Novel Ms Techniques Speed Detection of Biopharmaceutical Product and Process Impurities, New Webinar Hosted by Xtalks        

This webinar discusses novel mass spectrometer-based approach that can speed detection and quantitation while achieving the required specificity and sensitivity. The live broadcast will take place on Tuesday, July 22, 2014 at 2pm EDT (NA).

(PRWeb July 10, 2014)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2014/07/prweb12003238.htm


           Comparison of three techniques for analysis of data from an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer         
Giorio, Chiara; Tapparo, Andrea; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Harrison, Roy M.; Beddows, David C.S.; Di Marco, Chiara; Nemitz, Eiko. 2012 Comparison of three techniques for analysis of data from an Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer. Atmospheric Environment, 61. 316 - 326. 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.07.054
           Ambient Aerosol in Southeast Asia: High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements Over Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)         
Phillips, G.; Di Marco, C.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Farmer, D.; Kimmel, J.; Jimenez, J.. 2008 Ambient Aerosol in Southeast Asia: High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements Over Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis). Eos Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Mee, A11C-0123. 1, pp.
           Low CO/CO2 ratios of comet 67P measured at the Abydos landing site by the Ptolemy mass spectrometer         
Morse, A. ; Mouisi, O.; Sheridan, S. ; Morgan, G. ; Andrews, D. ; Barber, S. and Wright, I. (2015). Low CO/CO2 ratios of comet 67P measured at the Abydos landing site by the Ptolemy mass spectrometer. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 583, article no. A42.
           Influence of ion activation and thermalization effects on reaction rate constants in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Influence of ion activation and thermalization effects on reaction rate constants in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY, 167 . pp. 735-751. ISSN 1387-3806
           Utilising precursor ion and second-generation product ion scanning techniques in a four-sector mass spectrometer for the analysis of polymer additives         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Utilising precursor ion and second-generation product ion scanning techniques in a four-sector mass spectrometer for the analysis of polymer additives. EUROPEAN MASS SPECTROMETRY, 3 (2). pp. 113-120. ISSN 1356-1049
          February 2017 Meeting        

Speaker: Nathan J. Edwards, Georgetown University

Topic: Beyond Peptide Identification Informatics: Multi-Search, Systems Proteomics, Proteogenomics, Phyloproteomics, and Glycoproteomics

Date: Monday, February 27, 2017

Time: 6:15 pm Dinner, 7:15 pm: Presentation

Location: Shimadzu Scientific Instrument, Inc. Training Center 7100 Riverwood Drive, Columbia, MD 21046 (Directions)

Dinner: Please RSVP to Katherine Fiedler (Katherine.L.Fiedler@fda.hhs.gov) before February 27 if you will be attending the dinner or are a presenting as a vendor.

Abstract: Bottom-up proteomics by LC-MS/MS is one of the most widely used analytical workflows for characterizing the expressed proteins of the cell. With continued improvements in mass spectrometer speed, accuracy, and versatility, we can increase the depth of coverage and detail of protein characterization, but only if our data analysis capabilities keep pace with the size, and complexity, of the collected spectral data. Tens of spectral datafiles with tens of thousands of spectra are now passé. Protein sequence databases provide multiple proteoforms and amino-acid variants per gene, and the number of species and strains with genome sequences continues to grow. Connecting identified proteins with their pathways, to provide a functional context for differentially abundant proteins remains a challenge, and the exploration of non-template driven post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation, requires novel analytical and mass-spectrometry techniques that demand new data-analysis techniques. Crucially, each of these analytical contexts requires a careful consideration of the potential for false conclusions, and strategies for estimating statistical significance.…


          NASA finds 'abundant' water on Mars        
NASA's Mars rover Curiosity has discovered water during its first sample analysis of the Red planet's surface.The first scoop of soil analysed by Curiosity in its laboratory revealed that fine materials on the surface of the planet contain several per cent water by weight.The sample also released significant carbon dioxide, oxygen and sulphur compounds when heated, NASA said."One of the most exciting results from this very first solid sample ingested by Curiosity is the high percentage of water in the soil," said Laurie Leshin, dean of the School Science at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute."About 2 per cent of the soil on the surface of Mars is made up of water, which is a great resource, and interesting scientifically," said Leshin.Curiosity landed in Gale Crater on the surface of Mars on August 6, 2012, charged with answering the question: "Could Mars have once harboured life?"To do that, Curiosity is the first rover on Mars to carry equipment for gathering and processing samples of rock and soil.One of those instruments was employed in the current research: the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, which includes a gas chromatograph, a mass spectrometer and a tunable laser spectrometer.

These tools enable SAM to identify a wide range of chemical compounds and determine the ratios of different isotopes of key elements."By combining analyses of water and other volatiles from SAM with mineralogical, chemical and geological data from Curiosity's other instruments, we have the most comprehensive information ever obtained on Martian surface fines," said Paul Mahaffy, principal investigator for SAM at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt."These data greatly advance our understanding surface processes and the action of water on Mars". Thirty-four researchers, all members of the Mars Science Laboratory Science Team, contributed to the study.Scientists used the rover's scoop to collect dust, dirt and finely grained soil from a sandy patch known as Rocknest.Researchers fed portions of the fifth scoop into SAM. Inside SAM, the "fines" - the dust, dirt and fine soil - were heated to 835 degrees Celsius.Baking the sample also revealed a compound containing chlorine and oxygen, likely chlorate or perchlorate, previously found near the north pole on Mars.Finding such compounds at Curiosity's equatorial site suggests they could be distributed more globally.The analysis also suggests the presence of carbonate materials, which form in the presence of water, researchers said.In addition to determining the amount of the major gases released, SAM also analysed ratios of isotopes of hydrogen and carbon in the released water and carbon dioxide.

          For New Product Development Meet Reliance at Analytica         

Reliance Precision will be in Hall B2, Booth 123 at Analytica to discuss its 1, 2, 3 design and development approach of 1, modelling, 2, reliability and 3, validation which makes Reliance the partner of choice for life science and diagnostic equipment manufacturers looking for quality components and sub-assemblies right through to full product design.

The Reliance team will detail how the reliability of their standardised components and sub-assemblies enables "quick to market design" and the use of proven standards reduces development cost. They will explain how this helps both large and small firms provide robust systems, with case study evidence, for example describing how its Cool Muscle motors are being used successfully in over 500 Biosafe Sepax automated cell processing systems. They will also show components such as Linear Actuators for positioning optics, lenses and lasers and Quadrupole Mass Filters used in world leading high quality mass spectrometers.

Jerry Coffey, Business Manager, Scientific, Analytical and Medical at Reliance, explains: "We take reliability seriously and supply components and sub-assemblies with high levels of yield. If an instrument manufacturer buys an inexpensive quadrupole with a 50 percent yield then of four quadrupoles, two…

          Stringent Quality and Process Control Prevents Contamination        

A laser based targeting system in a military aircraft and a mass spectrometer, used for environmental and food safety monitoring, are both applications where contamination in the production process could potentially cause operational failure.  Systems and instruments such as these contain complex clean assemblies, often with expensive components which have specific handling and process requirements. Gears with specialist coatings, for example, demand high standards of cleanliness and surface preparation in order to ensure adhesion.  Ion transport systems operating in a high vacuum, such as those found in the mass spectrometer, have their own unique set of cleanliness requirements to ensure effective vacuum performance and electrical charging.  

High levels of cleanliness and robust process control are often essential requirements of the scientific instrument, semi-conductor, defence and photonics industries, where the effects of contaminants can lead to equipment malfunction and performance degradation.  Whilst considerable variety exists in providing "clean" solutions, common practices and techniques link the diverse range of end products.

The defence industry refers to Foreign Object Debris, the semi-conductor industry refers to Foreign Body Analysis; slightly different terminology, but a shared strategic issue.  Cleanliness means different things to different people in different industries; there is no universal definition.  The management…

          Quadrupole Mass Filters        

Reliance Precision Limited has over 15 years experience in the manufacture of Quadrupole Mass Filters (QMF) for mass spectrometers. Over these years their facilities have evolved into a state of the art quadrupole manufacturing facility with experienced designers, clean room assembly, inspection and precision cleaning.

It is well known that the Quadrupole Mass Filter requires a very high degree of mechanical accuracy. Reliance has developed a computer model of the Quadrupole Mass Filter. This is used to evaluate the design of a Quadrupole Mass Filters against its performance criteria. Tolerance details for size, straightness, orthogonality, symmetry, positional accuracy, curvature, taper, and parallelism can be studied, and tolerances relevant to the customer's application may be stipulated. The model can produce details of ion entrance conditions, trajectories, and exit conditions, as well as representative mass peak shapes. Transmission versus resolution can be rapidly assessed for any design and in doing so, the optimum ion injection conditions can be specified.

The manufacturing processes are based around 12mm diameter electrode rods, dimensions and features of which can be produced to sub micron precisions. To match this, the mechanical dimensions of the parts and assemblies can be determined to within a few microns; often using…

          Finding the Root Causes of Oil Degradation        

The objective of a root cause analysis (RCA) is to identify what happened, why it happened, and what can be done to prevent it from happening again. It involves examining the problem and considering evidence from several diverse perspectives.

Fluid degradation can be responsible for many kinds of equipment failures. A lubricant in service is subjected to a wide range of conditions which can degrade its base oil and additive system. Such factors include heat, entrained air, incompatible gases, moisture, internal or external contamination, process constituents, radiation and inadvertent mixing of a different fluid.

Best_Practices_GregFig2.jpg

Figure 1. Plugged Filter from a Large-frame Industrial Gas Turbine due to Severe Oil Degradation
(Courtesy of Thomassen Turbines)

Degradation Mechanisms
Following is an overview of some common fluid degradation mechanisms. The relationship between oil analysis and degradation mechanisms is examined in Figure 2.

Oxidation. Oxidation is the reaction of materials with oxygen. It can be responsible for viscosity increase, varnish formation, sludge and sediment formation, additive depletion, base oil breakdown, filter plugging, loss in foam properties, acid number increase, rust and corrosion. Controlling oxidation is a significant challenge in trying to extend the lubricant's life.

Thermal Breakdown. In a mechanical working environment, the temperature of the lubricant is a primary concern. In addition to separating the moving parts of the machinery, the lubricant must also dissipate heat. This means the lubricant will sometimes be heated above its recommended stable temperature. Overheating can cause the light ends of the lubricant to vaporize or the lubricant itself to decompose. This can cause certain additives to be removed from the system without performing their job, or the viscosity of the lubricant may increase.

At temperatures greatly exceeding the thermal stability point of the lubricant, larger molecules will break apart into smaller molecules. This thermal cracking, often referred to as thermal breakdown, can initiate side reactions, induce polymerization, produce gaseous by-products, destroy additives and generate insoluble by-products. In some cases, thermal degradation will cause a decrease in viscosity.

Microdieseling. Also known as pressure-induced thermal degradation, is a process in which an air bubble transitions from a low-pressure to a high-pressure zone, resulting in adiabatic compression. This may produce localized temperatures in excess of 1,000°C, resulting in the formation of carbonaceous by-products and accelerated oil degradation.

Additive Depletion. Most additive systems are designed to be sacrificial. Monitoring additive levels is important not only to assess the health of the lubricant, but it also may provide clues related to specific degradation mechanisms. Monitoring additive depletion can be complex depending upon the chemistry of the additive component.

Electrostatic Spark Discharge. When clean, dry oil rapidly flows through tight clearances, internal (molecular level) friction within the oil can generate static electricity and may accumulate to the point where it produces a sudden discharge or spark. These sparks are estimated to be between 10,000°C and 20,000°C and typically occur in mechanical filters.

Contamination. Foreign substances can greatly influence the type and rate of lubricant degradation. Metals such as copper and iron are catalysts to the degradation process. Water and air can provide a large source of oxygen to react with the oil. Therefore, a contaminant-free lubricant is ideal and monitoring a fluid's contamination levels provides significant insight to the machine's health.

Best_Practices_GregFig1.gif
(Click Image to Enlarge)

Figure 2. Analytical Tools Assess Lubricant Degradation

Rethinking Lubricant Root Cause Analysis
The Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto created a mathematical formula describing the unequal distribution of wealth, observing that 20 percent of the population own 80 percent of the wealth. This theory is known as Pareto's Principle and has been applied to countless situations since. Pareto's Principle can also be applied to equipment reliability in that 20 percent of equipment failures account for 80 percent of the loss. Therefore, having the knowledge and tools to correct the critical 20 percent represents a large opportunity for organizations to improve reliability.

Root cause analysis (RCA) is a term used regularly in lubrication circles. However in the authors' experience, it is an instrument rarely utilized correctly. RCA should be performed on chronic, recurring problems or failures that become more serious over time. Most lubrication-related RCA is based on a routine analysis of the oil and the technician's assumptions, which wastes an organization's valuable resources. The failure to correctly identify a root cause is usually not because of a lack of knowledge within the individual or team tasked with the RCA.

In fact, the expertise of the team is precisely the problem in many cases, because the investigation may be lead toward their own predetermined conclusions. When selecting a person or team to conduct a RCA, remember that they must possess characteristics such as expertise in multiple disciplines, training and experience in RCA, and persistence. The most important task in conducting a successful RCA is to logically interpret collected data and investigate without making assumptions. False assumptions and predetermined conclusions are the primary reason RCAs end without soundly documented conclusions or with incorrect findings.

RCA must start with an understanding of the problem and its potential causes. A list should be generated identifying every possible cause. Care should be taken to not assign blame at this point in the investigation. For each potential root cause, experiments and tests should be constructed to test theory validity. Keep in mind that data proving any theory false (the devil's advocate approach), is as important as the normal approach - because this can also be used to support the correct root cause and destroy incorrect assumptions.

Utilizing Oil Analysis in Fluid Degradation RCA
The following discussion lists some of the tools available, specifically for identifying fluid degradation issues.

Primary Tests for Fluid Degradation
Membrane Patch Colorimetry (MPC) or Quantitative Spectrophotometric Analysis (QSASM). This is a laboratory method of extracting the insoluble contaminants from a used oil sample, followed by spectral analysis of the separated material. With QSASM, a direct correlation is made from the color and intensity of the insolubles to oil degradation. The test is designed to identify soft contaminants (those directly associated with oil degradation), and is not strongly influenced by larger hard contaminants unrelated to oil degradation. This test is considered to be highly sensitive and reliable for detecting subtle changes in insoluble levels. The MPC test method is currently in draft format as a new ASTM standard. The QSASM test is a commercial version of the method performed by Analysts, Inc.

Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR): ASTM E2412. Infrared spectroscopy is a method used to measure the chemistry of organic molecular components. FTIR can be applied to monitor additive depletion, organic degradation by-products and the presence of various contaminants. It is a good primary test for measuring chemistry changes of the fluid basestock, in addition to identifying the degradation mechanism that may be responsible for the fluid degradation.

Ultracentrifuge (UC), Sedimentation Rating. This is a method to isolate all insolubles in a sample. It is accomplished by spinning the sample at 20,000 RPM in a centrifuge for 30 minutes. The insolubles are separated from the fluid centrifugally, allowing a visual sediment rating scale to be used. The minimum value of one represents low levels of insolubles. The maximum value of eight represents a critical level. Limitations of the test include the inability to differentiate between oil degradation by-products and other insoluble contaminants (dirt). Unfortunately, the centrifugation process may also remove additives (VI improvers, dispersants and sulfonates) and may be laborious to run.

Secondary Tests for Fluid Degradation
Viscosity: ASTM D445. Viscosity can be defined as the resistance of a fluid or semisolid to flow and is considered the most important property of a lubricant. It can also be affected by various forms of fluid degradation. Maintaining the proper viscosity is crucial to retaining oil film thickness. However, once a meaningful change in viscosity has occurred due to degradation, several other performance factors (an increase in insolubles, acidity, etc.) may have already been impacted, making it an excellent secondary test for fluid degradation.

Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV): ASTM D6971. This test is designed to detect the oxidative health of a lubricant by measuring the primary antioxidants in the fluid. It is performed using an instrument called the RULER and is an essential condition monitoring tool for lubricant health. The level of remaining additive, and thus remaining useful life of the lubricant, is determined by comparison to original levels. The results of LSV can be correlated to fluid degradation, provided a significant amount of data is available from that particular fluid type.

Rotating Pressure Vessel Oxidation Test (RPVOT): ASTM D2272. An important property of lubricating oil is its oxidation stability or resistance. The RPVOT test (previously RBOT) is a controlled, accelerated oxidation test of a lubricant used to measure the performance of remaining antioxidant additives. Results are then evaluated and compared to new oil levels. This method has limited value as a primary RCA test because fluid degradation may take place on isolated segments of the lubricant, causing insolubles to be created without meaningful drops in RPVOT values. It is not uncommon for sludge and varnish problems to occur in oils even with high RPVOT values. In fact, several lubricants with high RPVOT values have additive chemistries that are more prone to produce deposits such as phenyl-alpha-naphthylamine (PANA).

Acid Number: ASTM D974, D644. This tool measures the acidic constituents present in the lubricant. Most rust inhibitors used in oils are acidic and contribute to the acid number of the new oil. Increases from the new oil level are monitored, which typically reflect the presence of acidic oxidation products. Increases in acid number could also be attributed to contaminants, mixtures of products and/or chemical transformations. Although this is a valuable tool, it views the chemistry that forms after a problem is already present, and is inherently insensitive to weak, organic acids which are produced during lubricant degradation.

Other Useful Analytical Tools in RCA
Pentane/Toluene Insolubles: ASTM D-893. This test is used to determine the level and composition of insoluble contaminants in a lubricant. The level of contamination is derived from measuring material that can be mechanically separated from the fluid by a centrifuge. The composition and origin of the material are obtained by identifying the contaminant's solubility in pentane and toluene.

Two procedures are referenced in the ASTM standard; one with coagulant added to the base solvent, and one without. The first portion of the procedure requires a representative lubricant sample be mixed with pentane and centrifuged at a defined RPM for a specified time period. The amount of material deposited in the tip of the tube represents oil-insoluble, resinous matter that may originate from fluid and/or additive degradation (soft contaminants). This material is measured and identified as the pentane insolubles. In the second portion of the method, following the determination of pentane insolubles, the remaining deposit is mixed with a toluene-based solution, recentrifuged and the fluid is decanted.

The remaining deposit is composed of material associated with external sources of contamination, wear debris or densely carbonized matter generated from high-temperature thermal events (hard contaminants). Variations of this test method include membrane filtration with toluene rinse.

Delta MPC or QSASM. Numerous chemical and physical mechanisms may cause an oil to degrade and produce insolubles once it is isolated from the circulating system. This condition is called autodegradation. One cause of autodegradation is when the lubricant contains a depleted antioxidant additive system and a large number of free radicals.

Best_Practices_GregFig3.jpg

Figure 3. Sludge on Reservoir (Courtesy of Clarus Technologies)

Free radicals are a reactive chemical species generated from lubricant degradation. Antioxidants halt free radical propagation (chain-reactions) which if not prevented, will result in the formation of insoluble by-products, the precursor to varnish. Autodegradation can cause the creation of insoluble contaminants in low or no-flow sections in a lubricating circuit, leading to varnish. Often, lines leading to inactive valves are susceptible to autodegradation and subsequently, when the valves are used, they stick.

Electrostatic spark discharge and microdieseling are two degradation mechanisms known to cause autodegradation due to their ability to create a large number of free radicals in an isolated area. The autodegradation cycle typically reaches an end point approximately 72 hours after the sample is pulled from the reservoir. Autodegradation can be detected by comparing an on-site MPC or QSASM test to the results of a laboratory test conducted at least 72 hours later. The test is called Delta MPC or QSASM because the changes in the value of the test are observed over time. A significant change in results indicates the occurrence of autodegradation.

High-pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry (HPDSC): ASTM D6186. This is a tool that is used to measure the oxidation induction time of lubricating oils under oxygen at 500 psig and elevated temperatures (130°C and 210°C). Many researchers believe this tool relates to RPVOT or RULER in its ability to test for the oxidation life expectancy of the lubricant. Because the sample size is small, bulk solution effects are minimized and it is possible to observe good interchange of the sample with its atmospheric oxygen. This allows good repeatability of the test procedure with a reasonable reaction time.

Gas Chromatography (GC/MS). This is a separation technique that is applied to the light ends of a lubricant. It can be used to separate portions of the lubricant's base stock, as well as many of the smaller additives. Using this technique, the refinery controls the production process of the actual basestock. When linked to a mass spectrometer detector, the GC/MS can also identify the components being separated. The mass spectrometer detector can increase the detectability of the compounds being separated. When using the GC/MS, the concentrations of additives, such as antioxidants, can be measured to as low as 10 ppm.

Thermogravimetric Analysis TGA: D6370, D5967. TGA is a tool that measures the weight loss of a sample as it is heated in a controlled environment. The tool allows the different components present to be studied by observing their vaporization temperature or decomposition points. The amounts of organics (oil, polymer), carbon black and ash in the sample can be identified.

Flash Point: ASTM D92. This is a method that measures the minimum temperature at which an oil vapor will support combustion for at least five seconds. Various forms of thermal degradation will produce lightends that have the ability to lower the lubricant's flash point. Flash point is a common test used to determine the presence of fuel dilution in a used lubricant.

Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA): ASTM D3612. DGA is an analytical test that measures the dissolved gases in oils through gas chromography. Certain degradation mechanisms cause a lubricant's hydrocarbon molecule to crack, producing light end gases that are entrained in the oil. The type and distribution of these gases can indicate which degradation mechanism is responsible.

Gases that are useful to examine when applying this test to fluid degradation include hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, ethylene and acetylene), carbon oxides (carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide) and hydrogen. Researchers have attempted to identify the specific gases produced once the hydrocarbon molecule is cracked (temperatures in excess of 300°C). Acetylene, for example, is created at temperatures greater than 1,000°C.

Color: ASTM D1500. When fluid rapidly changes colors, this may indicate accelerated oil degradation, a mixture of oils in service or contamination with another product. Color is an important characteristic to monitor over time. Oil darkening is often caused by chromophores created in the degradation process. In addition, certain additives produce distinct color bodies after depletion. It is important to note that some fluids may have not undergone a color change and could still be degraded to dangerous levels, and vice versa.

Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer (SEM/EDS). SEM/EDS uses a high-energy electron beam reflects off the surface of an object providing detailed three-dimensional visual observations, while also identifying the object's elemental composition. This is a powerful tool in examining deposit formation, metallurgical analysis and failure analysis.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR). NMR is a tool similar to FTIR in that it allows the molecular properties of the lubricant to be studied. By applying a magnetic field to the molecule, certain atoms yield a nuclear spectrum that is affected by its chemical environment. For oil analysis, the most commonly used atoms that can record NMR spectra are hydrogen (¹H), carbon-13 (¹³C) and phosphorus (³¹P). NMR is closely related to MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), which is used to capture images of soft tissue damage in human medicine. This tool allows research of detailed structural information concerning the sample's chemistry.

Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). GPC is a technique that physically separates the sample by the molecular size of its components. It is valuable for the study and separation of high molecular weight materials from the base oil, additives and formulated lubricants. These materials include many of the oxidation condensation products.

Spectrochemical Analysis: ASTM D6595, D5185. Elemental spectroscopy is an analytical method to measure and monitor specific trace metals for wear and corrosion levels, airborne or internally generated contaminants, and certain additives. Particles detected are typically 8 µm or less and the results are reported in parts per million (ppm) by weight.

Water Content: ASTM D6304, D1744. Water contamination within oil systems adversely affects the lubricant by acting as a catalyst for oxidation and depleting water-sensitive additives (also called additive washout). Water also promotes rusting, corrosion, microdieseling and filter plugging. Results are reported in parts per million (ppm) by weight.

Particle Count: ISO 11171, ISO 11500, NAS 1638. This is a test designed to count the number of particles present greater than a given micron size per unit volume of fluid. The results reflect the insoluble contaminants present within that size range and are applied to assess fluid cleanliness and filtration efficiency. Cleanliness levels are also represented by the ISO 4406 classification system to classify the particles larger than 4 µm, 6 µm and 14 µm per milliliter of fluid.

Root cause analysis is a powerful tool to methodically investigate reliability problems including lubricant degradation. Oil analysis is an excellent tool in the root cause analysis toolbox. Measuring chemical changes in the lubricant, along with the creation of insoluble contaminants is the first step in identifying fluid degradation. Remember that one of the major pitfalls in lubricant root cause analysis is that assumptions are made by the investigators. As a result, problems are either incorrectly diagnosed or not solved. By approaching lubricant degradation issues with an open mind and by methodically applying oil analysis tools, the root cause of recurring problems can be solved.

Editor's Note

QSASM is a service mark of Analysts, Inc.

This is an abridged version of a technical paper that appeared in the Conference Proceedings from Lubrication Excellence 2006. The full-length article with case studies can be found in the LE2006 Proceedings.


          Smiths Detection Launches Next-Generation Miniaturized Chemical Threat Identifier        
DANBURY, Conn. -  Smiths Detection has unveiled a next-generation chemical threat detector that combines high speed, high-resolution gas chromatography (GC) and a miniaturized toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) in a portable device. The revolutionary GUARDION™, which greatly enhances military and emergency response capabilities in the field, can confirm the presence and identity of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in gases, vapors, liquids and solids. Mal Maginnis, Pre...
          Mastering Physics Solutions: Mass Spectrometer        
Part A = u = sqrt((2 * V * q) / m) Part B = m/q = (R * B0)^2 / 2V J. J. Thomson is best known for his discoveries about the nature of cathode rays. Another important contribution of his was the invention, together with one of his students, of the mass spectrometer. The ratio of mass m to (positive) charge q of an ion may be accurately determined in a mass spectrometer. In essence, the spectrometer consists of two regions: one that accelerates the ion through a potential V and a second that measures its radius of curvature in a perpendicular magnetic field. The ion begins at potential V and is accelerated toward zero potential. When the particle exits the region with the electric field it will have obtained a speed u. With what speed u does the ion exit the acceleration region? After being accelerated, the particle enters a uniform magnetic field of strength B0 and travels in a circle of radius R (determined by observing where it hits on a screen--as shown in the figure). The results of this experiment allow one to find m/q in terms of the experimentally measured quantities such as the particle radius, the magnetic field, and the applied voltage. What is m/q?
          IonBenchTM - a new brand for specific MS Benches.        
IonBench lab furniture are fully dedicated to LC/MS and GC/MS Benches. Our benches for mass spectrometers are compatible with all MS manufacturers such as Agilent, AB Sciex, Bruker, Jeol, Leco, Perkin Elmer, Shimadzu, Thermo Scientific, Waters... - 30% space saving & 75% reduction in noise perception -
          Deciding Where to Purchase Your NIST Library Upgrade        

If your lab uses a mass spectrometer, you’ve probably heard this news flash: NIST (the National Institute of Standards and Technology) is scheduled to release the latest edition of their mass spectral library June 6th.  We’ve outlined many of the benefits of the new release, which will contain over 30,000 additional spectra and almost 25,000 … Continue reading Deciding Where to Purchase Your NIST Library Upgrade

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          Identify any Spectrum with Our NIST Library Upgrade        

Sherlock Holmes had his magnifying glass—but he also had a mental “library” of items with which he could compare what he saw. If not, he wouldn’t have solved many crimes. Today, research lab technicians (who are sometimes real crime stoppers!) use mass specs to help solve scientific puzzles. Since there’s no way to hold hundreds … Continue reading Identify any Spectrum with Our NIST Library Upgrade

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          The 2017 NIST Mass Spectral Library is Almost Here—Which Version Do You Need?        

The 2017 NIST library upgrade is coming in June. These descriptions will help buyers decide which of the four spectra database options & helpful utilities are right for them.

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          How the NIST Library Upgrade Will Complete Your MS Toolkit        

NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center announces the 2017 release of NIST mass spectral libraries. During May 2017, order NIST 2014 at the current price and receive NIST 2017 at no additional charge, a savings of up to10%.

The post How the NIST Library Upgrade Will Complete Your MS Toolkit appeared first on NIST Mass Spectral Library | Software for Mass Spectrometer.


          Why the NIST 14 Mass Spectral Library is a Must        

For a quality, peer-reviewed and highly scrutinized database of spectral compounds, the NIST Mass Spectral Library is a must have for anyone in any area of scientific research working with mass spectrometry.

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          Meet the Expert Behind Customer Support of the NIST Mass Spectrometry Library        

Scientists using the NIST Mass Spectra Library rely on the help of industry expert, professor and author David Sparkman for customer support services.

The post Meet the Expert Behind Customer Support of the NIST Mass Spectrometry Library appeared first on NIST Mass Spectral Library | Software for Mass Spectrometer.


          NIST LIBRARY APPLICATIONS: More of What’s Being Analyzed?        

In this post, we continue to follow applications of the NIST Library from a wide variety of situations and studies. So you can stay up-to-date on the activity scientists are reporting, here are some more recent studies using the NIST Mass Spectral Library that we think are interesting. Food and Flavor Analysis This study, recently … Continue reading NIST LIBRARY APPLICATIONS: More of What’s Being Analyzed?

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          The NIST Mass Spectral Library Is Easier Than Ever to Navigate with Robust New Add-on Software        

While the NIST Mass Spectral Library is a definitive resource, it can actually be en-hanced with robust add-on software available at NISTMassSpecLibrary.com.

The post The NIST Mass Spectral Library Is Easier Than Ever to Navigate with Robust New Add-on Software appeared first on NIST Mass Spectral Library | Software for Mass Spectrometer.


          Which NIST14 Mass Spectral Library Option Is Right for You?        

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Mass Spectral Library is a tool no researcher should be without. Learn which version is best for you.

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          What’s Happening at the NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center?        

Big things are always happening in Gaithersburg, Maryland, the home of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center. This group within the Biomolecular Measurement Division develops evaluated mass spectral libraries to help scientists and lab workers with compound identification. Among the useful tools they provide are mass … Continue reading What’s Happening at the NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center?

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          "The Nose Knows" -- The Discovery Files        
Bloodhounds, take notice! Thanks to researchers at Purdue University, law enforcement officers and forensic pathologists may soon have a new working tool to sniff out trouble--a device they can take to the scene for instant identification. Today's mass spectrometers are much too large to take into the field, and analysis takes several hours. The portable mass spectrometer being developed fits in a backpack and analyzes unknown substances immediately. A big sniffer in a little package!
          Forensic Toxicology Instrumentation - LCMSMS        
Class Code: 
T102b
Subject Area: 
T - Toxicology Program
Class Location: 
Hertzberg-Davis Forensic Science Center California State University Los Angeles
Class Description: 

This 16-hour course presents a comprehensive overview of the theory and practical application of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) instrumentation in forensic toxicology. Topics to be presented include basic LC theory and operation, basic mass spectrometer theory and operation as it pertains to LC, instrumental set-up and configuration, the use of LC/MS and LC/MS/MS in forensic toxicology, and qualitative and quantitative analyses. In addition, method development, validation, and proficiency testing will be discussed. Specific applications topics include analysis of common drugs of abuse, general unknown screens and specialized analyte screens (e.g., benzodiazepines, thermally labile drugs, quaternary ammonium compounds, HGH, insulin) and quantitations. Trace evidence analysts may be interested in general LC/MS/MS principles and selected discussions about applications of LC/MS/MS to explosives residue analysis.

Instructor: 
TBA
Preparation: 
Successful completion of Forensic Toxicology-Basic Concepts (T101) or equivalent.
Tuition: 
No cost to POST supported or State of California based Law Enforcement agencies.
Course Contact: 
CCI FAX (916) 464-5818

          iKNIFE DETECTS CANCER CELLS IN TUMOR OPERATIONS        

When surgeons remove tumor tissue they try to leave a "margin" of healthy tissue to ensure all the cancer is removed. Sometimes this means the patient has to remain under general anaesthetic for another 30 minutes or so while tissue samples are sent for analysis to check if the margin is clear. Even then, it is still possible that some cancerous tissue remains, and the patient has to undergo further surgery to remove it.
Now, a new technique based on an "intelligent knife," called the "iKnife," promises to remove the need for lab analysis and the accompanying delay, and it also helps avoid repeat surgeries.
The iKnife sniffs the "smoke" created by the electrosurgical removal of cancerous tissue and tells the surgeon almost immediately if the tissue it has come from is healthy or cancerous.
This first study appears online this week in Science Translational Medicine, in which the iKnife is tested in the operating room.
In tissue samples from 91 patients, researchers at Imperial College London using the iKnife achieved 100% accuracy in diagnosing whether the samples were cancerous or not.
Study author Dr. Zoltan Takats is the inventor of the iKnife. Asked if his new surgical tool would be confined to use in only certain types of cancer, he told Medical News Today:
"It is a generally applicable tool, we believe it will be useful for many different types of cancer surgeries."
On the question of cost-effectiveness, Dr. Takats told us:
"We believe that it will be a cost-saver - due to elimination of intraoperative histology, shorter intervention times and lower rate of re-operations."
iKnife combines electrosurgery with new mass spectrometry techniques
The iKnife is a combination of an established technology called electrosurgery that was invented in the 1920s and a new technology that is still emerging, called rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS).
In electrosurgery, the surgeon's knife delivers an electric current that heats the target tissue and cuts through it while causing minimum loss of blood.
The heat from the current vaporizes the tissue, which gives off a smoke that is normally sucked away with an extractor.
The mass spectrometer technology behind REIMS almost instantly identifies the chemicals present in human tissue by analyzing the smoke that is released during electrosurgery.
Cells produce thousands of metabolites in various concentrations, depeding on their cell type. So once the REIMS technology is primed with the profiles of healthy and cancerous cells, it can rapidly use these to screen the sample of smoke and inform the surgeon whether it is from a tumor or healthy tissue.
Results delivered in under 3 seconds
By comparing the chemical profile of the tissue it is sampling to the reference library, the iKnife can deliver a result in under 3 seconds, say the researchers.
But for this study, the surgeons carrying out the procedures were not allowed to see the nearly instant readings from the iKnife.
The researchers now hope to run a clinical trial that tests whether giving surgeons access to iKnife readings during operations improves outcomes for patients.
Dr. Takats says in a statement:
"These results provide compelling evidence that the iKnife can be applied in a wide range of cancer surgery procedures."
As the technology delivers almost instant results, it allows "surgeons to carry out procedures with a level of accuracy that hasn't been possible before", he adds, noting that they "believe it has the potential to reduce tumor recurrence rates and enable more patients to survive."

Source: Medical News Today

          Haystack 2011 Year-in-Review        
Well, 2011 is in the books, and we here at The Haystack felt nostalgic for all the great chemistry coverage over this past year, both here and farther afield. Let’s hit the high points: 1. HCV Takes Off – New treatments for Hepatitis C have really gained momentum. An amazing race has broken out to bring […]
          mass spectrometer        

The development of the mass spectrometer allowed the exact mass of atoms to be measured. The device uses a magnet to bend the trajectory of a beam of ions, and the amount of deflection is determined by the ratio of an atom's mass to its charge. The chemist Francis William Aston used this instrument to demonstrate that isotopes had different masses. The mass of these isotopes varied by integer amounts, called the whole number rule.[31] The explanation for these different atomic isotopes awaited the discovery of the neutron, a neutral-charged particle with a mass similar to the proton, by the physicist James Chadwick in 1932. Isotopes were then explained as elements with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons within the nucleus.[32]

          FTIR Analyzer        
Spectro Lab Equipment’s Pvt. Ltd. Is India’s best testing laboratory equipments suppliers company. Is provide suppliers service of analytical equipments like, FTIR, Flame Photometer, Elise Microplate Reader & Washer, OES (Optical Emission Spectrometer), Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, Mass Spectrometer, Liquid Chromatography, Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, ICP, Biochemistry Analyzer, Maldi Imaging Prep System, and another equipment for Environment, Textiles, Food & Argo, Petroleum Equipments, Gold Testing Machine, etc.
          Cheap, Re-usable Cell Phone Microscope? Yeah, It's A Thing...        
For the last couple of years I have been exploring the idea of intelligence support to entrepreneurs.  The cool thing about this is that I get exposed to lots of new ideas.  The most recent - and one of the most interesting - products I have seen is the Button Microscope.

This is a microscope that you can attach to the lens of any cell phone with a camera.  It immediately turns it into a powerful microscope.  To be honest, others have done much the same thing but their products tend to be clunky, DIY projects that require far more patience than I have for that sort of thing.

The Button Microscope just works.  More importantly, it is going to be pretty inexpensive to produce and re-usable as well.  

I can't show you the prototypes I have been playing around with this morning (top secret, hush-hush stuff, you know) but I can show you some of the pics I took with them (with zero training I should add).


This first pic is one of a piece of graph paper I had lying around.  I edited both the left and the right image for size and brightness in the online photo editor, PicMonkey, but other than that both images are straight from my cell phone.


You can get a little bit better feel for the power of the microscope in this image.  On the left is the venerable Intelligence Analyst's Deck Of Cards (still available for sale...ahem...).  On the right is a close up of the box (focused on the "L" in "Analyst's").  You can see that the microscope has a distinct focal point and that the image blurs some at the margins.  That may be an existential feature of the device or it may just be that I am a pretty poor photographer.  I'll need to play around with it some more to see.


To me, this is the most impressive image set.  On the left you see one of the playing pieces from my game, Cthulhu Vs. Vikings.  On the right you see an image taken using the Button Microscope from the top down.  These pieces were all printed on the 3D printer and the macro view allows you to see every layer quite clearly and captures a surprising amount of detail even as the playing piece recedes from the focal point.

The broader intel/investigative implications of a device like this are pretty interesting to contemplate.  Clandestine collectors who are looking to get extreme closeups of, I don't know, circuit boards and such will love it.  Investigators look for trace evidence or fingerprints are going to love it too (If you have a clever idea for something like this, drop it in the comments!).

When can you get one of these amazing devices for your own cell phone?  Well, we hope to launch a Kickstarter campaign in October to fund the initial production run.  

Next we will add a mass spectrometer (currently available for $249 - no shit) and we will be well on our way to a tricorder.  Oh, wait.  That's due in January.
          Exploding pumps trigger Sciex mass spectrometer alert        
From Marc Reisch’s story at C&EN: Scientific instrument maker Sciex has told owners of more than 2,000 mass spectrometers to immediately shut down the instruments because a catastrophic failure of turbo pumps manufactured by Agilent Technologies could “result in serious injury or death.” To date, Sciex says, no one has been injured. According to a […]
          Shimadzu’s New Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) Offers Outstanding Reliability, Exceptional Ease of Use, and the Industry’s Lowest Operating Costs        

The ICPMS-2030 is the first ICP-MS in the industry to include assistant functions that develop methods and perform post-run diagnostics.

(PRWeb March 08, 2016)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2016/03/prweb13252618.htm


          Chemical ionization and ion molecule reactions in the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer with ion injection        
none
          EMMA passes her first test        
31 January 2017

TRIUMF's Electromagnetic Mass Analyzer (EMMA) is a recoil mass spectrometer undergoing commissioning in the ISAC-II experimental hall (see Figure 2).  In December 2016 it achieved a major breakthrough when it was tested for the first time with a heavy ion beam. A thick gold foil was bombarded with an 80 MeV 36Ar (argon) beam and elastically scattered 36Ar ions were transmitted through the spectrometer to the focal plane.

 In December 2016, EMMA  achieved a major breakthrough when it was tested for the first time with a heavy ion beam.

Front Page Stories: 

          Fundamental studies of the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer        
none
          Expanding and enhancing the capabilities of the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer for high resolution and MSn analyses        
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          Kinetic energies and reactions of trapped ions in a fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer        
none
          Probing trapped ion energies in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer        
none
          Development and application of a microcomputer based data acquisition system for an ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer        
none
          Fundamental studies of ion injection and trapping of electrosprayed ions on a quadruple ion trap mass spectrometer        
none
          A novel electrospray ion trap mass spectrometer for photodissociation of biological molecules        
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           The Nature of Collision-Induced Dissociation Processes of Doubly Protonated Peptides: Comparative Study for the Future Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation on a Hybrid Quadruple Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer         
Cramer, R; Corless, S; (2001) The Nature of Collision-Induced Dissociation Processes of Doubly Protonated Peptides: Comparative Study for the Future Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation on a Hybrid Quadruple Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry , 15 pp. 2058-2066.
          Mixed clusters from the coexpansion of C2F6 and N2 in a pulsed, supersonic expansion cluster ion source and beam deflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer        
none
          Selective ion-molecule reactions in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer        
none
          Development of laser desorption ionization on a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer        
none
          Development and application of particle beam LC/MS on the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer        
none
          Associative ion-molecule reactions and ion trapping with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer        
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          GC/MS/MS on the quadrupole ion mass spectrometer software development and the examination of the effects of ion population        
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          Unexpected Reduction of Iminoquinone and Quinone Derivatives in Positive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Possible Mechanism Exploration.        
Related Articles

Unexpected Reduction of Iminoquinone and Quinone Derivatives in Positive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Possible Mechanism Exploration.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2017 Aug 07;:

Authors: Pei J, Hsu CC, Zhang R, Wang Y, Yu K, Huang G

Abstract
Unexpected reduction of iminoquinone (IQ) and quinone derivatives was first reported during positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Upon increasing spray voltage, the intensities of IQ and quinone derivatives decreased drastically, accompanying the increase of the intensities of the reduction products, amodiaquine (AQ) and phenol derivatives. To gain more insight into the mechanism of such reduction, we explored the experimental factors that are influential to corona discharge (CD). The results show that experimental parameters that favor severe CD, including metal spray emitter, using water as spray solvent, sheath gas with low dielectric strength (e.g., nitrogen), and shorter spray tip-to-mass spectrometer inlet distance, facilitated the reduction of IQ and quinone derivatives, implying that the reduction should be closely related to CD in the gas phase. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

PMID: 28786093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


          Saturn's Moon Shows Evidence of Ammonia        
(July 22, 2009) -- Data collected during two close flybys of Saturn's moon Enceladus by Cassini add more fuel to the fire about the icy world containing sub-surface liquid water. The results, based on data collected by Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer during Enceladus flybys in July and October 2008, will be published in tomorrow's issue of the journal Nature. "When Cassini flew through the plume erupting from Enceladus on 8 October last year, our spectrometer was able to sniff ...
          Hiden Analytical: diagnostic tools for atomic layer deposition        
Hiden Analytical’s mass spectrometer products are used in the process and post-process stages of a (...)
           Rosetta Comet Outburst Captured         

Rosetta Comet In Action

A dramatic outburst from Rosetta's target comet is recorded by several instruments, including the Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer, which uses NASA-built electronics.




          Exploding pumps trigger Sciex mass spectrometer alert        
From Marc Reisch’s story at C&EN: Scientific instrument maker Sciex has told owners of more than 2,000 mass spectrometers to immediately shut down the instruments because a catastrophic failure of turbo pumps manufactured by Agilent Technologies could “result in serious injury or death.” To date, Sciex says, no one has been injured. According to a […]
          New mass spectrometer will help develop better training for bomb-sniffing dogs        
Researchers have developed a new mass spectrometer to verify canines' responses to explosive materials.
          SUPERGREEENS WOW!, 49 organically grown grasses        
SuperGreen powder is made by organically grown 49 grasses, sprouted leaves and grains and vegetables that offer you health benefits without any side effects.

The raw materials used in the preparation of this green powder are tested with a mass spectrometer and is gathered from the purest sources to make sure that they are pesticide and toxin free.

The blend of final product consist of more than 125 vitamins, amino acids and minerals in order to help balance the pH of the body and provide you with the essential nutrients required for the production of energy and healthy cells.

To further enhance its assimilation it is charge with over 250 megahertz of frequency.
                  
ICP MS

The Principles of ICP-MS


ICP-MS performs multi-elemental analysis with excellent sensitivity and high sample throughput. The ICP-MS instrument employs a plasma (ICP) as the ionization source and a mass spectrometer (MS) analyzer to detect the ions produced. It can simultaneously measure most elements in the periodic table and determine analyte concentration down to the sub nanogram-per-liter (ng/l) or part-per trillion (ppt) level. It can perform qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative analysis, and since it employs a mass analyzer, it can also measure isotopic ratios.


Figure 1. Agilent ICP-MS Block Diagram


The Plasma as an Ionization Source
In general, liquid samples are introduced by a peristaltic pump, to the nebulizer where the sample aerosol is formed. A double-pass spray chamber ensures that a consistent aerosol is introduced into the plasma. Argon (Ar) gas is introduced through a series of concentric quartz tubes which form the ICP. The torch is located in the center of an RF coil, through which RF energy is passed. The intense RF field causes collisions between the Ar atoms, generating a high-energy plasma. The sample aerosol is instantaneously decomposed in the plasma (plasma temperature is in the order of 6000 - 10000 K) to form analyte atoms which are simultaneously ionized. The ions produced are extracted from the plasma into the mass spectrometer region which is held at high vacuum (typically 10-4 Pa). The vacuum is maintained by differential pumping: the analyte ions are extracted through a pair of orifices, known as the sampling and skimmer cones.

Quadrupole Mass Analyzer
The analyte ions are then focused by a series of ion lenses into a quadrupole mass analyzer, which separates the ions based on their mass/charge ratio. The term quadrupole is used since the mass analyzer is essentially consists of four parallel stainless steel rods to which a combination of RF and DC voltages are applied. The combination of these voltages allows the analyzer to transmit only ions of a specific mass/charge ratio.

Detector
Finally, the ions are measured using an electron multiplier, and are collected by a counter for each mass number.

Mass Spectrum
The mass spectrum generated is extremely simple. Each elemental isotope appears at a different mass (e.g. 27Al would appear at 27 amu) with a peak intensity directly proportional to the initial concentration of that isotope in the sample solution. A large number of elements ranging from Lithium (Li) at low mass to Uranium (U) at high mass are simultaneously analyzed typically within 1-3 minutes. With ICP-MS, a wide range of elements in concentration levels from ppt to ppm level can be measured in a single analysis.


Figure 2. ICP-MS Spectrum of Riverine Water


Applications
The ICP-MS is widely used in many industries including semiconductor, environmental, geological, chemical, nuclear, clinical, and research laboratories, as a key analytical tool for the determination of trace level elements.


Sumber : http://www.chem.agilent.com/en-US/Products/Instruments/atomicspectroscopy/icp-ms/pages/gp455.aspx
           Evita - a miniature mass spectrometer to identify and quantify volatiles evolved from mercury's regolith         
Sheridan, Simon ; Morse, Andrew ; Barber, Simeon ; Wright, Ian and Pillinger, Colin (2003). Evita - a miniature mass spectrometer to identify and quantify volatiles evolved from mercury's regolith. In: EGS - AGU - EUG Joint Assembly, 6 - 11 April 2003, Nice, France.
          High accuracy mass spectrometry analysis as a tool to verify and improve gene annotation using Mycobacterium tuberculosis as an example        
High accuracy mass spectrometry analysis as a tool to verify and improve gene annotation using Mycobacterium tuberculosis as an example De Souza, Gustavo A.; Målen, Hiwa; Søfteland, Tina; Sælensminde, Gisle; Prasad, Swati; Jonassen, Inge; Wiker, Harald G. Journal article; Peer reviewed

Background: While the genomic annotations of diverse lineages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex are available, divergences between gene prediction methods are still a challenge for unbiased protein dataset generation. M. tuberculosis gene annotation is an example, where the most used datasets from two independent institutions (Sanger Institute and Institute of Genomic Research-TIGR) differ up to 12% in the number of annotated open reading frames, and 46% of the genes contained in both annotations have different start codons. Such differences emphasize the importance of the identification of the sequence of protein products to validate each gene annotation including its sequence coding area.

Results: With this objective, we submitted a culture filtrate sample from M. tuberculosis to a highaccuracy LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer analysis and applied refined N-terminal prediction to perform comparison of two gene annotations. From a total of 449 proteins identified from the MS data, we validated 35 tryptic peptides that were specific to one of the two datasets, representing 24 different proteins. From those, 5 proteins were only annotated in the Sanger database. In the remaining proteins, the observed differences were due to differences in annotation of transcriptional start sites.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that, even in a less complex sample likely to represent only 10% of the bacterial proteome, we were still able to detect major differences between different gene annotation approaches. This gives hope that high-throughput proteomics techniques can be used to improve and validate gene annotations, and in particular for verification of high-throughput, automatic gene annotations.


           Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation liquid chromatography/multistage mass spectrometry for assignment of sedimentary bacteriochlorophyll derivatives         
Wilson, Michael A.; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Keely, Brendan J.. 2005 Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation liquid chromatography/multistage mass spectrometry for assignment of sedimentary bacteriochlorophyll derivatives. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometery, 19 (1). 38-46. 10.1002/rcm.1749
          199 – Mass Spectrometers        
Mass spectrometers are devices for measuring the mass-to-charge ratio of molecules and ions. They use many different measurement principles and are used in various areas of science. Our guest Alexander Makarov works as a Director Global Research for Thermo Fisher's Life Sciences Division and has invented the Orbitrap principle used widely in modern mass spectrometers. We talk about mass spectrometry in general, the different measurement principles, engineering challenges, the invention of the Orbitrap, use cases for mass spectrometers and the different machines sold by Thermo Fisher.
          Decomposition and phase transformation mechanism of kaolinite calcined with sodium carbonate        
Publication date: October 2017
Source:Applied Clay Science, Volume 147

Author(s): Kezhou Yan, Yanxia Guo, Li Fang, Li Cui, Fangqin Cheng, Tongyang Li

Thermal decomposition, phase transformation and microstructure change for the mixture of kaolinite and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) calcined at different temperatures were studied through experimental investigation and theoretical analysis. Thermo-gravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric coupled with mass spectrometer (TG-DSC/MS) were utilized to determine the reaction temperature of kaolinite and Na2CO3. The calcinated products at different temperatures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The results showed that the solid-state reaction between kaolinite and Na2CO3 mainly occurred within the temperature of 300–850°C. During the calcining process, kaolinite was decomposed and transformed into meta-kaolin (MK), low-temperature carnegieite (L-phase), nepheline and zeolite in turn, which can be interpreted in terms of the combination change of different oxygen coordination. With the increase of temperature, the [AlO6] octahedron in kaolinite gradually transformed into the [AlO4] tetrahedron in MK by dehydroxylation, and the bridging oxygen between [AlO4] and [SiO4] layers together with the bridging oxygen in [AlO4] layer and [SiO4] layer were broken with the participation of Na2CO3. Subsequently, the obtained individual [AlO4] and [SiO4] tetrahedrons alternately recombined and formed an anion frame-like structure by sharing the oxygen atom owing to the limitation of Pauling's electrostatic valence rule. In order to further maintain the charge neutrality and structural stability, Na+ ions were filled in the anion frame-like structure of L-phase, nepheline and zeolite. This research is of some theoretical significance for the Na2CO3-assisted thermal activation of kaolinite and kaolinite-based solid wastes.






          é†«å­¸é ˜åŸŸ - 醫學遺傳學及基因體學每月研討會 ─ How Proteomics Makes Us Rethink Our Genome and Transcriptome and Helps Fight Cancers        
系列說明:
醫學領域專題演講,收錄精彩的醫學科技演講!

影片說明:
The Central Dogma of biology is constantly being annotated. Biologists live by it to design their research. Clinicians follow it to develop treatments. New discoveries, however, keep refining it. The list of powerful toolkits for biomedical discovery will not be complete without a burgeoning discipline, proteomics, which is the starter of my talk. Last year, the monumental endeavor to draft the first map of human proteome has uncovered misconstrued parts of human genome including pseudogenes, non-coding RNAs and open reading frames. In the past decade, the advent of new labeling methods and high resolution mass spectrometers has not only widened the application of quantitative proteomics but also made seminal discoveries that were infeasible otherwise. For example, the throughput to measure thousands of proteins helps interrogate how human transcriptome regulates itself, which hence affects protein synthesis globally. At the forefront of disease treatment development, proteomics is also spearheading the revelation of disease mechanism and identification of new therapeutic targets. In this talk, I would love to share with everybody how proteomics helps reshape our understanding about the flow of genetic information. As a physician scientist, I also will detail how proteomics provides an excellent opportunity for us to develop next generation cancer therapy.

演講者:
黃泰中 主治醫師 (臺大醫院內科部)

觀賞影片

          Polymer Spray Mass Spectrometric Detection and Quantitation of Hydrophilic Compounds and some Narcotics.        
Related Articles

Polymer Spray Mass Spectrometric Detection and Quantitation of Hydrophilic Compounds and some Narcotics.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2017 Aug 09;:

Authors: Dulay MT, Zare RN

Abstract
RATIONALE: High throughput screening of biofluids is essential in monitoring concentration of a variety of drugs to determine their efficacy and toxicity. Organosiloxane polymers prepared by sol-gel chemistry as sample supports and electrospray-ionization emitters in a single material and as an alternative to paper substrates, is described in this study.
METHODS: Hydrophobic drugs and hydrophilic streptomycin were analyzed by polymer-spray MS with an LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Drug samples in urine (1-2 μL) were deposited on an OSX polymer, allowed to dry, then electrosprayed from the polymer tip into the mass spectrometer without sample pretreatment. The OSX polymers, whose polarity and porosity can be controlled, were prepared by sol-gel chemistry where methyl-substituted alkoxysilanes were hydrolyzed in the presence of a pore template and an acid catalyst.
RESULTS: Five nanograms each of 7 narcotic drugs were detected in <1 min (RSD of response <1% for each drug). Calibration curves of cocaine and streptomycin in urine was used to establish the performance of the polymer. For sample 1 (n=2), the mean recovery for cocaine was 81% with paper and 90% with polymer. Streptomycin is detected with polymer, not with paper; for samples 1 and 2 (n=3), mean recovery was 97% and 95%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Organosiloxane polymers achieve better sensitivity analysis than paper, allowing for more accurate quantitation of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drug compounds. The ability to tailor the polymer polarity and porosity allows for the synthesis of a wide range of polymers, and thus opens many possibilities for further development and applications.

PMID: 28792093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]


          Sessions I’m Looking Forward to at MongoDB World 2017        

Back in 2014, while I was working for BuzzFeed, the CTO asked if I wanted to head to MongoDB World. I had some basic understanding of MongoDB and how it made the lives easier for those who studied the information captured when users visited the BuzzFeed website, but that was it.

I’ve always enjoyed attending conferences. They enable me to learn new technology while meeting the people who create and implement it. So I took Mark up on his offer and headed to my first MongoDB World.

I even documented my attendance:

MongoDB World 2014

That nifty guidebook, which was also available as a mobile app, sent me on a journey to learn more about MongoDB. It steered me towards sessions on scaling, the benefits of sharding, and hardware selection for MongoDB that prepared me for future changes in technology I couldn’t have predicted at the time.

A few months later, a thing with a dress made my life very interesting. We used MongoDB to collect the data as the event occurred. Having attended MongoDB World, I felt prepared for this record traffic. While our front end web servers may have buckled under some of the pressure, our data layer was rock solid. Rather than feel the pressure, I allowed my training to take control to work alongside my team.

In 2016, after taking a journey further into Cloud Hosting, an opportunity arose for me to become a member of the MongoDB team as they launched MongoDB Atlas. I made sure that one of my primary tasks as part of this was to take part in MongoDB World as a presenter and give my first talk as a member of MongoDB.

Fast forward to MongoDB World 2017, and my name is listed in the session catalogue for the second year straight. I’ll be presenting a Jumpstart Session on MongoDB Operations. Being part of MongoDB World, initially as an attendee and eventually as a member of the MongoDB staff, has been an extraordinary experience. I often think back to my tweet to @MongoDB. The sessions I attended in 2014 lead me to where I am today.

Sessions I’m looking forward to

At MongoDB, we recently released the session catalogue for MongoDB World 2017, June 20-21 in Chicago. As a presenter, I’m always excited to see who my peers are, so I get a chance to attend some of their sessions and meet with them to chat about our experience. We have quite a lineup this year. As a person who's attended this from both sides, I wanted to share a few that are already on my calendar:

AWS Lambda and MongoDB Atlas

A newcomer to MongoDB, Raphael Londner will discuss the important details when developing an application using the AWS Lambda platform along with MongoDB Atlas, MongoDB's DBaaS (Database as a Service). Raphael is taking a really cool step that I did myself. As soon as I joined MongoDB, I shared my operations, AWS, and MongoDB skills. Similarly, Raphael joined our team in 2017 with the goals of helping developers build new applications in easier ways.

ETL for Pros: Getting Data Into MongoDB

As a person who's trained me in the past, Andre Spiegel continues to impress me. He excels at explaining how to cut to the core of your problem and providing you with better ideas to solve it. Extract, Transform, Load (known as ETL) is a method to work with your data warehouse. Andre will cover how traditional methods of dealing with rows and columns can be modernized by using complex documents. He'll also discuss tuning of the bulk loading process. When you're dealing with hundreds of GBs to TBs of data, that loading process is a big deal; luckily Andre's session will help you best prepare and execute.

How ThermoFisher Is Reducing Mass Spectrometry Experiment Times from Days to Minutes with MongoDB

In 2016, Joseph Fluckinger from Thermo Fisher had a conversation on stage with Eliot Horowitz, MongoDB’s CTO, to discuss much of his team's success with using MongoDB at AWS Re:Invent. I missed this talk and only saw some video clips. Later that night, I had dinner with Joseph and other colleagues. We spoke for hours about how much he enjoyed working with our team to build his talk, and how much the software made a difference to Thermo Fisher.

Hearing how his team replaced so many older SQL technologies with MongoDB to integrate with their tools – including a mass spectrometer – is something I’m really looking forward to.

So as June approaches, I have a ton of work to do to ready myself to present at MongoDB World. But the work is worth it. I look forward to meeting the MongoDB engineers, open-source developers, masters and rookies that will attend. Regardless of skill level, you can build something big for you, your company or your career if you attend MongoDB World. I can't wait to see you there!

What about you?

Take a look at our full list of presenters – anyone standing out you just HAVE to see? Like game designer Jane McGonigal? What's the most interesting subject you have seen in our sessions catalogue? There are three (count em… 1 - 2 - 3) sessions on Kubernetes. We have workouts, yoga, and even an international craft beer tasting.

I hope you and possibly the rest of your team make it. We’d love to have you join us for our biggest event of the year. For more information on MongoDB World sessions, visit mongodbworld.com.


           Global Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer GC MS Sales Market Report         
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           Global Liquid Chromatograph mass Spectrometer Sales Market Report         
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           Global Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer GC MS Market Research Report         
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           Global Liquid Chromatograph mass Spectrometer Market Research Report         
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          Astrotech's 1st Detect Awarded Phase II of Next Generation Chemical Detection Solution        
1 st Detect Corporation, a subsidiary of Astrotech (Nasdaq:ASTC), announced today that its breakthrough portable mass spectrometer technology has reached another milestone in the military's three-phase, multi-year Next Generation Chemical Detector (NGCD) development program. Together with Battelle, 1 st Detect has officially entered the phase II test and evaluation process for its prototype Multi-Sample Identifier Detector (MSID) solution. "Reaching this second phase of the NGCD project is a ...
           Precision and long-term stability of clumped-isotope analysis of CO2 using a small-sector isotope ratio mass spectrometer         
Yoshida, Naohiro and Vasilev, Mikhail and Ghosh, Prosenjit and Abe, Osamu and Yamada, Keita and Morimoto, Maki (2013) Precision and long-term stability of clumped-isotope analysis of CO2 using a small-sector isotope ratio mass spectrometer. In: RAPID COMMUNICATIONS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY, 27 (1). pp. 207-215.
          Residual gas analysers for UHV/XHV in-vacuum operation        
The Hiden RGA-series of quadrupole mass spectrometers
          Knight Rider’s 15-Second Clip Released        


Finally the long wait is over. NBC network in America has released a 15 second clip of the upcoming remake of the 1980’s iconic television show Knight Rider. The 540 horsepower Ford Mustang Shelby GT500KR is officially the new KITT (Knight Industries Three Thousand) with the artificial intelligence voice provided by Will Arnett. NBC network will air the Knight Rider TV movie at 9pm ET on February 17, 2008 Sunday.

Knight Industries Three Thousand: 2008 Ford Mustang Shelby GT500KR

Vehicle Type: Front engine, on-demand all-wheel drive, two-door coupe
Engine Type: Aluminum block/titanium heads 5.4-liter V8 internal combustion with Whipple supercharger and Knight Industries liquid air cycle auxiliary turbine engine. 540 hp in Hero mode. Power output can’t be measured in Attack mode.
Transmission: Continuously variable transmission with infinite power band
Price New: $45.6 million, as tested
Acceleration: 0 to 60 mph: 1.77 seconds. Standing quarter mile: 3.87 seconds
Braking (300 to 0 mph): 12 ft.
Fuel Economy: Not testable

Special Features as KITT:

Knight Industries 2000 microprocessor: Version 2.3
Auto Cruise
Auto Pursuit
Auto Collision Avoidance
Voice Interaction
Emergency Eject
Audio/Video In-Dash Functions
Radar
Sonar
X-Ray
Autopilot
Voice Analyzer
Infrared Tracking Scope
Range: 20 miles
Pyroclastic Lamination
Blood Analyzer
Microwave Jammer
Interior Oxygenator
Rocket Boosters
Smokescreen
Olfactory Detector
Spectrograph
Electromagnetic Field Generator
Microwave Ignition Sensor
Aquatic Synthesizer
Electronic Field Disrupter
Ultra Magnesium Charges
Ultraphonic Chemical Analyzer
Graphic Translator
Anamorphic Equalizer
DNA Analysis Equipment
Mass Spectrometer
Targeted Electromagnetic Pulse
Military-Grade GPS
Heated Seats
3D Heads-Up Display
Laser Weapons System
Holographic Projection
Keyless Entry and Ignition
Personal Safety System
Nanotech Cloaking
360-Degree Video Surveillance
Laser-Guided Missile Defense
Mini-KITT Reconnaissance Drone
24-Hour Roadside Assistance
1000-Watt Quadraphonic Stereo System
In-Seat Medical Diagnosis
Biometric Analysis