 1700-1800s for the Chemistry, late 1800s for the Microbiology, 1950s for the transistors… and the periods get more and more compressed. It looks like a labyrinth where it gets narrower when you get closer to its centre.

Without speculating on what the centre could look like, and considering this could be still a flat line of constant progress, we need to start thinking what the future could look like  - not because it is fun, but because an action could be warranted now. There is no shortage of speculation or commentary, one man can dream, and fathom a far future which might or might not be close to the distant reality. And that is not the point. The point is, as I will outline below, it could be getting late to do what we need to DO. Yes, this is not a sci-fi story…

On one hand, there is nothing new under the sun, and the cycle of change has always been with the mankind since the beginning. We always had the reluctant establishment fighting with the wind of change promoted by the new generation.

Figure 1 - Accelerating change [Source: Wikipedia]

On the other hand, this is the first time in the history that the cycle of change has been reduced to less than a generation (a generation is normally considered 20-25 years). You see, the politicians of the past had time to grow up with the changes, feel the needs, brew new ideas and come up with the solutions. Likewise, the nations have had the time to assimilate and react to the changes in terms of aspirations, occupation and direction as the new changes would not be fully in effect during the one person’s lifetime. What about now? Only a decade ago (pre-iPhone) looks like a century backwards. The cycle of change already looks like to be around 5-10 years [see Figure 1]. And look at our politicians: it is not a coincidence someone like Trump can capture the imagination of a nation in the lack of visionary contenders. The politics as we know it has reached the end of life - IMHO due to lack of serious left-wing ideas - but that is not the topic of this post. The point I am trying to make is politicians are no longer able to propose but the most trivial changes since their view of the world is limited by their lack of understanding of a whole new virtual world being created alongside this physical world whose rules do not exist in any books.

And it is not just the politics that is dropping far behind. Economics in the face of fast cycle of change will be different too. First of all, today’s financial malaise experienced in many developed countries might still be around for years to come. In an age of Keynesian economy and central intervention characterised by low inflation, low growth and abundance of money printed by central banks, it seems the banks are no longer relevant. Current economy sometimes referred to as the Japanisation, which was spotted back in 2011 and 5 year on feels no different. And it is no coincidence that an IMF report finds decreasing efficiency of capital in Japanese Economy - that can be applied elsewhere. Looking at the value of bank stocks provides the glaring fact that they are remnants of institutions from the past. True, they are probably still financing mine and your mortgage but their importance as the cornerstone of development during the previous centuries is gone. Why? Because the importance of capital in a world where there is so much of it around without finding a suitable investment is overrated. With 10-yr US Bonds at around 1.8% and yield on 2-yr German bund at -0.5% (!), an investment with 2% annual return is a bargain. In fact today’s banking is characterised by piling up losses year on year (for example this and this). Looking at the Citigroup or Bank of America’s 10 year chart is another witness to the same decline. In an environment when money is cheap (Because of ZIRP), it cannot be the main driver in the business, as money (and hence banks) is not the scarce commodity anymore. See? We did not even have to mention bitcoin, blockchain or crowdfunding.

Figure 2 - Deutsche Bank Stock since year 2000 [Source: Yahoo Finance]
But beyond our myopic view of the economy focused on the current climate, there is a rhetoric looking at it from a different angle and far into the future, seeing the same pattern. In one interesting essay on Economics of the future, authors find an ever decreasing role for the capital. While mentioning the importance of the suitable labour (in terms of geek labour force, currently the scarcest resource resulting in companies not growing their full potential) could be helpful, it is evident that capital is no more an issue.

In essence what all this means is, if historically the banks as the institutions controlling capital had the upper hand, in the days to come it will be those controlling Information. The future of our civilisation will be surrounding the conflicts to control the Information, on one hand by the state, on the other by the institutions and finally by us and NGOs for the privacy.

The Good

Rate of data acquisition has been described as exponential. This has been mainly with regard to the virtual world and our surroundings but very soon it will be us. From our exact whereabouts to our blood pressure to various hormonal levels and perhaps our emotional status, all will be around very soon. A lot of this is already possible, also known as quantifying self. But it is only a matter of time for this to be for everyone.

It is not difficult to think what it can do to promote health and disease prevention. Even now those who suffer from heart arrhythmia carry devices that can defibrillate their heart if a deadly ventricular fibrillation occurs. The blood pressure, sugar level, various hormonal levels, and all sorts of measurable elements can be tracked. Cancerous cells can be detected in blood (and its source identified) well before it could grow and spread. The plaques in the blood vessels will be identified by the micro devices circulating and any serious stenosis can be identified. Clots in the heart or brain vessels (resulting in stroke) can be detected at the time of formation with a device releasing thrombolytic agents immediately alleviating the problem. Going for extra medical diagnosis could be very similar to how our cars are being serviced today: a device gets connected to the myriad of micro devices in your body and full picture of health status will be immediately visible to the medical staff. You could be walking on a road or in a car, witnessing a rare yet horrific accident (would there be accidents?) and the medical team would know whether you would suffer from PTSD and whether you would need certain therapies for it - they would know where you were and whether you witnessed the incident from your various measurements.

And of course, this is only the medical side. The way we work, entertain ourselves and interact with the outside world will be completely different. It is not very hard to imagine what it will be like: one cheesy way is to just take everything that you do at home and think of adding an automation/scheduling/verbal command to it. From making coffee, to checking information, to entertainment. But I will refrain from limiting your view by my imagination. What it is clear is that the presence and impact of the virtual world will be much more pronounced.

At the end of the day, it is all about the extra information coupled with machine intelligence.

The Bad

This section is not speculating on what it could look like. We can all go and read any of the dystopian books, many to choose from and could be like any or none.

But instead it is about simple reasoning: taking what we know, projecting the rate of change and looking at what we might get. It is very reasonable to think that machine intelligence will be at a point where it can reason very efficiently with a pretty good rate of success. And on the other hand, it is reasonable to think that there will be many many data points for every person. If we as humans can be represented as intelligent machines that turn data plus our characters into decisions, it is not silly to think that if our characters (historical data) known to the machines and the input perceived by us already available via the many many agents present in and around us, it is not unreasonable to think that the systems can estimate your decisions. So when you think of advertising, this gets really frightening since you would know pretty well what the reaction will be if you have enough information. And it is about, how much, how much money do you have to decide on…

You see, the fight for your disposable income (that part of your income that you can choose how to spend) could not be more fierce: it can make or break companies in the future. The future of advertising and the fight for this disposable income is what makes Eric Schmidt to come out and almost say there won’t be online privacy in the future:
"Some governments will consider it too risky to have thousands of anonymous, untraceable and unverified citizens - hidden people - they'll want to know who is associated with each online account... Within search results, information tied to verified online profiles will be ranked higher than content without... even the most fascinating content, if tied to an anonymous profile simply won't be seen because of its excessive low ranking." - The New Digital Age / page 33
And when you see how the top four companies have already moved into media industry, you get it. Your iPhone selects a handful of news items for you to see, Facebook controls your timeline, Amazon is a full-blown media company and Google controls youtube which has overtaken conventional media for the entertainment of the millennials. We must reiterate that none of these companies are by nature evil but when it is to choose between you and their income, it is natural that they will pick the latter. And guess what: they have what the state wants too.

Let’s revisit banking for a moment to clarify the point. Banks have what politicians need: capital to fund ever more expensive political campaigns. And the state has what the banks need: regulation or rather de-regulation which banks thought will help them prosper because they can enter the stock market’s casino with the high street bank deposits (which ironically has been the source of their losses). And above all, the state catches the banks if they fall, as it did in 2008. ECB uses its various funds (EFSF, ESM, etc) to keep the banks in Greece and Italy (and others, soon Germany?) afloat. And catches the stock market when they fall as it has constantly done by various QE measures, interest rate cuts, printing money, etc. In such a financial milieu, where there are cushions all along the path, there is no real risk anymore leading to irresponsible behaviour by the banks. And the party should never end, no wonder Obama could not move an inch towards bringing back some regulation. Heads of state’s financial institutions come from ex-CEOs of the likes of Goldman Sachs. This alliance of the state and banking has contributed to the growth of inequality (ultimately leading to modern slavery) and no wonder, state is not bothered, the state is made up of politicians in alliance with bankers and the bankers.

And what does it have to do with the future of information? Exactly the same thing can happen in the future, only with the state and heads of companies owning the information. If capital no longer holds the power and it is the information, then the alliance of state and info bosses will lead to the modern slavery. States control the legislations and information companies own private data and control the media: each one having what the other needs. 

The Ugly

Why ugly? Because we are already there, almost. First of all, the states have started gathering and controlling information. NSA is just an example. The states have started requesting companies owning the data to provide them. Legislations are under way to prevent effective encryption. This could all look harmless when we are busy checking out our twitter and facebook timelines, but I have already started to freak me out: companies are already started thinking and acting in this area. As we visited, Google's Eric Schmidt is portraying a future where anonymity has little value, either you agree or otherwise you need to speak out.

Going back to the politics, we do not have politicians or lawyers that have a correct understanding of the technology and its implications, and it is not their fault: they were not prepared for it. But soon, very soon, we will have heads of companies turning politicians. Very much like CEOs of the Goldman Sachs, and I do not mean it necessarily in a bad way, why? Because the power will be in the hands of the geeks and by the same token, we need strong oppositions, we need politicians among us to rise to the occasion and lead us safely into the future where we have meaningful legislations protecting our privacy while allowing safe data sharing. Problem is, we had 2500 years or so to think about democracy and government in the physical world (from the Greek and Roman philosophers to now) but we are confronted with a virtual world where the ethics and philosophy are not well-defined and do not quite map to the physical world we live in yet every lawmaker is trying to shoehorn it to the only thing they know about. Enough is enough.

But where do we start from? My point in this post/essay has been to ask the questions, I do not claim to have the answers. We have not yet explored the problems well enough to come up with the right answers... we need the help of think tanks, many of which I see rising amongst us.

We are surrounded by the questions whose answers (like all other aspects of our industry) tangled with so much of our personal opinions. When it comes to the court of law what doesn't matter is your or my opinion. Is Edwards Snowden a hero or a traitor? Was Julian Assange a visionary or an opportunist? What is ethical hacking, and how is it different from unethical, in fact could hacking ever be legitimate? Is Anonymous a bunch of criminals or a collection of selfless vigilantes working for the betterment of the virtual world in lack of a legal alternative? What is the right to privacy, and is there a right to be anonymous?

Needless to say, there could be some quick wins. I think defining privacy and data sharing is one of the key elements. One improvement could be turning small-print legal mumbo jumbo of the terms and conditions to bullet-wise fact sheets. Similar to “Key Fact Sheet” for mortgages where the APR and various fees are clearly defined, we can enforce a privacy fact sheet where the answers to questions such as “My anonymised/non-anonymised data might/might not be sold”, “I can ask for my records can be physically erased”, “My personal information can/cannot be given to third parties”, etc are clearly defined for non-technical consumers, as well as most of the rest of us who rarely read the terms and conditions.

Whatever the solutions, we need to start… now! And it could be already late.
          Health Information Resources for Limited English Proficient Persons        
Numerous studies over the past 25 years have demonstrated a strong connection between language and health. Language can affect the accuracy of patient histories, the ability to engage in treatment decision-making, understanding a medical diagnosis or treatment, patient trust level with care providers, underuse of primary and preventative care, and lower use or misuse of […]
          CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2015        
To deliver the best care to your patients, turn to the #1 annually updated guide in internal medicine and clinical practice.
The 2015 Edition is packed with important NEW information!

NEW TO THIS EDITION:
  • Latest 2014 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines for anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation, and indications for interventions in valvular heart disease
  • Update on the epidemic of opioid-based prescription drug abuse, misuse and overdose, and new section on opioids for chronic, noncancer pain
  • Revised treatment options for Helicobacter pylori and chronic hepatitis C
  • Latest hypertension information from 2013 UK National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence and US Joint National Committee (JNC8) Reports
  • Discussion of which patients benefit from statins, and indications for high vs. moderate intensity statins, based on 2014 AHA/ACC guidelines
  • Scoring tools for assessing the severity of acute pancreatitis
  • Revised psychiatric diagnoses in accordance with the Diagnostic Statistical Manual’s 5th edition
No other text links practice and research like CURRENT Medical Diagnosis & Treatment! Written by clinicians renowned in their fields, this trusted annual text offers the most current insight into symptoms, signs, epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment for more than 1,000 diseases and disorders. You'll find concise, evidence-based answers to questions about both hospital and ambulatory problems. The streamlined format of each section in this clinical companion is the fastest, easiest way to keep abreast of the latest diagnostic advances, prevention strategies, and cost-effective treatments.

Here's why CMDT is essential to your clinical practice:

  • Strong emphasis on the practical aspects of clinical diagnosis and patient management throughout the broad fields of internal medicine
  • Full review of other relevant primary care topics, including obstetrics/gynecology, dermatology, neurology, urology, ophthalmology, orthopedics, geriatrics, women’s health, and palliative care
  • Hundreds of medication treatment tables, with indexed trade names and updated prices
  • Many helpful diagnostic and treatment algorithms
  • Only text with an annual review of advances in HIV treatment
  • Recent references with PMID numbers for easy online access
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CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2015 


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           Intelligent data analysis for pattern recognition and medical diagnosis of ageing spine         
Khan, Atif A. (2014) Intelligent data analysis for pattern recognition and medical diagnosis of ageing spine. PhD thesis, University of Warwick.
          Want More Out of Your Life? Keep Moving!        

Have you ever felt trapped by your circumstances? When calamity strikes, such as losing your job, losing a loved one, or receiving a bad medical diagnosis, it can paralyze you. You may feel as if your whole world has been turned upside down and wonder how you can possibly survive the loss. When the avalanche […]

The post Want More Out of Your Life? Keep Moving! appeared first on 1onONE with Damon Davis.


          How badly does it hurt? Research examines the biomedical diagnosis of pain        
Sociology research investigates the challenges of patients experiencing pain symptoms that don't visibly turn up on any test.
          DTEF Program on Meditation, Cosmic Energy, Energy Body, Third Eye and Astral Travel (New Version Part 2)        
DTEF Program on Meditation, Cosmic Energy, Energy Body, Third Eye and Astral Travel (New Version Part 2)

Ano ang Third Eye o ikatlong mata?
Ito ay mistulang ika-anim na pandama. Isang biyaya ito na natatanggap mula sa mas mataas at mga nakatagong karunungan o impormasyon lagpas o higit pa sa kayang tanggapin ng pangkaraniwang pandama ng tao kaya mahirap itong sukatin ng karaniwang instrumentong maka-agham.
Ito ay pakikipag-ugnay o pakikipag usap sa NAPAKATAAS DI nakikita at walang hanggang kapangyarihan o pwersang lagpas sa pang- unawa ng pantaong kaisipan. Ito ang pinakamataas na pagsanib ng kommunikasyon sa hindi nakikitang mapaglikhang pwersa. Ito ang mas mataas mong sarili. Maraming uri o forma ang 3rd eye  panghuhula, panaginip, pangitain.        Ito ay kommunication sa mundo ng mga hindi nakikita.
Ano ang ibat-ibang gamit ng Third eye?
See a glimpse of the future with amazing accuracy Makikita ang kinabukasan ng may kakaibang linaw o makikita mo kung ano ang posibleng mangyari bukas. Pwede kang manood o sumakay lumutang o lumipad makalipat sa ibat-ibang lugar o oras ng mga hula, pangitain, panaginip, pangyayari at maintindihan ang ibat-ibang symbolikong mensahe.  Tune-into the different frequencies of prophecy, visions, premonitions, dreams, events, understand symbolic messages.Mahuhulaan mo ang mga kahindikhindik o kagilagilalas na mga posibleng mangyari bago pa ito magkaroon ng kaganapan o katuparan . Makakaya mo ngang hulaan kung sino ang susunod na pres. O ang pag bagsak ng isang pangulo.Predict important historical events and you can even foretell the downfall of leaders. Magkakaroon ka ng kakayahang o abilidad para tumagos at Makita ang nakaraan o nakalipas at maging ang bukas na kasing liwanag ng pagkakita mo sa kasalukuyang nangyayari dahil nararanasan mo ang oras sa ibat-ibang level na maaaring di pa nagaganap sa kasalukuyan mong kalagayan.
You can have the ability to observe the past and the future as clearly as you can see the present cause you will experience time on several different levels which does not yet exist on the physical plane. Whatever happens on the earth plane has already happened or has taken place on the higher vibratory levels or some other planes of existence so if you have developed the power to tune-in to that level you can foretell what will happen next. Anomang nangyayari sa kasalukuyan o sa mundo ay sinasabing nangyari na sa mas mataas na level o lugar na me realidad sa ibang dimension kaya pagnatuto kang makinig o manuod sa lugar na yun malalaman mo kung ano ang susunod na mangyayari.

Read the Akaschicrecord of a person or events Makakabasa ka ng AKASCHIC record  doon nakasulat ang istorya ng isang tao o isang pangyayari.(the depository of all things that happen on earth, comic memory or book of man’s life or divine memory bank that exist in the astral plane or another .Ito ang kinalalagyan ng lahat ng nangyari  sa mundo, mga alaala, banal na bangko ng lahat ng alaala at pangyayari na nakatago sa ibang kalatagan o lugar.
See the Aura (the life-force burning within a man, a luminous emanation surrounding a person, Makikita mo ang Aura ito ay ang nag aapoy na pwersa ng buhay sa loob ng isang tao na umiikot ikot mula sa isang tao. Ito ay isang electro-magnetic na vibration ng kaluluwa. Ito ang di-makitang antas ng liwanag at enerhiya na bumabalot sa lahat ng tao na siya ring talaan ng kasaysayan ng lahat ng nakaraan at kinabukasan ng taong binabalutan nito. Mga bagay o pangyayaring nangyari na o mangyayari palang. it’s the electro-magnetic vibrations of a soul which records everything that happens or is about to happen to a man. MAKIKITA RIN NG THIRD EYE ANG KALAGAYAN NG PANGKALAHATANG KALUSUGAN NG TAO MAGING SA PISIKAL, PANG-KAISIPAN, PANG EMOTIONAL OR BAGO PA LUMABAS ANG MALUBHANG SAKIT AT BAGO MAGING PANLUPANG KARAMDAMAN.  The third eye can even have its own medical diagnosis to see, feel his present health or emotional state or event the onset of a disease/sickness long before it manifest itself in the physical planes.HALOS WALA KANG MAITAGO O MAIPAGKAILA SA ISANG TAONG BUKAS ANG THIRD EYE. Absolutely nothing can be kept a secret.ANG ISANG TAONG BUKAS ANG THIRD EYE AY KAYANG MAKITA ANG AURA MO O ANG TINATAWAG NA ASTRAL BODY O YUNG LUMULUTANG MONG PAGKATAO SA PAMAMAGITAN NG MALAKAS NA CONCENTRATION O MEDITATION KAYA MAKIKITA NYA ANG SAKIT NG ISANG TAO NA BUMABALOT SA KANYA O BAGO PA MAN MAGKARON SYA NG SAKIT KAHIT WALANG MGA INSTRUMENTONG TULAD NG PANG BLOOD PRESSURE O PANGLAGNAT MAKIKITA KASI ITO SA ENERGIYANG UMIIKOT SA KATAWAN NG ISANG TAO O KANYANG ETHERIC BODY. A person with a third eye can see the aura or the astral body of a person for instance with great concentration and meditation he will see an illness of a person already present before even a medical instruments can detect this, for it can be seen in the etheric or energy body.

MAKAKAYA MONG BUKSAN ANG MGA SECRETO AT MGA LIHIM NG BUHAY, MAKITA KUNG ANO ANG NAKATAGO SA LIKOD NAKARAAN O KINABUKASAN.You can unravel the mysteries of life, see what lies behind & beyond. MAKIKITA MO ANG IBANG DIMENSION NG PAGKABUHAY, MGA VIBRATION NG ENERGIYA NG ISANG TAO O LUGAR NG MAY MATINDING PAKIRAMDAM AT MALAWAK NA PANG UNAWA AT MAGIGING SENSITIVO KA NG MAKITA ANG NASA LOOB AT NASA LABAS NA PANGYAYARI. ANG NAKATAGONG KALIKASAN NG IYONG PAGKATAO O MABASA MO ANG NAKALIPAS, PANGKASALUKUYAN O BUKAS NG ISANG TAO. See other dimensions of existence, vibration of energies of a person or place w/ greater awareness, understanding and become highly sensitive to see the external and internal scenes.  The hidden nature of your own life and other person’s past, present and future.
MAHUHULAAN MO ANG ISANG NAPAKADELIKADONG PANGYAYARI O SAKUNA MULA SA TAO O KALIKASAN KAYA PWEDE KANG MAKAPAGBIGAY NG BABALA SA MGA MAHAL MO SA BUHAY SA ISANG NAPAKATAAS NA POSIBILIDAD.You can predict dangers/disaster from people or events so you can forewarn to protect yourself your loved one’s on its highest possible order.MAKITA O MARINIG MULA SA IBANG KALAWAKAN ANG IBAT IBANG KARUNUNGAN AT KAINTINDIHAN MULA SA MALAYONG PINAGMULAN LAHAT NG POSIBLENG SCENARIO MGA NAWAWALANG TAO, GAMIT, HAYOP, MAKAKATULONG KANG MA SOLVE ANG MGA CRIMEN KUNG SINO ANG TOTOONG PUMATAY BASAHIN ANG NAKALIPAS, KASALUKUYAN AT NAKARAAN.  See/hear things in another dimension of existence or of great distance.  See the possible scenario and find missing person, helps solve crimes diagnose disease and read the past, present and future.
Types of the Third Eye
Clairvoyance the power of spiritual sight. ANG KAPANGYARIHAN NG SPIRITUAL NA PANINGIN. ANG IBIG SABIHIN AY ANG ABILIDAD NA MAKITA ANG MGA BAGAY NG MAY LIWANAG NA HINDI NAKIKITA NG MARAMING TAO. ITO AY ANG ABILIDAD O KAKAYAHANG NA MAKITA AT TUMINGIN NG MALAYO SA PANGKARANIWANG ARAWARAW NA BUHAY SA MUNDO AT MAKITA ANG NASA MALAYONG TAO, LUGAR O PANGYAYARI. MALAKAS NA PAKIRAMDAM O SUPER SENSITIVO NA MAKITA LABAS SA NORMAL NA KAKAYAHANG NG PANTAONG PERCEPTION. SA KABILA NGA NA LAYO NG DISTANSIYA AT PANAHON. ISANG KAKAYAHANG LAMPAS SA PANGKARANIWANG PANGRAMDAM. It means the ability to see things clearly that most people cant.  It is the ability to look beyond the everyday world and see far away people or events.  It can be defined as acute intuitive insight or perceptiveness and being able to see things outside the normal range of human perception.
Ex:
Before the arrest of our Lord Jesus Christ when he said, “You are my friends, there is no greater love that for a man to lay down his life for his friends I cannot be with you much longer my friends, you cannot go where I am going.  John 16:16, In just a little while I will be gone and you will see me no more.KAUNTING PANAHON NA LAMANG AT HINDI NA NINYO AKO MAKIKITA;….SINASABI KO SA INYO TATANGIS KAYO AT MAGDADALAMHATI; NGUNIT MAGHAGALAK ANG SANLIBUTAN. MATITIGIB KAYO NG KALUNGKUTAN,SUBALIT ITO’Y MAGIGING KAGALAKAN….NALULUMBAY KAYO NGAYON, NGUNIT MULI AKONG MAKIKIPAGKITA SA INYO AT MAG-UUMAPAW SA PUSO NINYO ANG KAGALAKANG HINDI MAAAGAW NINUMAN.
In John 4: 5-18 We learn the story of the Samaritan woman from whom Jesus Christ asked water from Jacob’s well.  Jesus told her to bring her husband to him and when she replied that she had no husband, Jesus told her “you are right, when you say you don’t have a husband.  You have been married to five mean and the man you live with now is not really you husband.  You have told me the truth”.
Clairaudience the power to hear sounds or voices at great distance w/c are ordinarily inaudible to normal hearing.KAPANGYARIHANG MARINIG ANG MGA BOSES SA MALAYONG LUGAR NA HINDI NARIRINIG NG ORDINARYONG O NORMAL NA PANDINIG.
Can perform Astral projection-separating of the physical body temporarily or out of the body travel/experience.ITO ANG PAGHIWALAY NG KATAWANGLUPA PANSAMANTALA. ANG KAKAYAHANG MAGKAROON NG LABAS-SA-KATAWANG KARANASAN KATULAD NG PAGLALAKBAY NG DIWANG SARILI.

Can produce his etheric double or Bilocation- the power to be in two places at the same time.ANG KAPANGYARIHAN O KAKAYAHANG MAGKAROON NG IKALAWANG SARILI KUNG SAAN MAAARING MAGSA-DALAWANG LUGAR SA IISANG ORAS O PAGKAKATAON.
Telepathy or thought transference –KAKAYAHANG  O KAPANGYARIHANG MAGPADALA O TUMANGGAP NG MENSAHENG KAISIPAN NG WALANG GAMIT NA PISIKAL NA PARAAN. MAKITA O MABASA ANG NAIISIP NG IBA. MAY ILANG  KASULATAN SA BANAL NA BIBLIYA TUNGKOL DITO. NOONG SI KRISTO AY PINAG-PAPLANUHAN NG KANYANG MGA KAAWAY, MAAGA NIYA ITONG NALAMAN AT TULUYANG UMIWAS O TUMAKAS.  NANG NANGAGBUBULUNGAN ANG MGA PARI NG LABAN SA KANYA, ALAM NYA AGAD ANG KANILANG PINAG UUSAPAN KAYA AGAD NA NAKAKATUGON DAHIL ALAM NIYA ANG NILALAMAN NG PUSO NG BAWAT TAO AT KAYANG BASAHIN NG PANGINOONG KRISTO ANG INIISIP NINUMAN-   GANYAN PINALILIWANAG NG BIBLIYA ANG KAPANGYARIHAN TELEPATHIC NG ANAK NG DIOS. power to receive or transmit thought without the use of physical.  Means literally see and read the thought of another.  These were several examples of the telepathy powers of Jesus Christ as given in the Bible.  When his enemies were plotting against him, he knew of it and was able to escape them.  When the priests whispered against him, he knew what they were talking about and would answer them back.  He knew men’s hearts, Jesus could read their minds – was how the Bible described the telepathic powers of the son of God.
Precognition- to power to foretell an event before it happens.  It tends to reveal things that might happen.  Nothing is fixed and we have the power to change the future. KAPANGYARIHANG MAGSABI O TUMUKOY NG  ISANG PANGYAYARI BAGO PA MAN ITO MANGYARI O MAGANAP.
Example, Jesus predicted that one of his disciples would betray him and hand him over to his enemies.HALIMBAWA NA RITO ANG PAGBADYA O PAGKAALAM AGAD NI KRISTO NA ISA SA KANYANG DISIPULO AY MAGPAPAKANULO SA KANYA AT IPAPAHULI SYA SA KAMAY NG KANYANG MGA KAAWAY.
Jesus: Truly I tell you one of you is about to betray me.
John: Master with sacred heart who will betray you is it I?
Jesus: He who dips his bread in the disk when I did mine he shall be the one.
Jesus: But another time is coming, the time for me to go to Jerusalem.
Judas: Oh yes Master you must go to Jerusalem the whole city awaits you the elders of Israel must know and recognize you.
Jesus: No, Judas in Jerusalem the son of man will be rejected by the elders, the chief Priest of the temple and the teachers of the law, he will be condenmed, he will be handed over to the unbelievers who will scorn him mock him put him to death then after 3 days he will rise again.
Luke 22: 33-34
“Peter said, Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison and to death. 34 And Jesus said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, before that thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me.” LUKAS 22:33-34 SUMAGOT SI PEDRO, PANGINOON, HANDA PO AKONG MABILLANGGO AT MAMATAY NA KASAMA NINYO! 34 PEDRO, ANI JESUS TANDAAN MO BAGO TUMILAOK ANG MANOK SA ARAW NA ITO AY MAKAITLO MO AKONG ITATATWA.
Jesus: I shall not be with you much longer you will look for me but where I am going you cannot come.
Peter: Master, I will follow you whereever you go I will lay down my life for you
Jesus: Peter this very night when the cock crows you will have denied three times that you’ve known me.
Peter: No never never I will never deny you.
Jesus: You will all loose me the shepherd will be struck and the sheep will be scattered.
Peter: Even if all loose faith I will not
Jesus: I prayed for you You must give strenth to your brothers truly I tell you one of you is about to betray me.
In the Old Testament, Daniel and Joseph, the Dreamer, interpreted visions and dreams and told of future events.
Daniel 4 Si Haring Nabucodonosor ay gumawa ng isang pahayag at ipinakalat sa buong daigdig.  Ganito ang isinasaad: “Minamahal kong mga kababayan, kagalakan kong ihayag sa inyo ang kababalaghang ipinakita sa akin ng kataas-taasang Diyos.
3 “Kamangha-mangha ang kanyang kababalaghan at kagila-gilalas ang kanyang mga gawa. Ang paghahari niya’y magpakailanman at saklaw ng kapangyarihan niya ang lahat ng salinlahi.
4 “Akong si Nabucodonosor ay namumuhay nang panatag sa gitna ng kasaganaan. 5Minsan, nagkaroon ako ng isang nakatatakot na panaginip. 6Kaya,ipinatawag ko ang mga pantas ng babilonia upang ipaliwanag ang panaginip na iyon. 7Dumating naman ang mga salamangkero, engkantador, manghuhula at mga astrologo. Sinabi ko sa kanila ang aking panaginip ngunit di nila maipaliwanag. 8Sa bandang hul, lumapit sa akin si Daniel na pinangalanan naming Beltsasar, ayon sa pangalan ng akin banal na diyos pagkat sumasakanya ang espiritu ng mga diyos. Ang sabi ko: 9Beltsasar, puno na salamangkero, alam kong sumasaiyo ang espiritu ng mga banal ng diyos at alam mo ang lahat ng hiwaga. Sasabihin ko sa iyo ang aking panaginip, ipaliwanag mo sa akin.
Premonition – forewarn.  This is a warning which can avert future disaster if heeded.  Premonition that you are going to have a car accident before your journey, robbery, earthquakes, etc.
Prophecies – divinely-inspired precognitive experiences.
Predictions – announcement of future events.
Psychokinesis/telekinesis- to influence.
Psychometry-sense of origin/person’s state of mind.
Radiesthesia- power to find hidden object/precious metal/ diagnose disease.
All of this can occur in dreams, waking visions, thoughts, voices or a sense of knowing something.LAHAT NG ITO AY PWEDENG MAGMULA O MANGYARI SA PAMAMAGITAN NG PANAGINIP, GISING NA MGA PANGITAIN, BIGLANG DUMARATING NA PAG IISIP, MGA BOSES O MGA PAKIRAMDAM MULA SA KUNG SAAN MAN O KANINO.
Daniel 4:3
How great are his signs and how mighty are his wonders.KAMANGHA-MANGHA ANG KANYANG KABABALAGHAN AT KAGILAGILALAS ANG KANYANG MGA GAWA. ANG PAGHAHARI NIYA’Y MAGPAKAILANMAN AT SAKLAW NG KAPANGYARIHAN NIYA ANG LAHAT NG SALINLAHI.
Daniel 4:6 
Therefore made I a decree to bring in all the wisemen of Babylon before me (Nebuchadnezzar) that they might make known unto me the interpretation of my dream.KAYA, IPINATAWAG KO ANG MGA PANTAS NG BABILONIA UPANG IPALIWANAG ANG NAKAKATAKOT KONG PANAGINIP.
Daniel 4:9
Tell me the visions of my dream that I have seen and the interpretation thereof.SASABIHIN KO SA IYO ANG AKING  PANAGINIP, IPALIWANAG MO SA AKIN.
I Corinthians 12
4 Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same spirit (Ngayo’y may iba’t ibang mga kaloob, datapuwa’t iisang Panginoon.)
7 But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal.ANG BAWAT ISA’Y BINIGYAN NG KALOOB NA NAGHAHAYAG NA SUMASAKANYA ANG ESPIRITU, PARA SA IKABUBUTI NG LAHAT.
8 For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom, to another the word of knowledge by  the same spirit.SA ISA’Y IPINAGKALOOB SA PAMAMAGITAN NG ESPIRITU ANG KAKAYAHANG MAGPAHAYAG NG MGA ARAL NG DIYOS.
9 To another faith by the same spirit; to another the gifts of healing by the same spirit ANG IISANG ESPIRITU RING IYON ANG NAGKAKALOOB SA IBA NG MALAKING PANANALIG SA DIYOS, AT SA IBA’Y ANG KAPANGYARIHANG MAGPAGALING SA MGA MAYSAKIT.
10   To another the working of miracles; to another prophecy, to another discerning of Spirits, to another divers kinds of tongues, to another the interpretation of tongues.                                                                                                                                                              (May  pinagkalooban ng kapangyarihang gumawa ng mga kababalaghan; ng kahusayan sa pagpapahayag ng salita ng Diyos; ng kakayahang makakilala kung aling kaloob ang mula sa Espiritu at kung alin ang mula sa masamang espiritu. May pinagkalooban ng kakayahang magsalita sa iba’t ibang wika; at sa iba naman magpaliwanag niyon.
Advantages and Disadvantages  of the Third Eye
ANO ANG MAARING MAGING BENTAHE O DISBENTAHA NG ME BUKAS NA THIRD EYE.
What are the some disadvantages of the third eye?
ANO ANG MGA DISVENTAHE NG BUKAS ANG 3RD EYE?   MAKAKAKITA KA NG MGA KAGULATGULAT O NAKALILIGALIG NA PANGITAIN NG KATAPUSAN NG BUHAY O KAMATAYAN. MGA BUKAS NA PINTUAN O DAANAN KUNG SAAN MAY MGA KAHINDIK-HINDIK AT NAKAKATAKOT NA NILIKHA MULA SA IBANG DIMENSIYON. M,GA UMIIKOT O LIGALIG NA ENERGIA NA PUMAPASOK SA AURA MO, MINSAN DI MO NA MALAMAN ANG KATOTOHANAN SA ILLUSION LAMANG NAGKAKARON NG KALITUHAN KUNG ANO ANG KATOTOHANAN AT HINDI. KAYA NAPAPAGKAMALAN KANG ME SIRA ANG ULO O MEDYO BALIW PARANG SI CRISTO NG SINASABI NYANG SIYANG ANAK NG DIOS EH ANG DIOS DAW E WALANG UMPISA AT WALANG WAKAS. MAKAKARAMDAM NG PANANAKIT NG ULO AT PAGKAHILO O PAGKAUBOS NG LAKAS. PAGKAPARIWARA O PAGKALIMOT NG MGA ALAALA AT LITO ANG KAISIPAN NA NAGLALAYO SA MUNDONG KATOTOHANAN.
Shocking moments in seeing the end of life, the doorways or existence of ugly creatures from another dimensions, interferences of energies penetrating your aura.  Sometimes you cant differentiate reality from illusions, indicative of mental illness.  Can feel some headache and dizziness.  Drowning out of memories with instantaneous distortion of mind causing loose contact with reality. SA       KATUNAYAN ANG ISANG TAONG MAY 3RDEYE AY HINDI NAMAN NANGHUHULA O NAKAPAGBABADYA NG MANGYAYARI SA KINABUKASAN KUNDI NABABASA O NAKIKITA LAMANG NYA ANG PANGYAYARING NANGYAYARI NA NGUNIT  NASA IBANG KALATAGAN NG  KATOTOHANAN. ANG  HINULAAN O NAKIKITANG PANGYAYARI AY MAAARING MAGANAP SA PHYSICAL NA REALIDAD KUNG ANG LAHAT NG ELEMENTO NA KAILANGAN PARA SA KATUPARAN AY NAKASALIK PATI ANG KUSA AT KAGUSTUHAN NG TAO. MGA POSIBLENG MANGYARI BUKAS NA MANGYAYARI LAMANG DEPENDE LAMANG SA KAGUSTUHAN NG ISANG TAO AY PWEDENG BAGUHIN AT MAARING DI NA MAGANAP SA REALIDAD. MAYROON DING MGA PANGYAYARI PARA BUKAS NA HINDI NA MAARING BAGUHIN NINUMAN DAHIL ITO’Y NAHATULAN NA AT COMPLETO NA KAHIT NA SA MATAAS NA LUGAR NG REALIDAD KAYA DI NA PWEDENG MABAGO. SA IBANG SALITA, ITO AY HINDI NA AYON SA KAGUSTUHAN NG TAO KUNDI SA KAGUSTUHAN NG DIYOS. KAYA NAKAKALUNGKOT NA KATOTOHANAN SA ISANG TAONG MAY 3RDEYE NA MAKITA ANG ISANG DI MAPIPIGIL NA PANGYAYARI AT WALA NA SYANG ANUMANG MAGAGAWA TUNGKOL DITO.
Strictly speaking a person with third eyes is not predicting the future; he is interpreting what is already present in another dimension.  Predicted events are likely to occur in the physical reality if all the elements necessary for their manifestation are present, including the subjective will of man.  Future events that primarily depend only on one individual’s will can be changed and may not manifest in physical reality.  There are future events, however, those are inevitable because the process is already decided and complete even on the higher planes of existence and can therefore no longer be changed.  In other words, they are no longer subject to man’s will but to God’s will.  Sad to say a person with a third eye who predicted an inevitable events cannot do anything about it.
How does one deal with the third eye?  (positive and negative aspects) PAANO MAKIBAGAY SA POSITIVO AT NEGATIBONG ASPETO NG PAGKAKAROON NG  3RD EYE.NEGATIVO- MAAARI TAYONG PUMASOK AT MAKARANAS   NG DI-KANAISNAIS O MASAMANG BIYAHE O KARANASAN NA KUNG SAAN PUMASOK KA SA MAS MABABANG KALATAGAN NG KATOTOHANAN NA KUNG SAAN MAKAKAKITA KA  NG MGA HALIMAW NA NILIKHA O ELEMENTALS KAYA MAAARING MABALOT KA NG TAKOT SA HINDI PANGKARANIWANG KARANASAN. MAAARING MAKAKITA KA NG MGA TAONG PINAKIKIELAMAN O SINASANIBAN NG MANGKUKULAM MULA SA MALAYONG LUGAR, MGA NAGLALAKBAY NA KALULUWA SA BAHAY O BLDG, MAKAKITA O MAKARAMDAM NG MGA KALULUWA NG PATAY NA TAO, MAKAKITA NG MGA DUWENDE, ENGKANTOS,KAPRE, KAPAG NANGYARI ITO MAGDASAL NG TAIMTIM, HINGIN ANG KISLAP NG MGA DIVINO PARA SA KANILANG TULONG AT GABAY AT ILUBOG ANG SARILI TUNGO SA  TAMANG DAAN AT PAMAMARAAN.
Negative aspects- One may possibly enter and experience a bad trip in which you goes into the lower astral planes and meets monstrous beings or elementals which can be very scary enveloping strange experiences.  You will see person psychically controlled by others like witches from a distance, poltergeist activities in a house or bldgs seeing or sensing spirits of deceased individuals, seeing dwarfs, elves, kapres, engkantos etc. Erase and pray and get the Divine spark and immersed yourself to the positive side.
POSITIVONG ASPETO- MAGTIWALA, MAKIPAG USAP AT SUMINDIG SA LAKAS NG TAMANG UGNAYAN SA   BANAL NA TATLONG PERSONA, BANAL NA PAMILYA, AT MGA BANAL NA ANGHEL BILANG TAGAPAG-INGAT AT TAGAPAGTANGGOL NG INYONG   SALOOBING  KATOTOHANAN. SILA ANG MGA GABAY SA PAGPAPAYAMAN, PAGPAPALAKAS, AT PAGPAPAUNLAD NG MAS MALALIM NG TALINONG ISPIRITWAL. AT ANG SOLUTION LAMANG AT PARAAN PARA MAPALAKAS ANG 3RDEYE   AY ANG MAHAWAKAN ANG MGA MAKAPANGYARIHAN AT SAGRADONG DASAL AT ORACION.DAPAT NA MAGING PINAKAMATAAS NA LAYUNIN MO ANG MAPALAWAK ANG IYONG SPIRITUAL NA BUHAY AT MATUTUHAN ANG MGA BANAL NA KAALAMAN DOON MAHIRAP KA NG MAGKAMALI AT MALINLANG PAGPINAGBUTI MO ANG MGA ABILIDAD NA REGALO SA IYO NG TATLONG PERSONA.
Positive aspects-just trust in communication to Divine channel of the holy trinity, holy family and the divine angels and you can deal to achieve a higher divine intelligence.  The only solution on ways to strengthen the third eye is to have the powerful sacred prayers.
Assimilate messages but decipher it correctly with fantastic accuracy in your interpretation and prediction by eliminating the negative dark side.  As long as your objectives are the highest good, your ultimate goal should be to develop your spirituality and to gain knowledge of the divine then you can’t go wrong in the development of your God given abilities.
I  Corinthians 14;1
Strive, then for love and set your hearts on Spiritual gifts especially that you may prophesy. (Sundin ninyo ang pag ibig; gayon ma’y maningas ninyong pakanasain ang mga kaloob na ayon sa Espiritu; ngunit lalo na ang kayo’y mangakapanghula.)
Ways to Develop the Third Eye
PARAAN PARA MABUKSAN ANG 3RD EYE
Do all people have the third eye? LAHAT BA NG TAO AY MAY 3RD EYE?
OO,   LAHAT   NG TAO AY MAY 3RD EYE SA IBAT IBANG CHANNEL NGA LANG BUKAS, IBAT IBANG LEVEL O ANTAS  O URI AT FREQUENCY O LAKAS. KUNG MAY MGA DI PANGKARANIWANG KARANASAN KA O NARARAMDAMANG DI-MAIPALIWANAG TULAD NG MAKAKITA O MAKARAMDAM NG KALULUWA NG ISANG PATAY NA TAO, PAGKAKITA NG MGA DUWENDE O MGA ENGKANTO, MGA LUGAR NA PARANG NAPUNTAHAN NA O PANGYAYARING PARANG NAULIT NA, MGA PAULIT-ULIT NA PANAGINIP NA NAGKAKATOTOO, NAGIGING SENSITIVO O NAPAKALAKAS O NAPAKATALAS NA PAKIRAMDAM, O PARA BANG LAGING MAY ANINO SA LIKOD NATIN O LAGING MAT SUMUSUNOD O TUMATAWAG, O KAYA’Y NABUBULUNGAN TAYO O NAIINFLUENCIAHAN O NACOCONTROL NG KUNG SINO MULA SA MALAYONG LUGAR, O KAYA NAHIHILA TAYO O NAPAPASUNOD AGAD SA ISANG TAO AT PAKIRAMDAM MO BA EH DATI NA KAYONG MAGKAKILALA AY ILAN LANG SA MGA PALATANDAANG MAY BUKAS KANG 3RD EYE.
TAYO AY MADALAS PINAAALALAHANAN O BINIBIGYAN NG BABALA NG 3RDEYE NATIN KUNG MAY MASAMANG POSIBLENG MANGYARI. ANG PROBLEMA BIHIRA TAYONG MAKINIG SA  BOSES NA NASA LOOB NG ATING PAGKATAO DALA ITO MARAHIL NG MGA ITINUTURO SA ATING HANGGAT DI MO NAKIKITA WAG MONG PANIWALAAN TULAD NG HANGIN O MISMONG KALULUWA NATIN(PALIWANAG) KAYA SIGURO DI TAYO NAKIKINIG SA MGA BABALANG PINAGKAKALOOB SA ATIN.  NGUNIT, KUNG TUTURUAN NATIN ANG ATING SARILI  NA MAKINIG SA BOSES NA IPINAGKALOOB SA ATIN MAGBUKASLOOB SA PANSARILING PAKIRAMDAM SUBUKANG PAGYAMANIN ANG ATING 3RDEYE MATUTUKALASN NATIN NA LAGI TAYONG PINAAALAHAN –MISAN SA PANAGINIP, MGA PREMONITIONS, OR MGA PAKIRAMDAM NG SARILI NATING KATAWAN KILABOT PAGTAAS NG BUHOK DAHIL SA MEDYO DELIKADO O MAY MANGYAYARING AKSIDENTE.   GAMITIN ITO NG TAMA AT MAY KATALINUHAN, MAKAKAPAGBIGAY ITO SA IYO NG MGA IMPORTANTENG BABALA KAALAMAN TUNGKOL SA SARILI MO, SA IBANG TAO O SA MGA SUSUNOD NA KABANATA NG BUKAS.
Yes, all people have the third eye but on different channels, frequencies and levels.  If you have strange experiences like seeing or sensing spirits of deceased individuals, seeing dwarfs or elves, awareness of meaningful coincidences (déjà vu), having frequent dreams that come true, hypersensitivity, feeling haunted, being psychically influenced or controlled by others from a distance, being irresistibly drawn to a person and feeling certain they’ve met before are signs of an open third eye.
We are usually warned if anything bad will occur to us.  The problem is that we seldom listen to the inner voice, that instinct with in us since logic rejects such an attitude.  That’s why we don’t act on such intuitive warnings. But if we train ourselves to listen to our inner voice, to our inner guidance, to our intuition, try to develop our third eye; we shall see that we are always warned – sometimes through dreams, premonitions, or physical sensations of impending dangers.
          Toenail Fungus Treatment        
Onychomycosis or nail fungus is a common malady of the nails of the feet. In medical parlance, onychomycosis is a type of fungal nail infection. Today, this trouble affects more than 30 million Americans each year.





Onychomycosis might be caused by one of three types of common fungi: dermatophyte fungus, non-dermatophyte fungi and common yeasts.





Yeast infections in both men and women share some common characteristics with toenail fungus, such as its growth in warm and moist places.





Toenail fungus does not lend well to home remedies, and will not go away without professional treatment.





1. Medical Diagnosis





Confirmation of the presence of nail fungi is done through culturing of nail samples from patients. Doctors do this by placing nail samples in a pre-mixed compound.





The compound used for confirming the presence of nail fungi is potassium hydroxide, diluted to about 20% of its original strength.





Heating is then done, and under a microscope, fungi species are examined and identified to confirm diagnosis. Presence and proliferation are both key to successful diagnosis of nail fungi.





Under a microscope, the nail fungi exhibits branching-off characteristics and root structures.





2. Types of Nail Fungi





The most common ailment of human nails is distal subungual onychomycosis or DSO. "Subungual" means "beneath the nails". This particular ailment is caused by the Tinea rubrum fungus species.





Onychomycosis that manifests itself near the cuticle is called proximal subungual onychomycosis. This particular nail infection has been categorized as one of the secondary symptoms of AIDS.





Superficial onychomycosis on the other hand is the third sub-form of nail fungus.





This particular nail infection is caused by the tinea mentagrophytes species. It is characterized by generalized spread of white spots on the surface of the nails.





3. Sources of Infection





Age plays a significant part in the proliferation of nail fungus. The ailment is more common to adults than on children. But there are also instances of onychomycosis in children. This is called pediatric onychomycosis.





In diabetic patients, it has been found that infection from Trichophyton mentagrophytes is common.





For non-diabetics, venous insufficiencies such as problems with lymph nodes has been pointed as possibly one of the causes.





4. Treatment





Treatment of onychomycosis is done through the application of topical remedies and through the ingestion of oral antifungal drugs.





Griseofulvin has been used for a long time to combat nail fungi. Unfortunately, this particular drug yielded low success results. The cure rate for Griseofulvin was only 23.8%





Other oral medications prescribed to patients with nail fungus infections are Itraconazole (often known by the brand name Sporanox) and Terbinafine (often known by the more popular name Lamisil).





Both Terbinafine and Itraconazole require ingestion for about 12 weeks. Sporanox comes in 200 gram tablets while Lamisil comes in 250 gram tablets.





For patients taking Rifampin, the FDA has cleared both drugs for safe use in conjunction with the other drug.


For more information about nail fungus treatment, visit http://www.toe-nails-fungus.com/ now.

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          The Need for Outsourcing in Healthcare        

 

A never-ending challenge for a healthcare facility is to keep track of all the claims and deal with the denials as and when they turn up. It is customary for claims to be denied or rejected and revenue cycle management exists to be an industry-wide problem. Several efforts by healthcare facilities have not altered the abatement of claim denials. Claim rejection/denial is a common affair and can wear out the resources resulting in an iterative scrutinizing of each claim, which is strenuous for a niche business like healthcare.

It is estimated that the average medical practice loses as much as 11% of its revenue due to underpayments each year. 14% of the $2.7 trillion healthcare expenditure goes to claims processing, payments, medical billing, revenue cycle management (RCM) and bad debt mainly because of outdated manual methods. There are two primary reasons; a claim doesn’t result in a payment; either the player doesn’t receive the claim, or the claim is inadequate/incorrect.

Taking advantage of an expert Medical Billing Service Provider can significantly reduce the number of claim rejection and denials and can lead to more income. Here’s how:-

  1. Healthy Bottom-Line, with Least Possible Medical Billing and Coding Error

Medical billing & coding are the most complex and crucial components of a healthcare business. A healthcare facility doesn’t have the bandwidth to go through the granular level of healthcare revenue cycle and considering taking the medical billing & coding services provide better tractability and saves time and money. Insurance paperwork is monumental and is often overwhelming for the healthcare providers and a good medical billing business knows their way through these processes.

  1. Following Regulatory Standards

Data security is essential as it amounts to financial and discrete information. In the wake of HIPAA compliance, Medical billing service provider is privy to safeguard the privacy, security, and confidentiality of protected health information (PHI). Thus, the third party vendor who adheres to HIPAA compliance ensures the patients’ data security and privacy.

  1. Well-Trained Workforce

There is an increment of 100 thousand medical diagnosis and procedure codes in the newly implemented ICD-10; the healthcare personnel don’t need to muddle between the training sessions and his regular practice, procuring the services of a medical billing expert who employs certified coders and billers can bail them out from this adversity. A healthcare facility should also assess their finance and patient volume to determine what's right for them. Owing to fewer irregularities in the billing process a caregiver can leverage the expertise of their billing partner.

  1. Value for Money

For healthcare providers, the cost incurred against total revenue generated is the conclusive factor for their economic prosperity. Positive cash flow is an important element, that’s why a healthcare provider should opt for alternatives like outsourcing the medical billing services to a trusted partner, as it outweighs most traditional and in-house medical billing solution. There are several of arguments that point towards this conclusion, e.g. fewer irregularities in the RCM, duly follow-up on the claims. The healthcare BPO providers excel in identifying the discrepancies far better than the medical practice.  

  1. Follow up with Payers

Medical billing service provider remains in contact with insurance companies and knows the accurate procedures to submit required paperwork for medical insurance claims. Aging AR is not healthy for the financial health of medical practices. A billing expert appeals the claim whenever necessary with a high-level of success reducing the average AR days. Healthcare facilities are also provided with a comprehensive performance report on Revenue Cycle Management that reduces the accountability on the healthcare provider’s part.  

 

  1. Focus on Medical Practice

Medical billing doesn’t emulate the medical treatment approach and needs expertise. Partnering up with a trusted medical billing service provider allows the doctors to concentrate on their core responsibilities. Doing this the health care provider can get rid of the stress caused by payments and bills and can efficiently streamline the entire process medical billing cycle. This gives an assurance that billing would be within the timeline and also ensures that the patients are completely satisfied with the services. This also helps in augmenting employee’s utilization within a healthcare facility, thus increasing reimbursement rate.

  1. Scalability

“Ability to Scale” is an important parameter that a health care provider should look for in a medical billing service provider. If the business expands and demands more substructures, the medical billing service provider should have the prerequisites to scale up, and if the business starts curtailing, then they should be willing to withstand the falling claims. A healthcare provider should contemplate whether the company they are partnering up with is capable of scaling up or cut back the business requirement on a need basis or not.

  1. Round the Clock Availability

Outsourcing provides round the clock support with a dedicated team available 24*7. The healthcare facility doesn’t have to go through the hardship of occasional technical issues. With a highly-trained, competent medical billing & coding staff to handle specific practice needs, outsourcing is a favorable option.

Although each healthcare facility is distinct and adopts specific methods, tools, and operations to enhance the revenue cycle management process, it is imperative that they have a healthy billing system in position. It is best to leave it to a professional Medical Billing Service Provider that has the expertise and wherewithal to manage difficult scenarios.

 


          Today, May 10, marks the World Lupus Day        

Lupus Associations Worldwide have teamed up to claim the relevance of World Lupus Day next May 10. More than 5 million people worldwide have lupus, a chronic autoimmune disease that mainly affects young women of childbearing age. More than 20,000 families in Spain are affected by this disease.

World Lupus Day focuses on the need to increase social awareness, improve health services for these patients, promote research into the causes and cure of Lupus, improve medical diagnosis and treatment and epidemiological studies of the overall impact of this disease.

Lupus affects not only the patient but transcends to his family, friends and coworkers. It is valued even as a global health problem by society, health professionals, or by governments, which determines the need to increase social awareness.

Lupus can be difficult to diagnose because many of its symptoms are confused with more common diseases, but early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help reduce the disabling effects of the disease. Increase awareness Lupus will save many lives.

The first World Lupus Day was held in 2004 and there were numerous events around the world, which highlighted their importance. From then annually Lupus associations organize activities throughout the planet to commemorate this day, in Spain is celebrated by a National Congress Lupus.


          Why me? Why not?        
Helen Keller once said, “When one door of happiness closes, another opens; but often we look so long at the closed door that we do not see the one, which has been opened for us.” Most people think when they are in a bad situation, “Why Me?” If those people looked at the bright side, they might find that question being “Why Not?” Being deaf has taught me that things don’t have to be horrible, if you don’t think of it that way.

At the time I was implanted, people thought that not a lot of things could be done to help a deaf child, besides giving them hearing aids and teaching them sign language. My parents had me implanted with cochlear implants, which with a lot of hard work and dedication helped me to hear and speak like a person with normal hearing. Since I was one of the first people in the area to undergo this surgery, and succeed with flying colors, it allowed me to be a role model for those that are still struggling with their implants. I actually have a deaf pen pal that recently got her second implant and she often asks me questions about mine. Since I have been in the same situation, I can let her know that she has someone there to support her.

Thinking positively and thinking “why not?” about being deaf has made me realize a lot of things. For starters, it has made me a more resilient person because I have learned not to take things so seriously. For example, if someone has a hard time getting my attention, I don’t get offended. This is an opportunity for me to inform them about my deafness. If I had normal hearing, I probably wouldn’t have experienced some of the things that I have in my life, such as Imagination Celebration, or Dancing with the Deaf. I have also had the opportunity from the Dallas Hearing Foundation to meet Miss America 1995, who is deaf. Meeting her showed me that the possibilities are endless when it comes to dreams and making them come true. Also, I have learned to advocate for myself in certain situations. This prepares me for when I go to college and I have to make sure that I get what I need to be able to hear because no one will be there to do it for me. Also, being deaf has made me strive to succeed in things that most people don’t expect a deaf person to succeed in such as being a dancer in Drill Team. I’m an excelling mainstream student, and I’m in the National Honors Society. Next year, I will be able to partake in Dual credit college courses. Being deaf has also helped me appreciate technology and its advancements over the years because those advancements have allowed me to improve my hearing. I have also participated in various studies and research involving deaf people, such as the study that showed me that I am deaf because of genetics. As a result of these studies, I’m now informed about how this could affect my own children. Also, this research could be beneficial to other people who are thinking about getting an implant. The best thing about thinking “Why not?” about my deafness is that it makes me more compassionate towards those who are struggling with something in their lives. I am this way because my own experiences have shown me that people are different. As a result, I don’t judge people.

Because I have not let my being deaf stop me from anything, I have the opportunity to do things in my future that many deaf kids haven’t considered doing. One of those things is going to a college that is not specifically for deaf kids. I also have the opportunity to be more independent in my life. I will be able to get a job with minimal restrictions on the things that I am allowed to do just because I’m deaf. I get to do these wonderful things because I said “Why not?”

I’m not saying that it is easy for me, because it’s not. I am saying that there are ways around every challenge, and you can persevere in whatever you want to accomplish. For every bad day, or even a bad medical diagnosis there is always something positive. So the next time you are in a bad situation instead of thinking “Why me?” think positively and think “Why not?”

Sincerely,
Kelsey Rohr
          What IS, NOT What IF        
I have a confession to make. I am a WHAT IF girl. 
I can easily start thinking about something and spiral down into a huge pit of WHAT IF. 

Are you a WHAT IF-er? 
Do you find yourself thinking....
WHAT IF......I lose my job? 
WHAT IF....my marriage falls apart? 
WHAT IF.....someone I love dies? 
WHAT IF....the medical diagnosis is scary? 

God clearly calls us to focus on WHAT IS, NOT What IF. 
What IF is speculation and allows Satan to get a foothold in our hearts. 
Dwelling on WHAT IS- the facts laid out in the word of God- is what we are called to do. 
His TRUTH that is LIVING, ENDURING, and remains FOREVER. 

I love the Message version of Matthew 6: 33-34 which says...
Steep your life in God-reality, God-initiative, God-provisions. Don't worry about missing out. You'll find all your everyday human concerns will be met. "Give your entire attention to what God is doing right now, and don't get worked up about what may or may not happen tomorrow. God will help you deal with whatever hard things come up when the time comes.

This is a perfect passage to remind us to focus on WHAT IS, NOT What If in our lives. 
God WILL provide what we need. 
Worry is needless, senseless, useless, faithless, godless, ridiculous and pointless. 
1 Peter 1:25 says....But the word of the Lord endures FOREVER! 

My prayer today is that we would focus on WHAT IS, not on WHAT IF!

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          Minyak dan Lemak Seri Ke-7        


PENDAPAT YANG SALAH
        TENTANG LEMAK

oleh : Dr. H. M. Nasim Fauzi

1. Pendahuluan
     Kita beranggapan bahwa pendapat para ahli kesehatan dari Amerika Serikat selalu benar. Padahal tidak. 
     Di antaranya adalah pendapat bahwa lemak jenuh tidak baik bagi kesehatan dan lemaktidak jenuh baik bagi kesehatan. 
     Dalam makalah ini kita telusuri bagaimana sampai terjadi kesalahan pendapat itu.
2. Pengertian-pengertian
Makanan kita terdiri dari karbohidrat, protein, lemak, mineral, vitamin dan air.   
     Kolesterol adalah sejenis lemak yang sangat berguna bagi tubuh. Membentuk dinding sel, empedu, hormon dan vitamin. Tetapi kolesterol LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) bisa mengendap pada dinding pembuluh darah dan menimbulkan penyakit jantung serta stroke maka disebut kolesterol jahat.  
     Minyak kelapa dan minyak biji sawit termasuk minyak baik karena molekulnya kecil-kecil sehingga bila dikonsumsi akan menghasilkan sangat sedikit kolesterol LDL.  
     Sedang minyak kelapa sawit, minyak kedelai, minyak kacang dll. disebut minyak buruk karena molekulnya besar-besar sehingga bila dikonsumsi akan menghasilkan banyak kolesterol LDL. 
     Sedang margarine termasuk lemak jahat karena mengandung lemak trans yang bisa menimbulkan kanker serta meningkatkan kolesterol LDL.
3. Sejarah terjadinya kesalahan pendapat di Amerika Serikat
     Kesalahan pendapat ini terjadi sejak tahun 1955. Sampai sekarang sudah berlangsung selama 62 tahun !

4. Penelitian Dr. Ancel Keys (Seven Countries Study) tahun 1955. 




     Dr. Ancel Keys adalah seorang ahli fisiologi, bukan seorang dokter. Pada tahun 1955 di depan para ahli WHO di Jenewa, Keys membacakan hasil penelitiannya di Jepang, Italia, Inggris. Canada, Australia dan AS tentang kematian oleh penyakit jantung koroner akibat diet tinggi lemak hewani (lihat grafik). 
     Menurut Keys, penduduk Italia berumur tua-tua karena mereka mengonsumsi sedikit lemak hewani dan tinggi lemak nabati yang disebutnya Diet Mediteran. Sedang di Amerika yang orangnya gemuk-gemuk banyak yang meninggal akibat serangan jantung karena banyak mengonsumsi lemak hewani yang mengandung tinggi lemak jenuh. Menurut Ancel Keys lemak hewani mengandung tinggi kolesterol yang bisa menimbulkan penyakit jantung.
5. Kesalahan pendapat Dr. Ancel Keys
Pendapat Keys, bahwa konsumsi tinggi lemak hewani yang mengandung lemak jenuh menimbulkan penyakit jantung tidak betul, berdasarkan data kesehatan sebagai berikut::
- Tahun 1900-an serangan jantung di Barat hampir tidak ada, meskipun orang makan banyak lemak jenuh (dari daging, telur, mentega asli, susu dan keju).
- Tahun 1930-an serangan jantung di AS menimbulkan kematian sekitar 3.000 orang per tahun.
- Tahun 1960-an serangan jantung di AS menimbulkan kematian sekitar 500.000 orang per tahun, meskipun orang makan sangat sedikit lemak jenuh (dari hewan).
                            (Dikutip dari Everything Coconut Diet Book
                               oleh Anjie Sandage dan Lorena Novak Bull)
Di AS, Australia, Kanada dan Inggris banyak terjadi penyakit jantung bukan akibat dari konsumsi lemak hewani, tetapi akibat dari konsumsi minyak burukyaitu minyak kelapa sawit, minyak kedelai, minyak kacang dll. serta lemak jahat yaitu margarine yang selain menimbulkan kanker juga meningkatkan kadar kolesterol LDL.
6. Kesalahan istilah lemak jenuh dan lemak tidak jenuh
Satu molekul lemak / trigliserida bisa mengikat 3 asam lemak yang masing-masing bisa berikatan jenuh dan tidak jenuh. Maka satu molekul lemak bisa mengandung ikatan jenuh dan tidak jenuh bersama-sama. Lihat contohnya pada daftar kandungan asam lemak di bawah ini.
7. Kandungan asam lemak jenuh dan tak jenuh pada bermacam minyak
No.
Jenis minyak / lemak
Asam lemak jenuh
Asam lemak tak jenuh
1
Minyak jagung
13
87
2
Minyak zaitun
14
86
3
Minyak kedelai
15
85
4
Minyak kacang
18
82
5
Minyak ikan salmon
20
80
6
Lemak babi
41
59
7
Minyak kelapa sawit
51
59
8
Mentega asli
66
34
9
Minyak biji sawit
86
14
10
Minyak kelapa
92
8
8. Benarkah lemak tidak jenuh baik bagi kesehatan ?


     Lemak tidak jenuh memiliki ikatan atom karbon rangkap yang mudah terurai dan bereaksi dengan senyawa lain. Bila dipakai untuk menggoreng atau dipanaskan bisa menggumpal seperti oli mobil karena terjadi polimerisasi seperti gambar di atas. Mengandung lemak trans (lemak jahat) yang bisa menimbulkan kanker, serta meningkatkan kadar kolesterol LDL. Maka lemak tidak jenuh sangat tidak baik bagi kesehatan.
9. Pengaruh pendapat Dr. Ancel Keys di Amerika Serikat.
Berdasar pendapat ini di AS semua lemak terutama hewani dinyatakan tidak baik bagi kesehatan. Pada tahun 1956 Ikatan Ahli Penyakit Jantung Amerika menyatakan bahwa diet tinggi keju, lemak babi, telur dan daging sapi bisa menimbulkan penyakit jantung. Juga pemerintah Amerika Serikat menganjurkan diet rendah lemak.
10. Pengaruh lanjutan Dr. Ancel Keys
Di AS, selanjutnya bukan hanya lemak hewani dianggap membahayakan kesehatan tetapi juga termasuk lemak nabati yang banyak mengandung lemak jenuh.
Kita  lihat dalam daftar nomor 7 di atas bahwa minyak kelapa sawit dan minyak kelapa yang berasal dari Negara  tropis (Indonesia, Malaysia dan Filipina) mengandung tinggi lemak jenuh. Maka minyak goreng produksi negara-negara tropis itu dianggap membahayakan kesehatan.
11. Perang dagang antara minyak sayur produksi AS versus minyak goreng produksi negara-negara tropis
Sebelum Perang Dunia ke-2 penduduk AS mengonsumsi lemak hewan dan minyak kelapa. AS mengimpor kopra dari Filipina. Ternyata insiden penyakit jantung koroner rendah. 
     Sewaktu Perang Dunia ke-2 wilayah penghasil minyak kelapa di Pasifik dikuasai Jepang. AS tidak bisa mengimpor kopra dari Filipina. Maka mereka menggunakan minyak dalam negeri yaitu minyak kedelai, minyak kacang dsb. serta margarin (minyak jahat) yang mengandung lemak trans. Sejak saat itu insiden penyakit jantung koroner, stroke, diabetes, hiperlipidemia dan kanker meningkat tajam. Penyebabnya adalah dari konsumsi minyak sayur yaitu minyak kedelai dan minyak kacang (minyak buruk) serta margarin (lemak jahat).
Setelah Perang Dunia ke-2 minyak kelapa masuk lagi ke AS. Terjadi persaingan dagang antara minyak sayur (minyak kedelai dan kacang) dalam negeri dengan minyak goreng impor dari negara-negara tropis.
 Produsen minyak sayur dan margarin yaitu Procter and Gamble (P&G), beserta petani kedelai yang tergabung dalam American Soybean Association (ASA) membuat kambing hitam bahwa naiknya insiden penyakit jantung koroner di AS diakibatkan oleh konsumsi minyak goreng import tropis. Bahkan Food and Drug Administration (FDA - Badan POM AS) dan American Heart Association (AHA Persatuan Ahli Penyakit Jantung AS) serta mass media AS di antaranya The New York Times ikut mendukung tuduhan itu. Mereka menyurati pemerintah AS dan perusahaan makanan, memprotes penggunaan minyak tropis yang mengandung minyak jenuh tinggi yang bisa menimbulkan penyakit jantung. 
     Pendapat ini oleh para Dokter AS dimasukkan ke dalam Buku Ajar Gizi Kedokteran yang berpengaruh terhadap para dokter di seluruh dunia termasuk di Indonesia.
12. Buku-buku yang berisi anjuran untuk mengonsumsi lemak tidak jenuh dan tidak mengonsumsi minyak jenuh.
N.
Nama buku
Pengarang
Tahun
Hal.
1
Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment
Stephen J. McPrice
2009
1102
2
Fisiologi Kedokteran
W.F. Ganong
1983
230
3
Ilmu Gizi & Diet
Mary E. Beck
1993
130
4
Kapita Selekta Kedokteran
Purnawan Junadi
1982
576
5
Manual of Medicine
Harrison’s
2002
124
6
Patofisiologi
Sylvia A. Price
2006
263
7
Physician Handbook
Marcus A.Crupp
1973
439
8
The Merck Manual
Charles E. Lyght
1970
1722
13. Pengaruh pendapat Dr. Ancel Keys di Indonesia
Telah disebutkan pada Bab 5 bahwa pendapat Dr. Ancel Keys tentang lemak jenuh bisa menimbulkan penyakit jantung ternyata salah. Bahkan telah berkembang menjadi perang dagang (Bab 11). 
     Kesalahan pendapat ini dimasukkan ke dalam Buku Ajar Kedokteran, Kesehatan dan Gizi yang kita pakai di Perguruan-perguruan Tinggi (Bab 12). 
     Akibat kesalahan pendapat ini membuat penyakit-penyakit akibat hypercholesterolemia dan kanker merebak di Indonesia.
14. Kembalinya minyak kelapa ke pasar Amerika Serikat.
Namun, pendapat bahwa minyak kelapa yang mengandung tinggi lemak jenuh tidak baik bagi kesehatan pada Bab 10, mulai dibantah oleh sarjana AS sendiri, di antaranya Dr. Bruce Five dalam 14 bukunya.
15. Daftar buku Dr. Bruce Fife tentang minyak, tepung dan air kelapa.
N.
Thn.
Nama Buku
Artinya
1
1999
Saturated Fat May Save Your Life
Lemak jenuh bisa menyela-matkan hidup anda
2
2004
Coconut Lovers Cook Book
Buku masakan dari kelapa
3
2004
The Coconut Oil Miracle
Keajaiban Minyak kelapa
4
2005
Eat Fat, Look Thin
          Empowering Yourself to Respond to Rude People        
B'SD

3 Av, 5777



​
From time to time, I am asked questions along the lines of  "Has anyone ever said something rude or unsympathetic to you about having a brain tumor? Like you deserve it or make sarcastic, even insulting comments about your intelligence or personality due to having the brain tumor? Or even told you that you have no right to cry or be scared because GOD only gives us what we can handle?"


My answer?

"Yes, and I responded with what became the title of a book, It's MY Crisis, and I'll Cry if I Need to!"

Here's an excerpt about the insulting comment:

Human beings mint coins and they're all alike. But when the Creator mints people, each of us is unique even though we come from the same mold. Our different personalities, skills and longings necessitate different paths to achieving a state of calm after we've been startled or terrified. There are no "One size fits all" methods of calming down or gaining perspective. Yet we need to reach the state of composed thought and behavior in order to live as productively and as happily as possible under challenging circumstances. Sound reasoning enables us to choose the coping mechanisms that work for us.

Challenging? Oh yes. But the alternative to coping is worse. Life's not democratic or fair. It's a workout. Make your choice: Coping aka self-restraint or the continuing, possibly worsening problem before you.

After I revealed my diagnosis to friends and family, we cried together. Then we progressed to choosing coping skills and keeping me strong so I could have a chance to continue living. My choice to focus on sound psychological principles complemented my Orthodox Jewish religious convictions. Many of those sound psychological principles, as well as classical Jewish philosophy and laws are presented in this text. A blend of both appears in the next paragraph.

One of the worst reactions people had to my news was saying with a sense of fatalism and religious superiority over me, "You shouldn't cry. GOD only gives people the challenges they can face." I disagree. Many a good person has experienced a psychological or medical problem, and suffered terribly or not survived it. Some medical and emotional challenges destroy no matter how valiantly we fight to survive them. Other crises can be survived. It isn't fair to lump them all in one "You can do it!" category. It blames the patient, who is suffering already. No one on this planet is authorized to pass judgment on another person's trials and tribulations. That's GOD's job.

Are you afraid that religious people or even not so religious people will blame you for your very legitimate tears and fears, because GOD knows what He's doing? Are they doing it already? These types of pithy remarks get high scores for being truthful and meaningful. But they get big fat ZEROES for actually helping someone to conquer their misery. It's as useless as telling someone dripping blood or holding onto broken limbs in an emergency room that "I FEEL YOUR PAIN." It's no help at all.

A medical diagnosis that presents a crisis is something to legitimately cry about. It is a lack of stability and a lack of reliable givens that we need so much. One of the Gates of Prayer that remains open despite the lack of a Beit HaMikdash (ancient Jewish Temple) is the Gate of Tears. Crying is a form of prayer. It says, "I'm scared, I'm sad, I'm angry, I don't know what to do about my problem. I need your help HaShem (GOD)," and more.

We learn from the Talmud in Bava Metzia 59a "Even though the Gates of Prayer are closed (after the destruction of the grand Jewish Temple called Bait HaMikdash), the Gates of Tears are never closed."




The catharsis of getting my story on paper was a soothing experience. I wrote the book to shut up my misinformed critics as much as I wrote it to empower other people facing medical and/or mental health issues. You can buy the book directly from the publisher for fast delivery. Click here to do so. 






Be sure to read the E-book or print edition of EMPOWER Yourself to Cope with a Medical Challenge. It clues you in on how to respond to rude relatives, medical personnel and anyone else who decides to mind your business without just cause.





Face Your Medical Problems with Dignity. Face Your Future with Optimism.

Fill your mouth with polite, self-supporting comments.
          Candida Albicans Yeast         

Candida Albicans Yeast

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          Candida Albicans Treatment Vinegar         

Candida Albicans Treatment Vinegar

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          The DNA Network        

The DNA Network

Stock Navigenics Patient Response [Think Gene]

Posted: 07 Dec 2008 05:52 PM CST

For your own use —at your practice, institution, or otherwise.

Regarding Navigenics and our genetic medical services, please note the following excepts from the Navigenics Terms and Conditions and the Navigenics Form to which you agreed while purchasing your Navigenics test:

Navigenics Terms and Conditions
http://www.navigenics.com/policies/TermsAndConditions/

“The contents of our Site … are for informational purposes only…

You should seek the advice of a physician … regardless of any information contained within Your Report. You should not ignore professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of Your Report or any other Content. Furthermore, you should not interpret Your Report or any other Content as recommending any specific treatment plan, product or course of action…

…THE [Navigenics] CONTENT IS INTENDED SOLELY FOR YOUR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES AND IS NOT INTENDED AS MEDICAL ADVICE, OR TO BE USED FOR MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS OR TREATMENT, FOR ANY INDIVIDUAL PROBLEM.”

Navigenics Informed Consent
http://www.navigenics.com/policies/InformedConsent/

“It is important to realize that although your genome-wide scan will analyze approximately 900,000 SNPs in your DNA, information about clinical significance is not yet available for most of these SNPs.”

Thus, to use Navigenics while providing health care would a violation of Navigenics Terms and Conditions as the test is not “to be used for medical diagnosis or treatment, for any individual problem.” Further, The Terms and Conditions specify that on the basis of the Navigenics test, one should not ignore or delay any existing medical advice, nor should one interpret the results to recommend any other action. Thus, for us to counsel otherwise would also be a violation of the Terms and Conditions, and it would be unethical since you agreed not to change your behavior on the basis of Navigenics. Finally, as stated in Navigenics Informed Consent, “information about clinical significance is not yet available for most of [the Navigenics test].” Medical practices like ours are ethically and legally obligated not to recommend or apply any test or that is not known to be clinically significant while providing health care.

Navigenics does state that its test results are “merely an indication that you may be genetically predisposed to that condition and may wish to consider further independent testing, consult your physician or pursue genetic counseling.” However, any medical advice or genetic counseling services that we would provide for a patient with the Navigenics test would be the same as for a patient without the Navigenics test.

We would be honored to be caring for you and your health. However, we are unable to use the Navigenics test in our medical practice. We sincerely apologize on behalf of the medical community if you were led to believe otherwise.

war on Xmas – the Atheist Anthem Competition [the skeptical alchemist]

Posted: 07 Dec 2008 04:24 PM CST

Not that atheists are declaring war on Xmas, but you can imagine the reaction of the crazies if they only found out...

...that Q Transmissions, a weekly skeptical call-in talk show in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, has started a singing contest for a new atheist anthem!

You can find the music and lyrics on their website, and send them your best rendition of the anthem.

So keep those submissions flowing, and your atheism glowing!

View blog reactions

TwitFitter: Twit for Your Health [ScienceRoll]

Posted: 07 Dec 2008 02:35 PM CST


One of the most interesting or funniest ideas of the week is TwitFitter, a place for fitness enthusiasts and fitness professionals to motivate each other to work out, stay healthy, and get fitter.

twitfitter

Have you got any experience with it?

Anyway, nowadays Twitter is really on fire. I started to use Tweetdeck to track my twits and I just found a post on How to got to web 2.0 mentioning two practical examples why Twitter can be useful for medical professionals.

A colleague here at the hospital told me about this one. What is happening here is a Doctor in South Africa is at bedside asking a Doctor in India for real time assistance with a diagnosis. From other correspondence he has with this doctor in India, it is clear that he knows him personally and/or professionally, so he is a trusted source from the requestor’s position.

      

Web 2.0 timeline and future: Slideshow [ScienceRoll]

Posted: 07 Dec 2008 02:26 PM CST


Richard Akerman from Science Library Pad published this interesting slideshow about history leading up to Web 2.0, characteristics of Web 2.0,  Twitter, Facebook and FriendFeed.

      

Emergency Training in Second Life [ScienceRoll]

Posted: 07 Dec 2008 02:16 PM CST


Everybody must know what basic life support means. This virtual tool may help you to learn more about such an important procedure.

Now I’ve got a huge list of useful Second Life medical sites and islands on Webicina, but here is the newest addition.  The Italian Resuscitation Council (IRC) is starting to explore the possibilities to use Second Life like an environment for training. To teleport there, click here.

sl-irc2

Excerpt from their mission statement:

One of the great advantages of Second Life environment is the possibility to create various training simulations, improving and testing teamwork, leadership, and technical skills. Simulations can be used simultaneously by a group of trainees connected from world different locations.

IRC headquarters in SL should became a place were instructors can be trained and re-trained. We are planning to build a CPR training platform in SL to maintain and update knowledge after a traditional BLSD course. Finally, IRC headquarters would become a site where avatars/layperson can afford to the cardiac arrest prevention knowledge and basic life support information.

sl-irc3-s

It’s also possible to organize meetings at this great place.

      

Cooking & Science with Ferran Adria: Webcast Tuesday Dec 9th 6:30PM [The Daily Transcript]

Posted: 07 Dec 2008 09:54 AM CST

Here is some info:

The world acclaimed chef of El Bulli, Ferran Adria, will discuss the fascinating relationship between modern science and modern cuisine.

Adrià, called by Gourmet "the Salvador Dalí of the kitchen," will trace the birth of molecular gastronomy, manipulating the physical and chemical processes of cooking, and then discuss his own adventures in what he calls "molecular cooking."

In particular, he will explore the use of hydrocolloids, or "gums" that enable a delicate fruit puree to be transformed into a dense gel, and deconstruct techniques like sferificacion, creating a resistant skin of liquid (as in a pea soup held in a pod of nothing more than itself).

Considered one of the most creative individuals in any profession, Adrià views preparing food as a language "to transmit impressions, feelings, sensations, and experiences." He says, "Cooking is a language with its own special alphabet. From one alphabet, each cook creates his or her own unique conversation. Our role as chefs is to expand this dialogue, offering the world new forms of culinary expression."

Ferran Adrià is the head chef of the restaurant El Bulli, located on the coast of Catalonia near the city of Barcelona. Perhaps best known for creating "culinary foam," Adrià's stated goal is to "provide unexpected contrasts of flavor, temperature and texture. The idea is to provoke, surprise and delight the diner." El Bulli has 3 Michelin stars and is considered among one of the best restaurants in the world.

If you are in the Boston Area here's what you need to know:

Cooking & Science with Ferran Adrià: A Conversation on Creativity
Hosted by the Harvard Physics Department & Harvard SEAS
Tuesday, December 9, 2008
6:30pm - 8:00pm
Harvard University, Physics Department, Jefferson Hall 250
17 Oxford Street
Cambridge, MA

If you're not in the Boston Area, or simply can't make it, you can watch the lecture live by following this link.

Read the comments on this post...

Sherpa on Vacation [The Gene Sherpa: Personalized Medicine and You]

Posted: 07 Dec 2008 09:39 AM CST

Keep Climbing. I'll be out for seven days....and when I return, I am going to change the game for DTC testing, Research on Personalized Medicine, and finally show everyone where they can set up...

[[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

Dioxins Before Swine [Sciencebase Science Blog]

Posted: 07 Dec 2008 07:02 AM CST

DioxinIrish pork is off the menu, according to the BBC. The UK’s Food Standards Agency is monitoring pork products in the Irish Republic because of fears of contamination with dioxins. “Tests showed some pork products contained up to 200 times more dioxins than the recognised safety limit.” Interestingly, dioxin levels in soil have been declining in recent years, according to another BBC report from 2007.

So, what are dioxins and should we be worried about them?

Dioxins are organic compounds formed when a huge range of materials, particularly chlorinated polymers (PVC plastics) burn and in some industrial processes. They are ubiquitous in the environment and became the focus of environmental activism because of their reputation for being among the most toxic compounds known. Colloquially “dioxin” is talked of as if it were a single compound rather than a class of compounds, but the most usual reference is to the chlorine-containing compound 2,3,6,7-t​etrachlor​odibenzod​ioxin. Dioxins should not be confused with the compound 1,2-dioxin and 1,4-dioxin, which are heterocyclic, organic, antiaromatic compounds.

2,3,6,7-T​etrachlor​odibenzod​ioxin can have some nasty effects such as irritation to the eyes, allergic dermatitis, chloracne, porphyria; gastrointestinal disturbance, possible reproductive, teratogenic effects, liver, kidney damage, haemorrhage, and occupational carcinogenicity. But, does that long list of problems mean anyone eating any of the food products from Ireland - bacon, ham, sausages, white pudding and pizzas with ham toppings - were or are in any danger. “The UK’s Food Standards Agency said it did not believe at this stage that UK consumers faced any ’significant risk’,” reports the BBC. Seems like fair comment, only serious chronic exposure to low levels of dioxins or acute high level exposure are of real concern.

No member of the public has ever died from dioxin poisoning, despite the fact that for several decades industry has been inadvertently releasing these materials into the environment as impurities in hundreds of products and that countless burning materials release the same supposedly deadly compounds across the globe continuously. Occupational exposure has led to probably at most four deaths from industrial accidents involving release of dioxins, according to John Emsley writing in The Consumer’s Good Chemical Guide.


Don’t forget to grab the Sciencebase email newsletter or newsfeed for a more complete update on the porcine dioxin story soon.

Dioxins Before Swine

What is Science 2.0? HHMI's Take [adaptivecomplexity's blog]

Posted: 06 Dec 2008 06:34 PM CST

Via Larry at Sandwalk, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute is excited about Facebook, YouTube, and Blogs.

What does this have to do with science? Like Larry, I'm still skeptical of what impact this has on what I do in the lab:


read more


          FORGIVENESS - MY STORY         


Talking of synchronicity, it is how this story you are about to read unfolds. In September 2013 my wife and me, flew to Sharjah to assist my son and family, as my daughter in law was expecting a child. In such matters, it is the lady of the house, whose services are most sought after, I was just an add on, helping the family with small house hold errands.

Under the circumstances, I had ample time on hand, so engrossed myself in reading. I was reading the Book ' Dying to be Me. My Journey from cancer....' by Anita Moorjani. During the course of my reading, I traveled to Dubai to spend a day with my niece Sarah Boriyawala. We started to discuss the Book, and talked about faith, prayers, NDE, faith and pranic healing, Chi Gong etc: Sarah is teaching Yoga to a selected few.

On account of a life threatening medical condition that she had, she is well read and has tried alternative medical therapy.

Talking of synchronicity, it was in Dubai on March 16, 2011 which also happened to be Anita's Birthday, that she received a surprise mail from Hay House, stating that they were willing to publish her book and provide all assistance and Wayne Dyer will be writing the Book Introduction.

Here in Dubai two years later, in my small little world, Sarah Boriyawala agreed to share her healing experience, and how FORGIVENESS and freeing your self from past hurts, helped her in complete healing.

Her Story in her own words. Hope her experience will help others to look at life threatening disease in a different perspective. The body has the capacity to heal its self, we have to learn to find the cause.  


It was the last week of November 2010. I was visiting my parents in Kolkata during the Eid Al Adha holidays. I had been suffering from arrhythmia for about a year now. I had consulted a Doctor,  when it had happened the first few times, but since the frequency was very low and all the ECG  and thyroid tests had come back normal,  he had put it down to stress and asked me not to be too hyper and calm down.

After that,  the next time I consulted  the Doctor,  was when the frequency had increased to almost once a week and I went to him on a day when it had been beating at an increased rate since 9am to 6pm. He did an ECG  and my heart was beating at 150 bpm. He told me it was SVT or supra-ventricular- tachycardia and gave me some medication to take for three days. Within the first day my heart rate was down to 40 bpm. He asked me to stop and take only half of the tablet if another episode should occur. He knew I was travelling and asked me to take expert advice there. 

Now on the very next day of arriving in Kolkatta I decided to consult a Specialist for second opinion. We went to BM Birla  Heart Research Center and Hospital,  where I got an attack right in the Doctor's  chamber. It was beating at 180bpm and he had me hospitalized right away. They administered  isoptin which brought the heart rate down right away.

 They did a couple of tests and here the beat seemed to be more of V- Tach i.e ventricular tachycardia which is way more serious. I was sent for an MRI which said I had Recurrent Ventricular tachycardia and ARVD.

 ARVD is arrhythmic right ventricular displasia. The only treatment for this is placing an ICD which is an implanted cardiac defibrillator which shocks the heart back into sinus beat every time it begins to throw out these extra beats. These beats do not allow the heart to complete the function of pumping the blood from one chamber to the other and finally to the lungs properly because of which proper oxygenated blood cannot reach the organs particularly the brain. This causes dizziness and blackouts and people suffer serious injuries due to falls that may take place due to a sudden blackout. I was asked not to cook as I could suddenly topple over the gas, not to drive, carry weights and I was to be monitored even when taking a shower in case I blacked out.

I was discharged with the advice that any recurrent attack should be treated by putting in an ICD. However, Dr. Haque who was the arrhythmia expert there was surprised to find that I was responding to only 120mg of Calaptin which is a very mild dosage so he asked me to see Dr. Yash Lokhandwala who is the second best in Asia in this field and based in Mumbai.

 As I was travelling  alone I decided to fly back to Dubai and consult the Mumbai Specialist later. The medicine was also working, and I was feeling fine. In Kolkata before leaving I did take two experts opinion, did the necessary tests, and both confirmed ARVD.  

Once back in Dubai I called my relative Dr. Aliasgar who was aware of my problem and read out the report to him. He was taken aback as he too had thought it was SVT  and thought an ablation would sort out the problem. He took the film of the MRI and sent it to a lab and got an expert opinion, which again confirmed it was ARVD.

 Now I had also started looking up the net for reports of this disease. It seemed allopathy had no cure for it. Many testimonies showed that even after putting an ICD people had to make many lifestyle changes and live very compromised lives. And after finding out that I should get to a hospital within 20 minutes of my heart beating in this manner or else there was a possibility of death really scared me.

Initially I was depressed and never ventured out of home. I was aware of my heart rate going up for a while now and again. It was at this juncture that I started seeking alternative medical treatment.  I would do yogic anulom-vilom breathing, I had a relative do reiki on me. I watched my diet. I was also reading books by various New Age masters, which taught me to enjoy the present moment and stop living in the constant fear of death. I found solace and peace but the threat to life was still there, at the back of my mind.

My moment finally came, when a  friend of mine who does pranic healing scanned me and put it down to a deep emotional hurt that had caused a scar in my heart and asked me to do forgive everybody who may have knowingly or unknowingly hurt me.

At the onset, it did surprise me, but as the saying goes - 'dubta ne tinka no saharo' under the condition I was, and having read many life changing books, I put firm faith in her advice.

I had read 'Dying to be Me ' by Anita Moorjani, and in response to one question as to what caused her cancer, this was her reply, which at the time resonated with me.

She said: ' I believe my cancer was related to my self identity, and it was though  it was my body's way of telling me that my soul was grieving for the loss of its own worth - of its identity. If I'd known the truth of who I actually am, I woud'nt have got cancer'

It made sense that may be, in my case as my friend had stated, some deep emotional hurt was the cause.

 Now I had  a pretty decent childhood and considered myself to be happily married. There was no deep trauma or abuse that I had suffered which could have caused this problem. But she insisted  that different people had different levels of sensitivity so though I may not have had any big traumatic issue maybe a lot of small small issues had gotten hold on me.

 And I did agree that I had a habit of bottling up my feelings. Now this bottled up feelings and emotions are the cause of many of today's life threatening disease. In trying to maintain status quo and in trying not to ruffle feathers in our day to day relations, and feeling of insecurity and our perceived notion of  not living  up to the expectations of our peers, are some of the prime causes.

On reflection I came to know that  I could not tolerate people being upset around me, and would always be the first to make up even if I felt I had been wronged. Not because I could forgive and forget but I could not bear with  the stressed out atmosphere.

So she asked me to basically  write the story of my life starting from as far as I could remember to the present day and while doing so to forgive whosoever had hurt me even if it was something as silly as my grade 2 friend for having taken my sweet from me !!

 I was to forgive the soul of each person seven times for every hurt and after that also if some incidents kept repeating themselves in my mind I was to forgive again 7 times. It was a whole process where I was to forgive saying that,  as humans they were bound to make mistakes as that is how they would learn and grow and with this understanding, I was to forgive and cut a cord through which holding on to this hurt was keeping me connected to them.

 I also asked for forgiveness from the souls of those whom I had hurt knowingly or unknowingly and made a resolve not to repeat those mistakes. I was also to forgive myself for any guilt that I may be feeling for those that I had hurt with the same understanding that being human we do make mistakes and must learn from them. That is how we evolve.

At the onset I found it very intimidating but my dear friend encouraged me and finally it  turned out to be quite a thick manuscript and I genuinely wrote all my deepest and darkest secrets in it.

 It was quite an emotional roller coaster and I cried quite a bit as I went about this therapy. At the end of it I felt emotionally cleansed and also,  in retrospect I saw a lot of  incidents in a different light now than as I had viewed them then as I was more mature now. When I wrote this I somehow thought that she will read it or give someone adept in her field to read it and probably advise me. But she just asked me to burn it and release all my hurt and allow the universe to now take care of it.

Around the time that I finished doing this, we planned to travel to Mumbai and got an appointment with  Dr Yash Lokhandwala.  As is the case in normal medical diagnosis,  as some time had elapsed, Dr. Lokhandwala, asked me to get a fresh MRI done. The MRI showed that I did not have ARVD.  He diagnosed me with a much more benign heart problem of RVOT.

 Which is right ventricular outflow tachycardia. There were two points which were throwing out the extra beats. He ablated one and on repeated attempts also could not find the other as the heart stopped throwing out the extra beats as soon as the first ablation was done. Because of that there is a small dosage of daily medication that I have to take. But since then I have been symptom free and my heart does not beat fast unless it has valid reason to do so. I lead a normal healthy life today  teaching yoga and travelling around the world. Both of which I enjoy immensely and both of which would have had to be considerably compromised if  I had ARVD.

Now whether it was a misdiagnosis in the first place, in all probability it could not have been, as several expert opinions all confirmed ARVD  or whether the forgiveness therapy genuinely healed me, I am not sure.ALLAH KNOWS BEST.

 But I do know that the events that unfolded ultimately lead me to a path from where I have learnt a lot and grown a lot. So I believe that whatever happens no matter how difficult and awful it seems ultimately happens to teach us and guide us so that we may live our best lives ultimately.

Sarah Boriyawala - Dubai 

          â€˜Good Time’ Review: Robert Pattinson Lurches Desperately Through Queens        

The spirit of independent cinema is alive and well, but it’s also grown frustratingly familiar. Go to Sundance or SXSW, and you’ll find a bevy of meandering movies built on the existential despair of middle-aged white men, quotidian characters who are often despondent, divorced, or both. Their unrest is the crux of the movie.

But while brother directors Joshua and Ben Safdie (“Heaven Knows What”) find themselves trafficking this territory (their films are economical, efficient), the art itself stands out. Their narrative interests are singular; the stories they’re interested in relaying to the world are not common or, for that matter, comfortable.

The dynamic directing duo seems to bask in discomfort throughout their latest project, “Good Time,” which premiered in competition at the Cannes Film Festival on Thursday night and is the cinematic equivalent to a 100-minute walking heartache. This pulse-pounding begins by about minute 10, though, when brothers Connie (Robert Pattinson) and Nick Nikas (Ben Safdie) enter a bank. Both are wearing the kind of discolored, distorted latex masks only used during Halloween or a bank robbery. It is not October.

Connie and Nick approach the counter with confidence. They pass a note to the teller. She doesn’t waver. Instead, she promptly fills and returns the bag full of money. But it’s not enough for Connie, who insists that she go into the back — without alerting the police or her colleagues — and give them more. But more is never enough.

Cinema has conditioned us to these criminal scenarios. We understand the difference between a seamless operation (“The Sting,” the “Oceans” franchise) and one on the verge of crumbling (“Out of Sight”). The Safdie brothers, with the help of composer Daniel Lopatin’s foreboding, electronic score, are uninterested in the former. Connie and Nick are playing a losing game, and we know it.

Once the botched robbery unfolds, Connie finds himself scrambling for Nick’s bail money. This is where “Good Time” doesn’t merely change its tune, but finds it. Everything leading up to Nick’s incarceration was a smartly crafted prelude. What follows is the song. The melody is something like a modern take on “The Fugitive” in which Connie traverses Queens, ducking and hiding from those searching for him.

READ MORE

See Robert Pattinson's latest POWER MOVE.

PowerRank:

395

Stumbling around the borough, Connie is a confounding character, at once repulsive and endearing. Traditionally, his actions (theft, deceit, luring an underage girl, more theft) would not warrant our sympathy, and yet it’s hard to dislike Connie. His behavior is reprehensible, but co-screenwriters Joshua Safdie and Ronald Bronstein (“Frownland”) are careful to construct complexity.

This layered, detailed approach translates to all facets of “Good Time.” It’s a movie born into existence through true collaboration. It’s clear the Safdie brothers are beyond substantive storytellers; they’re astute delegators. The cinematography of Sean Price Williams (a crown jewel within the NYC indie filmmaking scene) is on full display. He captures the nightmarish eeriness of what the Safdies call “the tragic borough.” With the help of locations manager Samson Jacobson (a native who scouted locations for “Inside Llewyn Davis”), Queens is presented as the true underbelly of New York, replete with underdogs, oddballs, hustlers and blue-collar denizens.

These unique characters are the result of tireless work from casting director Jennifer Venditti (who aided Andrea Arnold in finding her cast for “American Honey”). It’s the specifics that matter here. These ancillary parts of the production add texture to the Safdies’ homegrown vision. It bursts at seams with authenticity because it is, in fact, authentic.

Of all the moving pieces in “Good Time,” Pattinson appears, on paper, as the biggest question mark. To put it mildly: his work in front of the camera has been inconsistent. Sometimes it appears he wants to perform, other times his inertness takes hold. If he contains some mystical on-off switch, the Safdie brothers have figured out how to keep the light burning. Pattinson delivers a manic, adrenalized performance in the vein of Robert DeNiro in “Mean Streets,” a film to which “Good Time” often pays homage.

Connie’s outbursts are deeply terrifying. His aggression is only matched by his ostensible devotion to Nick. Connie is doing everything that he’s doing — begging his uptown sugar-mama (Jennifer Jason Leigh) for money, retrieving a bottle of acid to turn a profit — for his brother. The two are inextricably linked. But the inseparability is not exactly by mutual design. Although the precise medical diagnosis is unclear, Nick contains some intellectual disability.

Connie sees himself as Nick’s caretaker; Nick tacitly accepts that he is the person being taken care of. “Good Time” refuses to simplify this relationship. In turn, the Safdie brothers do not make it easy for the audience. It doesn’t tell you how to feel, or what to think. It’s squarely anti-authoritative opinion. What’s unfurling before us cannot be viewed in black and white.

Is the moral compass malfunctioning, or is it just hazy? Is Connie more of a predator than a surrogate parent to Nick? If his intentions to get Nick out of jail aren’t pure, what does Connie want? The unanswerable questions continue throughout, as Connie becomes increasingly desperate. The opening bank robbery soon reveals itself as a masterful exercise in foreshadowing. There are no happy endings to be found here.

Related stories from TheWrap:

'A Gentle Creature' Cannes Review: An Ambitious Tale of Russian Corruption

'The Beguiled' Review: Sofia Coppola, Nicole Kidman Deliver a Southern Gothic Hoot

'Rodin' Cannes Review: It's Got Art and Sex, But Where's the Passion?

Cannes, Day 7: Chic Class Photos; 'Top of the Lake' Holds Marathon at Palais


          â€˜Good Time’ Review: Robert Pattinson Lurches Desperately Through Queens        

The spirit of independent cinema is alive and well, but it’s also grown frustratingly familiar. Go to Sundance or SXSW, and you’ll find a bevy of meandering movies built on the existential despair of middle-aged white men, quotidian characters who are often despondent, divorced, or both. Their unrest is the crux of the movie.

But while brother directors Joshua and Ben Safdie (“Heaven Knows What”) find themselves trafficking this territory (their films are economical, efficient), the art itself stands out. Their narrative interests are singular; the stories they’re interested in relaying to the world are not common or, for that matter, comfortable.

The dynamic directing duo seems to bask in discomfort throughout their latest project, “Good Time,” which premiered in competition at the Cannes Film Festival on Thursday night and is the cinematic equivalent to a 100-minute walking heartache. This pulse-pounding begins by about minute 10, though, when brothers Connie (Robert Pattinson) and Nick Nikas (Ben Safdie) enter a bank. Both are wearing the kind of discolored, distorted latex masks only used during Halloween or a bank robbery. It is not October.

Connie and Nick approach the counter with confidence. They pass a note to the teller. She doesn’t waver. Instead, she promptly fills and returns the bag full of money. But it’s not enough for Connie, who insists that she go into the back — without alerting the police or her colleagues — and give them more. But more is never enough.

Cinema has conditioned us to these criminal scenarios. We understand the difference between a seamless operation (“The Sting,” the “Oceans” franchise) and one on the verge of crumbling (“Out of Sight”). The Safdie brothers, with the help of composer Daniel Lopatin’s foreboding, electronic score, are uninterested in the former. Connie and Nick are playing a losing game, and we know it.

Once the botched robbery unfolds, Connie finds himself scrambling for Nick’s bail money. This is where “Good Time” doesn’t merely change its tune, but finds it. Everything leading up to Nick’s incarceration was a smartly crafted prelude. What follows is the song. The melody is something like a modern take on “The Fugitive” in which Connie traverses Queens, ducking and hiding from those searching for him.

READ MORE

See Robert Pattinson's latest POWER MOVE.

PowerRank:

395

Stumbling around the borough, Connie is a confounding character, at once repulsive and endearing. Traditionally, his actions (theft, deceit, luring an underage girl, more theft) would not warrant our sympathy, and yet it’s hard to dislike Connie. His behavior is reprehensible, but co-screenwriters Joshua Safdie and Ronald Bronstein (“Frownland”) are careful to construct complexity.

This layered, detailed approach translates to all facets of “Good Time.” It’s a movie born into existence through true collaboration. It’s clear the Safdie brothers are beyond substantive storytellers; they’re astute delegators. The cinematography of Sean Price Williams (a crown jewel within the NYC indie filmmaking scene) is on full display. He captures the nightmarish eeriness of what the Safdies call “the tragic borough.” With the help of locations manager Samson Jacobson (a native who scouted locations for “Inside Llewyn Davis”), Queens is presented as the true underbelly of New York, replete with underdogs, oddballs, hustlers and blue-collar denizens.

These unique characters are the result of tireless work from casting director Jennifer Venditti (who aided Andrea Arnold in finding her cast for “American Honey”). It’s the specifics that matter here. These ancillary parts of the production add texture to the Safdies’ homegrown vision. It bursts at seams with authenticity because it is, in fact, authentic.

Of all the moving pieces in “Good Time,” Pattinson appears, on paper, as the biggest question mark. To put it mildly: his work in front of the camera has been inconsistent. Sometimes it appears he wants to perform, other times his inertness takes hold. If he contains some mystical on-off switch, the Safdie brothers have figured out how to keep the light burning. Pattinson delivers a manic, adrenalized performance in the vein of Robert DeNiro in “Mean Streets,” a film to which “Good Time” often pays homage.

Connie’s outbursts are deeply terrifying. His aggression is only matched by his ostensible devotion to Nick. Connie is doing everything that he’s doing — begging his uptown sugar-mama (Jennifer Jason Leigh) for money, retrieving a bottle of acid to turn a profit — for his brother. The two are inextricably linked. But the inseparability is not exactly by mutual design. Although the precise medical diagnosis is unclear, Nick contains some intellectual disability.

Connie sees himself as Nick’s caretaker; Nick tacitly accepts that he is the person being taken care of. “Good Time” refuses to simplify this relationship. In turn, the Safdie brothers do not make it easy for the audience. It doesn’t tell you how to feel, or what to think. It’s squarely anti-authoritative opinion. What’s unfurling before us cannot be viewed in black and white.

Is the moral compass malfunctioning, or is it just hazy? Is Connie more of a predator than a surrogate parent to Nick? If his intentions to get Nick out of jail aren’t pure, what does Connie want? The unanswerable questions continue throughout, as Connie becomes increasingly desperate. The opening bank robbery soon reveals itself as a masterful exercise in foreshadowing. There are no happy endings to be found here.

Related stories from TheWrap:

'A Gentle Creature' Cannes Review: An Ambitious Tale of Russian Corruption

'The Beguiled' Review: Sofia Coppola, Nicole Kidman Deliver a Southern Gothic Hoot

'Rodin' Cannes Review: It's Got Art and Sex, But Where's the Passion?

Cannes, Day 7: Chic Class Photos; 'Top of the Lake' Holds Marathon at Palais


          Justice Breyer's "30 exceptions" concern         
A notable moment in the argument of Ohio v. Clark came when Justice Breyer acknowledged “misgivings” about confrontation doctrine and identified what he felt was the source:
I don’t want to see the Confrontation Clause swallow up the 30 exceptions to the hearsay rule, and therefore you have to draw lines. . . .
What’s at issue here to me, is the problem of not having th[e] Confrontation Clause swallow up the 30 exceptions which are necessary in many instances for the justice[] of a trial.
Argument transcript, at 49.

It seems to me this is a concern that Justice Breyer has expressed repeatedly, though perhaps not so clearly, at the argument of Confrontation Clause cases.  In this post, I’ll first elaborate on what I understand the concern to be, and then explain why I believe that the consequence that Justice Breyer hypothesizes, while certainly a valid matter to consider, does not in fact arise and need not constrain development of Confrontation Clause doctrine.

I think what Justice Breyer is responding to is basically this:  Over 200 years, a complex web of hearsay law has been worked out, reflecting judgments of what hearsay should be admissible and what not.  Then in 2004 along comes Crawford v. Washington, stating a big, blunt rule that, with very few qualifications (forfeiture, maybe dying declarations) excludes a significant category of hearsay when offered against an accused, unless the maker of the statement is unavailable and the accused has had an opportunity for confrontation.  So the concern, as I understand it, is that by following the theory of Crawford we will be denying the adjudicative system of important information it needs to achieve just results.

Now of course at one level we should not be concerned if the Confrontation Clause requires exclusion of evidence that escapes the rule against hearsay:  These are two separate bodies of doctrine, and just because a statement is not excluded by the rule against hearsay does not mean that the statement should be admissible; a given jurisdiction’s hearsay rule does not preempt all other exclusionary doctrines, especially a constitutional one such as the Confrontation Clause.

Nevertheless, I think Justice Breyer raises a legitimate concern.  The motivations underlying the confrontation right and the rule against hearsay are sufficiently similar that we might be very uncomfortable with a new theory of the confrontation right that rendered inadmissible wide swaths of prosecution evidence that for centuries have passed through hearsay screening.  (I know, the Confrontation Clause has nothing to do with reliability, and according to standard doctrine reliability is one of the principal factors determining whether statement is exempted from the rule against hearsay.  But I don't buy the standard doctrine.)   At least any large-scale exclusions of previously admissible evidence should make us take a reality check of the theory that causes the exclusions.  So, for example, I think that any theory of the Confrontation Clause that would generally render inadmissible statements made by a conspirator of the accused, during the course of and in furtherance of the conspiracy, would not have been viable.  (And in fact some passages in the Crawford argument suggest strongly that the Supreme Court would not have adopted the testimonial approach in that case had it thought that this would be the result; it was Justice Breyer who pointed out that a sound conception of what is testimonial avoids the problem, because such a statement is not made in reasonable anticipation of evidentiary use.  Argument transcript at 14;  for a copy of the transcript with questioners identified, click here.)

But in fact I do not think there is a real problem.  Conscientious adherence to the confrontation right requires exclusion of surprisingly little evidence that would not be excluded by prevailing hearsay law as expressed in the Federal Rules of Evidence, which has become the dominant modern template for ordinary evidence law in the United States.  Indeed, I think that there are only three basic areas in which this has occurred regularly since Crawford – and even in those it was only relatively recent doctrinal changes, or in some cases an essential abandonment of doctrine, that prevented hearsay law from excluding the statements:

First, before Crawford some courts had been admitting third-party confessions and statements made in formal, judicially supervised settings, such as grand jury testimony and allocution hearings.  Sometimes this was done under the hearsay exception for declarations against interest.  But extension of this exception to statements exposing the declarant to criminal liability and offered to inculpate the accused was a 20th-century development, greatly accelerated by the Federal Rules themselves.  And often application of the exception in that context appeared dubious, because it was not clear that the portion of the statement inculpating the accused was genuinely against the declarant’s interest.  And sometimes admission of these statements was allowed under the residual exception to the hearsay rule, which of course provided virtually no constraints at all.  As I understand it, post-Crawford admission of these statements, absent unavailability and an opportunity for cross, has essentially ceased, and I haven’t heard any complaints about that development.

Second, particularly in the decade or so before Crawford, many courts admitted relatively fresh statements describing a criminal incident.  As in Hammon v. Indiana, many of these got past the hearsay bar on generous interpretations of the exceptions for excited utterances or statements of present sense impression.  This was the phenomenon that Bridget McCormack and I described as dial-in testimony.  Since Crawford, this practice has been limited, but hardly eliminated.

Finally, there are forensic lab reports, as in Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts; it was only under generous interpretations of, or modern additions to, the exceptions for public and regularly kept records that in the previous decades some jurisdictions (not all!) let these get these past the hearsay rule.

Those are significant areas, to be sure, but they hardly represent the destruction of the web of hearsay exemptions.  (I'll sometimes use the term "exemptions" here because, covering carve-outs from the definition of hearsay, it's more inclusive than "exceptions".)  Why has Crawford not created havoc with hearsay law?   The fundamental reason, as I argued last year in an essay titled The Mold that Shapes Hearsay Law, 66 Fla. L. Rev. 433, 449-58 (2014), is that, to a perhaps surprising degree, prevailing hearsay law, as expressed in the Federal Rules of Evidence, replicates the confrontation principle as expressed in Crawford.  What I call the confrontation principle is the general principle that one should not be allowed to testify against a party unless that party has had a chance to cross-examine, face to face, the witness who gave the statement.  And I’ll add that if one makes a statement aware of its likely use in litigation and it is admitted at trial against a party, then the maker of the statement is effectively a witness against that party.

So I’ll make three claims.   First, a descriptive claim: The rule against hearsay, as reflected in the Federal Rules, tends to conform to the confrontation principle.   That is, to a large extent, the hearsay rule tends to require exclusion of a statement if and only if  violates the confrontation principle.  That is why I call the confrontation principle the mold that shapes hearsay law.  Second, an historical claim:   The confrontation right developed before the hearsay rule, and the hearsay rule developed largely in conformity to the confrontation principle.  Over time, as the hearsay rule came to dominate the scene, it obscured the confrontation right, and the tie between the two diminished to some extent, but it is still strong.  And finally, a normative claim: To a very large extent, what is worth preserving of the rule against hearsay lies in the confrontation principle; we’d be better off throwing the rest of the rule against hearsay away.

I’ll begin with, and devote most of the remainder of this post to, the descriptive claim (though bits of history will creep in), because I think it’s most directly responsive to Justice Breyer’s concern.  I contend that if (a) a statement is made in anticipation of evidentiary use, (b) the statement is offered at trial for its truth, and (c) the declarant does not testify at trial, then the statement will probably be excluded by hearsay law unless either (c)(1) the declarant is unavailable and (2) the party-opponent has had an adequate opportunity for cross-examination, or (d) the opponent has forfeited the objection.  And in circumstances in which this principle does not require exclusion, hearsay law tends to be receptive to the evidence.

Note at the outset several structural limitations common to both the Confrontation Clause and hearsay law:

1. If a party makes or adopts a statement and it is then offered against him, there is no problem under either the Confrontation Clause or hearsay law. As has often been said, an accused has no right to confront himself.  Fed.  R. of Evid. 801(d)(2)(A) and (B) exempt from the hearsay rule statements made or adopted by the party-opponent.

2.  If the statement in question is not offered for the truth of a proposition that it asserts, then neither confrontation doctrine nor the rule against hearsay applies.  Crawford makes this explicit.  And so does Fed. R. Evid. 801(c)(2)

3.  If the declarant testifies at trial, that eliminates the confrontation problem (under prevailing doctrine) and it may eliminate the hearsay problem.  FRE 801(d)(1), 803(5).  Again, Crawford is explicit on this point.

4.  Neither the Confrontation Clause nor the rule against hearsay will block admission of a testimonial statement made out of court if the witness is unavailable to testify at trial and the party opponent has had an adequate opportunity for cross-examination.  Once again, Crawford is explicit on this point, which reflects long-standing practice, and which is established with respect to hearsay law by Fed. R. Evid. 804(b)(1).

5.  Both the confrontation right and an objection to the hearsay rule may be forfeited by at least some wrongful conduct that renders the declarant unavailable to testify at trial.  Fed. R. Evid. 804(b)(6) establishes forfeiture doctrine as part of hearsay law, and Crawford recognized the doctrine as part of the law governing the Confrontation Clause.   Fed. R. Evid. 804(b)(2) states a dying declaration exception to the rule against hearsay; I have argued many times that the best account for this exception is as an example of forfeiture.  But even putting aside that theory, Crawford suggests strongly that, on unique historical grounds, there may be an exception to the confrontation right for dying declarations.  Once again, this is not a type of evidence that passes hearsay scrutiny but then is excluded by the Confrontation Clause.

Note that these structural principles account for several of the important exemptions to the hearsay rule.  So now let's look at those that these principles haven't accounted for.   What we'll find is that in almost all circumstances the exemptions are crafted in such a way that, especially if conscientiously applied, they do not apply to statements made in anticipation of litigation use.  And we'll see that, when these exemptions have been applied to such statements, it is almost certainly a latter-day extension or peripheral application of the exemption.

Fed. R. Evid. 801(d)(2)(C), (D), and (E) address what are sometimes called vicarious admissions (respectively, statements by an agent authorized by the principal, statements by an agent on the subject matter of the agency, and conspirator statements).  Statements falling within these categories are almost by definition made in the course of going about one's business, without anticipation of litigation use; they are not testimonial.  Notice in particular conspirator statements, made during the course of and in furtherance of the conspiracy.  Such statements are clearly not made in anticipation that they will be used in prosecution.  This is the point made by Justice Breyer at the Crawford argument, as noted above.

Fed. R. Evid. 803 (1) - (4) is the family of spontaneous declarations -- present sense impressions, excited utterances, statements of current bodily, emotional, or mental condition, and statements made for purposes of medical diagnosis or treatment.  At the time of the framing, there were no such exceptions; all there was, well into the 19th century, was the res gestae doctrine, the idea that statements that themselves formed part of the story being told could be admitted on a non-hearsay basis.  As late as 1879, in R. v.Bedingfield, 14 Cox's Crim. Cas. 341, a statement made by a woman whose throat had just been slashed seconds before was held not admissible to prove the identity of the assailant.  (I think it probably should have been admissible on forfeiture grounds, but that's another matter.)  In the first decade of the 20th century, Wigmore wrote that for a generation a hearsay exception had been recognized for statements of this sort.  But the exception was still tightly confined to statements made very close to the time of the event.  In the late years of the 20th century, courts became far less restrained, being willing to characterize statements made long after the event as spontaneous.  Meanwhile, the exception for statements made for purpose of medical diagnosis and treatment grew out of the one for statements of current condition; the Federal Rules accelerated the development by making the exception apply to statements of past events related to the diagnosis or treatment.
 

Fed. R. Evid. 803(6) - (10) is the family of exceptions for public and routinely kept records (and the absence of them).  Most of these are made before the litigation arises.  Traditionally, as Melendez-Diaz pointed out, these exceptions did not apply to statements made with litigation in mind.  See, e.g., Palmer v. Hoffman, 318 U.S. 109 (1943).  And to a considerable extent the exceptions are crafted to make sure that they do not include such statements when offered against an accused.  See, e.g., Rule 803(8)(a)(ii) ("a matter observed while under a legal duty to report, but not including, in a criminal case, a matter observed by law-enforcement personnel"), (iii) ("a matter observed while under a legal duty to report, but not including, in a criminal case, a matter observed by law-enforcement personnel").  It was only very modern developments – occasional generous interpretations of these rules but more frequently special-purpose statutes – that allowed forensic lab reports to get past the hearsay rule in many jurisdictions.  Such statutes were invovled, for instance, in Melendez-Diaz and Briscoe v. Virginia,  130 S.Ct. 1316 (2010), the two recent Supreme Court cases involving formal admission of such reports without live testimony.  

Fed. R. Evid. 803(11) - (21),  (23), 804(b)(4)  –  Here is the great run of hearsay exceptions, perhaps what Justice Breyer had in mind more than anything else, covering records of religious organizations, family records, documents affecting interests in property, ancient documents, market reports, statements in learned treatises and the like, reputation, certain judgments, and statements of personal or family history.  Pretty much all of these will have been made before the present case arose pretty much all of the time, and they are almost certainly made without reference to the particular subject matter of the present case, especially if that case is a criminal one.  They are almost universally not testimonial for purposes of the Confrontation Clause.  So far as I am aware, none of these have ever raised an issue under Crawford

Fed. R. Evid. 803(22)  – This is an exception for certain judgments of previous convictions when offered to prove "any fact essential to the judgment".  Under a primary-purpose test, I don't think these are testimonial.  Under a reasonable-anticipation test, perhaps they are; one suffering the judgment of conviction might anticipate the later use of the judgment in another litigation.  But these judgments are used principally against the person who suffered the conviction, and usually, I think, in civil cases.  Even when used in a criminal case, this hearsay exception seems to amount to a lesser form of issue preclusion.  In any event, I am unaware of any cases since Crawford having raised an issue under this exception.

Fed. R. Evid. 804(b)(3) – This is the exception for declarations against interest.  In the case of Thomas Tong, 84 Eng. Rep. 1061 (1662), the judges of King's Bench agreed unanimously that a confession could be introduced against the person who made it but not against his former confederate.  This fundamental principle likely underlay the traditional resistance of courts, as there developed a hearsay exception for declarations against interest, to apply the exception to statements against penal interest.  The Federal Rules wiped out that limitation.  The Advisory Committee said the limitation was "indefensible in logic" but in saying so it pointed to Justice Holmes' well-known dissent in Donnelly v. United States, 228 U.S. 243 (1913), a case involving the confession of another person offered by the accused.   With respect to statements admitting guilt and inculpating the accused, the Committee did not advert to the sharp line established by Tong's Case but said that such a statement, if "made while in custody, may well be motivated by a desire to curry favor with the authorities and hence fail to qualify as against interest."  Nevertheless, in the years preceding Roberts, some courts admitted such statements.  And the Supreme Court consistently resisted these efforts.  It held in Lee v. Illinois, 476 U.S. 530 (1986), that the concept of declaration against interest "defines too large a class for meaningful Confrontation Clause analysis" and that, "when one person accuses another of a crime under circumstances in which the declarant stands to gain by inculpating another," there was presumptively a violation of the Clause.  It went further in Lilly v. Virginia, 527 U.S. 116 (1999), holding explicitly that "accomplices’ confessions that inculpate a criminal defendant are not within a firmly rooted exception to the hearsay rule as that concept has been defined in our Confrontation Clause jurisprudence." And, in a foreshadowing of Crawford, the Court noted that the statements at issue there "were obviously obtained for the purpose of creating evidence that would be useful at a future trial."  (Justice Breyer's concurrence was a broader foreshadowing of Crawford)  This still didn't put a complete stop to the practice, because some courts concluded that the particular third-party confession at stake was supported by individualized guarantees of trustworthiness.  That's what happened in the state courts in Crawford itself.

And finally, there is the residual exception, now in Fed. R. Evid. 807.  In restoring the residual exception, which the House had deleted, the Senate Judiciary Committee said, "It is intended that the residual hearsay exceptions will be used very rarely, an only in exceptional circumstances."  But over time, courts used it rather freely, applying it even to admit grand jury testimony against criminal defendants.  I'm not sure if anybody defends such uses now (absent evidence indicating forfeiture); they seem blatantly in disregard of any plausible theory of the confrontation right.   Indeed, the residual exception is so open-ended â€“ it doesn't define a category of statements by circumstances, but only gives criteria guiding the decision â€“ that I suspect it was not have been one that Justice Breyer had in mind when he expressed his "swallowing up" concern.

To sum this up, it appears clear that, for the most part, hearsay law (especially as applied to statements offered against an accused) conforms to the basic principles of confrontation doctrine. There are departures, of course, but they are almost all a result of latter-day extensions of or peripheral expansions of the hearsay exemptions.   And with respect to most of those departures, I don't think there's even all that much controversy over the proposition that the confrontation right should be understood to trump hearsay law's tolerance of the statement.  That is, I don't think too many people think that (absent forfeiture) grand jury testimony ought to be admissible against an accused, or confessions and other statements deemed to be against interest, made knowingly to the authorities, and describing criminal conduct (as in Lee, Lilly, and Crawford), or accusatory statements like Amy Hammon's made to the police in her living room while her husband was held at bay, a considerable time after the alleged incident.  There's considerable resistance, of course, to applying the confrontation right to forensic lab reports.  Notice, though, that not only was introduction of those reports a relatively new phenomenon, but because admissibility was usually achieved by a special-purpose statute rather than a hearsay exception as such, they do not illustrate the "swallowing up" concern.

If I'm right in my descriptive claim, that to a very considerable extent the rule against hearsay conforms to the confrontation principle, how did that come to be historically?  I think part of the explanation lies in the fact that the confrontation right developed long before the hearsay rule as we know it.  It's been a commonplace in the common-law tradition since the 16th century that witnesses testify live, face to face.  Sometimes this principle was enforced by using the word hearsay, but until the last years of the 18th century at the earliest there was nothing resembling the hearsay law as we know it – with a definition of hearsay expansive enough to reach any out-of-court statement introduced to prove the truth of a matter asserted in it, and even conduct offered to prove the truth of a belief apparently motivating the conduct, see, e..g., Wright v. Tatham, 7 E.R. 559, V Clark & Finnelly 670 (H.L. 1838), but modified by a long list of exceptions.  It is not surprising, then, that as the language of hearsay became dominant the newly developing rule incorporated the old principle.  Over time, I believe that because hearsay law was so broad, it occluded the confrontation principle lying at its core.  It was obvious that such a broad rule of exclusion at times impaired the search for truth, and so it must have exceptions, and because the hearsay rule was not conceptualized in terms of witnesses or testimony, and ran far beyond the scope of testimonial statements, the exceptions were not conceptualized in those terms, either, and sometimes they tended to chip away at the confrontation right. In a sense, to put a spin on Justice Breyer's concern, the right began, to some extent, to be swallowed up by the exceptions to the hearsay rule.

But that development only went so far, and my explanation lies in my normative claim:  What's really worth preserving in the hearsay rule, or at least most of it, lies in the confrontation principle.  I think that this can be demonstrated by a thought experiment.  Think of a situation – civil or criminal case – in which it seems really clear that hearsay ought not be admitted.  I'll be that the statement in that situation was testimonial – i.e., made in anticipation of use in litigation.  So I think that sense, that we really ought not let people testify against others without having to face them and answer questions, has continued to have a powerful hold on us, and has shaped hearsay law over the last couple of centuries even when it hasn't been well articulated.  And as a result we continue to have a high degree of conformity between the confrontation principle and hearsay law.

If I'm right about all that, then as a matter of policy we ought to think about transforming hearsay law so that, instead of an exclusionary rule punctuated by a Swiss-cheese-like array of exceptions, we articulate general principles constraining the use of testimonial statements.  (I think how those principles play out may be very different when the statement is not offered against an accused.)  I've written a law review article, soon to be published, outlining how this might work out; I'll provide a link here as soon as the editors let me.  I'm tempted to say that as a matter of policy, the confrontation principle should swallow up and replace hearsay law as we know it.

But that's another matter, for the crafters of state and federal evidence law.  For now, I think the key point is this:  Sure, conscientious adherence to the confrontation right calls for some results different from those that had come to be tolerated after many years of inattention to and misunderstanding of the right.  But for the most part this effect is limited to a few salient areas.  For the most part, the confrontation right does not swallow up hearsay law because for the most part hearsay law already conforms to the right. 
          Our Rett Syndrome Journey with Erin        
Our Rett Syndrome Journey with Erin by Kim Steenkamp We received Erin’s medical diagnosis of Rett Syndrome on the 6th June 2011, however that is not where our journey started, it actually began with the understanding, growth and relief of knowing what we had to deal with. It was obviously not the syndrome we wanted. […]
          Completely Clueless and Completely Paranoid (Interim Episode 2)        

Sara thought she knew her son, but then a medical diagnosis left her questioning everything. This is the story of how she coped when the medical treatment turned him into a completely different child.

Subscribe (or write a review) in iTunes

Music:

Mario Bava Sleeps in a Little Later Than He Expected by Chris Zabriskie
Enough of Our Machines by Son Lux, remixed by jonny_ripper
Summa by Tape.


          Current medical diagnosis & treatment.        


Ordered: 07/19/17

          Plevin & Gallucci Representing Patients from Three Cleveland Hospitals in Cardiac Stent Medical Malpractice Claims        

Fairview Hospital Added to List of Facilities where Cardiologist May Have Placed Stents Not Medically Necessary

Cleveland, OH -- (ReleaseWire) -- 01/02/2013 -- Patients from three prominent Cleveland-area hospitals – St. John Medical Center, Southwest General Hospital and now Fairview Hospital – are being represented by the law firm of Plevin & Gallucci, L.P.A. regarding cardiac stents placed by cardiologist Dr. Harry Persaud that may not have been medically necessary.

Attorney Michael Shroge of Plevin & Gallucci filed the first civil case against the physician and St. John Medical Center in August 2012, alleging, among other things, that he and St. John Medical Center provided negligent care and treatment in allowing him to place unnecessary stents and perform surgeries that carried with them risks of the death of these patients. The lawsuit further alleges that the doctor and hospital acted in a way that was "so outrageous in character and so extreme a degree that they go beyond all possible bounds of decency and may be regarded as atrocious and utterly intolerable in a civilized community."

Plevin & Gallucci has since learned that patients from other Cleveland hospitals – Southwest General, a partner of University Hospitals and most recently, Fairview Hospital, a Cleveland Clinic hospital – have received letters from the facilities about care they received from Dr. Persaud. Plevin & Gallucci has taken on the representation of several affected patients and continues to investigate allegations that under the direct supervision of the hospitals he worked in, the doctor continued to provide unnecessary care and treatment, possibly for financial gain.

"The Hippocratic Oath spoken by most physicians entering the professional practice of medicine underscores the inherent trust that all patients rely on when seeking care for a complex medical diagnosis and procedures," Shroge stated. "When this oath, and the trust that is built upon it, is broken even by a single physician, it does immeasurable damage to the medical world and society in general. How can we trust that our physicians are giving us good advice in recommending treatments unless we can be certain that they are doing so with the promise that they will do no harm to anyone?"

As with every medical malpractice case, a thorough understanding of the facts, the medicine involved and the consult of leading experts throughout the nation is necessary to determine the viability of any potential claim. Individuals with concerns related to cardiac stent placement or any other potential instance of medical malpractice are encouraged to contact the law firm of Plevin & Gallucci at (216) 861-0804 for a free consultation.

About Plevin & Gallucci
Headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio, Plevin & Gallucci is a highly experienced team of legal experts dedicated to the legal rights of individuals. The firm's personal injury lawyers work tirelessly to obtain the largest settlements for their clients and are committed to upholding justice for victims of negligence. Plevin & Gallucci attorneys have more than 100 collective years of legal experience and several are recognized in Super Lawyers® and Rising Stars® in Ohio. The firm's practice areas include consumer rights, workers' compensation, personal injury, medical malpractice, nursing home malpractice, wrongful death and accidents and falls. To learn more, visit the firm's website at http://www.plevinandgallucci.com.>.

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.releasewire.com/press-releases/release-192800.htm

Media Relations Contact

Frank Gallucci
Plevin & Gallucci Co., L.P.A.
Telephone: 216-861-0804
Email: Click to Email Frank Gallucci
Web: http://injuredinohio.com


          No, That Mining Industry Report Doesn't Mean Wind Turbines Are Hazardous        
Graham Lloyd, Environment Editor at The Australian, shuns the idea of reporting information along the lines of scientific evidence. His latest piece (essentially now a weekly column on 'wind turbine syndrome') presents the viewpoint that people are sick due to the presence of wind turbines as a medical diagnosis, along with bits and pieces of scientific research. 

If this happened in a medical clinic, the health professional would have their licence revoked. On the pages of a national newspaper, it's seemingly okay. It's worth breaking down his latest piece a little bit, to get a better understanding of why this approach gets traction. 

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

"Each morning fine-wool grower Ann Gardner broadcasts her wind farm woes to an unreceptive world. Politicians, shock jocks, journalists and anyone Gardner hopes will listen are included as recipients of uncomfortable missives that outline the “torture” of living next door to Australia’s biggest wind farm at Macarthur, Victoria. Gardner is used to being ignored, unlike her neighbours, Hamish and Anna Officer, who routinely are quoted as model wind farm devotees"

The idea that wind farm opponents are ignored is pretty strange. The Prime Minister has adopted their cause, alongside the tenth government inquiry in to wind farms designed to allow opponents to air their grievances. A new government role has been created solely for the purpose of receiving wind farm complaints, and money is being re-directed towards scientists who will be tasked with testing their claims. 

Ann Gardner has received full write-ups in The Australian, and has been quoted in media here, here, here, here, here and here, just to provide a few examples.

"Gardner contends the failure to report the plight of the Gares or the full picture for the Officers is typical of the one-sided treatment the wind turbine issue has received. She says much of the media has shown itself willing to misconstrue findings from the National Health and Medical Research Council and suggest research had cleared wind turbines of ill effects. In fact, the NHMRC said only limited, poor-quality research was available and the issue of wind farms and health remained an open scientific question."

This is a fairly common assertion - the creation of a false dichotomy. It's why the question 'Yeah, but you support more research, don't you?' is raised so frequently by wind farm opponents, as if the existence of scientific investigation is enough to incriminate wind energy. It's satisfying for someone who's faced with the task of asserting that wind turbines are dangerous, without having any evidence to back it up. 

"And a new study by researchers from Oxford University’s Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine have found “the odds of being annoyed appear significantly increased by wind turbine noise”. The research, published in Environment International, has found wind turbine noise significantly increases the odds of experiencing sleep disturbance, and results in lower quality of life scores."

Another common tactic is to frequently switch between hypotheses. 

Wind farm opponents simultaneously claim that audible noises causes stress, and that inaudible infrasound causes health impacts. The first claim has some truth to it; and it's used as a wedge to support the second claim.

They're both very different, but as you can see above, Lloyd sees no fault in using evidence for one to support the other. Lloyd intentionally excludes some key sentences from the study's authors, who write that: 

"Further, visual perception of wind turbine generators was associated with greater frequency of reported negative health effects. In conclusion, there is some evidence that exposure to wind turbine noise is associated with increased odds of annoyance and sleep problems. Individual attitudes could influence the type of response to noise from wind turbines"

Lloyd left those words out for a reason, I suspect. Lloyd goes on: 

"Publicly, the wind industry has an army of supporters ever ready to rubbish claims that wind farms can have any effect on health. But there is evidence the wind industry has known about the impact of infra­sound for more than two decades"

Lloyd repeats the myth that NASA found that wind turbines cause sickness, and that the wind industry has conspired to bury the research. It's absurd. And, on he goes....

"A federal Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism report into airborne contaminants, noise and vibration, published in October 2009, says “sound in the frequency range below 20 hertz is normally defined as ‘infrasound’ and can be heard (or felt) as a pulsating sensation and/or pressure on the ears or chest”.......The report does not refer to wind turbines but it accurately describes many of the complaints that are being made"

It'd be weird, in any other field, to claim a technology is dangerous, and then provide supporting evidence that literally fails to mention the technology. The reason this is acceptable, here, is based on the assumption that any exposure to infrasound is dangerous, regardless of the amplitude or the frequency. 

Again, the things that Lloyd chooses to exclude are the most telling. The following is from the last paragraph in the section he quotes: 

"Factors such as the attitude or mood of the person, his or her environment, the degree of arousal or distraction experienced, and whether the noise is felt to be an invasion of privacy or disruptive, will dictate personal response. This is important for shift workers who sleep during the day. The predictability of noise and how frequently it occurs will also influence the reaction"

In fact, the handbook is actually about the mining industry:

"LEADING PRACTICE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY"

As it happens, blasting the ground open with explosives produces more noise than operating a wind turbine: 

From page 72

----------------------------------------------------------------------

This mish-mash of bad science is presented as a diagnosis - the individual he quotes is sick because of wind turbines, not because of some other medical issue. There's no doubt. It's a key assumption in the piece. It's simple to presume that Lloyd sees no fault in doing so, considering there's been a constant stream of this for several years. 

This, in his eyes, is a 'balanced' approach - the exclusion of all individuals, reports and experts who might fail to support his diagnosis - even to the extent that mining industry reports are being used to implicate wind energy. 

          Francis Galton        

Sir Francis Galton FRS (16 Februari 1822 - 17 Januari 1911), sepupu Douglas Strutt Galton, setengah-sepupu Charles Darwin, adalah polymath Victoria Inggris: antropolog, eugenika, penjelajah, tropis geografer, penemu, ahli meteorologi, proto-ahli genetika, psychometrician, dan statistik. Dia knighted pada tahun 1909.

Galton mempunyai intelektual produktif, dan menghasilkan lebih dari 340 makalah dan buku sepanjang hidupnya. Ia juga menciptakan konsep statistik korelasi regresi dan dipromosikan secara luas terhadap mean. Dia adalah yang pertama untuk menerapkan metode statistik untuk mempelajari perbedaan manusia dan warisan kecerdasan, dan memperkenalkan penggunaan kuesioner dan survei untuk mengumpulkan data tentang masyarakat manusia, yang dibutuhkan untuk bekerja silsilah dan biografi dan untuk studi antropometri nya.

Dia adalah seorang pionir dalam eugenika, coining istilah itu sendiri dan kalimat "alam versus pemeliharaan". Bukunya, Hereditary Genius (1869), adalah upaya ilmiah pertama jenius sosial untuk belajar dan kebesaran.  Sebagai penyidik
​​dari pikiran manusia, ia mendirikan psychometrics (ilmu mengukur kemampuan mental) dan psikologi diferensial. Ia merancang sebuah metode untuk mengklasifikasikan sidik jari yang terbukti berguna dalam ilmu forensik.

Sebagai penggagas meteorologi ilmiah, ia menciptakan peta cuaca pertama, mengusulkan teori anticyclones, dan adalah yang pertama untuk membuat catatan lengkap tentang fenomena iklim jangka pendek dalam skala Eropa. Ia juga menemukan Whistle Galton untuk
menguji kemampuan diferensial pendengaran.

Biografi
Kehidupan awal

Galton dilahirkan di "The Larches", sebuah rumah besar di daerah Sparkbrook dari Birmingham, Inggris, yang dibangun di lokasi "Fair Hill", bekas rumah Joseph Priestley, yang botani William Withering telah diganti. Dia setengah Charles Darwin-sepupu, kakek umum berbagi Erasmus Darwin. Ayahnya adalah Samuel Tertius Galton, anak Samuel "John" Galton. Para Galtons yang terkenal dan sangat sukses Quaker pistol-produsen dan bankir, sedangkan Darwins dibedakan dalam kedokteran dan ilmu pengetahuan.

Kedua keluarga membanggakan Fellows dari Royal Society dan anggota yang senang menemukan di waktu luang mereka. Baik Erasmus Darwin dan Samuel Galton adalah anggota pendiri Masyarakat Lunar terkenal dari Birmingham, yang anggotanya termasuk Boulton, Watt, Wedgwood, Priestley, Edgeworth, dan ilmuwan terkemuka lainnya dan industrialis. Demikian juga, kedua keluarga yang dikenal dengan bakat sastra mereka: Erasmus Darwin terdiri risalah teknis panjang dalam ayat, dan Bibi Mary Anne Galton wrote on estetika dan agama, dan otobiografi terkenal dia rinci lingkungan yang unik masa kecilnya dihuni oleh anggota Lunar Society.
Potret Galton oleh Oakley Octavius, 1840

Galton adalah dengan banyak account anak ajaib - ia membaca pada usia 2, pada usia 5 ia tahu beberapa divisi Yunani, Latin dan panjang, dan pada usia enam tahun ia telah pindah ke buku orang dewasa, termasuk Shakespeare untuk kesenangan, dan puisi, yang dikutip di panjang (Bulmer 2003, hal 4). Kemudian dalam hidup, Galton akan mengusulkan hubungan antara jenius dan kegilaan berdasarkan pengalaman sendiri. Dia menyatakan, "Pria yang meninggalkan jejak mereka pada dunia yang sangat sering mereka yang, yang berbakat dan penuh kekuasaan gugup, pada saat yang sama angker dan didorong oleh ide yang dominan, dan oleh karena itu dalam jarak terukur kegilaan"

Galton dihadiri Raja Edward's School, Birmingham, tapi lecet pada kurikulum klasik sempit dan kiri di 16  Orang tuanya mendesaknya untuk. Memasuki profesi medis, dan ia belajar selama dua tahun di Birmingham General Hospital dan King's College, London Medical School . Dia diikuti ini dengan studi matematika di Trinity College, Universitas Cambridge, dari 1840 hingga awal 1844.

Sebuah gangguan saraf parah diubah niat asli Galton untuk mencoba untuk kehormatan. Dia terpilih bukan untuk mengambil "polling" (lulus) B.A. derajat, seperti-sepupu tirinya Charles Darwin (Bulmer 2003, hal 5). (Setelah adat Cambridge, ia dianugerahi gelar MA tanpa studi lebih lanjut, pada tahun 1847). Dia kemudian sebentar dilanjutkan studi medis. Kematian ayahnya pada tahun 1844 meninggalkan dia secara finansial independen namun secara emosional miskin , dan ia diakhiri belajar medis sepenuhnya, beralih ke bepergian ke luar negeri, olahraga dan penemuan teknis.

Dalam tahun-tahun awal Galton adalah seorang musafir antusias, dan melakukan perjalanan solo terkenal melalui Eropa Timur ke Konstantinopel, sebelum naik ke Cambridge. Pada tahun 1845 dan 1846 ia pergi ke Mesir dan melakukan perjalanan menyusuri sungai Nil ke Khartoum di Sudan, dan dari sana ke Beirut, Damaskus dan di sungai Yordan.

Pada tahun 1850 ia bergabung dengan Royal Society geografis, dan selama dua tahun ke depan dipasang sebuah ekspedisi yang panjang dan sulit ke dalam kemudian sedikit diketahui Selatan Afrika Barat (sekarang Namibia). Dia menulis sebuah buku yang sukses pada pengalamannya, "Narasi dari Explorer di Tropical Afrika Selatan". Ia dianugerahi medali emas Royal Society geografis pada tahun 1853 dan Silver Medal Masyarakat geografis Perancis untuk survei perintis kartografi tentang daerah (Bulmer 2003, hal 16). Ini didirikan reputasinya sebagai seorang ahli geografi dan penjelajah. Dia melanjutkan untuk menulis terlaris The Art of Travel, sebuah buku pegangan nasihat praktis untuk Victoria pada bergerak, yang pergi melalui edisi banyak dan masih di cetak.

Pada Januari 1853 Galton bertemu Louisa Jane Butler (1822-1897) di rumah tetangganya dan mereka menikah pada tanggal 1 Agustus 1853. Persatuan 43 tahun terbukti memiliki anak. Jane Louisa Butler.

Tengah tahun

Galton adalah polymath yang membuat kontribusi penting dalam berbagai bidang ilmu pengetahuan, termasuk meteorologi (anti-topan dan peta cuaca pertama populer), statistik (regresi dan korelasi), psikologi (synaesthesia), biologi (sifat dan mekanisme keturunan) , dan kriminologi (sidik jari). Sebagian besar ini dipengaruhi oleh kegemarannya untuk menghitung atau mengukur. Galton menyiapkan peta cuaca pertama kali diterbitkan di The Times (1 April 1875, menunjukkan cuaca dari hari sebelumnya, 31 Maret), sekarang menjadi fitur standar di koran-koran di seluruh dunia.

Ia menjadi sangat aktif dalam Asosiasi Inggris untuk Kemajuan Ilmu, menyajikan banyak makalah pada berbagai macam topik di rapat 1858-1899 (Bulmer 2010, hal 29). Dia adalah sekretaris jenderal 1863-1867, presiden dari bagian geografis tahun 1867 dan 1872, dan presiden Bagian Antropologi pada 1877 dan 1885. Ia aktif di dewan dari Royal Society geografis selama lebih dari empat puluh tahun, dalam berbagai komite dari Royal Society, dan di Dewan Meteorologi.

Selama waktu ini, Galton menulis surat kontroversial Times berjudul 'Afrika untuk China, di mana ia berpendapat bahwa Cina, sebagai ras yang mampu peradaban tinggi dan (menurut pendapatnya) hanya sementara terhambat oleh kegagalan baru-baru ini dinasti Cina , harus didorong untuk berimigrasi ke Afrika dan menggantikan kulit hitam asli seharusnya lebih rendah.

Keturunan, historiometry dan eugenika
Galton dalam tahun-tahun berikutnya


Publikasi oleh sepupunya Charles Darwin The Origin of Species pada tahun 1859 adalah sebuah peristiwa yang mengubah hidup Galton's. Dia datang untuk digenggam oleh pekerjaan, terutama bab pertama pada "Variasi bawah Domestikasi" tentang pengembangbiakan hewan domestik. Sebuah fakta menarik, tidak diketahui secara luas, adalah bahwa Galton hadir untuk mendengar 1860 Oxford debat evolusi yang terkenal di British Association. Bukti untuk ini berasal dari Louisa istrinya Tahunan Record untuk 1860.

Galton banyak mengabdikan sisa hidupnya untuk menjelajahi variasi dalam populasi manusia dan implikasinya, di mana Darwin hanya mengisyaratkan. Dalam melakukannya, ia akhirnya mendirikan sebuah program penelitian yang dianut banyak aspek variasi manusia, dari karakteristik mental untuk ketinggian, dari gambar wajah untuk pola sidik jari. Ini diperlukan tindakan baru menciptakan sifat, menyusun koleksi besar-besaran data menggunakan langkah-langkah tersebut, dan pada akhirnya, penemuan teknik statistik baru untuk menggambarkan dan memahami data.

Galton tertarik pada awalnya pada pertanyaan apakah kemampuan manusia turun-temurun, dan mengusulkan untuk menghitung jumlah keluarga berbagai derajat pria terkemuka. Jika kualitas secara turun temurun, ia beralasan, ada harus lebih orang terkemuka di antara kerabat dibandingkan pada populasi umum. Ia memperoleh data dari berbagai sumber biografi dan dibandingkan hasil yang ia ditabulasi dalam berbagai cara. Karya perintis digambarkan secara rinci dalam bukunya pada tahun 1869. Dia menunjukkan, antara lain, bahwa jumlah keluarga terkemuka diturunkan ketika pergi dari tingkat pertama ke kerabat derajat kedua, dan dari tingkat kedua ketiga. Dia mengambil ini sebagai bukti kemampuan warisan. Dia juga mengusulkan studi adopsi, termasuk studi adopsi trans-rasial, untuk memisahkan pengaruh keturunan dan lingkungan.

Metode yang digunakan dalam Hereditary Genius telah digambarkan sebagai contoh pertama dari historiometry. Untuk meningkatkan hasil tersebut, dan mencoba untuk membuat perbedaan antara 'alam' dan 'memelihara' (dia adalah yang pertama untuk menerapkan kalimat ini ke topik), ia menciptakan kuesioner yang ia dikirim ke 190 Fellows dari Royal Society. Dia tabulasi karakteristik keluarga mereka, seperti urutan kelahiran dan pekerjaan dan ras orang tua mereka. Dia berusaha untuk menemukan apakah minat mereka di bidang sains adalah 'bawaan' atau karena dorongan orang lain. Penelitian itu diterbitkan sebagai buku, orang Inggris ilmu: sifat dan memelihara, pada tahun 1874. Pada akhirnya, ia dipromosikan alam versus pengasuhan pertanyaan, meskipun itu tidak menyelesaikan itu, dan memberikan beberapa data menarik tentang sosiologi ilmuwan waktu.

Galton mengakui keterbatasan metodenya dalam dua karya, dan percaya pertanyaan itu bisa lebih baik dipelajari oleh perbandingan kembar. Metode-Nya adalah untuk melihat apakah kembar yang sama saat kelahiran bercabang di lingkungan berbeda, dan apakah kembar berbeda saat lahir berkumpul ketika dibesarkan di lingkungan yang sama. Dia lagi menggunakan metode kuesioner untuk mengumpulkan berbagai macam data, yang ditabulasi dan dijelaskan dalam makalah Sejarah kembar pada 1875. Dalam berbuat demikian ia mengantisipasi bidang genetika perilaku modern, yang sangat bergantung pada studi kembar. Dia menyimpulkan bahwa bukti yang disukai alam daripada pengasuhan.

Galton menemukan istilah eugenika pada 1883 dan meletakkan banyak pengamatan dan kesimpulan dalam sebuah buku, Pertanyaan ke fakultas manusia dan perkembangannya.  Dia percaya bahwa skema dari 'tanda' untuk kebaikan keluarga harus didefinisikan, dan pernikahan dini antara keluarga peringkat tinggi didorong dengan pemberian insentif moneter. Ia mencontohkan beberapa kecenderungan dalam masyarakat Inggris, seperti pernikahan akhir orang terkemuka, dan kurangnya anak-anak mereka, yang menurutnya dysgenic. Ia menganjurkan mendorong pernikahan eugenic dengan menyediakan pasangan mampu dengan insentif untuk memiliki anak.

Galton studi tentang kemampuan manusia pada akhirnya menyebabkan dasar psikologi diferensial dan perumusan tes mental pertama.

Galton juga membuat teknik yang disebut fotografi komposit, dijelaskan secara rinci dalam Pertanyaan di fakultas manusia dan perkembangannya, yang ia percaya dapat digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi jenis oleh penampilan. Ia berharap teknik itu akan membantu diagnosa medis, dan bahkan kriminologi melalui identifikasi wajah kriminal khas. Namun, ia terpaksa menyimpulkan setelah eksperimen lengkap bahwa jenis tersebut tidak dicapai dalam praktek.
Joseph Jacobs

Pada tahun 1880-an sementara sarjana Yahudi Joseph Jacobs mempelajari antropologi dan statistik dengan Francis Galton, ia meminta Galton untuk menciptakan komposisi jenis Yahudi.

Pangenesis percobaan pada kelinci

Galton dilakukan pertanyaan yang luas menjadi faktor keturunan yang menyebabkan dia untuk menantang teori hipotesis Charles Darwin pangenesis. Darwin telah diusulkan sebagai bagian dari hipotesis ini bahwa partikel tertentu, yang ia sebut "gemmules" pindah ke seluruh tubuh dan juga bertanggung jawab atas pewarisan karakteristik yang diperoleh. Galton, dalam konsultasi dengan Darwin, berangkat untuk melihat apakah mereka diangkut dalam darah. Dalam serangkaian percobaan panjang dalam 1869-1871, ia ditransfusikan darah antara keturunan berbeda dari kelinci, dan meneliti fitur dari keturunan mereka  Ia tidak menemukan bukti karakter ditransmisikan dalam darah ditransfusikan (Bulmer 2003, hal 116. -118).

Darwin menantang validitas eksperimen Galton's, memberikan alasan dalam sebuah artikel yang diterbitkan di Nature mana ia menulis:

    "Sekarang, dalam bab tentang Pangenesis di saya Variasi Hewan dan Tumbuhan bawah Domestikasi aku belum mengatakan satu kata tentang darah, atau tentang cairan yang tepat untuk setiap sistem sirkulasi. Hal ini, memang, jelas bahwa kehadiran gemmules di darah tidak dapat membentuk bagian penting dari hipotesis saya, karena saya merujuk pada ilustrasi itu kepada hewan terendah, seperti Protozoa, yang tidak memiliki darah atau pembuluh, dan saya lihat tanaman di mana cairan, ketika hadir dalam kapal, tidak dapat dianggap sebagai darah benar. " Dia melanjutkan dengan mengakui: "Meskipun demikian, ketika pertama kali mendengar eksperimen Mr Galton, saya tidak cukup mencerminkan subjek, dan bukan melihat kesulitan percaya di hadapan gemmules dalam darah."

Galton secara eksplisit menolak gagasan pewarisan karakteristik yang diakuisisi (Lamarckisme), dan merupakan pendukung awal "keturunan keras" melalui seleksi saja. Dia datang dekat untuk menemukan kembali partikulat teori Mendel warisan, tetapi dicegah dari membuat terobosan akhir dalam hal ini karena fokus pada terus menerus, bukan diskrit, sifat-sifat (sekarang dikenal sebagai sifat polygenic). Dia melanjutkan untuk menemukan pendekatan Biometric untuk mempelajari keturunan, dibedakan oleh penggunaan teknik statistik untuk mempelajari sifat-sifat kontinu dan aspek populasi skala keturunan.

Pendekatan ini kemudian diambil antusias oleh Karl Pearson dan WFR Weldon, bersama-sama, mereka mendirikan jurnal Biometrika sangat berpengaruh pada tahun 1901. (RA Fisher kemudian akan menunjukkan bagaimana pendekatan biometrik bisa didamaikan dengan pendekatan Mendel.) Teknik statistik yang ditemukan Galton (korelasi, regresi - lihat di bawah) dan fenomena yang didirikan (regresi untuk mean) membentuk dasar dari pendekatan biometrik dan sekarang alat-alat penting dalam semua ilmu-ilmu sosial.

Statistik, deviasi regresi, standar dan korelasi

pertanyaan-Nya ke dalam pikiran yang terlibat rekaman penjelasan rinci tentang subyek sendiri 'untuk apa dan bagaimana pikiran mereka berurusan dengan hal-hal seperti citra mental, yang ditimbulkan dengan menggunakan merintis nya kuesioner. Pada akhir 1860-an, Galton dikandung standar deviasi.

Galton menemukan penggunaan garis regresi (Bulmer 2003, hal 184), dan adalah yang pertama untuk menggambarkan dan menjelaskan fenomena umum dari regresi terhadap mean, yang ia pertama kali diamati dalam eksperimen pada ukuran benih-benih generasi kacang polong manis. Pada 1870-an dan 1880-an ia adalah seorang pelopor dalam penggunaan distribusi normal sesuai histogram data ditabulasi aktual. Ia menemukan Quincunx, perangkat pachinko seperti, juga dikenal sebagai mesin kacang, sebagai alat untuk menunjukkan hukum kesalahan dan distribusi normal (Bulmer 2003, hal 4). Dia juga menemukan sifat dari distribusi normal bivariat dan hubungannya dengan analisis regresi.

Pada tahun 1906 Galton mengunjungi ternak yang adil dan tersandung pada sebuah kontes yang menarik. Sebuah sapi pada layar, dan warga desa diundang untuk menebak berat badan binatang setelah disembelih dan berpakaian. Hampir 800 memberikannya pergi dan, tidak mengherankan, tidak satu hit tanda tepat: £ 1198. Yang mengherankan, bagaimanapun, rata-rata dari 800 tebakan datang dekat - sangat dekat memang. Itu adalah £ 1197.

Setelah memeriksa pengukuran lengan bawah dan tinggi, Galton memperkenalkan konsep korelasi pada tahun 1888 (Bulmer 2003, hal 191-196). Korelasi adalah istilah yang digunakan oleh Aristoteles dalam studi tentang klasifikasi hewan, dan kemudian dan terutama oleh Georges Cuvier dalam Progres Histoire des des naturelles ilmu depuis 1789 jusqu'à ce jour (5 volume, 1826-1836). Korelasi berasal dalam studi korespondensi seperti yang dijelaskan dalam studi morfologi. , Bentuk dan Fungsi. Galton nanti statistik studi kemungkinan kepunahan nama keluarga menyebabkan konsep proses Galton-Watson stokastik (Bulmer 2003, hal 182-184).

Ia juga mengembangkan teori awal kisaran suara dan pendengaran, dan mengumpulkan sejumlah besar data antropometrik dari masyarakat melalui populer dan sudah lama berjalan nya
antropometri Laboratorium. Ia tidak sampai 1985 bahwa data tersebut dianalisis secara keseluruhan.

Sidik jari

Dalam makalah Royal Institution pada tahun 1888 dan tiga buku (Sidik jari, 1892; penguraian dari kabur Finger Cetakan, 1893; dan Direktori Fingerprint, 1895) Galton memperkirakan kemungkinan dua orang memiliki sidik jari yang sama dan mempelajari heritabilitas dan perbedaan ras di sidik jari. Dia menulis tentang teknik (secara tidak sengaja memicu kontroversi antara Herschel dan Faulds yang berlangsung hingga 1917), mengidentifikasi pola umum dalam sidik jari dan merancang sistem klasifikasi yang bertahan sampai hari ini.

Metode mengidentifikasi penjahat dengan sidik jari mereka telah diperkenalkan pada 1860-an oleh Sir William Herschel James di India, dan menggunakan potensi mereka dalam pekerjaan forensik pertama kali diusulkan oleh Dr Henry Faulds pada tahun 1880, namun Galton adalah orang pertama untuk menempatkan studi pada
pijakan ilmiah, yang dibantu penerimaan oleh pengadilan (Bulmer 2003, hal 35). Galton menunjukkan bahwa ada jenis tertentu pola sidik jari. Dia menggambarkan dan diklasifikasikan mereka ke dalam delapan kategori yang luas. 1: polos arch, 2: arch tenda, 3: loop sederhana, 4: loop saku pusat, 5: loop ganda, 6: loop saku lateral, 7: whorl polos, dan 8: kebetulan.

Akhir tahun

Dalam upaya untuk menjangkau khalayak yang lebih luas, Galton bekerja pada sebuah novel berjudul Kantsaywhere dari bulan Mei sampai dengan Desember 1910. Novel ini menggambarkan sebuah utopia yang diselenggarakan oleh sebuah agama eugenic, dirancang untuk berkembang biak manusia bugar dan cerdas. notebook unpublished-Nya menunjukkan bahwa ini adalah ekspansi bahan dia telah menulis setidaknya sejak 1901. Dia menawarkannya kepada Methuen untuk publikasi, namun mereka menunjukkan sedikit antusiasme. Galton menulis kepada keponakannya itu harus berupa "disiram atau digantikan". keponakan-Nya tampaknya telah terbakar sebagian besar novel, tersinggung oleh adegan cinta, tapi fragmen besar bertahan hidup.

          IVF Treatment in Bangalore        
Milann is recognized as the only fertility center for providing best IVF treatment in Bangalore as well as other parts of India, with a wide range of fertility services to assist couples in realizing their dream to start a family. Your treatment will be coordinated by your fertility specialist who is supported by an experienced team of nurses, counsellors and embryologists. Established to offer couples the access to advanced medical diagnosis and treatment options in the field of Assisted Reproduction (IVF treatment & IUI treatment), Milann has been redefining high-tech fertility center in India.
          Diagnostic Medical Sonography Program Description        

Program Description

The CRC Diagnostic Medical Sonography (DMS) Program includes didactic, laboratory, and practicum components that are structured to facilitate the achievement of educational and career goals. The American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonographers (ARDMS) describes sonographers as “highly-skilled professionals who use specialized equipment to create images of structures inside the human body that are used by physicians to make a medical diagnosis.” Sonographers have direct and extensive patient contact that may include performing some invasive procedures. They must be able to interact compassionately and effectively with people who range from healthy to critically ill.

Organizations such as the American Registry of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers (ARDMS) certify the competency of sonographers through registration.

​Sonography is a dynamic profession that has grown significantly over the past 20 years with new technologies and increased use of diagnostic ultrasound procedures, growth is projected to continue in the future with employment opportunities for qualified sonographers in both urban and rural areas nationwide.

Sonographers can choose to work in clinics, hospitals, public-health facilities, laboratories, and other medical settings performing examinations in their areas of specialization. Approximately two-thirds of all sonographers are currently employed by major medical centers and hospitals with the remaining third employed diagnostic medical imaging outpatient centers. As sonographers gain clinical years of experience they can choose to advance their careers and explore sonography education, research and development as well as industry specialties in applications and equipment sales.

The Occupational Outlook Handbook published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics reports a growth of 24% increase in job outlook (2014-2024) for sonographers.

As ultrasound technology evolves, it will become a more common method used to assist in diagnosing medical conditions, favored over more invasive procedures. 

Enrollment Eligibility

To be eligible for enrollment in either the Associate of Science or Certificate of Achievement in Diagnostic Medical Sonography, the student must meet the following criteria:

  • Associate degree or higher in an Allied Health major from a regionally accredited U.S. College;
  • A minimum of one year (1,600 hours) of direct patient care work experience; 
  • Complete the application process for enrollment in the DMS program;
  • Fulfill all requirements set forth by the CRC Allied Health Practicum Guidelines including but not limited to: background clearance, physical examination, CPR Certification, immunization clearance and drug screening; 
  • Successfully complete with a B or better all pre-requisite courses as outlined below within the last five (5) years:
    • College-level Intermediate Algebra (or higher math course)
    • Interpersonal Communications (or equivalent communications/speech course)
    • Anatomy & Physiology (one year with lab)
    • Medical Language
    • Human Disease or Pathophysiology
    • Conceptual Physics

          Sufficient grace for each moment        

Faith is a daily journey. But when a medical diagnosis turns life into a steep, uphill climb it’s easy to get weary and fearful. Join host Barbara Follis to hear…


          What Are Lay Or Buddy Statements?        

"Lay" or "buddy" statements are statements made by people who know the Veteran but who aren't qualified to make a medical diagnosis or prove medical facts. Learn how lay statements can be a powerful tool in obtaining the maximum disability benefits to which you are entitled under the law.

The post What Are Lay Or Buddy Statements? appeared first on Military Veterans' Lawyer Blog.


          Ability to Track Pets and Monitor their Behavior Creates a Huge Demand for Pet Wearables         
Several technology giants are shifting their focus towards manufacturing wearables for pets after revolutionizing with the same the wearables for humans.  According to the America Pet Products Association, the global spending on pets is set to rise exponentially in the coming years. Furthermore, in times when handheld devices are becoming ubiquitous, they sure are proving to be useful in the pets segment as well. The growing usage of several gadgets that are Wi-Fi enabled are being designed to track animals in cases where they lose way or are kidnapped. Pet Identification to Drive Overall Market The rise of pet wearable technology is also anticipated to play a significant role in pet identification, behavior control, remote monitoring, and monitoring of pets in case of health issues. All of these factors that promise to enhance the quality of life for pets and pet owners are anticipated to drive the overall market in the coming years. Possibility of Medical Diagnostics through Pet Wearables Opens New Opportunities The groundbreaking design and deployment of pet wearables for medical diagnosis are also expected to boost this market in the near future. For instance, wearables designed to cool pets, conduct ultrasound, provide heat, and drug delivery will tap into the unmet demands of pet owners. The rise of Internet of Things and cloud computing is also anticipated to be the factors that define the success of the global pet wearables market in the coming future. This trend will also find support from the increasing expenditure on the medical diagnostics of pets by pet owners. However, the only restraint in the pet wearables market in the short lifespan of batteries that disrupts the diagnostic, identification, or tracking function of the device.

Original Post Ability to Track Pets and Monitor their Behavior Creates a Huge Demand for Pet Wearables source Twease
          Amid FDA Concerns, Theranos Revolutionizing US In-Vitro Diagnostics Market        
In-vitro diagnostics are being extensively used for health screening and medical diagnosis as well as for genomics, genetic testing, food testing, veterinary diagnostics, research, and environmental testing. While application segments such as blood glucose monitoring and clinical chemistry are relatively mature, the growing of personalized medical treatment has led to the rapid development of molecular diagnostics. Increasing diabetic population across the globe, accelerating sales of medical technological devices, and development of cardiac troponin assays have boosted the growth of the global in-vitro diagnostics market. In the U.S. in-vitro diagnostics market, Theranos is disrupting the competitive landscape. The U.S. in-vitro diagnostics market is monopolized by LabCorp and Quest Diagnostics. Together, these nationwide testing groups account for 46% share in the non-hospital independent laboratory market which generates revenues worth US$25 bn annually. The rest of the market is flooded with small independent labs. Theranos, a Silicon Valley business founded in 2003 by Elizabeth Holmes, is trying to revolutionize the market with reduced prices of tests as well as time duration to receive test results. Further, the company is letting patients to bypass their doctors and order their own diagnostics from a menu of over 260 tests available at Theranos outlets. Theranos has its own proprietary diagnostic test devices- a finger-prick vial called nanotainer, and a laboratory machine to give accurate results for the blood samples collected through nanotainer. The government of Arizona has recently passed a law to allow such kind of direct-to-consumer testing. However, the company has lately received flak from the FDA regarding the usage of its devices to collect blood without the adequate approvals. Though the company has stated that all the FDA concerns have been addressed, industry analysts and investors feel that the company should adjust its strategy and move to simpler ‘point of care’ testing.

Original Post Amid FDA Concerns, Theranos Revolutionizing US In-Vitro Diagnostics Market source Twease
          Data Breach may have Occurred, Notifies Partners Healthcare System        
Partners Healthcare System has already begun informing its patients that there had been a breach in data last November, which may have given a certain level of unauthorized access to mails that contained personal details. According to Partners Healthcare System, some of its employees had received phishing emails and these workers, in response to the emails, provided information to what they believed were legitimate sources.  Responding to these phishing emails, the company stated, rendered an opportunity to gain unauthorized access to the email accounts of those workers.  A review was conducted by Partners Healthcare System and it determined that some of those emails had patient information and demographics such as names, dates of birth, addresses, and telephone numbers. In some cases, the emails also contained the Social Security numbers and clinical information of patients such as diagnosis, medical record numbers, treatment received, health insurance information, or medical diagnosis codes.  The company has stated that so far it has found no evidence that confirms or even suspects that any patient information from those emails have been misused. However, the company on April 30, began sending letters to the affected patients and have also set up a call center to answer any questions or queries that patients might have. The patients in question have also been asked to frequently review statements that they may be receiving from their health insurance companies. Officials have encouraged patients to notice any services that were not received but were listed and contact their health insurers. 

Original Post Data Breach may have Occurred, Notifies Partners Healthcare System source Twease
          Joi Ito and Iyad Rahwan on AI & Society        
AI technologies have the potential to vastly enhance the performance of many systems and institutions, from making transportation safer, to enhancing the accuracy of medical diagnosis, to improving the efficiency of food safety inspections. However, AI systems can also create moral hazards, by potentially diminishing human accountability, perpetuating biases that are inherent to the AI's training data, or optimizing for one performance measure at the expense of others. These challenges require new kinds of "user interfaces" between machines and society. We will explore these issues, and how they would interface with existing institutions. About Joi Ito Joi Ito is the director of the MIT Media Lab, Professor of the Practice at MIT and the author, with Jeff Howe, of Whiplash: How to Survive Our Faster Future (Grand Central Publishing, 2016). Ito is chairman of the board of PureTech Health and serves on several other boards, including The New York Times Company, Sony Corporation, the MacArthur Foundation and the Knight Foundation. He is also the former chairman and CEO of Creative Commons, and a former board member of ICANN, The Open Source Initiative, and The Mozilla Foundation. Ito is a serial entrepreneur who helped start and run numerous companies including one of the first web companies in Japan, Digital Garage, and the first commercial Internet service provider in Japan, PSINet Japan/IIKK. He has been an early-stage investor in many companies, including Formlabs, Flickr, Kickstarter, littleBits, and Twitter. Ito has received numerous awards, including the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Oxford Internet Institute and the Golden Plate Award from the Academy of Achievement, and he was inducted into the SXSW Interactive Festival Hall of Fame in 2014. Ito has been awarded honorary doctorates from The New School and Tufts University. About Iyad Rahwan Iyad Rahwan is the AT&T Career Development Professor and an Associate Professor of Media Arts & Sciences at the MIT Media Lab, where he leads the Scalable Cooperation group. A native of Aleppo, Syria, Rahwan holds a PhD from the University of Melbourne, Australia, and is an affiliate faculty at the MIT Institute of Data, Systems and Society (IDSS). Rahwan's work lies at the intersection of the computer and social sciences, with a focus on collective intelligence, large-scale cooperation, and the social aspects of Artificial Intelligence. His team built the Moral Machine, which has collected 28 million decisions to-date about how autonomous cars should prioritize risk. Rahwan's work appeared in major academic journals, including Science and PNAS, and was featured in major media outlets, including the New York Times, The Economist, Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post. More info on this event here: https://cyber.harvard.edu/events/luncheons/2017/04/Ito

          Why Your Medical Records Matter in Personal Injury Cases        

The subject has come up too many times in the past couple weeks where clients are disputing what is documented in their medical records that were written by their own treating physicians. I will admit, prior to becoming an attorney in South Carolina, I would trust what the doctor told me in the private setting of the examination room. As Lee Corso says, "Not so fast my friend."

It does not matter if you are being assisted by Medshore EMS at the scene of a motor vehicle collision or talking to your long time AnMed Family Medicine physician, those medical providers are documenting everything you tell them. As a matter of fact, the Federal Government has mandated all records be made digitally so you can even read the physician's handwriting. Well that wasn't their main reason for doing it but it sure has helped in reading Dr. Wadee's records. 

You have the right to request your medical records and you should do that on a quarterly to annual basis depending upon your frequency in medical treatment. (No, the discharge or checkout paper you get does not count as a medical record that is important.) It will help you see what information is documented from your visit with medical providers and also help ensure that your medical concerns and complaints are actually being addressed. Let me provide a news flash when that may become relevant...IN A PERSONAL INJURYCASE! 

If you are involved in some kind of traumatic incident (workers' compensation claim, car wreck, dog bite, slip & fall, product liability claim, nursing home negligence, or medical malpractice case) and claim the injuries you sustained from that incident are all because of that traumatic incident, you have to prove it to be reimbursed by the evil insurance companies. Your back may be hurting but if just the week before you were complaining of back pains, the question becomes how much more, if any, is your back hurting from the traumatic incident. Don't come in telling me your life is changed forever for the worst because of this traumatic incident but have no medical documentation to prove that claim. 

As an attorney, I can not tell the evil insurance company that your doctor told you it was all because of the traumatic incident. Shockingly, the evil empire would not believe me or you. However, the evil tryanny sometimes believes what is in the medical records. Not all the time but let's not get caught up in the fact that the evil empire will have a 22 year old college, educated adjuster make medical diagnosis and decisions. We will save that subject for another article. 

Today, your take away is this:

  • You are legally entitled to a copy of your medical records, regardless if you owe a balance to the medical provider. Now there may be a copying charge or retrieval fee but you are still entitled to those printed and detailed records, along with your itemized bills. Click here to print off this page, if the gate keeper at your medical facility doesn't believe you.
  • Do you really know what your doctor has documented?   What do you think your doctor will depend on as the truth a year from their visit with you if asked by a lawyer? That exact conversation or their medical records?
  • What is documented in your medical records will help your recovery from a traumatic incident or help the evil empire against your recovery. So, if you are experience back pain, emotional trauma, sleepless nights, relationship troubles, and so forth, I better read it in the medical records or it is not happening!

 

 

***When I Googled "evil insurance companies" there was a link with a discussion of whether insurance companies were evil or stupid.  Although it was about health care, the liability insurance carriers are designed the same way, maximize return to their shareholders while minimizing the payout of claims (YOUR CLAIM). I thought this was a very interesting response:

Doug DingusEverybody pays, everybody covered
622 Views
Insurance companies have a basic conflict with us in that their goal is to maximize for the shareholders, and that happens best when they deliver the least health care access for the most dollars.

So, the answer is by design, but said design is an artifact of our health care policy, meaning they are neither stupid or evil.

We can remedy this with regulation, or public primary care insurance, or competition, depending on how said competition is structured

          Sawbones: Frankberry Stool        

This week on Sawbones, Dr. Sydnee and Justin delve into what may just be history's oddest actual medical diagnosis: Frankenberry stool.

Music: "Medicines" by The Taxpayers


          Seven Years        


Today my girls Rebecca and Maria turn seven.


Much to my relief, I can still picture them. Together. Holding hands as they were the last time I saw them.


I’ve been thinking a lot about the idea of strength and how that relates to the hardships that so many people have faced at this point in their lives. I know very few people who are untouched by tragedy - the early or unexpected loss of a parent or sibling, the death of a child, a life changing medical diagnosis. Often times when discussing this we say “I don’t know how they survived that…” but what we really mean is “I’m so glad that isn’t me.”


Surviving tragedy isn’t really about strength or a person’s character; it is that life won’t let us quit moving forward. I don’t think I realized this until I recognized this idea in a book two years ago. Funny because it was not a particularly great book and not even one that I would recommend, but I found myself coming back to this passage over and over again.


“When all was well, you assumed that to suffer such a staggering blow would break you, but when such ills actually befell you, you somehow persevered. You didn’t survive to prove something to anyone, you didn’t press on simply because you wished to, and you didn’t endure because of what the preacher in church said. You survived because deep inside everyone was the simple, indefatigable need to press on, whatever the costs. And even if so much was stripped away that you no longer recognized yourself, the thing left was the part of you that you never understood, that you always underestimated, that were always afraid to look at. You were afraid you’d need it one day and it wouldn’t be there for you, but in fact was the one thing that couldn’t be taken away.”


Maybe that is what we term ‘strength’ but it is also so much more than that.


During the weeks and months that followed their passing, I grew to hate being told I was ‘so strong’ and ‘would survive’. As though I didn’t love my girls enough to allow their loss to cripple me as others would. The platitudes that rolled in just rolled over me. However, you could tell those who had been touched by tragedy themselves in their silence and their quiet ‘I’m sorry’.


I suppose that is why I’m choosing to write this here. There will be other tragedies in the lives of others. You will find yourself uncomfortable and wanting to shy away from those people who are suffering. Don’t give into the empty phrases, it isn’t strength they need, it is quiet support and acceptance from you to allow them to grieve and work through it. Life will push them forward and they will find their footing again, and they will remember that you helped them understand they weren’t alone.


Today I remember.  It would mean the world to me if you would take a moment to remember too. Rebecca and Maria, you existed and you continue to be loved.


 




          Mesothelioma Types        
How are various kinds of mesothelioma cancer categorized?

Pleural Mesothelioma
Pleural mesothelioma cancer is not constantly quickly detectable. Frequently, in the early phases of the condition, such as phase 1 mesothelioma, signs may be mild.

Often serum markers are made use of to diagnose of various forms of cancer. Mesothelioma can not be detected using this approach as no serum markers presently exist.

The mesothelioma survival rate for patients detected with pleural mesothelioma cancer usually is low, as patients often do not live beyond seventeen months from the start of signs and symptoms. Just 8 % of those with a mesothelioma medical diagnosis will live 3 to five years from the onset of mesothelioma cancer signs and symptoms.

Peritoneal Mesothelioma
Peritoneal mesothelioma cancer stems in the abdominal area and will often spread out to other organs in area including the bowel, liver or spleen. Other signs and symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma cancer may include challenging bowel motions, queasiness and throwing up, fever and inflamed feet.

The survival rate for those detected with peritoneal mesothelioma is typically in the variety of around 10 months from the time that they initially started experiencing the signs and symptoms noted above. Nevertheless, results are fairly variable from one patient to another, so population-based data ought to not be presumed to restrict the result for an individual client.

Pericardial Mesothelioma cancer
Pericardial mesothelioma cancer is the least common type of mesothelioma cancer. Pericardial mesothelioma, as the name recommends, includes the heart. This uncommon kind of mesothelioma cancer invades the pericardium, the cavity that surrounds the heart. As the cancer advances, the heart is unable to deliver oxygen as effectively to the body causing additional decline in health at a progressively rapid rate. The symptoms most frequently related to pericardial mesothelioma cancer simulate those of a cardiac arrest: queasiness, discomfort in the chest and shortness of breath.

Malignant Mesothelioma
The symptoms associated with malignant mesothelioma make it difficult for doctors to detect. Another special factor associated with the condition is that there can be a long latency period between the time of asbestos direct exposure and the real symptom of the illness in the form of malignant mesothelioma cancer.

Benign Mesothelioma cancer
Benign mesothelioma, or non-malignant mesothelioma cancer, is a lot easier to treat than the malignant kind of the cancer and can be dealt with successfully in many cases.

Epithelial Mesothelioma
Epithelial Mesothelioma is the most typical cell type and make up approximately 50-75 % percent of all diagnosed cases each year. These cells are consistent in shape, with an elongated pattern that makes them easily distinguishable when viewed under high zoom. These types ofcancercells are adenocarcinomas, malignancies which are more frequently associated with pure lung cancers instead of cancers of the mesothelium.

Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma
Sarcomatoid mesothelioma is a less common cell type, accounting for between 7 and 20 % of mesothelioma cases each year. These cells grow forth out of supportive structures, such as muscles and bones.

Biphasic Mesothelioma cancer
Biphasic mesothelioma cancers are those with a mix of sarcomatoid and epithelial cell types. Mesothelioma treatment alternatives do not differ considerably for different cell types, but commonly sarcomatoid mesothelioma cancers are more difficult to deal with as a result of the surrounding affected tissues that they spread from.

Papillary Mesothelioma cancer
Papillary mesothelioma, likewise called well-differentiated mesothelioma, is a form of the asbestos cancer that typically influences females. In many cases this cell type is benign and not likely to spread to other organs in the body.

For more information on Mesothelioma Types and Symptoms click the link below:
http://thebestasbestosattorneys.weebly.com/types--symptoms.html
          Mesothelioma cancer Treatment by Stage        
The treatment method for mesothelioma cancer varies based upon the stage that the cancer has advanced to at the time of diagnosis. There is currently no remedy for this condition, current medical advances have made a wider wide range of treatment alternatives readily available to help improve client comfort and quality of life. While there are a number of staging systems offered to examine how far mesothelioma cancer has actually advanced in the body, the Butchart staging system stays the most extensively utilized, particularly for pleural mesothelioma cancer.

Phase 1 Mesothelioma Treatment
Mesothelioma surgery is the most frequently advised course of treatment for pleural mesothelioma patients having a Phase 1 medical diagnosis. It is frequently identified with stage 1 mesothelioma cancer that those adjunct treatments are not required.

Stage 2 Mesothelioma cancer Treatment
Clients diagnosed with Stage II Mesothelioma still have a relatively broad range of treatment alternatives offered to them. Surgical treatment may or might not continue to be a viable treatment choice at this phase.

Stage 3 Mesothelioma cancer Treatment
The treatment options for Phase III Mesothelioma cancer clients are less than those available for Phase I and II clients as the cancer, in this phase, has typically spread beyond the point of origin to other crucial organs in the body or the lymphatic system. Treatments suggested for Stage III clients are mostly focused on offering patient comfort and improving quality of life.

Stage 4 Mesothelioma Treatment
A diagnosis of phase 4 mesothelioma normally shows an extremely undesirable mesothelioma cancer prognosis. At this phase, the cancer has typically metastasized throughout the body to other organs and as with stages 2 and 3, can not be treated. Clients with phase 4 mesothelioma may likewise be interested in taking part in specialized scientific trials offered at leading cancer healthcare facilities and.

Read more here:
          Spiritual Warfare: The Gospel of Peace        
Ephesians 6:15Have you ever known someone at perfect peace? (Isaiah 26:3-4)  This person is at ease with whatever is happening to him, no matter the circumstances or trials he is facing.  Maybe it is a frightening medical diagnosis, or that he is on his deathbed or in the rubble of a difficult relationship.  In spite of these circumstances, he has a tranquility, joy and contentment based on an abiding confidence in the providence of God and assurance that all will be well.  Adam and Eve had
          Satellite Sisters 031515: All Five Sisters on the show with Email Scandals, Food Trends, Where it Putin, School Galas and Bad Medical Advice        

All five sister on the show today:

Julie Dolan, Lian Dolan, Liz Dolan, Sheila Dolan and Monica Dolan on:

 

Santa Ana Winds Wacky Medical Diagnosis: Santa Ana Syndrome

Where in the World is Putin? Julie has theories

Charles & Camilla Come ot America

Hey, Triscuit, Nobody wants to Grill a Cracker

Who is Murray and why does he have a Cheese Shop in La Canada

New Dinner Motto

Restaurant Trend we can all get behind

School Gala Update

All the Cool Kids have Non-disclosure agreements

And WHY is email so, so hard. Liz reports from the frontline of Outlook Express

 

 


          Reality        
February 21, 2011:

I woke up Monday morning like any other Monday but with a reality of the past revelations. I knew I had to take action. I couldnt float within the clouds forever.

I arrived at work and watched the clock tick anxiously waiting to make my level 2 ultrasound appointment. They opened at 8:30 am. I called at 8:35. When under stress there are details that will forever remain etched in your mind. I was instructed to bring a copy of my previous ultrasound reports with me to my Friday 12pm appointment.

I hung up and called the hospital for a copy of my reports. After numerous calls back and forth they were able to locate my ultrasounds from the ER back in January and from my most recent which were done in L&D. I decided I would pick them up after work.

I felt in control. I called my midwife to let her know of my appointment and to let her know I located the ultrasounds and would be faxing them to her that evening.

Later that afternoon I missed another telephone call from my previous OB. It was at this moment I knew I needed to call her back and here what the ultrasound truly depicted and what it meant for my baby boy. I called her back and immediately began crying. She expressed her concern. I cried to her about the poor treatment I encountered at the hospital. Perhaps attempting to avoid to hear what was to come. Between cries of pain and fear she then told me that it was very important for me to see a genetic’s counselor. I told her I was going to get a second opinion. She told me that she would do the same but my baby boy was diagnosed “possible Dandy Walker variant” and the diagnosis is probable. This is the first time I had heard the term. She explained the seriousness over my cries. I dropped the phone onto my desk as I said goodbye.

I will never forget the incessant cries that left me breathless. I left work immediately after the telephone call. I probably shouldnt have drove myself home. I was in a transient state mixed with tears, anger and misbelief.

My sister met me at home. I asked her to pick up the hospital ultrasounds for me. I couldnt bear pick them up myself. She came back to the house after picking them up. She huged me and offered all of her support. She comforted me and told me the few words that have come to comfort me though everything ”God knows you are strong and have a support system to get you through this. That is why he chose you rather than someone else.” Deep and true coming from a 16 year old.

I gathered all of my strength and called my midwife. She explained the diganosis in more detail and referred me to a perinatal specialist who also if needed offers late-term terminations due to medical diagnosis.

At this point I still could not bear tell Armani about the possible diagnosis. At this point it was all real to me. I wanted to shelter him from the pain.

I called the perinatal specialist who expressed her concern over a Dandy Walker diagnosis. She wanted to see me ASAP due to being almost 19 weeks along and the severity of the diagnosis. It was at this point that I knew the prognosis wasnt good, not good at all.

I called my fiance, G immediately after I hung up the phone. The guilt I felt was heavy. He was strong. He assured me we would get through this together. My sister’s comforting words rang true.

We held each other tightly that night. We cried together. In between we discussed our options.
          Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2017 PDF Book        

Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2017 Now fully updated and revised – the # 1 annual internal medicine and clinical practice guidelines to improve the patients in the latest study results Written by the honorable doctors in their respective fields, CMDT offers the most current insight into symptoms, signs, epidemiology, and treatment for more than 1,000 […]

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          Hearsay Exception #4 – Statements Made for the Purpose of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment        
The fourth hearsay exception found in Texas Rules of Evidence 803 pertains statements made for the purpose of receiving a medical diagnosis or treatment. In order to fall within this exception, the statement must describe: the declarant’s medical history, past or present symptoms, pain, sensations, or the inception or general character of the cause or […]
          Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Men/Overcoming Barriers To Get Men To Therapy        
cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-men-overcoming-barriers-to-get-men-to-therapyLife can sometimes be overwhelming. A medical diagnosis, family conflict, work stress, or feelings of anxiety or depression can cause you to struggle with daily activities. When this happens, the behavioral health specialists at Summit Medical Group Behavioral Health and Cognitive Therapy Center can provide the support you need for effective behavioral health management.

Depression is not a sign of emotional weakness or failing of masculinity. It is a treatable health condition that affects millions of men of all ages and backgrounds, as well as those who care about them—spouses, partners, friends, and family. Unfortunately, depression in men can often be overlooked as many of them find it difficult to talk about feelings.

Michael Likier, PhD, is here to to explain how men can benefit from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy just as much as women and how important it is to help get their depression and anxiety under control.
          When You Hear Hooves, Think Horse, Not Zebra        

A month or two ago I was having a discussion with a physician about obscure diseases — commonly referred to as zebras. While I was considering these zebras in the context of effective data mining strategies for medical diagnosis, he made an interesting point. One of the things that they teach new physicians is the phrase “When you hear hoofs, think horse, not zebra.” The principle is quite simple  — the odds are the patient has the more common diagnosis than a rare, improbable one. A simple but illustrative example would be the following (stolen from a physician family member):

 

An adolescent female patient presents with a three-week history of headache, fatigue, and intermittent fevers but was historically healthy. The physical exam was unremarkable and aside from the occasional fevers, the only symptom of note was that she was pale in color. The zebra could have been meningitis or a brain tumor — and the inexperienced practitioner would order thousands of dollars of tests and subject the patient to multiple procedures. But a routine blood count showed that she was simply anemic — the horse — and just needed extra iron. The rule: Think horse without ruling out zebras.

 

This principle of how we as humans tend to overcomplicate things resonates with me, but for a completely different sector which has featured prominently in the news of late — cybersecurity.

 

To consider this issue, let’s discuss three similar viruses of the computer variety, also known as computer worms.

 

Our first worm is called “Code Red”. This was a Windows virus that could execute arbitrary code once on the host’s system. In addition, the worm would infect a Windows web server and display the following message:

And of course the worm would look to spread and find other infectable hosts in unpatched machines. A patch for this vulnerability had been offered up a month before Code Red’s attacks, but few institutions installed it. This caused substantial headaches and embarrassment to IT departments in multiple sectors.

 

Our second worm is Nimda. Nimda could transfer itself to a computer five different ways, including email. It became one of the first worms to be able to execute its code even if the host did not open the infected email. Nimda halted Federal court workers from accessing court files electronically and the infected court documents had to be cleaned one by one. Nimda, like Code Red, exploited an already-patched Windows vulnerability. Yet, it caused significantly wider damage due to the multiple entry points and rapid spreading.

 

Our third worm is WannaCry. Just as with the last two worms, Microsoft had offered a patch that would have protected against the WannaCry threat. However, there is a bit of detail here that is relevant: a patch was not originally issued for the Windows XP operating system. There was some user frustration with this, but it should be noted that Windows XP was at “End of Support” for over three years at the time of this outbreak (more on this later). WannaCry encrypted files local to the machine and offered up the following message to users:

The user had the choice of paying the “ransom” or losing access to their files permanently. At the same time, the worm would continue to try and spread the infection to other machines that had the unpatched vulnerability. Fortunately, there was a “kill switch” which a smart malware researcher identified and activated and much of the worm’s potential was never realized.

 

As I was finishing this post, a new ransomware exploit called Petya began infecting systems across the globe. Per TechCrunch, “Everything about this situation indicates that plenty of governments and companies around the world didn’t take WannaCry seriously, failed to patch their systems and are now paying the price.”

 

As Brian Krebs said, “Organizations and individuals who have not yet applied the Windows update for the Eternal Blue exploit should patch now. However, there are indications that Petya may have other tricks up its sleeve to spread inside of large networks.” This suggests that Petya may simply be the opening salvo, all resulting from poor patching practices.

The common thread behind all of these exploits is that systems were not promptly patched and therefore were exposed to these worms. These were, in fact, preventable problems. But what makes this truly interesting is that the first worms were in 2001 and the last was in 2017. How is it that 16 years later, we are experiencing the same problem?

 

In the late 1990s and early 2000s as we were building OpenTable, we never considered issues of cybersecurity as we were so focused on hyperscaling the business and the known threats were minimal. However, suffering through Nimda and Code Red got me to wake up. I went to our Board of Directors at OpenTable and briefed them on the emerging threats in the cyber space and how our network could be vulnerable to it. It would directly impact the stability, scalability and integrity of our business and thus we should invest in making it more secure. I advocated for a security plan focused on doing the security basics well, and it was funded. While security remained an ongoing issue, and I’m sure it worries the OpenTable folks today, it became essentially a solved process and we were able to build on a stable foundation.

 

The core behind the foundational approach was simple. Patch your systems in a timely fashion, control what can be seen by the Internet and properly permission systems. A user should have the minimum permissions to accomplish what they need. This basic approach remarkably prevents an enormous amount of security exposure. This is the “horse” approach.

 

This sentiment was echoed in a recent O’Reilly Security podcast, Dave Lewis on the tenacity of solvable security problems”. Lewis, a global security advocate at Akamai, made the following point which clearly resonates:

 

“Twenty plus years ago when I started working in security, we had a defined set of things we had to deal with on a continuous basis. As our environments expand with things like cloud computing, we have taken that core set of worries and multiplied them plus, plus, plus. Things that we should have been doing well 20 years ago — like patching, asset management — have gotten far worse at this point. We have grown our security debt to unmanageable levels in a lot of cases. People who are responsible for patching end up passing that duty down to the next junior person in line as they move forward in their career. And that junior person in turn passes it on to whomever comes up behind them. So, patching tends to be something that is shunted to the wayside. As a result, the problem keeps growing.”

 

The moral of the story is that we need to return to the basics to stop this lack of progress in a critical area. When I was the Chief Information Officer (CIO) of the City of Chicago, I spent significant time and effort building out a cybersecurity program. Sadly, at all levels of government that is an area that remains understaffed, underthought and under-resourced. As we are innovating and moving to more digital systems, it is one of the most critical issues that government needs to reckon with.

 

Despite the obvious benefits of a horse approach to security, as CIO I was constantly barraged by vendors offering highly specialized systems for very specific use cases. I refused to make these types of zebra expenditures when I couldn’t even cover for the horse. So, we started a program focusing on the foundation, and building from there when practical.

 

Agencies need to consider these basic cyber hygiene steps as a foundation for making critical progress:

 

  1. Stay current on patching and make it a departmental/agency priority  — it is boring but it is effective.
  2. Properly permission systems with the minimum permissions necessary.
  3. For web traffic, always use SSL. https://https.cio.gov/
  4. The agency executive needs a senior cybersecurity resource who understands technology.

 

There is no excuse to allow history to repeat itself. The poor practices of ten years ago should not continue to torment organizations today, and the most effective way to prevent the cyber attacks of tomorrow is to bet on the horse.


                  
General Education Component

AREA: SCIENCE

FOCI: Biology and Genetics


KNOWLEDGE UPDATE


Science

· is a way of looking at the world around us
· is a way of trying to explain how the worlds operates
· careful observation of nature is one important aspect of science
· observation are made and then information is gathered and examined when research is carried out
· Experiment is an observation of some natural phenomenon that is carried out under controlled conditions so that it is possible to duplicate the results of the experiment and draw rational conclusion
· Science uses scientific method to grow. The phases of the scientific method are:
observation and description
searching for patterns and regularities
making generalizations and framing scientific laws
formulating hypothesis and theories
making predictions based on theories
testing predictions by experimentation

· scientists deal with variables – independent (factors in the experiment that can be changed), dependent(result or outcome), constant (not changed)
· science is either basic (seeks to find knowledge for the sake of knowing more about a particular type of matter) or applied (seek to find new knowledge for the purpose of solving a particular problem).
· Natural Sciences include physics, astronomy, geology, chemistry, biological sciences
· Technology puts both basic and applied sciences to work by producing material objects for use by people. Science is knowledge and technology is application of science in production of material objects
· the concern of science is the natural world, the natural phenomena that take place in planet earth
· planet earth is our home and its natural resources are finite
· All planets get energy from the sun. The earth is the only planet with living things, which inhabit water, land and air. Three-fourths of the earth’s surface is covered with water. The rest is the continent, which used to be one called pangea. Pangea was divided into plates. The plates moved gradually through several processes like continental drift, sea floor spreading, plate tectonics, etc. The plates float on the mantle. The mantle is a layer of hot, plastic-like rocks moving underneath the crust. There are mountains formed by pushing or faulting. Underneath the surface of the earth are subsurface activities like earthquake and volcanic activities. On the surface are external forces, which can topple lofty mountains.

· Each provides us with air to breathe, food to eat and water to drink. It gives us materials to build home and shelter, for clothes, and it provides us with many things that we need to enjoy. Every single one of us depends on the earth for life. We need space for home, to move around, to work, to farm, to establish factories, build road and for parks. Thus we, use lands, grow plants and herds of animals, cut down trees and other plants, dig coal, drill oils and mine rocks. All of these we get from Earth are called natural resources.

Ø The world’s population is expanding. By 2050, the population of the year 2000 will be doubled. Will there still food for everyone? Will the earth be still healthy and pleasant to live/Will there be clean water? Will there be enough fresh air?
Ø Life on earth is so complex. Man has tried to conquer the range of phenomena and explained the natural world. The tremendous development in science today is the sign of man’s attempt to conquer nature.

· Through its concerns, science has developed and progressed tremendously bringing forth the age of computers, which give us electronic cash registers, and array of video games. Government agencies and companies train commercial and military pilots on flight simulators, which create varying, weather conditions., flight tactics and detailed maps of airfield. Machine designers are computer graphics for drafting needs, and business makes financial prediction on the spot. Artist used computer and monitor instead of paintbrush and canvas.
· Medical diagnosis has advanced due to computer and technologies like MRI and CT scan to examine tumor, locate tumors, and take a look at blocked arteries with accuracy.
· Recombinant DNA or plasmid for biosynthesis of human insulin, vaccines, enzymes, etc.
· due to advances in recombinant DNA, plymerace chain reaction technique evolved to diagnose diseases more rapidly and accurately.
· Technologies which can be used to solve problems like murder, rape, paternity cases
· Early diagnosis of diseases phenylketunuria, Down’s syndrome, cancer
· Gene therapy gene-related diseases
· Agricultural biotechnology – vaccines, treatment of diseases, plants with built-in resistance to pesticides, drought, and salt, plants which produce their pesticides, plants which produce seeds and fruits with better nutritional properties
· Bioprocessing that bring plants engineered to produce products like human pharmaceuticals.
· Material science: liquid crystals, superconductors, ceramics, optic fibers, thin films, etc.

Ø Some technological ideas are outgrowth of scientific breakthroughs and some technology has developed independent of scientific knowledge by trail and error. Technology builds upon two existing-technology and science.
Ø What are some of the applications of Science today? You might have heard or artificial blood, bioremediation of wastes, materials science, etc. However, science brought forth bad effects. The first publicized incident due to carelessness or lack of knowledge is the famous Love Canal in Niagara Falls. Another one is the discovery of extremely high levels of dioxin in the solid of Times Beach, Missouri. This led to the relocation of 2000 people and purchase of the entire town of Times Beach by EPA. In December 1984, a liquid chemical called methyl isocyanate overheated in a storage tank at Union Carbibe Co. chemical plant in Bhopal, India. A poisonous gas entered the atmosphere and caused death of thousands Indian people who lived in the vicinity of the plant.
Ø The explosion and fire at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the former Soviet Union left a deadlt legacy. The accident was due to the cooling water that kept the uranium-containing fuel rods at a safe temperature in the fission reactor was accidentally cut-off. The fuel rod became very hot and water turned to steam and the chemical reaction occurred between the materials in the fuel rods and the graphite containing bricks that surrounded them. A mixture of explosive gases ignited, blowing off the building and igniting the graphite.

Ø The burning of oil wells and oil spills into the sea in the middle east during the Persian Gulf War brought havoc in the environment.
Ø In the Philippines, we are worried of Smokey mountains, the obnoxious atmosphere in Metropolis, the polluted bodies of water, open landfills, garbage in the metropolis, Ormoc City tragedy, 70% of Caraga region in February, 1999 was under water, Marcopper tragedy contaminant Boac river in Marinduque, cyanide fishing, Manila air is one of the world’s dirtiest air, landslide due to mining.

· Is there hope for these bad effects of technology. Of course!
· In 1971, some people started talking about sustainable development. One strategy is environmental education. Others are price tag of our natural resources, proper zoning, community participation, national park and other protected areas, proper harvest time of biodiversities, reforestation.
· In 1988, we signed with other countries the Montreal protocol
· In 1992 – the earth summit

I. Structural Levels of Organization
* Atom
* Element
* Simple molecules (H2O, CO2, O2, simple sugars, amino acids, fatty acids,
nucleotides)
* Organelle
* Cell
* Tissue
* Organ
* Organ System
* Organism
* Population
* Community
* Biosphere

II. Chemistry of the Cell

A. Inorganic Compounds

1. Water – most abundant substance of the living cell
universal solvent due to its polarity; ionic compounds or
electrolytes dissociate in water
high specific heat due to H-bonding, refers to the high heat energy
required to raise the temperature of a substance by a specific
amount
high latent heat of vaporization refers to high energy needed to
separate molecules from the liquid phase and move them into gas
phase
cohesion refers to mutual attraction between molecules
adhesion refers to the attraction of water to solid phase
high surface tension is a condition that exists at the air-water
interface wherein strong hydrogen bonding among water
molecules occur thereby minimizing surface area
2. Carbon Dioxide – principal raw materials for photosynthesis
3. Oxygen – requirement for cellular respiration

B. Organic Molecules

1. Carbohydrates – a.) monosaccharides – e.g. glucose, fructose, galactosen building units of carbohydrates
b. disaccharides – combination of two monosaccharides e.g. maltose, lactose and sucrose
c. polysaccharides – combination of several monosaccharides
e.g. starch and cellulose in plants, glycogen in animals
2. Lipids – fats and their derivatives – a fat molecule consists of three molecules of fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol
3. Proteins – Polymers of different types of amino acids
4. Nucleic acids – a.) Deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) – genetic materials replicating molecules b.) Ribose nucleic acid (RNA) – messenger RNA and ribosomal RNA

III. Cell Structure and Functions

1. Cell Wall – made up of cellulose indigestible; gives shape and support to the plant cells
2. Plasma membrane – continuous lipid bilayer intercalated with proteins, regulation of transport of substances in and out of the cell.
3. Cilia and flagella – locomotion and feeding
4. Ribosomes – protein synthesis
5. Endoplasmic reticulum – modification and transport of proteins and other secretory products
6. Mitochondria – cellular respiration
7. Golgi apparatus – secretion synthesis
8. Lysosomes – storage site of hydrolytic enzymes
9. Vacuoles – storage of water and food for excretion
10. Chloroplast – photosynthesis
11. Nuclear membrane – traffic control to and from cytoplasm
12. Nucleolus – production of ribosomes
13. Chromosomes – carrier of hereditary traits or genes

IV. Cell Physiology

1. Protein synthesis – a.) DNA replication – to form double –stranded chromosomes (i.e. two chromatids per chromosomes); b.) Transcription – genetic information in DNA becomes incorporated in the messenger RNA c.) Translation – the codon in the messenger RNA is used to determine the sequence of amino acids in protein
2. Photosynthesis – process in which light energy and chlorophyll are used to manufacture carbohydrates out of CO2 and water.. a.) Light Reaction – chlorophyll traps light energy; photolysis-splitting of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms, b.) Dark reaction – CO2 fixation into carbohydrates
3. Cellular Respiration – oxidation of organic compounds with the release of chemical energy; anaerobic and aerobic respiration
4. Cell reproduction – a.) mitosis – somatic cell division maintains the same number and kind of chromosomes as in the parent cell, diploid number of chromosomes; b.) meiosis – reproductive cell division in matured egg and sperm cells; reproduction in the number of chromosomes in the parent cell (haploid number)


V. Plant Tissues and Organ System

1. Meristematic tissue – a.) apical meristems – for the increase in the length of the plant body at the tips of the roots and stems; b.) lateral meristems – for the increase in the girth of the plant body
2. Simple permanent tissues – a.) epidermis – principal surface tissue of young and herbaceous roots and stems and flowers, b.) parenchymathin primary wall with large vacuoles; c.) collenchyma – primary walls with large vacuoles ; c.) collenchyma – primary walls irregularly thickened at the corners where the cells meet; d.) sclerenchyma – thick secondary walls and dead at maturity
3. Complex permanent tissue – a.) periderm – consists of cork, cork cambium and phelloderm, replaces the epidermis in mature woody roots and stems; b.) vascular tissues – 1.) Phloem – consists of parenchyma, sclerenchyma, sieve and companion cells; 2.) xylem – consists of parenchyma, sclerenchyma, tracheids and vessel elements

a. Bark consists of periderm and secondary phloem.
b. Wood consists of secondary xylem with annual rings
c. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Double fertilization – union of sperm and egg to form a diploid zygote that gives rise to the embryo, and the union of another sperm and the 2 polar nuclei forms the triploid endosperm.
d. Seed consists of seed coat, cotyledon, endosperm and embryo. Embryo consists of the plumule, hypocotyls and radicle.


VI. Animal Tissues and Organ Systems

1. Integumentary system – a.) epidermis – simple and stratified epithelial tissues; b.) dermis – sweat glands, oil glands, nerve, blood vessels, hair folliclen c.) subcutaneous tissue – adipose / fatty issues
2. Skeletal system – consists of bones that are hard due to solid matrix, which contains inorganic compounds such as calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate
3. Muscular system – a.) skeletal muscles – attached to the bones; voluntary; voluntary movement ; b.) smooth/visceral muscles-blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, gastrointestinal tracy; involuntary movement of vital fluid; c.) cardiac muscles – walls of the heart; pumping action to the heart.
4. Digestive system – mechanical and chemical digestion of food

a. Oral cavity – incisors, canines, premolars and molars; salivary glands secrete saliva with salivary amylase or ptyalin that converts starch to maltose.
b. Esophagus – peristaltic movement to push the bolus down
c. Stomach – gastric glands secrete gastric juice that contains pepsin, which digest protein to peptones and proteoses
d. Small intestines – intestinal glands secrete intestinal juice that contains the following digestive enzymes a.) erepsin digests petides to amino acid ; b.) maltase digest maltose to glucose; c.) lactase digest lactose to glucose and galactose; d.) sucrase digest sucrose to glucose and fructose.
e. Seed consists of seed coat, cotyledon, endosperm and embryo. Embryo consists of the plumule, hypocotyls and radicle.



VII. Animal Tissues and Organ Systems

1. Integumentary System – a.) epidemis – simple and stratified epithelial tissues; b.) dermis – sweat glands, oil glands, nerve, blood vessels, hair folliclen
2. Skeletal system – consists of bones that are hard due to solid matrix, which contains inorganic compounds such as calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate
3. Muscular system – a.) skeletal muscles – attached to the bones; voluntary movement; b.) smooth/visceral muscles – blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, gastrointestinal tract; involuntary movement of vital fluid; c.) cardiac muscles – walls of the heart, pumping action of the heart.
4. Digestive system – mechanical and chemical digestion of food
a. Oral cavity – incisors, canines, premolars and molars, salivary glands secrete saliva with salivary amylase or ptyalin that converts starch to maltose.
b. Esophagus – peristaltic movement to push the bolus down
c. Stomach – gastric glands, secrete gastric juice that contains pepsin, which digest protein to peptones and proteoses
d. Small intestines – intestinal glands secrete intestinal juice that contains the following digestive enzymes: a.) erepsin digests peptides to amino acid; b.) maltase digests maltose to glucose c.) lactase digests lactose to glucose and galactose; d.) sucrase digest sucrose to glucose and fructose
5. Circulatory and Lymphatic system – a.) blood – consists of plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes; b.) blood vessels – veins, venules, arteries, arterioles and blood capillaries; c.) heart-right atria and left ventricles, tricuspid and mitral valves, semilunar valves d.) lymph-“colorless blood” e.) lymphatic vessels – lymphatic capillaries and veins; f.) lymph ducts and lymph nodes
6. Respiratory system – a.) external respiration – exchange of gases between blood in the pulmonary capillaries and air in the alveoli; formation of oxygenated blood; b.) internal respiration – exchange of gases between the blood and the various tissue cells; formation of deoxygenated blood
7. Excretory system – a.) defecation – expulsion of feces; colon, rectum, anal canal and anus; b.) mictirition –urination; kidneys ureters, urinary bladder and urethra
8. Reproductive system – a.) spermatogenesis – development of mature spermatozoa from spermatogonia by mitosis, meiosis and differentiation; b.) oogenesis – development of mature ova from oogonia by mitosis and meiosis
9. Nervous system – nerves and neurons
a. Reflex arc – short circuit of nervous impulse from receptor cell to effector
b. Axon of one neuron synapses with the dendrites or cell body of other neurons
10. Endocrine system – endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete internally and convey hormones directly into the blood in the capillaries supplying the endocrine tissues
a. Pancreas
Glucagon – glucagons to glucose conversion
Insulin – glucose to glycogen conversion; diabetes mellitus and
Hypoglycemia
b. Thyroid
Thyroxin- stimulates respiration / metabolism; hyper- and hypothyroidism, goiter, cretinism; myxedema
c. Parathyroid
Parathormone – controls Ca metabolism; hyperthyroidism (fractured bones)
d. Adrenal cortex
Cortisone – controls metabolism of water, minerals and carbohydrates ; controls kidney functions; Addison’s Disease (fatigue, loss of weight and change of skin)
e. Adrenal medulla
Adrenaline, noradrenaline –“fight or flight” reaction
f. Anterior pituitary
TSH (Thyrotrophic) stimulates thyroid
ACTH (Adrenocorticotrophic) stimulates adrenal cortex
FSH (Follicle-stimulating) – stimulates ovarian follicle and spermatogenesis
LH (Luteinizing) – stimulates corpus luteum in female and secretion of testosterone in male
Prolactin – stimulates milk secretion
Somatotrophic – regulates growth of skeleton; dwarfism and gigantism
g. Posterior pituitary
Oxytocin – stimulates smooth muscles and contractoion of uterus
ADH (Antidiuretic)/vasopressin – water reabsorption by kidneys; Diabetes insipidus (ADH deficiency)
h. Testes
Testosterone – maintains male sex characteristics
i. Ovaries
Progesterone (corpus luteum) – maintains growth of the uterus
Estrogen – (ovarian follicle) maintains females characteristics


VIII. Biological Diversity

1. Monerans – bacteria, blue-green algae; no cytoplasmic streaming, no distinct nucleus; lack endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, golgi bodies; abundant ribosomes
2. Protists – algae and protozoans; definite nucleus, with all the cytoplasmic organelles
3. Plants
· bryophytes – mosses, liverworts and hornworts; adapted only to moist habitat; lack vascular tissues;
· Tracheophytes – vascular plants; gymnosperms and angiosperms

4. Animals
· Poriferans – body perforated with flagella-lined openings; soft body parts supported with skeleton made of calcareous and siliceous needles; scyphavenus’s flower basket sponges
· Coelenterates – mesoglea in between two layers; nematocysts on tentacles; polymorphism; hydra, sea anemones, corals and jellyfish
· Platyhelminthes – flatworm with bilateral symmetry and a mesoderm, no body cavity; free living and parasitic; planaria, fluke, tapeworm
· Aschelminthes – tubular digestive tractwith botyh mouth and anus; roundworms hookworms, ascaris
· Ennelids – body divided into metameres or segments with duplication of body parts in each segment; true coilom; well-developed circulatory system; earthworm, leech
· Arthropods – jointed appendages , segmented bodies (head, thorax/caphalothorax and abdomen), chitinous exoskeleton; ventral nerve cord and dorsal heart; spider, scorpion, ticks, mites, crustaceans, centipedes, millipedes and insects
· Molluscs – fleshy mantle that secretes the calcareous shell,ventral muscular foot, snails, slugs, bivalves, squid and octopus.
· Echinoderms – hard, calcareous spines that protrude through the skin, radial symmetry, water vascular system and tube feet; starfish, brittle star, sea urchin, sea cucumber
· Chordates – flexible, supporting notochord; dorsal tubular nerve cord; vertebrates: a.) cartilaginous fish – shark and ray; b.) bony fish; c.) amphibians – larvae are aquatic and lungs present in adult; frogs, toads, salamanders; d.) reptiles – body covered by scales or bony plates; snake, lizard, turtle; e.) aves – body with feathers and front appendages modified into wings; birds; f.) mammals – mammary glands; body with hair, viviparous reproduction; highly developed cerebrum; koala, elephant, bat, rat, cow, rabbit, man.
5. Fungi – network of hyphae called mycelium; “colorless protests” nonphotosynthetic; molds, mushroom
6. Virus – composed of inner nucleic acid core (DNA or RNA) and an outer protein coat; parasitic


IX. Genetics and Evolution

1. Chromosomes a.) autosomes – somatic chromosomes b.) sex chromosomes in man, there are 22 pairs of autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes (22 and X chromosomes in egg, 22 and X or Y in sperm)
2. Sex chromosomes aberration – non-disjunction of the producing egg or sperm cell that may contain both XXX or XY and the other half none.
3. Point or gene mutation may involve change in a single or few nucleotide bases or may involve gross modifications of chromosomal structure or number as in chromosomal aberrations brought a brought by chemical pollution, ionizing radiation, drug abuse, radioactive waste, etc.
4. Mendelian Genetic a.) law of segregation – separation of the pair of genes (alleles) during gametogenesis, b.) law of independent assortment – the distribution of genes in the resulting gametes is at random.
5. Non-mendelian Genetics – a.) Incomplete dominance – phenotype of heterozygote is intermediate between phenotypes of the two homozygotest a cross between red and white flower produced pink flowers b.) Codominance – phenotype of the hybrid is a mixture of red and white haired cattle produced a roan hybrid with a mixture of red and white c.) multiple alleles – any 3 or more genes occupy the same iocus in a given pair of chromosomes e.g. 3 alleles of blood type – A,B and O d.) sex-linked genes or x-linked genes – genes exclusively in X chromosomes; e.g. hemophilia; c.) Lolandric or Y-linked genes-genes occurring in Y chromosomes produce effects only in males e.g. hypertrichosis (hair arising from ear); f.) sex-influence genes – genes in which the expression or dominance depends on the sex of the bearer. E,g. pattern baldness in males
6. If two individuals of opposite sex are able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring then they belong to the same species.
7. Speciation is the formation of new species and the development of species diversity occurs when gene flow within the common pool is interrupted by isolating mechanisms. When isolation occurs through geographic separation of populations descended from a common ancestor, allopathic speciation may result. When isolation occurs through ecological or genetic means within the same area, sympatric speciation is a possibility.



          Female Genital Warts        

Female Genital Warts - Pregnancy And Genital Warts

One of the beliefs associated with the condition is that in case of women, they are probably linked to pregnancy. So genital warts and pregnancy - is there a connection? Let's investigate. Pregnant women, infected with HPV and suffering from genital warts, almost always run a high risk of transmitting this extremely contagious disease to the child. It is therefore highly advisable to treat the genital warts before the baby is delivered. Presence of genital warts during pregnancy sometimes leads to a number of problems.

The warts, during such times, often increase in size and make urinating difficult and even painful. Blame it on hormonal changes during pregnancy that cause genital warts to multiply in number, enlarge and even bleed.Genital warts and other types caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), are surprisingly common among men and women. But the reasons behind their attacks are still open to some degree of speculation. In such cases, it is advisable to seek the help of a health care provider who can provide relief.

An abnormal Pap test may indicate the presence of HPV. To begin with, genital warts and pregnancy is not a happy mix.So if there has been a test recently, seek expert medical diagnosis and advice. Genital warts and pregnancy pose other risks as well. This is because the body's immune system gets weaker during an HPV infection and this makes the lady vulnerable to viruses and infections. If the warts are inside the vaginal passage, they reduce the elasticity of the vagina and cause obstruction. This makes delivery difficult.

It is a comforting thought that pregnant women carrying an HPV infection usually do not give it to their babies. However, in some rare cases, mothers infected with genital warts may give birth to infants who develop warts in their throats, a condition also known as laryngeal papillomatosis. Although very rare, it poses a great life-threat to the newborn, requiring immediate medical attention and frequent laser surgeries to prevent blockage of the breathing passages.

According to modern research, the use of interferon therapy along with laser surgery often slows down the course of the disease. Finding a treatment that works is what you need to think about doing because everyone is different in how they treat their warts. For all the (disagreeable) reasons above, it is strongly advised to abstain from sex with a partner who has HPV.

The infection spreads primarily through contact. If however abstinence is difficult, be choosy about the partner and stick to the dedicated partner. This minimizes the chances of contracting the disease and safeguards the pregnant mother as well. Remember, although condoms offer a modest degree of protection against the infection, but they are not foolproof.

Pregnancy or no-pregnancy, genital warts are a nasty condition to have. Don't do anything that might spread the infection or delay the process of cure. Do seek medical help as soon as possible. And pregnant mothers of course need to be more alert. After all, you owe it to your unborn child.

          Heartburn        

Heartburn is the common classical symptom of the disorder gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Heartburn is experienced as a gripping, substernal (below the breastbone) discomfort that may be made worse by lying, eating or bending. In some cases heartburn may be confused with cardiac chest pain but the former is relieved by antacids whilst pain associated with ischaemic heart disease is relieved by nitrate sprays.

Heartburn is extremely common in the Australian population and is most cases can be easily managed with simple lifestyle changes and over-the-counter antacid medications. However, if the pain is persistent you may require further investigations as severe disease can progress to adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. This is a type of cancer that develops in a very small number of patients.

Heartburn is the hallmark symptom of gastro-oesphageal reflux disease (GORD) and a common complaint amongst the general population. Heartburn is described as an intermittent retrosternal (behind the breastbone) burning discomfort that is exacerbated by eating, lying down, bending, stooping or straining. The pain is typically central but it may spread across the chest and into the neck and may be mistaken for the pain associated with ischaemic heart disease.

Virtually everyone will experience some mild heartburn at some time during their lives whilst up to 20% of the population will experience it weekly and 40% on a monthly basis. Doctors are faced with the challenge of deciding who needs further investigation for this extremely common complaint to identify those patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux that may progress to oesophagitis (erosion and destruction of the lining of the oesophagus), cellular morphological changes (called Barrett's oesophagus) and occasionally adenocarcinoma.

HeartburnAs forementioned, heartburn is commonly caused by gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. In this disorder the sphincter mechanism at the lower end of the oesophagus (the tube from the back of your throat to your stomach) is faulty. This means that when food enters the stomach, the gap between the oesophagus and stomach doesn't close properly and food can move backwards (reflux) into the oesophagus. This causes damage to the oesophagus and pain because the lining of the oesophagus is not designed to withstand the acidic environment of the stomach. In addition, the muscular walls are thought to spasm when food is refluxed further contributing to pain.

There are a number of conditions that can predispose to dysfunction of the lower oesophageal sphincter or make heartburn symptoms worse. These include:

Hiatus hernia- In this condition the top part of the stomach pushes up through a defect in the diaphragm (a muscular structure dividing the chest from the abdomen). This causes weakening of the sphincter and upsets the stomach's closure mechanisms. Food is more likely to propel back from the stomach to the oesophagus. Obesity. Pregnancy- Presumably predisposes to reflux due to increased abdominal pressure and loosening of ligaments and muscles (including those of the sphincter mechanism in the diaphragm) in the body in preparation for childbirth. Smoking and alcohol consumption. Medications- Certain medications used to treat blood pressure problems, depression or asthma have been associated with heartburn symptoms. If you suspect one of your medications is causing heartburn do not hesitate to consult your doctor.

In many cases the doctor can make the diagnosis of your condition from history of your symptoms alone. They will ask you detailed questions about the location of the pain and whether it spreads anywhere. The timing of the pain in relationship to meals, effects of posture and duration of the pain is also important information. Your doctor will also ask questions about your diet, smoking, alcohol and current medications. You will also be questioned about other symptoms such as blood or black material in your vomit or stools. In particular, weight loss and difficulty swallowing are important symptoms as they may suggest a serious problem.

Not all patients will have the classic symptoms of heartburn and sometimes your symptoms may seem more like a respiratory problem such as a cough or wheeze at night. Along with chest discomfort you may also have other symptoms of oesophageal dysfunction including:

Difficulty swallowing. Painful swallowing due to damage to the lining of the oesophagus. Acid regurgitation. Excessive salivation.


Unfortunately the severity of your symptoms does not correspond well with the severity of the damage to your oesophagus. This is a problem if patients have mild symptoms but there is extensive damage that may progress to more sinister conditions.

In many cases no further investigation is required, particularly if you are young with longstanding classic symptoms of heartburn. However, if you are older or you doctor is concerned they may order further tests to confirm the diagnosis of reflux and grade the severity.

These tests may include:

Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy (tissue sampling)- This lets the doctor visualise damaged areas. Tissue samples can help exclude early precancerous changes. Barium studies- This may detect a hiatus hernia. Manometry- A tube is inserted down the nose to measure the pressures generated by the lower oesophageal sphincter. Oesophageal pH monitoring- This is done over a 24 hour period with a special device positioned in the lower oesophagus. The device can detect reflux episodes by the degree of acidity.

HeartburnIn most cases the main aim of treatment will be to relieve your symptoms. However in some cases the doctor may be more concerned that the oesophagus is completely healed, particularly if you have severe disease or are at risk of complications. In these cases follow-up endoscopies and biopsies may be needed. At least half of patients will respond to lifestyle changes and simple antacid medications.


Lifestyle changes

Lose weight if overweight. Raise the head of the bed- Placing blocks or bricks securely under the legs of the head of the bed can reduce the risk of stomach contents flowing back up into the oesophagus. Eat small, regular meals and avoid intake of food or beverages within three hours of bedtime. Avoid lying, bending or exercising just after eating. Avoid drugs such as NSAIDs that damage the oesophageal mucosa and drugs that impair oesophageal motility (nitrites, anticholinergics, certain antidepressants etc.). ask your doctor for advice regarding your current medications. Avoid smoking and alcohol. Avoid foods that are known to exacerbate your symptoms such as spicy foods, tomatoes, citris fruits and peppermint. Reduce stress.


Medications

HeartburnIf the above measures don't work you can try medications such as:

Antacids: For example Mylanta can neutralise stomach acid and is available at chemists and supermarkets. They can however alter bowel motions and cause fluid retention. Alginates: These are also over-the-counter drugs and work by forming a gel or 'foam raft' on top of the stomach contents to provide a physical barrier to reflux. If the above two types of drugs do not relieve symptoms within four weeks it is best to see a doctor who may arrange an endoscopy investigation (tube with a camera down the throat to have a look). Acid suppression therapy: Your doctor can prescribe two classes of drugs called H2-receptor antagonist or Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) which markedly reduce acid production. The latter is the best treatment for severe disease and can be used long-term to prevent recurrence. Your doctor may also try agents that speed up the stomach's emptying activity to reduce reflux.


Surgery

In a small number of patients surgery is indicated. This is only suitable if you have very severe symptoms of heartburn and the condition is confirmed by radiology or pH-monitoring. Surgery is normally done laparoscopically (key-hole surgery) and aims to fix defects in the diaphragm and sphincter mechanism. This may be considered a favourable option for young patients who would require long-term maintenance therapy.

Acid reflux and heartburn
For more information on acid reflux and heartburn and related investigations, treatments and supportive care, see Acid Reflux and Heartburn. de Caestecker J. ABC of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Oesophagus: Heartburn. BMJ. 2001;323(7315):736-9. [Abstract | Full text]Cohen S, Parkman HP. Heartburn: A serious symptom. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(11):878-9. [Abstract]Kumar P, Clark M (eds). Clinical Medicine (5th edition). Edinburgh: WB Saunders Company; 2002. [Publisher] Longmore M, Wilkinson I, Rajagopalan S. Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine (6th edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004. [Publisher] Longstreth GF. Heartburn [online]. Bethesday, MD: MedlinePlus; 2005. Available from: URL link Talley N, Moore M, Sprogis A, Katelaris P. Randomised controlled trial of pantoprazole versus ranitidine for the treatment of uninvestigated heartburn in primary care. Med J Aust. 2002;177(8):423-7. [Abstract | Full text] Product Information: Somac Heartburn Relief Tablets. North Ryde, NSW: Nycomed Pty Ltd; 31 July 2008.Fox M. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Clinical review. BMJ. 2006; 332: 88-93. [Abstract | Full text]
Duggan AE. The management of upper gastrointestinal symptoms- is endoscopy indicated? Med J Aust. 2007; 186(4): 166-7. [Full Text]Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (15th edition). New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing; 2001. [Publisher]Tierney LM, McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA (eds). Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment (45th edition). New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006. [Publisher]DeVault KR, Castell DO. Updated guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005; 100(1): 190-200. [Abstract]Murtagh J. General Practice (3rd edition). Sydney: McGraw-Hill; 2003. [Publisher]
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          Update: MYidealDOCTOR (Medical)        

MYidealDOCTOR 2.3.0


Device: iOS Universal
Category: Medical
Price: Free, Version: 2.2.2 -> 2.3.0 (iTunes)

Description:

Limited release for current members only.

Now you can schedule an appointment, see a doctor online, get prescriptions* if needed for episodic care all on MYidealDOCTOR mobile app.

Walk through our triage process and quickly have an appointment scheduled for you. Our doctors will be able to help you with many of your medical needs.

No more waiting in a crowded waiting room with other sick people, MYidealDOCTOR brings convenience and accessibility to the healthcare world. Our physician response times is usually less than 20 minutes. Whether you are at the office, with a sick child, in the middle of the night, or while traveling, getting the medical care you need doesn't always fit your schedule. That is where MYidealDOCTOR Telehealth services come in.

Our national network of physicians are ready to assist you by phone or video 24/7 with a medical diagnosis via your Apple MYidealDOCTOR App.

Healthcare has never been easier. MYidealDOCTOR brings affordability and convenience by providing on demand access to physicians who can consult, diagnose, and prescribe medications if needed. Our physicians can diagnose your symptoms, prescribe medication*, and send the medication to your pharmacy of choice.

When to use MYidealDOCTOR?
- During or after normal business hours, nights, weekends and even holidays
- Instead of going to the ER or urgent care for a non-emergent issue
- If your primary physician is not available
- If you are traveling and in need of medical care

What we commonly treat:
Allergies
Bronchitis
Cold and Flu
Ear Infection
Fever
Headache
Insect Bites
Joint Aches
Nausea
Rashes
Sinus Infection
Sore Throat
UTI
and many more!!!!!

Our national network of physicians include Emergency Medicine, Family Practice, Pediatrics and Internal Medicine. Our physicians are ready to take your call and committed to providing quality and convenient healthcare.

Can I use it for my children?

Yes. Our physicians see children who are at least 2 years of age and older. A parent or guardian must be on the call during interactions with minors.

*Prescription Policy: Prescriptions are issued only when clinically appropriate for the symptoms described. No DEA controlled, mood altering drugs, lifestyle drugs or those that may have the potential for abuse or harm will be prescribed. The availability of some prescriptions may be restricted by law in some states. Prescriptions are written subject to the physician discretion.

MYidealDOCTOR reserves the right to deny service.

This is for limited release and only for consults in Georgia and Florida for current members.

MYidealDOCTOR is currently not available in Louisiana and Arkansas because of state regulations regarding telemedicine and prescribing.

MYidealDOCTOR Telehealth - 24/7 Access to Doctors

What's New

- UI enhancements

MYidealDOCTOR


          Got Balls to Bones Gratitude?        
Gratitude is one of those spiritual concepts that we talk about a lot but don’t always put into practice in our lives. I’m not saying that we don’t have gratitude – certainly we express in conversation how happy we are about this or that, or that we are grateful for the way something turned out, a good medical diagnosis, or a fabulous date.
          Medical diagnosis: Whistler Rectangular Sticker        

          Medical diagnosis: Fiddler Rectangular Sticker        

          Medical diagnosis: Flute player Rectangular Sticker        

          Medical diagnosis: Highland piper Rectangular Sticker        

          Medical diagnosis: Uilleann piper Rectangular Sticker        

          Medical diagnosis: bodhran player rectangular sticker        

          Medical diagnosis: bouzouki player rectangular sticker        

          Medical diagnosis:concertina player rectangular sticker        

          Medical diagnosis:harp player rectangular sticker        

          Medical diagnosis:guitar player rectangular sticker        

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          Medical diagnosis: box player rectangular sticker        

          Personal Injury Tips and Things to Do        

What Should I Do if I Need to File a Personal Injury Claim?

Accidents can happen at anytime, but handling the legal aspects of a personal injury claim can be challenging.  Personal injury claims can involve many different types of injuries, including automobile accidents, slip and fall accidents, or defective products.
Fortunately, there are several steps you can take after a personal injury to prepare you for filing a claim or a lawsuit.  Here’s a list of the top ten tips for personal injury claims:
1) Seek out medical attention immediately
If you have been seriously injured, the first thing you should do is to get medical attention.  Do not attempt to handle any claims before you have properly addressed your injuries with a medical professional.
You should be aware that failing to seek medical attention after an accident can sometimes reduce the amount of damages you are able to recover.  As the injured party, you may have a duty to “mitigate your losses.”  This means that you must take steps to ensure that the injury does not cause any further injuries or economic losses.
2) File a Police Report
Filing a police report can help ensure that you have records of important information.  This may include the names and contact information of other parties that were involved.  Also, the report itself can serve as a record of the important facts involved in the accident.  The police report can be used in court if a lawsuit arises.
3) Be aware of what you say at the scene of the accident
While it is necessary to communicate with the other party after an accident, exercise discretion when speaking with other parties.  You are under no duty to state whose fault the injury was or to offer additional information.  Avoid making statements that might make the situation more complicated, and avoid creating conflicts in relation to the event.
4) Keep accurate records of all costs and expenses related to the injury
These may include hospital bills, medical diagnosis statements, bills related to property damage, and insurance records.  You may also need to maintain records of lost wages if the injury has caused you miss work.  It’s also a good idea to make a written account of the injury, especially while the events and facts are still fresh in your recollection.
5) Be cautious when dealing with insurance companies
Involving insurance companies can sometimes make the legal process more complicated in a personal injury claim.  However, in most cases, working with an insurance company will be necessary to completing your personal injury claim or lawsuit.  Be sure to protect your interests when negotiating with an insurance company.  It may be helpful to have a lawyer on hand for advice when dealing with third parties.
6) DO NOT sign any forms or documents without understanding them
Make sure you completely understand the terms of any forms and documents to be filled out in relation to the personal injury.  Do not sign any forms if you are not sure of how they will affect you in the long run.  This includes any forms that may be presented to you well after the actual event.  Be especially wary of any documents or contracts that ask you to release the other party from liability, or that require you to forfeit your right to a lawsuit.
7) Avoid trying to settle on your own if you don’t understand what to do
Trying to settle on your own with the other party or with their insurance company can sometimes be a complicated process.  If you are unsure of what you are doing, it is best to find some help through the advice of a legal expert.  This is especially important if the other party will be hiring a lawyer.  Working with your own lawyer can help you avoid costly mistakes that can have negative effects on your claim.
8) Be aware of filing deadlines
Make sure that you file your legal claim or lawsuit in a timely manner.  For most personal injury claims, you only have a certain window of time after the accident to file with the courts.  This is known as the “statute of limitations,” which can vary depending on the state and the type of accident involved.  Once the statute of limitations has expired, you might not be able to file your claim anymore.
9) Do some preliminary research on the legal process
It may be worth your while to familiarize yourself with the basics of personal injury lawsuits in your area.  Local rules may vary, and personal injury claims can take some time to fully resolve.  While you are not expected to become an expert, speaking with a lawyer for some basic guidelines can help take some of the confusion out of the process.
10) Be aware of what type of lawyer you will need to hire
Remember, not all personal injury lawyers are the same.  Some specialize in certain fields, while others handle more general claims.  There are many different types of personal injury lawyers, and one may be more suitable for your situation than another.
 

The post Personal Injury Tips and Things to Do appeared first on .


          You choose: RIGHT diagnosis or BETTER diagnosis?        
Thought Experiment #7: What if you were a patient and you had a choice of medical diagnosis–an RD or a BD–which one would you choose? (When an RD is a RIGHT diagnosis and a BD is a BETTER diagnosis.) DFQ Make your choice between RD or BD and say why you made your choice?
          Most Popular Recipes of 2015        


2015 has been a beautiful, challenging year. More than any other year I feel like I have grown up in 2015.  

While I did recently celebrate a birthday that is getting pretty close to 30, it was some difficult experiences that really made me feel my age this year: navigating through challenging family circumstances, watching a close friend experience a scary medical diagnosis, supporting another friend through a life-altering break-up, talking through BIG life decisions with Adam, and thinking hard about what really matters and the kind of life that I want to live. It's been, in a word, heavy. 

But there has been lightness and fun, too. There were weekend trips to Charleston and Asheville, and the grand adventure of living in D.C. for the summer.  I ran in two races, had dinner parties with friends, celebrated 10 years with my favorite person, and walked behind a waterfall in the North Carolina mountains. 

And, of course, I cooked and ate and shared lots of good food. Here are the 12 most popular recipes on the blog from 2015.

Thank you  for reading!








































          Towards 3D facial morphometry: facial image analysis applications in anesthesiology and 3D spectral nonrigid registration        
In anesthesiology, the detection and anticipation of difficult tracheal intubation is crucial for patient safety. When undergoing general anesthesia, a patient who is unexpectedly difficult to intubate risks potential life-threatening complications with poor clinical outcomes, ranging from severe harm to brain damage or death. Conversely, in cases of suspected difficulty, specific equipment and personnel will be called upon to increase safety and the chances of successful intubation. Research in anesthesiology has associated a certain number of morphological features of the face and neck with higher risk of difficult intubation. Detecting and analyzing these and other potential features, thus allowing the prediction of difficulty of tracheal intubation in a robust, objective, and automatic way, may therefore improve the patients'€™ safety. In this thesis, we first present a method to automatically classify images of the mouth cavity according to the visibility of certain oropharyngeal structures. This method is then integrated into a novel and completely automatic method, based on frontal and profile images of the patient'€™s face, to predict the difficulty of intubation. We also provide a new database of three dimensional (3D) facial scans and present the initial steps towards a complete 3D model of the face suitable for facial morphometry applications, which include difficult tracheal intubation prediction. In order to develop and test our proposed method, we collected a large database of multimodal recordings of over 2700 patients undergoing general anesthesia. In the first part of this thesis, using two dimensional (2D) facial image analysis methods, we automatically extract morphological and appearance-based features from these images. These are used to train a classifier, which learns to discriminate between patients as being easy or difficult to intubate. We validate our approach on two different scenarios, one of them being close to a real-world clinical scenario, using 966 patients, and demonstrate that the proposed method achieves performance comparable to medical diagnosis-based predictions by experienced anesthesiologists. In the second part of this thesis, we focus on the development of a new 3D statistical model of the face to overcome some of the limitations of 2D methods. We first present EPFL3DFace, a new database of 3D facial expression scans, containing 120 subjects, performing 35 different facial expressions. Then, we develop a nonrigid alignment method to register the scans and allow for statistical analysis. Our proposed method is based on spectral geometry processing and makes use of an implicit representation of the scans in order to be robust to noise or holes in the surfaces. It presents the significant advantage of reducing the number of free parameters to optimize for in the alignment process by two orders of magnitude. We apply our proposed method on the data collected and discuss qualitative results. At its current level of performance, our fully automatic method to predict difficult intubation already has the potential to reduce the cost, and increase the availability of such predictions, by not relying on qualified anesthesiologists with years of medical training. Further data collection, in order to increase the number of patients who are difficult to intubate, as well as extracting morphological features from a 3D representation of the face are key elements to further improve the performance.
          Ceguera        

Ceguera

1.1Definición de la enfermedad

Es la falta o pérdida de la visión normal que no se puede corregir con gafas o lentes de contacto. La ceguera puede ser parcial, con pérdida de solamente una parte de la visión o también total, en cuyo caso la persona no tiene ninguna percepción de la luz. Las personas con una visión inferior a 20/200 o un campo visual de menos de 20 grados en el mejor ojo se consideran ciegos en términos legales en la mayoría de los estados de los Estados Unidos.

1.2Factores de riesgo

A nivel mundial, las causas más significativas de ceguera son las cataratas, la oncocercosis ("ceguera del río"), tracoma, lepra y deficiencia de vitamina A.

Otras causas pueden ser:

La diabetes es la primera causa de ceguera en mexicanos de entre 25 y 74 años de edad, y se calcula que en México existen 10 millones de diabéticos, de los cuales, más de la mitad no saben que la tienen y apenas un 20% están controlándola.

"La prevalecía de la retinopatía se incrementa significativamente después de 5 a 8 años de diagnosticada. Los diabéticos tipo 1, o insulinodependientes, diagnosticados antes de los 30 años de edad, usualmente desarrollan retinopatía 5 años después, y el 50% desarrollará retinopatía proliferativa a los 20 años de hecho el diagnóstico", Se espera que el número de personas con diabetes en las Américas alcance las 65 millones en el año 2025.

Actualmente, la diabetes afecta entre un 10% y un 15% de la población adulta de América Latina y el Caribe. La diabetes está relacionada con un alto riesgo de mortalidad prematura. Además la diabetes aumenta la morbilidad por complicaciones crónicas que afectan a la retina, a los riñones y el sistema nervioso.

Otro de los factores que influye notablemente a incrementar el riesgo de contraer diabetes en la actualidad es la mala alimentación de la población situándose en cifras alarmantes que van hasta un 60% de la población en América Latina  .

Las principales causas de ceguera evitable y discapacidad visual son la catarata, el tracoma, la onchocerciasis, ciertas afecciones de los niños, entre ellas la avitaminosis A y la retinopatía del prematuro, así como la falta de gafas e instrumentos de ayuda para la baja visión.

1.3 Huésped

En cuanto al huésped, aproximadamente el 50% de los ciegos del mundo padece cataratas. El resto son ciegos por problemas como glaucoma, retinosis pigmentaria, tracoma, onchocerciasis (conocida como ceguera del río) así como diferentes estados de ceguera infantil.

En cuanto al núcleo genético de la ceguera pueden entrar enfermedades como la diabetes, la retinitis pigmentaria. La edad en la que se presenta ceguera va a depender del tipo de patología que lo provoque, hay un tipo de ceguera la infantil que es a causa de la deficiencia de Vitamina A, sarampión, conjuntivitis en los recién nacidos, cataratas congénitas y retinopatía prematura. Esta última es un problema establecido en los países en vías de desarrollo por la siempre creciente tendencia de aumento de los niños con bajo peso al nacer. Por la misma razón, es también un problema emergente en los países económicamente desarrollados, sobre todo en las áreas urbanas.

La ceguera infantil es considerada como un área prioritaria por la cantidad de años de ceguera que produce. Se estima que hay 1,5 millón de niños ciegos en el mundo, de los cuales un millón vive en Asia y 300 mil en África, y que cada año, medio millón de niños se vuelven ciegos, de los cuales el 60% muere durante la niñez. La ceguera no respeta sexo se presenta de igual manera en los dos.

El estrato socio económico se inclina como en todos los casos a la gente de escasos recursos y con malos hábitos de higiene.

1.4 Medio Ambiente

El medio ambiente se divide en físico, biológico y social y cada uno altera a cada tipo de enfermedades que provocan ceguera se citan los siguientes ejemplos.

El medio ambiente social en este tipo de enfermedad es de mucha importancia por ejemplo; en el ambiente social los problemas que se pueden presentar son que las personas están mal informadas viven en ignorancia por lo tanto es muy difícil que ellos sepan lo que  es atención oftalmológica o tal ves no saben lo fácil que es perder la visión, por ejemplo por el glaucoma, y es así como influye la sociedad sobre esta enfermedad. Las edades donde se presenta esta enfermedad es de 35 en adelante, ya sea por glaucoma o por retinopatía diabética.

Como centro de este ambiente se localiza la persona afectada pues de ella depende su bienestar físico y mental, ya que esta enfermedad es capas de producir depresión e incluso suicidios en ciertos grupos poblacionales como aquellos que no cuentan con el apoyo de su familia. Como se menciona en el párrafo anterior la familia es primordial en si hay aceptación o no tanto del paciente como de esta.

En cuanto a los accidentes laborales que ocasionen ceguera en primer lugar están los traumatismos, de ahí continúan los empleos en los que se trabaja con químicos corrosivos, como es el caso de laboratoristas, e ingenieros, por lo tanto estas personas siempre deben de proteger sus ojos y  si es posible conseguir pólizas de seguros que cubran los mesioinados órganos.

 

En nuestra población la mayoría de los accidentes ocurrieron entre los 30 y 45 años, ya que entre esas edades se encuentra el mayor número de los trabajadores. Todos estos accidentes son totalmente prevenibles si se con las normas de seguridad establecida, sin embargo los trabajadores, por olvido o por incomodidad no se protegen por lo es la población laboral en riesgo de sufrir estos accidentes.

 En el medio ambiente físico se han hecho estudios estadísticos que revelaron mayor incidencia en poblaciones que están mas expuestas a radiación solar, ya que los rayos UV afecta la visión provocando glaucoma. Y en lugares con poca radiación solar se presentaron menos casos.

Estudios han demostrado que existe alta incidencia de ceguera en zonas bajas con presencia de ríos contaminados lo que nos lleva a pensar que los niveles de contaminación acuífera son factores determinantes para esta enfermedad- oncocercosis

Medio ambiente biológico  influye en la ceguera, por que existe una enfermedad parasitaria que puede producir ceguera Onchocerciasis o enfermedad del rIo.

Es endémica en 30 países de África, aunque también se dio una reducida cantidad de casos en América Latina y Yemen. Actualmente, se estima que 18 millones de personas están infectadas, de las cuales 0,3 millones ya han perdido la vista. Se espera que para el año 2020 esté bajo control, si los esfuerzos que se llevan a cabo en los países endémicos resultan exitosos. El reciente descubrimiento del tratamiento con dosis anuales de ivermectin puede llegar a eliminar la enfermedad.

En América Latina, el Programa de Eliminación de la onchocerciasis utiliza exitosamente el tratamiento con ivermectin, y las ONGs están trabajando conjuntamente con los programas internacionales de control de esta enfermedad.
De igual manera como se ha mensionado la deficiencia de vitamina A en la alimentación, puede ocasionar disminución y perdida de la vista los alimentos en los que se encuentra son:

     Cereales: germen de trigo, maíz (300), trigo, harina integra
     (160), y en menor cantidad la harina blanca.

     Frutas: orejones, albaricoques, caqui, melón                

     melocotón, ciruela seca y la mandarina.

Verduras: diente de león, zanahoria, perejil, acelga, espinaca, endibia, calabaza, pimientos y tomate.

Ceguera infantil

Es causada principalmente por deficiencia de Vitamina A, sarampión, conjuntivitis en los recién nacidos, cataratas congénitas y retinopatía prematura. Esta última es un problema establecido en los países en vías de desarrollo por la siempre creciente tendencia de aumento de los niños con bajo peso al nacer. Por la misma razón, es también un problema emergente en los países económicamente desarrollados, sobre todo en las áreas urbanas.

La ceguera infantil es considerada como un área prioritaria por la cantidad de años de ceguera que produce. Se estima que hay 1,5 millón de niños ciegos en el mundo, de los cuales un millón vive en Asia y 300 mil en África, y que cada año, medio millón de niños se vuelven ciegos, de los cuales el 60% muere durante la niñez.

1.5 Los métodos de diagnostico oportunos

Uno de los primeros métodos de diagnostico es la medición de la tonometria, campo visual y curva tonometrica, para detectar el glaucoma en etapas primarias.

En todos los pacientes diabéticos, realizar constantemente examen de fondo de ojo, para detectar la presencia de Retinopatía Diabética a la cual se le clasificado de la siguiente manera,
I. Retinopatía diabética no proliferativa (RDNP)

-    RDNP leve: por lo menos un microaneurisma.
-    RDNP moderada: exudados blandos, o arrosariamiento venoso, o anomalías microvasculares intraretinianas.

-    RDNP severa: las alteraciones anteriores presentes en gran cantidad y en más de la mitad del fondo ocular.


II. Retinopatía diabética proliferativa (RDP).

-    RDP incipiente: neovascularizaciones en una área menor que un cuarto de diámetro de disco óptico.
-    RDP con factores de riesgo para pérdida visual severa: neovascularizaciones mayores, o hemorragia vítrea, o pre-retiniana.

 

De acuerdo a las estimaciones de los especialistas, alrededor del 80% de los casos de ceguera son evitables si se tomaran las medidas preventivas, se realizaran las intervenciones quirúrgicas a tiempo y se aplicaran los tratamientos para recuperar la vista. La ceguera tiene implicaciones en el desarrollo de una nación en términos psicológicos, sociales, económicos y de calidad de vida, de ahí su importancia para la salud pública. Con el fin de realizar un esfuerzo mundial concertado, la Organización Mundial de la Salud, el Organismo Internacional de Prevención de la Ceguera.

 Está iniciativa persigue el ambicioso objetivo de eliminar la ceguera evitable como un problema de salud pública para el año 2020.

En la actualidad, se gastan en todo el mundo 80 millones de dólares anuales para prevenir la ceguera.

1.6Medidas Epidemiológicas

LA CEGUERA, UN PROBLEMA DE SALUD PÚBLICA

Se calcula que existen 180 millones de personas en el mundo que tienen problemas de visión: entre 40 y 45 millones son ciegos y, por definición, no pueden “caminar sin ayuda” y necesitan con frecuencia una red de contención social.

La pérdida de visión causa enormes sufrimientos humanos para el individuo afectado y para su familia. Asimismo representa un problema de salud pública, económico y social en especial en los países en vías de desarrollo donde viven nueve de cada diez ciegos del mundo. En efecto, alrededor del 60% reside en África Sub-sahariana, China e India.

Aproximadamente el 50% de los ciegos del mundo padece cataratas. El resto son ciegos por problemas como glaucoma, retinosis pigmentaria, tracoma, onchocerciasis (conocida como ceguera del río) así como diferentes estados de ceguera infantil.

El 9 de octubre se celebró el Día Mundial de la Vista y en esa ocasión Visión 2020: el derecho a ver, una iniciativa conjunta de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y el Organismo Internacional de Prevención de la Ceguera, presentó un conjunto de instrumentos para gobiernos y profesionales de la salud, destinados a facilitar la elaboración de planes nacionales de prevención de la ceguera. En ese sentido, la OMS señala que se podrían evitar o curar un 80% de las discapacidades visuales.

Los especialistas advierten además que si no se destinan recursos adicionales y no se ponen en marcha programas específicos, hacia 2020 la incidencia global de la ceguera puede duplicarse y los países en vía de desarrollo soportarán este duro embate. Sin embargo si se ponen en práctica las propuestas de Visión 2020: el derecho a ver, se calcula que reducirá el predominio de la ceguera mundial de 44 millones en 2000 a 24 millones en 2020, a pesar del crecimiento de la población mundial.

Las últimas investigaciones indican que el número de personas que padecen ceguera evitable va en aumento. Los costos que suponen la educación, la rehabilitación y la pérdida de productividad por causa de la ceguera tienen importantes repercusiones en las personas, las familias, las comunidades y las naciones, en particular en las zonas más pobres del mundo.

Las principales causas de ceguera evitable y discapacidad visual son la catarata, el tracoma, la onchocerciasis, ciertas afecciones de los niños, entre ellas la avitaminosis A y la retinopatía del prematuro, así como la falta de gafas e instrumentos de ayuda para la baja visión. En esta edición del Boletín de Temas de Salud, reseñamos las propuestas más importantes de esta iniciativa, que se estima que destinará sus acciones durante los próximos cinco años a millones de personas pobres del mundo, especialmente a los niños que son un grupo muy vulnerable: se calcula que existe un millón y medio en todo el mundo y que cada año medio millón de niños se vuelven ciegos, y el 60% muere durante la niñez.

1.7 Estrategias para prevenir la enfermedad  

Todas las personas mayores de 40 años de edad deben acudir a un oftalmólogo para que el mismo tome una medición de la presión intraocular, con seguimiento de 2 a 5 años. En personas con diabetes, y en personas que tengan antecedentes heredofamiares de glaucoma, estas evaluaciones se deben hacer cada año.

 

 

 

2. Fisiopatología de la enfermedad

 

La fisiopatología de la ceguera depende de que enfermedad la cause, que ya se han mencionado anteriormente. Diabetes, ococercosis, ctaratas y cglaucoma.

 

2.2 Signos y Síntomas

 

El paciente comenta en el interrogatorio que no puede ver bien o que no ve en absoluto, también puede referir que tiene un exceso de lagrimas, diplopía, sincope o mareos, por lo general el paciente llegara muy angustiado, diciendo que no puede ver.

 

2.4 Diagnostico Clínico

 

El diagnostico se puede hacer mediante un examen de agudeza visual si este es menor de 20/20, no se mejora con técnicas de refracción, el problema debe investigarse a fondo y con un especialista

 

2.5 Tratamiento Actual

Uno de los más grandes sueños de muchas personas con ceguera y sus familias puede ser que algún día haya una cura en el tratamiento de la ceguera que pueda restaurar la visión de aquellos que la han perdido y/o que retrasen cualquier pérdida potencial de la visión. Vivimos en una era notable y es muy probable que en la vida de muchos este sueño pueda transformarse en realidad para muchas personas, especialmente aquellas cuya pérdida de visión es causada por ciertas enfermedades o síndromes. La mayoría de los esfuerzos de investigación aún están en sus etapas iniciales usando modelos de animales; algunas están comenzando ensayos en humanos muy limitados. Sin duda, algunas demostrarán tener éxito y algunas no, pero es interesante saber más sobre lo que se está haciendo. Este trabajo generalmente se puede dividir en cuatro categorías:

  • Genética y Terapia de Genes

  • Implantes y Trasplantes Retinales

  • Terapia Farmacéutica

  • Terapia Nutricional

 

 

2.6 Rehabilitación del paciente

 Rehabilitación

En el año 1969, Asac funda su Centro de Rehabilitación para Discapacitados Visuales, desarrollando programas de rehabilitación diseñados especialmente para ciegos y disminuidos visuales, mediante un proceso individual, a cargo de profesionales y técnicos capacitados que realizan sus funciones con idoneidad y compromiso.
Si bien toda persona discapacitada visual puede requerir tratamiento de rehabilitación como tal, su edad, características psicofísicas y su situación económico-social serán factores esenciales para la determinación del tratamiento a suministrar.

 

 

 

ORIENTACIÓN Y MOVILIDAD
Brinda la posibilidad de aprender, mediante técnicas sencillas pero precisas, un desplazamiento activo logrando independencia dentro del entorno geográfico. Se utiliza, en caso de haberlo, el remanente visual y respetando las características individuales.
Se incorpora en el aprendizaje la utilización del bastón, como elemento que anticipa el entorno, y para la exploración y detección de superficies, objetos y obstáculos.

PSIQUIATRÍA – PSICOLOGÍA
El Departamento de Psiquiatría y Psicología realiza las entrevistas del paciente y su grupo familiar, con fines diagnósticos y pronósticos.
Se detectan entonces, quienes ante la situación de la crisis ocasionada por la pérdida visual, necesitan del apoyo terapéutico para lograr la rehabilitación adecuadamente.
Dicha tarea se lleva a cabo mediante terapias individuales, grupales y familiares, en función de cada necesidad en particular

SERVICIO SOCIAL
El departamento de Servicio Social detecta la problemática social que afecta al paciente, estableciendo canales adecuados de comunicación en todo el proceso de rehabilitación.
Establece los objetivos del tratamiento social, determina prioridades y alternativas, en especial sobre la base de los aspectos positivos (actuales y potenciales) del paciente, de su grupo familiar y de la comunidad, teniendo como meta final la salida laboral.

TERAPIA FÍSICA
Mediante la Terapia Física se contempla la posibilidad de capacitación plena, de acuerdo con el remanente de capacidad individual de cada paciente, instrumentando sesiones de trabajo en Gimnasia, Atletismo, Deportes y Natación, agentes que van a ser utilizados como refuerzo de la vida cotidiana, acrecentando la motricidad general en un ambiente de esparcimiento y libertad.

TERAPIA OCUPACIONAL Y ACTIVIDADES DE LA VIDA DIARIA
Terapéutica orientada a obtener el uso eficiente, cuando existe, del remanente visual y de los sentidos restantes, preparando al paciente para el aprendizaje del Sistema Braille independizándolo en sus actividades de la vida diaria y entrenándolo para lograr una verdadera integración comunitaria.

TECNICAS DE COMUNICACIÓN
En el Departamento de Comunicación, el ciego aprende las técnicas adecuadas que le permitirán comunicarse con el mundo. Se enseña lecto-escritura Braille, Dactilografía, Estenografía y Mecanografía también en Sistema Braille, así como el manejo del ábaco, de gran utilidad para resolver operaciones matemáticas.
Todo esto se complementa , según las posibilidades de la persona con el uso de las herramientas informáticas
Estos aprendizajes posibilitan el desarrollo de otras actividades.
El tratamiento es un proceso funcional acotado en el tiempo, que tiene en cuenta la capacidad de evolución de la persona discapacitada visual y sus necesidades personales.
La rehabilitación es un proceso que exige comprensión y compromiso.
En las últimas etapas del tratamiento se trabaja básicamente en la orientación posterior, que podrá dirigirse hacia la formación laboral y/o reubicación laboral, inserción o continuación de estudios, Talleres y Centro de Día para las personas con patologías asociadas o condiciones socio-económicas problemáticas.

 

 

 

 

Bibliografía

*www.articulosmedicos.com

*Enfermedades parasitarias ( Fransico biagi)

*Medicina Interna (Harrison)

*2007 Current Medical Diagnosis an Treatment (Stephen J. Mcphee)

*Síntomas y Signos cardinales de la enfermedad (Horacio Jinich)

*www.prodigyweb.net.mx/avfenix/estado_que_guarda_la_ceguera_y_baja_vision.htm

*www.oftalmologia.org.mx

*www.pfizer.com.mx/glaucoma

*www.gobernacion.gob.mx

 

 

 

 

 

 




 

 

 


          Special Topics in Special Education - ASD: Foundations & Charcs        

This course focuses on providing an understanding of autism including the co-morbid conditions associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the differences between a medical diagnosis of autism and the definition of the term autism under state and federal special education laws. The course will address knowledge of the unique characteristics of autism as related to communication, social/emotional development, behavior, sensory processing, cognition, and learning.

Prerequisite(s): Graduate Degree Student in Special Ed

Campus: 
Boston
Format: 
Online
Level: 
Graduate
Subject: 
Special Education
Number: 
SPEG697-01C
Semester: 
Fall 2017
Registration Status: 
Open
Registration: 
Monday, July 24, 2017 to Friday, September 15, 2017

          Dementia Advice To Help Save You Money        
Regular readers of our blog will know that we have been working at Marks and Spencer's to raise money for Approach the local charity that helps those who are affected by Dementia or Alzheimer's.  

Keith the MD, has found out some very useful information, in a chance conversation, which isn't very widely known, for those who may have a family member suffering with either of these.  

Quite a few of us have had family members or have known someone who has signs of a condition like those just mentioned.  It can be quite a burden to help continue to care for them in their own home, when there is a risk, however small, of them not being able to look after themselves.


Castle Comfort Staff - Keith (photographer), Ann Bruce and Dr.Neil Stirling visiting the Carers Cafe in Silverdale
With a simple process, not advertised by the local councils, there is a way to possibly have your council tax bill reduced or even completely eliminated!


Image:Flickr-ImagesofMoney

Council Tax Exemptions or Reductions

For those With Alzheimer's or Dementia 


If a relative of yours has had a diagnosis of Dementia or Alzheimer's, which can be classed as a severe mental impairment that makes them unable to look after themselves independently 
with out assistance then they may well be able to get a full exemption if they live alone.  

All that is required is that the local council will require a confirmation of diagnosis with the form and it is straightforward to apply.  

It is worth applying also if a family member is a carer as they would get a discount too. 

If the person with such a diagnosis lives in your home with you, and there are just two of you in the house, then you can apply for a 25% discount on the council tax bill.  See this page on the citizens advice website for more information.

Here's the steps to follow for Newcastle under Lyme Council

1)Click Here to download this form (Claim Form for Council Tax)

2)Print it out and complete it with confirmation of the diagnosis (which doesn't have to be from the person's own GP, it can be another suitably qualified individual, consultant or medical professional.) 

3)Post to:
Revenues and Benefits
Civic Offices
Merrial Street
Newcastle-under-Lyme
Staffordshire
ST5 2AG

If you are a carer for the person you can make a separate claim with this form and follow the same procedure, and post to the same address. Help with the form is available on 01782 715500 or by emailing counciltax@newcastle-staffs.gov.uk 


Here's the steps to follow for Stoke on Trent City Council

1) Download this form that needs to be signed by a medical professional confirming diagnosis.

2) Once completed by the doctor it needs to be scanned into your computer before it is uploaded when you complete the online application form.

3) Go to this page to complete the online application form.

There is advice and assistance on 01782 234234 or you can go online and use this initial enquiry form here.


Here's the steps to follow for Staffordshire Moorlands Council

Unfortunately there isn't a detailed form for completion directly on the Local Council website, though all local authorities follow roughly the same procedure, requiring a medical diagnosis for exemption, however you can enquire online about it, giving your council tax reference number, so at least the process can be started. There is an enquiry form here.

There is also a phone number to call if you want to speak directly to someone in the Council Tax section - 0345 605 3011

More money off!

As well as the council tax reductions mentioned above, there are also cases which a lot of our customers have had success with, where a reduction is made for someone who lives there with a physical disability. This discount is called the "Disabled Reduction."

The only criteria to meet are just one of the following, i.e. you don't need to meet all these criteria, just one. 

  • A room, other than a bathroom, kitchen or lavatory, which is used mainly by the disabled person and is required for meeting their needs.
  • Or an additional bathroom or kitchen which is required to meet their needs.
  • Or enough space for the use of a wheelchair where one needs to be used inside the dwelling.

Once the form is completed your home would be banded at the next rung down in terms of council tax due. For example if you lived in a band D property you would only have to pay the band C rate for it.  So, downstairs wet-rooms or doorway alterations would count as an adaptation, or if you have a main living room or study which is set up to primarily meet just the disabled persons particular physical needs.

So if you have been thinking about an additional bathroom adaptation at home for a physical disability then the money you save could help you afford to go ahead with your plans.

If you want to save more money on helping you to live independently we also stock reconditioned riser recliner chairs to help you to stand and sit more easily.

And finally, for a last money saving method we can put you in touch with grant awarding charities and schemes that can help with the purchase of chairs or stairlifts. Just call us on 0800 007 5060 today to find out if you could qualify.


          StoryCorps: George Scott        
http://stream.publicbroadcasting.net/production/mp3/wwno/local-wwno-940762.mp3 In this April 2010 conversation with friend Paula Devlin, George Scott recalls coming to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, and why he decided to relocate. And despite a serious medical diagnosis, hes decided that New Orleans is where hell remain. ALSO: In this extended conversation, George Scotts talks about art, a constant in his life since childhood. It was travel that opened his eyes to even more inspiration for his art, and expanded his working life to include community activism. He moved to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, where he met his friend Paula Devlin. In this segment of the April conversation, Scott talks about his lifes work, how hes coping with a serious medical condition he discovered since relocating to New Orleans, and what he sees as his legacy. StoryCorps New Orleans interviews were recorded by StoryCorps , a national project to record and collect stories of everyday people. This
          * Notes On The Troubleshooting And Repair Of Television Sets        
************************************************************************ * Notes On The Troubleshooting And Repair Of Television Sets * * * * **** Version 2.65 **** * * * * Copyright (C) 1994,1995,1996,1997,1998 * * Samuel M. Goldwasser * * Corrections or suggestions to: sam@stdavids.picker.com * * * * --- All Rights Reserved --- * * * * Reproduction of this document in whole or in part is permitted * * if both of the following conditions are satisfied: * * * * 1. This notice is included in its entirety at the beginning. * * 2. There is no charge except to cover the costs of copying. * * * ************************************************************************ **************** Introduction **************** Television at the crossroads:---------------------------- Television in substantially its present form has been with us for nearly50 years. It is a tribute to the National Television Standards Committee(NTSC) that the color television standards agreed upon in the early 1950shave performed remarkably well making quite efficient use of valuable radiospectrum space and the psychovisual characteristics of the human eye-brainsystem. However, HDTV (High Definition TV) will supplant and ultimatelyreplace the current standards. We will all come to expect its superiorresolution, freedom from noise and ghosting, and pure CD sound. Yet, theperceived quality of TV broadcasts and cable will never likely be the majorissue with most consumers. Content will continue to be the biggest problem. It is likely that in roughly 15 years, HDTV - digitally processed andtransmitted as 1s and 0s - will completely replace the current system.Acceptance in the marketplace is by no means assured but with the mergingof TV and computers - with the Internet as a driving force - it would seemthat the days of the stand-alone analog TV set are numbered. Television receiver fundamentals:-------------------------------- The basic color television receiver must perform the same functions today as40 years ago. (Since B/W is a subset of the color standard, most referencesin this document will be for color except as noted). A studio video monitor includes all of the functions of a television receiver except the tunerand IF (which rarely fail except for bad connections or perhaps lightningstrikes to the antenna or cable connection). Therefore mostof the repair information in this document is applicable to both TVs andstudio monitors. Modern computer monitors share many similarities withTVs but the multisync and high scan rate deflection circuitry and moresophisticated power supplies complicates their servicing. As of this writing, all but the smallest TVs are based on the CathodeRay Tube (CRT) as the display device. Tiny pocket sets, camcorderviewfinders, and the like have started using LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)panels but these are still inferior to the CRT for real time video.There has always been talk of 'the picture on the wall' display. Whilewe are closer than ever to this possibility, I believe that mass productionof an affordable wall mural TV screen is still decades away. The reasonis simple economics - it is really hard to beat the simplicity of theshadow mask CRT. For example, a decent quality active matrix color LCDpanel may add $1000 to the cost of a notebook computer compared to $200for a VGA monitor. More of these panels go in the dumpster than make itto product do to manufacturing imperfections. Projection - large screen - TVs may, on the other hand, be able to takeadvantage of a novel development in integrated micromachining - theTexas Instruments Inc. Digital Micromirror Device (DMD). This is basicallyan integrated circuit with a tiltable micromirror for each pixel fabricatedon top of a static memory - RAM - cell. This technology wouldpermit nearly any size projection display to be produced and wouldtherefore be applicable to HDTV. Since it is a reflective device, thelight source can be as bright as needed. However, this is still nota commercial product but stay tuned. TV repair:--------- Unlike VCRs or CD players where any disasters are likely to only affectyour pocketbook, TVs can be dangerous. Read, understand, and follow theset of safety guidelines provided later in this section whenever workingon TVs, monitors, or other similar high voltage equipment. If you do go inside, beware: line voltage (on large caps) and high voltage(on CRT) for long after the plug is pulled. There is the added danger ofCRT implosion for carelessly dropped tools and often sharp sheetmetalshields which can injure if you should have a reflex reaction upon touchingsomething you should not touch. In inside of a TV or monitor is no placefor the careless or naive. Having said that, a basic knowledge of how a TV set works and what cango wrong can be of great value even if you do not attempt the repair yourself. It will enable you to intelligently deal with the service technician. Youwill be more likely to be able to recognize if you are being taken for a rideby a dishonest or just plain incompetent repair center. For example, afaulty picture tube CANNOT be the cause of a color television only displayingshows in black-and-white. The majority of consumers probably do not know eventhis simple fact. Such a problem is usually due to a bad capacitor or other10 cent part. This document will provide you with the knowledge to deal with a largepercentage of the problems you are likely to encounter with your TVs.It will enable you to diagnose problems and in many cases, correct themas well. With minor exceptions, specific manufacturers and modelswill not be covered as there are so many variations that such a treatment wouldrequire a huge and very detailed text. Rather, the most common problemswill be addressed and enough basic principles of operation will be providedto enable you to narrow the problem down and likely determine a course ofaction for repair. In many cases, you will be able to do what is requiredfor a fraction of the cost that would be charged by a repair center. Should you still not be able to find a solution, you will have learned a greatdeal and be able to ask appropriate questions and supply relevant informationif you decide to post to sci.electronics.repair. It will also be easier to dofurther research using a repair text such as the ones listed at the end ofthis document. In any case, you will have the satisfaction of knowing youdid as much as you could before taking it in for professional repair.With your new-found knowledge, you will have the upper hand and will noteasily be snowed by a dishonest or incompetent technician. Repair or replace:----------------- If you need to send or take the TV to a service center, the repaircould easily exceed half the cost of a new TV. Service centersmay charge up to $50 or more for providing an initial estimate of repaircosts but this will usually be credited toward the total cost of the repair(of course, they may just jack this up to compensate for their bench time). TV prices have been dropping almost as fast as PC prices. Therefore, payingsuch prices for repair just may not make sense. Except for picture tubeproblems, most TV faults can be corrected without expensive parts, however.Keeping a 5 year old TV alive may be well worthwhile as basic TV performanceand important features have not changed in a long time. If you can do the repairs yourself, the equation changes dramatically asyour parts costs will be 1/2 to 1/4 of what a professional will chargeand of course your time is free. The educational aspects may also beappealing. You will learn a lot in the process. Thus, it may make senseto repair that old clunker for your game room or beach house. (I wouldsuggest the kid's room but most TV watching just rots the brain anyhow soa broken TV may be more worthwhile educationally than one that works.) ******************* TV Receivers 101 ******************* Subsystems of a television set:------------------------------ A TV set includes the following functional blocks: 1. Low voltage power supply (some may also be part of (2)). Most of the lower voltages used in the TV may be derived from the horizontal deflection circuits. Sometimes, there is a separate switching power supply but this would be the exception. Rectifier/filter capacitor/regulator from AC line provides the B+ to the switching power supply or horizontal deflection system. Degauss operates off of the line whenever power is turned on (after having been off for a few minutes) to demagnetize the CRT. 2. Horizontal deflection. These circuits provide the waveforms needed to sweep the electron beam in the CRT across and back some 15,734 times per second (for NTSC). The horizontal sync pulse from the sync separator locks the horizontal deflection to the video signal. 3. Vertical deflection. These circuits provide the waveforms needed to sweep the electron beam in the CRT from top to bottom and back 60 times per second (for NTSC). The vertical sync pulse from the sync separator locks the vertical deflection to the video signal. 4. CRT high voltage (also part of (2)). A modern color CRT requires up to 30 KV for a crisp bright picture. Rather than having a totally separate power supply, nearly every TV on the planet derives the HV (as well as many other voltages) from the horizontal deflection using a special transformer called a 'flyback' or 'Line OutPut Transformer (LOPT) for those of you on the other side of the lake. 5. Tuner, IF, AGC, video and audio demodulators. Input is the antenna or cable signal and output are baseband video and audio signals. There is usually someplace inside the TV where line level video and audio are present but it may not be accessible from the outside of the cabinet unless you paid for the more expensive model with the A/V option. Very often, the tuner is a shielded metal box positioned on the bottom right (as viewed from the front) separate from the main circuit board. Sometimes it is on the main circuit board. The IF section may be in either place. On older or cheap TVs with a knob tuner, this is usually mounted to the front panel by itself. There are usually separate boxes for the VHF and UHF tuners. 6. Chroma demodulator. Input is the baseband video signal. Outputs are the individual signals for the red, green, and blue video to the CRT. 7. Video drivers (RGB). These are almost always located on a little circuit board plugged directly onto the neck of the CRT. They boost the output of the chroma demodulator to the hundred volts or so needed to drive the cathodes of the CRT. 8. Sync separator. Input is baseband video. Output is horizontal and vertical sync pulses to control the deflection circuits. 9. Audio amplifier/output. The line level audio is amplified to drive a set of speakers. If this is a stereo TV, then these circuits must also perform the stereo demultiplexing. 10. System control. Most modern TVs actually use a microcontroller - a fixed program microcomputer to perform all user interface and control functions from the front panel and remote control. These are becoming increasingly sophisticated. However, they do not fail often. Older TVs use a bunch of knobs and switches and these are prone to wear and dirt. Most problems occur in the horizontal deflection and power supply sections.These run at relatively high power levels and some components run hot.The high voltage section is prone to breakdown and arcing as a resultof hairline cracks, humidity, dirt, etc. The tuner components are usually quite reliable unless the antenna experiencesa lightning strike. However, it seems that even after 20+ years ofsolid state TVs, manufacturers still cannot reliably solder the tunerconnectors and shields so that bad solder connections in these areas arecommon even in new sets. Why projection TVs are not just normal TVs in big boxes:------------------------------------------------------- In order to achieve the necessary brightness with a large display format,three separate monochrome CRTs are used with optics to combine the three imagesproperly at the screen. This creates an entire set of additional problems indesign. (From: Jeroen H. Stessen (Jeroen.Stessen@ehv.ce.philips.com)). The average projection TV has about twice as many parts as its direct-viewcounterpart. Some of the extra parts are essential for projection because CRTprojection tubes require dynamic convergence. The other extra parts have to dowith the fact that a more expensive TV also should have some extra features,like Dolby ProLogic sound, a satellite tuner and such. Generally, the electronics are based on a standard chassis that is also usedfor direct-view CRT television. Even the deflection circuits require minoradaptations at most. The high-voltage circuit is different because the EHT,focus and G2 voltages must be distributed over 3 CRTs. So this requires aspecial high-voltage part, which also includes an EHT capacitor and bleeder. There will be 3 CRT panels with video amplifiers. Because of the extremelyhigh brightness, projection tubes will burn the phosphor screen immediately infault conditions so a protection circuit is essential. And last but certainly not least, there is the dynamic convergence panel. Theheart is a waveform generator IC, often of a Japanese brand but nowadaysthere's also a digital variant by Philips. The old-fashioned way requires manymany potentiometers to program the waveforms. Then there's 5 or 6 convergenceamplifiers and a corresponding extra power supply. And usually this is wherethe single deflection circuits are distributed to the 3 CRTs. At the sametime the deflection currents are sensed for the protection circuits. Designing a PTV from a DVTV requires several man-years of work. In thefactory, a special corner is devoted to the assembly. There you'll findspecially educated people and the speed of the assembly line is a lot lowerthan usual. It requires many more adjustments, e.g. 3 optical and 3 electricalfocus adjustments and then convergence. For more information on TV technology:------------------------------------- The books listed in the section: "Suggested references" include additionalinformation on the theory and implementation of the technology of televisionstandards and TV receivers. For an on line introduction to TV and monitor technology, check out thePhilips/Magnavox Electronics Reference WEB site. There you will findlinks to a number of articles on the basic principles of operation of CDplayers, laserdisc and optical drives, TVs, VCRs, camcorders, loudspeakers,satellite receivers, and other consumer A/V equipment. The Video Handbookalso includes descriptions of video signals and common video connectors. On-line tech-tips databases:--------------------------- A number of organizations have compiled databases covering thousands of commonproblems with VCRs, TVs, computer monitors, and other electronics equipment.Most charge for their information but a few, accessible via the Internet, areeither free or have a very minimal monthly or per-case fee. In other cases, alimited but still useful subset of the for-fee database is freely available. A tech-tips database is a collection of problems and solutions accumulated bythe organization providing the information or other sources based on actualrepair experiences and case histories. Since the identical failures oftenoccur at some point in a large percentage of a given model or product line,checking out a tech-tips database may quickly identify your problem andsolution. In that case, you can greatly simplify your troubleshooting or at leastconfirm a diagnosis before ordering parts. My only reservation with respectto tech-tips databases in general - this has nothing to do with any one inparticular - is that symptoms can sometimes be deceiving and a solution thatworks in one instance may not apply to your specific problem. Therefore,an understanding of the hows and whys of the equipment along with some goodold fashioned testing is highly desirable to minimize the risk of replacingparts that turn out not to be bad. The other disadvantage - at least from one point of view - is that you do notlearn much by just following a procedure developed by others. There is noexplanation of how the original diagnosis was determined or what may havecaused the failure in the first place. Nor is there likely to be any listof other components that may have been affected by overstress and may failin the future. Replacing Q701 and C725 may get your equipment going againbut this will not help you to repair a different model in the future. Having said that, here are three tech-tips sites for computer monitors, TVs,and VCRs: * http://www.anatekcorp.com/techforum.htm (currently free).* http://www.repairworld.com/ ($8/month).* http://elmswood.guernsey.net/ (Free, very limited).* http://ramiga.rnet.cgl.com/electronics/info.html (free large text files). This one has quite a bit of info for just TVs (at present): * http://home.inreach.com/ba501/Tech_Tip_Page.htm These types of sites seem to come and go so it is worth checking them out fromtime-to-time even if you don't have a pressing need. If possible, downloadand archive any useful information for use on a rainy day in the future. **************** CRT Basics **************** Note: Most of the information on TV and monitor CRT construction, operation,interference and other problems. has been moved to the document: "TV andMonitor CRT (Picture Tube) Information". The following is just a briefintroduction with instructions on degaussing. Color CRTs - shadow masks and aperture grills:--------------------------------------------- All color CRTs utilize a shadow mask or aperture grill a fraction of aninch (1/2" typical) behind the phosphor screen to direct the electron beams for the red, green, and blue video signals to the proper phosphor dots.Since the electron beams for the R, G, and B phosphors originate fromslightly different positions (individual electron guns for each)and thus arrive at slightly different angles, only the proper phosphorsare excited when the purity is properly adjusted and the necessarymagnetic field free region is maintained inside the CRT. Note thatpurity determines that the correct video signal excites theproper color while convergence determines the geometricalignment of the 3 colors. Both are affected by magnetic fields.Bad purity results in mottled or incorrect colors. Bad convergenceresults in color fringing at edges of characters or graphics. The shadow mask consists of a thin steel or InVar (a ferrous alloy)with a fine array of holes - one for each trio of phosphordots - positioned about 1/2 inch behind the surface of the phosphorscreen. With most CRTs, the phosphors are arranged in triangularformations called triads with each of the color dots at the apexof the triangle. With many TVs and some monitors, they arearranged as vertical slots with the phosphors for the 3 colorsnext to one another. An aperture grille, used exclusively in Sony Trinitrons (and nowtheir clones as well), replaces the shadow mask with an array of finelytensioned vertical wires. Along with other characteristics of theaperture grille approach, this permits a somewhat higher possiblebrightness to be achieved and is more immune to other problems likeline induced moire and purity changes due to local heating causingdistortion of the shadow mask. However, there are some disadvantages of the aperture grille design: * weight - a heavy support structure must be provided for the tensioned wires (like a piano frame). * price (proportional to weight). * always a cylindrical screen (this may be considered an advantage depending on your preference. * visible stabilizing wires which may be objectionable or unacceptable for certain applications. Apparently, there is no known way around the need to keep the finewires from vibrating or changing position due to mechanical shockin high resolution tubes and thus all Trinitron monitors require1, 2, or 3 stabilizing wires (depending on tube size) across the screen which can be see as very fine lines on bright images. Somepeople find these wires to be objectionable and for some criticalapplications, they may be unacceptable (e.g., medical diagnosis). Degaussing (demagnetizing) a CRT:-------------------------------- Degaussing may be required if there are color purity problems with thedisplay. On rare occasions, there may be geometric distortion causedby magnetic fields as well without color problems. The CRT can getmagnetized: * if the TV or monitor is moved or even just rotated. * if there has been a lightning strike nearby. A friend of mine had a lightning strike near his house which produced all of the effects of the EMP from a nuclear bomb. * If a permanent magnet was brought near the screen (e.g., kid's magnet or megawatt stereo speakers). * If some piece of electrical or electronic equipment with unshielded magnetic fields is in the vicinity of the TV or monitor. Degaussing should be the first thing attempted whenever colorpurity problems are detected. As noted below, first try theinternal degauss circuits of the TV or monitor by power cycling a fewtimes (on for a minute, off for 30 minutes, on for a minute, etc.)If this does not help or does not completely cure the problem,then you can try manually degaussing. Commercial CRT Degaussers are available from parts distributorslike MCM Electronics and consist of a hundred or so turns of magnet wirein a 6-12 inch coil. They include a line cord and momentary switch. You flip on the switch, and bring the coil to within several inches of the screen face. Then you slowly draw the center of the coil toward one edge of the screen and trace the perimeter of the screen face. Then return to the original position of the coil being flat against the center of the screen. Next, slowly decrease the field to zero by backing straight up across the room as you hold the coil. When you are farther than 5 feet away you can release the line switch. The key word here is ** slow **. Go too fast and you will freeze theinstantaneous intensity of the 50/60 Hz AC magnetic field variationinto the ferrous components of the CRT and may make the problem worse. It looks really cool to do this while the CRT is powered. The kids willlove the color effects. Bulk tape erasers, tape head degaussers, open frame transformers, and the"ass-end" of a weller soldering gun can be used as CRT demagnetizers butit just takes a little longer. (Be careful not to scratch the screenface with anything sharp.) It is imperative to have the CRT running whenusing these whimpier approaches, so that you can see where there are still impurities. Never release the power switch until you're 4 or 5 feet away from the screen or you'll have to start over. I've never known of anything being damaged by excess manual degaussingthough I would recommend keeping really powerful bulk tape erasers turneddegaussers a couple of inches from the CRT. If an AC degaussing coil or substitute is unavailable, I have even donedegaussed with a permanent magnet but this is not recommended since it is morelikely to make the problem worse than better. However, if the displayis unusable as is, then using a small magnet can do no harm. (Don't usea 20 pound speaker or magnetron magnet as you may rip the shadow mask rightout of the CRT - well at least distort it beyond repair. What I have inmind is something about as powerful as a refrigerator magnet.) Keep degaussing fields away from magnetic media. It is a good idea toavoid degaussing in a room with floppies or back-up tapes. When removingmedia from a room remember to check desk drawers and manuals for strayfloppies, too. It is unlikely that you could actually affect magnetic media but bettersafe than sorry. Of the devices mentioned above, only a bulk eraser orstrong permanent magnet are likely to have any effect - and then only whenat extremely close range (direct contact with media container). All color CRTs include a built-in degaussing coil wrapped around the perimeter of the CRT face. These are activated each time the CRT is powered up cold by a 3 terminal thermister device or other controlcircuitry. This is why it is often suggested that color purity problemsmay go away "in a few days". It isn't a matter of time; it's the numberof cold power ups that causes it. It takes about 15 minutes of the powerbeing off for each cool down cycle. These built-in coils with thermalcontrol are never as effective as external coils. See the document: " TV and Monitor CRT (Picture Tube) Information" forsome additional discussion of degaussing tools, techniques, and cautions. ******** TV Placement And Preventive Maintenance ******** General TV placement considerations:----------------------------------- Proper care of a TV does not require much. Following the recommendationsbelow will assure long life and minimize repairs: * Subdued lighting is preferred for best viewing conditions but I will not attempt to tell you how to arrange your room! * Locate the TV away from extremes of hot and cold. Avoid damp or dusty locations if possible. (Right you say, keep dreaming!) * Allow adequate ventilation - TVs use more power than any of your other A/V components. Heat buildup takes its toll on electronic components. Leave at least 3 inches on top and sides for air circulation if the entertainment center does not have a wide open back panel. Do not pile other components like VCRs on top of the TV if possible (see below). * Do not put anything on top of the TV that might block the ventilation grill in the rear or top of the cover. This is the major avenue for the convection needed to cool internal components. * If possible, locate the VCR away from the TV. Some VCRs are particularly sensitive to interference from the TV's circuitry and while this won't usually damage anything, it may make for less than optimal performance due to RF interference. The reverse is sometimes true as well. In addition, modern VCRs are NOT built like the Brooklyn Bridge! The weight of a TV or stereo components could affect the VCR mechanically, messing up tape path alignment or worse. * If possible, locate your computer monitor away from the TV. Interaction of the electromagnetic fields of the deflection systems may result in one or both displays jiggling, wiggling, or vibrating. * Locate loudspeakers and other sources of magnetic fields at least a couple of feet from the TV. This will minimize the possibility of color purity or geometry problems. * Make sure all input-output video and audio connections are tight and secure to minimize intermittent or noisy pictures and sound. Use proper high quality cable only long enough to make connections conveniently. * Finally, store video cassettes well away from all electronic equipment including and especially loudspeakers. Heat and magnetic fields will rapidly turn your priceless video collection into so much trash. The operation of the TV depends on magnetic fields for beam deflection. Enough said. Preventive maintenance:---------------------- Preventive maintenance for a TV is pretty simple - just keep the case cleanand free of obstructions. Clean the screen with a soft cloth just dampenedwith water and at most, mild detergent. DO NOT use anything so wet thatliquid may seep inside of the set around the edge of the picture tube - youcould end up with a very expensive repair bill when the liquid shorts outthe main circuit board lurking just below. If the set has a protectiveflat glass faceplate, there is usually an easy way (on newer sets with thistype of protection) of removing it to get at the inner face of the CRT. Cleanboth the CRT and the protective glass with a soft damp cloth and drythoroughly. If you have not cleaned the screen for quite a while, you will be amazed at the amount of black grime that collects due to the staticbuildup from the high voltage CRT supply. In really dusty situations, periodically vacuuming inside the case and the useof contact cleaner for the controls might be a good idea but realistically,you will not do this so don't worry about it. Warning about using a TV as a computer or video game display:------------------------------------------------------------ "I remember a while back (about 10 years) most home computers used to hook up to televisions. I seem to remember them having some effect on the TV though. I think they made the TV go blurry after a while. I was just wondering what these computers used to do to the televisions to mess them up like that. I thought a TV signal was a TV signal." The problem was screen burn. Since computers of that ear were mostly textand video games tended to use fixed patterns for scenery, patterns tendedto be burned into the phosphor such that they were noticeably darker andless sensitive in those areas. This was exacerbated by the tendency torun them devices at very high brightness levels. Modern computers and video games should not be nearly as much of a risk sincethe displays are so much more varied and dynamic. Nevertheless, setting thebrightness at a moderate level would be prudent. ************** TV Troubleshooting ************** SAFETY:------ TVs and computer or video monitors are among the more dangerous of consumerelectronics equipment when it comes to servicing. (Microwave ovens areprobably the most hazardous due to high voltage at high power.) There are two areas which have particularly nasty electrical dangers: thenon-isolated line power supply and the CRT high voltage. Major parts of nearly all modern TVs and many computer monitors are directlyconnected to the AC line - there is no power transformer to provide theessential barrier for safety and to minimize the risk of equipment damage.In the majority of designs, the live parts of the TV or monitor are limitedto the AC input and line filter, degauss circuit, bridge rectifier and mainfilter capacitor(s), low voltage (B+) regulator (if any), horizontal outputtransistor and primary side of the flyback (LOPT) transformer, and partsof the startup circuit and standby power supply. The flyback generates mostof the other voltages used in the unit and provides an isolation barrier sothat the signal circuits are not line connected and safer. Since a bridge rectifier is generally used in the power supply, bothdirections of the polarized plug result in dangerous conditions and anisolation transformer really should be used - to protect you, your testequipment, and the TV, from serious damage. Some TVs do not have anyisolation barrier whatsoever - the entire chassis is live. These areparticularly nasty. The high voltage to the CRT, while 200 times greater than the line input,is not nearly as dangerous for several reasons. First, it is present in avery limited area of the TV or monitor - from the output of the flybackto the CRT anode via the fat red wire and suction cup connector. If youdon't need to remove the mainboard or replace the flyback or CRT, thenleave it alone and it should not bite. Furthermore, while the shock fromthe HV can be quite painful due to the capacitance of the CRT envelope, itis not nearly as likely to be lethal since the current available from theline connected power supply is much greater. Safety guidelines:----------------- These guidelines are to protect you from potentially deadly electrical shockhazards as well as the equipment from accidental damage. Note that the danger to you is not only in your body providing a conductingpath, particularly through your heart. Any involuntary muscle contractionscaused by a shock, while perhaps harmless in themselves, may cause collateraldamage - there are many sharp edges inside this type of equipment as well asother electrically live parts you may contact accidentally. The purpose of this set of guidelines is not to frighten you but rather tomake you aware of the appropriate precautions. Repair of TVs, monitors,microwave ovens, and other consumer and industrial equipment can be bothrewarding and economical. Just be sure that it is also safe! * Don't work alone - in the event of an emergency another person's presence may be essential. * Always keep one hand in your pocket when anywhere around a powered line-connected or high voltage system. * Wear rubber bottom shoes or sneakers. * Don't wear any jewelry or other articles that could accidentally contact circuitry and conduct current, or get caught in moving parts. * Set up your work area away from possible grounds that you may accidentally contact. * Know your equipment: TVs and monitors may use parts of the metal chassis as ground return yet the chassis may be electrically live with respect to the earth ground of the AC line. Microwave ovens use the chassis as ground return for the high voltage. In addition, do not assume that the chassis is a suitable ground for your test equipment! * If circuit boards need to be removed from their mountings, put insulating material between the boards and anything they may short to. Hold them in place with string or electrical tape. Prop them up with insulation sticks - plastic or wood. * If you need to probe, solder, or otherwise touch circuits with power off, discharge (across) large power supply filter capacitors with a 2 W or greater resistor of 100 to 500 ohms/V approximate value (e.g., for a 200 V capacitor, use a 20K to 100K ohm resistor). Monitor while discharging and verify that there is no residual charge with a suitable voltmeter. In a TV or monitor, if you are removing the high voltage connection to the CRT (to replace the flyback transformer for example) first discharge the CRT contact (under the insulating cup at the end of the fat red wire). Use a 1M to 10M ohm 5 W or greater wattage (for its voltage holdoff capability, not power dissipation) resistor on the end of an insulating stick or the probe of a high voltage meter. Discharge to the metal frame which is connected to the outside of the CRT. * For TVs and monitors in particular, there is the additional danger of CRT implosion - take care not to bang the CRT envelope with your tools. An implosion will scatter shards of glass at high velocity in every direction. There are several tons of force attempting to crush the typical CRT. While implosion is not really likely even with modest abuse, why take chances? However, the CRT neck is relatively thin and fragile and breaking it would be very embarrassing and costly. Always wear eye protection when working around the back side of a CRT. * Connect/disconnect any test leads with the equipment unpowered and unplugged. Use clip leads or solder temporary wires to reach cramped locations or difficult to access locations. * If you must probe live, put electrical tape over all but the last 1/16" of the test probes to avoid the possibility of an accidental short which could cause damage to various components. Clip the reference end of the meter or scope to the appropriate ground return so that you need to only probe with one hand. * Perform as many tests as possible with power off and the equipment unplugged. For example, the semiconductors in the power supply section of a TV or monitor can be tested for short circuits with an ohmmeter. * Use an isolation transformer if there is any chance of contacting line connected circuits. A Variac(tm) is not an isolation transformer! The use of a GFCI (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter) protected outlet is a good idea but will not protect you from shock from many points in a line connected TV or monitor, or the high voltage side of a microwave oven, for example. (Note however, that, a GFCI may nuisanse trip at power-on or at other random times due to leakage paths (like your scope probe ground) or the highly capacitive or inductive input characteristics of line powered equipment.) A fuse or circuit breaker is too slow and insensitive to provide any protection for you or in many cases, your equipment. However, these devices may save your scope probe ground wire should you accidentally connect it to a live chassis. * Don't attempt repair work when you are tired. Not only will you be more careless, but your primary diagnostic tool - deductive reasoning - will not be operating at full capacity. * Finally, never assume anything without checking it out for yourself! Don't take shortcuts! Troubleshooting tips:-------------------- Many problems have simple solutions. Don't immediately assume thatyour problem is some combination of esoteric complex convolutedfailures. For a TV, it may just be a bad connection or blown fuse. Rememberthat the problems with the most catastrophic impact on operation like a deadTV usually have the simplest solutions. The kind of problems we wouldlike to avoid at all costs are the ones that are intermittentor difficult to reproduce: the occasional interference or a TV thatrefuses to play 'StarTrek Voyager'. If you get stuck, sleep on it. Sometimes, just letting the problembounce around in your head will lead to a different more successfulapproach or solution. Don't work when you are really tired - it is bothdangerous (especially with respect to TVs) and mostly non-productive(or possibly destructive). Whenever working on precision equipment, make copious notes and diagrams.You will be eternally grateful when the time comes to reassemble the unit.Most connectors are keyed against incorrect insertion or interchangeof cables, but not always. Apparently identical screws may be of differinglengths or have slightly different thread types. Little parts may fit inmore than one place or orientation. Etc. Etc. Pill bottles, film canisters, and plastic ice cube trays come in handy forsorting and storing screws and other small parts after disassembly. Thisis particularly true if you have repairs on multiple pieces of equipmentunder way simultaneously. Select a work area which is wide open, well lighted, and where droppedparts can be located - not on a deep pile shag rug. The best location willalso be relatively dust free and allow you to suspend your troubleshootingto eat or sleep or think without having to pile everything into a cardboardbox for storage. Another consideration is ESD - Electro-Static Discharge. Some components(like ICs) in a TV are vulnerable to ESD. There is no need to go overboardbut taking reasonable precautions such as getting into the habit of touchinga **safe** ground point first. WARNING: even with an isolation transformer, a live chassis should **not** beconsidered a safe ground point. When the set is unplugged, the tuner shieldor other signal ground points should be safe and effective. A basic set of precision hand tools will be all you need to disassemblea TV and perform most adjustments. These do not need to be reallyexpensive but poor quality tools are worse than useless and can causedamage. Needed tools include a selection of Philips and straight bladescrewdrivers, socket drivers, needlenose pliers, wire cutters, tweezers,and dental picks. For adjustments, a miniature (1/16" blade) screwdriverwith a non-metallic tip is desirable both to prevent the presence ofmetal from altering the electrical properties of the circuit and tominimize the possibility of shorting something from accidental contactwith the circuitry. A set of plastic alignment tools will be useful formaking adjustments to coils and RF transformers. A low power (e.g., 25 W) fine tip soldering iron and fine rosin core solderwill be needed if you should need to disconnect any soldered wires (on purposeor by accident) or replace soldered components. A higher power iron or smallsoldering gun will be needed for dealing with larger components. CAUTION: You can easily turn a simple repair (e.g., bad solder connections)into an expensive mess if you use inappropriate soldering equipment and/orlack the soldering skills to go along with it. If in doubt, find someone elseto do the soldering or at least practice, practice, practice, soldering anddesoldering on a junk circuit board first! See the document: "Troubleshootingand Repair of Consumer Electronics Equipment" for additional info on solderingand rework techniques. For thermal or warmup problems, a can of 'cold spray' or 'circuit chiller'(they are the same) and a heat gun or blow dryer come in handy to identifycomponents whose characteristics may be drifting with temperature. Using theextension tube of the spray can or making a cardboard nozzle for the heatgun can provide very precise control of which components you are affecting. For info on useful chemicals, adhesives, and lubricants, see "Repair Briefs,an Introduction" as well as other documents available at this site. Test equipment:-------------- Don't start with the electronic test equipment, start with some analyticalthinking. Your powers of observation (and a little experience) will makea good start. Your built in senses and that stuff betweenyour ears represents the most important test equipment you have. However, some test equipment will be needed: * Multitester (DMM or VOM) - This is essential for checking of power supply voltages and voltages on the pins of ICs or other components - service literature like the Sams' Photofacts described elsewhere in this document include voltage measurements at nearly every circuit tie point for properly functioning equipment. The multitester will also be used to check components like transistors, resistors, and capacitors for correct value and for shorts or opens. You do not need a fancy instrument. A basic DMM - as long as it is reliable - will suffice for most troubleshooting. If you want one that will last for many years, go with a Fluke. However, even the mid range DMMs from Radio Shack have proven to be reliable and of acceptable accuracy. For some kinds of measurements - to deduce trends for example - an analog VOM is preferred (though some DMMs have a bar graph scale which almost as good). * Oscilloscope - While many problems can be dealt with using just a multimeter, a 'scope will be essential as you get more into advanced troubleshooting. Basic requirements are: dual trace, 10-20 MHz minimum vertical bandwidth, delayed sweep desirable but not essential. A good set of proper 10x/1x probes. Higher vertical bandwidth is desirable but most consumer electronics work can be done with a 10 MHz scope. A storage scope or digital scope might be desirable for certain tasks but is by no means essential for basic troubleshooting. I would recommend a good used Tektronix or HP scope over a new scope of almost any other brand. You will usually get more scope for your money and these things last almost forever. My 'good' scope is the militarized version (AN/USM-281A) of the HP180 lab scope. This has a dual channel 50 MHz vertical plugin and a delayed sweep horizontal plugin. I have seen these going for under $300 from surplus outfits. For a little more money, you can get a Tek 465 100 Mhz scope ($400-700) which will suffice for all but the most demanding (read: RF or high speed digital) repairs. * A video signal source - both RF and baseband (RCA jacks). Unless you are troubleshooting tuner or video/audio input problems, either one will suffice. RF sources include a pair of rabbit ears or an outdoor antenna, a cable connection, or a VCR with a working RF modulator. This will be more convenient than an antenna connection and will permit you to control the program material. In fact, making some test tapes using a camcorder or video camera to record static test patterns will allow you full control of what is being displayed and for how long. * Color bar/dot/crosshatch signal generator. This is a useful piece of equipment if you are doing a lot of TV or monitor repair and need to perform CRT convergence and chroma adjustments. However, there are alternatives that are almost as good: a VHS recording of these test patterns will work for TVs. A PC programmed to output a suitable set of test patterns will be fine for monitors (and TVs if you can set up the video card to produce an NTSC/PAL signal. This can be put through a VCR to generate the RF (Channel 3/4) input to your TV if it does not have direct video inputs (RCA jacks). Incredibly Handy widgets:------------------------ These are the little gadgets and homemade testers that are useful for manyrepair situations. Here are just a few of the most basic: * Series light bulb for current limiting during the testing of TVs, monitors, switching power supplies, audio power amplifiers, etc. I built a dual outlet box with the outlets wired in series so that a lamp can be plugged into one outlet and the device under test into the other. For added versatility, add a regular outlet and 'kill' switch using a quad box instead. The use of a series load will prevent your expensive replacement part like a horizontal output transistor from blowing if there is still some fault in the circuit you have failed to locate. * A Variac. It doesn't need to be large - a 2 A Variac mounted with a switch, outlet and fuse will suffice for most tasks. However, a 5 amp or larger Variac is desirable. If you will be troubleshooting 220 VAC equipment in the US, there are Variacs that will output 0-240 VAC from a 115 VAC line (just make sure you don't forget that this can easily fry your 115 VAC equipment.) By varying the line voltage, not only can you bring up a newly repaired TV gradually to make sure there are no problems but you can also evaluate behavior at low and high line voltage. This can greatly aid in troubleshooting power supply problems. Warning: a Variac is not an isolation transformer and does not help with respect to safety. You need an isolation transformer as well. * Isolation transformer. This is very important for safely working on live chassis equipment. Since all modern TVs use a line connected power supply, it is essential. You can build one from a pair of similar power transformers back-to-back (with their highest rated secondaries connected together. I built mine from a couple of similar old tube type TV power transformers mounted on a board with an outlet box including a fuse. Their high voltage windings were connected together. The unused low voltage windings can be put in series with the primary or output windings to adjust voltage. Alternatively, commercial line isolation transformers suitable for TV troubleshooting are available for less than $100 - well worth every penny. * Variable isolation transformer. You don't need to buy a fancy combination unit. A Variac can be followed by a normal isolation transformer. (The opposite order also works. There may be some subtle differences in load capacity.). * Degaussing coil. Make or buy. The internal degaussing coil salvaged from a defunct TV doubled over to half it original diameter to increase its strength in series with a 200 W light bulb for current limiting will work just fine. Or, buy one from a place like MCM Electronics - about $15 for one suitable for all but the largest TVs. Also, see the section: "Degaussing (demagnetizing) a CRT". Safe discharging of capacitors in TVs and video monitors:-------------------------------------------------------- It is essential - for your safety and to prevent damage to the device undertest as well as your test equipment - that large or high voltage capacitorsbe fully discharged before measurements are made, soldering is attempted,or the circuitry is touched in any way. Some of the large filter capacitorscommonly found in line operated equipment store a potentially lethal charge. This doesn't mean that every one of the 250 capacitors in your TV need to bedischarged every time you power off and want to make a measurement. However,the large main filter capacitors and other capacitors in the power suppliesshould be checked and discharged if any significant voltage is found afterpowering off (or before any testing - some capacitors (like the high voltageof the CRT in a TV or video monitor) will retain a dangerous or at leastpainful charge for days or longer!) The technique I recommend is to use a high wattage resistor of about100 ohms/V of the working voltage of the capacitor. This willprevent the arc-welding associated with screwdriver discharge but willhave a short enough time constant so that the capacitor will drop toa low voltage in at most a few seconds (dependent of course on theRC time constant and its original voltage). Then check with a voltmeter to be double sure. Better yet, monitorwhile discharging (not needed for the CRT - discharge is nearlyinstantaneous even with multi-M ohm resistor). Obviously, make sure that you are well insulated! * For the main capacitors in a switching power supply which might be 100 uF at 350 V this would mean a 5K 10W resistor. RC=.5 second. 5RC=2.5 seconds. A lower wattage resistor can be used since the total energy in not that great. The circuit described below can used to provide a visual indication of polarity and charge. * For the CRT, use a high wattage (not for power but to hold off the high voltage which could jump across a tiny 1/4 watt job) resistor of a few M ohms discharged to the chassis ground connected to the outside of the CRT - NOT SIGNAL GROUND ON THE MAIN BOARD as you may damage sensitive circuitry. The time constant is very short - a ms or so. However, repeat a few times to be sure. (Using a shorting clip lead may not be a bad idea as well while working on the equipment - there have been too many stories of painful experiences from charge developing for whatever reasons ready to bite when the HV lead is reconnected.) Note that if you are touching the little board on the neck of the CRT, you may want to discharge the HV even if you are not disconnecting the fat red wire - the focus and screen (G2) voltages on that board are derived from the CRT HV. WARNING: Most common resistors - even 5 W jobs - are rated for only a few hundred volts and are not suitable for the 25KV or more found in modern TVs and monitors. Alternatives to a long string of regular resistors are a high voltage probe or a known good focus/screen divider network. However, note that the discharge time constant with these may be a few seconds. Also see the section: "Additional information on discharging CRTs". If you are not going to be removing the CRT anode connection, replacing the flyback, or going near the components on the little board on the neck of the CRT, I would just stay away from the fat red wire and what it is connected to including the focus and screen wires. Repeatedly shoving a screwdriver under the anode cap risks scratching the CRT envelope which is something you really do not want to do. Again, always double check with a reliable voltmeter! Reasons to use a resistor and not a screwdriver to discharge capacitors: 1. It will not destroy screwdrivers and capacitor terminals. 2. It will not damage the capacitor (due to the current pulse). 3. It will reduce your spouse's stress level in not having to hear those scary snaps and crackles. Additional information on discharging CRTs:------------------------------------------ You may hear that it is only safe to discharge from the Ultor to the Dag.So, what the @#$% are they talking about? :-). (From: Asimov (mike.ross@juxta.mnet.pubnix.ten)). 'Dag' is short for Aquadag. It is a type of paint made of a graphite pigmentwhich is conductive. It is painted onto the inside and outside of picturetubes to form the 2 plates of a high voltage filter capacitor using the glassin between as dielectric. This capacitor is between .005uF and .01uF invalue. This seems like very little capacity but it can store a substantialcharge with 25,000 volts applied. The outside "dag" is always connected to the circuit chassis ground via aseries of springs, clips, and wires around the picture tube. The high voltageor "Ultor" terminal must be discharged to chassis ground before working on thecircuit especially with older TV's which didn't use a voltage divider toderive the focus potential or newer TV's with a defective open divider. For more details, see the document: "TV and Monitor CRT (Picture Tube)Information. Safe troubleshooting techniques for line powered TVs:---------------------------------------------------- TVs are particularly dangerous with respect to troubleshooting due to the factthat a substantial portion of their circuitry - sometimes all of it - isdirectly line connected. Even if your are working in a totally unrelatedarea like the sound circuits, awareness of the general design and locationof the line-connected circuits can prove to be a life saver. These designs may take several forms: 1. Separate switchmode power supply (SMPS). In this case, only the primary side of the power supply is line connected. The remainder of the TV is usually isolated from the line by the high frequency transformer and feedback device (transformer or optoisolator) of the switchmode power supply. 2. On-board SMPS - a portion of the circuitry on the mainboard is directly line-connected. In the best case, this is restricted to the area around the power cord connections and well marked on both top and bottom but don't count on it. Again, the rest of the TV may be isolated but avoiding hazardous areas is more difficult especially in cramped quarters. 3. Flyback derived power supply - a non-isolated linear (usually) power supply provides B+ to the horizontal deflection (and startup circuit). All other system power is derived from secondary windings on the flyback transformer. Similar comments to (2) above apply. (1) to (3) may be found in TVs with A/V inputs and outputs. 4. Full hot chassis - a bridge rectifier/filter capacitor/linear regulator provides some voltages including B+. The flyback secondaries provide the remaining voltages. All share a common return which is at the intersection of two of the diodes of the bridge rectifier. There is no isolation. This type of design will usually not be found in a TV where there are external connections (other than the RF antenna/cable connector which can be capacitively isolated and you may actually get an AC reading or even sparks between the RF shield and an earth ground due to this capacitance.) WARNING: Never attempt to add A/V inputs or outputs to such a TV as the signals and shields will be electrically live. However, some TVs with A/V inputs/outputs actually had a live chassis and used an isolated means of coupling the signals from/to the external jacks: (From: Bill Coffel (bc@datamix.com)). The late 70's and early 80's Sony CVM 1250/1750/2150 (12"/17"/21") monitors (TV) have a HOT chassis. In fact they are KV-1201/1701/2101 TV sets in larger cabinet With a 3 prong plug!!!! The inputs and outputs are isolated via opto couplers and transformers on an additional circuit board (about 6" by 8" and powered by a small transformer) the connector panel is the only part grounded via the third prong. If someone thinks its not a live chassis they are in for quite a shock. Always use an isolation transformer, whatever kind of design is used in theequipment you are troubleshooting. There are very few situations in whichan isolation transformer will hurt. If you use it automatically, you willnever have a chance to screw up. Identify the appropriate ground point (return) for your multimeter or scope.These should be marked in the Sams' Photofact or service manual. There maybe several such returns such as: non-isolated, signal, and CRT. Selectingthe wrong one - even momentarily connecting to it - can ruin your whole day. If you are not using an isolation transformer (a no-no), connecting yourscope to the wrong ground point can result in (1) blown fuses and/or blownparts, and a very dangerous situation and (2) readings that don't make sensegenerally with distorted power line frequency signals of high amplitude. * Use the non-isolated ground (A) (with your isolation transformer on the TV *only* for measurements of voltage on the line-connected power supply. * Use the signal ground (B) for all measurements of tuner, IF, video, and sound circuits. Whenever you get a reading or waveform that is grossly wrong, confirm thatyou are using the proper ground point! Note that failures of fusableresistors in the *return* of the HOT or power supply chopper or elsewherecan also result in points that should be near ground floating at unexpectedvoltage levels. The general arrangement of components for a typical TV using a linear B+supply with isolated auxiliary supplies for the signal circuits is shownbelow including the (linear) line-connected power supply, horizontaldeflection output (drive, horizontal output transistor, flyback), anda typical Aux power supply output. Line fuse Main bridge Part of flyback _ rectifier +----------+ B+ transformer H o--_ --+------>---+--- -----------------+ : Aux 1 Filter, ): +-->--+--o +--->---+ REG, etc. ):( __ 115 VAC ):( --- +-----<---+ +----------+ +---+ :( H-drive : +-------+ B +-> N o---------+---<---+---------+ transformer / C ____ A __ +---- Horizontal -_- +-> G - Power line earth ground /// ( \ E Output Signal via building wiring ^ ( Transistor ground +------+ (HOT) ' A __ Non-isolated return --> /// (connected points) For this power supply, what if?: 1. You connect your scope ground clip to the non-isolated ground (A) and you are *not* using an isolation transformer? Answer: you blow the line fuse and/or melt your scope probe ground lead. Other parts may be damaged as well. In effect, you have just shorted across the bottom diode of the bridge. 2. You attempt to monitor a video signal with your scope ground connected to the non-isolated ground (A)? Answer: you see only a highly distorted power line waveform of roughly 100 V p-p In effect, you are measuring across one of the diodes of the bridge rectifier, stray capacitance, etc. The series light bulb trick:--------------------------- When powering up a TV (or any other modern electronic devices with expensivepower semiconductors) that has had work done on any power circuits, it isdesirable to minimize the chance of blowing your newly installed parts shouldthere still be a fault. There are two ways of doing this: use of a Variac tobring up the AC line voltage gradually and the use of a series load to limitcurrent to power semiconductors. Actually using a series load - a light bulb is just a readily available cheapload - is better than a Variac (well both might be better still) since it willlimit current to (hopefully) non-destructive levels. What you want to do is limit current to the critical parts - usually thehorizontal output transistor (HOT). Most of the time you will get away withputting it in series with the AC line. However, sometimes, putting a lightbulb directly in the B+ circuit will provide better protection as it willlimit the current out of the main filter capacitors to the HOT. Actually,an actual power resistor is probably better as its resistance is constantas opposed to a light bulb which will vary by 1:10 from cold to hot. Thelight bulb, however, provides a nice visual indication of the current drawnby the circuit under test. For example: * Full brightness: short circuit or extremely heavy load - a fault probably is still present. * Initially bright but then settles at reduced brightness: filter capacitors charge, then lower current to rest of circuit. This is what is expected when the equipment is operating normally. There could still be a problem with the power circuits but it will probably not result in an immediate catastrophic failure. * Pulsating: power supply is trying to come up but shutting down due to overcurrent or overvoltage condition. This could be due to a continuing fault or the light bulb may be too small for the equipment. Note: for a TV or monitor, it may be necessary (and desirable) to unplug thedegauss coil as this represents a heavy initial load which may prevent the unitfrom starting up with the light bulb in the circuit. The following are suggested starting wattages: * 40 W bulb for VCR or laptop computer switching power supplies.* 100 W bulb for small (i.e., B/W or 13 inch color) TVs.* 150-200 W bulb for large color or projection TVs. A 50/100/150 W (or similar) 3-way bulb in an appropriate socket comes inhandy for this but mark the switch so that you know which setting is which! Depending on the power rating of the equipment, these wattages may need to beincreased. However, start low. If the bulb lights at full brightness, youknow there is still a major fault. If it flickers or the TV (or other device)does not quite come fully up, then it should be safe to go to a larger bulb.Resist the temptation to immediately remove the bulb at this point - I havebeen screwed by doing this. Try a larger one first. The behavior shouldimprove. If it does not, there is still a fault present. Note that some TVs and monitors simply will not power up at all with any kindof series load - at least not with one small enough (in terms of wattage) toprovide any real protection. The microcontroller apparently senses the dropin voltage and shuts the unit down or continuously cycles power. Fortunately,these seem to be the exceptions. Getting inside a TV:------------------- You will void the warranty - at least in principle. There are usually nowarranty seals on a TV so unless you cause visible damage or mangle thescrews, it is unlikely that this would be detected. You need to decide.A TV still under warranty should probably be returned for warrantyservice for any covered problems except those with the most obviousand easy solutions. Another advantage of using warranty service is thatshould your problem actually be covered by a design change, this will beperformed free of charge. And, you cannot generally fix a problem whichis due to poor design! Getting into a TV is usually quite simple requiring the removal of anywherefrom 4 to 16 Philips or 1/4" hex head screws - most around the rear edge of thecabinet or underneath, a couple perhaps in the middle. Disconnect the antennaand/or antenna or cable wiring first as it may stay with catch on the rearcover you are detaching. Reconnect whatever is needed for testing after thecover is removed. As you pull the cover straight back (usually) and off, make sure that noother wires are still attached. Often, the main circuit board rests onthe bottom of the cover in some slots. Go slow as this circuit board maytry to come along with the back. Once the back is off, you may need to propthe circuit board up with a block of wood to prevent stress damage and contactwith the work surface. Most TVs can still be positioned stably on any of three sides (left, right,bottom) even without the rear cover. However, some require the cover formechanical strength or to not easily fall over. Be careful- larger TVs,in particular, are quite heavy and bulky. Get someone to help and takeprecautions if yours is one of the unstable variety. If need be, the setcan usually safely be positioned on the CRT face if it is supported byfoam or a folded blanket. Reassemble in reverse order. Getting the circuit board to slide smoothlyinto its slots may take a couple of attempts but otherwise there shouldbe no surprises. Specific considerations before poking around inside a TV:-------------------------------------------------------- Specific considerations before poking around inside a TV or monitor:------------------------------------------------------------------- Both electrical and mechanical dangers lurk: * Main filter capacitor(s). This is the most dangerous (not the HV as you would expect). Fortunately, these capacitors will normally discharge in a few minutes or less especially if the unit is basically working as the load will normally discharge the capacitors nearly fully as power is turned off. With TVs, the main filter capacitor is nearly always on the mainboard. Monitors are more likely to have a separate power supply module. However, you should check across this capacitor - usually only one and by far the largest in the set - with a voltmeter and discharge as suggested in the section: "Safe discharging of capacitors in TVs and video monitors" if it holds more than a few volts (or wait longer) before touching anything. Some of these are as large as 1,000 uF charged to 160 V - about 13 w-s or a similar amount of energy as that stored in an electronic flash. This is enough to be potentially lethal under the wrong circumstances. * High Voltage capacitor formed by the envelope of the CRT. It is connected to the flyback transformer by the fat (usually red) wire at the suction cup (well, it looks like one anyhow) attached to the CRT. This capacitor can hold a charge for quite a while - weeks in the case of an old tube type TV! If you want to be doubly sure, discharge this also. However, unless you are going to be removing the HV connector/flyback, it should not bother you. The energy stored is about 1 w-s but if you touch it or come near to an exposed terminal, due to the high voltage, you will likely be handed *all* the energy and you *will* feel it. The danger is probably more in the collateral damage when you jump ripping flesh and smashing your head against the ceiling. Some people calibrate their jump based on voltage - about 1 inch/V. :-). There will be some HV on the back of the circuit board on the neck of the CRT but although you might receive a tingle but accidentally touching the focus or screen (G2) pins, it is not likely to be dangerous. * CRT implosion risk. Don't hammer on it. Howe
          * Notes On The Troubleshooting And Repair Of Television Sets        
************************************************************************ * Notes On The Troubleshooting And Repair Of Television Sets * * * * **** Version 2.65 **** * * * * Copyright (C) 1994,1995,1996,1997,1998 * * Samuel M. Goldwasser * * Corrections or suggestions to: sam@stdavids.picker.com * * * * --- All Rights Reserved --- * * * * Reproduction of this document in whole or in part is permitted * * if both of the following conditions are satisfied: * * * * 1. This notice is included in its entirety at the beginning. * * 2. There is no charge except to cover the costs of copying. * * * ************************************************************************ **************** Introduction **************** Television at the crossroads:---------------------------- Television in substantially its present form has been with us for nearly50 years. It is a tribute to the National Television Standards Committee(NTSC) that the color television standards agreed upon in the early 1950shave performed remarkably well making quite efficient use of valuable radiospectrum space and the psychovisual characteristics of the human eye-brainsystem. However, HDTV (High Definition TV) will supplant and ultimatelyreplace the current standards. We will all come to expect its superiorresolution, freedom from noise and ghosting, and pure CD sound. Yet, theperceived quality of TV broadcasts and cable will never likely be the majorissue with most consumers. Content will continue to be the biggest problem. It is likely that in roughly 15 years, HDTV - digitally processed andtransmitted as 1s and 0s - will completely replace the current system.Acceptance in the marketplace is by no means assured but with the mergingof TV and computers - with the Internet as a driving force - it would seemthat the days of the stand-alone analog TV set are numbered. Television receiver fundamentals:-------------------------------- The basic color television receiver must perform the same functions today as40 years ago. (Since B/W is a subset of the color standard, most referencesin this document will be for color except as noted). A studio video monitor includes all of the functions of a television receiver except the tunerand IF (which rarely fail except for bad connections or perhaps lightningstrikes to the antenna or cable connection). Therefore mostof the repair information in this document is applicable to both TVs andstudio monitors. Modern computer monitors share many similarities withTVs but the multisync and high scan rate deflection circuitry and moresophisticated power supplies complicates their servicing. As of this writing, all but the smallest TVs are based on the CathodeRay Tube (CRT) as the display device. Tiny pocket sets, camcorderviewfinders, and the like have started using LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)panels but these are still inferior to the CRT for real time video.There has always been talk of 'the picture on the wall' display. Whilewe are closer than ever to this possibility, I believe that mass productionof an affordable wall mural TV screen is still decades away. The reasonis simple economics - it is really hard to beat the simplicity of theshadow mask CRT. For example, a decent quality active matrix color LCDpanel may add $1000 to the cost of a notebook computer compared to $200for a VGA monitor. More of these panels go in the dumpster than make itto product do to manufacturing imperfections. Projection - large screen - TVs may, on the other hand, be able to takeadvantage of a novel development in integrated micromachining - theTexas Instruments Inc. Digital Micromirror Device (DMD). This is basicallyan integrated circuit with a tiltable micromirror for each pixel fabricatedon top of a static memory - RAM - cell. This technology wouldpermit nearly any size projection display to be produced and wouldtherefore be applicable to HDTV. Since it is a reflective device, thelight source can be as bright as needed. However, this is still nota commercial product but stay tuned. TV repair:--------- Unlike VCRs or CD players where any disasters are likely to only affectyour pocketbook, TVs can be dangerous. Read, understand, and follow theset of safety guidelines provided later in this section whenever workingon TVs, monitors, or other similar high voltage equipment. If you do go inside, beware: line voltage (on large caps) and high voltage(on CRT) for long after the plug is pulled. There is the added danger ofCRT implosion for carelessly dropped tools and often sharp sheetmetalshields which can injure if you should have a reflex reaction upon touchingsomething you should not touch. In inside of a TV or monitor is no placefor the careless or naive. Having said that, a basic knowledge of how a TV set works and what cango wrong can be of great value even if you do not attempt the repair yourself. It will enable you to intelligently deal with the service technician. Youwill be more likely to be able to recognize if you are being taken for a rideby a dishonest or just plain incompetent repair center. For example, afaulty picture tube CANNOT be the cause of a color television only displayingshows in black-and-white. The majority of consumers probably do not know eventhis simple fact. Such a problem is usually due to a bad capacitor or other10 cent part. This document will provide you with the knowledge to deal with a largepercentage of the problems you are likely to encounter with your TVs.It will enable you to diagnose problems and in many cases, correct themas well. With minor exceptions, specific manufacturers and modelswill not be covered as there are so many variations that such a treatment wouldrequire a huge and very detailed text. Rather, the most common problemswill be addressed and enough basic principles of operation will be providedto enable you to narrow the problem down and likely determine a course ofaction for repair. In many cases, you will be able to do what is requiredfor a fraction of the cost that would be charged by a repair center. Should you still not be able to find a solution, you will have learned a greatdeal and be able to ask appropriate questions and supply relevant informationif you decide to post to sci.electronics.repair. It will also be easier to dofurther research using a repair text such as the ones listed at the end ofthis document. In any case, you will have the satisfaction of knowing youdid as much as you could before taking it in for professional repair.With your new-found knowledge, you will have the upper hand and will noteasily be snowed by a dishonest or incompetent technician. Repair or replace:----------------- If you need to send or take the TV to a service center, the repaircould easily exceed half the cost of a new TV. Service centersmay charge up to $50 or more for providing an initial estimate of repaircosts but this will usually be credited toward the total cost of the repair(of course, they may just jack this up to compensate for their bench time). TV prices have been dropping almost as fast as PC prices. Therefore, payingsuch prices for repair just may not make sense. Except for picture tubeproblems, most TV faults can be corrected without expensive parts, however.Keeping a 5 year old TV alive may be well worthwhile as basic TV performanceand important features have not changed in a long time. If you can do the repairs yourself, the equation changes dramatically asyour parts costs will be 1/2 to 1/4 of what a professional will chargeand of course your time is free. The educational aspects may also beappealing. You will learn a lot in the process. Thus, it may make senseto repair that old clunker for your game room or beach house. (I wouldsuggest the kid's room but most TV watching just rots the brain anyhow soa broken TV may be more worthwhile educationally than one that works.) ******************* TV Receivers 101 ******************* Subsystems of a television set:------------------------------ A TV set includes the following functional blocks: 1. Low voltage power supply (some may also be part of (2)). Most of the lower voltages used in the TV may be derived from the horizontal deflection circuits. Sometimes, there is a separate switching power supply but this would be the exception. Rectifier/filter capacitor/regulator from AC line provides the B+ to the switching power supply or horizontal deflection system. Degauss operates off of the line whenever power is turned on (after having been off for a few minutes) to demagnetize the CRT. 2. Horizontal deflection. These circuits provide the waveforms needed to sweep the electron beam in the CRT across and back some 15,734 times per second (for NTSC). The horizontal sync pulse from the sync separator locks the horizontal deflection to the video signal. 3. Vertical deflection. These circuits provide the waveforms needed to sweep the electron beam in the CRT from top to bottom and back 60 times per second (for NTSC). The vertical sync pulse from the sync separator locks the vertical deflection to the video signal. 4. CRT high voltage (also part of (2)). A modern color CRT requires up to 30 KV for a crisp bright picture. Rather than having a totally separate power supply, nearly every TV on the planet derives the HV (as well as many other voltages) from the horizontal deflection using a special transformer called a 'flyback' or 'Line OutPut Transformer (LOPT) for those of you on the other side of the lake. 5. Tuner, IF, AGC, video and audio demodulators. Input is the antenna or cable signal and output are baseband video and audio signals. There is usually someplace inside the TV where line level video and audio are present but it may not be accessible from the outside of the cabinet unless you paid for the more expensive model with the A/V option. Very often, the tuner is a shielded metal box positioned on the bottom right (as viewed from the front) separate from the main circuit board. Sometimes it is on the main circuit board. The IF section may be in either place. On older or cheap TVs with a knob tuner, this is usually mounted to the front panel by itself. There are usually separate boxes for the VHF and UHF tuners. 6. Chroma demodulator. Input is the baseband video signal. Outputs are the individual signals for the red, green, and blue video to the CRT. 7. Video drivers (RGB). These are almost always located on a little circuit board plugged directly onto the neck of the CRT. They boost the output of the chroma demodulator to the hundred volts or so needed to drive the cathodes of the CRT. 8. Sync separator. Input is baseband video. Output is horizontal and vertical sync pulses to control the deflection circuits. 9. Audio amplifier/output. The line level audio is amplified to drive a set of speakers. If this is a stereo TV, then these circuits must also perform the stereo demultiplexing. 10. System control. Most modern TVs actually use a microcontroller - a fixed program microcomputer to perform all user interface and control functions from the front panel and remote control. These are becoming increasingly sophisticated. However, they do not fail often. Older TVs use a bunch of knobs and switches and these are prone to wear and dirt. Most problems occur in the horizontal deflection and power supply sections.These run at relatively high power levels and some components run hot.The high voltage section is prone to breakdown and arcing as a resultof hairline cracks, humidity, dirt, etc. The tuner components are usually quite reliable unless the antenna experiencesa lightning strike. However, it seems that even after 20+ years ofsolid state TVs, manufacturers still cannot reliably solder the tunerconnectors and shields so that bad solder connections in these areas arecommon even in new sets. Why projection TVs are not just normal TVs in big boxes:------------------------------------------------------- In order to achieve the necessary brightness with a large display format,three separate monochrome CRTs are used with optics to combine the three imagesproperly at the screen. This creates an entire set of additional problems indesign. (From: Jeroen H. Stessen (Jeroen.Stessen@ehv.ce.philips.com)). The average projection TV has about twice as many parts as its direct-viewcounterpart. Some of the extra parts are essential for projection because CRTprojection tubes require dynamic convergence. The other extra parts have to dowith the fact that a more expensive TV also should have some extra features,like Dolby ProLogic sound, a satellite tuner and such. Generally, the electronics are based on a standard chassis that is also usedfor direct-view CRT television. Even the deflection circuits require minoradaptations at most. The high-voltage circuit is different because the EHT,focus and G2 voltages must be distributed over 3 CRTs. So this requires aspecial high-voltage part, which also includes an EHT capacitor and bleeder. There will be 3 CRT panels with video amplifiers. Because of the extremelyhigh brightness, projection tubes will burn the phosphor screen immediately infault conditions so a protection circuit is essential. And last but certainly not least, there is the dynamic convergence panel. Theheart is a waveform generator IC, often of a Japanese brand but nowadaysthere's also a digital variant by Philips. The old-fashioned way requires manymany potentiometers to program the waveforms. Then there's 5 or 6 convergenceamplifiers and a corresponding extra power supply. And usually this is wherethe single deflection circuits are distributed to the 3 CRTs. At the sametime the deflection currents are sensed for the protection circuits. Designing a PTV from a DVTV requires several man-years of work. In thefactory, a special corner is devoted to the assembly. There you'll findspecially educated people and the speed of the assembly line is a lot lowerthan usual. It requires many more adjustments, e.g. 3 optical and 3 electricalfocus adjustments and then convergence. For more information on TV technology:------------------------------------- The books listed in the section: "Suggested references" include additionalinformation on the theory and implementation of the technology of televisionstandards and TV receivers. For an on line introduction to TV and monitor technology, check out thePhilips/Magnavox Electronics Reference WEB site. There you will findlinks to a number of articles on the basic principles of operation of CDplayers, laserdisc and optical drives, TVs, VCRs, camcorders, loudspeakers,satellite receivers, and other consumer A/V equipment. The Video Handbookalso includes descriptions of video signals and common video connectors. On-line tech-tips databases:--------------------------- A number of organizations have compiled databases covering thousands of commonproblems with VCRs, TVs, computer monitors, and other electronics equipment.Most charge for their information but a few, accessible via the Internet, areeither free or have a very minimal monthly or per-case fee. In other cases, alimited but still useful subset of the for-fee database is freely available. A tech-tips database is a collection of problems and solutions accumulated bythe organization providing the information or other sources based on actualrepair experiences and case histories. Since the identical failures oftenoccur at some point in a large percentage of a given model or product line,checking out a tech-tips database may quickly identify your problem andsolution. In that case, you can greatly simplify your troubleshooting or at leastconfirm a diagnosis before ordering parts. My only reservation with respectto tech-tips databases in general - this has nothing to do with any one inparticular - is that symptoms can sometimes be deceiving and a solution thatworks in one instance may not apply to your specific problem. Therefore,an understanding of the hows and whys of the equipment along with some goodold fashioned testing is highly desirable to minimize the risk of replacingparts that turn out not to be bad. The other disadvantage - at least from one point of view - is that you do notlearn much by just following a procedure developed by others. There is noexplanation of how the original diagnosis was determined or what may havecaused the failure in the first place. Nor is there likely to be any listof other components that may have been affected by overstress and may failin the future. Replacing Q701 and C725 may get your equipment going againbut this will not help you to repair a different model in the future. Having said that, here are three tech-tips sites for computer monitors, TVs,and VCRs: * http://www.anatekcorp.com/techforum.htm (currently free).* http://www.repairworld.com/ ($8/month).* http://elmswood.guernsey.net/ (Free, very limited).* http://ramiga.rnet.cgl.com/electronics/info.html (free large text files). This one has quite a bit of info for just TVs (at present): * http://home.inreach.com/ba501/Tech_Tip_Page.htm These types of sites seem to come and go so it is worth checking them out fromtime-to-time even if you don't have a pressing need. If possible, downloadand archive any useful information for use on a rainy day in the future. **************** CRT Basics **************** Note: Most of the information on TV and monitor CRT construction, operation,interference and other problems. has been moved to the document: "TV andMonitor CRT (Picture Tube) Information". The following is just a briefintroduction with instructions on degaussing. Color CRTs - shadow masks and aperture grills:--------------------------------------------- All color CRTs utilize a shadow mask or aperture grill a fraction of aninch (1/2" typical) behind the phosphor screen to direct the electron beams for the red, green, and blue video signals to the proper phosphor dots.Since the electron beams for the R, G, and B phosphors originate fromslightly different positions (individual electron guns for each)and thus arrive at slightly different angles, only the proper phosphorsare excited when the purity is properly adjusted and the necessarymagnetic field free region is maintained inside the CRT. Note thatpurity determines that the correct video signal excites theproper color while convergence determines the geometricalignment of the 3 colors. Both are affected by magnetic fields.Bad purity results in mottled or incorrect colors. Bad convergenceresults in color fringing at edges of characters or graphics. The shadow mask consists of a thin steel or InVar (a ferrous alloy)with a fine array of holes - one for each trio of phosphordots - positioned about 1/2 inch behind the surface of the phosphorscreen. With most CRTs, the phosphors are arranged in triangularformations called triads with each of the color dots at the apexof the triangle. With many TVs and some monitors, they arearranged as vertical slots with the phosphors for the 3 colorsnext to one another. An aperture grille, used exclusively in Sony Trinitrons (and nowtheir clones as well), replaces the shadow mask with an array of finelytensioned vertical wires. Along with other characteristics of theaperture grille approach, this permits a somewhat higher possiblebrightness to be achieved and is more immune to other problems likeline induced moire and purity changes due to local heating causingdistortion of the shadow mask. However, there are some disadvantages of the aperture grille design: * weight - a heavy support structure must be provided for the tensioned wires (like a piano frame). * price (proportional to weight). * always a cylindrical screen (this may be considered an advantage depending on your preference. * visible stabilizing wires which may be objectionable or unacceptable for certain applications. Apparently, there is no known way around the need to keep the finewires from vibrating or changing position due to mechanical shockin high resolution tubes and thus all Trinitron monitors require1, 2, or 3 stabilizing wires (depending on tube size) across the screen which can be see as very fine lines on bright images. Somepeople find these wires to be objectionable and for some criticalapplications, they may be unacceptable (e.g., medical diagnosis). Degaussing (demagnetizing) a CRT:-------------------------------- Degaussing may be required if there are color purity problems with thedisplay. On rare occasions, there may be geometric distortion causedby magnetic fields as well without color problems. The CRT can getmagnetized: * if the TV or monitor is moved or even just rotated. * if there has been a lightning strike nearby. A friend of mine had a lightning strike near his house which produced all of the effects of the EMP from a nuclear bomb. * If a permanent magnet was brought near the screen (e.g., kid's magnet or megawatt stereo speakers). * If some piece of electrical or electronic equipment with unshielded magnetic fields is in the vicinity of the TV or monitor. Degaussing should be the first thing attempted whenever colorpurity problems are detected. As noted below, first try theinternal degauss circuits of the TV or monitor by power cycling a fewtimes (on for a minute, off for 30 minutes, on for a minute, etc.)If this does not help or does not completely cure the problem,then you can try manually degaussing. Commercial CRT Degaussers are available from parts distributorslike MCM Electronics and consist of a hundred or so turns of magnet wirein a 6-12 inch coil. They include a line cord and momentary switch. You flip on the switch, and bring the coil to within several inches of the screen face. Then you slowly draw the center of the coil toward one edge of the screen and trace the perimeter of the screen face. Then return to the original position of the coil being flat against the center of the screen. Next, slowly decrease the field to zero by backing straight up across the room as you hold the coil. When you are farther than 5 feet away you can release the line switch. The key word here is ** slow **. Go too fast and you will freeze theinstantaneous intensity of the 50/60 Hz AC magnetic field variationinto the ferrous components of the CRT and may make the problem worse. It looks really cool to do this while the CRT is powered. The kids willlove the color effects. Bulk tape erasers, tape head degaussers, open frame transformers, and the"ass-end" of a weller soldering gun can be used as CRT demagnetizers butit just takes a little longer. (Be careful not to scratch the screenface with anything sharp.) It is imperative to have the CRT running whenusing these whimpier approaches, so that you can see where there are still impurities. Never release the power switch until you're 4 or 5 feet away from the screen or you'll have to start over. I've never known of anything being damaged by excess manual degaussingthough I would recommend keeping really powerful bulk tape erasers turneddegaussers a couple of inches from the CRT. If an AC degaussing coil or substitute is unavailable, I have even donedegaussed with a permanent magnet but this is not recommended since it is morelikely to make the problem worse than better. However, if the displayis unusable as is, then using a small magnet can do no harm. (Don't usea 20 pound speaker or magnetron magnet as you may rip the shadow mask rightout of the CRT - well at least distort it beyond repair. What I have inmind is something about as powerful as a refrigerator magnet.) Keep degaussing fields away from magnetic media. It is a good idea toavoid degaussing in a room with floppies or back-up tapes. When removingmedia from a room remember to check desk drawers and manuals for strayfloppies, too. It is unlikely that you could actually affect magnetic media but bettersafe than sorry. Of the devices mentioned above, only a bulk eraser orstrong permanent magnet are likely to have any effect - and then only whenat extremely close range (direct contact with media container). All color CRTs include a built-in degaussing coil wrapped around the perimeter of the CRT face. These are activated each time the CRT is powered up cold by a 3 terminal thermister device or other controlcircuitry. This is why it is often suggested that color purity problemsmay go away "in a few days". It isn't a matter of time; it's the numberof cold power ups that causes it. It takes about 15 minutes of the powerbeing off for each cool down cycle. These built-in coils with thermalcontrol are never as effective as external coils. See the document: " TV and Monitor CRT (Picture Tube) Information" forsome additional discussion of degaussing tools, techniques, and cautions. ******** TV Placement And Preventive Maintenance ******** General TV placement considerations:----------------------------------- Proper care of a TV does not require much. Following the recommendationsbelow will assure long life and minimize repairs: * Subdued lighting is preferred for best viewing conditions but I will not attempt to tell you how to arrange your room! * Locate the TV away from extremes of hot and cold. Avoid damp or dusty locations if possible. (Right you say, keep dreaming!) * Allow adequate ventilation - TVs use more power than any of your other A/V components. Heat buildup takes its toll on electronic components. Leave at least 3 inches on top and sides for air circulation if the entertainment center does not have a wide open back panel. Do not pile other components like VCRs on top of the TV if possible (see below). * Do not put anything on top of the TV that might block the ventilation grill in the rear or top of the cover. This is the major avenue for the convection needed to cool internal components. * If possible, locate the VCR away from the TV. Some VCRs are particularly sensitive to interference from the TV's circuitry and while this won't usually damage anything, it may make for less than optimal performance due to RF interference. The reverse is sometimes true as well. In addition, modern VCRs are NOT built like the Brooklyn Bridge! The weight of a TV or stereo components could affect the VCR mechanically, messing up tape path alignment or worse. * If possible, locate your computer monitor away from the TV. Interaction of the electromagnetic fields of the deflection systems may result in one or both displays jiggling, wiggling, or vibrating. * Locate loudspeakers and other sources of magnetic fields at least a couple of feet from the TV. This will minimize the possibility of color purity or geometry problems. * Make sure all input-output video and audio connections are tight and secure to minimize intermittent or noisy pictures and sound. Use proper high quality cable only long enough to make connections conveniently. * Finally, store video cassettes well away from all electronic equipment including and especially loudspeakers. Heat and magnetic fields will rapidly turn your priceless video collection into so much trash. The operation of the TV depends on magnetic fields for beam deflection. Enough said. Preventive maintenance:---------------------- Preventive maintenance for a TV is pretty simple - just keep the case cleanand free of obstructions. Clean the screen with a soft cloth just dampenedwith water and at most, mild detergent. DO NOT use anything so wet thatliquid may seep inside of the set around the edge of the picture tube - youcould end up with a very expensive repair bill when the liquid shorts outthe main circuit board lurking just below. If the set has a protectiveflat glass faceplate, there is usually an easy way (on newer sets with thistype of protection) of removing it to get at the inner face of the CRT. Cleanboth the CRT and the protective glass with a soft damp cloth and drythoroughly. If you have not cleaned the screen for quite a while, you will be amazed at the amount of black grime that collects due to the staticbuildup from the high voltage CRT supply. In really dusty situations, periodically vacuuming inside the case and the useof contact cleaner for the controls might be a good idea but realistically,you will not do this so don't worry about it. Warning about using a TV as a computer or video game display:------------------------------------------------------------ "I remember a while back (about 10 years) most home computers used to hook up to televisions. I seem to remember them having some effect on the TV though. I think they made the TV go blurry after a while. I was just wondering what these computers used to do to the televisions to mess them up like that. I thought a TV signal was a TV signal." The problem was screen burn. Since computers of that ear were mostly textand video games tended to use fixed patterns for scenery, patterns tendedto be burned into the phosphor such that they were noticeably darker andless sensitive in those areas. This was exacerbated by the tendency torun them devices at very high brightness levels. Modern computers and video games should not be nearly as much of a risk sincethe displays are so much more varied and dynamic. Nevertheless, setting thebrightness at a moderate level would be prudent. ************** TV Troubleshooting ************** SAFETY:------ TVs and computer or video monitors are among the more dangerous of consumerelectronics equipment when it comes to servicing. (Microwave ovens areprobably the most hazardous due to high voltage at high power.) There are two areas which have particularly nasty electrical dangers: thenon-isolated line power supply and the CRT high voltage. Major parts of nearly all modern TVs and many computer monitors are directlyconnected to the AC line - there is no power transformer to provide theessential barrier for safety and to minimize the risk of equipment damage.In the majority of designs, the live parts of the TV or monitor are limitedto the AC input and line filter, degauss circuit, bridge rectifier and mainfilter capacitor(s), low voltage (B+) regulator (if any), horizontal outputtransistor and primary side of the flyback (LOPT) transformer, and partsof the startup circuit and standby power supply. The flyback generates mostof the other voltages used in the unit and provides an isolation barrier sothat the signal circuits are not line connected and safer. Since a bridge rectifier is generally used in the power supply, bothdirections of the polarized plug result in dangerous conditions and anisolation transformer really should be used - to protect you, your testequipment, and the TV, from serious damage. Some TVs do not have anyisolation barrier whatsoever - the entire chassis is live. These areparticularly nasty. The high voltage to the CRT, while 200 times greater than the line input,is not nearly as dangerous for several reasons. First, it is present in avery limited area of the TV or monitor - from the output of the flybackto the CRT anode via the fat red wire and suction cup connector. If youdon't need to remove the mainboard or replace the flyback or CRT, thenleave it alone and it should not bite. Furthermore, while the shock fromthe HV can be quite painful due to the capacitance of the CRT envelope, itis not nearly as likely to be lethal since the current available from theline connected power supply is much greater. Safety guidelines:----------------- These guidelines are to protect you from potentially deadly electrical shockhazards as well as the equipment from accidental damage. Note that the danger to you is not only in your body providing a conductingpath, particularly through your heart. Any involuntary muscle contractionscaused by a shock, while perhaps harmless in themselves, may cause collateraldamage - there are many sharp edges inside this type of equipment as well asother electrically live parts you may contact accidentally. The purpose of this set of guidelines is not to frighten you but rather tomake you aware of the appropriate precautions. Repair of TVs, monitors,microwave ovens, and other consumer and industrial equipment can be bothrewarding and economical. Just be sure that it is also safe! * Don't work alone - in the event of an emergency another person's presence may be essential. * Always keep one hand in your pocket when anywhere around a powered line-connected or high voltage system. * Wear rubber bottom shoes or sneakers. * Don't wear any jewelry or other articles that could accidentally contact circuitry and conduct current, or get caught in moving parts. * Set up your work area away from possible grounds that you may accidentally contact. * Know your equipment: TVs and monitors may use parts of the metal chassis as ground return yet the chassis may be electrically live with respect to the earth ground of the AC line. Microwave ovens use the chassis as ground return for the high voltage. In addition, do not assume that the chassis is a suitable ground for your test equipment! * If circuit boards need to be removed from their mountings, put insulating material between the boards and anything they may short to. Hold them in place with string or electrical tape. Prop them up with insulation sticks - plastic or wood. * If you need to probe, solder, or otherwise touch circuits with power off, discharge (across) large power supply filter capacitors with a 2 W or greater resistor of 100 to 500 ohms/V approximate value (e.g., for a 200 V capacitor, use a 20K to 100K ohm resistor). Monitor while discharging and verify that there is no residual charge with a suitable voltmeter. In a TV or monitor, if you are removing the high voltage connection to the CRT (to replace the flyback transformer for example) first discharge the CRT contact (under the insulating cup at the end of the fat red wire). Use a 1M to 10M ohm 5 W or greater wattage (for its voltage holdoff capability, not power dissipation) resistor on the end of an insulating stick or the probe of a high voltage meter. Discharge to the metal frame which is connected to the outside of the CRT. * For TVs and monitors in particular, there is the additional danger of CRT implosion - take care not to bang the CRT envelope with your tools. An implosion will scatter shards of glass at high velocity in every direction. There are several tons of force attempting to crush the typical CRT. While implosion is not really likely even with modest abuse, why take chances? However, the CRT neck is relatively thin and fragile and breaking it would be very embarrassing and costly. Always wear eye protection when working around the back side of a CRT. * Connect/disconnect any test leads with the equipment unpowered and unplugged. Use clip leads or solder temporary wires to reach cramped locations or difficult to access locations. * If you must probe live, put electrical tape over all but the last 1/16" of the test probes to avoid the possibility of an accidental short which could cause damage to various components. Clip the reference end of the meter or scope to the appropriate ground return so that you need to only probe with one hand. * Perform as many tests as possible with power off and the equipment unplugged. For example, the semiconductors in the power supply section of a TV or monitor can be tested for short circuits with an ohmmeter. * Use an isolation transformer if there is any chance of contacting line connected circuits. A Variac(tm) is not an isolation transformer! The use of a GFCI (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter) protected outlet is a good idea but will not protect you from shock from many points in a line connected TV or monitor, or the high voltage side of a microwave oven, for example. (Note however, that, a GFCI may nuisanse trip at power-on or at other random times due to leakage paths (like your scope probe ground) or the highly capacitive or inductive input characteristics of line powered equipment.) A fuse or circuit breaker is too slow and insensitive to provide any protection for you or in many cases, your equipment. However, these devices may save your scope probe ground wire should you accidentally connect it to a live chassis. * Don't attempt repair work when you are tired. Not only will you be more careless, but your primary diagnostic tool - deductive reasoning - will not be operating at full capacity. * Finally, never assume anything without checking it out for yourself! Don't take shortcuts! Troubleshooting tips:-------------------- Many problems have simple solutions. Don't immediately assume thatyour problem is some combination of esoteric complex convolutedfailures. For a TV, it may just be a bad connection or blown fuse. Rememberthat the problems with the most catastrophic impact on operation like a deadTV usually have the simplest solutions. The kind of problems we wouldlike to avoid at all costs are the ones that are intermittentor difficult to reproduce: the occasional interference or a TV thatrefuses to play 'StarTrek Voyager'. If you get stuck, sleep on it. Sometimes, just letting the problembounce around in your head will lead to a different more successfulapproach or solution. Don't work when you are really tired - it is bothdangerous (especially with respect to TVs) and mostly non-productive(or possibly destructive). Whenever working on precision equipment, make copious notes and diagrams.You will be eternally grateful when the time comes to reassemble the unit.Most connectors are keyed against incorrect insertion or interchangeof cables, but not always. Apparently identical screws may be of differinglengths or have slightly different thread types. Little parts may fit inmore than one place or orientation. Etc. Etc. Pill bottles, film canisters, and plastic ice cube trays come in handy forsorting and storing screws and other small parts after disassembly. Thisis particularly true if you have repairs on multiple pieces of equipmentunder way simultaneously. Select a work area which is wide open, well lighted, and where droppedparts can be located - not on a deep pile shag rug. The best location willalso be relatively dust free and allow you to suspend your troubleshootingto eat or sleep or think without having to pile everything into a cardboardbox for storage. Another consideration is ESD - Electro-Static Discharge. Some components(like ICs) in a TV are vulnerable to ESD. There is no need to go overboardbut taking reasonable precautions such as getting into the habit of touchinga **safe** ground point first. WARNING: even with an isolation transformer, a live chassis should **not** beconsidered a safe ground point. When the set is unplugged, the tuner shieldor other signal ground points should be safe and effective. A basic set of precision hand tools will be all you need to disassemblea TV and perform most adjustments. These do not need to be reallyexpensive but poor quality tools are worse than useless and can causedamage. Needed tools include a selection of Philips and straight bladescrewdrivers, socket drivers, needlenose pliers, wire cutters, tweezers,and dental picks. For adjustments, a miniature (1/16" blade) screwdriverwith a non-metallic tip is desirable both to prevent the presence ofmetal from altering the electrical properties of the circuit and tominimize the possibility of shorting something from accidental contactwith the circuitry. A set of plastic alignment tools will be useful formaking adjustments to coils and RF transformers. A low power (e.g., 25 W) fine tip soldering iron and fine rosin core solderwill be needed if you should need to disconnect any soldered wires (on purposeor by accident) or replace soldered components. A higher power iron or smallsoldering gun will be needed for dealing with larger components. CAUTION: You can easily turn a simple repair (e.g., bad solder connections)into an expensive mess if you use inappropriate soldering equipment and/orlack the soldering skills to go along with it. If in doubt, find someone elseto do the soldering or at least practice, practice, practice, soldering anddesoldering on a junk circuit board first! See the document: "Troubleshootingand Repair of Consumer Electronics Equipment" for additional info on solderingand rework techniques. For thermal or warmup problems, a can of 'cold spray' or 'circuit chiller'(they are the same) and a heat gun or blow dryer come in handy to identifycomponents whose characteristics may be drifting with temperature. Using theextension tube of the spray can or making a cardboard nozzle for the heatgun can provide very precise control of which components you are affecting. For info on useful chemicals, adhesives, and lubricants, see "Repair Briefs,an Introduction" as well as other documents available at this site. Test equipment:-------------- Don't start with the electronic test equipment, start with some analyticalthinking. Your powers of observation (and a little experience) will makea good start. Your built in senses and that stuff betweenyour ears represents the most important test equipment you have. However, some test equipment will be needed: * Multitester (DMM or VOM) - This is essential for checking of power supply voltages and voltages on the pins of ICs or other components - service literature like the Sams' Photofacts described elsewhere in this document include voltage measurements at nearly every circuit tie point for properly functioning equipment. The multitester will also be used to check components like transistors, resistors, and capacitors for correct value and for shorts or opens. You do not need a fancy instrument. A basic DMM - as long as it is reliable - will suffice for most troubleshooting. If you want one that will last for many years, go with a Fluke. However, even the mid range DMMs from Radio Shack have proven to be reliable and of acceptable accuracy. For some kinds of measurements - to deduce trends for example - an analog VOM is preferred (though some DMMs have a bar graph scale which almost as good). * Oscilloscope - While many problems can be dealt with using just a multimeter, a 'scope will be essential as you get more into advanced troubleshooting. Basic requirements are: dual trace, 10-20 MHz minimum vertical bandwidth, delayed sweep desirable but not essential. A good set of proper 10x/1x probes. Higher vertical bandwidth is desirable but most consumer electronics work can be done with a 10 MHz scope. A storage scope or digital scope might be desirable for certain tasks but is by no means essential for basic troubleshooting. I would recommend a good used Tektronix or HP scope over a new scope of almost any other brand. You will usually get more scope for your money and these things last almost forever. My 'good' scope is the militarized version (AN/USM-281A) of the HP180 lab scope. This has a dual channel 50 MHz vertical plugin and a delayed sweep horizontal plugin. I have seen these going for under $300 from surplus outfits. For a little more money, you can get a Tek 465 100 Mhz scope ($400-700) which will suffice for all but the most demanding (read: RF or high speed digital) repairs. * A video signal source - both RF and baseband (RCA jacks). Unless you are troubleshooting tuner or video/audio input problems, either one will suffice. RF sources include a pair of rabbit ears or an outdoor antenna, a cable connection, or a VCR with a working RF modulator. This will be more convenient than an antenna connection and will permit you to control the program material. In fact, making some test tapes using a camcorder or video camera to record static test patterns will allow you full control of what is being displayed and for how long. * Color bar/dot/crosshatch signal generator. This is a useful piece of equipment if you are doing a lot of TV or monitor repair and need to perform CRT convergence and chroma adjustments. However, there are alternatives that are almost as good: a VHS recording of these test patterns will work for TVs. A PC programmed to output a suitable set of test patterns will be fine for monitors (and TVs if you can set up the video card to produce an NTSC/PAL signal. This can be put through a VCR to generate the RF (Channel 3/4) input to your TV if it does not have direct video inputs (RCA jacks). Incredibly Handy widgets:------------------------ These are the little gadgets and homemade testers that are useful for manyrepair situations. Here are just a few of the most basic: * Series light bulb for current limiting during the testing of TVs, monitors, switching power supplies, audio power amplifiers, etc. I built a dual outlet box with the outlets wired in series so that a lamp can be plugged into one outlet and the device under test into the other. For added versatility, add a regular outlet and 'kill' switch using a quad box instead. The use of a series load will prevent your expensive replacement part like a horizontal output transistor from blowing if there is still some fault in the circuit you have failed to locate. * A Variac. It doesn't need to be large - a 2 A Variac mounted with a switch, outlet and fuse will suffice for most tasks. However, a 5 amp or larger Variac is desirable. If you will be troubleshooting 220 VAC equipment in the US, there are Variacs that will output 0-240 VAC from a 115 VAC line (just make sure you don't forget that this can easily fry your 115 VAC equipment.) By varying the line voltage, not only can you bring up a newly repaired TV gradually to make sure there are no problems but you can also evaluate behavior at low and high line voltage. This can greatly aid in troubleshooting power supply problems. Warning: a Variac is not an isolation transformer and does not help with respect to safety. You need an isolation transformer as well. * Isolation transformer. This is very important for safely working on live chassis equipment. Since all modern TVs use a line connected power supply, it is essential. You can build one from a pair of similar power transformers back-to-back (with their highest rated secondaries connected together. I built mine from a couple of similar old tube type TV power transformers mounted on a board with an outlet box including a fuse. Their high voltage windings were connected together. The unused low voltage windings can be put in series with the primary or output windings to adjust voltage. Alternatively, commercial line isolation transformers suitable for TV troubleshooting are available for less than $100 - well worth every penny. * Variable isolation transformer. You don't need to buy a fancy combination unit. A Variac can be followed by a normal isolation transformer. (The opposite order also works. There may be some subtle differences in load capacity.). * Degaussing coil. Make or buy. The internal degaussing coil salvaged from a defunct TV doubled over to half it original diameter to increase its strength in series with a 200 W light bulb for current limiting will work just fine. Or, buy one from a place like MCM Electronics - about $15 for one suitable for all but the largest TVs. Also, see the section: "Degaussing (demagnetizing) a CRT". Safe discharging of capacitors in TVs and video monitors:-------------------------------------------------------- It is essential - for your safety and to prevent damage to the device undertest as well as your test equipment - that large or high voltage capacitorsbe fully discharged before measurements are made, soldering is attempted,or the circuitry is touched in any way. Some of the large filter capacitorscommonly found in line operated equipment store a potentially lethal charge. This doesn't mean that every one of the 250 capacitors in your TV need to bedischarged every time you power off and want to make a measurement. However,the large main filter capacitors and other capacitors in the power suppliesshould be checked and discharged if any significant voltage is found afterpowering off (or before any testing - some capacitors (like the high voltageof the CRT in a TV or video monitor) will retain a dangerous or at leastpainful charge for days or longer!) The technique I recommend is to use a high wattage resistor of about100 ohms/V of the working voltage of the capacitor. This willprevent the arc-welding associated with screwdriver discharge but willhave a short enough time constant so that the capacitor will drop toa low voltage in at most a few seconds (dependent of course on theRC time constant and its original voltage). Then check with a voltmeter to be double sure. Better yet, monitorwhile discharging (not needed for the CRT - discharge is nearlyinstantaneous even with multi-M ohm resistor). Obviously, make sure that you are well insulated! * For the main capacitors in a switching power supply which might be 100 uF at 350 V this would mean a 5K 10W resistor. RC=.5 second. 5RC=2.5 seconds. A lower wattage resistor can be used since the total energy in not that great. The circuit described below can used to provide a visual indication of polarity and charge. * For the CRT, use a high wattage (not for power but to hold off the high voltage which could jump across a tiny 1/4 watt job) resistor of a few M ohms discharged to the chassis ground connected to the outside of the CRT - NOT SIGNAL GROUND ON THE MAIN BOARD as you may damage sensitive circuitry. The time constant is very short - a ms or so. However, repeat a few times to be sure. (Using a shorting clip lead may not be a bad idea as well while working on the equipment - there have been too many stories of painful experiences from charge developing for whatever reasons ready to bite when the HV lead is reconnected.) Note that if you are touching the little board on the neck of the CRT, you may want to discharge the HV even if you are not disconnecting the fat red wire - the focus and screen (G2) voltages on that board are derived from the CRT HV. WARNING: Most common resistors - even 5 W jobs - are rated for only a few hundred volts and are not suitable for the 25KV or more found in modern TVs and monitors. Alternatives to a long string of regular resistors are a high voltage probe or a known good focus/screen divider network. However, note that the discharge time constant with these may be a few seconds. Also see the section: "Additional information on discharging CRTs". If you are not going to be removing the CRT anode connection, replacing the flyback, or going near the components on the little board on the neck of the CRT, I would just stay away from the fat red wire and what it is connected to including the focus and screen wires. Repeatedly shoving a screwdriver under the anode cap risks scratching the CRT envelope which is something you really do not want to do. Again, always double check with a reliable voltmeter! Reasons to use a resistor and not a screwdriver to discharge capacitors: 1. It will not destroy screwdrivers and capacitor terminals. 2. It will not damage the capacitor (due to the current pulse). 3. It will reduce your spouse's stress level in not having to hear those scary snaps and crackles. Additional information on discharging CRTs:------------------------------------------ You may hear that it is only safe to discharge from the Ultor to the Dag.So, what the @#$% are they talking about? :-). (From: Asimov (mike.ross@juxta.mnet.pubnix.ten)). 'Dag' is short for Aquadag. It is a type of paint made of a graphite pigmentwhich is conductive. It is painted onto the inside and outside of picturetubes to form the 2 plates of a high voltage filter capacitor using the glassin between as dielectric. This capacitor is between .005uF and .01uF invalue. This seems like very little capacity but it can store a substantialcharge with 25,000 volts applied. The outside "dag" is always connected to the circuit chassis ground via aseries of springs, clips, and wires around the picture tube. The high voltageor "Ultor" terminal must be discharged to chassis ground before working on thecircuit especially with older TV's which didn't use a voltage divider toderive the focus potential or newer TV's with a defective open divider. For more details, see the document: "TV and Monitor CRT (Picture Tube)Information. Safe troubleshooting techniques for line powered TVs:---------------------------------------------------- TVs are particularly dangerous with respect to troubleshooting due to the factthat a substantial portion of their circuitry - sometimes all of it - isdirectly line connected. Even if your are working in a totally unrelatedarea like the sound circuits, awareness of the general design and locationof the line-connected circuits can prove to be a life saver. These designs may take several forms: 1. Separate switchmode power supply (SMPS). In this case, only the primary side of the power supply is line connected. The remainder of the TV is usually isolated from the line by the high frequency transformer and feedback device (transformer or optoisolator) of the switchmode power supply. 2. On-board SMPS - a portion of the circuitry on the mainboard is directly line-connected. In the best case, this is restricted to the area around the power cord connections and well marked on both top and bottom but don't count on it. Again, the rest of the TV may be isolated but avoiding hazardous areas is more difficult especially in cramped quarters. 3. Flyback derived power supply - a non-isolated linear (usually) power supply provides B+ to the horizontal deflection (and startup circuit). All other system power is derived from secondary windings on the flyback transformer. Similar comments to (2) above apply. (1) to (3) may be found in TVs with A/V inputs and outputs. 4. Full hot chassis - a bridge rectifier/filter capacitor/linear regulator provides some voltages including B+. The flyback secondaries provide the remaining voltages. All share a common return which is at the intersection of two of the diodes of the bridge rectifier. There is no isolation. This type of design will usually not be found in a TV where there are external connections (other than the RF antenna/cable connector which can be capacitively isolated and you may actually get an AC reading or even sparks between the RF shield and an earth ground due to this capacitance.) WARNING: Never attempt to add A/V inputs or outputs to such a TV as the signals and shields will be electrically live. However, some TVs with A/V inputs/outputs actually had a live chassis and used an isolated means of coupling the signals from/to the external jacks: (From: Bill Coffel (bc@datamix.com)). The late 70's and early 80's Sony CVM 1250/1750/2150 (12"/17"/21") monitors (TV) have a HOT chassis. In fact they are KV-1201/1701/2101 TV sets in larger cabinet With a 3 prong plug!!!! The inputs and outputs are isolated via opto couplers and transformers on an additional circuit board (about 6" by 8" and powered by a small transformer) the connector panel is the only part grounded via the third prong. If someone thinks its not a live chassis they are in for quite a shock. Always use an isolation transformer, whatever kind of design is used in theequipment you are troubleshooting. There are very few situations in whichan isolation transformer will hurt. If you use it automatically, you willnever have a chance to screw up. Identify the appropriate ground point (return) for your multimeter or scope.These should be marked in the Sams' Photofact or service manual. There maybe several such returns such as: non-isolated, signal, and CRT. Selectingthe wrong one - even momentarily connecting to it - can ruin your whole day. If you are not using an isolation transformer (a no-no), connecting yourscope to the wrong ground point can result in (1) blown fuses and/or blownparts, and a very dangerous situation and (2) readings that don't make sensegenerally with distorted power line frequency signals of high amplitude. * Use the non-isolated ground (A) (with your isolation transformer on the TV *only* for measurements of voltage on the line-connected power supply. * Use the signal ground (B) for all measurements of tuner, IF, video, and sound circuits. Whenever you get a reading or waveform that is grossly wrong, confirm thatyou are using the proper ground point! Note that failures of fusableresistors in the *return* of the HOT or power supply chopper or elsewherecan also result in points that should be near ground floating at unexpectedvoltage levels. The general arrangement of components for a typical TV using a linear B+supply with isolated auxiliary supplies for the signal circuits is shownbelow including the (linear) line-connected power supply, horizontaldeflection output (drive, horizontal output transistor, flyback), anda typical Aux power supply output. Line fuse Main bridge Part of flyback _ rectifier +----------+ B+ transformer H o--_ --+------>---+--- -----------------+ : Aux 1 Filter, ): +-->--+--o +--->---+ REG, etc. ):( __ 115 VAC ):( --- +-----<---+ +----------+ +---+ :( H-drive : +-------+ B +-> N o---------+---<---+---------+ transformer / C ____ A __ +---- Horizontal -_- +-> G - Power line earth ground /// ( \ E Output Signal via building wiring ^ ( Transistor ground +------+ (HOT) ' A __ Non-isolated return --> /// (connected points) For this power supply, what if?: 1. You connect your scope ground clip to the non-isolated ground (A) and you are *not* using an isolation transformer? Answer: you blow the line fuse and/or melt your scope probe ground lead. Other parts may be damaged as well. In effect, you have just shorted across the bottom diode of the bridge. 2. You attempt to monitor a video signal with your scope ground connected to the non-isolated ground (A)? Answer: you see only a highly distorted power line waveform of roughly 100 V p-p In effect, you are measuring across one of the diodes of the bridge rectifier, stray capacitance, etc. The series light bulb trick:--------------------------- When powering up a TV (or any other modern electronic devices with expensivepower semiconductors) that has had work done on any power circuits, it isdesirable to minimize the chance of blowing your newly installed parts shouldthere still be a fault. There are two ways of doing this: use of a Variac tobring up the AC line voltage gradually and the use of a series load to limitcurrent to power semiconductors. Actually using a series load - a light bulb is just a readily available cheapload - is better than a Variac (well both might be better still) since it willlimit current to (hopefully) non-destructive levels. What you want to do is limit current to the critical parts - usually thehorizontal output transistor (HOT). Most of the time you will get away withputting it in series with the AC line. However, sometimes, putting a lightbulb directly in the B+ circuit will provide better protection as it willlimit the current out of the main filter capacitors to the HOT. Actually,an actual power resistor is probably better as its resistance is constantas opposed to a light bulb which will vary by 1:10 from cold to hot. Thelight bulb, however, provides a nice visual indication of the current drawnby the circuit under test. For example: * Full brightness: short circuit or extremely heavy load - a fault probably is still present. * Initially bright but then settles at reduced brightness: filter capacitors charge, then lower current to rest of circuit. This is what is expected when the equipment is operating normally. There could still be a problem with the power circuits but it will probably not result in an immediate catastrophic failure. * Pulsating: power supply is trying to come up but shutting down due to overcurrent or overvoltage condition. This could be due to a continuing fault or the light bulb may be too small for the equipment. Note: for a TV or monitor, it may be necessary (and desirable) to unplug thedegauss coil as this represents a heavy initial load which may prevent the unitfrom starting up with the light bulb in the circuit. The following are suggested starting wattages: * 40 W bulb for VCR or laptop computer switching power supplies.* 100 W bulb for small (i.e., B/W or 13 inch color) TVs.* 150-200 W bulb for large color or projection TVs. A 50/100/150 W (or similar) 3-way bulb in an appropriate socket comes inhandy for this but mark the switch so that you know which setting is which! Depending on the power rating of the equipment, these wattages may need to beincreased. However, start low. If the bulb lights at full brightness, youknow there is still a major fault. If it flickers or the TV (or other device)does not quite come fully up, then it should be safe to go to a larger bulb.Resist the temptation to immediately remove the bulb at this point - I havebeen screwed by doing this. Try a larger one first. The behavior shouldimprove. If it does not, there is still a fault present. Note that some TVs and monitors simply will not power up at all with any kindof series load - at least not with one small enough (in terms of wattage) toprovide any real protection. The microcontroller apparently senses the dropin voltage and shuts the unit down or continuously cycles power. Fortunately,these seem to be the exceptions. Getting inside a TV:------------------- You will void the warranty - at least in principle. There are usually nowarranty seals on a TV so unless you cause visible damage or mangle thescrews, it is unlikely that this would be detected. You need to decide.A TV still under warranty should probably be returned for warrantyservice for any covered problems except those with the most obviousand easy solutions. Another advantage of using warranty service is thatshould your problem actually be covered by a design change, this will beperformed free of charge. And, you cannot generally fix a problem whichis due to poor design! Getting into a TV is usually quite simple requiring the removal of anywherefrom 4 to 16 Philips or 1/4" hex head screws - most around the rear edge of thecabinet or underneath, a couple perhaps in the middle. Disconnect the antennaand/or antenna or cable wiring first as it may stay with catch on the rearcover you are detaching. Reconnect whatever is needed for testing after thecover is removed. As you pull the cover straight back (usually) and off, make sure that noother wires are still attached. Often, the main circuit board rests onthe bottom of the cover in some slots. Go slow as this circuit board maytry to come along with the back. Once the back is off, you may need to propthe circuit board up with a block of wood to prevent stress damage and contactwith the work surface. Most TVs can still be positioned stably on any of three sides (left, right,bottom) even without the rear cover. However, some require the cover formechanical strength or to not easily fall over. Be careful- larger TVs,in particular, are quite heavy and bulky. Get someone to help and takeprecautions if yours is one of the unstable variety. If need be, the setcan usually safely be positioned on the CRT face if it is supported byfoam or a folded blanket. Reassemble in reverse order. Getting the circuit board to slide smoothlyinto its slots may take a couple of attempts but otherwise there shouldbe no surprises. Specific considerations before poking around inside a TV:-------------------------------------------------------- Specific considerations before poking around inside a TV or monitor:------------------------------------------------------
          Symptoms of Erectile Dysfunction        

It may seem silly to discuss the symptoms of erectile dysfunction since it shows up in such an obvious way. If you have it, there is one main symptom that you observe. A symptom is defined as a circumstance that signifies the attendance of something else. In this case, the erectile dysfunction is the symptom.


Erectile dysfunction, however, is usually the outcome of some other underlying condition. This underlying circumstance could be either psychological or bodily. Neurological and hormonal conditions as well as diseases can start the onset of erectile dysfunction. In more severe situations, erectile dysfunction can be the result of anxiety or depression.

With improvements in medical science and longer and healthier life spans, many continue to enjoy sexual pursuits in their golden years. This, in addition to the fact that erectile dysfunction take place to a greater percentage of men who are around 65 years of age shows the seriousness of this problem.


When a person cannot come across fulfillment in sex, a natural function in life, it can affect the individual psychologically. With erectile dysfunction as a symptom, it shows that one more disease or cause exists. This is why the treatment of erectile dysfunction can be so difficult. There is frequently an underlying condition that also requires treatment.


Aside from the obvious symptoms of erectile dysfunction, there are lots of other physical symptoms that may accompany it. 1 example of this would be high blood pressure. Diabetes is one more possible reason and symptoms would include a constant thirst as well as high blood sugar levels. These are only 2 of the possible subjects that can be connected to erectile dysfunction.

Psychological symptoms can as well be seen when there is a case of erectile dysfunction. Chronic depression is frequently linked with this condition. It can be complicated to determine if depression is due to impotence or if it is the reason behind the impotence. Either situation can cause the other.


Performance anxiety may seem ridiculous other than is known to be one of the main reasons for erectile dysfunction if other medical reasons cannot be detected. It can take place for a man who has not had an active sex life for a comparatively long time. This could be because of being divorced or widowed, for example. Nervousness about starting to have an energetic sex life can make one apprehensive regarding his performance. It can cause real impotence. An outline of self doubt and lack of confidence can start if one starts to believe they cannot execute sexually.


It is up to you to sit down with your medical doctor and try to determine what the actual causes of the condition are. Without a clear diagnostic test, it will be almost unworkable to treat. Erectile dysfunction can be treated with some instructions, like Cialis or Viagra and there are other treatments if deemed needed. It is still important to have a thorough medical diagnosis.


Read more on Herbal Cure for Impotence and Herbal Cure for Erectile Dysfunction


          SBS: Sweden: Retrial for man convicted in 'shaken baby' case        

9 Jan 13 

A father convicted of shaking his infant daughter to death has been granted a retrial by Sweden's Supreme Court (Högsta domstolen) in a case that could result in a re-examination of other cases of "shaken baby syndrome".
The now 31-year-old man was first convicted in 2005 for shaking his six-week-old daughter so violently that she suffered from fatal cerebral haemorrhaging.

But in a decision issued on Tuesday, the Supreme Court cited new evidence indicating that the man's daughter could have died from injuries caused by something other than violent shaking.

According to forensic medical expert Peter Krantz, who was quoted in the ruling, "today one can no longer rule out the possibility that the haemorrhaging in the meninges and injuries in the brain of this type can have other causes than bodily harm/shaking".

The man was first sentenced to five years in prison for manslaughter and aggravated assault. He lodged a number of appeals, with the Supreme Court rejecting a previous retrial request back in 2008.

However, the man fled from Sweden before he began serving his sentence, managing to stay on the run until being arrested in Spain in 2010.

He was imprisoned in Sweden until last autumn when he was released while the Supreme Court reviewed his latest appeal.

"He's obviously very happy and relieved," the man's lawyer, Percy Bratt, told Sveriges Television (SVT) following Tuesday's decision that his client had been granted a retrial.

Medical expert Krantz told SVT it's possible the little girl's death was a result of clotting related to her premature birth.

He added that the diagnosis of "shaken baby syndrome" can be affected by trends in medical diagnosis which shift over time.

"The risk is that people become a bit too liberal in their diagnoses," he told SVT, adding that new thinking about the condition may result in more retrial requests.

"There may be parents in prison today who have been wrongly accused of causing their child's death."

The case will now be re-examined by the Court of Appeal for Western Sweden (Hovrätten för Västra Sverige).

          Triassic Opens Artificial Intelligence Research Centres in USA and Canada        
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            .dataTableContent a:link, .dataTableContent a:visited, /* Yahoo! Mail Override */ .dataTableContent a .yshortcuts /* Yahoo! Mail Override */{
                color: #3d98c6;
                font-weight: bold;
            }

            /* ========== Column Styles ========== */

            .templateColumnContainer{width: 200px;}

            /**
            * @tip Set the background color and borders for your email's column area.
            */
            #templateColumns{
                background-color: #F4F4F4;
                border-top: 1px solid #FFFFFF;
                border-bottom: 1px solid #CCCCCC;
            }

            /**
            * @tip Set the styling for your email's left column content text. Choose a size and color that is easy to read.
            */
            .leftColumnContent{
                color: #505050;
                font-family: 'Montserrat', arial, sans-serif, helvetica;
                font-size: 14px;
                line-height: 150%;
                padding-top: 0;
                padding-right: 20px;
                padding-bottom: 20px;
                padding-left: 20px;
                text-align: left;
            }

            /**
            * @tip Set the styling for your email's left column content links. Choose a color that helps them stand out from your text.
            */
            .leftColumnContent a:link, .leftColumnContent a:visited, /* Yahoo! Mail Override */ .leftColumnContent a .yshortcuts /* Yahoo! Mail Override */{
                color: #3d98c6;
                font-weight: normal;
                text-decoration: underline;
            }

            /**
            * @tip Set the styling for your email's center column content text. Choose a size and color that is easy to read.
            */
            .centerColumnContent{
                color: #505050;
                font-family: 'Montserrat', arial, sans-serif, helvetica;
                font-size: 14px;
                line-height: 150%;
                padding-top: 0;
                padding-right: 20px;
                padding-bottom: 20px;
                padding-left: 20px;
                text-align: left;
            }

            /**
            * @tip Set the styling for your email's center column content links. Choose a color that helps them stand out from your text.
            */
            .centerColumnContent a:link, .centerColumnContent a:visited, /* Yahoo! Mail Override */ .centerColumnContent a .yshortcuts /* Yahoo! Mail Override */{
                color: #3d98c6;
                font-weight: normal;
                text-decoration: underline;
            }

            /**
            * @tip Set the styling for your email's right column content text. Choose a size and color that is easy to read.
            */
            .rightColumnContent{
                color: #505050;
                font-family: 'Montserrat', arial, sans-serif, helvetica;
                font-size: 14px;
                line-height: 150%;
                padding-top: 0;
                padding-right: 20px;
                padding-bottom: 20px;
                padding-left: 20px;
                text-align: left;
            }

            /**
            * @tip Set the styling for your email's right column content links. Choose a color that helps them stand out from your text.
            */
            .rightColumnContent a:link, .rightColumnContent a:visited, /* Yahoo! Mail Override */ .rightColumnContent a .yshortcuts /* Yahoo! Mail Override */{
                color: #3d98c6;
                font-weight: normal;
                text-decoration: underline;
            }

            .leftColumnContent img, .rightColumnContent img{
                display: inline;
                height: auto;
                max-width: 260px;
            }

            /* ========== Footer Styles ========== */

            /**
            * @tip Set the background color and borders for your email's footer area.
            * @theme footer
            */
            #templateFooter{
                background-color: #F4F4F4;
                border-top: 1px solid #FFFFFF;
            }

            /**
            * @tip Set the styling for your email's footer text. Choose a size and color that is easy to read.
            * @theme footer
            */
            .footerContent{
                color: #808080;
                font-family: 'Montserrat', arial, sans-serif, helvetica;
                font-size: 10px;
                line-height: 150%;
                padding-top: 20px;
                padding-right: 20px;
                padding-bottom: 20px;
                padding-left: 20px;
                text-align: left;
            }

            .footerContent.social, .footerContent.social h4 {
                text-align: center;
            }

            .footerContent.social a {
                margin: 0 10px;
            }

            /**
            * @tip Set the styling for your email's footer links. Choose a color that helps them stand out from your text.
            */
            .footerContent a:link, .footerContent a:visited, /* Yahoo! Mail Override */ .footerContent a .yshortcuts, .footerContent a span /* Yahoo! Mail Override */{
                color: #606060;
                font-weight: normal;
                text-decoration: underline;
            }

            /* /\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/ MOBILE STYLES /\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/ */

            @media only screen and (max-width: 480px){
                /* /\/\/\/\/\/\/ CLIENT-SPECIFIC MOBILE STYLES /\/\/\/\/\/\/ */
                body, table, td, p, a, li, blockquote{-webkit-text-size-adjust: none !important;} /* Prevent Webkit platforms from changing default text sizes */
                body{width: 100% !important; min-width: 100% !important;} /* Prevent iOS Mail from adding padding to the body */

                /* /\/\/\/\/\/\/ MOBILE RESET STYLES /\/\/\/\/\/\/ */
                #bodyCell{padding: 10px !important;}

                /* /\/\/\/\/\/\/ MOBILE TEMPLATE STYLES /\/\/\/\/\/\/ */

                /* ======== Page Styles ======== */

                /**
                * @tip Make the template fluid for portrait or landscape view adaptability. If a fluid layout doesn't work for you, set the width to 300px instead.
                */
                #templateContainer{
                    max-width: 600px !important;
                    width: 100% !important;
                }

                /**
                * @tip Make the first-level headings larger in size for better readability on small screens.
                */
                h1{
                    font-size: 24px !important;
                    line-height: 100% !important;
                }

                /**
                * @tip Make the second-level headings larger in size for better readability on small screens.
                */
                h2{
                    font-size: 20px !important;
                    line-height: 100% !important;
                }

                /**
                * @tip Make the third-level headings larger in size for better readability on small screens.
                */
                h3{
                    font-size: 18px !important;
                    line-height: 100% !important;
                }

                /**
                * @tip Make the fourth-level headings larger in size for better readability on small screens.
                */
                h4{
                    font-size: 16px !important;
                    line-height: 100% !important;
                }

                /* ======== Header Styles ======== */

                #templatePreheader{display: none !important;} /* Hide the template preheader to save space */

                /**
                * @tip Make the main header image fluid for portrait or landscape view adaptability, and set the image's original width as the max-width. If a fluid setting doesn't work, set the image width to half its original size instead.
                */
                #headerImage{
                    height: auto !important;
                    max-width: 600px !important;
                    width: 100% !important;
                }

                /**
                * @tip Make the header content text larger in size for better readability on small screens. We recommend a font size of at least 16px.
                */
                .headerContent{
                    font-size: 20px !important;
                    line-height: 125% !important;
                }

                /* ======== Body Styles ======== */

                /**
                * @tip Make the body content text larger in size for better readability on small screens. We recommend a font size of at least 16px.
                */
                .bodyContent{
                    font-size: 18px !important;
                    line-height: 125% !important;
                }

                .templateDataTableContainer {
                    background-color: #ffffff;
                }

                /**
                * @tip Set the background color and border for your email's data table.
                */
                .templateDataTable{
                    background-color: #FFFFFF;
                    border: 1px solid #DDDDDD;
                }

                /**
                * @tip Set the styling for your email's data table text. Choose a size and color that is easy to read.
                */
                .dataTableHeading{
                    background-color: #D8E2EA;
                    color: #336699;
                    font-family: 'Montserrat', arial, sans-serif, helvetica;
                    font-size: 14px;
                    font-weight: bold;
                    line-height: 150%;
                    text-align: left;
                }

                /**
                * @tip Set the styling for your email's data table links. Choose a color that helps them stand out from your text.
                */
                .dataTableHeading a:link, .dataTableHeading a:visited, /* Yahoo! Mail Override */ .dataTableHeading a .yshortcuts /* Yahoo! Mail Override */{
                    color: #3d98c6;
                    font-weight: bold;
                }

                /**
                * @tip Set the styling for your email's data table text. Choose a size and color that is easy to read.
                */
                .dataTableContent{
                    border-top: 1px solid #DDDDDD;
                    border-bottom: 0;
                    color: #202020;
                    font-family: 'Montserrat', arial, sans-serif, helvetica;
                    font-size: 12px;
                    font-weight: bold;
                    line-height: 150%;
                    text-align: left;
                }

                /**
                * @tip Set the styling for your email's data table links. Choose a color that helps them stand out from your text.
                */
                .dataTableContent a:link, .dataTableContent a:visited, /* Yahoo! Mail Override */ .dataTableContent a .yshortcuts /* Yahoo! Mail Override */{
                    color: #3d98c6;
                    font-weight: bold;
                }

                /* ======== Column Styles ======== */

                .templateColumnContainer{display: block !important; width: 100% !important;}

                /**
                * @tip Make the column image fluid for portrait or landscape view adaptability, and set the image's original width as the max-width. If a fluid setting doesn't work, set the image width to half its original size instead.
                */
                .columnImage{
                    height: auto !important;
                    max-width: 480px !important;
                    width: 100% !important;
                }

                /**
                * @tip Make the left column content text larger in size for better readability on small screens. We recommend a font size of at least 16px.
                */
                .leftColumnContent{
                    font-size: 16px !important;
                    line-height: 125% !important;
                }

                /**
                * @tip Make the center column content text larger in size for better readability on small screens. We recommend a font size of at least 16px.
                */
                .centerColumnContent{
                    font-size: 16px !important;
                    line-height: 125% !important;
                }

                /**
                * @tip Make the right column content text larger in size for better readability on small screens. We recommend a font size of at least 16px.
                */
                .rightColumnContent{
                    font-size: 16px !important;
                    line-height: 125% !important;
                }

                /* ======== Footer Styles ======== */

                /**
                * @tip Make the body content text larger in size for better readability on small screens.
                */
                .footerContent{
                    font-size: 14px !important;
                    line-height: 115% !important;
                }

                .footerContent a {
                    display:block !important;
                } /* Place footer social and utility links on their own lines, for easier access */

                .footerContent.social a {
                    display: inline-block !important;
                }
            }
      </style>
</head>
<body leftmargin="0" marginheight="0" marginwidth="0" offset="0" style="-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;margin: 0;padding: 0;background-color: #DEE0E2;height: 100% !important;width: 100% !important;" topmargin="0">
<center>
<table align="center" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" height="100%" id="bodyTable" style="-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace: 0pt;margin: 0;padding: 0;background-color: #DEE0E2;border-collapse: collapse !important;height: 100% !important;width: 100% !important;" width="100%">
<tr>
<td align="center" id="bodyCell" style="-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace: 0pt;margin: 0;padding: 20px;border-top: 4px solid #BBBBBB;height: 100% !important;width: 100% !important;" valign="top">
<table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" id="templateContainer" style="-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace: 0pt;width: 600px;background-color: #ffffff;border: 1px solid #BBBBBB;border-collapse: collapse !important;">
<tr>
<td align="center" style="-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace: 0pt;" valign="top">
<table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" id="templateHeader" style="-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace: 0pt;background-color: #F4F4F4;border-top: 1px solid #FFFFFF;border-bottom: 1px solid #CCCCCC;border-collapse: collapse !important;" width="100%">
<tr>
<td class="headerContent" style="-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace: 0pt;color: #505050;font-family: 'Montserrat', arial, sans-serif, helvetica;font-size: 20px;font-weight: bold;line-height: 100%;padding-top: 0;padding-right: 0;padding-bottom: 0;padding-left: 0;text-align: left;vertical-align: middle;" valign="top"><img id="headerImage" src="http://content.prnewswire.com/designimages/prnj_push_email_logo_header.png" style="max-width: 600px;-ms-interpolation-mode: bicubic;border: 0;height: auto;line-height: 100%;outline: none;text-decoration: none;"></td>
</tr>
</table>
</td>
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<tr>
<td align="center" style="-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace: 0pt;" valign="top">
<table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" id="templateBody" style="-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace: 0pt;background-color: #FFFFFF;border-top: 1px solid #FFFFFF;border-collapse: collapse !important;" width="100%">
<tr>
<td class="bodyContent" style="-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace: 0pt;color: #505050;font-family: 'Montserrat', arial, sans-serif, helvetica;font-size: 16px;line-height: 150%;padding-top: 20px;padding-right: 20px;padding-bottom: 20px;padding-left: 20px;text-align: left;" valign="top">
<h1 style="display: block;font-family: 'Montserrat', arial, sans-serif, helvetica;font-size: 26px;font-style: normal;font-weight: bold;line-height: 100%;letter-spacing: normal;margin-top: 0;margin-right: 0;margin-bottom: 10px;margin-left: 0;text-align: left;color: #404040 !important;">Tech Profile</h1>
<h4 style="display: block;font-family: 'Montserrat', arial, sans-serif, helvetica;font-size: 14px;font-weight: normal;line-height: 100%;letter-spacing: normal;margin-top: 0;margin-right: 0;margin-bottom: 10px;margin-left: 0;text-align: left;color: #808080 !important;">Username: <a href="https://prnmedia.prnewswire.com/profile/?action=editProfile" style="-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;color: #3d98c6;font-weight: normal;text-decoration: underline;" target="_blank">aronschatz / edit profile</a>
</h4>
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</table>
</td>
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<td align="center" class="bodyContent" style="-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace: 0pt;" valign="top">
<table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" id="templateBody" style="-webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%;-ms-text-size-adjust: 100%;mso-table-lspace: 0pt;mso-table-rspace: 0pt;border-collapse: collapse !important;" width="100%">
<tr>

<div xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xn="http://www.xmlnews.org/ns/" class="xn-newslines">

<h1 class="xn-hedline">Triassic Opens Artificial Intelligence Research Centres in USA and Canada</h1>

<p class="xn-distributor">PR Newswire</p>

<p class="xn-dateline">TRIVANDRUM, India, August 10, 2017</p>
</div>

<div class="xn-content" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xn="http://www.xmlnews.org/ns/">

<p>TRIVANDRUM, <span class="xn-location">India</span>, <span class="xn-chron">August 10, 2017</span> /PRNewswire/ --</p>

<p>Triassic Solutions Private Limited (TSPL), engineering services and manufacturing automation company, based in Technopark, Trivandrum is proud to announce that it has opened Artificial Intelligence (AI) research facilities in <span class="xn-location">Pleasanton, California</span> in <span class="xn-location">the United States</span> and <span class="xn-location">Toronto, Ontario</span> in <span class="xn-location">Canada</span>, to cater the healthcare, retail and semiconductor industries.</p>

<p>
<span class="xn-person">Aneesh Suhail</span>, CTO, has been appointed as Head of Triassic's Artificial Intelligence research centres, will run the new centres as well as guide the&nbsp;research teams.</p>

<p>"Our customers had been using AI-based expert systems developed by Triassic for medical diagnosis, for enhanced customer experiences and for high yield manufacturing automation.&nbsp;We had started working with the world leader in visual computing which is based in <span class="xn-location">North America</span>. We also provide our platform to one of the first AI aided medical imaging systems providers. Our solutions for retail industries focus on giving enhanced experiences to customers and workforce. Machine learning and AI-based in-store solutions from Triassic are used by one of the largest luxury vehicle retail chains. The new&nbsp;centres will help us to be near our customers and partners," Aneesh said.&nbsp;</p>

<p>Sivakumar, CEO, TSPL, added, "Together with our long term partners, we will develop industry specific AI-based solutions using our generic AI platforms from our new centres. Our experience in enabling real-time enterprises using software, hardware and AI platforms&nbsp;gives a unique value proposition to our partners and end customers. Triassic is leveraging its extensive background in process control and industrial automation to provide unique solutions in manufacturing. Triassic has built a robust framework to collect IoT (Internet of Things) and sensor data and turn them into actionable insights for the customers for semiconductor process control."</p>

<p>The new centres will bring together teams of multi-domain experts, combining artificial intelligence, robotics and machine learning along with domain knowledge.</p>

<p>
<b>Abo</b><b>ut Triassic Solutions Private Limite</b><b>d</b><b>:</b>&nbsp;</p>

<p>Triassic Solutions Private Limited is a global engineering software and hardware product development and services provider who started operations in 2004. Providing software engineering and designing solutions across diverse industry verticals, TSPL has truly left no stone unturned in its path to glory. Expertise brimming within this organization ranges from industrial automation, remote monitoring and control, financial services, healthcare to retail industries. Relentlessly working together for driving growth, TSPL's team empowers each client with latest generation of integrated IT and industrial control systems.</p>

<p>TSPL is situated in the greenery&nbsp;of Trivandrum (Kerala, <span class="xn-location">India</span>) with global offices in the <span class="xn-location">Canada</span>, <span class="xn-location">United States</span> and <span class="xn-location">Middle East</span> providing localized services to these regions and more. Triassic's headquarters at Technopark in Trivandrum is a 7,000 sq.ft. facility consisting of software engineers, technical architects, researchers and domain experts.</p>

<p>
<b>Media Contact:</b>
<br>

<span class="xn-person">Aneesh Suhail</span>
<br>
Chief Technical Officer<br>
Triassic Solutions Private Limited<br>

<a href="mailto:aneesh.suhail@triassicsolutions.com" rel="nofollow">aneesh.suhail@triassicsolutions.com</a>
<br>
+91-9846140974<br>

</p>

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          Meet The Teachers... And Other Things I Dread...        


I took the Night off Work because Tonight is Meet The Teachers for Princess T's 6th Grade... nobody is looking forward to it, in fact we usually Dread it.  School begins already day after Tomorrow for her, I thought we had at least another Week, and Why begin on a Thursday I Wonder, Curious indeed!?  Princess T has not been Physically or Emotionally Well for over a Week anyway, so she'll be starting School with Health Problems from Day No. One... Splendid!




  We just left the Pediatrician's Office AGAIN earlier this Morning... it's gonna be a full day!  She's asleep again and will have to be woken up to Meet Teachers she'd rather NOT have to meet and communicated that Fact.  It's a Unanimous Sentiment... we don't wanna either, Grandpa and I... but ya gotta do what ya gotta do!!!  Sometimes Avoidance is not an Option!  *LOL*




If you have typical Kiddos, with no Special Needs and Academic or Behavioral Issues and Challenges associated with a Disability, you might not understand why we in that Community typically Dread the meeting of the Teachers?  And that might be because most of your Dealings with the Teachers and Administration of your Schools will mostly and generally be Positive and Uplifting thruout the School Year.  Ours are typically NOT... that's actually an understatement of just how NOT ours will mostly and generally be!!! 




  Most of ours tend to be Negative experiences both for the Child and the Family thruout the School Year.  You know, where you're constantly being told and reminded about all that is WRONG with your Precious One... AS IF we're Unaware!  *Le Sigh*  Trust and Believe, we ARE Aware, we Live it twenty-four-seven and three-hundred-sixty-five! Nothing you can tell us is a Revelation and nothing 'Medical' can further be done that hasn't already been done... and overdone... ad nauseum!  I can only hear just so much about what is Wrong with my Kiddos and is Negative about trying to Educate them. Please, just try to find something Right and Positive, that would be a refreshing Change for once!




It makes us Moms and Grammas particularly Defensive and Protective once anyone starts any Negative Dialogue about our Babies... and especially in front of our Babies... they can Hear you know... at least Mine can!!!   They are not Invisible and they have above average Intelligence really, tho' their Grades will almost never reflect that Fact.  So when they don't Hear much Positive being communicated about them, and in front of them, well, then School becomes just another Life Hurdle or Bias to overcome or Hoop to jump thru.   They already have a Life Journey full of those... it's rather exhaustive for us all and particularly for them. 




 It also doesn't Feel very Inclusive to be Labeled so "Different" from their peers in a way that is almost always being pointed out, even by the Adults... let alone most other Kiddos... and especially AT SCHOOL!   You see, theirs is mostly a 'Hidden' Disability, they Look like everyone else mostly on the surface.   So they'd like to fly under the Radar whenever they can just 'Pass' as allegedly 'Normal' and 'Able' people and blend in... less Drama, less Bias, less Stigma and Hassles, more Inclusion, better Quality of Life, especially Socially and Academically.  





They don't like to be Defined merely by their Disability or set apart all of the time because of it.   Since that Label is not ALL that they are... they are many more things than just a Medical Diagnosis that deems them Disabled Individuals... Title 19's.    {Page 1. Medicaid (Title XIX) Description: The Medicaid program is designed to help persons who are age 65 years or older, persons, with disabilities between the ages of 18 and 65, those who are blind or who receive public assistance to pay medical expenses.}




 As a matter of fact, The Young Prince does not like to say such things as, "I am Mentally Ill..." or "I am Disabled"...  he'd much prefer to refer to himself as, "I am a Human Being..."  Then he doesn't get Categorized nearly so much by his 'Difference', but instead by his Similarities to everyone else.  Distinctions can be a Positive thing or they can be deemed, by Society mostly, as Negative things.  Having Special Needs has been that kind of a Distinction that has not been a Positive thing Socially or Academically and so some situations have learned to be Dreaded on account of it... the predictable Outcome.




Ah, but you're just MEETING The Teachers for this year, for perhaps the first time, so why Dread it you might ask?   Well, lemme tell ya... if you have a Special Needs Child and they've ever already gone to that School, their Rep tends to proceed them in the Admin and Teacher Circles.   Probably around the water cooler discussions, I'm just not Sure how everyone already knows mine even if we are just meeting them for the very first time?!?  Of coarse they do have The Files and Transcripts, so I'm sure all the Red Flags are there and fair warnings disclosed.   I'm sure my own rep has proceeded me too, I can be a ball breaker and head roller when it comes to Advocating for my Kiddos, I ain't gonna lie!  *Winks*




I am NOT one of those Mild Mannered or Meek Parental figures that is easily Intimidated or Bullied... I certainly Pity the Fool that attempts to Patronize me either or talk down to me because I'm a Parent.  Word to the Wise, never underestimate your Opponent, whoever they are, you can get taken down, especially if they have nothing to lose!   I'll go toe to toe with the best of them, Test me, I Dare ya.  Word Up, I don't fight Fair tho', I fight to Win and you likely might never see me coming if you underestimate me as an Adversary!?




   I got paid a shitload of money in my Corporate Lives to Protect the Assets and Interests of Corporations or the County, so don't think for a minute I'm not equally Passionate about Protecting something far more Precious than a damned Portfolio that belongs to someone else!!!  *Winks*   You want me on your Side, you really do, and I want to be on the same Side, the same Page... makes my Life easier... your Life easier... and especially the Kiddos Lives easier!  If you shed a tear or I shed I tear then I won't be all that Moved by it... but if they come Home shedding tears BECAUSE of you, well, then we have a Situation... and it will be Resolved!




 Coz frankly I don't Care if us Big People don't have an easy go of it, but them, I Care if they don't!!  I only Care about having the Common Goal being whatever is in the Best Interest of my Kiddos.   To get them Successfully Educated and not just Aged Out of The System and treated like defects, misfits or just a Pain in your Ass coz you got them in your Class or School this year!!!  I will address any Issues that we possibly can in a mutually respectful way.  But some Issues cannot and will not be Resolved because it involves Health or Mental Health Issues that there is no Cure for... no Handy Solutions for... here or at School!  Deal with that appropriately, that's all I ask... it is what it is and what it will likely always be... forever and ever... Amen!




I don't Like that part of it either, they don't Like that part of it, Trust me... they desperately would Like to be just like everyone else who is Healthy and not stuck with the Labels and Challenges it presents!  You will likely only ever have to Deal with it for perhaps a School Year, or a chance Meeting with The Force, on a limited basis.  They will have to Deal with it for a Lifetime... which means I'm also on board for a Lifetime.   Dealing with Caregiving for Disabled Children and Disabled Adults in our Family has been something I've Dealt with for so long now I am convinced any Teacher can Survive it for perhaps one School Year.  If they don't Feel they can, then I just want to know ASAP so we can request someone else.




Because it is a Topic that will always come up, it almost HAS to... my dilemma is just when should we discuss it, when I Meet you... or later on when it becomes unavoidable?   That's why I Dread the Meeting part... because I KNOW beyond a Shadow of a Doubt, we will be discussing it thruout the School Year, which will seem like an Eternity to us both!   Especially to me since I'm fully Invested in these Precious Ones... the depth of your Hurt is always measured by the depth of your Love you see!




You as the Teacher are not likely to have to remove a Hatchet from your Heart after we've had the unpleasant discussions about what went Wrong, what is Wrong with them, Negativity etcetera ad nauseum!   Nope, I'll be the one removing it from my Heart, AGAIN... hearing it just from a different set of Teachers or Administrators this time around.  And No, I still don't have the Magical answers or Profound Solutions to all your Questions about how we'll 'fix' what you deem to be so very Wrong that you are unable to Teach them or Manage them appropriately.  More esteemed Professionals in the Field Of Medicine have equally not had them either, so just join The Club!




Maybe you'll Genuinely Care, some have in the Past, but they've been just as Clueless about what will Work as those that don't give a Shit, frankly, so Caring won't necessarily have this Fairy Tale Happy Ending.   Those that Care do tend to take it to Heart and Feel more like they've Failed tho', but it's not your 'fault' it's nobody's 'fault'.    The ones that don't give a Shit generally place all 'Blame' on the Special Needs Child, it's handier you see, to create a Scapegoat for Failing to reach or Teach effectively.  To attempt to vilify the Child or Family instead... for being unreachable, unteachable or whatever other Labels you slap on 'em to make yourself Feel Superior, justified or better.




The Young Prince just walked into the Room and asked me why I haven't already left for Work?   I'm not going I says, I had to take the Night Off to Meet The Teachers for your Sister Tonight.   He Smiled knowingly and wryly deadpanned, "Well, that's always 'Fun'..."    We have Gallows Humor around here... Meeting his won't be any less 'Fun' and he starts School ON my Birthday... my Milestone Birthday... what a 'Gift'!  *Bwahahahaha!!!*  He'll be a Senior this year... and probably next year... and mebbe even the year after that... since Credit recapturing is going to be Epic for that one... you know, The Genius.   His Teachers and Administrators still cannot fathom how anyone with an IQ that high can manage to Fail everything?!   Don't ask... I don't know either!???@?@?@?




He can understand Quantum Physics and all manner of stuff I am not Mensa enough to understand at all... yet he can't figure out how to pass about 99.9% of his High School Classes, go figure?!?   But he sure Aces them Tests, he Tests fabulously... he can talk the hind leg off a Donkey about any complex Subject the Teachers want to enter into Dialogue with him about and sound like an Expert in whatever Field it is!   But his Report Card will look like D, F, D, F, F, F... mebbe an A thrown in once in a while when he's not had a Rain Man Moment in that particular Class for that Single Semester?!?   IF they can keep him Engaged, and that's no easy task my Friends, he can be Dialed In instead of being on Planet Young Prince, where he resides almost all of the time!




Yep, he's mostly in his own Little World, where it's not nearly as Annoying and Boring as our World, because he claims most of us Annoy and Bore the living Hell out of him!   And he means that in only the Nicest of ways actually, just stating a Fact!  *LOL*   His Eyes will literally, and I mean LITERALLY, roll back in his Head, where only the Whites are showing, if he has to listen to any of us, AFTER he's Checked Out Mentally, from us droning on about what doesn't Interest nor Engage him!  




 I've seen him involuntarily do it in front of Educators... and those with Ego, well, they just can't handle it!  *LMAO*  Others get concerned, is he having a Seizure!!!!?  Shit, I don't really know if his Brain has temporarily shut down or what, all I know is if we stop talking long enough, he'll Come Back and be Present again and you'll see his Eyes roll back to Normal!   He doesn't even know he does it, he doesn't remember!  Either that or he'll fade off to Sleep, even standing up... like he's been unplugged!  You will have to shake him back to consciousness.




Now with her... we're still trying to Learn to Read... it's a Chore, I think we're up to about entry level Reading now.   She made great strides last Year tho', I just Hope that isn't held against her?   Because it was like the 9 years of Potty Training we Agonized thru, she'd make great strides and have huge setbacks.   Eventually we prevailed... we've now had 2 dry years... so I feel confident one day she will be able to Read too... I just don't know when that day will come?  And the Mood Regulation Thing, well, she's 11... I think all 11 Year Old Girls have that so we're not Reading too much into that... for now...  Lemme just pretend hers is 'Normal' and a 'Phase' that will pass like everyone else's, Okay?!?!!  *Smiles*




And Please Teachers, don't tell me hers are unlike any other Mood Regulation Issues you've ever seen Okay?   She's not throwing Furniture at you yet, which we Endured when her Mother was just slightly older than this and went Wheels Off The Rails into the Abyss of Serious Mental Illness... so I'm Hopeful!!!  Yeah, I've Dealt with Worse... so I CAN remain Hopeful you see... because I know just how Bad it CAN get!!!   The Prodigal Daughter has matured and mellowed just enough, now she's in her mid Thirties, not to be tossing Furniture at people anymore.  But The Mental Health Days she still has, well, she tells me they are still humdingers, I have no reason to Doubt her at her Word about that!  Mostly she only is Aware tho' because people, Witnesses, relay how Bad it got when she was on The Crazy Train, as we affectionately call it.




When she Calls she tells me she doesn't ever want her Kids to be as Sick as she is... they aren't are they Mom, she will implore desperately?   They do Good don't they?  How about School?   Sometimes we don't talk about it if I feel she can't handle The Truth that particular day... other times we have to Keep it 100% Real when she can handle it.   She knows they're always in Good Hands, God's Hands... and that I will do the best I can "with Skin on"... as we call it when you're Dealing with heavy shit as a mere Mortal.   At least SHE isn't attending the Parent-Teacher Conferences, Good God, Christ on a bike and all The Saints... I can only Imagine how that would throw down and play out?!?  *Bwahahahahahahahah!!!!!!*




We'd be calling 911, Posting Bail and probably be on News at 10:00 as the Breaking News Feature Story I would expect... if she were able to Parent and would have to be The One to attend these functions for her Kids!!!  So it's better it's ME... the Kiddos are unanimous about that too... especially The Young Prince who is more Aware about the extent of his Mom's Illness.   Just tell her everything is OK Gramma is his usual advice, you've got it all up under Control, it's Best... because she only Feels Bad and Cries when she knows.   He's right, that's usually how it plays out and then everyone is crying uncontrollably, I can only be Stoic so much.   The depth of the Pain is commensurate with the depth of the Love...





A screwed up Hot Mess of a Family most of the time I'll freely Confess, but one filled with much Love for one another... unconditionally... and we'll Circle The Wagons and form Ranks when anything comes against any of us.   And so in a few minutes we'll be leaving for Meet The Teachers... and other things I Dread... since The Man insists he wants to come along.  It will be sensory overload with swarms of people and Chaos so it's risky if he can handle it without "incident"?  So she wants him there and yet she has Anxiety and sometimes risks Embarrassment about him being in tow if he melts down and doesn't Cope becoz people will and do 'Look' and won't understand.   And coz she's already got her own boatload of Anxiety about it all without Coping with Grandpa's too and feeling Protective of him in Public!  





 And 6th Grade is Upstairs and the last couple years you need to find someone with a Key to use the Elevators! Good Luck with that!!!  Getting The Man up several flights of stairs is quite the convoluted Ordeal lemme tell ya... getting him thru a Parent-Teacher Conference, even moreso... but I don't want to Discourage him from being a part of her Educational Process even tho' he has Brain Damage now.




Because Lord knows it will take both of us and her Brother to Help her with that 6th Grade Homework this year that she is sure not to understand at all!!!  And I'm not certain how much Special Education she will Qualify for this year... she's nearing the end of the Help and Assistance they usually provide for Kids "like her", whatever that means???!?!?!?!   And I think I tapped out of being proficient at that, effectively and accurately Helping with Homework, around her being in the 2nd Grade!   I must be losing Brain Cells or something because Honestly, I can't really Help Modern Kids with Modern Homework anymore once they're past the 1st Grade!!!    And I haven't been in School in a Dog's Age... so Pray for me... *Winks*

*******

Blessings from the Arizona Desert... Dawn... The Bohemian

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