Comment on Banners Design for Mobile Unlock Base by MichaelImmed        
Our team is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          Video from South Korean launch of new iPad        

Today Apple launched the new iPad in an additional 12 countries around the world. While eleven of the countries -- Brunei, Croatia, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Malaysia, Panama, St Maarten, Uruguay and Venezuela -- are relatively small markets, the new iPad also went on sale in South Korea, one of the most technologically advanced countries on the planet and one of the major tech markets in Asia. Check out the video below, first posted by Apple 2.0, to see South Korean Apple fans lining up for the new tablet at a local Apple reseller.

Apple's new iPad international rollout isn't done for the month either. One week from today on Friday, April 27, Apple will begin selling the new iPad in an additional nine countries: Colombia, Estonia, India, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, South Africa and Thailand. The new iPad will then be available in 56 countries around the world.

          New iPad launching in 21 additional countries this month        

Apple today issued a press release announcing the new third-generation iPad will go on sale in another twleve countries starting on Friday, April 20. Notably, one of the twelve is the important South Korean market. The other eleven countries include Brunei, Croatia, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Malaysia, Panama, St Maarten, Uruguay and Venezuela.

Then one week later on Friday, April 27, Apple will begin selling the new iPad in an additional nine countries: Colombia, Estonia, India, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, South Africa and Thailand. Both the Wi-Fi and 4G models will be on sale and available through Apple's online store and at select Apple Authorized Resellers.

The new iPad will be available in 56 countries around the world as of April 27th.

          iTunes Match launches in 19 more countries, shows Latin America some love from the cloud        
iTunes MatchOnce Apple let the iTunes Match genie out of the bottle it has actually been pretty quick to spread the love to our international friends. Australia, Canada, the UK and a host of other European nations came online last month, now a sizable chunk of Latin America (along with a few EU stragglers) are joining the party. In total, 19 new countries were added to the list this week, headlined by Central and South American nations like Argentina, Guatemala, Venezuela and Nicaragua. With a few Eastern Block countries, including Lithuania and Latvia, also being added to the list, Apple has increased the total number states where iTunes Match is available to 37. Now Apple just has to start getting a few of the Asian and African areas where the iPhone is available on board and it can officially call Match a global service. To see if your country is invited hit up the more coverage link.
          iPhone in 29 new countries; unlocked in Hong Kong        

Our sister site Engadget reports that Apple is now offering unlocked iPhones in Hong Kong via its online store. HK$5,500 (≈ US$700) will buy you an 8GB model, HK$6,200 (≈ US$800) gets you 16GB.

The Apple Store's terms and conditions limit sales to individuals in Hong Kong only, but who knows what the gray market will bring.

Three Russian carriers will also begin selling unlocked iPhones on October 3, with the 8GB model selling for over US$900.

In related news, 29 new countries will begin selling the iPhone, some today: Botswana, Brazil, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Croatia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, Latvia, Lithuania, Madagascar, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Nicaragua, Niger, Panama, Qatar, Senegal, South Africa, Turkey and Venezuela.

[Via IGM.]

          Izvēloties atpÅ«tas galamērÄ·us, Latvijas iedzÄ«votājiem svarÄ«gākās ir izmaksas        
Būtiskākie faktori ikgadējā atvaļinājuma saplānošanai valsts iedzīvotājiem ir ceļošanas izmaksu faktors un atpūtas vietas klimats, liecina ceļojumu aģentūras SIA Latvia Tours tiešsaistē organizētās aptaujas rezultāti.
Loesje's Latvian Group

Iekarot pasauli ar plakātiem un radošu pieeju - tā ir viena no lietām, kas liek man un maniem draugiem darboties.

read more

          Lonely Planet's Best in Travel 2014 - top 10 cities        
1. Paris, France

2. Trinidad, Cuba

3. Cape Town, South Africa

4. Riga, Latvia

5. Zuerich Schwitzerland

6. Shanghai, China

7. Vancouver, Canada

8.Chicago, Illinois, USA

9. Adelaide, Australien

10. Auckland, New Zealand

To see the article click here. 

          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 02-29-2016 with Alicia        

The Suffers- Make Some Room - Make Some Room EP
The Heavy- Since You Been Gone - since You Been Gone Single
Mavis Staples- Action - Livin On A High Note
- voicebreak -
Rokia Traor- Nil - N So
Esperanza Spalding- Ebony And Ivy - Emilys DEvolution
Xixa- Killer - Bloodline
- voicebreak -
Quilt- Hissing My Plea - Plaza
Ropoporose- EmptyHeaded Boogers Remix - Birdbus EP
- voicebreak -
Jack Shriner- Smiling At The Coast - The Fluid Ounce
Self Defense Family- In Those Dark Satanic Mills - Superior EP
Eerie Wanda- The Reason - Hum
Twin Peaks- Walk To The One You Love - Down In Heaven
- voicebreak -
Lucy Dacus- I Dont Wanna Be Funny Anymore - No Burden
Hinds- Castigadas En El Granero - Leave Me Alone
Ratboys- MCMXIV - Aoid
Laura Carbone- Favorite Disease - Sirens
- voicebreak -
Latvian Radio- From The Top Of A Building - Until Tomorrow Gets In The Way
The Frights- Afraid Of The Dark - You Are Going To Hate This
Gazebos- Just Get High - Die Alone
Youth- Calendar Girl - Black Hearts White Lights EP
The Donkeys- Hold On To You - Midnight Palms EP
- voicebreak -
Ty Segall- Mandy Cream - Emotional Mugger
Night Beats- Porque Maana - Who Sold My Generation
Sunflower Bean- Space Exploration Disaster - Human Ceremony
- voicebreak -
Basia Bulat- Long Goodbye - Good Advice
C Duncan- Garden - Architect
Fruit Bats- From A Soon To Be Ghost Town - From A Soon To Be Ghost Town
Andrew Bird- Capsized - Are You Serious
- voicebreak -
The I Dont Cares- King Of America - Wild Stab
Violent Femmes- Memory - We Can Do Anything
Half Japanese- You And I - Perfect
- voicebreak -
Wray- Hypatia - Hypatia
Ra Ra Riot Rostam- Absolutely - Need Your Light
Eleanor Friedberger- Open Season - New View
Savages- Evil - Adore Life
David Bowie- Lazarus - Blackstar
- voicebreak -
RFS DU SOL- Daylight - Bloom
Straight White Teeth- Hot Blood Shaking In A Cage - Medicine Sword EP
Animal Collective- Golden Gal - Painting With
- voicebreak -
Yeasayer- I Am Chemistry - Amen Goodbye
TEEN- Free Time - Love Yes
Saul Williams- No Different - MartyrLoserKing
Tommy Guerrero- Thoughts Of Tomorrow - Perpetual

playlist URL:
          Ryan Shenvi receives NPR Lectureship at BOS 2016        
Prof. Ryan Shenvi winner of the 2016 Natural Product Reports Emerging Investigator Lectureship delivered his lecture “Chemical Synthesis of Secondary Metabolites” at the recent Balticum Organicum Syntheticum held in Riga, Latvia. As part of the lecture Ryan highlighted research discussed in his recent NPR viewpoint: Neurite outgrowth enhancement by jiadifenolide: possible targets Read more about […]
          Negara-negara Asal Sepakbola Deg-degan Menunggu Pengundian        

Pengundian babak kualifikasi Piala Dunia 2018 akan dilakukan Sabtu malam, sekitar pukul 23.00 WIB. Di bawah ini adalah daftar unggulan dan berbagai skenario buruk maupun baik yang bisa menimpa negara-negara asal sepakbola: Inggris, Wales, Skotlandia dan Irlandia Utara.

Berita Bola: Negara-negara Asal Sepakbola Deg-degan Menunggu Pengundian
Pot 1: Jerman, Belgia, Belanda, Portugal, Romania, Inggris, Wales, Spanyol, Kroasia
Pot 2: Slovakia, Austria, Italia, Swiss, Republik Ceko, Prancis, Islandia, Denmark, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Pot 3: Ukraina, Skotlandia, Polandia, Hungaria, Swedia, Albania, Irlandia Utara, Serbia, Yunani
Pot 4: Turki, Slovenia, Israel, Republik Irlandia, Norwegia, Bulgaria, Kepulauan Faroe, Montenegro, Estonia
Pot 5: Siprus, Latvia, Armenia, Finlandia, Belarusia, Makedonia, Azerbaijan, Lithuania, Moldova
Pot 6: Kazakhstan, Luksemburg, Liechtenstein, Georgia, Malta, San Marino, Andorra
Inggris dan Wales tidak mungkin bertemu dalam satu grup karena mereka sama-sama tim unggulan yang masuk dalam Pot 1.
Namun, mereka masih bisa ketemu dengan negara tertentu dari Pot 2 seperti Italia (saat ini peringkat 17 di dunia) atau Perancis (peringkat 22), sementara tandang ke negara-negara tertentu seperti Swedia, Polandia atau Ukraina bisa menjadi laga yang sulit.
Wales, Irlandia Utara dan Skotlandia bisa saja masuk ke dalam grup yang berisikan lima tim, bukan enam – yang dapat membantu peluang mereka lolos ke putaran final di Rusia.
Tim-tim Eropa akan dibagi ke dalam sembilan kelompok – tujuh grup dengan enam tim dan dua grup hanya beranggotakan lima tim.
Berikut adalah skenario terbaik dan terburuk dari empat negara asal sepakbola itu.
Tiket impian:
Inggris, Islandia, Albania, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova, Andorra
Skenario terburuk:
Inggris, Italia, Swedia, Turki, Finlandia, Kazakhstan
Tiket impian:
Wales, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Albania, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova
Skenario terburuk:
Wales, Prancis, Ukraina, Turki, Siprus, Georgia
Tiket impian:
Skotlandia, Wales, Islandia, Estonia, Lithuania
Skenario terburuk:
Skotlandia, Jerman, Italia, Turki, Makedonia, Kazakhstan
Irlandia Utara
Tiket impian:
Irlandia Utara, Rumania, Islandia, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova
Skenario terburuk:
Irlandia Utara, Spanyol, Prancis, Republik Irlandia, Belarusia, Malta

          What next for Eastern Europe?        
While President Trump tweets, the United States and Russia drift towards war over Syria, and the new Thirty Years War between Shi'ite and Sunni continues on many fronts, another critical drama is playing out in the Eastern half of the European continent.  I find it particularly interesting because it is a replay of the drama I described about 40 years ago in my first book, Economic Diplomacy and the Origins of the Second World War, which is linked at left and available as an e-book.

For the first few centuries of the modern era the peoples of Eastern Europe lived under large empires.  The Ottoman Empire had reached Europe in the 15th century and eventually included what is now Bulgaria, Greece, Albania, Rumania, some of the nations of the former Yugoslavia, and Hungary.  The Tsar of Russia ruled what are now the Baltic States and, by the 19th century, Poland.  The Holy Roman Empire--which in 1806 became the Austrian Empire, and in 1867 the Austro-Hungarian Empire--included parts of Poland and the present-day Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia and Slovenia.  All these peoples, to varying degrees, developed nationalist movements during the 19th century.

The enormous strain of the First World War proved too much not only for the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires, but also for the German Empire.  The Allies--France, Britain, Italy and eventually the US as well--sponsored the claims of some of the national movements in their territory.  In January 1918, in his Fourteen Points, Woodrow Wilson endorsed an independent Poland and autonomy (not independence) for the peoples of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires.  When those nations collapsed ten months later, various national movements proclaimed new states.

As the brilliant but eccentric English historian A. J. P. Taylor noted in 1961, the post-1919 settlement in Eastern Europe reflected the astonishing fact that both Germany and Russia had been defeated. Only that allowed for the re-creation of an independent Poland, the new states of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia,a larger Rumania, independent Poland and Finland, and the three Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.  It seemed in 1918-9 that things might go even further and that Ukraine might become independent as well, but the Bolsheviks managed to secure control over it in the Russian civil war.  These states were economically and politically weak.  Nearly all of them initially formed some kind of democratic government, encouraged down that path by the western powers.

In the short run, several of the new states--Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Romania--were threatened by Hungary, which had lost huge territories at the peace conference, while in the long run Czechoslovakia and Poland had to worry about a resurgent Germany. France, eager to cement its status as the leading power in Europe, offered all those states some kind of alliance.  Clearly the French would have trouble defending them once the Germans or Russians regained their military strength, but the French were counting on keeping the Germans weak.  The alliances faced no serious threats until after the rise of Hitler.

By then all these countries had undergone profound political changes.  While all of them had begun as democracies, only Czechoslovakia, Finland and the Baltic States were still electing their governments by the early 1930s--the rest had come under some form of authoritarian rule.  The agricultural states among them, as I showed in my book, came under German influence after 1935 because the Germans, desperate for food, offered them a market for their produce.  In 1938 Hitler managed to destroy Czechoslovakia when the French abandoned their alliance.  In 1939-40, Hitler and Stalin concluded the Nazi-Soviet Pact. They partitioned Poland and the Soviets incorporated the Baltic States.  Hungary and Rumania became allies of Hitler while Yugoslavia was occupied by the Italians and the Nazis.  In 1945,  the whole region (except Finland) came under Soviet occupation and the USSR installed Communist governments.

The collapse of the USSR in 1991--77 years after the start of the First World War--started this process over again.  Once again, as in 1919, the entire region was liberated from foreign rule.  This time the proliferation of new states has gone much further, with Czechoslovakia and former Yugoslavia giving way to no less than 8 new states, and not only the Baltic States, but also Ukraine and Belarus, becoming independent.  Once again the new states established various forms of democracy.  And once again, powerful nations from outside the region offered them alliances. NATO, led by the US, offered membership to virtually every new state in the region, including the Baltic states--after initially promising the new Russian government not to do so.  The EU also offered many of them membership, choosing to ignore the enormous economic and cultural differences that still divide Europe somewhere around the frontiers of Germany and Poland.

Germany is no longer an imperialist nation, although it leads the EU and played a key role in its enlargement.  Russia once again went through a chaotic period but by 2000 it was recovering its strength under Vladimir Putin.  He is clearly determined to reassert Russian influence--if not more--over many of the states of the former USSR.  Belarus lost any real independence very quickly, and Putin is actively contesting the West in a bid for influence in Ukraine, and using the Russian military at the border to do so. He also very obviously has designs on the Baltic states, which are extremely vulnerable militarily.  And while Putin cannot offer these states markets the way the Germans did 80 years ago, he can provide them with energy.

And once again, democracy has proven fragile in Eastern Europe.  Rightist parties now lead the governments of Hungary, Poland, and some of the other states of the region. The governments of the Czech Republic and Slovakia are weak and subject to corruption and outside influence.  These nations face a choice between  western-style democracy--which is having enormous problems in the west--and Russian-style authoritarianism.  It is not at all clear which path they shall take.

Only a gigantic war settled the question of Eastern Europe's future 80 years ago.  Such a war does not seem in prospect now, but limited wars, such as a lightning Russian occupation of one or more Baltic states, cannot be ruled out.  Russian and NATO aircraft are constantly confronting one another in the region.  The Russians also seem to be using cyberwar against Ukraine, and they may use it elsewhere. To reach a new equilibrium diplomatically would require a level of statesmanship which is not apparent on the world scene.  Nearly thirty years ago, when the Soviet empire collapsed, I commented frequently that this time, Eastern Europe had taken a new shape without a new world war.  Now it seems that the process may involve a larger conflict--albeit of a possibly different kind.
          Translate your favorite with Google        
Sebelumnya telah diuraikan perihal Priority Inbox, dimana fitur ini bekerja pada Gmail dan saat ini Ambae.exe berkesempatan menggunakannya bersama others AMBAE. Lebih awal disampaikan bahwa Google mengeluarkan 2 (dua) fitur terbarunya. Yang akan diuraikan di bawah ini adalah Google Translate dengan fitur yang lebih hebat. Bagi sobat Googler, Google Translate bukanlah hal baru, tapi mungkin saja masih ada rekan-rekan yang ingin mengetahuinya dari awal terutama Ambae.exe yang masih awam.

Layanan ini diperkenalkan pada tahun 2007 dan mulai memasukkan Bahasa Indonesia ke dalam pilihan bahasa yang bisa diterjemahkan sejak 25 September 2008. Adapun sasaran utama dari Google Translate yakni untuk menerjemahkan bagian teks atau halaman web dalam satu bahasa ke bahasa lain.

Lalu mengapa diklaim memiliki fasilitas canggih dibanding penerjemah lainnya...? Tidak seperti layanan terjemahan lain seperti Babel Fish dan AOL yang menggunakan SYSTRAN, Google menggunakan perangkat lunak terjemahan sendiri. Itulah hebatnya mbah Google, si empunya tidak mau meminjam apapun dari pihak lain. Kalau perlu Sergey M. Brin dan Lawrence E. Page membeli produk pihak lain agar bisa menguasai dunia maya.

Lanjut fren, satu persatu kita bahas perihal Translate milik mbah Google. Dukungan Google Translate mencakup :
- Google Translate versi standar
- Google Search
- Google Toolbar
- Google Chrome
- Google Labs
- Google Mail (Gmail)
- Google Chat (chat via Gmail)
- Google Talk
- Google Groups
- Google Moderator
- Google Docs (Google Documents)
- Google Video (YouTube)
- Google Mobile
- Google Android
- Google Web Element
- Google AJAX API
- Google Toolkit

A. Google Translate versi standar

Steps A1
Kunjungi Google Translate, lalu ketik atau paste karakter, kata maupun kalimat yang ingin diterjemahkan. Tentukan bahasa terjemahan yang akan digunakan dan klik Translate. Tukar arah terjemahan dengan mengeklik tombol Swap languages.

Steps A2
Klik Listen untuk mendengarkan terjemahan versi suara Google. Klik Read phonetically untuk membedakan suara/lafadz dari yang diperdengarkan Google. Metode Read phonetically memanfaatkan sistem notasi fonetis (International Phonetic Alphabet), yakni kumpulan tanda yang dengannya semua bahasa manusia dapat ditulis dan dijelaskan. Seperti halnya membedakan lafadz fa dengan pa dan va atau sa dengan xa dan za atau ca dengan ka dan qa serta ei dengan ee dan ey dan bahasa planet lainnya.

B. Google Search

Steps B1
Silakan meluncur ke Google Homepage dan ketikkan keyword yang akan dicari. Hasil pencarian pun muncul sebanyak 10 URL/Website di halaman pertama Google yang paling terkait dengan keyword tersebut. Untuk menerjemahkan URL, klik link Translate this page atau Terjemahkan laman ini di sisi kanan salah satu URL hasil Searching. Translate dapat dimaksimalkan dengan mengatur metode pencarian pada menu Advanced Search atau Preferences.

Steps B2
Setelah mengeklik link Translate this page, Google segera menerjemahkannya. Tentukan bahasa terjemahan pada tampilan halaman berikutnya. Untuk menukar arah terjemahan, tidak disiapkan tombol Swap languages. Sehingga harus mengganti bahasa secara manual pada kedua drop down menu.

Steps B3
Temukan hal unik dari namamu, pada kolom pencarian ketik perintah Translate 'My Name is xxxxxxx' to yyyyyyy.
~ xxxxxxx : Nama
~ yyyyyyy : Bahasa

C. Google Toolbar

Steps C1
Google Toolbar bekerja pada browser Microsoft Internet Explorer dan Mozilla Firefox versi 2.0 atau yang lebih tinggi. Operation System (OS) yang direkomendasikan yakni Windows XP SP2, Windows Vista atau yang lebih tinggi. Untuk mengaktifkannya Download dan Install Google Toolbar, ikuti langkah selanjutnya hingga Finish. Bila Google memerintahkan untuk Restart, sobat Googler ikuti saja, jangan membantah perintah orang tua (mbah Google), mumpung GRATIS. Setelah terinstall, Google Toolbar akan terpasang di bagian atas halaman browser, tepatnya pada Toolbar Menu.

D. Google Chrome

Steps D1
Serupa tapi tidak sama, Google Chrome mirip dengan Google Toolbar. Perbedaannya, Google Toolbar merupakan Add-ons yang bekerja pada browser IE dan Mozilla Firefox. Sedangkan Google Chrome merupakan browser yang di dalamnya telah dibenamkan fitur Google Translate dengan tampilan Google Toolbar. Bekerja hanya pada Operation System (OS) Windows XP SP2, Windows Vista dan Windows 7. Daripada bingung, Download versi teranyar Google Chrome dan rasakan kehangatan Google Translate bersamanya. Untuk versi Beta, disini downloadnya.

Google Labs dan Google Mail (Gmail)

Steps E1
Email yang masuk tidak selalu menggunakan bahasa Indonesia. Bahkan orang Indonesia pun terkadang memakai bahasa Alien dalam mengirimkan email atau di saat chatting. Install salah satu fitur Google Labs pada Menu Settings. Pilih Sub Menu Labs, aktifkan fitur Message translation lalu Simpan pengaturan.

Steps E2
Masih pada Menu Settings, pilih Sub Menu General dan tentukan bahasa terjemahan secara default lalu simpan kembali pengaturan terakhir.

Untuk menonaktifkan fitur ini, centang Disabled pada Menu Labs. Namun, bila ingin menonaktifkan Google Labs secara utuh tanpa memilah-milah fiturnya, kunjungi OFF.

Google Chat (chat via Gmail)
dan Google Talk

Steps F1
Fitur ini memanfaatkan Google Bots dalam menerjemahkan setiap pesan Chat. Googler yang terbiasa dengan Google Wave, kiranya tidak mengalami kesulitan dalam mengaplikasikan Google Bots. Guna memudahkan sobat Googler, Ambae.exe menyuguhkan daftar Google Bots yang dapat ditambahkn pada Gmail Chat atau Google Talk.

Google Bots pada fitur ini dimaksudkan sebagai robot Google yang akan menelusuri data yang dicari para Googler. Selanjutnya para Robot ini menerjemahkannya ke dalam bahasa masing-masing Bots. Jangan lupa menambahkan Format penulisan Bots yakni
~ xxxxxxx : Salah satu Bots
~ Contoh : Google Bots untuk bahasa Chinese ke English.

Google Groups, Google Moderator
dan Google Docs (Google Documents)

Steps G1
Berdiskusi bersama rekan sesama Googler, mengedit dokumen, merespon, bertanya, menjawab, menyarankan atau memberi ide dan masukan kepada dan/atau dari Google. Dengan fitur Google Translate di dalamnya, serasa kuliah dengan fasilitas Dwi Bahasa. Sobat tidak perlu mengutak-atik Setting dan Preferences. Cukup mengunjungi Translate ala Google Groups, Google Moderator dan/atau Google Docs (Google Documents).

H. Google Video (YouTube)

Steps H1
Halaman pencarian YouTube, mirip dengan Google Homepage. Klik Translate untuk menerjemahkan Keterangan Video atau klik Show original untuk mengembalikan ke dalam bentuk aslinya.

Steps H2
Sobat Googler sering menikmati tayangan HBO atau HBO Asia, Cinemax, Star Movie, Star World dan sebagainya...??? Menonton Film kesayangan di channel termasyur tersebut benar-benar mengasyikkan. Tersedia dalam Bi-Lingual atau Dwi Language. Di samping itu tersedia pula Running Text di setiap Film, meski film itu telah berganti bahasa dari English ke Indonesia. Wajarlah HBO mengklaim dirinya It's not TV, it's HBO

Bagaimana dengan Google Video atau YouTube...??? Video yang disertai dengan keterangan Teks alias Caption dapat pula diterjemahkan ke dalam berbagai bahasa. Dengan catatan bahwa video tersebut memiliki Caption atau lazim dikenal dengan Running Text sebagai terjemahan teks dari apa yang diucapkan dalam video bersangkutan. Klik Icon (^) lalu pilih Icon (cc), keduanya berada di pojok kanan bawah Video. Lalu klik Translate Captions untuk mengatur bahasa terjemahan.

Steps H3
Tentukan bahasa terjemahan dengan mengeklik drop down menu. Selanjutnya klik tombol Translate. Maka sekejap, Caption Video diterjemahkan sesuai bahasa yang dipilih.

I. Google Mobile dan Google Android

Steps I1
Translate via Google Mobile melalui perangkat seluler sobat Googler dengan mengunjungi Google Mobile

Steps I2
Dengan Google Android, fitur Google Translate benar-benar dimaksimalkan. Tidak hanya berupa teks ke teks, Googler dapat menerjemahkan teks ke dalam bentuk suara. Demikian sebaliknya, suara diterjemahkan kembali ke dalam bentuk teks. Download Google Android untuk merasakannya.

J. Google Web Element,
Google AJAX API dan Google Toolkit

Steps J1
Ingin memiliki Tool Translater di Webpage sobat Googler...??? Benamkan Code Google Translate ke dalamnya.

Copy dan Paste Script Code berikut

Script di atas hanya contoh, pengaturan secara manual silakan kunjungi Google Web Element. Mengenai penempatan HTML tersebut, posisikan pada BODY section.

Sobat tidak menginginkan Google menerjemahkan halaman Webpagenya. Copy dan Paste Meta Tag berikut dan posisikan pada HEAD section :

Steps J2
Terjemahan Webpage maupun Web Element lebih dimungkinkan lagi dengan fitur Google AJAX API. Tentunya Googler akan lebih sering bermain dengan Javascript.

Steps J3
Yang ini lebih hebat lagi. Googler dapat mengupload dan mendownload data yang diterjemahkan dengan fitur Google Toolkit. Lebih lengkapnya, kunjungi Google Tranlator Toolkit karena pada halaman tersebut diuraikan dengan jelas melalui media Video Tutorial versi mbah Google.

Sobat Blogger dan rekan Googler yang ingin mengetahui lebih banyak tentang fitur ini, silakan mengunjungi mbah Google. Mengingat panjangnya artikel ini dan rumitnya pembahasannya. Sebagai newbie, mohon dikoreksi bila terdapat kesalahan di dalamnya.

Persembahan berikutnya berupa Daftar Bahasa yang didukung Google Translate hingga saat ini sebanyak 57 Bahasa, yakni :
* Afrikaans
* Albanian
* Armenian (Alpha)
* Azerbaijani (Alpha)
* Arabic
* Basque (Alpha)
* Belarusian
* Bulgarian
* Catalan
* Chinese (Simplified)
* Chinese (Traditional)
* Croatian
* Czech
* Danish
* Dutch
* English
* Estonian
* Filipino
* Finnish
* French
* Galician
* Georgian (Alpha)
* German
* Greek
* Haitian Creole (Alpha)
* Hebrew
* Hindi
* Hungarian
* Icelandic
* Indonesian
* Italian
* Irish
* Japanese
* Korean
* Latvian
* Lithuanian
* Macedonian
* Malay
* Maltese
* Norwegian
* Persian
* Polish
* Portuguese
* Romanian
* Russian
* Serbian
* Slovak
* Slovenian
* Spanish
* Swahili
* Swedish
* Thai
* Turkish
* Ukrainian
* Urdu (Alpha)
* Vietnamese
* Welsh
* Yiddish

          Were you paying attention? Classical music in 2016 – quiz        

How many of the classical world’s comings and goings, openings and closings, bouquets and brickbats do you remember from the past 12 months? Try our quiz

Which one of these pianistic partners did Martha Argerich not play duets with in London this year?

Daniel Barenboim

Stephen Kovacevich

Alberto Portugheis

Which mezzo-soprano lost her head as Holofernes in a staggering concert performance of Vivaldi's Juditha Triumphans at the Barbican?

Ann Hallenberg

Magdalena Kozena

Delphine Galou

‘A civilisation that conserves is one that will decay’ said which composer, whose life and music nonetheless were celebrated throughout the year?

Pierre Boulez

John Cage

Peter Maxwell Davies

Which operatic anti-hero came to an unfortunate end in a disused sewer in Vienna in English Touring Opera’s new production?

Don Giovanni


Harry Lime

Which one of these conductors pulled out of an engagement to conduct in the Bayreuth Festival this year in as yet unexplained circumstances?

Christian Thielemann

Andris Nelsons

Kirill Petrenko

Which of these UK opera companies did not welcome a new music director or artistic director (or both) this year?

Royal Opera House


English National Opera

Whose music was performed in a Peckham car park as one of this year’s Proms?

David Bowie

Benedict Mason

Steve Reich

Thirty-year-old Latvian Mirga Gražinytė-Tyla is the newly appointed chief conductor of which British orchestra?

City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra

London Symphony Orchestra

Philharmonia Orchestra

Whose opera debut, Pleasure, was set in the toilets of a gay nightclub?

Colin Matthews

Mark Simpson

Anna Meredith

Soprano Sarah Tynan sang Britten’s Les Illuminations at the Aldeburgh festival. Who did she perform alongside?

A group of acrobats, clowns and aerialists

An elephant and a camel

A virtual reality projection of Britten accompanying her on the piano

In May, Sheku Kanneh-Mason won the BBC Young Musician competition. Which cello concerto did the 17-year-old perform to take the title?

Elgar's Cello Concerto in E minor

Shostakovich's Cello Concerto No 1 in E flat major

Witold Lutosławski's Cello Concerto

Sofia Coppola directed an opera - her first - at Rome's Teatro dell'Opera. Which one?

Verdi's La Traviata

Wagner's Tristan und Isolde

Mark-Anthony Turnage's Anna Nicole

Who threatened strike action at English National Opera?

The board

The stagehands

The chorus

Why was Philip Glass's music featured at this year's Glastonbury festival?

There was an open-air screening of Godfrey Reggio's Koyaanisqatsi with Glass's soundtrack

English National Opera took the opening act of Akhnaten to the Pyramid stage for a Sunday early afternoon performance

Charles Hazlewood and his Army of Generals performed Glass's Heroes Symphony, inspired by David Bowie's 1977 album.

This year's Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols at Kings College Chapel features - as it does every year - a specially commissioned carol. By who?

Kanye West

Michael Berkeley

Judith Weir

Continue reading...
          EASA “UAS Workshop”        

EASA “UAS Workshop” In order to receive an initial feedback from stakeholders and in order to facilitate the commenting on the NPA, on July 5, 2017, EASA  organised “UAS Workshop” which took place at Cologne, Germany. LARPAS participated there to receive the latest information and represent the interests of Latvian UAS industry. Commercial UAV Expo […]

The post EASA “UAS Workshop” appeared first on LARPAS.

          Riga Photo Show 2016        

Participation at Riga Photo Show 2016 During the international exhibition „Riga Photo Show 2016” (October 21-23) LARPAS representatives Ilmars Ozols and Janis Kuze did lectures to familiarize participants with the upcoming regulations for safe and legal use of unmanned aircraft systems (drones) in Latvia and Europe.

The post Riga Photo Show 2016 appeared first on LARPAS.

          Certificate Issuance        

Certificates issuance On September 9, 2016 LARPAS members, who participated in the meeting, received certificates that confirms that they are official members of Latvian Association of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems. During the meeting participants were able to hear the LARPAS Board presentation, answers from Latvian CAA to previously asked questions, talk about actual problems and […]

The post Certificate Issuance appeared first on LARPAS.

          Negotiations With Insurers        

LARPAS Negotiations With Insurers On the 5th of May there was a meeting held at Riga International Airport, in which representatives from S/A “Civil Aviation Agency”, “Latvian Insurers Association”, as well as representatives from “Latvian Association of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems” took part. During the meeting participants discussed questions regarding RPAS insurance possibilities. Rapid growth […]

The post Negotiations With Insurers appeared first on LARPAS.

           Eversheds Sutherland Baltic Law Offices are Nasdaq Baltic First North Certified Advisors        
Eversheds Sutherland Bitans (Latvia), Eversheds Sutherland Ots & Co (Estonia) and Eversheds Saladžius (Lithuania) are now Certified Advisers on the First North Market in Baltics. Certified Adviser’s role is to guide growth companies throug...
           Eversheds Sutherland Bitans represents Republic of Estonia in a matter against road construction company SIA “Binders” recovering over EUR 4,5 million.        
Eversheds Sutherland Bitans in cooperation with Eversheds Ots&Co has represented Republic of Estonia (through Estonian Road Administration) in connection with recognition and enforcement of Estonian arbitral award in Latvia against one of the bi...
          Ð¯ тебе кохаю        
Afrikaans - Ek is lief vir jou!
Albanian - Te dua!
Amharic - Afekrishalehou!
Arabic - Ohiboke (m to f), Nohiboka (f to m, or m to m)
Armenian - Yes kez si'rumem!
Azerbaijan - Mjan sjan sevirirjam
Basque - Maite zaitut!
Bengali - Ami tomake bahlobashi!
Bosnian - Volim te!
Bulgarian - Obicham te!
Catalan - T'estimo!
Creole - Mi aime jou!
Croatian - Volim te!
Czech - Miluji tev!
Danish - Jeg elsker dig!
Dutch - Ik hou van je!
English - I love you!
Esperanto - Mi amas vin!
Estonian - Mina armastan sind!
Farsi - Tora dost daram!
Filipino - Iniibig kita!
Finnish - (Ma) rakastan sua!
French - Je t'aime!
Frisian - Ik hald fan dei!
Galician - Querote!
German - Ich liebe dich!
Greek - S'ayapo!
Gujarati - Hoon tane pyar karoochhoon! tane chaahuN chhuN!
Hawaiian - Aloha wau ia 'oe!
Hebrew - Anee ohev otakh (m to f), Anee ohevet otkha (f to m), Anee ohev otkha (m to m), Anee ohevet otakh (f to f)
Hindi - Mai tumase pyar karata hun (m to f), Mai tumase pyar karati hun (f to m)
Hungarian - Szeretlek!
Icelandic - Eg elska thig!
Indonesian - Saya cinta padamu!
Irish - t'a gr'a agam dhuit!
Italian - Ti amo!
Japanese - Kimi o ai shiteru!
Korean - Dangsinul saranghee yo!
Latin - Te amo!
Latvian - Es tevi milu!
Lithuanian - As tave myliu!
Malaysian - Saya cintamu!
Mandarin - Wo ai ni!
Marshallese - Yokwe Yuk!
Norwegian - Jeg elsker deg!
Polish - Kocham ciebie!
Portuguese - Eu te amo!
Romanian - Te iubesc!
Russian - Ya tyebya lyublyu!
Sanskrit - twayi snihyaami
Serbian - Volim te!
Sesotho - Kiyahurata!
Slovak - Lubim ta!
Slovenian - Ljubim te!
Spanish - Te quiero!
Swahili - Nakupenda!
Swedish - Jag alskar dig!
Tagalog - Mahal kita!
Thai - Phom rug khun (Male speaker) Chan rug khun (Female speaker)
Turkish - Seni seviyorum!
Ukrainian - Ya tebe kokhayu!
Urdu - Main tumse muhabbat karta hoon!
Vietnamese - Anh yeu em (m to f), Em yeu an (f to m)
Welsh - Rwy'n dy garu di!
Yiddish - Kh'hob dikh lib!
Zulu - Ngiyakuthanda!

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Harvest Estonia GUS 2017

Global Underscore 2017
Sat. June 24, 2017, 5–9pm
Viljandi, Estonia site

facilitator: Nancy Stark Smith
producer: Notafe festival
Jenni Ristkari (Finland), Toni Vaahtera (Finland), Lara Bogataj (Austria), Angela-Mara Florant (Germany), Kaisa Kukkonen (Finland), Evelyn Tuul (Estonia), Nadja Parssinen (Finland), Niina Rejeva (Estonia), Tina Smeja (Canada), Ursula Rummel (Estonia), Valeria Januškevitš (Estonia), Helina Karvak (Estonia), Caitlin Sidney (UK), Veronika Yakushevich (Finland), Sini Haapalinna (Finland), Marli Laur (Estonia), Elina Reineck (Finland), Kadri Noormets (Estonia), Katrin Kubber (Estonia), Merle Saarva (Estonia), Victoria Kovalenko (Finland/Ukraine), Barbara Dumont (France), Antti Marjakangas (Finland), Hari Choudhary (India), Anne Expert (France), Lidia Mertins (Estonia), Alexandre Westerlund (Sweden), Anne-Mari Anderson (Estonia), Tatjana Romanova (Estonia), Donats Rudzitiz (Latvia), Olga Trebuhina (Latvia), Helin Jürmann (Estonia), Marta Jamsja (Estonia), Janika Koppel (Estonia)

We were in a gorgeous big school assembly hall, with renovated wood floors, high ceilings, a balcony and high stage, freshly painted bluegray walls, and a deck outside that overlooked a beautiful grassy hillside with lovely wooden houses, sloping down to a large and always-inspiring lake. Big trees on the top edge of the hillside blew musically throughout the Underscore. Peonies are blossoming now and we brought several stalks of white ones into the corner of the space in a large Roman-looking urn that mysteriously showed up in the space during our workshop earlier in the week.

The maps and lists and Underscore pages were on the wall, snacks in the hall, art supplies in the corner by the peonies.

No one came to the computer for Real Time Harvest or Live Harvest during the dancing!!

Here is a live transcript of our Final Sharing Harvest and some photos.

Thank you, Nancy Hughes, Brandin Steffensen, and Patrick Crowley—our Global Underscore coordinators—for your work in bringing us together this year. It felt strong and more important than ever for us to connect worldwide, in real time, through our dancing.

It also felt important to acknowledge in this Global Underscore the call for more open discussion within the worldwide CI community about restrictions of freedom occurring in the world based on ethnicity, race, religion, nationality, gender, and other political and cultural conflicts. Can and should CI, Underscore, and Global Underscore flourish in an a-political framework? How and where do political and moral stances have a place in our CI, improvisation, somatics, and dance world and work?

Thank you, Penny Chivas and team in Glasgow, Scotland, for exposing and weathering the first harsh winds of dissent of your Global Underscore site (based on the fact of there being an Israeli site in the network!), and then thanks to Nicole Bindler, Dan Bear Davis, and Lailye Weidman for their work on a petition and video conference about political consciousness in the contact improvisation community. I look forward to a report in CQ on these conversations, perhaps in our CI Newsletter Online where there is a place for Comments.

That said, I felt again the power of our nonverbal practice— to be confronted, over and over again, with “difference” and contrast (styles, backgrounds, intentions) within the dance space, and cultivating the practice of finding generous, creative, inventive solutions. Hard work. Good humor.  Serious study. Joyful play. All at once. What a composition that is!

With love and appreciation to all who participated in this year’s Global Underscore.
xoxo Nancy SS

Our Sharing Harvest:
(transcribed live by Kaisa and Anne, thank you!)

Ienni (Finland)
I would love to sing a song
I am a bad singer
it stays in my mind:
All I want from you is forever to remember me as loving you

Angela-Mara (Germany)
Hamburg, Köln, where my friends are
feeling a lot of different emotions at the same time
Final Resolution hearing the sound of the rain and the sound of people drawing

Caitlin (UK)
I was low energy to start
I felt like I had too much
Someone came and I stayed with it
it was so fun
it was making me laugh

Hari (India)
I felt I lost myself many times
I found myself many times
getting lost in my body, getting lost in the trees
getting lost and finding myself again

Tatjana (?)
a long and multilayered journey
being with my body and the composition at the same time
it’s a game between recording the things around me and staying here in my body
it’s very subjective for me
When you meet a person, you meet a whole world. You can communicate and get know it through the movement. It is therapeutic.

Sini (Finland)
my uncle passed away this morning, so i was orientating globally, cosmically. Forms appearing and disappearing into light and then it didn’t make sense anymore. Final Resolution: light.

Alexander (Portugal/Sweden)
Many states today, another long jam, right now a feeling that I can’t really recall what happened. Was fun, intense, slow. Very absorbed in myself, sometimes out of my self. Always needing to let go to step into something next. There’s freedom there, I feel, with the work that we did. There’s a bigger picture, wholeness.

Barbara (France)
Gratitude. I wonder if grace and gratitude have a connection. I liked to see and give generosity, How dance is generated through movement. It’s about giving and taking. Was a good seed. I found humor in my dances. I went through very different phases, looking very close to the floor, trying to look very far, contrasts; looking around. What I find in underscore and dance, it’s the density of time because of the awareness of space. Time flies and at the same time it’s expanding, fullness. I was very nourished from the week, not only the workshop, but walking here, eating, swimming, watching the trees, flowers, the wind.

Victoria (Ukraine/Finland)
I feel very close to something super important of my life. CI came to my life one year ago; before, I did other things. I never saw dance as anything then. I wasn’t sure about it. Then contact happened and I met many great teachers and immediately all the puzzles came together. It’s something that can transform you so fast, compassion, practice, wisdom practice, presence, freedom. Combination of all this. I feel WOW. Thank you.

Nancy (USA)
I want to check in about time. I’m feeling the stress about the time. Could we break the rules and continue around the circle after standing, so everyone has time to talk?. [All agree.]

I was very intrigued with the open space gap we had after the Assembly. We had 10 minutes to do nothing (having finished all Assembly activities earlier than expected). I liked that—the unexpected and undesignated space.

I visited each site around the world as I stood facing Moscow in the Opening Stand. Starting with Moscow, I found myself hopping to each site (having almost memorized them from writing them several times for the wall), visiting for a moment, looking around, saying hi to some people I knew were there, then hopping to the next. Such a strong feeling knowing that they were actually there, right now, standing, facing the next place, and we were in this together.

Ann (France)
Being connected to the planet, learning to find my ease in the uncomfort and releasing into what welcomes me.

Kaisa (Finland)
I was struggling with changing states
feeling it has to come from me
it was hard to take any touch from outside
then somebody came to me
I relaxed to it and then it changed
I relaxed to that help somehow, and then it changed

Antti (Finland)
I had one of the most difficult beginnings ever
emotional outburst
this time confirmed to me the old truth
to trust the body, the movement, to find expression
movement is a way to regulate the emotional state
the emotiomal state became a compositional element
I was suffering and enjoying at the same time
not having any touch for the whole jam and finding a deeply connected dance at the end

Lara (Austria)
Sweat and tears are both salty.
I feel like cancelling the date with the earth/world.
Itchy feeling from inside, like i am scratching my skin from the inside.

Elina (Finland)
I had this moment outside, watching the trees, those impressively big trees. Suddenly I saw that each of them was dancing their small dance, then i came inside and had my small dance.

Nadja (Finland)
I have a lot to say. I enjoy the undescore, i wasn’t expecting anything. But in the warm up you said that just be in the space. I opened the movement to the body.

Each couples I had, I had really nice dances today, and I thought why it happened. There were many things. Most important was Arriving, that i could arrive before I start the dance. I also enjoyed, and the most important thing: trust the kinesthetic feelings of the body. Concreteness in the sensation of the body. Trust the body. I found this week, it has been like meditation, lots of confronting my own obstacles. Contrasts was happening this week. Most important thing was that when I had these processes. And allowing people to be how they are.

Janika (Estonia?)
I want to say thank you. Now I feel the pain in all my body, I needed it. That’s important moment for me, the small dance. It’s inspiring, all the people in the world. And i want to say about coincidence. There is a shoe holding the door open, like someone should come in.

Toni (Finland)
This nourished me:
the colour yellow, toes, flashes of smiles, dryness, the smell of sweat, cucumbers, friction, ignorance, pencils.
Concentrating on the things that nourish me.

Marta (?)
It wasn’t easy for me. I have done some CI, but i felt that i coudn’t open up. And the voices in my head were saying many things.

Lydia (?)
I said about losing myself to the information. I didn’t expect that today. I already found myself. About coincidence, there was one moment, when I found myself with three red shirts. I don’t know where they are right now. Was fun.

Merle (Estonia)
I feel today many beautiful moments, I surprised myself, because my body wanted to move very different ways, i just let it go and some moments I don’t understand what my body is doing. And there’s lots of energy and power and freedom. And after when I go out, then I understand better.

Helinä (Estonia)
When we did facing towards other coutries, it was interesting to feel the other place, almost seeing the backs from the other countries. And then here hearing the names and countries and people are still similar, from so many different places. Still doing the same stuff. I had a lot of different emotions, sensations and qualities; we started to laugh at the same time when the ear of the vase came off and it was interesting to feel that happening.

Kadri (Estonia)
I had skype with two friends of mine, from Brazil and Kyoto. When we started you were telling about the countries. Why didn’t i tell them! We could have met in the undescore. Small dance was very important and that it happened in the beginning and end.

Helin (Estonia? nonworkshop woman)
When people started this thing, I was very energetic, let’s go! But when we did the small dance, and we were facing Russia, then it changed. I didn’t know what i was doing, I was scratching the floor. That was that. I don’t know why, but i was really egoistic, i wanted just my personal space. I tried to connect with wall and it didn’t work. I sat in the corner and was painting, i took some pencils and was drawing. Many different emotions, when i watched everyone. Maybe one day i will show what i draw.

Anne-Mari (Estonia? nonworkshop)
Ci is always understanding and others better. Who am I and who are others, thinking of do I see who they are and who am I? And also curiosity. Freedom. Also i was thinking if there are some people who need more, stronger, impulse to move and other people need less impuls. Is it so, or? And with few people that we were moving like one body. Remembering my own body, I am here, trying to look it from one step away.

Tina (Montreal, Canada)
I was thinking, feeling, different states, and in the global sense I was curious about global and local, about permeability, sensing borders, boundaries, how sometimes there is free trade and sometimes heavily guarded borders. Seeing if it’s possible to sneak across the border and retreat when it’s too dangerous.

Danat (Riga, Latvia)
Thank you all of you. For that beautiful moment of healing. I think CI is very great open structure for ideas, movement. We are all very open and excited and fresh and open to the world. It’s a great thing nowadays.

Olga (Riga, Latvia)
It was my first underscore. I had many feelings. Feels like gravity, losing myself, trying to find some connections between CI, contemporary art, some ideas came to my mind, it’s so contemporary but at the same time searching for spirituality like ancient things.


          The Kills announce 'Echo Home: Non-Electric EP' in celebration of 15th Anniversary        


The Kills – Alison Mosshart and Jamie Hince – will release the Echo Home – Non-Electric EP digitally on June 2nd, with a limited edition 10” vinyl release available for pre-order today.

Both the physical and digital versions of the Echo Home – Non-Electric EP will feature audio from a stripped down session the band captured recently at Electric Lady Studios in New York. Alongside “Echo Home”, the EP features Ash & Ice track “That Love”, a cover of Rihanna’s “Desperado” (which the band originally played as part of a Sirius XMU session), and the song “Wait”, off the band’s first ever release, Black Rooster EP, which celebrates it’s 15 year anniversary on May 28th.

The Black Rooster EP was originally released on Dim Mak in 2002 and was the start of what’s been an incredible career for Alison Mosshart and Jamie Hince of The Kills.

With five full-length albums (the most recent being 2016’s Ash & Ice), four EPs, a documentary, and countless live shows under their belt, the passion and fire they continue to bring to every recording and performance is extraordinary.

In their 15th year as a band, The Kills have been looking back and celebrating with a string of anniversary shows and retrospective features, and now this re-recording of “Wait”, one of the first Kills songs ever released. Steve Aoki, owner of Dim Mak and another artist who has proven a career with similar staying power, recently had some words to share on the release of Black Rooster:

"Many moons ago, back in 2002, I had to make a decision whether to pursue a Ph.D. Program or continue with my label Dim Mak & after hearing a demo from The Kills and becoming the first American label to release their EP Black Rooster, I knew what path I was going to choose. They took me under their wing and I hit the road with them as their tour manager, merch guy, driver (we all took turns) and label. I’ll never forget that and love Jamie and Alison forever. Thank you for believing in lil me when not many people gave two shits about Dim Mak and what we were doing. Ride or Die.” – STEVE AOKI

Pre-order the Echo Home 10” HERE.

The Kills 2017 Tour Dates:

05/27 Liverpool, UK - Liverpool Sound City
05/28 Margate, UK - Margate Wonderland
05/30 London, UK - Shepherds Bush Empire
06/02 Saint-Brieuc, France - Art Rock Festival
06/03 Saint-Laurent-De-Cuves, France - Papillons De Nuit Festival
06/06 Prague, Czech Republic - Roxy
06/07 Liepzig, Germany - Taubchenthal
06/09 Copenhagen, Denmark - Vega
06/10 Aarhus, Denmark - Northside Festival
06/13 Munich, Germany - Olympic Stadium *
06/16 London, UK - London Stadium *
06/17 London, UK - London Stadium *
06/24 Athens, Greece - Ejekt Festival
06/19 Helsinki, Finland - Rock The Beach #
06/21 Riga, Latvia - Lucavsala Island #
06/29 Gydnia, Poland - Open’er
07/02 Werchter, Belgium - Rock Werchter
07/07 Lisbon, Portugal - Nos Alive
07/10 Montreaux, Switzerland - Montreaux Jazz Festival
07/12 Dour, Belgium - Dour Festival
07/16 Berlin, Germany - Melt Festival
08/12 Bucharest, Romania - Summer Well Festival
08/15 Budapest, Hungary - Sziget Festival
08/17 Gampel, Switzerland - Open Air Gampel
08/19 Zagreb, Croatia - Tvornica Kulture
08/25 Charleville Mezières, France - Cabaret Vert
08/26 Paris, France - Rock En Seine
09/19 Porto Alegre, Brazil - Anfiteatro Parque (Outdoor) %
09/21 Rio, Brazil - Rock In Rio
09/23 Sao Paulo, Brazil - Allianz Parque %

* = with Guns ‘N’ Roses
# = with Foo Fighters
% = with Bon Jovi 

          12 Peninggalan Sejarah Paling Misterius Di Dunia        

Hal misterius selalu menggugah keingin-tahuan manusia dengan rasa penasarannya (curiosity). Hal itu justru membuat banyak pertanyaan yang lahir untuk dijawab.
Namun terkadang ilmuwan lebih terfikir lenih banyak pertanyaan daripada jawaban yang telah ada. Berikut 12 peninggalan sejarah paling misterius berdasarkan pilihan terkini.
1. Monumental Instructions for the Post-Apocalypse / Monumen Petunjuk untuk Hari Kiamat (Amerika Serikat)
Di sebuah bukit kecil di timur laut tandus daerah Hartwell, Georgia AS, berdiri monumen paling aneh dan misterius di dunia.
Namun melihat dari arsitektur bangunan, monumen itu tidak diciptakan pada zaman kuno.
Dikenal sebagai ‘Georgia Guidestones’, lima struktur batu ini tingginya16 feet, dengan berat 20 ton.
Memiliki empat pilar batu granit persegi panjang keatas, yang masing-masing pilar dipahat mengenai instruksi dan petunjuk dari kedelapan “bahasa kebudayaan terbesar” diantaranya bahasa hieroglif dari:
Arabic, Cina, Russia, Inggris, Spanyol, Hindi, Hebrew dan Swahili – dengan instruksi agar manusia yang selamat dari bencana besar dapat membangun kembali peradaban baru di Bumi ini dan sama sekali tidak meninggalkan serta melupakan sejarah para leluhur.
Keempat pilar dibentuk seperti tanda tambah (+ plus) dan mempunyai jarak sekitar 5 meter karenanya pusat tengahnya ada sebuah pilar lagi yang tertulis commandment di dindingnya, lalu diatasnya ditindih oleh batu granit berbentuk buku persegi empat.
Di keempat sisi pada baru granit yang terbaring itu diatasnya, ada petunjuk dengan “bahasa kebudayaan tua” yang sudah lenyap di dunia yaitu:
Bahasa Sanksekerta (Sanskrit), Yunani Kuno (Classical Greek) dan Babylonian Cuneiform serta Mesir Kuno (berupa simbol-simbol) atau Egyptian Hieroglyphic.
Apakah instruksi dalam delapan bahasa itu berkaitan dengan ramalan kiamat? Ini yang masih belum jelas.
Bangunan ini didirikan oleh golongan Mansonic, Freemason, Illuminati, kaum pagan dan para pendukung golongan satanic lainnya.

Terlihat mereka telah membuat situs ini namun pada sisi tertinggi di bidang datar teratas adalah lambang golongan mereka.
Jadi seakan-akan semua dan seluruh budaya di dunia ini berasal, tunduk dan berawal dari satu sumber yaitu golongan mereka yang ingin mendirikan New World Order (NWO).
Terbukti mereka berniat mengajarkan faham ini, dan akan berlanjut di kebudayaan manusia berikutnya.
Tidak jelas juga perintah ini ditujukan untuk siapa. Lebih tidak jelas lagi, siapa yang membangun monumen aneh ini? Hanya ada satu orang yang tahu namun dia tak mau bicara. 

2. Danau Michigan Stonehenge (Amerika Serikat)
Awalnya, sekelompok peneliti menggunakan sonar untuk mencari bangkai kapal di dasar Danau Michigan, hasil yang didapat sungguh mengejutkan.
Mereka justru menemukan struktur mirip Stonehenge kuno 40 feet di bawah permukaan air dekat pulau Beaver Island.
Sebagian dari batu tersebut dalam suatu lingkaran dan satu muncul untuk menunjukkan ukiran dari suatu Mastodon.
Diduga, benda purbakala ini dibangun 10,000 tahun lalu, kemungkinan bertepatan dengan pasca-Ice Age kehadiran manusia dan mastodons
Jadilah di daerah Michigan di Amerika sudah memiliki situs Petroglyph dan batu berdiri.

3. Yonaguni, Reruntuhan Peradaban Bawah Laut (Jepang)
Di pantai selatan pulau Yonaguni, Jepang, terdapat reruntuhan yang terendam, diperkirakan telah berusia sekitar 8.000 tahun.
Reruntuhan dibawah laut ini dikenal juga dengan nama Yonaguni Monument Underwater Ruins.
“Though some people believed that it was carved by geographic phenomena, it’s now confirmed to be man-made as the intricate stairways, carvings and right angles suggest.”
Meskipun sebagian orang percaya bahwa itu merupakan kreasi alam, namun sekarang muncul suara-suara yang menyebut itu buatan manusia.
Hal itu terlihat dari susunan tangga yang rumit, ukiran-ukiran yang ada di sana yang diyakini sebagai buatan manusia.
Situs ini ditemukan 1995 oleh seorang penyelam yang tersasar terlalu jauh dari pantai Okinawa. Kebetulan juga dia membawa camera untuk memotret bawah laut. 
4. Kejaiban Bawah Laut Alexandria (Mesir)
Reruntuhan ini dipercaya merupakan kota Alexander Agung, di mana istana Cleopatra berada.
Tenggelamnya kota itu diperkirakan terjadi 1.500 tahun lalu akibat gempa bumi dahsyat.
Bersamaan dengan terbenamnya istana itu, tenggelam juga artefak-artefak yang menghiasi istana, serta bangunan-bangunan lain dari istana Cleopatra itu.
Reruntuhan kota yang ditemukan di dasar laut ini, memang sengaja tidak diangkat ke daratan.
Pemerintah setempat berencana akan  menjadikan lokasi reruntuhan ajaib di bawah laut itu sebagai wisata air.

5. Misteri Stones Baalbek (Libanon)
Kuil Romawi yang terbesar yang pernah dibangun dan kini tinggal reruntuhannya, sebenarnya bukan di Yunani atau Roma, tapi justru di Baalbek, Libanon.
Kuil Romawi bernama Stone Baalbek itu dihancurkan oleh Kaisar Bizantium Theodosius, beruntung tidak semua bagian musnah.
Masih ada 6 dari 54 kolom, yang masih berdiri hingga kini.
Enam kolom inilah menjadi saksi sejarah dan meninggalkan jejak mistri yang menunggu diungkap.
Meskipun sisa-sisa kemegahan kuil ini masih terlihat jelas, namun sebenarnyalah, kuil ini sempat terbengkalai akibat perang.
Selama beberapa dekade, jarang sekali wisatawan berkunjung ke tempat ini akibat perang. Untungnya juga, perang tidak sampai menghancurkan kuil bersejarah ini. (peta lokasi)

6. Tiga Lingkaran Batu Kuno Megalithic (Turki)
Di selatan Turki, tepat di utara perbatasan dengan Suriah, terdapat tiga lingkaran batu megalitik berusia ribuan tahun, lebih tua daripada batu lingkaran Stonehenge.
Anehnya, lingkaran-lingkaran batu kuno ini dibangun oleh kelompok pemburu pada masa itu.
Sebelumnya, dipercaya bahwa manusia purba tidak mungkin bisa membuat bangunan itu, sampai mereka mencapai taraf kemajuan tertentu.
Ketika ditemukan, lingkaran batu itu dalam keadaan terkubur. Tak ada yang tahu apa alasan atau latar belakang kenapa benda itu terkubur.
Namun sebagian orang percaya bahwa Göbekli Tepe dan wilayah sekitarnya adalah awal dari sejarah manusia yakni lokasi Taman Eden. 
7. Patung Moai di Pulau Paskah / Easter Island (Chile)
Pulau Paskah, juga dikenal sebagai Rapa Nui atau Isla de Pascua, adalah sebuah pulau Polinesia di tenggara Samudra Pasifik, yang paling terkenal dengan patung-patung yang monumental yang diciptakan oleh orang-orang Rapanui.
Patung-patung itu diduga dibuat antara tahun 1250 Masehi dan 1500 Masehi.
Moai terberat berbobot 86 ton. Ini menggambarkan betapa besar prestasi mereka yang mampu menciptakan Rapanui, juga memindahkan patung-patung yang beratnya mencapai puluhan ton.
Beruntung, patung-patung kuno ini sebagian masih bisa dilihat di Raraku, tetapi ratusan patung lainnya dipindahkan ke pulau-pulau sekitar. 

8. Stonehenge, Monumen Prasejarah (Inggris)
Mungkin monumen kuno yang terbilang masih dalam kondisi baik adalah Stonehenge, terletak di Larkhill, Wiltshire, Inggris.
Bangunan purba ini diperkirakan dibangun 2500 sebelum masehi, namun kemudian mengalami revisi dan renovasi terus menerus selama 1400 tahun.
Meskipun segala teori dan spekulasi dikemukakan, tapi tak seorang pun tahu apa tujuan dan awal dari pembuatan monumen prasejarah ini.
Selama ini ilmuwan hanya berteori tentang Stonehenge yang misterius ini dan tetap menjadi salah satu misteri terbesar bumi.

9. Machu Picchu (Peru)
Machu Picchu adalah kota peninggalan bangsa Inca yang paling terawat baik. Kota kerajaan ini tersembunyi di pegunungan Andes di wilayah Peru, berada di pegunungan yang tinggi dengan jalan yang terjal namun pada puncaknya datar.
Sebuah lokasi, yang konon merupakan tempat pelarian bangsa Inca dari kejaran Spanyol.
Kota ini selama berabad-abad tersembunyi dan terisolasi dari dunia luar sampai kemudian seorang arkeolog, Hiram Bingham, menemukannya pada tahun 1911.
Berdasarkan penelitian, diperkirakan kota Machu Picchu dibanun pada 1450 masehi sebagai tempat persembunyian penguasa Inca Pachacuti.

10. Great Zimbabwe Ruins (Zimbabwe)
Hanya sedikit orang yang tahu bahwa Zimbabwe, Afrika, memiliki reruntuhan batu kuno tertua di dunia. Lokasinya di pedesaan.
Diduga, reruntuhan batu kuno itu dulunya adalah bangunan yang dihuni oleh 18.000 jiwa.
Begitu besarnya kompleks bekas-bekas reruntuhan kuno ini, maka disebut Great Zimbabwe Ruins.
Berdasarkan penelitian, bangunan itu dibangun pada abad ke-11, uniknya bangunan itu didirikan tanpa menggunakan semen.
Namun hingga kini tidak ada yang tahu pasti mengapa situs itu akhirnya ditinggalkan.
11. Chavín de Huantar Ruins (Peru)
Meskipun tidak setenar Machu Picchu, reruntuhan Chavín de Huantar di Peru juga merupakan Situs Warisan Dunia menarik yang berisi sisa-sisa artefak yang dibangun oleh Chavín, Inca pra-budaya, sekitar 900 SM
Situs ini berfungsi sebagai tempat berkumpul bagi orang-orang di daerah tersebut untuk berkumpul dan beribadah.
Tidak jelas mengapa budaya Chavín menghilang, meskipun beberapa percaya bahwa reruntuhan Chavín de Huantar menawarkan petunjuk tentang mengapa beberapa peradaban menghilang.
Kebanyakan teori menyebut musnahnya Chavín karena kondisi lingkungan termasuk terjadinya gempa bumi, sementara dugaan lain adalah perebutan kekuasaan. 

12. Coral Castle / Monumen Cinta Yang Hilang (Amerika Serikat)
Bagaimana menjelaskan seorang laki-laki bertinggi 5 feet dengan berat 100 pon, membangun taman yang rumit dengan menggunakan potongan-potongan batu karang yang masing-masing beratnya berton-ton?
Coral Castle, di Homestead, Florida, merupakan sebuah keajaiban yang sulit dijelaskan akal sehat.
Terlebih lagi, laki-laki yang membangun castle itu konon hanya berpendidikan setingkat kelas 4 SD.
Adalah Ed Leedskalnin, seorang imigran Latvia, yang membangun monumen yang disebut monumen cinta yang hilang.
Aneh! Kisahnya, pembangunan monumen ini bak kisah roman yang mengharu biru.
Ed Leedskaini mulai membangun castle itu pada tahun 1923, setelah ditolak cintanya oleh tunangannya di Latvia hanya beberapa hari sebelum pernikahan mereka.
Dan ia pun mengabdikan hidupnya untuk menyelesaikannya (monumen). Sayangnya, dia meninggal sebelum menumen cintanya selesai dibangun. Akan tetapi, setelah ia meninggal, 1951, konstruksi bangunan itu diteruskan pembangunannya.
Bukan kisah romantis ini yang bikin para ahli bingung, namun mereka heran dan takjub karena Leedskalnin, membangun sendiri benteng katang itu.
Lebih bingung lagi, karena pria itu sebenarnya hanya berpendidikan hingga kelas empat, namun anehnya ia mampu membangun benteng yang rumit itu.
Sesuatu yang sebenarnya hanya bisa dilakukan oleh para arsitek dan para ahli bangunan. Ini sungguh tak bisa dipahami. Bahkan seorang insinyur menyebut, “Bahkan, Albert Einstein pun belum tentu mampu memahami keajaiban ini.”
Itulah 12 peninggalan sejarah berupa monumen dan reruntuhan serta karya seni manusia yang masih banyak pertanyaan oleh para ilmuwan tentang keberadaaanya dibanding jawabannya. (weburbanist/

          European Commission issues "black list" of 30 "tax havens"        

Action Plan on Corporate Taxation

On 17 June 2015, the Commission adopted an Action Planpdf Choose translations of the previous link for fair and efficient corporate taxation in the EU.
The Action Plan sets to reform the corporate tax framework in the EU, in order to tackle tax abuse, ensure sustainable revenues and support a better business environment in the Single Market.
See the timelinepdf. 

5 Key Areas for Action have been identified:

1. Re-launching the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB)
2. Ensuring fair taxation where profits are generated
3. Creating a better business environment
4. Increasing transparency
5. Improving EU coordination 
map of non-cooperative tax jurisdictions has also been published, in a move to reinforce the EU's response to external threats to Member States' tax bases.
The Commission also adopted a decision to prolong the Platform on Tax Good Governance, and revise its scope and working methods.
For further information

The map was drawn up on the basis of work done by the Platform for Tax Good Governance and the information provided by EU Member States.

Top 30 listed countries: Andorra, Liechtenstein, Guernsey, Monaco, Mauritius, Liberia, Seychelles, Brunei, Hong Kong, Maldives, Cook Islands, Nauru, Niue, Marshall Islands, Vanuatu, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Grenada, Montserrat, Panama, St Vincent and the Grenadines, St Kitts and Nevis, Turks and Caicos, US Virgin Islands.

Panama is listed by Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain.

Full text in the European Commission website

          Latvia Orders RBS 70 Missiles        
Defence and security company Saab has received an order for RBS 70 missiles from the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Latvia. Deliveries will take place during the period 2016-2017. Latvia has been an RBS 70 customer since 2004, and in 2015 Saab signed a contract with the Latvian Ministry of Defence for deliveries of RBS 70 missiles. This order is a call-up of an option as part of the previously signed contract, which was announced by Saab on 22 October 2015. “We are pleased ...
          Economic and Geo-Political Prognosis for 2015        

Paper No. 5856                                 Dated 12-Jan-2015

Guest Column by Dr. Rajesh Tembarai Krishnamachari and Srividya Kannan Ramachandran


The re-moderation of the world economy set in place over the past few years continues apace. Notwithstanding some lasting damage on the supply side through the 2008 recessionary trough, our outlook for 2015 is bullish weighing more on optimistic data trends than on continued negative sentiment proffered from some analyst quarters.

Around the world in 80 (or more) words:

Treating the ten-year US Treasury bond yield as a proxy indicator for that nation's nominal GDP growth, we anticipate United States to grow around 3% next year.[1] While this does not mark a return to the buoyant 90s, it is better than the secular stagnation hypothesized earlier in 2014.[2] With US acting as an engine to spur growth, the world economy should also expand by more than 3%.[3] Stability across the world will be maintained – as sparks without a concomitant fury will characterize both overt (e.g. Russia-West over Ukraine) and covert (e.g. China-Japan over Senkaku) animosities.[4] European stagnation from debt and unemployment will be counterbalanced through quantitative easing by the European Central Bank.[5] Similar action in Japan will display the limits of Abe-nomics.[6] China will prepare for a structural slowdown emphasizing domestic consumption and de-leveraging an over-heated financial sector; all the while growing at a 7% rate that will amaze rivals around the world.[7] Indian reform, even if inadequate, will boost the middle classes and reinforce confidence in the Modi government.[8] African countries will find their commodity boom dissipate and ease of borrowing decline as commodity prices fall and yields rise in the developed world.[9]

Continental tectonics:

a. North America:

Economic benefits arising from the exploitation of shale gas have not only silenced the anti-fracking environmentalists, they have altered the strategic world-view of Washington politicians.[10] As US aims to overtake even Saudi Arabia in oil/NGL production in 2015 (and the Saudis pull out all stops in preventing it by driving crude prices down), it has markedly reduced its role as a global policeman.[11] Its own economy is on the mend even as a lame-duck president will be boggled down with partisan grid-lock. Markets will fret about the mid-year (or earlier?) hike in interest rates; though Main Street - aided by a strong dollar - will likely shrug it off with a continued upward movement across different sectors.[12]

Mexico and Canada will benefit from their tight coupling with the United States.[13] Enrique Pena Nieto will claim credit for reforming the Mexican economy – across sectors as diverse as energy and telecom.[14] Pemex, dear to the Mexicans, will face some competition, though nothing remotely similar to the American acquisition of Tim Hortons – dear to the Canadians – will happen.[15] Up north, the Canadian elections in 2015 will reveal whether the country has reverted to its liberal propensities or sticks with Harper's conservative agenda.[16]

b. Latin and South America:

The outlook is disappointing across much of the region. Run-away inflation hammers Argentina and Venezuela; milder ill-effects bedevil Brazil, Bolivia and Uruguay.[17] The Maduro regime in Venezuela and the Kirchner government in Argentina continue to flirt with disaster as their GDP growths slip and mass discontent builds up.[18] Dilma Rousseff has stabilized her position electorally, though her policies continue to disappoint investors and have the potential to reignite sudden protests like the 2013 bus-fare protests.[19] Dependence on commodity exports in a time of declining prices does not portend well for any of the South American states, including Brazil.[20] On a positive note, Cuba – already expected by analysts to grow by close to 4% next year – will see a boost to its fortunes accruing from a thaw in relations with US under Obama.[21]

c. Africa:

African nations had a great run in the past few years. This arose not only from the boom in commodity prices but also from the need for yield amongst DM (developed market) investors resulting in investment in both corporate and public African bonds.[22] In 2015, these factors could dissipate which will place pressure on countries like Angola where household spending has risen more than 4000% since the start of the millennium.[23] Ethiopia and Kenya are expected to continue on a robust growth path.[24] Contradictions abound within Africa, and nowhere are they more visible than in Nigeria. While the northern part struggles under the oppression of Boko Haram, the southern part booms under Goodluck Jonathan's president-ship.[25] In neighboring South Sudan, one is reminded of the risk-reward payoff as the nation widely tipped to experience spectacular growth in 2014, got mired in conflict, with the consequent dissipation of growth potential.[26]

American intervention in Libya undermined the Gaddafi-imposed order and has led to a civil war between the Islamist and secularist factions which will hold back that nation in the coming year.[27] A more benign intervention was that of the French in Mali in 2013; we expect more calls for Hollande's assistance in 2015.[28] El Sisi has stabilized Egypt after the Muslim Brotherhood interlude in the post-Mubarak era. Though more brutal than Mubarak, the El Sisi regime is being propped by both the Americans and Saudis, leading us to expect the recent bull run in Egyptian markets to continue.[29] ANC rule in South Africa continues unimpeded. Though atrophied by many scandals, the rule should produce close to 3% growth in the coming year.[30]

d. Middle East:

The region continues to be a cesspool of ethno-sectarian rivalries as the century-old Sykes-Pikot agreement unravels.[31] Recep Erdogan has stabilized Turkey and should reap a growth on par with other emerging economies.[32] Erdogan's external actions driven by AKP's crypto-desire to establish a caliphate will see him prop the Islamic State (IS) just so that it can damage Shia and Kurdish interests; but not enough to threaten his own Sunni hegemonic plans.[33] The Saudi establishment has focused on the removal of the Muslim brotherhood threat; now they will focus on limiting Shia Iranian influence by keeping crude prices low.[34] Western companies made a beeline to Iran in 2014 in hope of an impending thaw; much will depend on the negotiation ability of the Rouhani establishment on the sanction front.[35] Dubai and Israel remain insulated from the turmoil around and could reap the benefit of the uptick in the world economy.[36] The risk of sudden flare-ups like the 2014 Gaza war continue to remain on the Israeli radar.

e. Asia and Australia:

The Asian political scene is remarkably stable with China, Japan and India looking inward to stabilize their economies under the leadership of Xi Jinping, Shinzo Abe and Narendra Modi, respectively. Some events have gone unnoticed by world media – for example, China starts the year of the goat as the world's largest economy when measured in PPP terms and for the first time ever, Chinese outbound investments could exceed those inbound.[37] The establishment of China on the world stage has made Xi stronger than any Chinese leader in recent memory bar Chairman Mao himself. The Abe regime will continue on its reformist route of bringing Japan out of the deflationary zone, while winking at nationalist sentiment calling for a re-interpretation of the country's post-war pacifist role.[38] Down south in India, Modi has surprised both supporters and detractors alike by his middle-path approach to reforming the economy and his zealous interest in foreign policy. While reforming cautiously, he has not removed the populist schemes of the previous government. 2015 will see him act unimpeded by local elections (other than in Bihar) and will prove to be a litmus test of his claims of good governance.[39]

Afghanistan under Ashraf Ghani will face more trouble from Taliban as US adopts the Pakistani classification into good versus bad Taliban.[40] In nearby Pakistan, the wildly popular Imran Khan - with some help, perhaps, from the deep state – will challenge the established parties in their home turfs.[41] In Indonesia, Jake Widodo has come to power with Imran Khan-type support amongst the youth, and he will be hard-pressed to implement his reformist agenda – including reducing fuel subsidies – amidst persistent opposition from entrenched interests.[42] ASEAN will continue to slip on its stated intentions for closer cooperation.[43] Australia will try to balance its strategic partnership with the United States with economic dalliances with the Chinese.[44]

f. Europe and Russia:

Vladimir Putin will be emboldened by the short-term rise in domestic popularity; and hence ignore the longer-term implications of his intervention in Ukraine.[45] Tighter coupling with Kazakhstan and Belarus will not prevent what is likely to be a low-growth and high-inflation year for the Russians.[46] Europe as a whole continues to underperform, and it will be most visible in France and Italy both of whom might record less than 1% growth in GDP. With the Trierweller-Gayet saga behind his back, Francois Hollande will attempt to rein in a deficit running at close to 4% of GDP. Even with help from ECB's quantitative easing program, there is little expectation that Hollande can avoid being the most unpopular leader amongst all western democracies.[47] In Italy, high debt and unemployment – exemplified by the statistic of four-fifths of Italians between the ages of 20-31 living with parents – will hamper any efforts Matteo Renzi might take to pull the economy out of its doldrums.[48]

The Greeks might look forward to a better year, especially when juxtaposed against their recent past. On the back of painful reforms, the Greek economy is widely anticipated to commence its long journey back to health, though there might be recurrent political scares and recalcitrant rumors of a Greek exit.[49] The German government will be buffeted by opposing demands – external calls for a more interventionist role in stabilizing the world economy and internal ones for tempering the same. Cautious progress on the fiscal front will lead to modest GDP growth.[50] Ironically, the European nations with best GDP growth projections are also the ones with the highest exposure to Putin's misadventures, viz. Poland, Latvia and Lithuania.[51]

Sectors and segments:

Having dropped significantly in the past few months, the level of oil prices affects the prospects for many industry sectors in 2015.  Oil is typically expected to revert to the mean because a lower oil price has discernible impact on both supply (by discouraging investment in its production and distribution) and demand (by boosting economic activity) sides.[52] The speed of such mean-reversion remains unclear. Russia, Iran and US shale producers (esp. those who are not based at strategic locations) suffer disproportionally more than the Saudi establishment at current price levels.[53] Lower oil prices will provide a fillip to consumer discretionary industries and airlines; and have an adverse impact on railroad (benefiting from oil transportation) and petrochemical companies. The shale gas boom - apart from increasing housing activity - is also the prime driver behind growth in the US steel and construction material sectors; consequently both the steel and construction sectors will remain susceptible to crude movements.[54]

Low interest rates and low macro-growth prospects will induce companies with excess cash to acquire other companies to report earnings growth. That trend will be apparent in companies transacting in sectors as diverse as healthcare, industrials, semiconductors, software and materials.[55] On another side of investment banks, trading desks will see higher market volatility as major powers pursue divergent paths to monetary policy (e.g. US against EU/Japan).[56] In US, regulatory obligations increasing cost of capital for holding certain securities might lead to decreased broker liquidity.[57] 2015 shall see the big banks grapple with the regulations in Basel III and Volcker; one expects regulatory push towards vanilla deposit-taking and lending to continue.[58] Analysts will hope that stronger balance sheets coupled with a return to profitability lead to increased dividend payout for investors in financial stocks. China will seek to tame its overheated financial sector amidst a structural slowdown[59], and India will see RBI governor Raghuram Rajan continue his battle against political interference in corporate lending.[60] Wealth management services will perform remarkably well not only in China, but also to a lesser extent in US as a rising market creates wealth and a retiring baby-boomer crowd seeks to couple low risk with acceptable return.[61] In the arena of mobile payment, Apple Pay will try to avoid the lackluster performance of earlier attempts like Google Wallet.[62]

Lower gasoline prices and an accompanying increase in disposable income (through wealth creation at the markets, increased home values, reduced unemployment and improved economic activity) creates a positive outlook for the consumer discretionary sector. Companies dealing with organic farming benefit from increased health consciousness; the market for yoga will continue to rise as 2014 saw the UN declare a world yoga day on Modi's initiative.[63] Even as DVDs and Blue-rays fall, digital film subscriptions and on-demand internet steaming will rise to please Hollywood.[64] Bollywood will get over its obsession with INR 100 crore revenues as movies will cross that level more frequently.[65]  With supply level of hotels remaining the same as few years back, revenue per room will rise across the sector.[66] Tighter access to credit continues to hamper the rise in existing house sales, which nevertheless should improve over the past year.[67] Asian apparel manufacturers continue to improve their market share in the fast fashion market.[68]  October 2015 will see Europeans benefit from the eCall service in all their new cars, which allows a car to immediately report details to the base-stations on any accident. New carbon-emission standards also come into force in Europe; even elsewhere the move towards higher efficiency in cars will continue.[69] Widodo will be pleased at the growth in automobile sales in Indonesia, which should exceed those of other major markets.[70] Internet advertising is rising faster than television commercials, though 2015 will still see the latter dominate the former in overall revenue generated.[71] Privacy concerns continue to erode on the social media front.[72] The newspaper industry will see increased number of advertorials re-packaged as "native advertising" by which companies will pay for advertisements to be written as paid newspaper article.[73]

In India, the BJP government is yet to clarify its position on foreign direct investment in retail.[74] Irrespective of its final decision, retail sales should surge sharply upward there as the consummation of pent-up demand of past few years couples with the thriving of 'mall culture' in middle-tier cities. China will also see an increase in retail sales inspite of its investigation in to WalMart.[75] The anti-corruption campaign though will negatively impact luxury good sales as well as those of higher-end automobiles there[76]. A strong dollar will affect US companies with significant operations abroad. Wheat production might match 2014 record volumes in Europe[77]; though more newsprint will probably be devoted to higher prices of cocoa from Ivory Coast.[78] Idiosyncrasies of local markets will shine as Dubai invests in large-scale brick and mortal malls, while Manhattan gets more of its groceries delivered at home steps.[79]

Demand for energy should rise at the same pace as the world GDP next year. Analysts will point at attractive valuations of oil companies.[80] If shale price remains attractive, Sabine Pass in Louisiana will emerge as the first plant in US to export LNG.[81] Four years after the Fukushima incident, Japan will see nuclear reactors back in operation at Sendai.[82]

2014 saw the denizens of the developed world fret about Ebola, breast cancer (through a campaign by actor Angelina Jolie) and ALS (through the ice bucket challenge).[83] Overall, health spending will comfortably outpace the rate of growth of the overall economy. Long-term secular trends driving this are the aging population in the western world (with the population pyramid replaced by a population dome) and an emerging middle class elsewhere with increasing demand for improved access to healthcare.[84] Universal healthcare has been promised for all in India, which should drive up healthcare expenditure by a significant amount there.[85] In 2015, large US companies are mandated under Obama-care to provide insurance to more than 70% of their eligible workforce.[86] Uncertainty on US healthcare reform and debate thereon may cause short-term price volatility. Millennial Development Goals will reviewed by the UN later in the year with a new set of goalposts announced for countries to be met by 2030; different NGOs will campaign vigorously through media to get their pet agendas included in the final list.[87]

Transportation companies will report higher earnings from increased economic activity.[88] Apart from some airlines which have suffered reputation damage through recurring accidents, airline companies will benefit from the reduced oil prices. Defense industry will see robust growth in China, as "Chi-America" remains no more a chimera.[89] Alarmed by this increase, Vietnam with Philippines will move within the US ambit and Australia will seek to join the tripartite naval exercises in the Indian Ocean between US, Japan and India.[90] Tensions in Eastern Europe and the middle-east will favor increases in expenditure across the region. The nationalist government in India will increase defense expenditure sharply even as it moves beyond lip-service on the long-standing issue of indigenization of defense manufacturing.[91]

The mantra of social-local-mobile (SoLoMo in tech jargon) continues to drive the consumer markets division of information technology companies.[92] Expenditure on IT hardware is significantly retarded by the increasing move to cloud computing.[93] The move to cloud computing - along with increasing use of mobile commerce - bodes well for the computer security business.[94] India should see a sharp increase in smart phone adoption; elsewhere tablet computers will rise against laptop and desktops.[95] Embedded systems coupled with rudimentary networking will be marketed as an all-encompassing internet of things as the era of big data continues.[96]  Today, a single family in US places more demands on data flow than the entire planet did a decade back; and even this data rate is expected to increase by a whopping 70% over the next year. Consolidation in the cable sector (e.g Comcast with Time Warner Cable) and the convergence of content with distribution (e.g. AT&T with DirectTV) are two trends that should continue on from 2014.[97] Even as Indians will talk about 3G coverage spanning the nation; Americans will tweet about 4G price warfare and the Chinese will see ZTE unveil a 5G prototype.[98] Facebook will have more users than China has human beings.[99] Analysts will harp about impact of interest-rate hikes on high dividend paying telecom stocks.[100] Apart from the financial industry, telecom will emerge as an industry most impacted by federal regulation across the globe.

The anthropologist Edward Weyer once compared the future to being akin to a "corridor into which we can see only through the light coming from behind".  It is in that sense that we have analyzed the data of the bygone year and tried to extrapolate into the days and months ahead. And when some are falsified - and falsified, some will be - then we shall lay credit for the same at the feet of those responsible - viz. us, the people.

[The authors are based in New York City, and can be contacted through email at and The views represented above are personal and do not in any manner reflect those of the institutions affiliated with the authors.]


[1] See the graph titled "10 year bond yield: annual change and real GDP: annual % change" at

[2] "Secular stagnation: facts, causes and cures", a VoxEU eBook at

[4] A brief historical perspective on the Russia-Ukraine conflict is at

The Economist magazine summarizes the debate over Senkaku islands at

[5] “The ECB, demigods and eurozone quantitative easing” at

[6] “Bank of Japan announces more quantitative easing: the next chapter in Abenomics” at

[7] “World Bank urges China to cut economic growth target to seven percent in 2015, focus on reforms” at

[8] “Reforms by PM Narendra Modi will help India to grow 5.5% this year, 6.3% next year: ADB” at

[10] “The experts: how the US oil boom will change the markets and geopolitics”,

[13] “Economic growth patterns in USA, Canada, Mexico and China” at

[14] “Mexican president Pena Nieto's ratings slip with economic reform” at

[17] “Andres Oppenheimer: Latin America's forecast for 2015: not good” at

[18] “Maduro blames plunging oil prices on US war vs Russia, Venezuela” at and “What's in store for post-Kirchner Argentina” at

[19] “Brazil economists cut 2015 growth forecast to slowest on record” at

[20] “Economic snapshot for Latin America” at

[21] “Cuba, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico business forecast report Q1 2015” at and “Obama's Cuba move is Florida's top story for 2014” at

[24] “Ethiopia overview” at and “Kenya overview” at

[26] “Internal violence in South Sudan” at!/?marker=33.

[27] “Political instability in Libya” at!/?marker=14.

[28] “The regional impact of the armed conflict and French intervention in Mali” at

[29] “EGX head optimistic on equities as Egyptian economy recovers” at

[30] “Economy - outlook for 2015 dismal, despite boost” at

[31] “Pre-state Israel: The Sykes-Picot agreement” at

[32] “Turkey - economic forecast summary (Nov 2014)” at

[34] “Saudi-Iranian relations since the fall of Saddam” at

[36] “Dubai 2015 cross sector business outlook extremely bullish” at and “Israel - economic forecast summary (Nov 2014)” at

[37] “China's leap forward: overtaking the US as world's biggest economy” at

[38] “Understanding Shinzo Abe and Japanese nationalism” at

[39] Book: “Getting India back on track: an action agenda for reform” edited by B. Debroy, A. J. Tellis and R. Trevor.

[40] “US may not target Mullah Omar after this year" at

[41] “The rise and rise of Kaptaan” at

[42] “Widodo launches reform agenda with fuel price hike” at

[43] “ASEAN's elusive integration” at

[46] “Russia's economics ministry downgrades 2015 oil price forecast to $80 per barrel” at

[47] “Hollande popularity plumbs new low in mid-term French poll” at

          UR Modlin Center 2017-18        

Tickets are now on sale for the 2017-18 season of the University of Richmond’s Modlin Arts Center.

Highlights of the classical concert season include performances by violinist Gil Shaham, pianist Richard Goode, the China National Orchestra with conductor-composer Tan Dun, and the Shanghai, Jerusalem and Escher quartets, the latter
with guitarist Jason Vieaux.

eighth blackbird, the new-music sextet in residence at UR, will be joined by composer and fiddler Dan Trueman and vocalist Iarla Ó Lionáird in “Olagón,” a new adaptation of the Irish folk tale “Táin Bó Cúalinge” by the poet Paul Muldoon.

Heading the bill of the jazz season are Eddie Palmieri and his Latin Jazz Orchestra, Oct. 21 in the center’s Jepson Theatre; New Orleans rhythm and blues singer Irma Thomas, the Blind Boys of Alabama gospel quintet and Preservation Hall Legacy Quintet, Nov. 11 at the center’s Camp Concert Hall; the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra with trumpeter Wynton Marsalis, Nov. 30 at the Altria Theater; and the Maria Schneider Orchestra, April 5 at Camp Concert Hall.

Pop and folk attractions include Rhiannon Giddens, founder of the Carolina Chocolate Drops, in “Freedom Highway Tour,” Oct. 4 in the Jepson Theatre; the bluegrass revival group Jerry Douglas and the Earls of Leicester, Nov. 17 in Camp Concert Hall; Barenaked Ladies founder Steven Page and the Art of Time Ensemble, Feb. 7
in Camp Concert Hall; and the Irish band Danú in a St. Patrick’s Day celebration, March 3 in Camp Concert Hall.

Dance and theater attractions include the Festival of South African Dance, Oct. 5 at the Carpenter Theatre of Dominion Arts Center; Ethan Lipton & His Orchestra in ”The Outer Space,” Dec. 1-2 in the Jepson Theatre; “Feathers of Fire: a Persian Epic,” Jan. 26-27 in the Jepson Theatre; Michelle Dorrance’s troupe Dorrance Dance, Feb. 2 in the Jepson Theatre; L.A. Dance Project, March 7 in the Jepson Theatre; and the acrobatic ensemble S, March 17 in the Jepson Theatre.

The Modlin Center also will present family and school series and broadcasts from NT Live (Britain’s National Theatre) and the Bolshoi Ballet of Moscow.

Subscriptions of four or more events are available, with prices 20 percent lower than those of single tickets. July 12 is the deadline for renewals with priority seating.

To obtain a season brochure or more information, call the Modlin Center box office at (804) 289-8980 or visit

The center’s coming season of ticketed classical concerts:

Sept. 10 (7:30 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
Escher Quartet
Jason Vieaux, guitar
Mozart: Quartet in B flat major, K. 458 (“Hunt”)
Thomas Adès: “Arcadiana”
J.S. Bach: Lute Suite No. 1 in E minor, BWV 996 (excerpts)
Boccherini: Quintet in D major, G 448 (“Fandango”)

Oct. 20 (7:30 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
Richard Goode, piano
William Byrd: “My Ladye Nevells Booke of Virginal Music” (excerpts)
J.S. Bach: “English Suite” No. 6 in D minor, BWV 811
Beethoven: Sonata in A major, Op. 101
Debussy: Preludes, book 2

Oct. 30 (7:30 p.m.)
Perkinson Recital Hall
Thomas Meglioranza, baritone
Reiko Uchida, piano
Beethoven: Scottish and Irish folk song arrangements
Wolf: “Mörike” Lieder
Fauré: songs TBA
Ives: songs TBA
American popular songs TBA
free; tickets required

Nov. 9 (7:30 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
Shanghai Quartet
Shmuel Ashkenasi, violin
Peter Wiley, cello
Brahms: Sextet in B flat major, Op. 18
Brahms: Sextet in G major, Op. 36

Feb. 14 (7:30 p.m.)
Carpenter Theatre, Dominion Arts Center
China National Symphony Orchestra
Tan Dun conducting
Sandy Cameron, violin
Liu Wenwen, suona
Stravinsky: “Fireworks”
Dun: “The Martial Arts Trilogy”
Dun: “Passacaglia: Secret of the Wind and Birds”
Guan Xia: work TBA
Stravinsky: “The Firebird”

Feb. 18 (7:30 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
Gil Shaham, violin
Akira Eguchi, piano
Fritz Kreisler: Praeludium and Allegro
Prokofiev: “Five Melodies”
Franck: Sonata in A major
J.S. Bach: Partita No. 3 in E major, BWV 1006
Saint-Saëns: “Introduction and Rondo capriccioso”
Avner Dorman: “Nigunim”

March 21 (7:30 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
Jerusalem Quartet
Mozart: Quartet in B flat major, K. 458 (“Hunt”)
Janáček: Quartet No. 1 (“Kreutzer Sonata”)
Beethoven: Quartet in F major, Op. 135

March 23 (7:30 p.m.)
Jepson Theatre
eighth blackbird
Dan Trueman, composer-fiddler
Iarla Ó Lionáird, vocalist
Paul Muldoon, poet

April 7 (7:30 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
So Percussion
Gilbert Kalish, piano
Dawn Upshaw, soprano
Caroline Shaw: new work TBA
George Crumb: “Winds of Destiny”
other works TBA

* * * 

In addition, the UR Music Department will present 20 free classical events, including premieres of works by Robert Morris and the Latvian composer Eriks EÅ¡envaids, a centenary retrospective on the piano music of the Korean composer Isang Yun, two piano master classes, and the annual Third Practice Electroacoustic Music Festival, the Christmas-season Festival of Lessons and Carols and the Neumann Lecture on Music.

The schedule of free classical programs at UR:

Sept. 15 (7:30 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
UR Schola Cantorum & Women’s Chorale
Jeffrey Riehl & David Pedersen directing
UR Jazz Ensemble
Mike Davison directing
UR Wind Ensemble
David Niethamer directing
UR Symphony Orchestra
Alexander Kordzaia conducting
“Family Weekend Concert”
program TBA

Sept. 18 (7:30 p.m.)
Perkinson Recital Hall
Anna Nizhegorodtseva, piano
Beethoven: Sonata in E flat major, Op. 7
Brahms: 6 intermezzos, Op. 118
Ernesto Lecuona: “Suite Anadalucia”
(master class at 4:30 p.m. Sept. 19, Camp Concert Hall)

Oct. 10 (7:30 p.m.)
Perkinson Recital Hall
Eunmi Ko, piano
“Tributes to Isang Yun”
(master class at 4:30 p.m. Oct. 10, Camp Concert Hall)

Oct. 29 (3 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
UR Schola Cantorum & Women’s Chorale
Jeffrey Riehl & David Pedersen directing
program TBA

Nov. 3-4 (various times)
Camp Concert Hall
Third Practice Electroacoustic Music Festival:
eighth blackbird
other artists TBA
programs TBA

Nov. 19 (7:30 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
UR Wind Ensemble
David Niethamer directing
Vaughan Williams: “English Folk Song Suite”
Ives: “Country Band March”
Daniel Bukvich: “Jack Teagarden Enters Heaven”
Ben Anderson, trombone

Nov. 29 (7:30 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
UR Symphony Orchestra
Alexander Kordzaia conducting
Mozart: “Don Giovanni” Overture
Schumann: Cello Concerto in A minor – first movement
Catherine Edwards, cello
Ravel: “Don Quichotte à Dulcinée”
Duncan Trawick, baritone
Grieg: “Peer Gynt” Suite No. 1

Dec. 4 (7:30 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
UR Chamber Ensembles
program TBA

Dec. 10 (5 and 8 p.m.)
Cannon Memorial Chapel
UR Schola Cantorum & Women’s Chorale
Jeffrey Riehl & David Pedersen directing
44th annual Festival of Lessons and Carols

Jan. 31 (7:30 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
Richard Becker, piano
Robert Morris: “Inner Voices” (premiere)
works TBA by Ravel, Beethoven

Feb. 26 (7:30 p.m.)
Brown-Alley Room, Weinstein Hall
Neumann Lecture on Music:
George Lipsitz
“Music as Preparation for Life: Practice, Accompaniment, Improvisation”

March 7 (7:30 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
Ensemble Arte:
Emily Riggs, soprano
David Ballena, piano
Mariene Ballena, cello
works TBA by Franck, Schubert, Brahms, Rachmaninoff, Massenet, Bernstein

March 25 (3 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
Richard Becker & Doris Wylee-Becker, piano duo
Becker: two-piano works TBA
two-piano arrangements of symphonic works TBA

March 26 (7:30 p.m.)
Cannon Memorial Chapel
Bruce Stevens, organ
“The Organ Legacy of Leipzig”
works TBA by J.S. Bach, Telemann, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Reger

April 2 (7:30 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
UR Wind Ensemble
David Niethamer directing
program TBA

April 4 (7:30 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
UR Symphony Orchestra
Alexander Kordzaia conducting
Saint-Saëns: Piano Concerto No. 5 in F major (“Egyptian”)
Joanne Kong, piano
Bizet: “Carmen” Suite No. 1

April 15 (3 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
UR Schola Cantorum & Women’s Chorale
Jeffrey Riehl & David Pedersen directing
Washington & Lee University Choir
singers from Richmond area high schools
eighth blackbird
Eriks EÅ¡envaids: work TBA (premiere)

April 18 (7:30 p.m.)
Camp Concert Hall
UR Chamber Ensembles
program TBA

          Raimonds Tomsons: Latvian crowned Europe's top sommelier        
The 36-year-old won the prize late Thursday after a gruelling final round of competition of nonstop tasks in Vienna.
          For sale - Cane Seat - Auction        

Cane 6710, Australia
Posting to: United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Russian Federation, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait ...

          Aspazijas og Rainis hus        
I Latvia er dikterparet med pseudonymene Aspazia og Rainis minst like viktige som Ibsen og Bjørnson er for oss. Begge sto sentralt i kampen for et selvstendig Latvia. I badebyen Jurmala noen kilometer fra Riga ligger sommerhuset de to hadde. Nå blir det restaurert til museum og det skjer ved hjelp av norske EØS-midler og faglig støtte fra Norsk Håndverksinstitutt på Lillehammer. «Det er viktig å understreke at begge parter lærer av dette. Det finnes håndverkskompetanse her, som ikke vi har og omvendt, sier direktør Eivind Falk ved Norsk Håndverksinstitutt. Han får full støtte av seksjonsleder ved utenlandsdavdelingen hos Riksantikvaren, Reidun Vea. «I Norge er vi flinke på mye i vernearbeidet, men vi har også mistet en del kunnskap - kunnskap vi finner igjen i andre land, sier Vea. Museumslederne Arija Vanaga og Astrid Cerule setter stor pris på samarbeidet med Norge. Museene knyttet til dikterne ligger i Jurmala i Riga og i Rainis fødeby. Arbeidet betyr mye for å bygge latviernes identiet. Landet har en broket historie. Det ble selvstendig i 1918,blant andre takket være Aspazija og Rainis, men 2. verdenskrig tok denne selvstendigheten fra dem. Inntil 1991 da landet ble selvstendig på nytt. Programleder Jan Henrik Ihlebæk. Sendt første gang 2.mai 2015
          Den grønne synagogen        
Den grønne synagogen -norsk-latvisk bygningsvern Den grønne synagogen i byen Rezekne iøst i Latvia var i ferd med å ramle sammen. Takket være langvarig vennskap mellom Arendal og Rezekne reddes synagogen nå for framtiden. Det skjer blant annet takket være norske EØS-midler. «Norge bruker betydelige EØS-midler på slike prosjekter. Det som skjer i Latvia med den grønne synagogen er et bevis på at det er vel anvendte penger, sier klima- og miljøvernminister Tine Sundtoft. «Ikke bare sørger EØS-midlene for å ta vare på Europeisk kulturarv. Like viktig er det samarbeidet og sosiale kontaktnettet som bygges opp mellom Norge og Latvia. Det skjer i en tid hvor det er viktig for Latvia å ha gode forbindelser, sier Norges ambassadør i Latvia, Steinar Hagen. Sam Eyde videregående skole i Arendal er krumtappen på norsk side i arbeidet med å bevare Den grønne synagogen. I siste halvdel av 1800-tallet var det 6000-7000 jøder i Rezekne. I dag er det noen ytterst får tilbake og det er ingen aktiv menighet. Synagogen skal fortsatt være et gudshus, men samtidig huse et kontor for bygningsvernsenteret som byen planlegger. Det er mye særegen trehusbebyggelse i Rezekne.
          India sends 31 satellites into space, some for foreign customers        
India fired a rocket carrying 31 small satellites into space on Friday, several of them for European countries looking for high resolution earth images, underlining its strength as a low-cost provider of services in space.

The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) launched a 712 kg Cartosat-2 satellite for earth observation and 30 other tiny satellites from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh at 9.29 a.m.

The rocket is carrying satellites from India and 14 other countries, including Austria, Belgium, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovakia, as part of an international commercial arrangement by the state-run Indian Space Research Organisation. (ISRO)

"Congratulations to ISRO on its 40th successful Polar satellite launch ... You make us proud!" Prime Minister Narendra Modi tweeted.

Modi's government has been promoting the space programme as a showcase of low-cost technology. In February, the ISRO launched 104 satellites in a single mission, most of them for foreign customers.

In 2015, the global space industry was valued at $323 billion, according to a Space Foundation report, and India accounted for just 0.6 percent of that business.

Friday's lift-off comes 18 days after India put a three-tonne satellite, its heaviest, into the orbit matching the technical know-how of the United States, Russia, China, Japan and the European Space Agency.

"Our effort of continuing to provide increased earth observation, navigation as well as communication will continue," ISRO chief A.S. Kiran Kumar said in a speech after the launch.

          UPDATE 1-India sends 31 satellites into space, some for foreign customers        

(Adds detail, comment)

By Vipin Das M

NEW DELHI, June 23 (Reuters) - India fired a rocket carrying31 small satellites into space on Friday, several of them forEuropean countries, in a boost to Prime Minister Narendra Modi’sambition to project the country as a global low-cost provider ofservices in space.

The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) launched a 712 kgCartosat-2 satellite for earth observation and 30 other tinysatellites from Sriharikota in the southern state of AndhraPradesh at 9.29 a.m. (0359GMT).

The rocket is carrying satellites from India and 14 othercountries, including Austria, Belgium, Latvia, Lithuania andSlovakia, as part of an international commercial arrangement bythe state-run Indian Space Research Organisation. (ISRO)

The satellites will be used for communications, weatherforecasting and monitoring crops.

"Congratulations to ISRO on its 40th successful Polarsatellite launch ... You make us proud!" Modi tweeted.

Modi's government has been promoting the space programme asa showcase of low-cost technology.

In 2014, India sent an orbiter to Mars at a cost of $74million, a fraction of the $671 million the U.S. space agencyNASA spent on its MAVEN Mars mission.

"We reached Mars on a budget less than that of a Hollywoodfilm,” Modi said this week.

For all its success, the Indian space programme has a tinyshare of the global market.

In 2015, the global space industry was valued at $323billion, according to a Space Foundation report, and Indiaaccounted for just 0.6 percent of that business.

India's PSLV launch vehicle has put 209 satellites intoorbit for foreign clients, the ISRO said in a statement.

"Our effort of continuing to provide increased earthobservation, navigation as well as communication will continue,"said the agency's chief, A.S. Kiran Kumar.

Friday's lift-off comes 18 days after India put athree-tonne satellite, its heaviest, into the orbit matching thetechnical know-how of the United states, Russia, China, Japanand the European Space Agency.

That launch was meant to signal the ISRO's ability to launchheavier communications satellite which are at the higher end ofthe launch business and more lucrative.(Editing by Sanjeev Miglani, Robert Birsel)

          Pengalaman Mengajukan Visa Schengen (Belanda) di VFS Global Surabaya (Mei 2017)        
Europe, wait me! (Sumber : Disini)

Setelah kemarin sempat menulis Cara Mengajukan Visa China di Surabaya, pada kesempatan ini aku akan berbagi pengalamanku kembali mengurus Visa Schengen di VFS Global Belanda Surabaya. Sebelum mengajukan Visa Schengen ini, aku sering searching informasi di google dan mendapati postingan blogger yang menceritakan pengalamannya apply visa itu sangat-sangat membantu. Jadi lewat postingan ini aku ingin balas budi, supaya bisa membantu teman-teman lainnya yang mau mengajukan Visa Schengen juga.

Mendapatkan Visa Schengen mungkin adalah salah satu hal yang paling membahagiakan untukku. Karena inilah pertama kali aku akan ke Eropa dan bisa backpackeran di luar Asia. Meskipun sampai detik ini belum beli tiket (karena hampir semua harga tiket melambung tinggi dikarenakan waktu keberangkatanku mendekati waktu lebaran), belum booking bus, pesawat, selama disana, ditambah sedikit masalah terjadi sewaktu aku akan refund tiketku Kuala Lumpur - Moscow - Kuala Lumpur via Traveloka, tapi aku memandang semuanya dengan optimis.

Aku mengajukan Visa Schengen via VFS Global Surabaya (perwakilan Belanda, Belgia dan Luksemburg) yang beralamat di Lantai 15 R.1506 Garaha Pena Surabaya. Lokasi Graha Pena sendiri berada di Jalan Ahmad Yani No 88, cukup dekat dari Terminal Bungurasih (naik gojek pakai Gopay cuma Rp 6000). Alasan klasik mengajukan di VFS Global Belanda Surabaya, selain karena aku memang mau mengunjungi Belanda, juga karena aku malas ke Jakarta. Karena domisiliku di Surabaya Pusat, aku cukup naik motor saja ke Gedung Graha Pena (daripada naik kereta atau pesawat ke Jakarta kan, mehooong hehehe).

Jadi langkah pertama yang harus teman lakukan untuk mencari update/informasi terbaru mengenai ketentuan visa, persyaratan lengkap visa, biaya pembuatan visa, hari kerja, hari libur, jam penyerahan aplikasi/pengambilan paspor, maka teman harus menuju ke situs resmi VFS Global Surabaya disini.

Jika teman sudah masuk ke website resmi VFS Global, maka tampilan diatas adalah tampilan yang akan muncul. Terdapat tiga langkah sederhana untuk pengajuan visa ke Belanda yakni 1) Mengetahui Tipe Visa Anda 2) Cara Mengajukan Aplikasi Visa dan 3) Setelah Pengajuan Aplikasi Visa.

1) Mengetahui Tipe Visa Anda
  • Jika Anda ingin mengunjungi Belanda untuk waktu yang singkat, Anda harus memperoleh visa untuk masuk jika Anda datang dari negara dengan persyaratan visa untuk datang ke Belanda.
  • Visa biasanya memberi Anda hak untuk tinggal di seluruh wilayah Schengen. Negara-negara Schengen adalah: Austria, Belgia, Republik Ceko, Denmark, Estonia, Finlandia, Perancis, Jerman, Yunani, Hungaria, Islandia, Italia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luksemburg, Malta, Belanda, Norwegia, Polandia, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanyol, Swedia dan Swiss. Visa dapat memberikan Anda hak untuk menghabiskan maksimal 90 hari per 6 bulan di wilayah Schengen.
  • Semua aplikasi visa harus ditandatangani oleh pemohon yang bersangkutan.
  • Semua bagan dalam formulir aplikasi harus diisi dengan benar, formulir yang tidak lengkap dapat membuat proses berjalan lebih lambat bahkan penolakan.
  • Kedutaan berhak untuk meminta dokumen serta informasi tambahan saat memproses aplikasi.
  • Warga negara Non-Indonesia harus tinggal secara legal di Indonesia, baik atas dasar visa untuk Indonesia atau ijin kerja / tinggal yang sah di Indonesia.
  • Paspor harus berlaku minimal 3 bulan setelah berakhirnya visa.
  • Huruf berwarna biru adalah ketentuan umum yang ada di website VFS Global Surabaya. Jadi tipe visa ke Belanda itu ada beberapa seperti:
  • Visa Turis (yang akan saya jabarkan di postingan ini), 
  • Visa Undangan (keluarga/teman)
  • Visa Pelaut
  • Visa Bisnis
  • Transit Bandara
  • Kerabat Uni Eropa
  • Visa Studi Jangka Pendek
  • serta Visa Kunjungan Resmi
2) Cara Mengajukan Aplikasi Visa

Langkah 1

Aplikasi-aplikasi visa untuk negara Belanda, Belgia dan Luxembourg diterima di Pusat Aplikasi Visa negeri Belanda. Mohon menjadwalkan perjanjian kepada pusat aplikasi visa sebelum melakukan penyerahan.

Buat janji temu untuk menyerahkan dokumen aplikasi di Pusat Aplikasi Visa (Wajib). Anda Wajib membuat janji temu terlebih dahulu sebelum melakukan aplikasi . Pelayanan ini tidak dikenakan biaya akan tetapi tergantung dari ketersediaan tempat. Untuk membuat perjanjian, silahkan klik di sini

Untuk informasi lebih lengkap mengenai pembuatan Janji Temu, mohon klik di sini.

Langkah 2

Sebelum aplikasi mohon memastikan anda sudah jelas sekali ‘maksud kunjungan’ anda – ingatlah kami ada untuk membantu dan menolong anda melalui proses aplikasi visa secara keseluruhan tetapi tidak diizinkan untuk memberi advis atau memandu anda mengenai pemilihan kategori visa. Karena pekerjaan utama kami adalah bersifat administratif kami tidak mempunyai hak apa pun apakah anda akan diberi visa dan berapa lama diperlukan untuk memproses aplikasi anda karena hal itu secara keseluruhan merupakan prerogatif Kedutaan atau Konsulat.

Langkah 3

Mohon ke link “Jenis-Jenis Visa” untuk mengerti rincian berbagai macam visa.

Langkah 4

Mohon pastikan anda telah membaca pemberitahuan-pemberitahuan peraturan keamanan sebelum anda mengunjungi Pusat Aplikasi Visa. Mohon dicatat: direkomendasikan untuk menyerahkan aplikasi jauh sebelum tanggal kepergian yang diperkirakan. Semua pemohon visa direkomendasikan untuk mengkonfirmasi rencana perjalanan mereka hanya setelah memperoleh visa.
Diperlukan secara rata-rata 15 hari kalender untuk memutuskan permohonan aplikasi-aplikasi visa. Mungkin akan ada penangguhan sesuai dengan musim dan jenis visa.
Mohon dicatat: Setelah aplikasi untuk Visa, pemohon tidak dapat meminjam paspor mereka dari Kedutaan.
Juga mohon merencanakan kepergian lain anda HANYA setelah menerima kembali paspor anda dari Kedutaan.
Huruf berwarna biru adalah ketentuan umum cara mengajukan aplikasi visa yang ada di website VFS Global Surabaya, sedangkan huruf hitam adalah apa yang saya lakukan dan siapkan berdasarkan syarat tersebut. Sekarang mari kita rincikan langkah demi langkah sesuai dengan yang saya lakukan pada Mei 2017 lalu.

A. Sebelum melakukan Langkah 1, membuat janji temu dengan VFS Global Belanda Surabaya, maka pemohon harus menyiapkan persyaratan-persyaratan Visa Schengen terlebih dahulu. Syarat lengkapnya bisa dilihat disini. Daftar syarat tersebut berbentuk PDF, dan daftar itu pula yang akan digunakan oleh petugas VFS untuk mengecek kelengkapan pemohon. Di bawah ini adalah dokumen-dokumen yang kupersiapkan sebelum membuat janji temu:


1. Formulir Pengajuan Visa Schengen yang sudah diisi lengkap dan ditandatangani. Formulir aplikasi Schengen bisa didownload disini.

2. Paspor asli dengan masa berlaku minimal 3 bulan, tapi untuk jaga-jaga sebaiknya masa berlaku paspor minimal 6 bulan. Hal itu dikarenakan penerbangan ke Eropa pasti akan transit (entah di Kuala Lumpur, Singapura, Doha, Abu Dhabi, Istanbul, dll), sehingga untuk menghindari penolakan penerbangan. Kemudian paspor anda harus setidaknya mempunyai 2 halaman kosong, 1 halaman untuk stiker visa, 1 halaman untuk cap ketibaan/kepergian.

Aturan untuk paspor menurut Kedutaan Belanda adalah sebagai berikut:

> Paspor atau dokumen travel anda harus valid setidaknya 3 bulan sejak tanggal anda meninggalkan Area Schengen.
> Paspor atau dokumen travel anda setidaknya harus mempunyai 2 halaman kosong.
> Paspor atau dokumen travel anda tidak boleh dikeluarkan lebih dari 10 tahun yang lalu.

Paspor asli tersebut harus dilengkapi dengan:

> Fotocopi halaman detail informasi pribadi (halaman depan paspor)
> Fotocopi Visa-visa sebelumnya yang pernah dipunyai dari semua cap masuk/cap keluar (saya fotocopi semua visa dan cap masuk di semua halaman paspor saya)
> Fotocopy Halaman detail informasi pribadi paspor yang pernah dimiliki sebelumnya beserta visa-visanya

3. Jika anda mengajukan Visa Schengen untuk anak anda yang akan traveling sendiri atau hanya ditemani dengan 1 orangtua, mohon untuk menambahkan dokumen berikut ini (saya langsung copi dari Bahasa Inggrisnya supaya tidak membuat perbedaan pemahaman.Jika anda akan traveling sendiri/traveling dengan teman/traveling dengan anak dan suami/istri anda, maka tahap ini dapat dilewati.
An extract of the minor’s birth certificate. 
An identity document bearing the parents’ signature (1document for each parent).

A declaration of consent from both parents, stating that the minor can travel.
If relevant: a court judgement stating which parent has been allocated parental responsibility for the minor. 
If relevant: a declaration from the minor’s school consenting to his/her absence.

4. Bukti Tempat Tinggal Resmi
Evidence of legal residence in the country you are applying from, e.g. a passport, visa or residence permit and a copy. Residence permit should be valid for at least 3 months after departure from Schengen.
Work permit (if applicable).

Aku cukup bingung pada tahap ini, bagi WNI maksudnya KTP , KK dan Akta Lahir. Jadi aku memberikan fotocopi ketiganya dan translate Bahasa Inggrisnya yang kubuat sendiri (tidak perlu penerjemah tersumpah - Mei 2017). Contoh Translate KTP, KK dan Akta Lahir bisa didownload di bawah ini:

Terjemahan KTP dan KK

Terjemahan Akta Lahir

5. Foto 3,5 x 4,5 cm yang memenuhi persyaratan foto Kedutaan Belanda. Foto ini tidak boleh diambil lebih dari 6 bulan yang lalu dan harus jelas. Ketentuan foto lebih lanjut silahkan dilihat disini. Background foto putih. Saran saya, fotolah di studio foto yang mempunyai nama ternama. Dijamin foto tidak akan salah. Bilang saja untuk pengajuan Visa Schengen.


Itinerary Travel (Reservasi perjalanan menuju dan meninggalkan Area Schengen atas nama anda, bukan tiket). Maksudnya adalah reservasi tiket pesawat menuju dan meninggalkan area Schengen. Reservasi tiket pesawat gratis bisa dilakukan sendiri via website Turkish Airline atau KLM. Reservasi ini sebaiknya jangan dibayar dahulu, tetapi menunggu keputusan visa keluar atau tidak. Hal yang menjadi perhatian, karena saya apply melalui Kedutaan Besar Belanda, maka supaya lebih meyakinkan saya buat reservasi tiket pesawat saya Jakarta - Amsterdam - Jakarta menggunakan Turkish Airline. Keuntungan membuat reservasi di Turkish Airline adalah, reservasi tersebut bisa bertahan selama seminggu. Jadi cukuplah waktunya sampai berkas kita diterima oleh Pejabat di Kedutaan Belanda. Tips lainnya, sebaiknya reservasi tersebut penerbangannya berasal dari Indonesia, jangan Malaysia atau Singapura.

Contoh tiket hasil reservasi di website Turkish Airline yang kubawa ke VFS Global.

>Itinerary/rencana perjalanan. Karena mengajukan visa di Kedutaan Belanda, maka Belanda haruslah negara yang pertama kali anda kunjungi atau paling lama anda kunjungi. Contoh itinerary yang kumasukkan ke dalam aplikasiku adalah sebagai berikut:

> Dokumen-dokumen yang membuktikan bahwa kunjungan anda adalah untuk tujuan turisme. Selain reservasi tiket pesawat, itinerary perjalanan, reservasi hotel, asuransi kesehatan, saya juga menyertakan surat izin dari atasan saya yang menyatakan bahwa saya bepergian untuk traveling ke Eropa dari tanggal 23 Juni sd 4 Juli dan akan kembali bekerja setelah pulang dari Eropa.

Contoh surat keterangan kerja dan surat izin dari atasan yang kubawa ke VFS Global.

> Reservasi penginapan/hotel selama durasi kunjungan. Ini sangat mudah, kunjungi saja dan booking saja hotel yang bisa dibatalkan gratis (free cancellation). Hal yang harus diperhatikan, bookingan tersebut jangan terburu-buru dibatalkan setelah aplikasi diserahkan ke VFS. Batalkan setelah keputusan visa anda keluar.

> Surat Pernyataan dari Bank tentang Transaksi Rekening 3 bulan terakhir (dalam Bahasa Inggris)

Karena status saya pegawai pemerintahan, maka saya menggunakan Rekening Bank Jatim. Sewaktu saya meminta pernyataan transaksi 3 bulan terakhir, mereka hanya memberikan surat pernyataan yang menyatakan bahwa rekening saya aktif, tidak ada kata-kata jumlah uang di debet terakhir. Akhirnya saya memberikan surat pernyataan tersebut ditambahkan fotocopi buku tabungan 3 bulan terakhir. Waktu itu itinerary saya 12 hari, dan jumlah uang di rekening sekitar Rp 63 juta.

> Jika anda pekerja, surat pernyataan dari atasan anda yang menyatakan waktu absen anda. 

Ini mudah, anda hanya perlu meminta surat pernyataan bekerja dari kantor anda, ditandatangan oleh Manajer/HRD/Sekretaris Dinas (untuk yang bekerja di Kantor Pemerintahan). Jangan lupa diberi cap. Contoh punya saya seperti ini:

> Dokumen-dokumen yang membuktikan bahwa anda akan kembali ke negara anda setelah perjalanan selesai.

Contohnya (dari website VFS):

• A recent declaration from your employer, an employment contract or other information proving you are employed in your country of origin. 
• A document proving you are in education or training in your country of origin. 
• A document proving your children attend school in your country of origin. 
• A document proving you have a home or other immovable property in your country of origin. 
• A document proving you are a caregiver in your country of origin
Kalau saya, ini saya satu paketkan dengan surat pernyataan dari kantor seperti format diatas. Karena di surat pernyataan kantor diatas sudah saya sebutkan bahwa saya adalah pegawai kantor saya dan akan kembali ke Indonesia setelah menyelesaikan perjalanan saya.

Bukti asuransi kesehatan ini mencakup dokumen resmi dari penjamin asuransi anda yang membuktikan bahwa:
a. Ketentuan tentang asuransi kesehatan tertulis atas nama anda.
b. Asuransi ada valid digunakan di Area Schengen selama durasi kunjungan anda.
c. Tanggungan uang kesehatan yang bisa diklaim setidaknya 30.000 euro, termasuk perawatan rumah sakit, penanganan keadaan darurat dan termasuk pemulangan (termasuk kematian).

Untuk asuransi kesehatan, kemarin aku memakai asuransi AXA Gold dengan tanggungan maksimal Rp Kebetulan dapat pas promo cuma Rp 130.000 untuk setahun. Satu tips untuk asuransi, jika membeli online dan mendapatkan konfirmasi dan asuransinya via email, yang diprint dan dibawa ke VFS Global jangan hanya halaman iktisar polis dan konfirmasi polis saja ya, tapi termasuk rincian tabel biaya santunan dan yang halaman yang menyatakan jumlah maksimal tanggungan.

Visa, Izin tinggal atau paspor yang memberi anda izin masuk ke tujuan akhir anda setelah mengunjungi Area Schengen.

Karena tujuan akhirku adalah negara tercinta, Indonesia, maka ya cuma butuh paspor itu sendiri. 

Pembayaran biaya visa pada saat mengajukan aplikasi.

Sewaktu aku mengajukan Mei 2017 kemarin, biayanya sebesar Rp 1.200.000, meliputi 60 euro untuk biaya visa itu sendiri dan sisanya untuk biaya pemrosesan VFS. Jika menambah pemberitahuan sms, menambah Rp 20.000.

B. Setelah mempersiapkan persyaratan seperti diatas dan membuat janji temu disini, saya datang pada waktu perjanjian yang telah ditentukan (17 Mei 2017) dengan membawa syarat-syarat ke VFS Global Belanda Surabaya. VFS Global Belanda Surabaya di Lantai 15 R.1506 Garaha Pena Surabaya. Lokasi Graha Pena sendiri berada di Jalan Ahmad Yani No 88. Untuk parkir motor berada di sebelah barat KFC.

C. Begitu masuk Gedung Graha Pena, saya langsung naik ke Lantai 15 dan menuju kantor VFS Global. Saat masuk ke dalam, seorang satpam wanita yang sangat ramah langsung menyapa saya dan menanyakan lembar konfirmasi janji temu saya. Setelahnya dilakukan pemeriksaan badan singkat dan isi tas. Dari sini, HP harus dinonaktifkan dan dilarang memotret di dalam.

D. Masuk ke dalam ruangan VFS, di dalam sudah menunggu beberapa orang yang akan mengajukan Visa Schengen juga. Berdebar rasanya hati ini, sekaligus senang. Waah, akhirnya ane bisa juga mengajukan visa ini setelah sekian lama hanya bermimpi hehe. Akhirnya satpam yang lain, yang tidak kalah ramah juga, memanggil saya kemudian meminta lembar konfirmasi janji temu saya untuk digantikan dengan nomor urut dan secarik kertas.

E. Setelah menunggu sejenak, akhirnya nama saya dipanggil oleh Mbak VFS. Saya langsung menyerahkan berkas-berkas persyaratan yang sudah saya siapkan. Mbak VFS dengan sigap memeriksa berkas saya dengan sangat ramah.

Mbak VFS : "Ini asuransinya asli ya?"

Saya : " Iya asli mbak. Saya beli online dan dapat soft copinya."

Mbak VFS : " Pergi sendiri atau sama teman?"

Saya : "Sama teman mbak, ini sebelah saya." (dan akhirnya teman saya ini membatalkan perjalanan sehingga saya terpaksa solo traveling huhu)

Sembari bertanya, Mbak VFS terus menegtik-ngetik informasi di PCnya. Dan ane lega setengah mati saat dia mencetak lembar konfirmasi permohonan. Berarti lengkap sudah syarat ane, nggak perlu bolak-balik untuk melengkapi syarat. Setelah membayar Rp 1.220.000, saya menunggu kembali di bangku untuk menunggu pengumpulan data biometrik.

F. Menunggu beberapa saat. akhirnya saya dipanggil oleh seorang Bapak untuk pengumpulan data biometrik (foto dan cap jari). Saat masuk ke ruangannya tiba-tiba tegang juga ya hehehe, takutnya ane diwawancara macam-macam dan kalau jawabnya gugup maka aplikasi bisa ditolak. Tapi ternyata disini ane cuma ditanya tanggal lahir aja, kemudian foto dan cap jari. Selesai. Gitu doank.

G. Tahap F merupakan tahapan terakhir dalam pengajuan Visa Schengen di VFS Global Surabaya. Setelah ini tinggal tahap penantian, apakah Visa Schengenku diterima atau ditolak? Hanya Kedutaan Belanda yang tahu... Hehehehe...Waktu pemrosesan sekitar 2 minggu, cukup lama karena paspor dan aplikasi kita akan dikirimkan ke Kuala Lumpur dahulu.

18 Mei 2017
Email dari VFS Global

31 Mei 2017
Email dari VFS Global

2 Juni 2017

Yeaaaaahhhh... Visa Schengeku granted. Thank you GOD.....! Dikasih 3 bulan kurang.... rencana perjalanan yang kutulis di aplikasi 24 Juni 2017 sd 4 Juli 2017, diberi visa dari 22 Juni 2017 sd 6 Agustus 2017. Lumayanlah!

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          On learning to dismount the high horse        
As you (probably) know, I am a South African expat, living in the UK. If you're an expat, too, you will know that a conversation about your accent is something that takes place pretty much on a daily basis. Shopkeepers, people with whom you strike up conversations on the train, people on the other end of the phone, fellow attendees at business meetings... everywhere and anywhere seems to be the right place and any time seems to be the right time for "Where are you from?"

Some people like to guess. South Africans ('saffas'), New Zealanders (kiwis) and Australians (ozzies) often get mistaken for each other. At one stage, I worked with an Australian. We had a lot in common and we got on really well. His family and mine spent social time together on the weekends. This clearly showed in the way we interacted with each other at work, and many people assumed we were a couple, because we got on so well together and 'had the same accent.'

These are three very competitive sporting nations and in general, it doesn't go down too well with a national from one to be mistaken for another. I was no exception. I bristled when I was asked if (and sometimes told that) I was an ozzie or a kiwi. A facetious "g'day mate" brought out the worst in me.

But then I realised something. I can't tell accents apart, either. Yes, I can tell my ozzies from my kiwis (it's in the As and the Is), but I can't tell a Pole from a Latvian - and we have many of both in our town. I can't tell a Pakistani from an Indian, and there are many of both of those all over the UK. I have no idea how offended a Polish person is when asked if they're Latvian, or vice versa. I have no idea whether a cricket fan from Pakistan bristles at being asked if s/he is enjoying an England/India game being televised at the time.

So I decided to get down off that high horse before I got a nosebleed. It really isn't a big deal. And at least the person is showing some interest and making conversation about something other than the weather.

But I'm still ridiculously pleased when someone gets it right. Just this morning, I popped into a little shop on the Charing Cross station and the man behind the counter identified me as a South African. I asked how he could tell, and he said (a) that he was a fan of cricket in general and Kepler Wessels in particular and (b) that with the South African embassy being just across the road, hordes of saffas visited his shop on a daily basis. The man himself was from India...or Pakistan...or Bangladesh...or maybe even Sri Lanka. I couldn't tell. Something I am readier to admit from ground level than I ever was from my perch on that horse I mentioned.

Now if I can just learn to stop bristling when people try to 'do the accent' which I have never heard anyone do successfully...

Grösse des Eiskristalls: ca 0,5 x 1 cm

Afrikanisch: Een Plesierige Kerfees!
Arabisch: Idah Saidan Wa Sanah Jadidah!
Argentinisch: Felices Pasquas Y Felices ano Nuevo!
Armenisch: Shenoraavor Nor Dari yev Pari Gaghand!
Azerisch: Tezze Iliniz Yahsi Olsun!
Baskisch: Zorionak eta Urte Berri On!
Bohemian: Vesele Vanoce!
Brasilianisch: Boas Festas e Feliz Ano Novo!
Bretonisch: Nedeleg laouen na bloavezh mat!
Bulgarisch: Tchestita Koleda; Tchestito Rojdestvo Hristovo!
Catalanisch: Bon Nadal i un Bon Any Nou!
Chilenisch: Feliz Navidad!
Chinesisch: (Mandarin) Kung His Hsin Nien bing Chu Shen Tan!
Catonesisch: Gun Tso Sun Tan'Gung Haw Sun!
Cornisch: Nadelik looan na looan blethen noweth!
Cree: Mitho Makosi Kesikansi!
Dänisch: Glædelig Jul!
Deutsch: Froehliche Weihnachten!
Dutch: Zalig kerstfeest oder Zalig Kerstfeast!
Englisch: Merry Christmas, Happy Christmas!
Esperanto: Gajan Kristnaskon!
Estonisch: Ruumsaid juulup|hi!
Farsisch: Cristmas-e-shoma mobarak bashad!
Finnisch: Hyvaa joulua!
Flemisch: Zalig Kerstfeest en Gelukkig nieuw jaar!
Französisch: Joyeux Noel!
Gaelisch: Nollaig chridheil agus Bliadhna mhath ùr!
Griechisch: Kala Christouyenna!
Hebräisch: Mo'adim Lesimkha. Chena tova!
Hindisch: Shub Naya Baras!
Hausarisch: Barka da Kirsimatikuma Barka da Sabuwar Shekara!
Hawaianesisch: Mele Kalikimaka ame Hauoli Makahiki Hou!
Irländisch: Gledileg Jol!
Indonesisch: Selamat Hari Natal!
Inuit (inupik): Jutdlime pivdluarit ukiortame pivdluaritlo!
Irakisch: Idah Saidan Wa Sanah Jadidah!
Irisch: Nollaig Shona Dhuit, or Nodlaig mhaith chugnat!
Italenisch: Buone Feste Natalizie!
Japanisch: Shinnen omedeto. Merii Kurisumasu!
Koreanisch: Sung Tan Chuk Ha!
Lateinisch: Natale hilare et Annum Faustum!
Latvianisch: Prieci'gus Ziemsve'tkus un Laimi'gu Jauno Gadu!
Litauisch: Linksmu Kaledu!
Macedonisch: Sreken Bozhik!
Maltesisch: LL Milied Lt-tajjeb!
Manx: Nollick ghennal as blein vie noa!
Maorisch: Meri Kirihimete!
Marathisch: Shub Naya Varsh!
Navajo: Merry Keshmish!
Norwegisch: God Jul, or Gledelig Jul!
Pennsylvania Deutsch: En frehlicher Grischtdaag un en hallich Nei Yaahr!
Polnisch: Wesolych Swiat Bozego Narodzenia or Boze Narodzenie!
Portugisisch: Boas Festas!
Rumänisch: Sarbatori vesele!
Russisch: Pozdrevlyayu s prazdnikom Rozhdestva is Novim Godom!
Samoanisch: La Maunia Le Kilisimasi Ma Le Tausaga Fou!
Serbisch: Hristos se rodi!
Slovakisch: Sretan Bozic or Vesele vianoce!
Samisch: Buorrit Juovllat!
Samoanisch: La Maunia Le Kilisimasi Ma Le Tausaga Fou!
Scots Gaelisch: Nollaig chridheil huibh!
Serbo-Kroatisch: Sretam Bozic. Vesela Nova Godina, Hristos se rodi!
Singhalesisch: Subha nath thalak Vewa. Subha Aluth Awrudhak Vewa!
Slovakisch: Vesele Vianoce. A stastlivy Novy Rok!
Slovenisch: Vesele Bozicne. Screcno Novo Leto!
Spanisch: Feliz Navidad!
Swedisch: God Jul and (Och) Ett Gott Nytt År!
Tagalogisch: Maligayamg Pasko. Masaganang Bagong Taon!
Tamisch: Nathar Puthu Varuda Valthukkal!
Trukeesisch: (Micronesian) Neekiriisimas annim oo iyer seefe feyiyeech!
Thaiisch: Sawadee Pee Mai!
Tschechisch: Prejeme Vam Vesele Vanoce a stastny Novy Rok!
Türkisch: Noeliniz Ve Yeni Yiliniz Kutlu Olsun!
Ukrainisch: Srozhdestvom Kristovym!
Ungarisch: Kellemes Karacsonyi unnepeket!
Vietnamesisch: Chung Mung Giang Sinh!
Welisch: Nadolig Llawen!
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          Pankaj Mishra : The 'People's War'        
[from London Review of Books: Vol. 27 No. 12 dated 23 June 2005 ]

In Kathmandu this March, I met a Nepalese businessman who said he knew what had provoked Crown Prince Dipendra, supposed incarnation of Vishnu and former pupil at Eton, to mass murder. On the night of 1 June 2001, Dipendra appeared in the drawing-room of the royal palace in Kathmandu, dressed in combat fatigues, apparently out of it on Famous Grouse and hashish, and armed with assault rifles and pistols. In a few frenzied minutes, he killed his parents, King Birendra and Queen Aishwarya, a brother, a sister and five other relatives before putting a pistol to his head. Anointed king as he lay unconscious in hospital, he died two days later, passing his title to his uncle Gyanendra.

Dipendra’s obsession with guns at Eton, where he was admired by Lord Camoys as a ‘damn good shot’, his heavy drinking, which attracted the malice of the Sun, his addiction to hashish and his fondness for the films of Arnold Schwarzenegger – all this outlines a philistinism, and a potential for violence, commonplace among scions of Third World dynasties (Suharto, Nehru-Gandhi, Bhutto). And it is not so hard to believe the semi-official explanation for his actions: that his parents disapproved of his fiancée. However, the businessman, who claimed to know the royal family, had a more elaborate and intriguing theory.

We sat in a rooftop café in Thamel, Kathmandu’s tourist centre, a few hundred feet from the royal palace. March, the businessman said, was a good season for tourists in Nepal. ‘But look,’ he continued, pointing to the alleys below us, where the bookshops, trekking agencies, cybercafés, bakeries, malls and restaurants were empty. In recent years, the tourist industry has been damaged by news in the international press about the Maoist guerrillas, who model themselves on the Shining Path in Peru, and whose ‘people’s war’ has claimed more than 11,000 lives since 1996. Even fewer tourists have ventured to Nepal since 1 February this year, when King Gyanendra, citing the threat presented by the Maoists, grounded all flights, cut off phone and internet lines, arrested opposition politicians and imposed censorship on the media.

A portly man wearing a cotton tunic, tight trousers and a cloth cap, the businessman had the prejudices of his class, the tiny minority of affluent Nepalese whose wealth comes largely from tourism and foreign aid; and that morning – the spring sun growing warm and burning off the smog over the Kathmandu Valley; the vendors of carpets, Gurkha knives, pirate DVDs and Tibetan prayer flags sullenly eyeing a stray tourist in tie-dye clothes – he aired them freely.

He said that Maoists had bombed the private school he sent his children to; he worried that his servants might join the guerrillas, who controlled 80 per cent of the countryside and were growing strong in the Kathmandu Valley. He said that he was all for democracy – he had been among the protesters demanding a new constitution in the spring of 1990 – but peace and stability were more important. What the country needed now, he declared, was a strong and principled ruler, someone who could crush the Maoists. He said that he missed Dipendra: he was the man Nepal needed at this hour of crisis.

According to him, Dipendra’s three years as a schoolboy in Britain had radicalised him. Just as Pandit Nehru had discovered the poverty of India after his stints at Harrow and Cambridge, so Dipendra had developed a new political awareness in England. He had begun to look, with mounting horror and concern, at his homeland. Returning to Nepal, he had realised that it would take more than tourism to create a strong middle class, accelerate economic growth, build democratic institutions and lift the ninth poorest country in the world to the ranks of modern democratic nations. As it turned out, he had been thwarted at every step by conservative elements in the royal palace. He had watched multi-party democracy, introduced in 1991, grow corrupt and feeble while enriching an elite of politicians and bureaucrats; equally helplessly, he had watched the new rulers of Nepal fail to tackle the Maoists. Frustration in politics rather than love, the businessman claimed, had driven Dipendra to alcohol, drugs, guns and, finally, to regicide.

It’s often hard to know what to believe in Nepal, the only Hindu kingdom in the world, where conspiracy and rumour have long fuelled a particularly secretive kind of court politics. Independent newspapers and magazines have been widely available only since 1990, and though intellectually lively, the press has little influence over a largely illiterate population easily swayed by rumour. In December 2000, news that a Bollywood actor had insulted Nepal incited riots and attacks on Indians and Indian-owned shops across the country. Little is known about Dipendra, apart from his time at Eton, where his fellow pupils nicknamed him ‘Dippy’. There is even greater mystery surrounding Pushpa Kamal Dahal, or Prachanda, the middle-aged, articulate leader of the Maoists, who has been in hiding for the last two decades.

King Gyanendra appeared on national television to blame the palace massacre on a ‘sudden discharge by an automatic weapon’. A popular conspiracy theory, in turn, blamed it on the new king himself, who was allegedly involved in smuggling artefacts out of Nepal, and on his son, Paras, much disliked in Nepal for his habit of brandishing guns in public and dangerous driving – he has run over at least three people in recent years, killing one. More confusingly, the Maoists claimed that they had an ‘undeclared working unity’ with King Birendra, and accused Gyanendra, and Indian and American imperialists, of his murder.

This atmosphere of secrecy and intrigue seems to have grown murkier since February, when Gyanendra adopted the Bush administration’s rhetoric about ‘terrorism’ and assumed supreme power. Flights to Nepal were resumed after only a few days, and the king claimed to have lifted the emergency on 30 April, but most civil rights are still suspended today. When I arrived in Kathmandu, fear hung heavy over the street crossings, where soldiers peeped out from behind machine-gun emplacements. Men in ill-fitting Western suits, with the furtive manner of inept spies, lurked in the lobby of my hotel. Journalists spoke of threatening phone calls from senior army officers who tended to finger as Maoists anyone who didn’t support the king. Many of the people I wanted to meet turned out to be in prison or in exile. Appointments with underground activists, arduously made, were cancelled at the last minute, or people simply didn’t turn up.

Sitting in her gloomy office, a human rights activist described the routine torture and extra-judicial killing of suspected Maoists, which had risen to a startling average of eight a day. Nothing was known about the more than 1200 people the army had taken from their homes since the beginning of the ‘people’s war’ – the highest number of unexplained disappearances in the world. She spoke of the ‘massive impunity’ enjoyed by the army, which was accountable only to the king. She claimed that the governments of India, the US and the UK had failed to understand the root causes of the Maoist phenomenon and had decided, out of fear and ignorance, to supply weapons to the Royal National Army: 20,000 M-16 rifles from the US, 20,000 rifles from India, helicopters from the UK.

She said that the ‘international community’ had chosen the wrong side in a conflict that in any case was not likely to be resolved by violence. Though recently expanded, and mobilised against the Maoists in 2001, the army was no more than 85,000 strong, and could not hold the countryside, where, among the high mountains, ravines and rivers – almost perfect terrain for guerrillas – it faced a formidable enemy.

She spoke with something close to despair. Much of her work – particularly risky at present – depended on international support. But few people outside Nepal cared or knew enough about its human rights record, and the proof lay in her office, which was austerely furnished, with none of the emblems of Western philanthropy – new computers, armed guards, shiny four-wheel drives in the parking lot – that I had seen in December in Afghanistan.

‘People are passing their days here,’ she said as I left her office, and the remark, puzzling at first, became clearer as I spent more time in Kathmandu. In the streets where all demonstrations were banned, and any protest was quickly quashed by the police, a bizarre feeling of normality prevailed, best symbolised by the vibrant billboards advertising mobile phones (banned since 1 February). Adverts in which companies affirmed faith in King Gyanendra appeared daily in the heavily censored newspapers, alongside news of Maoist bombings of police stations, unverified reports of rifts between Maoist leaders, promotional articles about Mercedes Benz cars and Tag Heuer watches, and reports of parties and fashion shows and concerts in Kathmandu.

Thamel opened for business every day, but its alleys remained empty of tourists. Months of Maoist-enforced blockades and strikes were also beginning to scare away the few foreign investors who had been deceived by the affluence of Kathmandu into thinking that Nepal was a big market for luxury consumer goods. Interviewed in a local newspaper, a Dutch investor described the Nepalese as an ‘extremely corrupt, greedy, triple-faced, myopic, slow, inexperienced and uneducated people’, and declared that he was taking his hair-replacement business to Latvia. Western diplomats and United Nations officials – darting in their SUVs from one walled compound to another – speculated about a possible assault on the capital by guerrillas.

But it is the middle-class Nepalese, denounced by the Maoists as ‘comprador capitalists’, who appear to live most precariously, their hopes and anxieties echoed in the newspapers by royalist journalists who affirm daily that Nepal needs a strong ruler and Gyanendra is best placed to defend the country, by means of a spell of autocratic rule, from both Maoist ‘terrorists’ and corrupt politicians.

Often while listening to them, I would remember the businessman I had met in Thamel and what he had told me about Dipendra; and I would wonder how the crown prince, if he had indeed been sensitised to social and economic distress during his three years in Thatcher’s England, had seen his strange inheritance, a country where almost half of the 26 million people earned less than $100 a year and had no access to electricity, running water or sanitation; a country whose small economy, parasitic on foreign aid and tourism, had to be boosted by the remittances of Nepalese workers abroad, and where political forces seen as anachronisms elsewhere – monarchy and Communism – fought for supremacy.

Histories of South Asia rarely describe Nepal, except as a recipient of religions and ideologies – Buddhism, Hinduism, Communism – from India; even today, the country’s 60 ethnic and caste communities are regarded as little more than a picturesque backdrop to some of the world’s highest mountains. This is partly because Western imperialists overlooked Nepal when they radically remade Asia in the 19th and 20th centuries.*

While a British-educated middle class emerged in India and began to aspire to self-rule, Nepal remained a country of peasants, nomads and traders, controlled by a few clans and families. Previously dependent on China, its high-caste Hindu ruling class courted the British as they expanded across India in the 19th century. As in the so-called princely states of India, the British were keen to support despotic regimes in Nepal, and even reward them with territory; it was one way of staving off potentially destabilising change in a strategically important buffer state to Tibet and China. The country was also a source of cheap mercenaries. Tens of thousands of soldiers recruited by the British from the western hills of Nepal fought during the Indian Mutiny, the Boxer Rebellion in China, and in the two world wars. The Gurkhas also helped the British suppress political dissenters in India, and then, more violently, Communist anti-colonialists in Malaya in the 1950s.

As the movement for political independence grew in India, Nepal came to be even more strongly controlled by Hindu kings and the elites they created by giving land grants to members of the high castes, Bahun and Chhetri, which make up less than 30 per cent of the population. The end of the British Empire in Asia didn’t lead to rapid change in Nepal, or end its status as a client state. Indian-made goods flooded Nepalese markets, stifling local industry and deepening the country’s dependence on India. In the 1950s and 1960s, as the Cold War intensified, Nepal was the forward base of the CIA’s operations against China.

American economists and advisers trying to make the world safe for capitalism came to Nepal with plans for ‘modernisation’ and ‘development’ – then seen as strong defences against the growth of Communism in poor countries. In the Rapti valley, west of Kathmandu, where, ironically, the Maoists found their first loyal supporters in the 1990s, the US government spent about $50 million ‘improving household food production and consumption, improving income-generating opportunities for poor farmers, landless labourers, occupational castes and women’.

Modernisation and development, as defined by Western experts during the Cold War, were always compatible with, and often best expedited by, despotic rule. Few among the so-called international community protested when, after a brief experiment with parliamentary democracy in the 1950s, King Mahendra, Dipendra’s grandfather, banned all political parties. A new constitution in 1962 instituted a partyless ‘Panchayat’ system of ‘guided democracy’ in which advisers chosen or controlled by the king rubber-stamped his decisions. The representatives of the Panchayat, largely from the upper castes, helped themselves to the foreign aid that made up most of the state budget, and did little to alleviate poverty in rural areas. The king also declared Nepal a Hindu state and sought to impose on its ethnic and linguistic communities a new national identity by promoting the Nepali language.

Such hectic nation-building could have lulled Nepal’s many ethnic and linguistic communities into a patriotic daze had the project of modernisation and development not failed, or benefited so exclusively and egregiously an already privileged elite. During the years of autocratic rule (1962-90), a few roads were built in the countryside, infant mortality was halved, and the literacy rate went up from 5 per cent in 1952 to 40 per cent in 1991. But Nepal’s population also grew rapidly, further increasing pressure on the country’s scarce arable land; and the gap between the city and the countryside widened fast.

What leads the sensitive prince to drugs and alcohol often forces the pauper to migrate. Millions of Nepalese have swelled the armies of cheap mobile labour that drive the global economy, serving in Indian brothels, Thai and Malaysian sweatshops, the mansions of oil sheikhs in the Gulf and, most recently, the war zones of Iraq. Many more have migrated internally, often from the hills to the subtropical Tarai region on the long border with India. The Tarai produces most of the country’s food and cash crops, and accommodates half of its population. On its flat alluvial land, where malaria was only recently eradicated, the Buddha was born 2500 years ago; it is also where a generation of displaced Nepalese began to dream of revolution.

In Chitwan, one of the more densely populated districts in the Tarai, I met Mukti Raj Dahal, the father of the underground Maoist leader, Prachanda. Dahal was one of the millions of Nepalese to migrate to the Tarai in the 1950s. His son was then eight years old. He had travelled on to India, doing menial jobs in many cities, before returning to Chitwan, which American advisers and the Nepalese government were then developing as a ‘model district’ with education and health facilities. In Chitwan, Dalal bought some land and managed to give his eight children an education of sorts. Though he is tormented by stomach and spinal ailments, he exuded calm as he sat on the verandah of his two-roomed brick house, wearing a blue T-shirt and shorts under a black cap, a Brahminical caste mark on his forehead.

He had the serenity of a man at the end of his life. And, given the circumstances, he had not done too badly. I had spent much of that day on the road from Kathmandu to the Tarai, shuffling past long queues of Tata trucks from India, through a fog of dust and thick diesel smoke, ragged settlements occasionally appearing beside the road: shops made of wooden planks, selling food fried in peanut oil and tea in sticky clouded glasses, mud houses with thatched roofs – a pre-industrial bareness in which only the gleaming automatic guns of young soldiers and the tangle of barbed wire behind which they sat spoke of the world beyond Nepal.

The jittery soldiers who approached the car with fingers on their triggers were very young, hard to associate with stories I had heard in Kathmandu – stories no newspaper would touch – of the army marching men out of overcrowded prisons and executing them. My companion, a Nepalese journalist, was nervous. He knew that the soldiers in the countryside attacked anyone they suspected of being a Maoist, and journalists were no exception. Many of the soldiers barely knew what a journalist was.

There are few places in Nepal untouched by violence – murder, torture, arbitrary arrest – and most people live perpetually in fear of both the army and the Maoists, without expectation of justice or recompense. Dahal, however, appeared to have made a private peace with his surroundings. He told me that he spent much of his day at the local temple, listening to recitals of the Ramayana. He said that he still believed the king had good intentions. He appeared both bemused by, and admiring of, his famous son, whom he had last seen at the funeral of his wife in 1996. The ideas of equality and justice, he thought, had always appealed to Prachanda, who was a sensitive man, someone who shared his food with poor people in the village. He couldn’t tell me how his son had got interested in Mao or Marx in such a place as Chitwan, which had no bookshop or library. But he did know that Prachanda had got involved with Communists when he couldn’t find a good job with the government and had to teach at a primary school in his native hills of Pokhara.

In his speeches, which claim inspiration from Mao and seek to mobilise the peasants in the countryside against the urban elite, Prachanda comes across as an ideologue of another era: he’s an embarrassment to the Chinese regime, which is engaged in the un-Maoist task of enriching Chinese coastal cities at the expense of the hinterland, and feels compelled to accuse Nepalese Maoists of besmirching the Chairman’s good name.

In the few interviews he has given, Prachanda avoids answering questions about his background and motivation, which have to be divined from details given by Dahal: the haphazard schooling, the useless degree, the ill-paid teaching job in a village school, all of which seem to lead inexorably to a conflict with, and resentment of, unjust authority.

The ‘modernisation’ and ‘development’ of Nepal during the 1950s and 1960s created millions of men like Prachanda, lured away from their subsistence economies and abandoned on the threshold of a world in which they found they had, and could have, no place. Nepal’s agricultural economy offered few of them the jobs or the dignity they felt was their due, and they were too aware of the possibilities thwarted by an unequal, stratified society to reconcile themselves to a life of menial labour in unknown lands, and an old age spent in religious stupor. Educated, but with no prospects, many young men like Prachanda must have been more than ready to embrace radical ideas about the ways that an entrenched urban elite could be challenged and even overthrown if peasants in the countryside were organised.

Growing up in Nepal in the 1960s, Prachanda watched these ideas grow in the Naxalbari movement in India. Communist activists lived and worked secretly in parts of Nepal during the Panchayat era – in the 1950s, a famous Communist leader called M.B. Singh travelled in the midwestern hills and acquired followers among the Magars, one of Nepal’s more prominent ethnic groups now supporting the Maoists. But Prachanda says that the ‘historic Naxalbari movement’ of India was the ‘greatest influence’ on the Communists of Nepal.

In the late 1960s, thousands of students, many of them middle-class and upper-caste, joined an armed peasant uprising led by an extremist faction of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) in West Bengal and Bihar. Known as Naxalites, after the Naxalbari district where the revolt first erupted in 1967, they attacked ‘class enemies’ – big landlords, policemen, bureaucrats – and ‘liberated’ territories which they hoped would form bases for an eventual assault on the cities, as had happened in China. The Indian government responded brutally, killing and torturing thousands. Driven underground, the Naxalite movement splintered, and remained dormant for many years.

In the 1990s, when India began to move towards a free market, the Naxalite movement revived in some of the poorest and most populous Indian states. Part of the reason for this is that successive Indian governments have steadily reduced subsidies for agriculture, public health, education and poverty-eradication, exposing large sections of the population to disease, debt, hunger and starvation. Almost three thousand farmers committed suicide in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh after the government, advised by McKinsey, cut agricultural subsidies in an attempt to initiate farmers into the world of unregulated markets. In recent years, Naxalite movements, which have long organised landless, low-caste peasants in Bihar and Andhra Pradesh, have grown quickly in parts of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh – where an enfeebled Indian state is increasingly absent – to the extent that police and intelligence officials in India now speak anxiously of an unbroken belt of Communist-dominated territory from Nepal to South India.

The Naxalite uprising in the late 1960s invigorated the few Communists in Nepal, who, like the members of the Nepali Congress, the main underground political organisation, sought guidance and encouragement from India. In 1971, some Nepalese Communists living across the border from Naxalbari declared a ‘people’s war’ against the monarchy. They killed seven ‘class enemies’ before being suppressed by the king. As fractious as their Indian counterparts, the Nepalese Communist parties split and split again over petty doctrinal or personality issues. In 1991, after the restoration of multi-party democracy, several of them contested elections, and even did well: a Communist coalition became the biggest opposition party, and briefly held power in 1994. In the early 1990s, however, few people in Nepal could have predicted the swift rise of Prachanda and the obscure faction he led.

The Maoists under Prachanda resolved as early as 1986 to follow Mao’s strategy of capturing state power through a ‘people’s war’. They did not start the war until the mid-1990s, however, when disillusionment with parliamentary democracy created for them a potentially wide popular base in the countryside. Still, hardly anyone noticed when on 4 February 1996 the Maoists presented the government with a list of 40 demands, which included abrogating existing treaties with India, stripping the monarchy of all power and privileges, drafting a new constitution by means of a constituent assembly, nationalising private property, declaring Nepal a secular nation and ending all foreign aid. These demands were not likely to be met; and as though aware of this, the Maoists began their ‘people’s war’ by attacking police stations in six districts four days before the deadline.

For the next five years, the Maoists forced their way into the national consciousness with their increasingly bold tactics. They financed themselves by collecting ‘taxes’ from farmers, and they exacted ‘donations’ from many businessmen in the Kathmandu Valley. They indoctrinated schoolchildren; they formed people’s governments in the areas they controlled and dispensed rough justice to criminals and ‘class enemies’. But much of the new power and charisma of the Maoists came from their ability to launch audacious attacks on the police and the army.

The military wing of the Maoists initially consisted of a few ill-trained men armed with antique rifles and homemade weapons. But they chose their first target cannily: the police, almost the only representatives of the central government in much of Nepal. Poorly armed, often with little more than sticks and .303 Lee Enfield rifles, the police retreated swiftly before the Maoists, who also attacked roads, bridges, dams, administrative offices, bridges, power plants – anything they felt might aid the counter-insurgency efforts of the government.

In recent years, the Maoists have grown militarily strong, mostly through conscription in the countryside, and regular training – allegedly provided by Indian Naxalites. They have acquired better weapons by looting police stations and buying from the arms bazaars of India; they have also learned how to make roadside explosives, pipe and ‘pressure cooker’ bombs. In November 2001, the Maoists launched 48 attacks on the army and the police in a single day, forcing the Nepalese government to impose a state of emergency. More than 5000 people died in the next 15 months, the bloodiest period in Nepal’s modern history.

But violence is only a part of the Maoists’ overall strategy. In an interview in 2000, Prachanda criticised Indian Communist groups for their lack of vision and spoke of the importance of developing ‘base areas’. Since 1996, the Maoists have spread out from their traditional home in the midwestern hills of Rolpa and Rukum districts. Their cadres – estimated to number as many as 100,000 – travel to deprived areas, addressing, and often recruiting from, the large and growing mass of people deeply unhappy with Nepal’s new democratic dispensation.

Some measure of democracy was inevitable in Nepal by the 1980s. In previous decades, the state’s half-hearted efforts at development had produced many low-level bureaucrats, small businessmen, teachers, students and unemployed graduates. This new class resented the continuing dominance of upper-caste clans and families. The conflict between the old elite and its challengers was aggravated by a series of economic crises in the late 1980s. In 1985-86, Nepal had negotiated a loan with the IMF and World Bank. The bank’s euphemistically named (and free-market oriented) ‘structural adjustment programme’, which was then causing havoc in Latin American economies, forced the Nepalese government to cut farm subsidies and jobs in the public sector. GDP grew as a result but the gains were cancelled out by inflation of up to 10 per cent and a trade and transit embargo imposed by India in 1989, which caused severe fuel shortages and price rises.

The protesters who filled the streets of Kathmandu in the spring of 1990 were convinced that the decaying Panchayat system could not deal with the shocks of the new world and needed to be reformed. In acceding to demands for multi-party democracy, the king appeared to acknowledge the strength of the new educated class and to recognise that the old political system needed a degree of popular legitimacy if it was to survive. It’s clear now that what happened in 1990 was less a revolution than a reconfiguration of power, sanctified by elections, among the old royalist oligarchy and an emerging urban middle class. Many courtiers and sycophants of the king managed to reinvent themselves as parliamentary politicians, often joining the Nepali Congress, the political party that ruled Nepal for all but one of the next 13 years. There were few ideological differences between the Nepali Congress and the main opposition party, the radical-sounding Communist Party of Nepal (United Marxist-Leninist), both of which continued to be led by upper-caste men motivated largely by a desire for money and power. Elections were held frequently, and a procession of governments – 13 in as many years – made Nepalese democracy appear vibrant. But the majority of the population, especially its ethnic communities, went largely unrepresented.

In 1992, when democracy still promised much, and Maoism was no more than another rumour in the streets of Kathmandu, Andrew Nickson, a British expert on Latin America, wrote prophetically:

The future prospects of Maoism in Nepal will . . . depend largely on the extent to which the newly elected Nepali Congress government addresses the historic neglect and discrimination of the small rural communities which still make up the overwhelming bulk of the population of the country. As in the case of Peru, this would require a radical reallocation of government expenditures towards rural areas in the form of agricultural extension services and primary healthcare provision.

Needless to say, this didn’t happen. In 2002, Dalits, low-caste Hindus, had an annual per capita income of only $40, compared to a national average of $210; fewer than 10 per cent of Dalits were literate. The upper-caste men who dominated the new democratic regime were competing among themselves to siphon off the money pouring into Nepal from foreign donors. A fresh convert to the ideology of the free market, the Nepalese government dedicated itself to creating wealth in urban areas. Trying to boost private investment in Kathmandu, it neglected agriculture, on which more than 80 per cent of the population depend for a living. Not surprisingly, absolute poverty continued to increase in the late 1990s, even as Kathmandu Valley benefited from the growth in the tourist, garment and carpet industries, and filled up with new hotels, resorts and villas.

In such circumstances, many people are likely to be attracted to violent, extra-parliamentary groups. The Maoists in Nepal had their first ready constituency among rural youths, more than 100,000 of whom fail their high school examination every year. Unemployed and adrift, many of these young men worked for other political parties in the countryside before becoming disillusioned and joining the Maoists.

Mohan was one of the young men who joined a newly legitimate political party after 1990 and then found himself remote from the spoils of power. He then worked with the Maoists for almost five years, living in jungles, once travelling to the easternmost corner of Nepal, before deciding to leave them. He couldn’t return to his village, which lay in the Maoist-dominated region of Rolpa, and had gone to India for a while. He was now trying to lie low in Kathmandu, and although he didn’t say so, he seemed to be ‘passing his days’ and making a living through odd jobs, like so many other people in the city.

We had arranged to meet in Boudhanath, Kathmandu’s major Buddhist site. Sitting in the square around the white stupa, among monks in swirling crimson robes and often with white faces, Mohan spoke of ‘feudal forces’ and the ‘bourgeoisie’: their corruption had paved the way for the Maoists, whom he described as ‘anarchists’. He used the foreign words with a Nepalese inflection. He said that he had picked them up while accompanying a Maoist propagandist on tour; and it occurred to me, as he described his background, that he still used them despite having left the Maoists because he had no other vocabulary with which to describe his experience of deprivation and disappointment.

He was born and brought up in a family of Magar shepherds in a corner of Rolpa district that had no proper roads, schools or hospitals. Educated at a school in Palpa, a walk of several miles from his village, he had joined the Nepali Congress in 1992, when still in his late teens, and become a personal aide to a prominent local politician. There were many such young men. They received no money for their services, but slept in the politician’s house, ate the food prepared for his family, and travelled with him to Kathmandu. Mohan said that it was a good time, the early years of democracy. He liked being in Kathmandu, especially with someone who had a bit of power. But he couldn’t fail to notice that the politician returned less and less often to his constituency in the hills and often refused to meet people who came to his door asking for jobs, money and medical help. He was surprised to hear that the politician was building a new house for himself in Kathmandu. Soon, he felt he was not needed, and one day the politician’s wife told him to eat elsewhere.

Clashes between Nepali Congress activists and the Maoists were common in his area; he felt that he could be useful to the Maoists with his knowledge of politics. He was also attracted to the idea of ethnic autonomy that the Maoists espoused. He had seen in his time with the politician how the upper-caste-dominated government in Kathmandu possessed an unjust share of the country’s wealth and resources. Many people he knew had already joined the Maoists, and in 1995, one of his friends introduced him to the Maoist ‘squad commander’ in the region.

As he spoke, I wondered if this was the whole truth, if he hadn’t joined the Maoists for the same reason he had joined the Nepali Congress, the reason many young men like him in India joined political parties: for food and shelter. In any case, he joined the Maoists at a bad time: it was in 1995 that the Nepalese government launched Operation Romeo.

This scorched-earth campaign is described as an instance of ‘state terror’ in a report by INSEC (Informal Sector Service Centre), Nepal’s most reliable human rights group. The police, according to the report, invaded villages in the Rolpa and Rukum districts, killing and torturing young men and raping women. When I mentioned this to Mohan, he said that things weren’t as bad as they were made out to be by the ‘bourgeois’ intelligentsia in Kathmandu, who, he thought, were soft on the Maoists. He said the Maoists were simply another opportunistic political group; this was why he had left them. They were interested in mobilising ethnic communities only to the extent that this would help them capture ‘state power’; they weren’t really interested in giving them autonomy. He had also been repelled by their cruelty. He had heard about – if not actually seen – instances of Maoists punishing people who refused to pay taxes, defied their alcohol ban or were suspected of being police informers. Using rocks and hammers, they often broke all the bones in their victims’ bodies before skinning them alive and cutting off their tongues, ears, lips and noses.

Many of these stories appear in reports by Nepalese and international human rights groups. The Maoist leaders were, I often heard in Kathmandu, riding a tiger, unable to prevent their angry and frustrated cadres from committing torture and murder. Criminals had infiltrated their movement, and some Maoists now made a living from extortion and kidnapping. When confronted with these excesses, Maoist leaders deny or deplore them. They probably realise that that they are losing many of their original supporters, who are as tired of the organisation’s growing extremism as of the years of indecisive fighting. Nevertheless, these leaders can often seem constrained in their political thinking by revolutionary methods and rhetoric created in another time and place. Prachanda, for instance, is convinced that ‘a new wave of revolution, world revolution is beginning, because imperialism is facing a great crisis.’

When the subject is not world revolution but the specific situation of Nepal, he can be shrewdly perceptive. A police officer in India told me that many of the Indian Communists he interviewed confessed to learning much from the Maoists in Nepal, who were not as rigidly doctrinal as Communists in India and Afghanistan. As Prachanda put it:

The situation in Nepal is not classical, not traditional. In the Terai region we find landlords with some lands, and we have to seize the lands and distribute them among the poor peasants. But in the whole mountainous regions, that is not the case. There are smallholdings, and no big landlords . . . How to develop production, how to raise production is the main problem here. The small pieces of land mean the peasants have low productivity. With collective farming it will be more scientific and things can be done to raise production.

It is not clear how much collective farming exists, or what non-military use the Maoists make of the taxes they collect. In fact, there is little reliable information about what goes on in the countryside. Few journalists venture out of their urban bases, and the Maoists aren’t the only obstacle. Most of the very few roads outside Kathmandu are a series of large potholes, and then there are the nervous soldiers at checkpoints. And once you move away from the highway, no soldiers or policemen appear for miles on end. In Shakti Khor, a village in the Tarai region populated by one of the poorest communities in Nepal, a few men quietly informed us that Maoist guerrillas were hiding in the nearby forest, where no security forces ever ventured and from where the Maoists often escaped to India. At a small co-operative shop selling honey, mustard oil, turmeric and herbal medicines, two men in their mid-twenties appeared very keen to put in a good word for the Maoists – who the previous night had painted red anti-monarchy slogans on the clean walls.

In the other Maoist-dominated regions I visited, people seemed too afraid to talk. At Deurali Bazaar, a village at the end of a long and treacherous drive in the hills near Pokhara, a newly constructed bamboo gate was wrapped with a red cloth painted with a hammer and sickle and the names of Maoists either dead or in prison. The scene in the square appeared normal at first – women scrubbing children at a municipal tap, young men drinking tea, an old tailor hunched over an antique sewing-machine, his walking stick leaning against his chair – but the presence of the Maoists, if unacknowledged, was unmistakable. When I tried to talk to the men at the teashop, they walked away fast, one of them knocking over the tailor’s stick. The shopkeeper said that he knew nothing about Maoists. He didn’t know who had built the bamboo gate; it had simply appeared one morning.

When I got back to Pokhara that evening, the news was of three teenage students killed as they tried to stop an army car on the highway. The previous day I had seen newspaper reports in which the army described the students as ‘terrorists’ and claimed to have found documents linking them to the Maoists. But it now seemed clear that they were just collecting donations for Holi, the Hindu festival of colours. There were eyewitnesses to the shooting. The parents of the victims had exhumed their corpses from the shallow graves in which the army had quickly buried them and discovered that two of them had been wearing their school uniforms. Like much else in Nepal, this would not appear in the newspapers.

The bloody stalemate in Nepal may last for a long time. The army is too small and poorly equipped at present decisively to defeat the Maoists. In some areas it has recently tried arming upper-caste villagers and inciting them to take action against the Maoists. In the southern district of Kapilavastu, vigilante groups organised by a local landlord and armed by the government claim to have killed more than fifty Maoists in February. Such tactics are not only likely to lead to a civil war but also to increase support for the Maoists in areas where the government is either absent or disliked.

Though unlikely at present, talks may offer a way forward. The Maoists have shown themselves willing to negotiate and even to compromise: in July 2001 they dropped their demand that Nepal cease to be a monarchy. More recently, Prachanda hinted at a flexible stance when he called for a united front of mainstream political parties against the monarch. He probably fears that the guerrilla force might self-destruct if its leaders fail to lead their more extreme cadres in the direction of moderate politics. But any Maoist concessions to bourgeois democracy are unlikely to please Gyanendra, who clearly wants to use the current chaos to help him hold on to his power.

If he periodically evokes the prospect of terrorists taking over Nepal, Gyanendra can count on the support of India, the US and the UK. In late 2001, the US ambassador to Nepal, Michael Malinowski, a veteran of the CIA-sponsored anti-Soviet jihad in Afghanistan, said that ‘these terrorists, under the guise of Maoism or the so-called “people’s war”, are fundamentally the same as terrorists elsewhere – be they members of the Shining Path, Abu Sayaf, the Khmer Rouge or al-Qaida.’ The then Hindu nationalist government in Delhi, just as eager to name new enemies, also described the Maoists as ‘terrorists’.

The present Indian government has a more nuanced view of Nepal. But it is worried about India’s own Communist rebels and their links with the Nepalese Maoists, and it believes that, as Malinowski put it, ‘all kinds of bad guys could use Nepal as a base, like in Afghanistan.’ Responding to fears that the army in Nepal was running out of ammunition, India resumed its arms supply this year, partly hoping to contain the Maoists and wanting too to maintain its influence over Nepal in the face of growing competition from the US.

There is no evidence that bad guys, as defined by the Bush administration, have flocked to Nepal; the Maoists are far from achieving a military victory; and the Communists in India are unlikely to extend their influence beyond the poverty-stricken districts they presently control. The rise of an armed Communist movement in a strategically important country nevertheless disturbs many political elites, who believe that Communism died in 1989 and that history has arrived at the terminus of liberal-capitalist democracy.

A European diplomat in Kathmandu told me that although Western countries hoped the political parties and the king would put up a joint front against the Maoists, they knew they might at some point have to support the king and his army if he alone was left to protect the country from the Maoists and keep alive the prospects for democracy. I did not feel that I could ask him about the nature of a democracy that is protected by an autocrat. Perhaps he meant nothing more by the word ‘democracy’ than regular elections: the kind of democracy whose failure to contain violence or to limit systemic poverty and inequality does not matter so long as elections are held, even if, as in Afghanistan and Iraq, under a form of martial law, and in which the turnout of voters does nothing but empower and legitimise a native elite willing to push the priorities of its Western patrons.

Such a form of democracy, which is slowly coming into being in Pakistan, could be revived again in Nepal, as the king repairs his relationship with the mainstream political parties. It is possible, too, that the excesses of the Maoists will cause them to self-destruct. Certainly the international revolution Prachanda speaks of will prove a fantasy. Yet it’s hard to wish away the rage and despair of people who, arriving late in the modern world, have known its primary ideology, democracy, only as another delusion – the disenchanted millions who will increasingly seek, through other means than elections, the dignity and justice that they feel is owed to them.


* For an accessible account of the beginnings of modern Nepal, see John Whelpton's A History of Nepal, Cambridge, 2005. Some recent scholarship on the Maoists is collected in Himalayan 'People's War': Nepal's Maoist Rebellion, ed. Michael Hutt, Hurst and Co, 2004. The Nepalese novelist Manjushree Thapa provides an engaging personal account of Nepal's recent turbulent years in Forget Kathmandu: An Elegy for Democracy, Penguin India, Delhi, 2005'
          Gulbis Claims Marseille Title        
Ernest Gulbis beat Jo-Wilfried Tsona 7-6(7-5) 6-4 on Sunday in the final of Open 13 to pick up his fifth career title. The big serving Latvian overcame the second seed of the Marseille event in front of Tsonga’s home crowd in France, which was available to fans of live tennis online on the...
          Central Bankers Think Their Job Is Done Fixing the Global Economy. Why Are They Still Letting Greece Suffer?        

In the two developed-world economies that suffered the most during the 2008 financial crisis and the ensuing recession, the central banks are at last declaring victory. The Federal Reserve has raised interest rates three times in the past seven months and has telegraphed its intention to start shrinking its massive balance sheet this year. Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen remarked in June that another financial crisis was unlikely “in our lifetime.” And the European Central Bank, confronting rising interest rates and a continuing economic expansion, is hinting that it may start to taper its asset purchases and will begin to consider raising interest rates, moves that suggest it thinks the eurozone’s economy can now function just fine with less of its help.

After failing miserably to forecast the severity of the global recession of 2009, central bankers are recovering some of their self-esteem. Looking back on the past decade, they succeeded in averting a total crash, setting the stage for a recovery, and sustaining the type of long expansion that generates jobs and, it is still hoped, income growth. While the economies of Europe and the U.S. are not quite firing on all cylinders, there is now a sense that they are chugging along just fine.

And then there’s Greece. While I was in Athens last week, the oppressive heat—107 at midday—felt like a metaphor for the heavy air of resignation and stagnation that blanketed the city. Garbage was piling up in the streets off Syntagma Square thanks to a strike by sanitation workers. We hastened to tour the Acropolis because we wanted to get there ahead of a strike by security guards that would shut down the site in the cool morning hours.

I know it’s the worst kind of reporting to drop in for a couple of days and make grand statements. (In the Financial Times, Simon Kuper’s latest Greece dispatch pulls it off quite nicely.) But there’s also the data, which speaks to a continuing financial and human crisis on a scale unimaginable in developed countries. Ten years after the onset of the crisis, Greece, which has a population of 11 million—roughly equivalent to that of Ohio—is far worse off than any U.S. state or European country was at their depths. The unemployment rate in April was 21.7 percent. The country has seen its population shrink for six straight years. The country’s total output has shrunk about 25 percent from its 2008 peak. GDP per capita is on par with Hungary and Latvia. And this is eight years into an expansion.

Growth cures a host of social, political, and economic ills, while stagnation exacerbates them. The best way to work your way out from under a massive pile of debt is to have a little inflation and some growth. But Greece, with its monetary fate tied to Europe (and hence to Germany), has had virtually no inflation and no growth whatsoever. If your debt is 100 percent of GDP and you hold it steady while the economy shrinks 25 percent, then your debt rises to 133 percent of GDP. That’s effectively what has happened to Greece, whose debt now stands at an astounding 177 percent of GDP.

Of course, Greece got itself into its debt trouble, and its political system has been generally ineffective at restructuring the country’s economy and reigniting growth. But they’ve lacked the most powerful tool a a struggling country has at its disposal—a central bank that will set accommodative policies.

And the technocrats at the European Central Bank haven’t done the country any favors. Greece continues to labor under the absurd austerity terms set by its creditors. Usually, when you foolishly lend money to entities that can’t pay it back, your lenders accept that they won’t get 100 cents on the dollar and write down a portion of the debt as part of a restructuring. The entities that have come to Greece’s rescue—the troika of the European Central Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank—have refused to countenance serious write-downs. (Largely for fear of how doing so would affect the health of the German banks that binged on Greek debt.) And so the country is required to run a primary surplus of 3.5 percent of GDP so that it generate sufficient interest payments to service its debt load. That would be like the U.S. running a $570 billion surplus every year.

Rather than pat themselves on the back for engineering growth and banishing financial crises forever, it would be nice if the world’s most powerful central bankers would acknowledge the continuing financial crisis in their midst. And then they could start arguing for a real resolution of the problem. The ECB (and the Fed) have spent enough resources and extended enough aid to the world’s banking system. It’s time to give Greece a break.

          Investori atzÄ«st NUSKIN par TOP ienākumus nesoÅ¡u kompāniju.        

NU SKIN ENTERPRISES atzÄ«ta par TOP ienākumus Ä£enerējoÅ¡u kompāniju investoriem. Šādu atziņu devusi aÄ£entÅ«ra viena no prestižākajām JÅ«tas uzņēmēju organizācijām MOUNTAIN WEST CAPITAL NETWORK. AÄ£entÅ«ra pieÅ¡Ä·Ä«rusi NUSKIN  treÅ¡o vietu 15 veiksmÄ«gāko kompāniju sarakstā.

Kā ziņo mēdiji no Provo Jūtas ASV Mountain West Capital Network, ir lielākā Jūtas uzņēmēju grupa, kura veidota, lai palīdzētu uzņēmējiem un investoriem gūt kompetentu priekšstatu par notiekošo tirgū un to kur droši izvietot savu kapitālu. Šī ir pirmā reize, kad Nuskin izdevies uzkāpt tik augstu šajā prestižajā sarakstā.

“Mēs vēlamies pateikties Mountain West Venture Capital Network par šo godu,” paziņoja Ritch Wood, Nuskin finansu direktors. “Šī pozīcija atspoguļo mūsu pastāvīgo izaugsmi un labi padarīto darbu, kas ieguldīts mūsu konsultantu un darbinieku izausmē, veidojot NU SKIN vadošo nozares kompāniju visā pasaulē. Mēs plānojam arī turpmāk paplašināt savas iespējas un esam apņēmīgi turpināt gūt panākumus 2013 gadā un turpmāk.”

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Vairāk informācijas par Nuskin Latvijā: +37126554437

          Re: BELOKOPITSKY/Zaharchuk/SHATEVICH        
Zaharchuk Chariton - 07.21.1873 year Terpylivka (Poland) died on 06.29.1956, the wife Zaharchuk Pelagia (Anna) - 05.15.1881 year Palchyntsi (Poland) died in 1960.
They had four children: Stephanie - my grandfather's mother (left to live in Ukraine), Olga - born 11/09/1903, died in February 1992, Teodoziya (Todos) is a documents as Josephine Michalishyn - born 09.06.1907 died - is unknown.
Chariton Zaharchuk emihruva first in the US in 1903 on the ship Kaiser Wilhelm II, and his wife with three children emigrated in 1921 to ship Latvia.
We also know that Eugenia Belokopitsky (the Zaharchuk) was born in 1915 in the US, New - York. Was the wife of my grandfather's uncle Bondarchuk Nikolai Petrovich (live), children they had, there are many letters and photos which I store and through which I try to find a family (children, nephews, sisters, uncle Michal).
In case of any queries please contact us by e-mail or look me in Facebook, where I created a group where teaching Zaharchuk Photo - Belokopitsky documents with birth family Zaharchuk.
          LATVIA Ladies Boot Slippers Navy        
LATVIA Ladies Boot Slippers Navy

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Ladies Boot Slippers Durable Sole Faux Fur Lined Striped Upper Design  Browse Other Colours: Red and Navy

          LATVIA Ladies Boot Slippers Red        
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          New Global Education Initiative by FIU Art + Art History Department and the Art Academy of Latvia        
New Global Education Initiative by FIU Art + Art History Department and the Art Academy of LatviaThe Art Academy of Latvia (LMA) in collaboration with Florida International University’s Art + Art History Department have forged a new global education initiative for students pursuing degrees in the contemporary art world. This international partnership, led by Rector, Aleksejs Naumovs, and Vice Rector, Kristaps Zariņš of the Art Academy of Latvia (LMA), all began […]
          Spring in North America - Skiing and Crevasse Falls!        

It's been an odd spring for me. Always for me the most difficult aspect of my Patagonia addiction is the conflict it creates with my skiing addiction, and after spending most of the winter in the Austral summer, I usually return home very eager to ski. This year was no exception, and after returning to Seattle I did my best to catch up, skiing nearly every day of my first week at home. The one cool thing about starting your ski season in mid March is that my first day of the season was an awesome powder day, with a snowpack of multiple meters!

At the end of March I left for a climbing trip in Alaska's St. Elias range with Portlanders John Frieh and Daniel Harro. We were flown into the range by Paul Claus, midday on April 1st. We spent a few hours setting up our basecamp, and then went for a short ski up-glacier to scope our objective. About twenty minutes out of camp I suddenly broke through a totally-hidden crevasse, and fell approximately 15 meters down, ricocheting off the walls of the crevasse. We had left camp for our leisurely ski with essentially no equipment, so Daniel immediately skied back to camp to fetch a rope, crampons, ice tools, and harnesses. I was able to climb out of the crevasse with a top-rope (and even managed to rescue my skis and poles!), and fortunately I escaped any truly serious injuries. Unfortunately, however, I had a fractured cheek bone, and my trip was over. We skied back to camp, and the next morning I flew off the glacier, for a total of about 16 hours in the St. Elias range! For those who are interested, I'll include below a more in-depth analysis of my crevasse accident.

So, rather than climbing new routes in Alaska, I spent most of April recuperating in Seattle. For the first week I had a very swollen face, and I was spitting blood for about 10 days. The first two doctors that I talked to, both oral surgeons in private practice, were eager to schedule surgery straight away. Fortunately I got a third opinion from a well-respected doctor at Harborview who strongly advised against surgery. So, I managed to escape the knife and my face feels to have healed up well, with only very subtle changes in symmetry. My smile is a bit crooked now, but I figure that just makes me look more like a pirate or Fred Beckey!

After a couple weeks of nearly zero physical activity, I started going for walks and to the climbing gym, and then finally ski touring again. For my first day back on skis, I headed up on Mt. Shuksan with my girlfriend, Sarah Hart. We planned to ski the North Face, but while skinning up the White Salmon Glacier we watched four skiers descend the Northwest Couloir, a line I've always wanted to ski. Because I had never skied it before, I figured some tracks to follow would be a nice way to learn the run, and Sarah and I decided on the spot to ski the Northwest Couloir instead. This was a bad decision! Sarah has only been skiing for five years, and this was her second day of the season. She is a natural athlete, and the North Face would've been fine for her, but I didn't realize that the Northwest Couloir is a significantly steeper, more serious ski run. Needless to say she didn't enjoy the descent very much (Sorry, Sarah!), but we're both very glad that she didn't fall!

At the end of April Sarah and I headed to Canmore, Alberta, and spent the month of May sport climbing and skiing in the Rockies. I did a bunch of skiing with Rockies hard-man Jon Walsh, and Ptor Spricenieks, the Latvian ski machine. Ptor now lives in La Grave, but has been skiing in the Canadian Rockies for a long time, and among his exploits was the first descent of the North Face of Mt. Robson, surely one of the classiest ski mountaineering objectives anywhere! Sarah and I just made our way back to the West/Best/Left Coast, and the prime Squamish season will be starting imminently - time to start training for Patagonia!

Colin skiing across the glacier, shortly before falling in the crevasse. Photo by John Frieh:

Uh-oh! Photo by John Frieh:

Looking down the crevasse I fell in, it's just possible to see my light-blue jacket. Photo by John Frieh:

Sarah starting down the Northwest Couloir of Mt. Shuksan:

Looking down at an exposed traverse, half-way down the Northwest Couloir of Mt. Shuksan:

Sarah on the mellower lower section of Shuksan's Northwest Couloir:

Sarah showing her feelings for Shuksan's Northwest Couloir:

Sarah feeling a bit more relaxed, skiing on Tahoma:

Sarah skinning up Fairview Mountain, above Lake Louise:

Sarah dropping into the north side of Surprise Pass, above Lake Louise:

Dust on crust, but at least the crust was smooth! Sarah coming down from Surprise Pass, above Lake Louise:

Colin coming up the West Face of Mt. Lefroy. Photo by Jon Walsh:

Colin on the summit ridge of Mt. Lefroy. Without real climbing gear, the cornices looked too sketchy to try to tag the summit. Photo by Jon Walsh:

Jon testing the waters at the top of Mt. Lefroy's West Face:

Colin skiing on the West Face of Mt. Lefroy. Photo by Jon Walsh:

Jon skiing on the West Face of Mt. Lefroy:

Colin skiing lower down on Mt. Lefroy's West Face. Photo by Jon Walsh:

Ptor Spricenieks kicking steps up Mt. Athabasca's Silverhorn. A suspect windslab told us to turn around a short ways up the Silverhorn:

Ptor skiing on the lower part of Mt. Athabasca's Silverhorn. Photo by Jon Walsh:

Colin skiing on the lower part of Mt. Athabasca's Silverhorn. Photo by Jon Walsh:

Ptor skiing on the glacier below the North Face of Athabasca. Photo by Jon Walsh:

Colin skiing on the glacier below the North Face of Athabasca. Photo by Jon Walsh:

Colin skiing on the glacier below the North Face of Athabasca. Photo by Jon Walsh:

Jon coming up the Skyladder route on Mt. Andromeda:

The Latvian ski machine skinning to the summit of Mt. Andromeda:

Ptor skiing the Skyladder route on Mt. Andromeda. Photo by Jon Walsh:

Colin skiing the Skyladder route on Mt. Andromeda. Photo by Jon Walsh:

Jon skiing on the lower part of Skyladder:

Ptor and Jon skinning up the Southwest Ridge of Mt. Temple:

Ptor scoping the best place to drop in on Mt. Temple's southwest face:

Colin skiing on the southwest face of Mt. Temple. Photo by Jon Walsh:


This crevasse fall is what I consider to be my fifth close call in the mountains. I'm fortunate to have come away mostly unscathed every time, but if I'm not taking away injuries, hopefully I am at least taking away lessons. Let me start out first with a more detailed account of the accident:

When I broke through the hidden crevasse bridge, in the first instant I actually wasn't worried - for some reason it felt like I was just collapsing a soft spot of snow. However, an instant later, when I realized I was falling a long ways down, I specifically remember thinking, "Oh, shit. This is serious. This could be really bad." The fall happened really quickly, and the next thing I knew I was wedged in the bottom of the crevasse, panting. I was pumped full of adrenaline, but I never felt panicked, and with just a quick glimpse upwards, I never had any doubt that I would get out of the crevasse. Since I hit my face against one of the crevasse walls hard enough to fracture my cheek bone, it's quite possible that I briefly blacked out, although it's actually really difficult to tell for sure. I didn't FEEL like I blacked out, but I did seem to suddenly find myself in the bottom of the crevasse, without a specific recollection of exactly how I came to rest. More likely, I think that during the fall my mind went into a pure survival-reaction mode, so that it wasn't recording memories for the second that I was falling. I have some half-memories from the fall, such as that I vaguely recall breaking through some ice, and I vaguely recall the instant of smacking my face against the wall.

I had been skiing with my sleeves rolled up and my gloves off, so my hands and lower arms were covered with scrapes and cuts. Otherwise I felt to be mostly OK, although when I touched my face I could feel already that it was swollen. My nose was running, so I instinctually made a snot-rocket. When I blew my nose I had a bizarre feeling of air being pushed through my eye socket, and then I figured I might have a real injury. I started to spit up blood, and that seemed to confirm my suspicions!

It seemed to be very quick that John caught up, and yelled down to me. I already had a clear idea of how to get out, and I immediately yelled to John that someone needed to go get my crampons, my ice tools, my harness, some slings and 'biners, and a rope. Daniel took off back towards camp to fetch the equipment, and I started working on my situation.

When I broke through the crevasse bridge, my skis had been parallel to the crevasse, and I remained in that orientation during the fall, so that when I came to rest I was facing down the length of the crevasse. I have my approach skis set to generally never release, so one of my skis was still on my foot, while the other ski seemed to have come off right when I stopped, because it was off my boot, but positioned with the binding just below my foot. Most of my weight was on my feet, on my skis, and I think that my skis really helped me not become wedged more tightly. In the position that I was in, I had no chance to put on a harness or crampons because I was wedged too tightly. Above me the crevasse quickly got wider, and about two meters up I saw a sort of saddle/fin of ice that bridged the walls - I figured I needed to climb up to there.

Climbing just two meters up proved to be very difficult. If I had been wearing crampons and with ice tools in my hands, it would have been absolutely dead easy, but climbing up hard, blue glacial ice without that equipment is really, really slippery! Also, extricating myself from my wedged position was not easy, because it was tight enough that I couldn't turn either of my feet around until I got them a couple feet higher. I was lucky that the ice was surprisingly featured, and I managed to climb up to the ice fin with a combination of chimneying, manteling, and crimping little ice edges with my bare, bloody fingers.

When I reached the ice fin I straddled it as if I were horse-back riding, and finally I had a position that was somewhat restful. I had been wearing my small backpack all this time, and finally now I was able to take my gloves and jacket out to put them on. John was even able to chuck his puffy down to me, I was able to catch it, and then I was decently warm. At this point I had about 20-25 minutes of sitting on the ice fin, waiting for Daniel to get back from basecamp with the technical equipment. I guess at this point the adrenaline started to wear off, and I suddenly felt extremely tired and sleepy. I was in a decently restful position, but I would've fallen off the ice fin if I had lost consciousness. I felt that I had to fight to not pass out, by intentionally hyperventilating, and shaking my upper body.

When Daniel got back from his wind-sprint with the technical equipment, I was finally able to properly work on getting out of the crevasse. It took a few tries, but John was able to toss an end of rope that I was able to catch, and then he lowered down my crampons. Even straddling the ice fin was still a really difficult position to move in, and getting my crampons on was difficult, but once they were on my feet it changed everything. With crampons on, even without ice tools, I was very easily able to chimney a couple meters higher, to where there was a small ledge to stand on. From that ledge I had much more room to move, and now I was able to put on my harness that John lowered, followed by my ice tools. At this point, getting out was easy - simply a matter of climbing some AI3 with a tight toprope. I was even able to lower down a bit and retrieve both my skis and poles.

Once back on the surface of the glacier, Daniel gave me a quick examination (he is a fire-fighter, and therefore also paramedic), and then we took off back towards camp, because it was almost dark by now. Back in camp I wondered if I might be able to stay and climb, but it didn't take long to realize that would be a stupid decision. With a fractured bone in my face it didn't make sense to stay in the middle of nowhere, especially considering the weather was then good enough to fly a ski plane, and most of the time it isn't. We were able to get through to Paul Claus by sat phone, and called for him to pick me up in the morning. One thing that I found really surprising is that despite impacting my face so hard to fracture my zygomatic bone (cheek bone) in three places (the three places it attaches to the bones around it), I had only very minor pain, and never experienced any significant pain during the entire healing process. A bit of minor frostbite on my toes a few years ago was vastly more painful!

I was of course both lucky and unlucky in this incident. It obviously can't be considered lucky to take a 15-meter crevasse fall, but I am quite lucky to have only fractured my cheek bone in such a large fall, and not my legs! I think it is really fortunate that I didn't invert during the fall, because if I had landed on my head, especially without a helmet, it likely would've had very bad consequences.

This accident has undoubtably made me more wary of glacier-travel, even though it's already something I've been doing extensively and very regularly for over fifteen years. I'm sure I will continue to do some occasional solo travel on glaciers, but I absolutely view solo glacier travel much more seriously now. When I was fourteen years old I took a glacier travel and crevasse rescue course from The Mountaineers, and it gave me a good foundation of knowledge about crevasse rescue. However, as with everything they teach, The Mountaineers teach an extremely prudent version of glacier travel, such as that you should always be roped up at any time on any glacier, that you always need to pre-rig your prussiks on the rope, and that you should always be wearing a helmet. Personally, I still have zero doubt there are many situations when it is appropriate to be un-roped on a glacier, and I still will probably never pre-rig my prussiks, and I still will very often travel on glaciers without wearing a helmet. However, this accident has made me come to some important conclusions about glacier-travel safety, and I'll share them as clearly as possible here:


The area of the St. Elias where we were is a dry area. We arrived at the start of April, and the total snowpack in our basecamp was a mere meter of dry, light snow. It is a "dry glacier" (one of exposed, scree-covered ice in the summertime), like the Torre Glacier in Patagonia. I think that glaciers like this (with a huge amount of ice below the firn line, in the ablation zone) generally exist in places that are cold enough to sustain large glaciers, but with low accumulation rates.
The crevasse that I fell into was at least two meters wide, and the bridge across it was never thicker than 40cm, across the entire gap. This wide, super-thin snowbridge was not sagging even the tiniest amount, which is why I didn't have any clue it was there. Such a thin snowbridge, likely formed during a snow storm many weeks earlier, didn't sag at all because it was in such a cold, dry environment, especially during the winter. In The Cascades, Chamonix, or the BC Coast Range, a snowbridge of those dimensions would've been undoubtably sagging, and it would've been obvious that there was a crevasse there.
Basically, I have realized from this incident that crevasse hazard is much, much higher in relatively dry glaciated environments, because the snowbridges are often very weak, and often very well hidden. This is why there are so many crevasse accidents in the Canadian Rockies. The mountains where I learned glacier travel, The Cascades, have likely some of the safest glacier travel in the world, because they are extremely "wet" glaciers, with enormous annual rates of accumulation and ablation. In The Cascades, probably the only time with comparable crevasse hazard to the Canadian Rockies, is in the autumn (October or November), when the crevasses are very freshly bridged by thin, weak bridges. By March, when the glaciers often have literally several meters of seasonal snowpack on them, the crevasse bridges are extremely solid.


Most of us have all been taught that having skis on your feet makes glacier travel safer, and there's no doubt that this is generally true. However, in my crevasse incident, I think it actually would've been avoided completely if I weren't wearing skis. This is because, if I had been on foot, then the moment I stepped off of the solid ice, I would've punched a leg through the edge of the snowbridge (something I have done many, many times before), and most likely I wouldn't have fallen in. Because I had skis on, I was able to ski well past the edge of the solid ice, and I never broke through the snowbridge until I was in the middle of it. In other words, if you have skis on you're less likely to ever break through a snowbridge than on foot, but you're more likely to break through the snowbridge completely (a proper crevasse fall) if you break through at all.
Of course in practice we will all decide to ski or walk based on the snow conditions and the efficiency of travel, but it's worth keeping in mind that skis sometimes (and in the case of my accident) will make the crevasse danger greater, despite the general rule to the opposite.


This one's a no-brainer, but still worth mentioning. My crevasse accident is a perfect example of how much safety a climbing partner can provide compared to solo glacier travel, even if you aren't roped up.


The typical practice for skiing in Chamonix is to rarely be roped up, but always wear your harness with some basic crevasse rescue kit on it, and each person carries a 30m glacier rope to send down to a partner. I have often been cavalier about this practice, figuring that if I wasn't roped up there wasn't much point in wearing my harness, but I now realize this is quite wrong.
This accident has shown me that even if you are unroped, having your harness on makes your ability to deal with a crevasse fall much better. In my case, it was very difficult to get to a position where I could put my harness on, and I was lucky that it was possible at all, and that was with only minor injuries.
The real problem is getting wedged in the bottom of the crevasse. I was lucky to not have gotten wedged very badly, but it was tight enough to really open my eyes, and I realize now how extremely, extremely difficult it might be to move in a tightly wedged position. If you are tightly wedged, the chance of managing to clip a locking 'biner onto your belay loop with one hand, is much, much better than trying to tie the rope around your waist.


I have often used my ice-tool umbilicals while walking on glaciers, and this accident has confirmed to me that it is a good idea. Anytime you are in a crevasse, your ice tools will be very useful to you, and if you happen to be by yourself, your ice tools provide your only significant chance of self-rescue (aside from perhaps aiding off of two ice screws). In my crevasse fall, I completely dropped both of my ski poles during the fall, despite having wrist loops on my wrists. I think the chance of dropping your ice tools out of your hands during a crevasse fall is really high, and using umbilicals will make you much more likely to still have ice tools when you stop falling.


Like wearing skis or not, realistically, we will all decide to wear crampons or not depending on the snow conditions. If I had been wearing crampons when I fell in the crevasse the chance might have been higher of breaking my ankles, but this incident has made me realize how extremely advantageous it would have been to have them on my feet already. If not on your feet, your crampons should be at the very top of your backpack, not buried in the very bottom. Also, it goes without saying that you should ALWAYS have your crampons adjusted to your boots before you leave home, since many of use switch between different pairs of boots - don't just throw them in your pack and plan to adjust them in the bottom of a crevasse!


When most of us finish the rappels off of a face and get ready to slog across a glacier back towards home, we are very eager to take our helmets off. I'm sure I will very rarely ever carry a helmet solely for crevasse hazard, but if you are carrying a helmet anyways (for the technical climbing), then you might as well carry it on your head if you can stand wearing it a bit longer.


I have always felt that being an experienced technical climber would be advantageous in a crevasse fall scenario, and this incident confirms that theory for me. My crampon-less ice chimneying up to the ice fin felt like mid 5.11. Even if you are roped up, I have no doubt that a strong technical climber will be much faster and more competent at simply prussiking up a skinny rope (especially if he/she has any broken limbs). And, obviously, if you are by yourself, then being able to solo vertical ice is pretty much your only chance of getting out.


Any un-roped crevasse falls are really, really sketchy and not a good idea! It is obviously most prudent to follow The Mountaineers' advice, and simply always be roped up on every glacier. I wanted to share my conclusions simply because I know there are many people such as myself who travel on glaciers unroped at times, and some of these conclusions you wouldn't be taught during a typical glacier travel course. Reader beware though, this is sketchy stuff, and while I mention it casually in this discussion, the thought of taking a crevasse fall while by yourself is REALLY SCARY STUFF!

          Hosias (Yehoshua Heshel) Lemky        
Hosias Lemky was born in 1853 in Windau (Ventspils) Courland (Latvia).
He died in 1942 in Berlin, Germany.

He was a son of Leib (Lewin) and Rasche Lemky of Windau (Ventspils).
See separate article on the Lemky family.

Lemky family census, Windau, 1850.

Windau (Ventspils), Latvia.

According to his grandson, Hosias Lemky was a Cantor at the Adass Jisroel Synagogue in Berlin. He was not a rabbi, but was very religious and scholarly. He also functioned as gabbai taking care of many of the administrative functions of the community and caring for the synagogue appertances such as the silver Torah crowns.

The Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary was attached to the Adass Jisroel Synagogue, Artillerie Strasse, Berlin and Hosias also carried out administrative tasks at the seminary.

Hosias disapproved of his son Simon's plans to emigrate to Eretz Yisrael. Hosias was a member of the ultra-orthodox organisation Agudat Yisrael, one faction of which believed that Jews should stay in Germany to ensure the continuation of the community.

Simon was imprisoned in Oranienberg Concentration Camp on Krystalnacht in 1938. Friends managed to have him released and he got to Eretz Yisrael.

Hosias was very wealthy and had 230,000 Reichsmarks in the bank. Even though conditions for the Jews were very bad after the Nazis came to power in 1933, Hosias refused to save himself by leaving the country.

Officials of the synagogue including Lemky.

Before the Second World War Hosias and his wife lived at Berlin-Charlottenburg, Marburger Str.5. During the Nazi period they had to move to Berlin-Wilmersdorf, Joachimsthaler Str. 13.They lived in one room and as most of the Jews of Berlin were deported to the extermination camps in the East, the Lemkys had to fend for themselves. Soon no one came to help the elderly couple and they had very little food.

In March 1942 Hosias died in the Jewish Hospital from illness and malnutrition.

Testimony Page at Yad Vashem.

Six months later the Nazis came for his wife and deported her to Theresienstadt Concentration Camp in Czechosovakia where she refused to eat non-Kosher food and died a month later.

Information from "Stiftung Neue Synagoge Berlin, Centrum Judaicum" August 28, 2003:

"We found a Hosias Lemky, born Nov. 3rd 1853 in Windau (Latvia) who worked at the Israelitsche Synagogengemeinde Adass Jisroel as "Vorbeiter und Kantor". He died March 24 1942 in Berlin. His wife Helene (Lenne) Lemky nee Graumann, born July 22nd 1855 Kamin (West Prussia) was deported to Theresienstdt on Sept 14th 1942 where she died a month later. Their address was Berlin-Charlottenburg, Marburger Str. 5. She had to move later, so her last address before deportation was Berlin-Wilmersdof, Joachimsthalter Str. 13. Probably their son Simon Lemky, last address in Berlin: Marburger Str. 5 went to Palestine."

"Adass Jisroel Die Judische Geneinde in Berlin (1869-1942)" by Mario Offenberg:

“Helene Lemky, nee Graumann, born 22-7-1855 in Kamen
Lastly living in Berlin-Charlottenburg, Joachimtaler Strasse 13,
with the Family Friedmann. On 8 September 1942 she had received
in the Artillerie Strasse 31 from the Court official in Berlin-Schoenberg the
orders from the Gestapo and she was six days later on 14 September 1942
deported to Theresienstadt as an 87 year old, with the so called "Second
Large Old People Transport" (1000 persons).
Her son Simon was then in Palestine.

Her husband Hosias Lemky, born 3 Nov 1853 in Windau, was second Cantor in
Adass Jisroel (responsible for the Weekday services in the Synagogue in
the Artillerie Strasse 31), he died on 24 march 1942 in the Jewish
Hospital in Wedding, Iranische Strasse. The address of the couple until the
death of Hosias was Marburger Strasse 5.
According to the burial card Hosias Lemky did not die the 24th, but already
the 23rd of March 1942 and was buried on 26-3-42 at the Cemetery of Adass
Jisroel in Berlin-Weissensee, Part D, Row 1a, grave number 14."

Memoirs of Siegried Wollheim (in the above book):

"First Chazan Keiles was besides his official work also a sought after "Mohel"
and on many weekdays he saved us from the Tahanun prayer (which
is not said at a "Brit Milah"). Very loved was also Mr. Lemke, especially
when here cited with a resounding voice from the Torah before "Minchah" .
The Esra had brought the Adass much closer to me, especially in the
Artilleriestrasse. Every second day Yom Tov I went in the afternoon to
the Esra-events from Charlottenburg to the Artileristrasse, first to
minchah, and I often remember the last Kaddish, the prayer of sorrow,
of the second Chazan, Mr.Lemky, on the last holiday in the melody of
the High Holidays, when he thundered out the prayer with his bass-voice."

Hosias Lemky lived in an apartment within the synagogue. A neighbouring apartment was occupied by Rabbi Dr. Moshe Auerbach who taught at the Rabbinical Seminary. He settled in Petah Tikvah, Israel. His son, Shmuel Auerbach recalled Hosias Lemky with affection. In particular he recalled that Hosias took groups of youth from the community for hikes in the forest and used to lead them singing his favourite tunes.

Hosias had the following children:

Simon (died 1948 in Petah Tikvah, Israel).
Julius (1874-1934), lived in the USA.
David Paul Gunther (1977-1942) lived in Hamburg, Germany.
Leopold (1880-1935), ,lived in Berlin, Germany.

Hosias Lemky was a brother of Frederika (Freda), wife of Tzvi-Benyamin Kvint of Letskava, Lithuania, parents of Yoel-Yehudah (Julius) Quint (1863-1938) father of Khaya-Reeva (Annie) Freedman (1885-1967), father of Yaakov-Reuven (John Ronald) Freedman (1910-1999), father of Chaim Freedman, author this blog.

          Dimantshtein Family        
The Dimantshtein family originated in Polotsk, Belarus and moved to various towns in Latvia: Rekekne (Rezhitza), Daugavpils (Dinaburg/Dvinsk), Riga, Karsava (Korsovka), Ludza (Lutzin). The family were Leviim.

The family were Chabad Chassidim in Latvia. They were quite prosperous trading in flax, timber and fish. One branch of the family set up a fishery in Aberdeen, Scotland. Some changed the name to Diamond.The earliest generation which has been traced in archival records was Zev Wulf Halevy Dimantshtein, born about 1770 In Polotsk and died before 1839. His children were Greinen, Eliyahu and Moshe.

Eliyahu was born about 1800 and died before 1885. His children were David, Avraham, Shmuel and Zev-Wulf.

Documents in Latvian archives including the 1889 list of Jews who lived in the rural areas of Lutzin district: David Dimantshtein, born in 1823 in Polotsk, moved to Korsovka in 1872 from Rezhitza. He must have moved at an earlier date from Polotsk to Rezhitza. He is described in this list as a merchant. According to family tradition he and his wife operated an inn on the outskirts of Korsovka. The circumstances which led to his burial in Lutzin rather than Korsovka are not known. The birthdates and birthplaces of his children are estimated. Information about some of his family taken from a family drawn up in England in 1948 by Norman Nygate.

Tombstone of David, son of Eliyahu Halevy Dimantshtein, Ludza 1901.
(Photographed by Aleksanders Feigmanis, Riga).

Vulf, (son of Elyash) was born in 1839 Polotsk, and moved to Korsovka in 1878.Vulf 's children: Abram, Elye, Treina, Dveira, Liba, Itka, Musya. All born between 1869-1885.

David’s wife was Keila-Tsirel. Her parentage is not known but Genetic testing revealed matches with several families such that she may have been related to families in the Vitebsk region such as Popkovitch, Leviyan (Gamerov), and others. Keila Tsirel was a short woman who had very definite views about bringing up her family. She wanted her daughter Rivka to know how to milk a cow so she had the maid Marfa teach Rivka. David and Keila-Tsirel were wealthy farmers and publicans, operating an inn on the outskirts of Korsovka. Once an inspector paid a visit to the inn and while sampling the food found an insect in a bun. Anxious to save her parents from prosecution, Rivka ate the bun quickly claiming that the insect was only a raisin.

The family developed widespread trading enterprises supplying the markets in the capital Riga with timber and flax for which trade they held a license. They also marketed herring on a large scale caught in the lakes near Lutzin. These business enterprises took several sons to live in Riga, in particular Tsvi-Hersh and from there expanded the trade to England in the late 1870’s which led to several members of the family settling there from 1880.

David and Keila-Tsirel's children were:

1) Zissa (c.1844-1932) married Pesakh Gordin and lived in Berzpils.

2) Yehudah Leib c.1848 - 1917 Korsovka.

3) Tsvi Hersh 1850 -1930 Riga.

4) Rivka (Rashka/Rebecca) 1851 or 1856-1834 married Mordekhai Zev Vulf (Max) Bull 1853-1931 London (see separate article).

5) Reuven c.1852, died 1934 London.

6) Zev Vulf 1856-1920 Korsovka.

7) Getzel c.1857-1890 Korsovka.

8) Moshe (Marks) 1860 - 1942 London.

9) Yeshaya c.1860 - 1933 London.

10) Zalman (Solomon) 1865 -1937 New York.

11) Meir, b.1865 never married, Riga.

12) Barukh . Identity unclear. According to Patricia Levitsky's history of the family, Barukh was a brother of her grandmother Rivka Bull. But Llyoyd Nygate's family tree does not include Barukh. He may have been a brother-in-law to Rivka's husband Max Bull, the husband of his sister.

1) Zissa and Pesakh Gordin lived in Berzpils and lost many of their family in the Holocaust. Their son Yaakov-Zev-Wulf settled in Korsovka where he was killed by the Nazis together with his children Raisa, Zalman and Mikhail. The surviving children Liuba Kalinkov, Gitta Tsiplevitch and Pesakh-Eliyahu settled in Israel. Zissa’s sons Mendel and Dan also perished in Berzpils. Mendel’s son Aba Gordin survived and lived in Korsovka. He possessed a Sefer Torah and took upon himself to organize religious servives for the small community that survived the Holocaust

2) Yehudah-Leib’s son Moshe-Eliyahu operated the family trade from Riga, settling in Lodon in the 1920’s where he opened a wooden barrel factory importing timber from Riga. He married his cousin Sonya, daughter of his uncle Getzel Dimantshtein.

3) Tzvi- Hersh left his hometown Korsovka and moved to Riga to engage in business. He became wealthy and started the Dimantshtein export business to England of herring, timber and flax. With the expansion of this business a number of his relatives immigrated to England. Tzvi’ son Bernard travelled to Aberdeen, Scotland to conduct his father's business and opened a fish processing plant and a factory to produce barrels from the timber his father exported from Riga. The barrels were sent back to Riga, filled with herring, and exported back to Scotland. Bernard changed his surname to Diamond.

4) Rivka – see separate article “Mordekhai-Zev (Max) Bull”.

Mordekhai-Zev and Rivka Bull, 50th Wedding Anniversary, London 1922.

5) Reuven
According to Maurice Bull's memoirs Reuven was very tall, over six feet, and had a large spade beard. He was a very excitable man who once reacted violently to an anti-Semitic remark made in the street. He was a furrier and settled in England in 1897.

Reuven’s son Yehudah-Leib was killed in the Arab riots of 1929 while working in the Diskin orphanage in Jerusalem.

Details of his death appear in “Yizkor Am Yisrael et Kedushei Tarpat” (Berzin and Weiss, Jerusalem 1930).
Literal translation from Hebrew:

“Yehudah-Leib Dimantshtein of blessed memory was born in 1880 in Russia to his father Reb Reuven Halevy. Yehudah-Leib was educated on the knees of Torah and Chabad Chassidism. However, when he was still young, at the age of seventeen, and desirous of expanding and completing his knowledge of religious learning, his studies were stopped. Because of his bad material situation his father was obliged to emigrate with his family to London. Here Yehudah-Leib bore the yoke together with his father of supporting the family. He worked initially at simple physical labour, afterwards learnt a trade and lived by it for many years. At the same time he `strove in the dust at the feet of the wise’, learnt with the Gaon Moshe-Avigdor Chaikin. In his spare time he also laboured for the community, involved in the needs of various societies and institutions. All those years since arriving in London his mind was occupied with his aspiration to settle in Eretz Yisrael. But the obstacles he encountered were too great for him.

At last Yehudah-Leib overcame all the obstacles and emigrated to Eretz Yisrael in 1922. Upon arriving in the country Yehudah-Leib managed to find work in Jerusalem. He was one of the happy of the world, the sparks of his soul reached a single perfection. He lived by the labour of his hands in Jerusalem, approaching starvation from his meager bread, praying daily with the community of Chabad, set aside hours for Torah.

But his work did not leave him much time. Long periods of want arrived. In the years of depression in the country, 1926-1927, economic deprivation reached the house of Yehudah-Leib, reached its limits. Lacking everything, his father in his letters demanded that he return to London and they would make a living together. “Your son should not go down together with you [to the grave] “ was Yehudah-Leib’s answer. In the end he went to work at the Diskin Orphanage. He carried out his work faithfully and diligently. While he was attending the orphans of the institution he was obliged to add to them his son, aged four, who was orphaned from his mother who died at the beginning of 5689 [1929] in a car accident.

On Friday 17th of Av, during an attack by Arabs on the Rabbi Diskin Orphanage in the suburb Givat Shaul, Yehudah-Leib was severely wounded. Four days he lay struggling with the suffering of death. He passed away on Monday 20th Av.”

Yehudah-Leib’s first wife died in London and he remarried in Jerusalem Minna Moseieff of an old Hebron family related to the Lubavitcher Rebbe. Their only son Avraham was born in 1925. In 1977 attempts were made to trace this son and an elderly official of the Diskin Orphanage related that there was tension between Yehudah-Leib and Minna. She demanded a divorce which Yehudah-Leib refused. During a visit to Jerusalem by the Lubavitcher Rebbe Yosef-Yitskhak Shneerson, attempts were made to persuade Yehudah-Leib to give the divorce. The Rebbe summoned him to the Amdursky Hotel and commanded him to grant the divorce. But Yehudah-Leib refused. The situation reached a tragic end with the death of Minna in a car accident on the 17th of Shevat 5689 [1929]. Both Minna and Yehudah-Leib are buried in the Chabad section of the cemetery on the Mount of Olives. The orphan son, Avraham grew up and lived with his family in Beersheva under the Hebrew form of his surname “Yahalomi”.

6) Zev Wulf (also known as Velvel), born 1856, died 1920 in Korsovka.
Operated a farm on the outskirts of Korsovka, perhaps the property which belonged to his father David. This was located near the Jewish cemetery near “Naudas Kalns” the infamous site of the massacre of the Jews in 1941.

Eda - U.S.A.
Shmuel (1882-1943 Siberia),
Getzel (died in Russian exile)
Avraham (killed in Korsovka in 1941)
Eliyahu (died in Kokand in 1942),
David , Haifa
Yekhezkel or Khatzkel, Kfar Blum.
Gershon (killed in the Holocaust)
Seeka (killed while serving in the Latvian army).

Zev Wulf’s son Shmuel
Escaped with his wife across the Latvian/Russian border when the Germans invaded Latvia. Perished from the rigours of life in exile in Siberia.

Family of Shmuel Dimantshetin, Korsovka c. 1934

Shmuel’s son Eizik survived the Riga Ghetto and was deported to Stuthoff concentration camp.

Eizik Dimantshtein, Israel 1987.

The few survivors were evacuated to Sweden and liberated en route when the war ended May 8, 1945. Eizik lived for several years in Sweden and then immigrated to Israel where he worked as an engineer. He provided considerable material about his family. The following are excerpts (translated from Hebrew and Yiddish) of an interview in 1987 by Chaim Freedman, published in "The Pen and The Blade".

“My grandfather Velvel was married first to Gitta and then to Minna by whom he had four sons. We are Leviim and Chassidim. In our township there were two or three synagogues for the Chassidim and two or three for the Misnagdim. My grandfather and grandmother lived not far from the cemetery and all the time one had to pass their house.
In our township on Simkhat Torah the Chassidim would open the large oven and take out the Tsimmes and walk from house to house. It was a jolly time. That was the way with the Chassidim. The Misnagdim did not act that way. In our town was a secondary school where you could matriculate. Then I served for two and a half years in the Latvian army. Due to the anti-bourgeois feeling in Korsovka after the Soviet takeover in 1940 I went to Riga to work. There my sisters and brother were studying at the university. On the first day of the occupation Zhenia and Gitta were rounded up with large numbers of women, herded to the central prison and killed. Volinka was taken with men to the forest and killed. I was saved since the place where I was living was not included in the roundup.

I was actually in Riga when the war started as were two uncles Getzel and Eliyahu, sisters Zhenia, Gitta and brother Volinka (Zev-Wulf). In Korsovka remained my father Shmuel and Avraham. My father was engaged in the forest trade, timber, produce and flax. He would buy from the peasants and ship to Riga. They called it a “Handler In Vald’. Flax was a rich and honorable trade in Latvia. One needed a government license.

My parents lived in Korsovka with my sister Rivka and they fled as soon as the war started. Those who remained in Korsovka were rounded up and killed. I think Avraham was one of those killed. My father died in Kokand in 1943 of typhus. My mother with Rivka returned to Riga after the war.

I worked in the Riga Ghetto in a factory. When I asked a gentile Latvian from Korsovka about the fate of the Jews there he told me “All the Jews in Korsovka were shot like dogs.” I heard afterwards that they rounded them up in a side street, took all of them, once they had prepared pits in the forest, it was not far from where grandfather had lived, called Naudas Kalns, the “Hill of Silver” and killed them all.

In Riga there were 40,000 Jews, In the Ghetto there were 30,000 until they killed 25,000. 5,000 remained in the “Small Ghetto” and I was amongst them. We worked in the railway freight station. Wagons would arrive. I was supposed to be specialist as I was one of the 600 Jews who were called craftsmen and so they looked after us. We worked there until the Russians approached Riga and then the Germans evacuated us. They came at night and put us in a store and told everyone to undress. In the middle sat one at a table and they called us by the numbers which everyone bore and he had to present himself, that is to run naked with hands in the air and to turn around. Then he would say right or left. They wanted to take the healthiest men who had no blemish on their bodies. That was why we had to turn around. To the right was life; to the left was the world to come.

So they evacuated us to Stutthof near Danzig. They acted relatively better to us because we were specialists and went to work where the railway passed by. Then I saw the crematorium. A German walked with a piece of white chalk in his pocket. In the summer there was no work. They walked around the yards, the German looking around. Whoever didn’t walk well he drew an “X” with chalk on their back. These were sent to the crematorium. We worked for about a half or three quarters of a year. Then the Russians once again approached and they evacuated us. Then I saw the destruction that they had wrought. Mountains and mountains of bodies. That was then the evacuation. Again the Russians approached Danzig and bombed Stutthof and the Germans didn’t want to leave us. I was sick with typhus. That was on the 25th of April. We felt that at any moment the whole business would be over. As is known the war ended May 8th. I had a temperature of 41°. I was in the clinic. There was an epidemic. To my good fortune and that of another Jew (his name was Shmuel and he settled in Australia) we were the first to catch typhus. To my good fortune, what do I mean? They took us to the clinic. Later the Goyim also got sick and then they didn’t take Jews any more to the clinic. All the Jews who had typhus were put in a barrack and it was burned down. I remember that I was on the third floor. Some officers wanted to run away. One said “We are leaving them here.”
We thought “Thank G-d”. I had no more strength. But in the morning came an announcement: they are taking us with them.

We were a few kilometers from the Baltic Sea. There was no port and ships could not approach. People who were sick and could not manage the four kilometers were told: “Don’t worry – stay here and we will take you.” I, after four years in concentration camps, knew about their favours. I went down with difficulty and walked. Those who remained were all shot. Between 27-29th April we embarked on a motor less ship which was towed. What is meant by “embarked” ?. The ship was 100-150 metres from the shore. They placed a narrow bridge of boards. Sick people had to make it. They fell and they killed them. I succeeded; I had been as strong as an ox. I got inside. There we sailed until May 8th. They wanted to take us because if we weren’t with them they would be sent to the front. They wanted to take us to a Baltic port, but everywhere were either the English or the Americans. Until May 8th we sailed on the sea and then the war ended. It is possible to write thousands of pages on the Hell which was there. If there is a Hell then it is a Paradise compared to the Hell which was there. They put in four times the number of people for whom there was space. One on top of the other. Whoever had strength lay on those who hadn’t. At night shouts of Hell were heard from the people who were dying. In the morning the SS came and lowered a rope from above for those who had died to be tied and hauled up top. They slit their stomachs with a knife so that the bodies wouldn’t be washed up, and threw them overboard. On May 8th the German team shouted: “the war is over and you can come out” and they fled.

On the 12th of May we reached port in Sweden. There were journalists who photographed us. The wounds will never heal. Twenty to twenty five years came the dreams at night. One cannot forget.”

Zev’s son Eliyahu’s daughter Luba Teitelbaum (Netanya, Israel) described the Nazi invasion of Riga in July 1941. When the Germans invaded the Russians left quickly. Her husband had worked for them and so was given a pass for his family. The Germans occupied half of Riga while the other side of the river Dvina was still held by the Russians so that those who had influence could escape. Liuba and her family travelled by Gorky and then to Kokand in Uzkekistan. Her parents also got passes and joined them. Her younger brother Shmuel was in hospital in the German part of the city and he was killed. Her sister Zelda’s little boy was in kindergarten in the occupied zone. He was trapped and killed there. In Korsovka relations with the Latvians had been reasonable. But as soon as the Germans invaded the Latvians started a pogrom. The daughter of the rabbi had escaped on foot, but having forgotten something returned and was killed in the street. One German resident Pankiewitz had married a Jewish girl. He saved his wife and her family in a secret chamber he had built in his house. He hid other Jews there including, it is thought, Marita the daughter of Getzel Dimantshtein. But she left and was presumed to be killed. Liuba’s father Eliyahu died of illness and deprivation in Kokand in 1942. Her mother and sisters returned to Riga after the war where her mother died in 1947. Liuba and Zelda settled in Israel. Her uncle Getzel died of disease in the Russian exile together with his son Pavel. Her uncle Avraham before the war travelled to London but returned to Korsovka where he was killed. Likewise her half-uncle Gershon was killed. Her half-uncle Seeka was killed serving in the Latvian army.

Liuba also recalled stories of the period before the Revolution. There were three incidents in Korsovka. On one occasion Russian soldiers from one of the warring sides burst into her uncle Shmuel Dimantshtein’s house. Liuba nd Eizik were terrified and sneaked through the crowd in the living room to the kitchen where they escaped to Christian neighbours. Shmuel’s house was looted and many valuables stolen. On another occasion her father Eliyahu and family took shelter with Christian neighbours who disguised them in peasant clothes. Russian marauders came and demanded to be told which shops in town had liquor and tobacco. They didn’t recognize Eliyahu as a Jew and asked him “Are there any Zhids ?” He replied that there weren’t. Liuba recalls seeing a Jew shot in the street. In 1920 Eliyahu and Getzel and their families moved to Riga. After the Second World War Liuba returned to Korsovka for a visit. She found most Jewish houses destroyed except for those of her father and her uncle Shmuel. Also the Jewish cemetery was intact.

The Jewish cemetery of Korsovka was photographed for Chaim Freedman by researcher Aleksandrs Feigmanis of Riga. About 300 photographs are held by Chaim Freedman.

Likewise the Lutzin cemetery was photographed and the data can be seen on the Ludza/Karsava Internet site

Ludza cemetery photograph by Zeeva Levy (Israel)

7) Getzel ‘s son Shmuel (Sam Diamond) settled in London were he was in business. He married his cousin Devorah (Dora) daughter of his uncle Reuven Dimantshtein.

8) Moshe (Marks)
Held a government contract to supply black bearskin hats to the British army during the Boel War. He was a wealthy furrier who lived in large house in Hackney Downs. According to the 1891 London Census, he immigrated to London about 1880, thereby being the first of the Dimantshtein family to leave Latvia.

9) Shaya
Arrived in England about 1900. made a living as a tallyman (draper). He was a member of the Jewish Socialist Bund in Russia and an ardent Zionist in England. He wrote a ballad in memory of the victims of the Kishinev pogrom in 1903. Shaya was an active Shadkhan (matchmaker) in London. On one occasion he believed that his grandniece Betty Sagon was possessed of a Dybuk (evil spirit) so he carried out a Kabbalistic ceremony of excorsism. Shaya had a tenor voice and acted as a Khazan on the festivals. He played the violin at family celebrations. At one family wedding (possibly Dora Bull's) he danced the Russian Kazatchka and died of a heart attack at the age of seventy three. After his death his widow went to South Africa to join their only daughter.

Other Dimantshteins included the Shokhet Khaim Dimantshtein and his son Nakhum who perished in the Holocaust in Rezekne. Shneur-Zalman Dimantshtein was a butcher in Korsovka, Several of his children survived the Holocaust by fleeing to Rostov. A grandson David settled in Israel in 1972. The Soviet Komissar Shimon Dimantshtein was born in Sebezh but it is not know if he was related.

Dimantshteins in London 1905; possibly Reuven and Shaya.

          Mordekhai Zev (Max) Bull        
The origins of the Bull family are unclear. The earliest records in Latvia show them in the town Lewenhoff (now Livani) in the Dvinsk/Denaburg (now Daugavpils) district. There was a Bull family living in Nikolsburg, Moravia in the 17th century with later generations living in Amsterdam, Holland. It is known that a ship bearing Jews from Holland, who were on their way to settle in Lithuania, sunk off the Baltic coast in 1692. This may account for the movement of Dutch Jews to Lithuania and Latvia, including perhaps ancestors of the Bull family.

The earliest Bull recorded in Lewenhoff was Ruven Bull, born about 1760. His son Zev-Wulf Bull was the father of Nakhum-Dov

The 1858 Revision List in Dvinsk records him as Nokhem Wulfovitch Bull aged 36. In his household appear his brothers Efraim (drafted 1849), Wulf aged 30 (name must be an error as he could not have borne the same name as his father), and Aba aged 20 (with his wife Lea aged 22), his wife Rokhlya aged 37, his daughter Hanna.

The 1875 Family List of Dvinsk records him as Nakhman Wulfovitch Bull. He also appears in 1872 in the Hebrew newspaper Hamagid as a donor in a list of Jews living in the `Alt Plan' part of Dvinsk as `Ber Bull'. In the same list appears `Yehuda Leib Bull' who may have been his brother.

Nakhum-Dov was the father of of Mordekhai-Zev-Wulf Bull.

According to the 1889 list of Jews who settled in rural areas of Ludza district, Mordekhai was born in Levenhoff, moved to Dinaburg (Dvinsk, Daugavpils), then moved to Korsovka (Karsava) in 1881.

Mordekhai Zev's age as recorded in Latvian records conflicts with the 1901 London census and the age on his tombstone which states that he was aged eighty three at his death in 1931. That would mean he was born in 1848 whereas the Latvian records indicate he was born in 1854.

Mordekhai-Zev Bull, London 1922.

Mordekhai-Zev was a Chabad Chassid who combined the spiritualism of the Lubavich tradition with a strong Litvak leaning to study. His grandson Rabbi Arthur-Saul Super described him as “a Chassid with the heart of a Litvak”. He was one of the first Chabad Chassidim to settle in London at the beginning of the twentieth century. There he was associated with another Chabadnik, Rabbi Moshe-Avigdor Chaiken in many communal endeavors.

The Bulls were soundly established in London, both communally and economically. Their home in 73 Evering Road, Stoke Newington was renowned as a centre of scholarship and the leaders of the ultra-orthodox community frequently visited to study with Mordekhai-Zev. Grandpa Bull as he was known to the family played the role of the strict patriarch. He was an imposing figure, immaculately dressed in a frock coat and high black Yarmulka (skullcap). He and his wife Rivka brought up their family in the joyous tradition of Lubavich, while insisting on devotion to study by his sons. His tombstone refers to him as “Mimetzuyanei Chasidei Chabad” (one of the excellent Chabad Chassidim).
But he lived very much in the modern world and engaged in the fur trade with his sons as "M. Bull and Sons, furriers” in Kingsford Road, London.

Mordekhai’s wife was Rivka (Rebecca), was born in 1852 to David Halevy and Keila-Tsirel Dimantshtein from Korsovka. See separate article about the Dimantshtein family.

Rivka Bull (nee Dimantshtein), London 1922.

Rivka Bull was a matriarchal figure, She was very active in communal affairs, as recorded on her tombstone. She was a founder of the Stepney Jewish Hospital and supported many charities in England and in Eretz Yisrael. Whilst being very religious she had many modern practices: she often rebelled against wearing a Sheitel, wore lipstick and smoked a pipe! Rumour had it that she wanted to be an opera singer since she had a beautiful voice. Her parents were horrified at the suggestion and quickly arranged the match with the Talmudic student Mordekhai-Zev Bull. Relations between them were strained throughout their marriage. But they hosted their many children and grandchildren on many joyous occasions such as their Golden Wedding in 1922 and often sixty relatives sat down to Seder on Pesach.

Rebecca and Max Bull, Golden Wedding 1922, London, with Golden Chanukiah presented by their family.

The Bulls had ten children:

Yehudah-Leib (Leon) (1873-1955) who was the first of the family to settle in London about 1894.

Haska (Sarah) (1876-1975) who married Elias Germain and lived in New York.

Avraham (Ephraim) (1877-1974).
Mendel (Emanuel) (c.1881-1871).

Leah (Lena) (1881-1945) who married Rabbi Yitskhak-Yaakov Super and lived in Melbourne, Australia (see separate article).

Chaya (Annie) (1883-1972) who married David Gold.

Elka ( Alice) (1884-1969 who married David Felkov .

Eliezer (Laurie) (1889-1974).

Devorah (Dora) ( 1892-1985) who married Maurice Sagon.

Moshe (Maurice) (1895-1980).

Leon and Emanuel Bull, London

Sarah And Elias Germain, New York.

Leon and Betsy Bull, London.

Lena (nee Bull) and Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super, Evercreech, England c. 1914.
Immigrated to Melbourne, Australia in 1914.

Mordekhai-Zev Bull, died on the 10th Kislev 5692 (19th November 1931).
He was buried in the Montague Road Federation Cemetery, Edmonton, London

"Here is interred
The venerable, honourable,outstanding
in Torah and wonderful in Chassidut,
Naked in the Fear of Heaven one of the excellent of Chabad Chassidim
The R(abbi) Mordekhai-Zev
son of Nakhum Dov of blessed memory Bull.
Passed away at a good old age
in the 83rd year of his life,
Thursday 10th of the month of Kislev
May his soul be bound up in the bond of everlasting life"

His grandson Arthur Saul Super (later Rabbi) wrote to his parents in Melbourne:

“He died like a grand old Jewish gentleman, full of years and honour. An hour before he died he discussed where certain words we were using appeared in the Bible. The funeral was a wonderful tribute to the man and his influence. He was taken to the Montague Road Shool where the Talmud Torah pupils were all drawn up as a guard of honour. Rabbi Abraham Witkind from a town in Latvia delivered a Hesped. During the week of Shiva the Gedolei Dor paid him honour, including Dayan Milman, the Trische Rebbe, Rabbi Kirsner, Rabbi Witkind, Rabbi Jacob Rabinovich”.

An obituary published in the Jewish Chronicle stated:

“North London Jewry has sustained a severe loss by the death of Mr. Marks Bull on Friday last. The deceased was a man of great learning and charm, and his life was one of unflinching loyalty to Orthodox Judaism. A number of institutions, particularly the Dalston Talmud Torah, owe much to his active support. He was one of the founders of the Old Castle Street Synagogue and retained his membership to the end. He enjoyed the intimate friedship of the late Dayan A. Chaikin with whom he was associated in many a worthy endeavour.”

A classroom was donated by the family to the Talmud Torah in Amhurst Road and Dayan Dr. A. Feldman spoke at the dedication.

Rivka Bull died on the 11th of Cheshvan, 5695, 20th of October 1934.

Her tombstone at the Federation Cemetery, Montague Road, next to her husband reads:

“Many wrought valiantly and you rose higher than them all. In many institutions of Torah and Prayer, charity and care, you acquired for yourself a name and a memorial in the country and outside it. This is the pious, intellectual, and generous of spirit and heart, doer of good deeds for the maintenance of Yeshivot, Talmud Torahs, synagogues and Study Houses, institutions of charity and care overseas and in the Holy land”.

Bull Family Reunion, England, 1985

          Pruning the Super Family Tree        
Pruning the Super Family Tree.
September, 2008
Chaim Freedman

(Click on documents and photos to enlarge)

When I began to research the history of the Super family in the mid-1970’s to trace the family tree, the contemporary generations of the family living in Australia and England were the only members of the family known to me. Whilst I knew that there were many relatives in South Africa and some in Canada, there had been no contact with them for many years. Indeed, even when contact was re-established, the diverse branches of the family were not aware of the exact relationships between them.

In the mid 1980’s Norman Super, living in Melbourne and originally from South Africa, sent me a family tree compiled by elderly relatives in South Africa whilst attending a family celebration, probably in the early 1970's. This clarified many connections and as each new source came to light, the family tree began to take shape. The various branches were assumed to belong to a common trunk, with a common ancestor named Shmuel. At the time archival records in the Former Soviet Union were not available to confirm this theoretical tree, based on oral history. With the fall of that State valuable and relevant material pertaining to the family was discovered in Latvia.


The above is a condensed version of the tree.
This tree shows five siblings as the children of Shmuel Super. One of the siblings is indicated by a blank space above the name of “Samuel m Daphnie”. These were supposed to be the parents of Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super of Melbourne. “Daphnie” was not his mother’s name; it was Khaya Minna. Apparently the elders of the family in South Africa who put together this tree did not know the name of this presumed sibling of the ancestors of their respective branches of the family.

Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super, Evercreech, England c.1912

The earliest name known to the Australian Supers was Shmuel, the father of Rabbi Yitskhak-Yaakov. He and his wife Khaya-Minna lived in the small town of Korsovka now called Karsava, in Latvia. The region was until the Russian Revolution of 1917 part of the Russian Empire in the eastern part of Vitebsk Gubernia (government) known as Latgale (or Lettland). Since Yitskhak Yaakov had left his parents' home in Korsovka at the age of twenty-one and settled in England, he had little opportunity to hear from his father information about his family's origins, nor did he get to know his many relatives who lived in the neighbouring town Lutzin, where in fact he had been born. Such was also the case for his brother Yosef who also settled in England at an early age.

Khaya-Minna, Fruma and Shmuel Super c.1905, Korsovka, Latvia.

In a letter (in Hebrew) written in 1960 Yitskhak-Yaakov Super answers his son Rabbi Dr. Arthur Saul Super, then living in South Africa, who asks him about the relationships among the family Arthur met in South Africa. Yitskhak Yaakov explains that he left his home town as a young teenager in order to study and then worked as a Shokhet in a number of towns until he left Latvia aged twenty-one:

“It is nearly fifty-nine years since I left Korsovka and how can I remember the Supers, but you can tell them that all the family who you met or who you will meet are not only relatives, but are flesh and blood to us. About Mr. Benjamin who is close to seventy three years old, if his name in Hebrew is Benyamin son of Reb Shmuel Sholem, he would be our second cousin.”
At the time of my original research I did not know who this person was and so made no use of this information until 2003 when I received photographs of many of the tombstones in the Jewish cemetery in Korsovka, including that of Shmuel-Sholem.

One earlier generation of the Australian and English branch was available, derived from the Korsovka tombstone inscription of Shmuel Super, Yitskhak-Yaakov’s father. A photograph of the grave was sent to Australia by Shmuel's son Khatzkel (his full name was Yekhezkel and he also appears in the picture) taken after the death of Shmuel in Korsovka in 1928. Since Hebrew names appearing on a tombstone also include the father's name, it was established that Shmuel's father was called Yosef-Yehoash. The name Yehoash is very rarely used, although its Biblical origin stems from the righteous King of Judah, Yehoash who repaired and rededicated the Temple in Jerusalem.

Rabbi Arthur-Saul Super (Avraham-Shaul) told me of an oral tradition that there was an earlier ancestor, Rabbi Tuviah (Teviah) Super who he had heard had lived in Lutzin in the early nineteenth century. He had also been told that his ancestors had been Soferim (scribes) for many generations. This was in fact the origin of their surname, Super being a Russian corruption of the term Sofer, or it's Aramaic version Safra, being the usual designation of the official town scribe: `Safra Demata'.

Yet another item of oral history told to Arthur by relatives in South Africa was that an ancestor had written a Sefer Torah, which he had presented to the Baron Ginzburg who was in fact his cousin!

These sparse oral traditions formed the basis for extrapolating theoretical lines of descent. Firstly a record was found of one Teviah Super who held the position of Gabbai of the Great Synagogue in Lutzin. He was listed as one of the notables of Lutzin in “Yahadut Latvia” (Israel 1953), “Tevi Super, Gabbai of the Great Synagogue”.

This reference did not indicate when “Tevi” lived. However Magistrate records from 1897 found by Latvian researcher Aleksanders Feigmanis refer to a dispute involving Teviah Super Gabbai of the Alt Shule Mankov”. So the above reference to “Tevi Super” did not refer to an early ancestor of the entire Super family, mentioned by Rabbi Arthur Super according to family oral history in South Africa.

A connection with Tuviah/Tevi was thought to have been discovered in a book that had belonged to Yitskhak-Yaakov Super, thought to have been passed from earlier generations. This book was presented to me by my mother-in-law Edna Berliner (daughter of Yitskhak-Yaakov), but the significance of the inscriptions inside the front and rear covers eluded me for many years.

On the inside front cover is a faded inscription in Hebrew that is barely decipherable as a person's name written in Hebrew. Also in Latin characters appears the surname `Lichtenstein'. I thought that it was possible that there was a relationship with the rabbinic Lichtenstein family that flourished for several generations in Latvia.

On the inside back cover is an inscription in Yiddish and Hebrew:
"I was born on the 29th of Sivan in the year 5561”, the Hebrew year corresponding to 1801.
Above this inscription appear two words in very faded Russian script. The pages were photocopied and thereby it was possible to adjust the intensity of light and magnification so as to highlight the inscriptions. Whilst not all the letters were discernable, the missing one could be interpolated. The Russian script was a name: “Toviah Davidovich”

I thought that this was the Tuviah Super referred to by Arthur Super. Not only had his birth date been established, 1801, but his Russian patronymic provided the name of his father: David.

Based on this information, which in hindsight was tenuous, given that the book may not have belonged to the Super family at all, but had simply passed into their hands, I theorized that the sequence of the generations could be put together. Since Shmuel was born about 1850, his father Yosef-Yehoash would have been born about 1825. Since “Toviah Davidovich” was born in 1801, I thought he must have been the father of Yosef-Yehoash. This should then make David the common ancestor of the various siblings shown on Norman Super’s tree.

I then sought earlier ancestors. Once again family tradition gave clues in this direction: Firstly the origin of the surname having been derived from the function of a number of ancestors as Soferim (scribes); secondly the supposed relationship with the family of the Baron Ginzburg.

A history of the Ginzburg family (Toldot Mishpakhat Ginzburg, David Maggid, St.Petersburg 1899) traces many families either descended from or related to the Ginzburgs. Study of the relatives of the first Baron Ginzburg, namely Baron Yosef Ginzburg (1812-1878) reveals the family of his paternal grandmother Tybel She was a daughter of Rabbi Uri Sofer of Vilna (according to the 1784 Vilna census Tybel /Touba was Uri’s wife), who held the position of official scribe to that community, bearing the title ‘Safra Demata'. Such a functionary was skilled in handwriting Torah scrolls, Mezuzot, wedding and divorce certificates, and any other official documents required by the Jewish civil governing body, the Kahal. Rabbi Uri Sofer's father Rabbi Yaakov-Gavriel also held this position, as had his father Rabbi Tuviah Sofer and several earlier generations.

There is a recurrence in the above family of the names Uri, Tuviah and David.

Tuviah and David struck a bell in relation to the inscription “Toviah Davidovich”. Tuviah was also prevalent amongst the Super family of Lutzin. Bearing in mind that Baron Yosef Ginzburg and Yosef-Yehoash Super were, according to their birth dates, of the contemporary generation, and since they were reputed to be cousins (according to that oral tradition telling of the presentation of a Sefer Torah to the Baron), I thought that the familial link was through Rabbi Uri Sofer of Vilna. The common occupation as scribes in both families also correlates between them. Whilst specific records establishing this link were not found, an extensive study of the Ginzburg family tends to preclude any other explanation for the cousin relationship, if it was true. Bearing in mind the dates of each successive generation, appeared that the Super-Sofer-Ginzburg connection was that David Super (whose name was derived from the patronymic “Davidovich”) was a son of Uri Sofer of Vilna. This would have made the Baron Yosef Ginzburg and Yosef-Yehoash Super second cousins. Other sources that include information about the family of Soferim in Vilna are “Kiriah Neemanah” (Finn, Vilna 1860); “Ir Vilna” (Steinshneider, Vilna 1900) and Toldot Hakehilah Haivrit Bevilna (Klausner, Vilna 1935). The information in each of this is more or less consistent. However, in 2003 I acquired copies of the census taken in Vilna in 1765 and in 1784 and discovered that each of these books includes errors in the identities of some of the “Sofer” family.

When the political changes in the former Soviet Union led to the dissolution of that Union, archives were opened to the public and much material about Jewish families was found. A Jewish researcher living in Riga, Aleksanders Feigmanis, was commissioned by a descendant of the Super family, Robert Heyman, to trace records of the family. Feigmanis found a treasure of documents, in particular the “Revizsky Skaza” (Revision Lists, meaning census) for the years 1874 and 1897 for the town of Lutzin and the list from 1897 for Korsovka. The 1874 list from Korsovka appears to have been lost. Many family groups including several hundred members of the Super family appeared, allowing the compilation of the family tree.

The following is the census entry for “Super Yankel Shmuilov” and his family, including his Falkov grandchildren. This person was the “Yanchiel Havies” who appeared on Norman Super’s chart.

His tombstone in Korsovka confirms his full name and father’s name:

Here is interred
Our father the ………….
An honourable man
The dear, our teacher and Rabbi
Reb Yaakov Yehoash
Son of Reb Shmuel

The nickname “Havis” or “Heibish” was a derivative of the Hebrew name “Yehoash”. Since the grandfather of Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super was found from his tombstone to be Yosef-Yehoash, it became apparent that Yaakov-Yehoash and Yosef-Yehoash could not have been brothers as they bore the same name. Jerusalem genealogist the late Rabbi Shmuel Gorr shared his expertise in Jewish name derivatives thereby making a valuable contribute to the unraveling of the mysteries of the Super family tree. (See a joint article we wrote in “Search” Volume 8, #4, 1988). Likewise “Guta” and “Tevia” who appeared as brothers in the above tree also bore variations of the same Hebrew name “Tuviah” and therefore could not have been brothers. “Tuviah” is derived from the Hebrew for “good” so a Yiddish derivation was “Guta” or “Guttman” and Teviah is another derivative. As there were a number of Supers in Lutzin who bore the Hebrew name Tuviah, they were each known by variations or nicknames.
The 1874 and 1897 census from Lutzin showed that Guta or Guttman Super was a brother of Yankel-Heibish, sons of Shmuel, while Tevia was a son of Leib Super, another of Shmuel’s sons.

These family groups stemmed from four Supers who lived in Lutzin in the early nineteenth century: Shmuel, Yitskhak, Kivka and Leib Super. Three of these were found by Feigmanis in Magistrate records of Lutzin in the year 1837:

“February 3, 1837 citizens of Lutzin who trade in alcoholic drinks deposed the plaint to the city council of Lyutzin, where they complained of the abuses in taxation of the tax official Glinka. Among the names of the alcohol tradesmen mentioned were Shmuila Super, Leiba Super and Itzik Super”[1]

A list from 1863 of merchants in the towns of Vitebsk Province includes in Lutzin “Leibe Super”, without a patronymic.

Unfortunately this record does not include the patronymic of these three Supers. On the tree compiled in South Africa and sent to me by Norman Super, it was shown that Shmuel was the primogenitor of all the branches. No record has been found of a “Toviah Davidovich” Super in any documents. Not has his supposed son Yosef-Yehoash been located in the records of Lutzin or Korsovka, although his son “Shmuel Yoselov” (son of Yosef) appears in the 1897 Korsovka census:

click to enlarge
Feigmanis’ translation of the original Russian census in Korsovka in 1897.

Yitskhak-Yaakov Super does not appear among the children of Shmuel, either because he was away from home studying, or because he was liable for military service as the second born son.

My original assumption was that Tuviah (supposed father of Yosef-Yehoash) was another brother to Shmuel, Yitskhak (Itzik) and Leib, and that since Tuviah’s patronymic was “David” then David was the primogenitor of the family. Furthermore I proposed that the theoretic connection between the Supers of Lutzin and the Sofers of Vilna was that “David” was a son of Uri. This theoretical relationship seemed further strengthened since both Shmuel and Leib had sons called Tuviah, a named repeated in the Vilna family of Soferim.

It must be stated that at the time of the extraction of the Latvian archival material, no evidence was found for the existence of either Tuviah or David. Nor was there documentation that David was a son of Uri Sofer of Vilna. Yet it seemed to me reasonable that the relationships were as above.

In 2003 I acquired the census of the Jewish community in Vilna for the years 1765 and 1784 from David and Sonia Hoffman, founders of the Jewish Family History Foundation. In the 1784 census I identified Uri Sofer as “Uryasz Gabrylowicz” living with his wife Touba (not Leah as claimed by Ginzburg family sources) and a servant Chasia. At that time they had no children.

A mathematical calculation shows clearly that if Uri did subsequently have a son David, even if it was in the period immediately following the census in 1784, such a theoretical David could not have fathered sons Shmuel, Yitskhak and Leib, born in the 1790’s or the ubiquitous Tuviah born in 1801. Whilst the dates of birth of all of the four Supers “branch heads” has not been found, they were all dead by the time of the 1874 Lutzin census, Shmuel’s wife Elka was still alive in 1874 aged eighty. Assuming that Shmuel was at least as old as his wife, he was probably born not later than 1794, when his supposed father David could have been no more than ten years old!

Had the Vilna and Lutzin census been available at the time of writing in 1992 of my book “The Pen and the Blade, Super family”, David as a son of Uri, could not have been proposed as the family patriarch.

The problem of locating Yosef-Yehoash Super, so as to establish the identity of his father, is complicated by the fact that he apparently did not lived in Lutzin at the time of the 1874 census, although his son Shmuel was born there in 1855. Family tradition conveyed by Rabbi Arthur Saul Super and by his cousin Arthur Super (London) relates that their great-grandfather managed an estate for a local Latvian nobleman. If the location of that estate could be established, records of Yosef-Yehoash might be found. It is possible that he lived in Korsovka until his death that had to be before 1884 when his grandson and namesake Yosef, the son of Shmuel was born. Since the 1874 census of Korsovka is missing, this cannot be verified.

Not only has Yosef-Yehoash not appeared in documentation, aside from his name on his son Shmuel’s tombstone, no theoretical siblings bearing the relevant patronymic indicating their father was called Tuviah, have been found. At this stage it appears that the book containing the signature “Toviah Davidovich” was a red herring and that the these names may have nothing to do with the Super family, although there may have been such a relative.

From the available evidence is seems that Yosef-Yehoash was a son of Yitskhak Super, one of the three alcohol traders mentioned in the 1837 litigation in Lutzin. My reason is based on the naming patterns. My wife’s grandfather Rabbi Yitskhak-Yaakov Super was given the name Yaakov after his maternal great-grandfather Yaakov Dobrin. It seems likely that the name Yitskhak was given to him after his paternal great-grandfather Yitskhak Super.

In 2003 I ordered further research from Aleksanders Feigmanis in Latvia. He traveled to Karsava (Korsovka) and took about three hundred photographs of the now accessible tombstones in the Jewish cemetery. There are large areas covered in weeds that may hide other family tombstones.

One of the tombstones, that of Yankel Heibish Super, is shown above. The Ohel (mausoleum) of Shmuel, the son of Yosef-Yehoash Super still stands but the tablet inscribed with the name has been removed, perhaps by the locals in this village where there are no longer any Jews or perhaps during the Nazi invasion in 1941 when nearly all the Jews were killed. Fortunately most of the cemetery survived.

Korsovka, 2003 Korsovka, 1929 with Khatzkel Super
Photographed by Feigmanis

One of the tombstones correlates with Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super’s reference to relatives in the letter above:

The man Shmuel Sholem
Son of Reb Moshe Simkha Super
Died 10th Tevet, 5688

These names appear in various Latvian census records: “Shmuel son of Moshe” Super, born 1846 (lived in Korsovka) appears in a list of people living in 1889 in the rural areas of Lutzin district. This lists states that Shmuel Moshev (son of Moshe) came from Lutzin to Korsovka in 1877. His father Moshe son of Yitskhak born 1829 in Lutzin, moved to Korsovka in 1876. Shmuel’s son Benyamin Yitskhak, born 1873, appears in the 1897 census in Korsovka. It appears that “Mr. Benjamin Super” referred to in Rabbi Super’s letter to his son Arthur, as “Benyamin son of Shmuel-Sholem” was the son of Shmuel-Sholem whose tombstone appears above. Since Rabbi Super states that the relationship was of second cousins, it can be established that Benyamin Super’s grandfather Moshe-Simkha was a brother of Rabbi Yitskhak-Yaakov’s grandfather Yosef-Yehoash Super. This supports my theory that Rabbi Yitskhak-Yaakov’s great-grandfather was Yitskhak Super, one of the four family heads mentioned above.

A key source for the early nineteenth century relationships of the Supers is the census recorded in 1816. This is held by the Belarus State Historical Archive in Minsk. This anomaly is due to the political border changes whereby Lutzin was located in Vitebsk Province under Tsarist government, which province is now part of Belarus. Therefore some records for Lutzin (now Ludza) are held in Riga and some in Minsk.

The following are the key entries. See also attached chart and full family tree.

1816 census:
Fond 2640-1-617-55-55
Family number 28.

Shmuel Gevushevich* Super aged 31 in 1811; 35 in 1816.
Shmuel Gevushevich’s sons:
Itsik aged 9 in 1811; 13 in 1816.
Mark aged 2 in 1811; died in 1813.
Leib newborn in 1811; aged 3 in 1816.
Shmuel’s son-in-law Yankel Kufman Sholomovich, absent in 1811, 18 in 1816.
Shmuel Gevushevich’s wife Brokha aged 35 in 1816.
Itsik Shmuelovich’s wife Fruma aged 17 in 1816.
Yankel Kufman’s wife Paika aged 18 in 1816.

*Shmuel’s patronymic Gevushevich is the Russification of the Yiddish name Heibish, equivalent to the Hebrew name Yehoash.

1834 census
Fond 2640-1-617-155-156
Family number 58

Shmuel Gevushevich Super aged 35 in 1816, 53 in 1834.
From Shmuel Gevushevich’s first wife, sons:
1. Itsik aged 13 in 1816; separated to family number 59 in 1834 list.
2. Mordkha not written in 1816, moved to family number 259 in 1826.
3. Leib aged 4 in 1816; 20 in 1834.

From Shmuel’s second wife [Elka] from latter sources sons:
Yankel newborn in 1834; 3 in 1834.
Shmuel’s son-in-law Kifka Sholomovich 18 in 1816, moved to family number 259 in 1824.

Family number 59:
Itsik Shmuelovich Super previously family number 58.
Aged 31 in 1834.
Itsik’s son Mordukh newborn in 1816; 14 in 1834.
Itsik’s second son Livsha [should be Moshe] Simkha aged 5 in 1834.
Itsik’s wife Fruma aged 32 in 1834.
Mordukh’s wife Touba aged 16 in 1834.

Since Shmuel’s son Tuviah (Gutta) and Itsik’s son Yosef-Yehoash do not appear in the 1834 census, they must have been born after this date.

From the above it can be seen that the head of the family in 1816 was Shmuel Super, born 1781. His father’s name was “Gevush” or Heibish/Yehoash, born probably about 1760.
Shmuel was married twice
and the configuration of his sons therefore differs from the original family tree compiled by Norman Super.

click to enlarge

Given that two of Shmuel Super’s grandsons were named Tuviah, it would seem that they were named after an earlier ancestor who bore that name. The Riga archive holds lists of Jews living in Lutzin in the 1780’s and 1790’s. Feigmanis has provided his transcription of these lists, containing about 500 people, the entire Jewish population of Lutzin at the time. Since these lists precede the adoption of surnames that took place in the early nineteenth century, they can only be interpreted by the presence of personal names in an otherwise known family configuration.

The eighteenth century Lutzin list does include two families descended from someone name Toviah:

Movsha Tobiashevich aged 49 in 1786. (Amongst his sons were Itzik and Leib).
Khaim Tobiashevich aged 49 in 1794.
Since Movsha was born in 1739, his father “Tobiash” (Tuviah) may have been born about 1710 and could have been an ancestor of the Lutzin Super family.

As a result of the above re-examination of the Super family tree, the first chapter of my book “The Pen and the Blade - Super family” (Petah Tikvah, Israel 1992), entitled “Tracing the Family Tree” pages 2-31 should be deleted. The detailed family tree pages 116-184 has been considerably updated and is available in a separate file.

[1] Latvian State Historical Archive, Riga. Reference 755-1-370-142. Extracted by Aleksanders Feigmanis, Riga, Latvia, 1997

          Leopold Quint: The mystery of his fate.        
My late grandmother Annie Freedman (born 1885 Pikeliai, Lithunia; died 1967 Melbourne, Australia) told me that her younger brother Leib/Leopold Kvint returned to Lithuania from England in order to marry. I have a photo of him and his wife taken in Kursenai in 1928.

My grandmother told me that her brother moved to Riga and was killed on the first day of the German occupation of the city. She believed that Leopold's wife and children were killed subsequently. She did not recall the name of her brother's wife or children.

For over 40 years I have been seeking evidence as to my great-uncle's fate.

Recently I received a prompt reply from The International Tracing Service at Bad Arolsen, Germanyinforming me that they had no record of him.

An on-line database "Victims of Political Terror in the USSR" includes

"Leopold Yudelevich Kvint, born 1888 in Lithuania, Jewish, without specialoccupation, lived in Orlov, convicted 15.01.1944 by a special committee ofthe NKVD under law 58.10 and sentenced to 5 years deprivation of freedom. Rehabilitated 07.04.1961. Source: Kniga Pamyati (Memorial Book) of Kirov Oblast."

As my great-grandfather's name was Yoel-Yehudah (Yudel), and my greatuncle was aged 16 according to a Hamburg Passenger list from 1903 en-route to London(therefore born about 1887), and was born in Lithuania, then I believe that the above was indeed my long-looked-for great-uncle Leib or Leopold Kvint.

My grandmother told me that he reurned to Lithuania to marry and Latvian records include his marriage in 1923 in Kursenai to Sare Luriye.

What I do not understand is why my grandmother thought he had perished in1941, how he survived, what he was doing between 1941 and his arrest in1944, why he was arrested in Orlov, was he alive when he was "rehabilitated", and what then became of him (if he survived his imprisonment) !

I have studied various sources for the period, but fail to understand why he and many other Jews were arrested in 1944 by the NKVD, that is after theGermans had been defeated in the USSR.

Details of the period are to be found on "Gulag during World War II" at and details of the Penal Code of theRSFSR at give the following information:

"Article 58 of the Russian SFSR Penal Code was put in force on February 25,1927 to arrest those suspected of counter-revolutionary activities.Sentences were long, up to 25 years, and frequently extended indefinitely without trial or consultation. Inmates under Article 58 were known as"politichesky" as opposed to common criminals, "ugolovnik". Upon release, the prisoner would typically be sent into an exile within Russia without the right to settle closer than 100 km from large cities.Section 10 of Article 58 made "propaganda and agitation against the Soviet Union" a triable offence, whilst section 12 allowed for onlookers to be prosecuted for not reporting instances of section 10. In effect, Article 58was carte blanche for the secret police to arrest and imprison anyone deemed suspicious, making for its use as a political weapon. A person could be framed: The latter would arrange an "anti-Soviet" incident in the person's presence and then try the person for it. If the person pleaded innocence, not having reported the incident would also make them liable to imprisonment. During and after World War II, Article 58 was used to imprison many returned Soviet prisoners of war on the grounds that their capture and detainment by the Axis Powers during the war was proof that they did not fight to thedeath and were therefore anti-Soviet."

The fate of Leopold Quint remains a mystery.

          Reverend Phillip Berliner        
Pinkhas (Phillip Berliner)

(Written by his son-in-law Chaim Freedman in “The Pen and the Blade, Super Family” 1992).

Pinkhas (Phillip) Berliner was born in London, England in 1916, the youngest son of immigrants from Lodz, Poland. He attended Yeshivah Etz Chaim in London where he learned under the prominent Lithuanian leaders of English ultra-orthodoxy at the time, Rabbis Eliya Lopian and Eliyahu-Eliezer Dessler. He was such an excellent student that his teachers selected him to join a group which went to study at the recently established Gateshead Yeshiva in 1931 under Rabbi N.D.Landinsky.

In the mid 1930’s a proposal was made by the rabbis of Etz Chaim and Gateshead to further the higher religious education of English Yeshiva students at prominent eastern European Yeshivot. Pinkhas Berliner was selected to join a group of about ten students who went to Mir Yeshiva in Poland (now Belarus) and to Telz (Telsiai) Yeshivah in Poland. The group included Rabbi Nakhum-Zev (Velvel) Dessler, Josh Chinn, Rabbi Shlomo Davis, Rabbi Koppul Rosen, Rabbi Chaim Gutnik, Montie Moore, Rabbi Shmuel Bloch, Rabbi Dovber Silver and others who became leading orthodox rabbis and scholars, mainly in the United states. Details are to be found at .

Pinkhas Berliner studied in Mir under the renowned Rosh Yeshivah Rabbi Eliezer-Yehudah Finkel and the Mashgiakh Rabbi Yekhezkel Levinstein. On the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, the foreign students fled Poland, by order of the Rosh Yeshivah, the day before the Germans invaded Poland. For several months the group wandered backwards and forwards through Latvia and Estonia since they had inadequate papers. During this period of extreme physical deprivation and exposure. Pinkhas’s health suffered irreparably. Eventually visas were obtained through a Jewish member of the Latvian parliament, Rabbi Mordekhai Dubin, and the group settled in Lithuania at Telz Yeshivah under the soon to be martyred Rabbi Avraham-Yitskhak Bloch.

After nine months in Telz, in February 1940 Pinkhas rejoined Mir Yeshiva which had been relocated in Keidan, Lithuania. There he was finalizing his studies to qualify for Semikhah (rabbinical ordination) when the Soviet Army invaded the Baltic States. The Yeshivot were constantly harassed by the Communist regime and as the Germany army hovered in nearby Poland, the future looked ominous.

The British Government finally arranged a means of evacuating British and other foreign nationals. Travelling on visas issued by the famous Japanese consul in Kovno (Kaunas) Sugiharo, the group was sent eastwards via the Trans Siberian Railway to Vladivostok. From there they went to Hong Kong but were unable to continue to America due to hostilities at sea. Instead the group travelled to Brisbane, Australia. After several months of futile attempts to establish a Yeshivah in Melbourne, most of the group made their way to America and were amongst the founders of Mir, Telz and Lakewood Yeshivot. Some returned to England after the war.

Those remaining in Australia were Rabbi Dovber Silver, Rabbi Chaim Gutnik and Pinkhas (now Phillip) Berliner. Although he had a visa for America and had been accepted to Yeshiva Mesifta Torah Vadaat in New York, Phillip remained in Australia. He taught briefly in Sydney until he went to Melbourne in 1941 to marry Edna, daughter of Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov and Lena Super. They had three daughters Mirel-Shulamit (Muriel) Kleerekoper, Leah-Nekhama (Lena) Pose and Sheindel (Jane) Freedman.

In order to support his family Phillip learnt Shekhitah and joined his father-in-law at this arduous vocation. He also taught religious classes for the United Jewish Education Board and was assistant Chazan at the St.Kilda Hebrew Congregation. In 1946 he was granted the title “Reverend” by Rabbi Jacob Danglow in recognition of his services to the congregation.

Phillip Berliner was widely respected throughout the community. He approached his vocation with a deep sense of dedication and his sincere enthusiasm for Judaism inspired his students, in particular a small group that studied with him. One of these, Professor Louis Waller wrote to Phillip’s daughter Jane Freedman:

“Your father was a generous teacher in terms of time and energy. He drilled us rigorously in formal Hebrew grammar, introducing me to the patterns and paradigms which became ingrained. Though he was not a scientific linguist, he was very knowledgeable and very determined that our foundations in structure would be well laid. He invited Max Jotkovitz, Sonja Black and me to your home in Crimea Street on Saturday afternoons in the latter part of 1948 and 1949 for revision of the set books and lightening like parsing, declension and conjunction. Your mother would give us tea and cake to sustain us, and your grandfather viewed us with a bemused but benevolent eye. In addition to the biblical set books, grammar and history, we also studied a tractate of Mishnah, Baba Batra.”

Berliner’s work as a Shokhet was very taxing, both from the long work hours and the nature of the work. As recalled by Waller: “I asked your father about his work as a Shochet. He showed me his Khalef (blade) which he carried in a case in his breast pocket. I have an impression, but not a strong one, that he found his work in the slaughter house not only physically but also mentally very demanding.”

Reverend Berliner had regular duties to perform for the St.Kilda synagogue. Aside from services, in particular reading the Torah and teaching, he had to attend weddings, funerals and other occasions in the life of the congregants. In this way he built up a wide circle of people who held him in respect for his mild manner and friendly disposition. Professor Waller, in a memorial to Rabbi Danglow (St.Kilda Hebrew Congregation Chronicle, March 1981), mentions Berliner both as his teacher and paints a picture of the Bimah at the St.Kilda synagogue whilst Rabbi Danglow conducted the Neilah service:

“It is Neilah. On the Almemar stand Reverend Kowadlo and Mr. Berliner – as always. Each is enveloped in white Kittel and woolen Tallit. But both are at the back of the Almemor, in their respective corners. At the desk stands the Rabbi. He is davening Neilah.”

Berliner’s communal duties were not without considerable aggravation, as was common among the Melbourne synagogues, internal politics often claimed innocent victims, in this case Phillip Berliner. His health was never the best, he suffered severely from asthma, and the machinations of several members of the Board of his synagogue wounded him deeply.

On Shabbat, 20th Kheshavn 5720, November 21, 1959 Phillip Berliner died suddenly following a severe asthma attack. The entire community was shocked that this man, beloved by so many, had been struck down in his prime at the age at the age of forty-three.

Phillip’s widow Edna was faced with the awesome task of bringing up their three daughters.

Phillip Berliner C.V. (click to enlarge)

Novoyelna summer camp about 1938

Reference from Rabbi Eliezer Yehudah Finkel, Rosh Yeshiva of Mir

Reference from Rabbi Avraham Yitskhak Bloch, Rosh Yeshiva Telz.

Visa from Japanese Consul Sugihara, Kovno 1940

Phillip Berliner married in 1941 Edna, the daughter of Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super of Melbourne. Berliner served the Melbourne community as Shokhel, Chazan and teacher until his premature death in 1959.

An archive of his papers is to be donated to the Jewish Museum in Melbourne.
          Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super        
Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov (Isaac Jacob) Super

(Written by his granddaughter Jane Berliner’s husband Chaim Freedman on the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of his birth in 1981. Published in the Australian Jewish News, August 7, 1981)

Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super served the Melbourne Jewish community for half a century of its religious life. Many passed through his hands from Brit Milah through Cheder to Barmitzvah and benefitted from his meticulous and relenting supervision of Kashrut.

Son of Shmuel (son of Yosef-Yehoash) Super and Khaya-Minna (daughter of Avraham) Dobrin, Yitskhak-Yaakov was born in 1881 in Lutzin (Ludza) Latvia, a community known as “Jerusalem of Latvia”. The Super family were merchants, scribes, and butchers. He grew up in Karsava (Korsovka). Rabbi Super was educated at local Yeshivot in Rezekne (Rezhitza), Daugavpils (Dvinsk) and Vilnius (Vilna) and then received certification as a Shokhet at the young age of seventeen. He served in that capacity in several small towns in Latvia including Rofe, Sloboad and Lipne.

In 1901 he was obliged to flee from the threat of military conscription which, in Tsarist Russia, was the scene of violent anti-Semitic persecution of Jewish recruits. He arrived in London in 1899 where his services were eagerly sought by the United Synagogue which appointed him as minister to several congregations including Yarmouth and Croydon.

In 1906 Rabbi Super married Lena (Leah) a daughter of Reb Mordekhai Zev (Marks) Bull, one of the first Chabad Chassidim in England. The Bull family was from Karsava (Korsovka), Daugavpils (Dvinsk) and originally from Livani (Lewwnhoff). See separate article.

In 1911 he gave up ministerial duty to serve the London United Shechitah Board in the village of Evercreech, Somerset.

In 1914 Super was sought out by Rabbi Jacob Danglow who had been sent on a mission by the Melbourne community to find a Chief Shokhet for the Melbourne United Shechitah Board. The candidate recommended by Chief Rabbi Joseph Hertz was Yitskhak Yaakov Super.

Arriving in Melbourne on August 17th, 1914, Super immediately acquainted himself with the then inadequate Kashrut facilities. The early years were not without conflict and turmoil as he strove to provide strict control over the standard of meat. Many anecdotes are related of his zeal in raiding butcher shops which he suspected of evading the regulations.

Yitskhak Yaakov Super is remembered by numerous families for his services as Mohel which often took him to provincial communities. Likewise he served as a Hebrew teacher and his soundly based European learning enabled him to raise the standard of Jewish knowledge which he imparted to a generation of Australian children. He was also responsible for the training of Shochtim interstate and in New Zealand. At the Chief Rabbi’s request he wrote a report on the state of Kashrut in New Zealand.

In 1929 he was appointed a member of the Melbourne Beth Din under Rabbi Israel Brodie (later Chief Rabbi of the British Empire). Super continued to serve as one of the Dayanim (judges) of the Beth Din for the duration of his life under Rabbis H. Freedman, H. Stransky, and I. Rapaport. He participated in the conferences of the Australian Rabbinical Council and submitted a paper on Kashrut.

He was often vocal through the Jewish press when he felt the need to raise his voice to condemn lapses in religious observance. He was an active and enthusiastic supporter of the Zionist cause and visited the State of Israel in 1956.

In 1944 Super completed thirty years of service to the community and British Chief Rabbi J. Hertz conferred upon him Semikhah (rabbinical ordination) in recognition of his learning and contribution to the community.

In 1949 Rabbi Super retired from active service and was presented with a testimonial by the community. But his drive to serve Kashrut would not let him rest and he soon came out of retirement to accept the appointment in 1950 of Mashgiakh Rashi (Chief Supervisor) for the Kashrus Commission of Victoria, a body he fought for many years to have established, even to the extent of personal financial support.

This position gave him ultimate authority over the State’s kosher meat supply, Matzah production and all catering establishments carrying the Kashrut Commission license. In this capacity he often resorted to seeking the support of Chief Rabbi Brodie in England on contentious issues.

In his later years Rabbi Super was associated closely with the St.Kilda Hebrew Congregation. At his nearby home in Crimea Street he and his wife Lena Super (until her untimely death in 1945) held open house to the congregation. Hardly a Shabbat passed when he did not bring home a guest for Kiddush. There he held a regular Shiur on a Shabbat afternoon.

Super continued to function as a Shokhet until his last days, despite failing health, assisted by his son-in-law Rev. Phillip Berliner, husband of his daughter Edna.

He passed away on June 28, 1961 (Tamuz 14th 5721).

Rabbi Isaac Jacob and Lena Super were the parents of seven children:

Susaman-David (Cecil), Nakhum (Newton) Melbourne solicitor, Rabbi Dr. Arthur Saul Super of South Africa and Israel, Adolf (died a small child), Shlomo-Meir (Montie), Edna-Yenta (Edna) married to the Reverend Pinkhas (Phillip) Berliner, and Zalman-Ber (Albert).

Below are some documements reflecting his life including an article published in the Ausralian Jewish News marking the 100th anniversary of his birth.

Click to enlarge

An archive of Super's personal and communal papers is to be donated to the Jewish Museum in Melbourne.

Rabbi Super and family, Evercreech, England 1914

Rabbi Super's parents Shmuel and Khaya Minna Super with his sister Fruma, Korsovka (now Karsava) Latvia, about 1905

Mohel certificate Chief rabbi Adler 1910

Semikha (rabbinical) ordination by Chief Rabbi Hertz 1944.

Congratulations to Rabbi Super's son Newton on his father's ordination, from Sir Isaac Isaacs, later Governor General of Austalia.

Appointment to Melbourne Beit Din 1931

L-R: Rabbis J.L. Gurewicz, J. Danglow, I.J. Super, I. Brodie
Inspection of Melbourne abbatoirs 1930's

Super Family tree showing selected relationships
          Fifth Joint Call “Prevention and Intervention Strategies to Control AMR infections” opens today        
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          The Lost Civilization of Suolucidir        
The Lost Civilization of Suolucidir
author: Susan Daitch
name: Mark
average rating: 3.31
book published: 2016
rating: 1
read at: 2016/10/08
date added: 2016/10/08
The Lost Civilization of Suolucidir
Author: Susan Daitch
Publisher: City Lights Books
Published In: San Francisco, CA
Date: 2016
Pgs: 310


A fabled, lost underground city-state near the present borders of Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Sealed away for centuries, prey to glory hunters, archaeologist, soldiers, adventurers, plunderers, robbers, and thieves. Expeditions over time search and find...or almost find. Seismic activity makes the promise of plunder and discovery come at a price. Modern day conquerors chase their fantasies through the border regions. Imperial land grabs, anti-colonialism, treasure, oil, crime, punishment, intrigue, conspiracy, plot and counterplot. The Axis, British Petroleum, the Revolutionary Guards. People, relics, and the city itself, all could disappear back into the darkness and mystery. Suolucidir awaits, but it doesn’t necessarily want to be found.

Alternate History
Ancient Knowledge
Historical fiction

Why this book:
Indiana Jones vs the modern world with a fabled city in the balance. Yeah, I’m in.

Least Favorite Character:
Ruth Kopek. She is so focused on her own study and academia that she doesn’t see what the narrator is chasing. That’s not really fair, but his recollection of the dissolution of their marriage and their short married life together colors the interpretation of her character. She doesn’t come across well. This colors the early pages of the book and drags the narrative off course from the point of the book.

The Feel:
The narrator’s “I’ll show her and she’ll come running back to me” attitude toward his cheating wife as he sets out for Tehran and the hunt for Suolucidir almost made me put the book down. I know it is a real life attitude. But it strikes such a sour note in the course of the text that it is coloring my enjoyment.

Feels like Ocean’s Eleven without an exit strategy.

Through the early stages of the book, the brief touch on Suolucidir is excellent. The all too brief touchstone where we learn about the Nieumachers and the narrator’s father’s coming into possession of their books and writings is well paced as well. The pace falls flat when we visit the pages detailing the narrator’s married life with Ruth and his attempt to convince her to join him in his search for Suolucidir.

By and large, many of the paragraphs are too pregnant, too trucked with meaning, overly adverbed and adjectived. They may be beautiful, but they are just too much for story flow and dynamics.

Plot Holes/Out of Character:
Lots of circuitousness and repetition with similar events occurring to characters traveling in similar circles at different points in the timeline.

Hmm Moments:
The narrator searching for Suolucidir artifacts and the city itself when he notices that everywhere he goes he’s being shadowed. The Iranian secret police are following him. Though whether this is the Shah’s SAVAK or the Ayatollah's followers is unclear at the time he notices them the first time.

The Nieumachers’ forger past casts their scroll, that Bokser had, in a different light.

Meh / PFFT Moments:
The Suolucidir that he finds just as the hostages are taken in 1979 Tehran is too perfect. Unburied, just in an underground cavern. Too perfectly preserved. This challenges the suspension of disbelief. A near pristine cavernous city instead of a Pompei-like buried civilization.

The narrator, Ariel Bokser, esacpes Khomeini’s Iran way too easily for a man without a passport, especially an American in that Great Satan era. Scene reads like Affleck’s Argo without the drama.

So...a German archaeology professor who is actually a Latvian Jew escapes prewar Berlin to pretend to be a French dealer in antiquities and foregeries in the south of France. In Marsailles, he reencounters two of his German students who were also pretending to be French who in Berlin were German Jews, but were actually Russian and who to find Suolucidir carry on pretending to be fake French involved in a faux Franco-Soviet Friendship Dig in Iran where they are the fake French and the fake Soviets aren’t coming. ...Boris and Natasha. ...where are Moose and Squirrel? And the Jewish Latvian German archaeology professor nee French dealer in antiquities nee receiver of stolen goods is named Feigen...Fagin...Oliver Twist...meh. Combine this with the Ariel Bokser-Jahanshah Rostami masquerade switch from Part One in which a third man was killed and believed to be Ariel Bokser while both of them were both pretending to be Bokser after the real Bokser’s return from post-Shah Iran. Phew. I really feel like we need a scorecard to keep up with who is pretending to be who and when and where.

Last Page Sound:
It’s all chimera. It’s all smoke. It’s all cheshire. No revelation. Other than a comment on all who search for Suolucidir seeing and being reflections, which was telegraphed so hard all the way through that it hardly needed mentioning. I expected something from this book that wasn’t here.

Author Assessment:
No. I’m afraid I’ll pass.

Editorial Assessment:
The real history of Reagan-Khomeini era Iran is mashed together in this book. Time is noticeably compressed. We seemed to go from the embassy hostages to Iran Contra way too fast considering the other events in Bokser’s life.

I almost put the book down just before the end of Part 1. The Ariel Bokser-Jahanshah Rostami section could have stood a little closer to the editor’s pen.

Trude Feigen’s fate. The paragraph where it is described in one instance we are told that the woman couldn’t be identified and in the next we’re told that it is Trude. But her husband disappeared and isn’t seen again locally. Double but, how did they know it was her? Shrug.

If you hang the muddled no-one-is-who-they-seem-to-be characters together with the fast and loose real timeline events, this becomes a difficult read to stay on top of.

Knee Jerk Reaction:
not as good as I was lead to believe

Disposition of Book:
Irving Public Library
South Campus
Irving, TX

Dewey Decimal System:

Would recommend to:
no one

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          CLOSED: Superior Casino Exclusive July 100$ Freeroll Tournament        

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          CLOSED: Casino Extreme Exclusive July $175 Freeroll Tournament        

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          [IWS] Eurostat: MATERIAL DEPRIVATION STATISTICS: EARLY RESULTS [30 March 2015]        

IWS Documented News Service


Institute for Workplace Studies-----------------Professor Samuel B. Bacharach

School of Industrial & Labor Relations-------- Director, Institute for Workplace Studies

Cornell University

16 East 34th Street, 4th floor--------------------Stuart Basefsky

New York, NY 10016 -------------------------------Director, IWS News Bureau


NOTE: Funding for this service ends on 31 March 2015. Postings will end on this date as well.



European Commission





Data extracted in March 2015. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database. Planned article update: May 2015.

Increased timelines of the EU-SILC data

Eurostat disseminates early results for severe material deprivation rates so that trends in poverty levels can be tracked more closely. 2014 data are available for over half the European Union (EU) Member States, and Iceland. The coverage and the timeliness is expected to increase in the coming years. Latvia and Hungary have provided final data for the early results, while Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Spain, Italy, Malta, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, the United Kingdom and Iceland have transmitted provisional data. Early EU-28 aggregates are not yet available for 2014, as not all Member States have transmitted final or provisional material deprivation variables.

In 2014, of the countries that sent data to Eurostat, early severe material deprivation rates increased for Greece (+1.4 percentage points), Belgium and Spain (both +0.8 pp) and for Malta (+0.7 pp) The rates fell significantly in Bulgaria (-9.9 pp), Latvia (-4.8 pp), Poland (-1.5 pp), Hungary (- 2.9 pp), Estonia (-1.4 pp), Italy and United Kingdom (both -1.0 pp). No large variations were seen in the other countries for which data is available.


This article is based on data sent to Eurostat by end of March 2015. Final EU-SILC cross sectional data for 2014 are already available for two Member States[1] and 15 Member States and Iceland have provided provisional material deprivation and ‘economic strain’ data[2]. In Eurostat’s online database, provisional indicators are flagged ‘p’ (provisional) to distinguish them from final data. The difference between provisional data and final data is explained below in the section on ‘Data sources and availability’. For the countries for which only provisional data is available, the analysis is merely indicative: in some cases, there may be discrepancies between provisional and final data. Although we refer to the severe material deprivation indicators for the 18 countries as early indicators, for Latvia and Hungary the values are already final.

Material deprivation rates gauge the proportion of people whose living conditions are severely affected by a lack of resources. The severe material deprivation rate represents the proportion of people living in households that cannot afford at least four of the following nine items:

·         mortgage or rent payments, utility bills, hire purchase instalments or other loan payments;

·         one week’s holiday away from home;

·         a meal with meat, chicken, fish or vegetarian equivalent every second day;

·         unexpected financial expenses;

·         a telephone (including mobile telephone);

·         a colour TV;

·         a washing machine;

·         a car; and

·         heating to keep the home sufficiently warm.

The severe material deprivation rate, broken down by gender, age group and household type, is the main indicator for material poverty in this article.



This information is provided to subscribers, friends, faculty, students and alumni of the School of Industrial & Labor Relations (ILR). It is a service of the Institute for Workplace Studies (IWS) in New York City. Stuart Basefsky is responsible for the selection of the contents which is intended to keep researchers, companies, workers, and governments aware of the latest information related to ILR disciplines as it becomes available for the purposes of research, understanding and debate. The content does not reflect the opinions or positions of Cornell University, the School of Industrial & Labor Relations, or that of Mr. Basefsky and should not be construed as such. The service is unique in that it provides the original source documentation, via links, behind the news and research of the day. Use of the information provided is unrestricted. However, it is requested that users acknowledge that the information was found via the IWS Documented News Service.










          Infogram wants to help you make beautiful infographics        
Latvian startup has launched its suite of online tools for building beautiful -- and shareable -- infographics on the web. Can it cash in on a growing trend for easy data visualization, or not?
          Latvia, Lithuania back Moldova’s EU membership perspective        
          Nole fires into Wimbledon third round        
The second seed clinched a one-way win on No.1 Court over Adam Pavlasek 6-2, 6-2, 6-1. He next faces Ernests Gulbis of Latvia.
          Episode 51: Still Got It        

This week there's a little news about the Indie Burgh Yarn Crawl in Edinburgh at the weekend. In Enablers' Corner, we're all about the kits, 'bout the kits, no trouble with Latvian Mitts and Yarnundyed-knits. In the Sock Surgery, we welcome back Clare Devine to review Coop Knits Socks Vol II by British deisgner Rachel Coopey. Finally, due to popular request, there's a perfume review of Tribe, by Coty.

Shownotes and links are at Clare Devine can be found at

Music for the episode is Adam and the Walter Boys with 'I Need A Drink' available via Music Alley.

          Is there room for blogs in the age of Ravelry?        
I have not posted in a long time. Partially Ravelry has fulfilled my need to post about my WIP's and my FO's. It also seems that people are not cruising blogs as much now since everyone seems to be cruising Ravelry. I wonder if knitting blogs will not become more of a place to discuss either your personal life and/or a place to post knitting techniques. I don't feel like I have time to post lengthy and witty contents since most of my day is spent chasing around my children. I guess that I will wait and see where this blog goes.

I will include my latest pride and joy though. This is a mitten from Latvian Mittens. If you have seen the cover of the book, it is the black and white mitten in the center of the cover. I have knit is as charted although I believe the mitten was originally supposed to be a man's mitten. I have knit it on 1.50 mm needles to get a smaller mitten. The final gauge was 12 stitches per inch. Finally I blocked it on a bent plastic coated wire hanger. The blocking was perhaps not as severe as I would have liked but it did the job. Now will I ever be brave enough to wear them?
          From the Land of Lace to Colorwork        
Since I finished my Shetland Lace Stole, I have contemplated starting another lace project. I was going to start on the Mystery Stole 3. The main attraction for me, however, was the beads. Since I would either need to order them or go to the local bead store, I am beadless. My local store is a 1/2 hour away and only open during hours that my kids would be with me. You can imagine what fun a 2 and 5 year old would have in a bead store. I guess I will be picking a different lace project.

Now I have moved to colorwork. I have finished the body on Katherine of Aragon. I will be cutting the first steek at my knitting group tonight. Since the thought strikes fear in the hearts of many I told them that I would cut the first steek there. Now I need to do two sleeves, the button band, and then finis. I guess I am counting my chickens too early though.

I am also starting a self-designed intarsia project. I am thinking of submitting the design to Knitty or such so this is all I will show you:

I have also started a Latvian mitten. The fringe and braids have been a bit of a challenge.

Finally I have finished my Horcrux socks from the Six Socks Knitalong in time for the movie and the new book. My feet shall be toasty warm while I am enjoying my new book.
          I Got Felt Up(pers)!        

Hey guys! I hope everyone is enjoying their summer. I just got back from Florida last night and had a very relaxing time at the beach with my sister, BIL and the kids. I didn't want to come back! I made my first pair of felted clogs--FINALLY. They came out well and were a cinch to make. The felting was a very cool process and a lot easier than I had expected! I worked on embellishing the purple pair while at the beach. A decent knitter I am, an embroiderer I am NOT! So, don't look to closely at the funkiness. I've included all of the details including the pattern for the Latvian braided rope on my Ravelry account here. If your aren't on Ravelry, let me know if you want the instructions and I'll be happy to email them to you! I'm now working on knitting a pair for myself. I will definitely be knitting some of these for holiday gifts!





          I blame this one on Kenny...        

After seeing Kenny's beautifully executed "Don's Vest," it gave me an intense envie for knitting some fair isle even though the last thing I needed to do was cast on for yet another project! I succumbed, realizing I had the perfect yarn already in my stash for a pair of Latvian inspired mittens I tucked in my Ravelry pattern library some months ago. These are knit with a silk/wool blend fingering in blue-gray and some KP's Stroll kettle dyed, superwash merino in the color "soot." I used size US0 DPN's for the hem facings and US1 DPN's for the body.

I made the mitt fingerless and repeated the bottom border of the Latvian braid before finishing it off with another hem and facing. I FINALLY taught myself to knit using one color in each hand which I'm pretty stoked about! It took me a lot of practice, as I'm VERY right hand dominate and have always knit English. It's just so much easier and quicker to knit two handed, and you don't have to worry about any yarn tangling!

I've included a picture of the mitt's wrong side because I'm always interested in what the back looks like on fair isle. I generally don't float the color of yarn not in use for greater than 2 stitches by weaving it across the back as I knit. There are some very useful videos on YouTube to demonstrate weaving both the MC and the CC if you are knitting with a color in each hand. Also, I prefer to hand stitch my facings at the end as opposed to knitting them in as I go along for a few reasons. First, it prevents the facing from wanting to flip outwardly, especially if you sew it the slightest bit higher on wrong side. Then, you eliminate the ridge or bump that forms on the right side which bugs me. Lastly, no matter how contrasting or bright your CC is you don't have to worry about it peaking through the MC on the right side stitches that sometimes occurs when you attach the facing as you knit. As you can see, it can be stitched very neatly by using a large, sharp embroidery needle and catching the outside of the "V" on the cast on edge and piercing a corresponding stitch on the inside body of the mitt.

I still have to finish the second mitt and will block them both at the same time.

          Expedia Summer Travel Report 2015        

Indians want to explore Central & South America this summer 


About the survey:Expedia, one of the world’s largest online travel agency, today released the Summer Trend Report 2015, an analysis of vacation destinations and travel preferences across multiple cities in India. The survey was conducted with 520 across Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Pune and Hyderabad. The survey highlights that Indian travellers are taking fancy towards more unexplored destinations like Finland, Norway, Cyprus, Latvia, Romania and Argentina.


read more

          Red Bull - Zigzagging The Caucasus (Full Length)        

Eclectic squads and unexpected destinations are what we bring together, and on that front Patrik never fails to deliver. Georgia, Armenia and the tiny, disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh were traversed in search of yet more untouched spots and undiscovered culture. This area, where the easternmost reaches of Europe meet western Asia, is one of the most richly cultured and yet unexplored parts of the world – certainly so in terms of our own tribal movement which we call skateboarding.

Naturally, Plan B legend and rainy backlipper Pat Duffy was enlisted alongside Latvian stuntman Madars Apse, England’s finest, Barney Page, bohemian American ripper Walker Ryan and Russian shocker Gosha Konyshev in what must be a new benchmark in random squad assembly. Love it.

Inevitably, given the skaters involved and the visionary behind the lens, this is a superb three-parter which deserves to reverberate around the world of skating and beyond.Wallner is setting the agenda for visual standards in this kind of skate film right now and the spontaneous skating produced by new terrain and quick hits locks into that aesthetic perfectly. Really, nobody else is doing this kind of stuff today.

Directed, Edited & Filmed by Patrik Wallner
Featuring Pat Duffy, Madars Apse, Barney Page, Gosha Konyshev and Walker Ryan
Guiding and Translating by Kirill Korobkov
Photography by Alexey Lapin
Produced by Red Bull Media House

Cast: Patrik Wallner

Tags: Visualtraveling, Zigzagging the Caucasus, Patrik Wallner, Pat Duffy, Red Bull, Barney Page, Madars Apse, Gosha Konyshev, Walker Ryan, Georgia, Nagorno Karabakh, Armenia and Kirill Korobkov

          The Scariest Nominee of Our Time        

Imagine if Donald Trump’s foreign policy ideas were uttered in a saner tone by someone who seemed to have a little bit of knowledge about global politics. Would his ideas sound quite so dangerous? Maybe not, but they’d still be dangerous enough. In fact, they’d qualify as the most dangerous, disruptive, self-destructive ideas that any major party’s nominee has peddled in any living American’s memory.

These are the hardest times since the end of World War II for an American president to set and manage foreign policy. From 1945–91, the rules of the game were fairly clear: It was the U.S. versus the USSR, and power was measured by the relative stockpiles of weapons they would need in a conflict. Most of the wars fought by smaller nations were viewed (sometimes misleadingly) in terms of their impact on the East–West balance.

When the Cold War imploded, so did the entire system of international relations it had spawned. Power blocs dissolved; the subjects and allies in each now-shattered sphere of influence were free to pursue their own interests without regard to the former superpowers’ wishes. In the Middle East, Cold War politics had propped up artificial borders and oppressive regimes that otherwise would have collapsed a decade or so after World War II, along with the whole string of French and British colonies. When the Cold War ended, this collapse resumed—triggering the chaos in the region today.

In one of those ironies common to history, America won the Cold War but emerged from it weaker, not stronger. President George W. Bush’s strategic error lay in failing to grasp this fact. He, Vice President Dick Cheney, and Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld thought they’d entered a “uni-polar” era with the United States reigning as “the sole superpower,” able to impose its will with little effort or the need for pesky allies. They didn’t realize that the old tokens of power (tanks, missiles, atom bombs) and the old devices of leverage (Do what we ask or succumb to the Soviet bear) had lost much of their former potency and that, as a result, allies—and compromising with them on strategic goals—were now not just useful but necessary.

Bush’s father, George H.W. Bush, understood this even at the dawn of the new era. Hence his fervent campaign to preserve the vast alliance against Saddam Hussein during the 1990–91 Gulf War and his call for a cease-fire when the mission binding the alliance—ousting Iraq’s invasion forces from Kuwait—was complete. This awareness also informed the elder Bush’s decision not to rub America’s Cold War victory in Russia’s face.

Barack Obama, from early on in his presidency, understood very clearly these limits of power, the need for alliances, and the distinctions between interests and vital interests (and the levels of commitment that they justified) in this new multi-polar (or, in some ways, nonpolar) era.

Hillary Clinton understands these things as well, though she might be less resistant than Obama to using military force; some who have worked with her say she hasn’t internalized the lessons of Vietnam, Iraq, and Libya to the same degree. But her experiences have taught her that, in this new era, nations with common interests in one realm often have opposing interests in other realms, and the job of a top diplomat or president is to navigate these shoals without surrender or collision. (In some ways, this is nothing new: The United States and the Soviet Union practiced diplomacy and signed treaties, without ever dropping guard on the East-West German border, through all but the tensest years of the Cold War.)

Donald Trump, on the other hand, grasps none of these things—not the history, not the concepts, not the tools or limits or creative possibilities of power. He is not so much an isolationist as a unilateralist. It’s easy to envision him barging into a foreign war, driven as much by avenging some personal slight as pursuing a national interest—and, in the process, waving off help from others, believing that he can win alone (or that he alone can win) with the right combination of firepower and rhetoric.

Even if he didn’t start a war, or escalate one with no notion of how to end it, he is likely—judging from what he says—to wreck the few remnants of the post–World War II order that sustain America’s influence and its broad network of (mostly) democratic allies.

When the Cold War’s demise gave smaller powers the license to go their own way and follow their own interests, several of them eventually decided to remain in the American camp. This was particularly true in East Asia, after China started flexing its naval muscle, and in Europe (especially among the more recent NATO members of Eastern and central Europe), after Vladimir Putin started living his dream of restoring the old empire out loud (or at least trying).

Trump says he wants to blow up the whole edifice. He mistakes the mutual benefits of NATO for a strictly monetary transaction, telling allies that he’d pull out America’s troops—and cancel the country’s obligation to come to their defense in the event of armed aggression—unless they paid up their fair share, as he defined it. He issued this threat in response to a question about whether he’d defend the tiny Baltic states—which Putin could invade with little trouble if physical force were all that mattered and he had no worries of a Western response. In a later interview, Trump went further and said he might bring the American troops home as a first step, predicting that the Europeans would beg him to send them back, promising to pay the U.S. as much as he wants them to pay. “You always have to be prepared to walk away,” he explained, as if he were discussing a contract dispute or a real-estate deal (which is how he seems to view all relationships), not a trusted alliance based on a 67-year-old treaty that recent events have made newly relevant.

He has issued similar warnings about what he sees as meager payments from Japan and South Korea. When CNN’s Jake Tapper suggested that a U.S. withdrawal might compel those countries to build their own nuclear weapons, as the only way to deter North Korean aggression, Trump shrugged and said “maybe we would be better off” if all three of those countries had nukes.

Trump doesn’t understand the consequences of even talking like this; he doesn’t understand the messages he’s sending to all sides. He doesn’t understand that Putin in particular must be agog at his potential good fortune. A man who might be the next president of the United States—quite aside from the fact that some of his aides have ties to Russia—has all but invited Putin to invade Estonia, Latvia, or Lithuania. This impression must have been confirmed when Trump said he accepted Russia’s annexation of Crimea as a done deal and possibly a desirable one, as he’s been told that many of the island’s residents consider themselves Russian, not Ukrainian.*

No American president would, or should, go to war with Russia over the Crimea or even Ukraine. George W. Bush recognized this when he ruled against offering Ukraine NATO membership. And many people in Crimea do regard themselves as Russian. (It was part of Russia until Nikita Khrushchev gave it to Ukraine in 1954 at a time when both republics were part of the Soviet Union, and the distinction was thus fairly meaningless.) But it’s one thing to acknowledge these facts and quite another to accept with indifference a violent breach of long-standing borders. Acceding to a forcible annexation without objections, or a negotiated settlement, or even a trade of some sort (a deal), is to invite other violent breaches—and to announce to friend and foe that all borders, treaties, obligations, and alliances are moot.

Here are a few of the things that would likely happen within days if Trump were elected. South Korea and Japan, as he concedes with a shrug, would start work at once on an atomic bomb (they certainly have the technology and resources), setting off a nuclear arms race and the possibility of catastrophic crises in northeast Asia. The web of sanctions against Russia, which Obama has woven with Western European leaders in response to the Crimean grab, would collapse. Ukraine’s political leaders, who still aspire to an affiliation with the European Union, would likely cut the best deal they can get from Moscow—as would the smaller NATO nations (including the Baltics) once they realize that the other large Western European powers can do little to ensure their security without American leadership.

This is another irony of history: In his articulation of American power’s limits, Obama has highlighted those as vital interests that warrant an unbridled commitment of the nation’s power. His erasure of the “red line” in Syria did have an impact on U.S. credibility in the Middle East—but little effect on U.S. standing in Europe or East Asia. Trump often lambasts President Obama for signaling weakness in the red-line episode; but Trump is now proclaiming that, in his presidency, there would be no red line in Europe or East Asia, short of one purchased with cold cash—a transaction subject to continual review and revision, like the terms of an adjustable-rate mortgage. And yet, Trump somehow thinks his words beam a signal of awesome strength.

In the Middle East, where the Cold War’s demise has wreaked the most calamitous damage, Hillary Clinton has few compelling ideas beyond doing what Obama has done, just a little fiercer and faster. But Trump has no ideas at all. He says he will get rid of ISIS “fast.” How? Not a clue. He has also said he would form an anti-ISIS coalition of the region’s nations, a tough task given that they fear and loathe one another more than they fear and loathe ISIS. How would he do this? By holding “meetings,” he told the New York Times, as if diplomats—American, Russian, European, and Arab—haven’t held hundreds of meetings already. Trump doesn’t seem to recognize that some of the world’s problems are simply hard, maybe intractable. He seems to think that the world’s a mess because American leaders are “very, very stupid” and that the globe’s bad guys will snap to order with a tough guy like him in the White House.

Trump may have an idea, after all, of how to crush ISIS “fast,” and if my suspicions are right, it’s his most dangerous idea of all: I suspect he thinks he can make the jihadi commanders cower by threatening to incinerate them with nuclear bombs. Richard Nixon tried this with North Vietnam, telling his aides to put out the word that he was a “madman” who could do anything, even go nuclear, to avoid losing. At least Nixon, it turned out, was bluffing. Would Trump be? Would he feel compelled to follow through on his threat if they scoffed? He has revealed himself, on several occasions, to have a cavalier, even clueless attitude toward the bomb.

And it’s worth noting (as the New York Times reminded its readers, who probably haven’t had cause to ponder these matters for a quarter-century or so, on Wednesday) that, when it comes to using nuclear weapons, the president decides and acts alone; the system is set up that way because, in the event of a surprise attack, there would be no time to consult with the National Security Council, much less with Congress. Electing a president bestows upon a single man or woman the power to blow up the world.

Former diplomat Richard Burt told an enlightening story to Politico about Trump’s notion of a tough negotiator. Around 1990, when Burt was U.S. ambassador to the Soviet-American nuclear arms talks, he ran into Trump at a reception in New York:

According to Burt, Trump expressed envy of Burt’s position and proceeded to offer advice on how best to cut a “terrific” deal with the Soviets. Trump told Burt to arrive late to the next negotiating session, walk into the room where his fuming counterpart sits waiting impatiently, remain standing and looking down at him, stick his finger into his chest and say, “Fuck you!”

Needless to say, that is not how Burt maneuvered the talks so that presidents George H.W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin came to sign the START II arms-reduction treaty in 1991. One wonders if Trump thinks it might have been how it happened and if he thinks that’s how to handle adversaries today. Trump has said, “I know more about ISIS than the generals” and, just in August, “I know far more about foreign policy” than Obama.

My guess is he really believes these things.

Most of Trump’s dangerous qualities boil down to these two fundamental dangers. He knows very little but thinks he knows a lot. And most of the things he doesn’t know, he doesn’t know they’re worth knowing.

Correction, Aug. 8, 2016: An earlier version of this article misidentifed Crimea as Ukraine and misstated that the former is an island. Crimea is a peninsula. (Return.)

Read more from Slate on the 2016 campaign.

          Trump Is Dangerously Incompetent on National Security        

If Vladimir Putin and Xi Jinping read the New York Times on Thursday morning, they must be hoping and praying for the election of Donald Trump. And if serious Republicans read the same paper, they must be sickened with fear—if they weren’t nauseated already—that their party’s presidential nominee is a threat to national security.

For on the front page of the Times, in an interview on foreign policy, Trump says that, despite our treaty obligations, he would not defend NATO allies from an invasion if they haven’t been reimbursing us for the cost of protecting them; that he would abandon our military bases in Asia; and that he wouldn’t pressure Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan to relax his crackdown because “the world looks at how bad the United States is” on civil liberties, too.

Thursday morning, Trump spokesmen disputed the Times story, claiming that he wasn’t quoted accurately. Since then, the Times has released a transcript of the full interview, and the story, it turns out, is not only accurate but even more distressing than the boiled-down story suggested.

Look at the following exchange between Trump and Times reporters David Sanger and Maggie Haberman:

Trump: I would prefer that we be able to continue [with NATO allies], but if we are not going to be reasonably reimbursed for the tremendous cost of these massive nations with tremendous wealth—you have the tape going on?

Sanger: We do.

Haberman: We both do.

Trump: Then yes, I would be absolutely prepared to tell those countries, “Congratulations, you will be defending yourself.”

Sanger reminds Trump that Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty obliges member nations to treat an attack on one as an attack on all. Trump replies, “How is it helping us? We have massive trade deficits.” He also says, “In a deal, you always have to be prepared to walk”—as if the 28 nations of NATO were opposing sides in a contract dispute, not members of a mutually beneficial, trusting alliance.

Then comes the shocker.

Sanger: Can the members of NATO, including the new members of the Baltics, count on the United States to come to their military aid if they were attacked by Russia? And count on us fulfilling our obligations—

Trump: Have they fulfilled their [financial] obligations to us? If they fulfill their obligations to us, the answer is yes.

And if they haven’t paid the amount that Trump considers their proper share, the answer is no.

Then, to make matters specific, there’s this:

Sanger: I was just in the Baltic States. They are very concerned obviously about this new Russian activism, they are seeing submarines off their coasts, they are seeing airplanes they haven’t seen since the Cold War coming, bombers doing test runs. If Russia came over the border into Estonia or Latvia, Lithuania … would you come to their immediate military aid?

Trump: I don’t want to tell you what I’d do because I don’t want Putin to know what I’d do.

No! The whole point of NATO is to tell potential enemies, in no uncertain terms, that the United States and every other member-nation will respond to an attack with force.

In talking about U.S. commitments in Asia, Trump reveals himself as completely ignorant about military matters. If we shut down our bases in Japan and South Korea, and some crisis compels us to move back, Trump says, “We can always deploy” troops and weapons from bases in the United States, adding, “It would be a lot less expensive.” In fact, it would be a lot more expensive. It costs more to base troops at home than abroad, and it costs a lot more to deploy from home—we would need more cargo-transport planes and ships as well as the pilots, crews, and fuel to operate and maintain them. And it would take weeks, in some cases months, to mount a large deployment—possibly too long to make a difference.

If Trump is elected president, and if he actually does what he says he’ll do, every ally in Europe and Asia will scramble to form partnerships that do not include the United States. Some of the weaker allies will feel compelled, seeing no other choice, to cut a deal with Russia or China. Allies in every realm of international relations will view America as an untrustworthy guarantor.

Trump’s view of the world isn’t entirely out to lunch. If he and the Republican Party were trying to prompt a debate on America’s role in the world, if they were running on an avowed platform of isolationism, that would at least be taking a position. Such a debate is long overdue, and isolationism has its place as one school of thought in the American political tradition.

But it’s untenable for nearly every speaker at the GOP convention to lambast President Obama and Hillary Clinton for weakening our defenses, abandoning our allies, and “leading from behind” when the Republican candidate talks about our allies as expendable customers and prefers not to lead at all.

Trump reveals himself in the Times interview as an odd combination of isolationist and mercantilist. To him, every relationship is transactional, and the transaction’s currency is money—and only money. He sees alliances as a financial drain, carrying no geopolitical benefits. Geopolitics don’t enter into his calculus. If a commitment costs too much, cut it loose, cut the losses, balance the books, period.

Everything is a deal, and all deals are like the real estate deals that have made him a fortune. When the Times reporters ask him how he would deal with ISIS, he says that he would get the Turks to do more. When he’s reminded that the Turks care more about bashing the Kurds than defeating ISIS, he says, “It would be wonderful if we could put them somehow both together.” What’s his diplomatic plan for doing that? “Meetings,” Trump replies. “If I win, we will have meetings … very early on.”

One wonders: Does Trump think that President Obama and Secretary of State John Kerry haven’t already had “meetings” with Erdogan and the region’s other leaders about doing more to beat ISIS? Does he think his idea is novel? This may explain why he thinks the Obama administration—the entire U.S. government—is filled with idiots. Don’t they see, he might be thinking, that they have to hold meetings? He may see meetings with Erdogan and other national leaders as no different from meetings with the New York City Department of Buildings, a tenant who’s behind on his rent, an indebted hotelier that he wants to buy out, or a supplier that he’s trying to fleece.

The fact that the world is a mess, that America isn’t winning better deals, is proof to Trump that our people in power don’t know how to run a slick meeting. He thinks his opponents and critics know nothing. He doesn’t know how much he doesn’t know.

Read more of Slate’s election coverage.

          Flippy Knife        
Flippy Knife

Beresnev Games


6 August 2017
4.0.1 and up
20.43 M
Flip the knife in the forest! Become a great Master of knife flipping using the best knives from all over the world.
Stick the knife back into the stump and collect combo. Jump on the shelves and collect treasure bags. Climb the trees and catch drone. Hit the target to open golden chest!
Leave the routine for a funny adventure with Flippy Knife and remember - never give up!

- physics-based realistic knife simulator game
- over 35 world famous blades (knives, sabers, swords, axes), collect them all
- different locations for flipping: camping, forest hut, tree tops, stump on the meadow…
- one finger control
- share and compete with friends to become the best!

Follow Flippy Knife on Facebook and Instagram!

Google Play Rating

 4,665 total

App Screenshots

What's New
    Dear knives lovers! We mind your opinion, thats why we decreased amount of ads and made it less annoying : ) Update of localisations (Polish, Latvian, French). Bugs fixed.

Download & Instructions

          Ruby Dreams font + Dingbats by birdesign        

14.00 USD

Ruby Dreams is a crispy and playful font with a unique personality. This handwritten font features an ink-like style replicating an ink pen look, allowing limitless applications from logos, magazines, menus, books, invitations, product packaging, labels and even wedding/greeting cards or stationery.

It includes a series of themed dingbats with nature, objects, food, arrows and text box hand drawing characters, perfect for customizing your content and text creations with an organic handmade touch.

This font also features standard double letter ligatures for a more natural look between letters.

Commercial use allowed!

This Set Includes:

- 2 font files (OTF)
- Full upper and lowercase
- Stylistic Set
- Numerals and Punctuation (OpenType Standard)
- Accents (Multi-lingual support)
- Traditional Double Letter Ligatures
- Bonus font including dingbat graphics and brushes

Supported Languages: Afrikaans, Albanian, Catalan, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish French, German Icelandic, Italian, Maltese, Norwegian, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Turkish among others.

Feel free to reach out if you have any questions or comments. I'd love to see what you do with this script font. Enjoy! :)

SKU: FT006

          Comment on Snowkiting in Latvia by Darta        
cooooolizard! who are you people?! how and where can I find the snowkiting community in Latvia? cheerios
          Out of Latvia - The son of a Latvian immigrant searches for his roots        
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Celebrating its 10th anniversay this year, TravelSim has grown to become the world’s leading alternative roaming service and a well-known international brand during the last decade. What is behind the scenes of this international success stoy? TravelSim started its roaming service in 2006, first launched in regions close to Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Russia.…
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USP&E, a full-service energy solutions provider, offers real, workable, and affordable options providing consistent, reliable HFO, Diesel, and renewable energy services to countries worldwide including those with eminent growth potential such as Hungary, Latvia, Romania, Russia, Ukraine, Iran and Jordan. For more information about our products and services, go to

The post USP&E Offers Affordable Solutions to Your Power Needs appeared first on Discount Generators Supply.

          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries

Country Codes List

CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
American Samoa+1 684
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Ascension Island+247
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Bahamas+1 242
Barbados+1 246
Bermuda+1 441
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Burkina Faso+226
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Curacao+599 9
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Grenada+1 473
Guam+1 671
Guernsey+44 1481
Hong Kong+852
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Isle of Man+44 1624
Jamaica+1 876
Jersey+44 1534
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Mainland China+86
Marshall Islands+692
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Montserrat+1 664
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Palestinian territories+970
Papua New Guinea+675
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Sierra Leone+232
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Solomon Islands+677
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Sri Lanka+94
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
TokelauList of Currencies of the World and their Currency Symbols

There are 179 currencies in the world.
List of Currencies of the World
Currencies of the World

Currency Symbols

Afghan afghani؋
Albanian lekL
Alderney pound£
Algerian dinarد.ج
Angolan kwanzaKz
Argentine peso$
Armenian dramդր.
Aruban florinƒ
Ascension pound£
Australian dollar$
Bahamian dollar$
Bahraini dinar.د.ب
Bangladeshi taka৳
Barbadian dollar$
Belarusian rubleBr
Belize dollar$
Bermudian dollar$
Bhutanese ngultrumNu.
Bolivian bolivianoBs.
Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible markKM or КМ
Botswana pulaP
Brazilian realR$
British pound£
British Virgin Islands dollar$
Brunei dollar$
Bulgarian levлв
Burundian francFr
Cambodian riel៛
Canadian dollar$
Cape Verdean escudoEsc or $
Cayman Islands dollar$
Central African CFA francFr
CFP francFr
Chilean peso$
Chinese yuan¥ or 元
Cocos (Keeling) Islands dollar$
Colombian peso$
Comorian francFr
Congolese francFr
Cook Islands dollar$
Costa Rican colón₡
Croatian kunakn
Cuban convertible peso$
Cuban peso$
Czech korunaKč
Danish kronekr
Djiboutian francFr
Dominican peso$
East Caribbean dollar$
Egyptian pound£ or ج.م
Eritrean nakfaNfk
Ethiopian birrBr
Falkland Islands pound£
Faroese krónakr
Fijian dollar$
Gambian dalasiD
Georgian lariლ
Ghanaian cedi₵
Gibraltar pound£
Guatemalan quetzalQ
Guernsey pound£
Guinean francFr
Guyanese dollar$
Haitian gourdeG
Honduran lempiraL
Hong Kong dollar$
Hungarian forintFt
Icelandic krónakr
Indian rupee₹
Indonesian rupiahRp
Iranian rialï·¼
Iraqi dinarع.د
Israeli new shekel₪
Jamaican dollar$
Japanese yen¥
Jersey pound£
Jordanian dinarد.ا
Kazakhstani tenge₸
Kenyan shillingSh
Kiribati dollar$
Kuwaiti dinarد.ك
Kyrgyzstani somлв
Lao kip₭
Latvian latsLs
Lebanese poundل.ل
Lesotho lotiL
Liberian dollar$
Libyan dinarل.د
Lithuanian litasLt
Macanese patacaP
Macedonian denarден
Malagasy ariaryAr
Malawian kwachaMK
Malaysian ringgitRM
Maldivian rufiyaaރ.
Manx pound£
Mauritanian ouguiyaUM
Mauritian rupee₨
Mexican peso$
Micronesian dollar$
Moldovan leuL
Mongolian tögrög₮
Moroccan dirhamد.م.
Mozambican meticalMTn
Myanma kyatK
Nagorno-Karabakh dramդր.
Namibian dollar$
Nauruan dollar$
Nepalese rupee₨
Netherlands Antillean guilderƒ
New Taiwan dollar$
New Zealand dollar$
Nicaraguan córdoba
          Countries in Europe        
Europe is the second smallest continent in the world .Here is the list of 47 countries in Europe and their capitals.

Andorra la Vella
Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Czech Republic
Luxembourg City
The Netherlands
San Marino
San Marino
Kiev (Kyiv)
The United Kingdom
The Vatican City
Vatican City

          For sale - 4 Ceramic Tile Wall Plaque Trivet of Chickens... - $9        

Moolpa 2734, Australia
Posting to: United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Russian Federation, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates ...

          For sale - chickens ceramic with metal tailfeathers planter &... - $12        

Lumeah 6395, Australia
Posting to: United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Russian Federation, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates ...

          For sale - 2 Prints, Quail, Geese, Turkey, Chickens, etc, Blue... - $4        

Table Top 2640, Australia
Posting to: United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Austria, Russian Federation, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait ...

          Lon Clay Hill - Fri, 16 Oct 2015        
Four 19th Century Latvian meteorite falls: Problematics of Mineralogical Reconst
          Music is the Bridge Between Latvia and Japan        
[From August Issue 2015] Dace ...
          Latvia U-18 – Italy U-18 maçını canlı izle        


Latvia U-18 – Italy U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.

          Latvia U-18 – Italy U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Latvia U-18 – Italy U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.

          Germany U-16 – Latvia U-16 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Germany U-16 – Latvia U-16 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.

          Latvia U-18 – Serbia U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Latvia U-18 – Serbia U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.

          Latvia U-16 – Serbia U-16 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Latvia U-16 – Serbia U-16 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.

          Latvia U-18 – Turkey U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Latvia U-18 – Turkey U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.

          France U-16 – Latvia U-16 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

France U-16 – Latvia U-16 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.

          Latvia U-18 – Slovakia U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Latvia U-18 – Slovakia U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.

          Latvia U-18 – Hungary U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Latvia U-18 – Hungary U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.

          Latvia Tourism        
Latvia is a city with a unique Art Nouveau architecture, lively cultural life surrounded by extremely beautiful natural treasures.
          Energy efficiency news on 08 July 2013        

Energy-Efficiency Programs By Consumers Energy Are Producing Long-Term ...
Wall Street Journal
"The savings are real. The benefits are broad, measurable and sustainable. And hundreds of Michiganders are working because of energy efficiency programs driven by Michigan's enlightened energy reform law," said Patti Poppe, Consumers Energy's vice ...
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Energy-efficient home owners should pay less council tax, say campaigners
The Guardian
Owners of energy-efficient homes should pay less for their council tax and stamp duty to drive take-up of the government's flagship energy-efficiency scheme, according to campaigners. Publishing an analysis on how to improve the green deal, the UK ...
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Research and Markets: Energy Savings Guide for Home and Small Business
Wall Street Journal
This Energy Savings Guide is a detailed handbook for reducing energy usage at home, at the office, and on the road. It provides energy-saving tips that you can quickly implement: from efficiency in electricity usage to managing appliances, lighting ...
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Consider energy efficient home improvements
Toronto Sun
Whether you are well into your renovation, or about to start in short order, you should give some thought to incorporating energy efficient design and products for any upgrade or home improvement project. Homeowners are often concerned with the overall ...
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Energy-efficiency goes with territory
Otago Daily Times
Mr Macknight said although LED bulbs were expensive, the cost would be recouped in five years of energy savings. Unlike the one-off refurbishment cost, electricity costs were continuous so electricity efficiency was important, he said. The total cost ...
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Energy efficiency in buildings: Latvia is requested to comply with the EU law
The Baltic Course
In its monthly package of infringement decisions (June 2013), the European Commission has shown the way it is pursuing legal action against the member states for failing to comply properly with their obligations under EU law. Commission requested ...
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Energy Efficiency Case Study
Wiscasset Newspaper
Evergreen Home Performance has helped hundreds of homeowners gain comfort and cut costs with efficiency projects that pay for themselves. Learn about a Belfast, Maine project here, then contact us at 594-2244 to schedule your FREE energy consult.
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MIT, NStar renew energy-efficiency collaboration
Boston Globe
MIT and NStar said they have just concluded the first phase of a program called “MIT Efficiency Forward.” Its objective was to reduce campus energy use by 15 percent, a saving equivalent to the electricity used by 4,500 Massachusetts homes. Based on ...
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Energy efficiency grant for fruit growers
Business Spectator
Energy efficiency grant for fruit growers. By staff reporter 7 hours ago 1 · Climate · Smart Energy. Over half a million dollars granted for energy efficiency programs to Apple and Pear Australia. You must be logged in to read this article. Not a ...
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Energy efficient lighting: Nigeria could save over $1.4bn per year – UNEP
National Mirror
If a full transition to energy efficient lighting takes place in Nigeria, the nation could realise savings of over $1.4 billion per year, UN Under-Secretary General and Executive Director, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Achim Steiner and ...
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Energy efficient windows
Windsor Star
Fully loaded windows can also be intelligent allies in reducing your home's carbon footprint, save you money, increase your comfort level and even help clean themselves are available at Great Lakes Energy Products. One product that homeowners and ...
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Energy efficiency pays off for conservation minded Ceres newlyweds
Ceres Courier
By using LED light bulbs, all energy efficient appliances, a new energy efficient heating and air conditioning system, dual-pane windows and solar panels on the roof. The recently married couple moved to Ceres in February, buying a house built in 1988 ...
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Energy Efficiency How Obama's Climate Plan Will Boost US Energy Efficiency
Greentech Media
As part of his climate action plan, President Obama renewed his first-term commitment to efficiency standards with an ambitious, but achievable goal: reducing carbon pollution by a cumulative 3 billion metric tons by 2030 through standards for ...
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International energy efficiency expertise coming to Nova Scotia
The Burnside News
Building on last year's success, this year's conference brings international expertise to Nova Scotia to tackle topics such as making energy efficiency normal practice at work and home, to measuring energy efficiency effectiveness – a measurement of ...
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TXU Energy, Priority Power Management Cheer Energy Efficiency at George W ...
Wall Street Journal
With the George W. Bush Presidential Center now open for its third month and in the middle of a busy summer season, TXU Energy and Priority Power Management congratulate the center on its energy efficiency efforts and its top LEED certification.
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SCLAA receives energy efficiency information grant to assist supply chain and ...
Logistics Magazine - Australia
The Supply Chain and Logistics Association of Australia (SCLAA) has received a grant of $743,310 from the Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism to develop and deliver a comprehensive and targeted program for Australian transport and logistics ...
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Eurora Ranked Most Energy Efficient Supercomputer
Data Center Knowledge
Energy efficiency, as measured in performance per watt, is the key metric for the Green 500 list, which highlights the systems that combine power and efficiency. The Green 500 was established as a counterpoint to the Top500 list of the most powerful ...
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Cree Propels University of North Carolina Energy-Saving Initiatives
Wall Street Journal
An alliance of 13 UNC campuses and several affiliated organizations, spanning 27 million square feet, will leverage Cree(R) LED luminaires, including the revolutionary CR24(TM) architectural LED troffers, to deliver fast payback, energy efficiency and ...
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Is The United States Becoming More Energy Efficient?
The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) have released a White Paper entitled “Energy Efficiency: Is the United States Improving?” in which they begin what they hope to be “an annual effort to examine and characterise the overall ...
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County's Innovative Energy Efficiency Program Attracts State Attention
Santa Barbara Independent
The funding allows the program to continue to help homeowners overcome obstacles to implementing home energy efficiency while also supporting job growth in the local residential construction industry. It also affords the opportunity to expand emPower's ...
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Florida launches energy saving website to help you increase your home's ...
TALLAHASSEE, Fla. - Tired of your high electric bill in the summer? The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services wants to help you make your home more energy efficient. You can analyze your current energy usage and find energy-efficient ...
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ENERGY > EBRD begins 2nd round of energy saving funds
Hurriyet Daily News
Sun said the priority for the SMEs was not to build up their competitive power, by investing in energy saving or renewable energy projects, but rather to seek cheaper financing options for short-term solutions. Still, the program attained energy ...
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Charity groups earn savings through energy efficiency
Anniston Star
The United Way of East Central Alabama, a nonprofit that provides funding for about 23 charities in Calhoun and Randolph counties, recently upgraded its main building in Anniston with energy-efficient lighting, thanks to a $8,500 grant from the Alabama ...
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Additional energy efficiency incentives to boost Green Deal
Utility Week
A variable council tax would see owners of energy efficiency homes pay a lower rate, and analysis predicts up to 1,481,000 additional retrofits per year. However, one major challenge would be the requirement for all homes to have an Energy Performance ...
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Commission says EU-China energy efficiency links are 'deepening'
Nan Zhou, an expert in China's energy efficiency programmes, told EurActiv that China would be particularly interested in the EU's passive housing technology, energy labelling schemes and regulatory codes. “Europe's experience in district heating ...
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Energy Efficiency Firm Fined £45k For Nuisance Calls
TechWeekEurope UK
A company selling solar panels and insulation has been fined £45,000 for “blighting the public” with nuisance calls, the Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) said today. Tameside Energy Services would have been hit with a £90,000 fine but the ICO ...
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House of the Week| Energy-efficient neocolonial in Arlington for $1.1M
Washington Post
The house's Home Energy Rating System index, which indicates energy efficiency based on factors including insulation and heating, is 57 — meaning it is 46 percent more energy efficient than a standard new home. This efficiency could save owners about ...
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Fruit growers get grant to find energy savings
ABC Online
Australian fruit growers have received a Federal Government grant to help identify energy savings in their farms and packing sheds. Apple and Pear Australia Limited will use the $636,970 to audit fruit growers and suggest ways they can cut costs.
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Livestock: Energy efficient livestock heating
Farming UK
Two heat exchangers within the heaters ensure maximum energy efficiency, an important focus with the ongoing increase in energy costs. The exchangers capture residual heat from the flue gases and transfer it into the water being heated. This condensing ...
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Ivie boarding school implements energy efficiency pilot project
News of Belarus
IVIE, 5 July (BelTA) – A pilot project in energy efficiency has been implemented at the Ivie boarding school. The completion of the project was marked on 5 July at a solemn gathering featuring local and regional authorities, a delegation of the ...
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Customers encouraged to consider energy efficiency tips during hot summer ...
Princeton Daily Clarion
With the official start of summer underway, Vectren is reminding customers to consider ways to conserve energy to help manage summer energy bills. “Southwestern Indiana's extreme heat and humidity has historically taken its toll on customers' air ...
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What Can the Energy Efficiency Industry Learn From the Oakland A's?
Greentech Media
Energy efficiency programs are undergoing major changes, and many constituents are demanding better results for their dollars. Today's programs will not be here tomorrow if they don't start adapting to coming changes. The good news is that today's ...
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New Financing Model for Home-Energy Efficiency Upgrades Goes to Governor
Homeowners in Rhode Island can increase the energy efficiency of their homes under a new model of financing that was approved by the General Assembly last week. The legislation would allow homeowners in participating cities and towns to access a ...
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Alfa Laval Wins SEK 80 Million Energy-Efficiency Order in the Middle East
Wall Street Journal
"Energy efficiency is becoming increasingly important and we have the products and solutions to contribute to a more sustainable energy supply", says Lars Renström, President and CEO of the Alfa Laval Group. "This order confirms our strong position in ...
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Verka milk plant gets energy-saving device
Hindustan Times
The EHP system was installed by engineers from the Japan International Corporation Agency (JICA), which is working in tandem with The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) to promote the application of low-carbon technology in India, she added.
See all stories on this topic » Releases 5 Tips for Consumers on Purchasing Energy Efficient ...
Today, is releasing five tips on purchasing energy efficient appliances. When consumers look at their energy use, they'll notice that all the major appliances, including their refrigerator, washer and dryer and dishwasher, are ...
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Morgan County Council questions energy efficiency construction
The amendment was passed on first reading by the Morgan County Commissioners at their meeting on Monday morning. The council also discussed — but didn't vote on — spending $1,172,612 to improve energy efficiency in some of the county's buildings.
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Do you qualify for a energy-efficient home rebate?
Fairbanks Daily News-Miner
The “Ask a Builder” series is dedicated to answering some of the many questions Fairbanks residents have about building, energy and the many other parts of home life. FAIRBANKS — Those building an energy-efficient house in Alaska could qualify for a ...
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Lockport moves forward on energy-efficiency deal with Power Authority
Buffalo News
LOCKPORT – The Common Council this week took another step toward an anticipated package on energy-efficiency upgrades to be funded by the New York Power Authority. The Council voted to accept the authority's proposal to spend $17,057 on designs ...
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Schools tackle energy efficiency
Market Rasen Mail
30 schools across the county have signed up to the county council scheme to help improve energy efficiency, with each school appointing carbon ambassadors to make it happen. And among the SCoRE programme - Schools Collaboration on Resource ...
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Energy management certification can help boost efficiency, reduce consumption
Creamer Media's Engineering News
Energy management standards, such as the ISO 50001 Energy Management certification, are crucial to businesses facing energy constraints, Certification Europe founder and director Dr John Ryan argued at the recent Eastern Cape Energy Efficiency ...
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Australia to improve energy efficiency by Clean Energy package
Global Times
Australian government will improve energy efficiency through helping 139 energy efficiency projects run by businesses, councils and community groups under the Clean Energy package, Minister for Resources and Energy Gary Gray announced on ...
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Munters launches energy efficient fan series
The European Parliament ErP directive (Energy related Products Directive) was adopted in order to protect the environment and assist the Kyoto Protocol obligation to increase the total share of renewable energy in the European Union to 20% by 2020 and ...
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New software shows energy efficiency of homes
Clean Energy Authority
b_275_0_16777215_00_images_news_201307_SC_EnergyExplorer-3a-cmyk.jpg Perhaps you've replaced your old washer and dryer with new energy-efficient machines. Maybe you've added solar panels to power your home. But how energy efficient is ...
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Fostering a culture of energy efficiency
Manufacturing Digital
When a message is repeated there's a danger that we no longer hear it anymore. There's also a danger that we don't go far enough to maximise energy efficiency because we believe we've already done all we can. We need to challenge those assumptions ...
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Canyon home an example of prime energy efficiency
But inside, this nearly 3,000-square-foot house in Butte Creek Canyon is uncommon, relying on a technique called "advanced framing" to lessen wood use and increase energy efficiency. Scattered throughout the $400,000 project are construction techniques ...
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Competition in GTA helps drive demand for energy efficient homes, upgrades
Toronto Star
Homeowners have become more aware and educated about saving energy. Whether it's driven by comfort or by cost-saving, it's also good for the environment. Canada's homebuilders have embraced energy efficiency as an essential part of meeting customer ...
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California's Energy Efficiency Model Can Help Meet the President's Climate Goals
Natural Resources Defense Council (blog)
California's 40 years of remarkable success in using energy efficiency to avoid dirty power generation and save utility customers billions, as detailed in a new NRDC fact sheet released today, offers valuable lessons to help meet President Obama's ...
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Frost & Sullivan Finds Demand for Greater Energy Efficiency is Driving ...
The building sector is one of the primary consumers of energy in Europe, accounting for 40 percent of energy demand and 30 percent of greenhouse gas emissions. This has underlined the need for improved energy efficiency in both existing and new ...
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Energy Efficiency, Community Partnerships Help Data Center Development
National Real Estate Investor
"Energy Efficiency, Community Partnerships Help Data Center Development" is FREE to access as a registered user on Why Register for NREIonline? It's simple and free, and here is what you get: Access to leading real estate industry ...
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          Ð¡Ð°Ð»Ñ„етки одноразовые Tento 15 шт.        
Салфетки одноразовые Tento 15 шт. Мягкие и плотные салфетки (носовички) без запаха. Страна производитель Словакия. G M T Detect languageAfrikaansAlbanianArabicArmenianAzerbaijaniBasqueBelarusianBengaliBosnianBulgarianCatalanCebuanoChichewaChinese (Simplified)Chinese (Traditional)CroatianCzechDanishDutchEnglishEsperantoEstonianFilipinoFinnishFrenchGalicianGeorgianGermanGreekGujaratiHaitian CreoleHausaHebrewHindiHmongHungarianIcelandicIgboIndonesianIrishItalianJapaneseJavaneseKannadaKazakhKhmerKoreanLaoLatinLatvianLithuanianMacedonianMalagasyMalayMalayalamMalteseMaoriMarathiMongolianMyanmar (Burmese)NepaliNorwegianPersianPolishPortuguesePunjabiRomanianRussianSerbianSesothoSinhalaSlovakSlovenianSomaliSpanishSundaneseSwahiliSwedishTajikTamilTeluguThaiTurkishUkrainianUrduUzbekVietnameseWelshYiddishYorubaZulu AfrikaansAlbanianArabicArmenianAzerbaijaniBasqueBelarusianBengaliBosnianBulgarianCatalanCebuanoChichewaChinese (Simplified)Chinese (Traditional)CroatianCzechDanishDutchEnglishEsperantoEstonianFilipinoFinnishFrenchGalicianGeorgianGermanGreekGujaratiHaitian CreoleHausaHebrewHindiHmongHungarianIcelandicIgboIndonesianIrishItalianJapaneseJavaneseKannadaKazakhKhmerKoreanLaoLatinLatvianLithuanianMacedonianMalagasyMalayMalayalamMalteseMaoriMarathiMongolianMyanmar (Burmese)NepaliNorwegianPersianPolishPortuguesePunjabiRomanianRussianSerbianSesothoSinhalaSlovakSlovenianSomaliSpanishSundaneseSwahiliSwedishTajikTamilTeluguThaiTurkishUkrainianUrduUzbekVietnameseWelshYiddishYorubaZulu Text-to-speech function is limited to 100 characters Options : History : Help : FeedbackClose
          Your club’s worst player... EVER! As voted for by the fans        
Accrington Stanley (Justin Jackson) By Lee Walker (@leewasi) Stanley have had some truly abysmal strikers over the years, but the majority of those arrived on free transfers or loans, and with little or no previous history. Jackson, however, is an exception to the rule having been signed for £150,000 by his previous club Doncaster. Perhaps we should have known when Rovers’ chairman decided to pay up his contract. Still, having arrived on a free, much was expected of Jackson after productive spells in the Conference, where he was top scorer in the 1999/2000 season. It wasn’t to be: after a couple of appearances (including one of Stanley's classic FA Cup wins against Huddersfield in 2003, it should be noted) he was moved on six weeks later after failing to turn up for training. You can see Jackson below, wearing No.24, dancing around during the celebrations against Huddersfield. Needless to say, he’s not remembered for much else. AFC Wimbledon (Andre Blackman) By Gary Jordan (@Gazjor1) The 26-year-old-back left-back was on the books of both Arsenal and Tottenham at youth level – but that’s as good as it got. After being released by Bristol City for a “disciplinary matter”, he landed at AFC Wimbledon in June 2010. An OK pre-season included a winner against an Arsenal XI, and he duly got the nod for first-team duties. But only 13 league appearances (and six yellow cards) later, Blackman was deemed “surplus to requirements”. His temperament always overshadowed any ability he may have had. Unbelievably he landed at Celtic next – if not for long – but duly failed to hit double figures for appearances at seven clubs after AFC Wimbledon (including a brief stint in Morocco). He’s now finally found a home at Crawley, where he’s a first-team regular. (There’s no AFC Wimbledon clip, but this sums him up nicely.) Arsenal (Igor Stepanovs) By Tim Stillman (@Stillberto) Like Gus Caesar, Stepanovs will only ever be remembered for one game. Arsenal travelled to Old Trafford in February 2001 with a depleted defence; thus, a back four of Oleg Luzhny, Gilles Grimandi, a young Ashley Cole and Stepanovs were torn limb from limb by United, who had raced into a 5-1 lead by half-time and eventually won 6-1. Dwight Yorke had netted a hat trick by the 35th minute, with the gangly Latvian centre-back trailing comically in his wake. That Stepanovs started nine consecutive games in the spring of 2002 – during the Gunners’ Double-winning run – will be forgotten, his brief Arsenal legacy forever besmirched by that fateful afternoon in Manchester. Ray Parlour spins a good yarn about him and his Gunners team-mates deliberately overstating Stepanovs’ ability to Arsene Wenger while the stopper was on trial, in order to wind up the notoriously anxious Martin Keown. Talk about a joke backfiring. Aston Villa (Aleksandar Tonev) By Ian Woodcock (@Ian_A_Woodcock) The words ‘worst’ and ‘Aston Villa’ have spent a concerning amount of time together over recent years. So with that in mind, I've plumped for a player who was – if only briefly – part of the club's decline. Aleksandar Tonev arrived at Villa Park in the summer of 2013 with a recommendation from countryman and Villa legend Stiliyan Petrov, plus the customary YouTube video of him scoring goals from miles out. Sadly, what Villa got was a midfielder who couldn’t tackle, pass or cross. The shots which had bothered Bulgarian nets now either flew over the bar or dribbled forlornly past the post. Not that it stopped Tonev attempting them from 40 yards whenever he’d found his way onto the pitch. Villa won just two of his 17 league appearances, and he was farmed out on loan to Celtic for the next season. Tonev endured an equally unhappy time north of the border after he was handed a seven-match ban for racially abusing Aberdeen full-back Shay Logan. He's currently on the verge of being relegated to Serie B with Crotone, having achieved the same feat with Frosinone last season. Aleksandar the not-so-great. Barnet (Mark Flashman) By @Barnet_Bee Check outthe forum threadyourself:Flashman has cropped up a number of times in there. Even then, the comments perhaps don’t justify him. Mark Flashman, son of then-chairman Stan, played a number of games under Barry Fry in the late 1980s. Whether or not he was in the team because of family relations is for the cynics to decide but, playing second fiddle to regular keeper Gary Phillips, he enjoyed a few run-outs in the first team. Flashman played the final day of one Conference season, with the first team rested for a local League Cup final the next day, and had an utter howler as they were humiliated 5-1. During one reserves game he received some heckling from a Barnet fan, which riled Daddy Stan enough to ask whether the critic ‘would like to keep his legs’. He replied that it would do the club a favour if Mark lost his – and quickly left the stadium. Accrington-Barnet•Barnsley-Blackpool•Bolton-Brentford•Brighton-Burnley•Burton-Cardiff•Carlisle-Cheltenham•Chesterfield-Crawley•Crewe-Doncaster•Everton-Fulham•Gillingham-Huddersfield•Hull-Leicester•Leyton Orient-Man City•Man United-Millwall•MK Dons-Newport•Northampton-Notts County•Oldham-Plymouth•Portsmouth-QPR•Reading-Scunthorpe•Sheffield United-Southampton•Southend-Sunderland•Swansea-Walsall•Watford-Wigan•Wolves-YeovilBarnsley (Mounir El Haimour) By Simon Gaskell (@simongaskell) Honourable mentions go to Kevin Donovan, Don Goodman, Deon Burton, Isaiah Rankin and Lee Crooks, but it’s a man who arrived from Swiss football that sadly sticks in the memory. Moroccan Mounir El Haimour was one of a number of imports brought in by Simon Davey during the summer of 2008, arriving from Copy Paste’s Neuchâtel Xamax. And while no doubt arriving in Barnsley was a culture shock for him, watching El Haimour play was an even bigger shock for Tykes. The winger was a stooping, diminutive character, and what he lacked in stature he by no means made up for in technique. He was ostensibly a playmaker as left-footed as Lionel Messi – just without goals, assists or ability to pass accurately to a bloke stood 10 metres away. Thankfully he was often on the bench, and I have a clear memory of the half-time drill where subs stand in a circle and attempt to keep the ball in the air. It regularly broke down when it got to El Haimour. His Wikipedia page seems stuck in time; the most up-to-date entry says he is unemployed after being released by Barnsley (in 2010), suggesting he was unable to find another club following his time in South Yorkshire. It really is little wonder. Birmingham City (Carlo(s) Costly) By Luke Turner (@lukeee_96) He seems to have changed his first name to 'Carlo' since, but he was definitely 'Carlos' when he was at Birmingham. And he was also rubbish. Birmingham have never been blessed with outstanding quality, which makes choosing the worst player we've ever had very difficult. But still: former Honduras striker Costly manages to stick out. Brought in on loan to help add goals and win the Blues promotion, Costly failed to score in eight appearances for Alex McLeish’s side in the 2008/09 Championship season. A horrendous one-on-one miss against Crystal Palace in his first start set the tone for his stay, and the team scored just once while he was on the pitch. Birmingham still went up but it certainly didn’t have anything to do with the Honduran. Costly is best remembered for his trademark drag-back skill known as the ‘Costlynha’ back in Honduras, which was mocked by the St Andrew’s crowd every time he attempted it. Perhaps most impressive, though, was how he managed to fall over his own feet in the warm-up before one game. The bizarre thing is that Costly actually has a decent record at both club and international level. Sadly for us, though, his stay in the West Midlands didn’t live up to expectation. Blackburn Rovers (Leon Best) By Mike Delap (@MikeyDelap) I did a little crowdsourcing on this one via Twitter, and a lot of the votes were cast for players who've ‘graced’ the club over the last four or five years. That’s unsurprising really, since we've been terrible in the main. Someone who can’t escape this, however, is Leon Best. Signed to mild fanfare from Newcastle for relatively eye-watering money – over £3m, plus wages near £40,000 per week – Best spent about three weeks being useful (post-major injury setback) and then the rest of his time causing dressing room unrest, being loathed for his attitude, packed off on loan ruining other club's efforts, and posting on Instagram. We've had plenty of rubbish players in our time, but rarely to such disruptive effect. Blackpool (Richard Kingson) By Kieran Newcombe (@kierannewcombe) The Ghanaian goalkeeper came in part-way through the 2010/11 Premier League season as back-up to Matt Gilks – but (unfortunately) he was called into action after an injury to Gilks ruled him out for the rest of the season. Kingson came in and had moments of brilliance, but will unfortunately be remembered for his moments of madness. In one game at Blackburn in March 2011, Blackpool threw away a 2-0 lead to draw 2-2, with Junior Hoilett scoring in injury time after Kingson had fluffed his handling of a free-kick. Many Pool fans put a sizeable amount of blame for relegation on his shoulders, and it came as no surprise when he was released at the end of the season. It was two years before he got another club, in Cyprus; since then he’s played in Turkey, and is currently back in his hometown of Accra, Ghana. Accrington-Barnet•Barnsley-Blackpool•Bolton-Brentford•Brighton-Burnley•Burton-Cardiff•Carlisle-Cheltenham•Chesterfield-Crawley•Crewe-Doncaster•Everton-Fulham•Gillingham-Huddersfield•Hull-Leicester•Leyton Orient-Man City•Man United-Millwall•MK Dons-Newport•Northampton-Notts County•Oldham-Plymouth•Portsmouth-QPR•Reading-Scunthorpe•Sheffield United-Southampton•Southend-Sunderland•Swansea-Walsall•Watford-Wigan•Wolves-YeovilBolton Wanderers (Gerald Cid) By Tom Winrow When deciding upon Bolton's worst-ever player, the chances were that it was always going to be a Sam Allardyce signing. Sure, the Dudley-ite had an eye for untapped potential, but he often saw abilities in a player that were never really there. For every unearthed gem, there was a disaster story. For every Jay-Jay Okocha, a Blessing Kaku. For every Djorkaeff, a Jardel. Step forward Allardyce's last-ever Bolton signing, Gerald Cid. Labelled by Big Sam in 2006 as "one of the best young defenders in France", Cid would go on to make just 14 appearances for Wanderers, finding himself on the losing side eight times. One anomaly in his otherwise-horrendous Bolton career was the surprisingly brilliant performance in the 2-2 Europa League draw with Bayern Munich at the Allianz Arena. Cid left the Reebok after just 18 months at the club when his contract was cancelled by "mutual consent". Both parties mutually agreed that he shouldn't be seen anywhere near a Premier League football pitch again. Following two seasons at Nice he retired in 2010, aged just 27, citing a loss of love for football. Bournemouth (Frank Demouge) By Chris Lines (@NarrowTheAngle) It would seem a prerequisite for a club’s worst-ever player to be one who promised much and delivered nothing. Step forward, then, Frank Demouge. Signed in 2012 at the recommendation of the board (uh oh), he sounded like the sort of talismanic striker Bournemouth needed. Described as big and powerful, Demouge had a pedigree of scoring hatfuls in Dutch football. But as we know, goals in the Eredivisie are like dog years in reverse; divide by seven to get your expected goal return in England. What we also failed to deduce in our doubtless-rigorous and in no way quarter-arsed scouting of Big Frank was that he was, in fact, the first Airfix model footballer, assembled out of balsa wood and Pritt Stick by a cack-handed child. Even the BBC website story announcing his signing was accompanied by a photo of him with a heavily bandaged head and a black eye. In one of his two (two!) appearances, he even managed to break his chin. Who breaks their chin? “He will cause teams problems,” said blank-faced simpleton boss Paul Groves. The only team he caused a problem for was Bournemouth. Bradford (Jason Gavin) By Jason McKeown (@TheWidthofaPost) The 2003/04 season was supposed to be a celebration for Bradford. Instead, we marked our centenary by going into administration and feebly getting relegated. Our cause was undermined by a backline that featured Jason Gavin. Gavin was a young Middlesbrough defender with a supposedly-bright future – amazingly, he’d played 31 Premier League games. But after joining the Bantams we failed to see that pedigree. Week in, week out, City would toil hard but make mistakes at the back that lost them the game – and in so many of those weeks, they came from Gavin. He wasn’t comfortable on the ball, nor strong in the air, and when an opposition player received the ball in the box he exuded panic. For his general ineptitude, and association with one of City’s worst-ever seasons, Gavin’s name can still trigger an involuntary shudder for those of us who endured his 41 appearances in claret and amber. (He is No.17 and gives away the penalty six seconds in.) Brentford (Murray Jones) By Nick Bruzon (@NickBruzon) Neil Shipperley. Steve Claridge. Nick Proschwitz. John Swift. We’ve had some stinkers over the years. Yet ask any five Brentford fans who our worst-ever footballer was and you can guarantee at least five of them will mention one name: Murray Jones. It wasn’t that he was bad – he was beyond that. Ali Dia will forever be the great fraud, but it was almost as though the same stunt had been tried at Griffin Park back in 1992/93, after centre-back Keith Millen had apparently recommended the player to Bees management. With Brentford having finally reached the second tier, Jones was tasked with filling the boots of Premier League-bound Dean Holdsworth. Deano’s 38 goals from 52 appearances in our title-winning season had earned him a move to Wimbledon, and so Jones was brought in to replace him from Grimsby. Yet while Dia lasted less than an hour before he was eventually rumbled, striker Jones limped on for 20 appearances until March 1993 without scoring. Nobody could doubt his effort, but it was painful to watch; there was an almost-ghoulish interest in wondering how long his streak would last. Eventually, even manager Phil Holder had to call it a day. The nadir came in Jones’s failure to find the net against nine-man Swindon. Murray truly was anything but mint (although he did later play in China for a bit, so perhaps he was just cool before his time). Accrington-Barnet•Barnsley-Blackpool•Bolton-Brentford•Brighton-Burnley•Burton-Cardiff•Carlisle-Cheltenham•Chesterfield-Crawley•Crewe-Doncaster•Everton-Fulham•Gillingham-Huddersfield•Hull-Leicester•Leyton Orient-Man City•Man United-Millwall•MK Dons-Newport•Northampton-Notts County•Oldham-Plymouth•Portsmouth-QPR•Reading-Scunthorpe•Sheffield United-Southampton•Southend-Sunderland•Swansea-Walsall•Watford-Wigan•Wolves-YeovilBrighton (Michael Mahoney-Johnson) Scott McCarthy (@wearebrighton) Playing in a side that finished second-bottom of the entire Football League with 35 points, saved only from non-league football by the sheer miracle that there was a Doncaster team even worse, it takes something special to look more useless than your terrible team-mates. Take a bow, then, Michael Mahoney-Johnson. The striker arrived at the Albion on loan from QPR, playing a grand total of four games. Those four games ended 0-0, 0-2, 0-0 and 0-0, with Mahoney-Johnson particularly distinguished by failing to manage a shot on target, let alone score a goal. Needless to say, his temporary stay wasn’t extended. The fact we’re now able to lump into the same bracket a player who’s racked up millions in transfer fees like Leon Best, after an equally disastrous loan spell in 2014/15, shows how far we’ve come in the last 20 years. Bristol City (Bas Savage) By Patrick Connolly (@Bristolpat) Savage was a much-loved figure at Ashton Gate, and is still talked about affectionately today. He always gave 100%, and because of this became a cult hero with the fans. It’s just that he wasn’t very good at football. Bas was a 6ft 3in centre-forward. He joined in 2005 having played 25 career games elsewhere, and never having scored a goal. We soon saw why. Recently I was reminded of the time when Bas trapped the ball and made a short pass. The Bristol City crowd erupted like we’d won the Champions League. It’s a little harsh to call him our worst-ever player when so many better men have played so terribly for us; not least Nicky Hunt, Jody Morris and ex-England keeper David James. But still: Savage played 23 games for City and scored one goal. His celebration is still remembered by everyone who was there – and many who weren’t. Bristol Rovers (Andy Spring) By Nathan Bees (@nathbees) In taking to Twitter to gauge the opinion of Gasheads about who deserved this title, my phone went into meltdown. I instantly received dozens of notifications nominating the same player: Andy Spring – a legend for all the wrong reasons. He featured for us before I was born, but the general consensus is that he was an “overweight, untalented, unfit, Sunday League defender”. One Gashead said his step-dad used to laugh out loud every time Spring touched the ball in sheer disbelief that a player so bad was being paid to play professionally. That in itself might make him a worthy recipient of this accolade, but he achieved notoriety for his off-field antics rather than his lack of ability. He was sacked by Rovers after being found guilty of burglary, moved to Ireland and then, unbelievably, won the Irish national lottery! Where is the justice? Burnley (Leon Cort) Jamie Smith (@NoNayNever) Burnley's worst-ever player might be a touch harsh, but Leon Cort is certainly the club's worst player for a long time. Bought by Brian Laws from Stoke in 2010 to shore up a leaky defence after Owen Coyle's defection to Bolton, the centre-back frequently seemed confused as to what he was doing playing in the Premier League – a feeling supporters shared. Lacking mobility to the extent of looking like Bambi’s slow cousin on ice, Cort was a sign of the club’s muddled thinking back then. He cost over £2m in fees and wages – loads for Burnley at that time – before being bombed out to League One Charlton after just 19 appearances. Urgh. Accrington-Barnet•Barnsley-Blackpool•Bolton-Brentford•Brighton-Burnley•Burton-Cardiff•Carlisle-Cheltenham•Chesterfield-Crawley•Crewe-Doncaster•Everton-Fulham•Gillingham-Huddersfield•Hull-Leicester•Leyton Orient-Man City•Man United-Millwall•MK Dons-Newport•Northampton-Notts County•Oldham-Plymouth•Portsmouth-QPR•Reading-Scunthorpe•Sheffield United-Southampton•Southend-Sunderland•Swansea-Walsall•Watford-Wigan•Wolves-YeovilBurton Albion (Guy Branston) By Anton Williams (@monkeynuts87) Since joining the Football League in 2009, the Brewers have made a few interesting signings who split opinion. For me, though, the worst player we’ve had on our books in that time was Guy Branston. Supposedly an experienced centre-half in League football, Branston came to the Brewers from Kettering and was made club captain – but by January he was being loaned to Torquay after a less-than-impressive few months at Burton. In his brief spell with the Brewers he made 19 appearances – and managed to get himself sent off three times. (Not from his Burton days, but Guy in shapshot. Accompanying commentary necessary.) We never really found out the true potential of his football ability, but his conduct on and off the pitch is what the Brewers fans remember about him. As Jeff Stelling used to say on Soccer Saturday when Guy was sent off: “Oh dear, Branston’s got himself in a pickle again.” Bury (Gareth Roberts) By Liam Smith (@liam_bish_smith) After Bury's relegation to League Two following a dismal 2012/13 season, boss Kevin Blackwell had the task of rebuilding a squad to compete in the fourth tier. One of his first signings of the season was Gareth Roberts. The 35-year-old had played 29 Championship games for Derby in the previous campaign, and was quickly declared the new captain of the club. Fans were excited about the new additions – but that didn’t last long. The Shakers were defeated 2-0 on the opening day of the season, and it quickly became apparent that Gareth turned at a slower rate than milk. After a few games Bury found themselves just above the relegation zone, and Roberts was taking a lot of the blame. At times it felt like a five-year-old could organise a romantic weekend in Rome better than Roberts could marshal a defence. Unsurprisingly, he went on to make just 13 appearances for the Shakers that season before being released in January by new boss David Flitcroft. Roberts’ agent worked his magic and miraculously got him a move to League One side Notts County, where he played six times as they marginally avoided relegation. Cambridge United (Daryl Clare) By Scott McGeorge (@Scotty_mc10) Clare arrived from Gateshead for £10,000 in 2010, which seemed like a decent piece of business considering he’d been a regular thorn in our side during his time in Conference football. The striker signed a two-year deal but only lasted 15 months at the club, managing a solitary goal in 20 appearances – much to the dismay of the Cambridge fans who’d been purring at the thought of seeing the possibly-potent frontman in amber and black. Instead, Clare was turfed out on loan to Alfreton and mutually released from his contract shortly after. Cardiff (Guylain Ndumbu-Nsungu) By Steve Davies-Evans (@The_Real_SDE) It's sad that trying to think of the worst-ever Cardiff player is a lot harder than you might think. Like everyone else we’ve had some absolute howlers, and although they didn't make the final cut, there are big shout-outs to the likes of Dean Gordon, Stephen Bywater, Dimi Konstantopoulos and J-Lloyd Samuel – all particularly terrible when they pulled on a Bluebirds shirt. But after much deliberation and a lack of sleep, I ended up plumping for the one and only Guylain Ndumbu-Nsungu. Dave Jones did some fantastic business during his time at Cardiff, but signing the man affectionately known as "Congo Dave" did not fall into such a bracket. The striker (apparently) with an unspellable name was signed from Darlington in January 2006 after he’d scored 10 goals in 20 games for the Quakers. In reality, though, he was better at finding half-time fans’ Bovrils than the back of the net. No goals in 11 appearances for Cardiff meant he was released at the end of the season, but he’ll forever remain in Bluebirds folklore... I think. Accrington-Barnet•Barnsley-Blackpool•Bolton-Brentford•Brighton-Burnley•Burton-Cardiff•Carlisle-Cheltenham•Chesterfield-Crawley•Crewe-Doncaster•Everton-Fulham•Gillingham-Huddersfield•Hull-Leicester•Leyton Orient-Man City•Man United-Millwall•MK Dons-Newport•Northampton-Notts County•Oldham-Plymouth•Portsmouth-QPR•Reading-Scunthorpe•Sheffield United-Southampton•Southend-Sunderland•Swansea-Walsall•Watford-Wigan•Wolves-YeovilCarlisle (Steve Livingstone) By Lee Rooney (@leerooney) Following in the footsteps of his father Joe Livingstone – 42 goals in 82 appearances for Carlislein the 1960s – Steve arrived from Grimsby (where he remains a popular figure) in the summer of 2003. He was meant to fill the targetman void, but his career at Brunton Park was an unmitigated disaster. He was sent off barely half an hour into his debut on the opening day of the season against York after a clash with Chris Brass (he of wonderful own goal fame, who Livingstone appeared to bite). Boss Paul Simpson (who’d replaced Roddy Collins, the man who signed Steve) tried him out at centre-back after a hopeless run up front – but his first game in the new role led to yet another red card, this time against Lincoln. The stats speak for themselves: nine appearances, three yellow cards, two red cards and zero goals. Livingstone retired early in January 2004, and it’s safe to say no one in Cumbria was particularly gutted to see him leave. Charlton (Yohann Thuram-Ulien) By Matias Grez (@matias_grez) The name alone is enough to send a shiver down spines – Thuram-Ulien quickly proved that he and cousin Lillian don't share a single strand of footballing DNA. He isn’t just named here for his inability to even slightly resemble a competent professional goalkeeper, but for what he symbolises under the current Roland Duchatelet regime too. According to reports, former manager Chris Powell was ordered to play him (by Duchatelet, of course) ahead of Ben Hamer for four matches (results: L3 D1). After that he went AWOL, refusing to travel to a game at Leeds in a huff at not being played regularly. In truth, any number of signings from Duchatelet's European network could have taken the crown. But for his sheer incompetence it has to be Thuram-Ulien – not even Powell’s replacement, the Duchatelet yes man Jose Riga, thought he was good enough. Chelsea (Chris Sutton) By @ChelseaStats Sutton isn’t Chelsea’s worst-ever player, but he’s high on the list for disappointment –enough to earn him this vote, anyway. The striker joined the Blues for a hefty £10m from Blackburn in 1999, with a rich top-flight scoring pedigree and Premier League winner’s medal to his name. But he failed to live up to expectations, scoring just three goals in 39 appearances in all competitions. The only highlight was his solitary league goal against Manchester United in a 5-0 win for Claudio Ranieri’s side, and it came as no surprise when he was sold to Celtic a year and six days after joining, for £6m. Sutton's rare moment of glory at 0:33 For me, that expenditure and subsequent disappointment ranks him above the likes of Mineiro and Slavisa Jokanovic. Cheltenham (Craig Braham-Barrett) By Oli Fell (@OJF97) Cheltenham's relegated side of 2015 featured a number of contenders for this unwanted title, but it’s Braham-Barrett who claims it. (Just a dishonourable mention for Mathieu Manset, then.) Braham-Barrett initially signed on loan in the 2013/14 season, but after impressing early on in the season he was offered a two-year-deal. After joining permanently, though, his performances spiralled badly and he could never regain his form. However, his 'crowning' moment at the club was undoubtedly when he – along with Jermaine McGlashan – admitted to not trying in a training session before a 2-0 defeat at Rochdale. Exposed by keeper Scott Brown in an interview after the game, Braham-Barrett issued an apology to Cheltenham fans and only spent one more year at the club. In the years he was with us, Cheltenham finished 16th and 23rd – the latter our first relegation back to non-league. He currently plies his trade for Braintree Town. Accrington-Barnet•Barnsley-Blackpool•Bolton-Brentford•Brighton-Burnley•Burton-Cardiff•Carlisle-Cheltenham•Chesterfield-Crawley•Crewe-Doncaster•Everton-Fulham•Gillingham-Huddersfield•Hull-Leicester•Leyton Orient-Man City•Man United-Millwall•MK Dons-Newport•Northampton-Notts County•Oldham-Plymouth•Portsmouth-QPR•Reading-Scunthorpe•Sheffield United-Southampton•Southend-Sunderland•Swansea-Walsall•Watford-Wigan•Wolves-YeovilChesterfield (Jason Lee) By Rob Cole (@robcole_91) There’s a vast choice of players I’ve questioned who could possibly be professional at Chesterfield. Jason Lee is one – our record signing who managed one measly goal in 44 games, tripping over his shoelaces after rounding the goalkeeper. Was there ever a bigger waste of £250,000? Not at Chesterfield, anyway. “It was disgusting, the old Saltergate,” Lee huffed on Soccer AM years later. “I was the record signing and the club signed me on the premise that they’d be getting a new stadium – but I didn’t see it. It was just horrible.” Lee had three seasons of top-flight football behind him at Nottingham Forest, and the year before signing for us had helped Graham Taylor’s Watford win the old Second Division with 10 league goals. In truth, the only reason he signed for us was because he didn’t want to move his family out of Nottingham, and we were close – but how we wish he hadn’t. In his second season he was chucked out on loan to Peterborough, then joined them permanently before sliding down the League system. Colchester United (Adrian Coote) By Jon Waldron (@JonWaldron1) There wasn’t much doubt about striker Coote’s ability or talent – anyone who can make more than 50 appearances for a club like Norwich and also represent his country can hardly be lacking in skill. But when the Northern Ireland international arrived at Colchester in 2001 for a then-club record fee of £50,000, a great deal more was expected of him than what was ultimately produced – which is why his abject failure at Layer Road was such a huge disappointment at the time. After less than two years at Colchester – and having mustered a measly four goals – the striker was released by mutual consent. Coote ended up playing at the U’s neighbours Wivenhoe Town and a succession of other non-league minnows, before hanging up his boots while still in his early thirties. Coventry (Kevin Kyle) By Laurence Kilpatrick (@Thelonelyseason) After sifting through the glut of Sky Blue contenders, it’s only fair to shame someone who’s tarnished at least a season’s worth of fixtures with their singular breed of ineptitude. Admittedly, it wasn’t his fault that he – the human tower of Buckfast – was signed as cultured golden boy Gary McSheffrey’s overpaid replacement (a decision about as progressive as lobbing your 3D printer out the window and dusting off the hammer and sickle). In Kyle’s own words: “I was on a hiding to nothing from the start.” Whether it was his predecessor’s shadow, or the blend of lazy, attritional football his brutal physicality encouraged, Kyle was universally disliked – a fact not lost on his big, angry face. In his best game for the club, a 2-1 home win over Southampton, he got an assist and a goal – but in classic Kyle style (and who can blame him?) even his celebration was a taunting hand to the ear (quickly replaced with a Shearer arm raise) aimed at the incorrigible terraces. In his last five appearances we conceded 14 goals and lost every one. Everything came to a head in his final game when, desperate to win us over, he got sent off and was booed/cheered from the pitch. After a stint cleaning ferry toilets he’s now – weirdly enough – hitting the target for a living, as a semi-professional darts player. Crawley (Gavin Tomlin) By Carol Bates (@CarolBates) After a consensus of opinion, Nick Carter is probably our worst player ever – he was one of the owners' sons and unkindly referred to recently on social media as the "worst player, best bib, ball and cone collector". But his impact was minimal. Therefore, a special mention has to go to Gavin Tomlin, who had a torrid time at Crawley from 2014-16 after signing from Port Vale. He looked unable to control a ball, pass accurately, or – unhelpfully for a striker – score. We’ll give him this, though: one of his three league goals in 51 appearances and two years at the Broadfield Stadium was a late winner at Swindon, celebrated like we'd won the FA Cup. It was totally unexpected, and we hadn't beaten Swindon in a long time. That, however, was the only silver lining. Accrington-Barnet•Barnsley-Blackpool•Bolton-Brentford•Brighton-Burnley•Burton-Cardiff•Carlisle-Cheltenham•Chesterfield-Crawley•Crewe-Doncaster•Everton-Fulham•Gillingham-Huddersfield•Hull-Leicester•Leyton Orient-Man City•Man United-Millwall•MK Dons-Newport•Northampton-Notts County•Oldham-Plymouth•Portsmouth-QPR•Reading-Scunthorpe•Sheffield United-Southampton•Southend-Sunderland•Swansea-Walsall•Watford-Wigan•Wolves-YeovilCrewe Alexandra (Jamie Moralee) By Matt Withers (@mattwithers) Despite playing just 20 games for the club between 1996 and 1998, Moralee’s name remains comic shorthand for the kind of low-calibre strikers Crewe Alexandra seemed to specialise in signing around the time. Let go by Watford (legend has it that his agent told him “the Beatles were rejected by EMI before they struck it big”), the former £450,000 man came to Gresty Road with slight celebrity cachet, having received tabloid interest in his liaison with soap star Daniella Westbrook. But that soon waned as, in two years, he not only failed to score but never even came close, wandering confusedly around the opposition half as if he’d won a charity raffle to play. On the one occasion he looked set to take a shot, against Bournemouth in December 1996, fellow frontman Dele Adebola was so concerned that he nicked the ball off him and put it away. Moralee went on to play in the Champions League – for Barry Town… who beat Porto 3-1 (in a 9-3 aggregate defeat, mind). Crystal Palace (Jordon Mutch) By Jack Pierce (@Jackpierce88) It’s perhaps a little harsh to label Mutch the worst of all time, but given the relative expense and non-existent return, he gets the nod. Some players split supporters, but not Mutch. Shortly after making his debut in January 2015, the jury had decided: this guy was not for us. Signed for a reported £4.75m from QPR by Alan Pardew, Mutch never got going. In acquiring him, Pardew – a manager so restricted in terms of recruitment at Newcastle – appeared willing to spend cash on anyone he could. Mutch failed to impress as a box-to-box midfielder, a playmaker and in a deep lying role. In two years, his most memorable moments at the club have been a decent 10 minutes at the Liberty Stadium in a 1-1 draw, and an interview with the club’s online TV service during which he went to a café. Currently on loan at Reading and technically still a Palace player, there aren’t many yearning for his return. When it comes to Jordon, it’s sadly been Mutch Ado About Nothing. Derby (Claude Davis) By Ollie Wright (@derbycountyblog) For Derby’s nadir, it’s impossible to ignore 2007/08. I considered nominating that season’s whole squad, but the enduring symbol of the record-breaking incompetence we endured that year was Billy Davies’ idea of a £3m centre-back. Even among the raft of embarrassing signings Davies made that summer – other hopeless cases included Andy Todd, Eddie Lewis and Andy Griffin – Davis takes the crown. Rapidly earning nicknames like ‘Calamity Claude’ and ‘Clod’ – to select some publishable ones – the diabolical defender was found out horribly in the Premier League and his reputation was shattered so thoroughly that he eventually had his contract cancelled. When he returned to Pride Park with Crystal Palace – for whom he was equally appalling – the next season, he committed an error so crass for Derby’s fifth goal that you'd have suspected a better player of trying to make amends to the home fans. Doncaster (Aaron Taylor-Sinclair) By Rob Johnson Given that Doncaster hold the record for the highest number of losses in a single season (34, if you're wondering), it’s quite difficult to pick just one player as the worst to wear the red-and-white hoops. Most of the players involved in that disastrous season only played a handful of games, however, so in terms of longevity there can be only one 'winner'. Aaron Taylor-Sinclair arrived from Wigan at the start of the 2015/16 season to bolster our promotion push. He featured in 49 games and never once resembled a footballer in any of them as Donny slumped to relegation – a full-back that can't tackle, pass or cross a ball, who became a symbol of our monstrous failure. Amazingly, he is still at the club but has been injured for the entirety of a season that currently sees Rovers top of League Two. This is not a coincidence. Accrington-Barnet•Barnsley-Blackpool•Bolton-Brentford•Brighton-Burnley•Burton-Cardiff•Carlisle-Cheltenham•Chesterfield-Crawley•Crewe-Doncaster•Everton-Fulham•Gillingham-Huddersfield•Hull-Leicester•Leyton Orient-Man City•Man United-Millwall•MK Dons-Newport•Northampton-Notts County•Oldham-Plymouth•Portsmouth-QPR•Reading-Scunthorpe•Sheffield United-Southampton•Southend-Sunderland•Swansea-Walsall•Watford-Wigan•Wolves-YeovilEverton (Glenn Keeley) By Gary Naylor (@garynaylor999) Keeley wasn't a bad player, but in 37 unforgettable minutes (it's true, I've tried) he became Everton's worst. On loan from Blackburn, the big centre-half wasn't match-fit nor attuned to the new rule about "the professional foul" which made for an automatic sending off – but he was cruelly pitched into Goodison's cauldron, 52,741 fans roiling on the terraces and not a neutral among them. Liverpool had Dalglish, Rush, Souness, Hansen and Lawrenson in peak form and, to resist them, we had Keeley. At least we did, until he grabbed at Dalglish's shirt (the closest he got to him all day) and jogged off after seeing red. In a match where a 0-10 scoreline wouldn’t have flattered the Reds, I’d left after four had gone in. The horror! But that Everton team also included Southall, Heath, Sharp, Sheedy and Richardson. It’s always darkest before dawn, they say – and they (whoever that might be) were right. The 'highlights' (I'm in the top left corner of the Gwladys Street End) Exeter City (Rohan Ricketts) By Josh Denham Ricketts, an ex-Arsenal and Tottenham youth player who’d been around the block and back again more than once – Exeter were his 12th club by the age of 29 – arrived at St James Park with self-confidence in spades. “I know I am good enough to play in the Premier League, I have the ability and the football brain but it is about getting the opportunity,” he said upon signing for the Grecians, his first English club in four years. But, given such a platform, he donned the red-and-white shirt for all of 50 minutes in his only appearance (off the bench) before citing 'personal reasons' for leaving inside a month. It turned out that he’d actually just got a better offer from Indian club Dempo, which he followed up with moves to Ecuador, Thailand, Hong Kong, Bangladesh and… er, Leatherhead (where he lasted just over a month under Jimmy Bullard). Oh, Rohan. Fleetwood (Richard Brodie) By John Woolfenden (@TheWulfster) This is actually a tough one to answer as a Fleetwood fan – believe it or not, in general we’ve had more than our fair share of good players. Looking back, though, it must be Brodie. The lad wasn’t without talent, but was a complete headcase. On the day he signed on loan from Crawley for the 2011/12 season, he was in my local on the lash. Brodie scored twice and was sent off within the first 30 minutes of a 6-0 local derby win over Southport (a brace for Jamie Vardy too in that game, if you’re asking). He once got booked against Yeovil in an FA Cup replay… and wasn't even on the pitch. Nine goals in 34 Conference games isn’t a horrible record, but Brodie was the sort of player you look back on and think, "What a waste". Fulham (Mark Fotheringham) By Thomas McIlroy (@thomasmcilroy) There can’t be many players who sum up Felix Magath’s reign at Fulham more than Fotheringham. The Whites had just been relegated from the Premier League, Magath was talking about going straight back up (how wrong he was) – and then signed Fotheringham before the start of the 2014/15 season. The 30-year-old midfielder had been released by League One side Notts County at the end of the previous season, but somehow landed himself a one-year deal at Craven Cottage. Fulham really should have realised then that Magath had absolutely no idea about how to get them out of the Championship – and sure enough, Fotheringham was out of his depth in the three appearances he made. After Magath was sacked in September, Fotheringham was shown the door in January by new boss Kit Symons. He picked up more yellow cards (2) than he made successful tackles (1) during his time at Craven Cottage. Accrington-Barnet•Barnsley-Blackpool•Bolton-Brentford•Brighton-Burnley•Burton-Cardiff•Carlisle-Cheltenham•Chesterfield-Crawley•Crewe-Doncaster•Everton-Fulham•Gillingham-Huddersfield•Hull-Leicester•Leyton Orient-Man City•Man United-Millwall•MK Dons-Newport•Northampton-Notts County•Oldham-Plymouth•Portsmouth-QPR•Reading-Scunthorpe•Sheffield United-Southampton•Southend-Sunderland•Swansea-Walsall•Watford-Wigan•Wolves-YeovilGillingham (Adam Miller) By Danny Smith (@NiceMarker) Miller was one of several non-league players signed in 2007 by manager Mark Stimson, who emphatically failed to prevent the Gills getting relegated at the end of that season. Miller stood out because of the massive disparity between what the manager apparently saw in him (hard work and determination) and what everyone else in the stands saw (consistent ineffectiveness). Miller’s Gillingham career was encapsulated by the televised third-round FA Cup tie against Aston Villa in 2009. Handed the captaincy for the big occasion, he ran around looking busy and pointed a lot, which would no doubt have pleased his boss. Unfortunately for Gillingham, he was also at fault for the first goal after being caught in possession in his own half, before giving away a late penalty for what turned out to be the winner. As usual Miller tried hard, but in truth he should probably have never left the Conference. Grimsby (Adam Buckley) By Charles Simons Harrowing years in non-league may come to mind, but for many, Buckley – son of former manager and Grimsby legend Alan – is regarded as both the worst and most disliked player. Buckley Jr, who joined his father at Blundell Park from West Brom in the late 1990s, was reviled by the Grimsby faithful during the 1999/2000 season. This was mainly due to his father repeatedly playing him on the left wing despite his obvious lack of skill, pace and general ability; his continued selection also meant cultured left-footers and fan favourites Kingsley Black and David Smith were regularly left sitting on the bench. Whenever Buckley was hauled off (which was nearly every game he started), he was booed. No surprise, then, that after his old man was sacked just two games into the 2000/01 campaign, young Adam never played for the club again. Hartlepool (Nialle Rodney) By Jordan Richardson (@JordRich97) Signed by Colin Cooper in the summer of 2013 after a successful trial, Rodney became a laughing stock with his tall and skinny frame. Tactically inept, he could never carry the ball far without falling over, although he did score a cracking overhead kick against former club Bradford in the Johnstone’s Paint Trophy. Rodney had come through Nottingham Forest’s academy system but managed only 32 league appearances at eight clubs in his four professional seasons before joining Hartlepool. We really should have known, but still handed him a one-year contract... which he couldn’t see out. After being released in March 2014, Rodney quit football to concentrate on his clothing business. Fair enough, really. Huddersfield (Kwami Hodouto) By Greg Marah (@HTAFCPodcast) Ask Huddersfield fans who Hodouto is, and most won’t remember. Those that do will have nothing good to say about a player who managed just one start and two brief substitute appearances for the club. The Togo-born defender joined Huddersfield from Auxerre in the summer of 1999 and endured an iffy debut after coming on in a 1-0 win over Norwich. His first start came against Fulham, when the right-back looked like someone who’d won a competition to play in a professional match for the first time. He was duly hooked after half an hour, replaced by fellow flop Giorgios Donis. While many Town fans look back at the 1999/2000 campaign and the sale of Marcus Stewart as a missed opportunity, that season also serves as a reminder of how woeful Steve Bruce was in the transfer market.Almost as woeful as Houdoto was at football, in fact, and he seemingly vanished after the Fulham game. Accrington-Barnet•Barnsley-Blackpool•Bolton-Brentford•Brighton-Burnley•Burton-Cardiff•Carlisle-Cheltenham•Chesterfield-Crawley•Crewe-Doncaster•Everton-Fulham•Gillingham-Huddersfield•Hull-Leicester•Leyton Orient-Man City•Man United-Millwall•MK Dons-Newport•Northampton-Notts County•Oldham-Plymouth•Portsmouth-QPR•Reading-Scunthorpe•Sheffield United-Southampton•Southend-Sunderland•Swansea-Walsall•Watford-Wigan•Wolves-YeovilHull (David Jones) By Rick Skelton (@HullCityLive) Lanky (alleged) striker Jones was one of Terry Dolan’s many free ‘gambles’. He had a decent pedigree having started his career at Chelsea, and had also scored quite a few goals for Doncaster before joining Hull. But for a big guy he was completely useless with his head, while he moved with the ball at his feet like a newborn foal taking its first steps. His dozen or so appearances in 1992/93 were summed up by a fantastic miss at home to Port Vale: the opposition goalkeeper gifted him the ball with an abysmal kick, and he returned it with the force and precision of a Sinclair C5. Almost a decade later, we signed a past-it Kevin Francis, who was in the autumn of his career. Despite his advancing years, though, Big Kev’s touch, movement and finishing put Jones to shame. Ipswich (Nathan Ellington) By George Pennell (@georgepennell90) After much deliberation, this must go to the once-prolific Ellington. ‘The Duke’, as he was known by many in the football world, was signed by one of the worst managers in our history in Paul Jewell (but we’ll save that for another time). Ellington joined in the summer of 2011 on a free transfer after his contract at Watford had expired, linking up with Jewell for a third time in his career – but his stay didn’t last the length of his contract. During his first year at Portman Road, the striker made 17 appearances and notched a whirlwind total of zero goals. He didn’t fare much better in his second season, making a further two appearances before having his contract terminated in January 2013, six months before it was due to expire. Leeds (Paul Rachubka) By Dan Howard (@RITGK) We’ve been blessed with some fantastic players at Elland Road down the years – yes, even post-Premier League relegation – but nobody needs reminding of the shockers too. But while obvious names like Thomas Brolin and Roque Junior spring to mind from the past, one name stands out to me – and that’s Rachubka. Signed by Simon Grayson to provide competition in 2011/12, his big chance came when No.1 Andy Lonergan picked up an injury. It became clear that Rachubka was likely to get a run in the side, and while no one was expecting Buffon-like performances, they weren’t quite anticipating what was to come. First came a late error in the 1-1 home draw with Coventry, followed by another shoddy performance in the last-minute victory over Peterborough. But then the game he’ll always be remembered for: a 5-0 drubbing at home to Blackpool, where three errors in the first 30 minutes led to the ultimate humiliation for a goalkeeper – a substitution at half-time. He didn’t turn out for Leeds again in a competitive match, as Grayson signed Alex McCarthy on a short, successful loan. Instead, Rachubka was packed off on three loans himself before being released at the end of two of the most unsuccessful seasons at a club you’re ever likely to see. Leicester (Junior Lewis) By James Sharpe (@TheSharpeEnd) Such is the volume of dross that made its way through Leicester’s doors from c.2001-08, you could easily compile a full starting XI of worst players, a cramped substitutes’ bench and a queue of rubbish pros outside the manager’s office confused by their omission from such a side. There is, however, one man who stands tall in the quagmire when fans consider the worst player ever to wear the fox on his chest. The mere mention of Junior Lewis’s name is enough to bring most Leicester supporters out in hives, thanks to his dismal 30 appearances for the club between 2001 and 2004. City boss Peter Taylor bought the lanky midfielder from Gillingham – the third of six (six) times Taylor would sign him during his career – for £150,000. Even that would prove extortionate. Lewis had the incredible ability of being 6ft 2in standing height, and 5ft 8in when jumping. To his credit, the uncultured central midfielder had one half-decent game in a Premier League victory over Liverpool, but other than that he looked more like a player who fans genuinely thought they were better than. Unsurprisingly, he eventually left on a free transfer. Even more unsurprisingly, it was then-Hull manager Taylor who snapped him up. Accrington-Barnet•Barnsley-Blackpool•Bolton-Brentford•Brighton-Burnley•Burton-Cardiff•Carlisle-Cheltenham•Chesterfield-Crawley•Crewe-Doncaster•Everton-Fulham•Gillingham-Huddersfield•Hull-Leicester•Leyton Orient-Man City•Man United-Millwall•MK Dons-Newport•Northampton-Notts County•Oldham-Plymouth•Portsmouth-QPR•Reading-Scunthorpe•Sheffield United-Southampton•Southend-Sunderland•Swansea-Walsall•Watford-Wigan•Wolves-YeovilLeyton Orient (Peter Smith) By Mat Roper (@Pandamonium1881fanzine) Defender or defensive midfielder Smith played a total of eight games for the O's, in which time a grand total of 22 goals were conceded. It was perhaps no surprise, then, that Orient won three and drew one of the six matches in which he was an unused substitute. Smith, a youth product (we'd have been better off with an embryo) couldn't run, pass, dribble, defend or score, although he did take a decent throw-in. You’re guaranteed to face some stiff competition in deciding Orient’s worst ever player, but Smith didn’t just take the biscuit – he took the whole pack. Suffice to say, his last game in an O's shirt away to Cardiff ended in a 2-0 defeat, and he was left out of the final-day relegation decider in which the O's did enough to survive in Division Three. Smith also had one of the most common names in the country. Combined with his footballing skills, he simply wasn't good enough. Liverpool (Sean Dundee) By Chris McLoughlin (@TheKopMagazine) Pound for pound this could be El-Hadji Diouf, whose six goals in 80 appearances make him the Reds' least-prolific striker ever, and whose penchant for spitting at people makes him less likeable than a lift full of Manchester United fans holding trays of rotting salmon. But I've seen worse. Christian Poulsen was so pedestrian that a lollipop lady could have moved across midfield quicker; Philipp Degen looked better while he was out injured, and I'm convinced that it will one day emerge that Charles Itandje was the goalkeeping equivalent of Southampton's Ali Dia. However, my vote goes to Dundee, a South African striker signed in 1998 who scored goals for fun in the Bundesliga, but was so slow in England that it looked like treacle was running through him. He made just five substitute appearances for the Reds, and I distinctly remember Leicester's Frank Sinclair outpacing him despite giving 'Kopodile' a five-yard start. (And yes, I know, but at least Andriy Voronin scored six goals.) Luton (Paul Carden) By Michael Patel It could be Colin Samuel or Richard Langley getting picked here, but in the end I’ve gone for Carden. The midfielder signed during our Conference years, initially on loan, with many Town fans dubious from the start given his close links with then-manager Gary Brabin. Carden ended up making 11 appearances for Luton, but he didn’t contribute much on the pitch at all. The memory that sticks out most is from an away game against Ebbsfleet, when Carden received a yellow card and our fans began to chant, “off, off, off!” That sums up his career in a Luton shirt, which he would never wear again. He did continue as a coach until 2013, though, when the club parted company with him once and for all. Manchester City (Lee Bradbury) By Stephen Tudor (@TheDaisyCutter1) Manchester City signed Bradbury for a club record fee of £3m in July 1997 and, if memory serves, had to fight off several other suitors for his signature. The former army recruit had looked mightily impressive at Pompey – a powerful, grafting centre-forward with a rocket of a shot – while an imposing debut away at Burnley had many Blues believing he could be the man to fire us to promotion from the old First Division. He wasn’t. That man was in fact Shaun Goater, who was purchased several months later as Bradbury succumbed to City-itis and flopped quite spectacularly. A dishonourable discharge followed soon after. Twenty years on I recall him running around a fair bit, but that’s pretty much the sum total of his legacy aside from his satisfyingly apt nickname: omit both Rs from his surname and there you have it. Accrington-Barnet•Barnsley-Blackpool•Bolton-Brentford•Brighton-Burnley•Burton-Cardiff•Carlisle-Cheltenham•Chesterfield-Crawley•Crewe-Doncaster•Everton-Fulham•Gillingham-Huddersfield•Hull-Leicester•Leyton Orient-Man City•Man United-Millwall•MK Dons-Newport•Northampton-Notts County•Oldham-Plymouth•Portsmouth-QPR•Reading-Scunthorpe•Sheffield United-Southampton•Southend-Sunderland•Swansea-Walsall•Watford-Wigan•Wolves-YeovilManchester United (Bebe) By Scott Patterson (@R_o_M) If you were to pick the worst Manchester United player based on performances alone, it would perhaps be Eric Djemba-Djemba or Massimo Taibi. If the criteria involved money spent, it'd be Angel Di Maria or Radamel Falcao. Bebe, though, manages to tick both boxes: he was a truly awful footballer for whom United somehow ended up paying £7.4 million. Having not had any suitors when he was offered around other European clubs for just £125,000, PSV turned down the opportunity to sign him for free just three months before he joined the Red Devils. Remarkably, he was on United's books for four seasons, playing just seven games and spending most of his time being awful for other teams on loan. Sir Alex Ferguson confirmed he hadn't seen anything of Bebe before sanctioning the transfer – not even any DVD footage, let alone in the flesh. Reports suggested that Carlos Queiroz had recommended him (which he later denied), but Jorge Mendes, quelle surprise, made a fortune from the deal. To put into perspective just how awful he was, Bebe looked out of his depth when playing against non-league Crawley Town in the FA Cup. The two clubs were separated by 93 league places that day, but he would have struggled to pass for wearing the non-league side’s shirt. Mansfield (Jason White) By Craig Gittins Like Donald Trump at a Russian beauty pageant, the choices are endless. Worst value for money goes to Shane Bradley, a £100,000 signing who was blighted by injury and laziness, before arch-rivals Chesterfield took him off our hands. When the two teams next met, Mansfield’s Rhys Day welcomed him onto the pitch inserting his index finger into Bradley’s rectum. Bradley took umbrage, spat at his former team-mate and was duly dismissed… just three minutes after coming on as a substitute. For all-round lack of ability, though, the award goes to Jason White. A custodian of the onion bag who flapped around more than a cheap tent on its last day at Glastonbury, the goalkeeper was responsible for a spike in cardiac admissions during the 2007/08 season. His non-attempt to save a 40-yard effort from the touchline against Rotherham saw Mansfield relegated from the Football League. Middlesbrough (Afonso Alves) By Phil Spencer (@PhilSpenc23) Thanks, FourFourTwo: an array of underwhelming talent and unfulfilled promise comes flooding back like an episode of PTSD. I could easily pick Branco, Michael Ricketts, Lee Dong-gook and Ricardinho, the Brazil international who didn’t play a single minute for a struggling Middlesbrough team. But I won’t: in the end, Alves takes the gong. The striker arrived at Boro on the back of a spectacular 18 months with Heerenveen in the Eredivisie, where he scored a staggering 45 league goals in 39 games. So when the news broke that we’d agreed a deal to sign him, you could only imagine the Rio-style carnival that broke out along Linthorpe Road. Ahead of his debut against Fulham, fans unveiled a rather pre-emptive banner declaring our new record transfer fee as “Boro’s goal machine” – a nickname he was subsequently referred to only when there was a bucket-load of irony also present. Sadly, our £12 million man never got firing, scoring just 10 goals in his spell on Teesside before jumping on a plane to Qatar to sign for Al-Sadd. Note: We perhaps should have suspected something was amiss when Alves struggled to manage two kick-ups at the start of the video above Millwall (Bas Savage) By Josh Nelson (@JoshNelson97) Step forward Bas Savage, the Mario Balotelli of the Football League. Known for his ridiculous hairstyles and outlandish moonwalk celebrations, Savage even had his own feature on Soccer AM, 'I wanna be like Bas Savage'. He was a lovely, eccentric character, but not your stereotypical Millwall player – and certainly not a goalscorer. Kenny Jackett snapped up the forward on a free transfer in February 2008, after contract talks broke down with his former club Brighton. You could hear the agonising sighs around the ground whenever the forward received the ball; it almost certainly meant a loss of possession was imminent, as Savage routinely struggled to control the ball with his gigantic, uncoordinated feet. Jackett had believed that the 6ft 3in targetman would provide the firepower his side needed; unfortunately, though, he scored just twice in 11 appearances before joining Tranmere. Still, at least we got to see the moonwalk. Accrington-Barnet•Barnsley-Blackpool•Bolton-Brentford•Brighton-Burnley•Burton-Cardiff•Carlisle-Cheltenham•Chesterfield-Crawley•Crewe-Doncaster•Everton-Fulham•Gillingham-Huddersfield•Hull-Leicester•Leyton Orient-Man City•Man United-Millwall•MK Dons-Newport•Northampton-Notts County•Oldham-Plymouth•Portsmouth-QPR•Reading-Scunthorpe•Sheffield United-Southampton•Southend-Sunderland•Swansea-Walsall•Watford-Wigan•Wolves-YeovilMK Dons (Tore Andre Flo) By Liam O’Brien (@Talk_Dons) Flo, a notable name for many across England, came out of retirement to join MK in 2008, with fans full of optimism about his signing. It had been eight years since he’d left Chelsea for Rangers, though, since when he’d lasted no longer than two seasons at any club (Siena, who he’d done well for in Serie A ad
          Latvia Vital Records of the Late 19th, Early 20th Centuries        

Raduraksti:  Pick a language, any language!

Here's something you don't see every day.

The Latvian State Historical Archives has created Raduraksti, a new online feature housing millions of vital records -- births, deaths, marriages and baptisms -- from a period that seems to cover the late 1800's and early 1900's.

This is not a database of names, towns, and so on. Instead, it is a collection of scans of the actual town registers used to collect the original information. As such, this is information to be browsed by town/date/event (birth, death, etc), rather than the usual name lookup that is so familiar (and so easy!).  All told, there are more than 4.6 million pages of original records available at Raduraksti.

The records themselves are a hodgepodge of eastern Europe'll find hand-written scripts in German, Russian, Hebrew and Yiddish (for the Jewish enclaves), and (I suppose) Latvian.

However, the site interface and instructions are available in English (well-written English, too, which isn't always the case!). Once you register at the site, browsing the actual records is not at all difficult, though the page images themselves are sometimes slow to load.

JewishGen, the Jewish family history site (and a fantastic resource in it's own right...I'll have to profile them one day soon) has created a small dataset of births and deaths in Goldingen, a Latvia town currently named Kuldigas (or Kuldiga), if I have my provenance correct.

The Latvia Archives are worth a look, even if you don't think you have any family history in the area. More and more archive sites are making these sorts of original records available, and providing search interfaces that can be used by English-only miscreants like myself. It's worth becoming familiar with this type of resource, so you can best take advantage of vital records archives when they become available in your ancestral neck of the woods.


Don't forget to also check for your family history at NewspaperArchive and These are subscription databases, but they are among the most powerful research tools available for looking into family roots. And visit the main page of Free Genealogy Tools for more, umm, free genealogical tools.

          Konstitucijos egzaminą dauguma dalyvių sprendė internetu        
Savaitgalį, minint Konstitucijos dieną, vyko trečiasis savanoriškas visuotinis Konstitucijos egzaminas. Pirmą kartą egzamino istorijoje dauguma dalyvių testo užduotis sprendė ne savivaldybių salėse, o naudodamiesi informacinėmis technologijomis – internetu portale DELFI ir mobiliuoju „Tele2“ internetu.

Mobiliuoju „Tele2“ internetu Konstitucijos egzaminą laikyti buvo galima pirmą kartą. Šia galimybe pasinaudojo 400 bendrovės klientų – tai daugiau dalyvių, nei egzamino dieną susirinko Vilniaus, Kauno ir Klaipėdos savivaldybėse.

„Džiaugiamės prisidėję prie pilietinės ir teisinės visuomenės plėtros projekto, sudarydami sąlygas egzamino testą spręsti mobiliuoju internetu. Tai ypač svarbu žinant, kad dauguma mobiliojo interneto vartotojų yra jauni žmonės – ugdyti jų pilietinę savimonę ypač svarbu“, – sakė Petras Masiulis, „Tele2“ generalinis direktorius.

Lietuvos gyventojai pirmą kartą turėjo galimybę Konstitucijos egzaminą laikyti ir internetu, DELFI naujienų portale. Jame per egzaminui skirtą valandą laiko, užduotis atliko 218 gyventojų ir 68 teisininkai, kuriems buvo skirtas atskiras testas.

Neturėjusieji galimybės praėjusį šeštadienį sudalyvauti Konstitucijos egzamine, DELFI naujienų portale atlikti egzamino testą ir pasitikrinti savo žinias apie LR Konstituciją galės dar visą šią savaitę iki spalio 31 dienos.

„Kuo daugiau žmonių gerai žinos pagrindinio šalies įstatymo nuostatas, tuo labiau sąmoningoje visuomenėje mes gyvensime. Džiaugiamės galėdami suteikti skaitytojams galimybę tiesiai iš namų pasijungti ir pasitikrinti savo Konstitucijos žinias ir egzamino valandą, ir kitu skaitytojams patogiu laiku“, – sakė DELFI direktorė Jurga Eivaitė.

Savaitgalį savo žinias, spręsdami egzamino testą, jau pasitikrino 5000 šalies gyventojų ir 1200 teisininkų.

Vartotojams, sprendusiems testą „Tele2“ mobiliojo interneto portale, bendrovė skyrė specialią dovaną – visiems jiems nuo lapkričio 1 d. bus mėnesiui nemokamai įjungtas mobiliojo interneto planas „Naršyk 30“.

Konstitucijos žinios, kaip ir pernai, pirmajame egzamino ture buvo tikrinamos testo forma – reikėjo pasirinkti vieną iš kelių atsakymų variantų. Konstitucijos egzaminą mobiliuoju internetu galėjo laikyti visi telekomunikacijų bendrovės „Tele2“ klientai, kurių, Ryšių reguliavimo t