Kom og kast stein i glasshuset!        
Blomsterstjernens nye fantasikontor i miniatyr       (Foto (CC): Seier)

God jul & Godt nyttår!

Eller har jeg allerede sagt det?

Som noen kanskje har fÃ¥tt med seg har Blomsterstjernen lagt i stabilt blogg-sideleie, i form av et kunstig blogg-koma de siste 5-6-7 ukene..? Men det er tydeligvis livsfarlig Ã¥ hvile pÃ¥ laurbærene! Postkasse og faxmaskin har nemlig blitt bombardert med skjønne hatmeldinger, skittent herreundertøy og halvbrukte kinaputter fra forfjamsede Blomsterstjernelesere. Folk har mistet bÃ¥de matlyst og livsgnist. Langs hele Norges- (og Ghanas-) kyst har tusenvis av blogglesere sittet paralysert foran EDB-anlegget, fredag etter fredag. Frokosten ble liksom ikke det samme uten det faste blogginnlegget som skulle akkompagnere morgenkaffe & Baileys?

Men det har jo strengt tatt heller ikke vært noe å skrive om i januar og februar? Ihvertfall ingenting som ikke allerede er blitt dobbeldekket av alle de andre bloggene som dag ut og dag inn presser frem blogge-stoff om nye lamper, nye servietter, avskyelige menn i bar overkrop eller innbydende fastelavensboller servert sammen med de herligste morkaker.

Vinteren er og skal være hagebloggernes latensperiode. Det er vårt privilegie. Frøkatalog etter frøkatalog ramler inn døren, vi rikker ikke en muskel. Blikket vil bare ikke lokkes vekk fra bikini-sidene i H&M-katalogen. Men så! Plutselig en dag bråvåkner vi! Vi må ha frø! Nå! Med en gang!!!

Febrilsk leter vi i papirbosset. Og helt til slutt. Nedenfor H&M-katalogen, aktenfor S&M-katalogen, bakenfor Ellos-katalogen, under et 20 talls syden-kataloger. Der ligger den! Zimtrade-katalogen... Puh. Ved første øyekast bestemmer man seg for å gjøre det enkelt. Hvorfor ikke bare bestille 1 pakke av hver frøsort? 987 frøpakker? Men så kommer fornuften inn i bildet og minner en på den miserable fjorårssesongen der kun ett av 9.000.000 blomsterfrø overlevde oppveksten.

I Ã¥r bestemte Blomsterstjernen seg derfor for Ã¥ være ørlite mÃ¥teholden. Bedre Ã¥ være kjærlig med noen fÃ¥ utvalgte kandidater? 

En og annen fargesprakende smårollinger falt visst oppi handlekurven:





Men i år har Blomsterstjernen et spikka nytt og spikka spennende prosjekt på gang! Sånn går det ofte når man tukler for mye med kalkulatoren. Blomsterstjernen har nemlig derivert seg frem til at han faktisk bare tilbringer en brøkdel så mange timer i hagen som han tilbringer på jobb... Uholdbart! Dette tenker han derfor å gjøre noe med i sesongen som kommer...

Neida, han tenker så absolutt ikke å skulke sin jobb. Langt derifra, snarere tvert i mot. Det gjelder bare å være konstruktiv og utnytte tid og premisser maksimalt. Det har seg nemlig sånn at Blomsterstjernens nye kontor formelig bugner av dagslys fra en 10 meter lang vindusflate med utsyn fra sørvest til nordøst. I praksis sitter han nærmest i et drivhus. Og nå er jo ikke akkurat Blomsterstjernen av den typen som er redd for å kaste stein i glasshus. Da er nok de som står rundt huset langt reddere... Årets geniale plan er derfor å dyrke opp en gjeng klorofyll-fulle kompiser inne på sitt eget arbeidskontor.

Tenk så deilig? I harmonisk symbiose kan mann og blomst skinne om kapp med hverandre. Dag ut, dag inn. 37,5 timer pr uke, 47 uker i året! (Minus de 83 dagene man er hjemme med sykt barn)

Men som dere vet. Som dønn ekte mannfolk gjelder det å begynne litt forsiktig... Spesielt når man har en sjef som ikke en gang liker plastblomster! Blomsterstjernens plan er derfor å diskret begynne med å dyrke grønnsaker som han jovialt kan dele av i lunchen, og på den måten sakte men sikkert bygge seg opp goodwill. Nesten helt ubemerket sniker han så inn den ene hageblomsten etter den andre i "grønnsakshagen".

Ta vel imot førstereisguttene:






Tomater, paprika, karse og stevia vil nok gli helt ubemerket inn i kontorlandskapet? Men hvilke blomsterfrø skal han satse på? Hvilke hageblomster vil klare seg innendørs, uten bier og uten direkte sollys (men med tonnevis av naturlig dagslys og unaturlig kontorlys)?

Blomsterstjernen tar gjerne i mot tips fra leserne! Han drømmer om at noen der ute sitter med selvhøstede frø fra egen hage som absolutt bør utprøves innendørs i Blomsterstjernens kontor-klekkeri! Send frø til Stjernen. På den måten kan også du delta i forskningsprosjektet!

Bli med og kast stein i glasshuset da vel?

VÃ¥ryre hilsener fra deres hjemvendte,








P.S. Dersom sjefen mot formodning skulle lese dette innlegget vil jeg bare forsikre ham om at alt det ovenfornevnte naturligvis bare er fiksjon og oppspinn. Selvsagt forholder vi oss kun til visne plastblomster i år som i fjor...





          A Warm Capital Region Welcome to the President        
Dear Mr. President: Welcome to the Capital Region of New York State.  I was thrilled when you visited Ghana, my ancestral home in July; now I get to join my fellow Upstaters in welcoming you to where I live and work. While Troy and Hudson Valley Community College feature prominently on your itinerary, I’d like
          The Plastic Lawn Chair        
This is the story of the unlikeliest of business people. It’s difficult to pinpoint the exact moment and catalyst of her foray into entrepreneurship, but during the 1980’s, she was actively involved in importing shoes from Italy to Ghana. In the 1990’s however, her life took an unexpected turn and so did her business. She
          I’m baaaaack!!!!        
Not that you’d have any reason to miss me, with Lissa and Janet to keep you company. ……BUT, in case you wondered where I was these past few weeks, I was in Ghana for about 14 days. In order to keep myself in Lissa’s good graces, I did some small business work during my vacation.  
          Dear President Obama: A few tips for your upcoming trip to Ghana        
Dear President Obama: I received the news of your impending trip to Ghana with a mixture of excitement, elation and crushing disappointment.  You see, as a Ghanaian by birth, I cannot overstate the significance of my country being the location of your first trip as President of The United States of America, to Africa.   Knowing
          BLACK STARS COUNT THEIR LOSSES        
  Portugal beat Ghana Thursday 2-1 with goals from John Boye (OG) in the 31st minute and Cristiano Ronaldo (80th minute) overcoming the second half strike by captain Asamoah Gyan. Majid Waris will rue a chance to give Ghana the lead in the 61st minute with the game finely balanced at 1-1. Fatau Dauda will […]
          A DEAD GOAT DON’T FEAR ‘HU’        
Ghana take on Germany in the second group match of Group G on Saturday in Fortaleza. If you were a betting man, you would bet your house on Germany winning this game. If you went with your heart and you believed in miracles, there is a sliver of hope. After all, as a friend of […]
          OUR MEN IN BRAZIL        
Kwesi Appiah named his final 23-man squad for Brazil shortly after the friendly against the Dutch.The three dropped players were David Accam, Jerry Akaminko and Jeffrey Schlupp. According to the final squad listings from all the 32 teams, Ghana’s team is the youngest in the competition with an average age of 24.9. This would be […]
          Stars Take On Dutch Oranje        
  The starting line up for tonight’s game is out. Michael Essien will lead the Black Stars out to face the Dutch who finalised their 23-man squad ahead of the game.This match is an important test for the Black Stars ahead of final selections. Ghana previously played a farewell match against a vastly inferior opposition […]
          La ruta de la tinta en África        
La ruta de la tinta en África

Por Edgardo Civallero

Si les pido que piensen en "bibliotecas africanas", probablemente la mayoría de ustedes verá, en su imaginación, las unidades modernas de las distintas naciones del gran continente. Pero si les pido que piensen en "bibliotecas africanas de hace cinco siglos", de esa época en la que aún gran parte de esas tierras era un misterio para los europeos que luego las "descubrieron"... ¿en qué pensarían?

[Si esto fuera un auditorio, éste sería el odioso momento en el cual todo el mundo se queda callado y revisa concienzudamente sus manos, la nuca de la persona de delante, los desperfectos del suelo...].

Nos han vendido muchas veces la imagen del "África tribal", del "continente negro", de "la tierra del tamtam y la tradición oral", de las "expresiones artísticas como medio de transmisión de saberes"... Los clásicos de Hollywood, los libros de viajes de los exploradores del s. XIX, y el enorme imaginario popular creado de a poco probablemente hagan que pensemos en un África hecha de danzas exóticas y cantos más exóticos aún, y en pueblos sin escritura, sin libros y, por supuesto, sin bibliotecas.

Quizás algunos se sorprendan cuando cuente que uno de los grandes centros de saber de ese continente –uno de la talla de otros grandes núcleos contemporáneos– estaba en el borde mismo del desierto del Sahara, en uno de los cruces de rutas comerciales más importantes de aquella región del planeta.

Se llamaba –y aún se llama– Timbuktu. Y hoy pretendo contarles un poco de su historia y de la de sus libros.

Timbuktu (o Tombuctu, por su grafía francesa) se encuentra en el actual estado de Malí, en el África occidental. Fue fundada hace diez siglos por los Tuareg o Targui, los famosos "hombres azules de desierto", nómades de origen bereber que deambulaban en sus dromedarios a través de ese enorme país sin dueño que era el desierto del Sahara (por cierto, ¿sabían que "Sahara" significa precisamente "desierto" en árabe?). Estos pueblos –que, curiosamente, ya habían desarrollado un milenario sistema de escritura– fundaron la villa, aunque fueron mercaderes de la vecina ciudad-estado de Djenne los que la poblaron inicialmente, levantando un gran número de mercados y asentamientos mercantiles. Muy pronto Timbuktu se convirtió en un lugar próspero, pues se encontraba en el cruce de las caravanas trans-saharianas. Esas caravanas intercambiaban bienes entre el norte islámico (sal) y la zona del Níger, al sur (oro, esclavos, marfil, frutas), y era lugar de descanso para las interminables tropas de camellos porteadores, y para sus conductores.

Para el siglo XI había un buen número de comerciantes de las etnias Fulani, Mandé y Tuareg asentados allí. Todos ellos eran musulmanes. La ciudad perteneció a varios imperios: al de Ghana, al de Malí desde 1324, al Songhay desde 1468... Dentro del Imperio Songhay, Timbuktu fue "la joya de la corona", siendo esa su época de máximo esplendor.

[Resulta increíble la enorme cantidad y variedad de ciudades–estados, imperios y confederaciones que surgieron y desaparecieron en África antes de que la historia europea alcanzara a esos pueblos. Muchas veces estamos dispuestos a creer que allí no hubo historia ni nada digno de mención hasta la llegada de exploradores como Livingstone, Stanley, Burton... Pero, como dije al principio, no son más que partes del imaginario popular].

En 1591, la ciudad fue capturada por una banda de aventureros marroquíes capitaneados por un renegado español, el llamado "Pachá Joder". Pachá era título honorífico, y la otra palabreja era la interjección que salía más a menudo de la boca de ese malhablado individuo (interjección que nuestros lectores ibéricos sabrán reconocer, sin duda). Ese fue el inicio del fin del esplendor de Timbuktu. En 1893 cae bajo el poder colonial francés –no sin la dura resistencia de los Tuareg– y en 1960 gana su independencia junto con todo el Sudán francés (actual Malí). En los 90, la ciudad sufrió el ataque de los Tuareg, que pretendían crear su propio estado. La llamada "Rebelión Tuareg" no duró mucho, y terminó con una quema de armas en 1996.

Hoy es una ciudad bastante empobrecida, pero durante siglos constituyó un misterio para los europeos, especialmente porque, al ser un centro musulmán, estaba prohibida la entrada a todo aquel que no profesara la religión de Mahoma. Se contaban leyendas sin fin sobre sus riquezas –muchas de ellas basadas en hechos reales– y fueron numerosos los individuos y organizaciones occidentales que quisieron "descubrir" (ese era el verbo usado) Timbuktu y sus tesoros de fábula. En 1788, un grupo de ingleses formó la African Association para lograr encontrar la ciudad y ponerla sobre el mapa del continente. La Sociedad de Geografía de París ofreció, en 1824, un premio de 10.000 francos al primer no-musulmán que entrara a la ciudad y volviera con información. El escocés Gordon Laing llegó en 1826, pero fue asesinado. El francés René Caillié lo hizo en 1828, disfrazado de musulmán, y pudo regresar para contarlo y adueñarse tanto del premio como del dudoso honor de haber sido el primer europeo en entrar en la legendaria villa. Sólo otros tres europeos pudieron imitar su hazaña antes de 1890.

Es un UNESCO World Heritage Site desde 1988, debido a sus mezquitas hechas de adobe y barro, una imagen que proporciona a esa ciudad –y a otras de la región– un tremendo halo de misterio. Según se dice, las siluetas de esas construcciones inspiraron al arquitecto catalán Antonio Gaudí. Lamentablemente, la ciudad se está desertificando, y ha sido declarada en peligro desde 1990. Tan misteriosa es que una encuesta de 2006 realizada entre jóvenes británicos arrojó que el 34 % no creía que la ciudad existiese, y que un 66 % la consideraba "un lugar mítico".

A lo largo del s. XV se levantaron un buen número de instituciones islámicas en Timbuktu. La más famosa es la mezquita de Sankore, también conocida como "Universidad de Sankore" por la madrasa o escuela islámica que alojaba. Esa fue construida en 1581, y se convirtió en el centro de la comunidad académica islámica de esa región, aunque otras mezquitas aún sobrevivientes –la de Djinguereber o la de Sidi Yahya– son mucho más antiguas.

Una madrasa islámica no tiene nada que ver con una universidad medieval europea (por comparar instituciones de la misma época). La madrasa estaba compuesta por un grupo de escuelas independientes, cada una gestionada por un maestro. Los estudiantes se asociaban a un determinado profesor, y las clases tenían lugar en los espacios abiertos de la mezquita o en residencias privadas. El foco básico de las clases era el estudio del Corán, pero también se enseñaba lógica, astronomía, historia, música, botánica, religión, comercio, derecho y matemáticas. Los académicos escribían sus propios libros como parte de un modelo socio-económico basado en la investigación. Los beneficios obtenidos por la venta de libros era el segundo negocio de la ciudad, después del comercio de oro y sal. Se conservaban más de 100.000 manuscritos en la villa, la mayoría escritos en árabe o en pulaar (la lengua de los Fulani) y con contenidos didácticos sobre los temas tratados en la madrasa.

El nivel alcanzado por la producción de libros y conocimientos entre el s. XVI y XVIII hicieron que se acuñara un refrán, que sirve como testamento a esa brillante era: "La sal viene del norte; el oro, del sur; pero la palabra de Dios y los tesoros de la sabiduría vienen de Timbuktu".

Se cree que había más de 120 bibliotecas en la ciudad, que formaban parte de la "ruta de la tinta" africana. Esta arrancaba desde el norte de África y, siguiendo las rutas de las caravanas, llegaban al este del continente, también dominado por comerciantes árabes. En tiempos recientes, las bibliotecas se redujeron a unas 60-80 instituciones privadas, que se dedicaban a conservar los invaluables manuscritos. Entre ellas destacan hoy las bibliotecas Mamma Haidara, Kati, Al-Wangari y Mohammed Tahar. La biblioteca de la familia Kati posee 3.000 documentos de origen andalusí: los más antiguos están datados entre los s. XIV y XV. Hay más de un millón de documentos originales conservados hoy en Malí, y se supone que hay otros 20 millones en otras partes de África, en especial en la vecina región de Sokoto, Nigeria. Muchos de ellos son conservados como tesoros por familias que nunca revelarán su existencia.

Existen varios proyectos internacionales conjuntos que pretenden rescatar todo ese patrimonio. En agosto de 2002 se mantuvo el Ink Road International Symposium en Bamako (capital de Malí). En 2006, un esfuerzo conjunto de los gobiernos de Malí y Sudáfrica permitió comenzar la investigación al respecto. UNESCO ha iniciado el Timbuktu Manuscript Project, y en la ciudad, una fundación se dedica a la preservación de documentos históricos. No quedan artesanos del libro, aunque existen muchos recuerdos de ese oficio, que constituyó una industria floreciente hace mucho tiempo.

La historia que nos suelen enseñar –la de los libros, y tantas otras– parece demasiado concentrada en Europa, y muy pocas veces presta debida atención a otros espacios geográficos y culturales. El esbozo aquí realizado sobre África occidental podría también elaborarse sobre América Central prehispánica, sobre su producción de bellos códices y sobre su industria de papel de corteza amatl. ¿Cuánto nos han dicho sobre eso? ¿Cuánto hemos aprendido? ¿Cuánto sabemos?

Lejos de pretender "dar la voz a los sin voz", quizás en este espacio podamos "refrescar las memorias". Memorias de mundos que tuvieron, ellos también, diestros encuadernadores, magníficos ilustradores y expertos investigadores. Como los de Timbuktu.

Ilustración.

          The 200% World Cup – Dotmund’s Red Card Frenzy: Parts 9 To 12        

Well, good morning, and welcome to the third instalments of our resident cartoonist Dotmund’s history of sendings off at the World Cup finals. We continue this morning with England, France, Germany/Netherlands and Ghana. You can follow Dotmund on Twitter by clicking here. You can follow Twohundredpercent on Twitter by clicking here.

The post The 200% World Cup – Dotmund’s Red Card Frenzy: Parts 9 To 12 appeared first on Twohundredpercent.


          Achieving gender equality in Ghanaian mines         

Male dominance in the mining industry in Ghana is being challenged to achieve a more gender-balanced work environment. Rufai Haruna Kilu, in his doctoral thesis at Luleå University of Technology, identifies key changes being made to combat gender imbalance while making an economic case for gender equality.


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Serving best anime music by requests and ratings. J-POP and J-Rock are also available. (Other than specified, programs are "Normal Playlist & Request.")ユーザからのリクエストとレーティングでベストのアニメソングをお届けします。アニソン中心ですが、J-Pop, J-Rockも提供。(HPは英語です)。 Listen AnimeNfo Radio Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. AnimeNfo Radio free internet live radio.
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FM78.1MHzで、札幌市内及びその近郊でお聴き頂けます。 Listen ラジオカロスサッポロ Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. ラジオカロスサッポロ free internet live radio.
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          ãˆãµãˆã‚€è‰æ´¥        
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尼崎市のコミュニティラジオ局です。 Listen FMaiai Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. FMaiai free internet live radio.
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          FM TARO 76.7        
Listen FM TARO 76.7 Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. FM TARO 76.7 free internet live radio.
          FMえどがわ 84.3        
Listen FMえどがわ 84.3 Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. FMえどがわ 84.3 free internet live radio.
          ãƒ©ã‚¸ã‚ªé«˜å´Ž 76.2        
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          ã‚¨ãƒ•ã‚¨ãƒ ç”²åºœ 76.3        
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          FMチャッピー 77.7        
Listen FMチャッピー 77.7 Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. FMチャッピー 77.7 free internet live radio.
          éŽŒå€‰ã‚¨ãƒ•ã‚¨ãƒ  82.8        
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          FMブルー湘南 78.5        
Listen FMブルー湘南 78.5 Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. FMブルー湘南 78.5 free internet live radio.
          FMきたかた 78.2        
Listen FMきたかた 78.2 Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. FMきたかた 78.2 free internet live radio.
          ã‚¨ãƒ•ã‚¨ãƒ ã„わぬま 77.9        
Listen エフエムいわぬま 77.9 Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. エフエムいわぬま 77.9 free internet live radio.
          ã‚¨ãƒ•ã‚¨ãƒ ãƒ»ãƒã‚³ 76.2        
Listen エフエム・ポコ 76.2 Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. エフエム・ポコ 76.2 free internet live radio.
          ãƒ©ã‚¸ã‚ªãƒ¢ãƒ³ã‚¹ã‚¿ãƒ¼ 76.2        
Listen ラジオモンスター 76.2 Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. ラジオモンスター 76.2 free internet live radio.
          ã™ã¾ã„るエフエム 76.7        
Listen すまいるエフエム 76.7 Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. すまいるエフエム 76.7 free internet live radio.
          NHKラジオ第1        
Listen NHKラジオ第1 Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. NHKラジオ第1 free internet live radio.
          NHK FM        
NHK-FM放送(エヌエイチケイ・エフエムほうそう)は、日本放送協会(NHK)の周波数変調(FM)方式によるラジオ放送である。 Listen NHK FM Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. NHK FM free internet live radio.
          ãƒ©ãƒ‚オきしわだ 79.7        
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          äº¬éƒ½ä¸‰æ¡ãƒ©ã‚¸ã‚ªã‚«ãƒ•ã‚§ 79.7        
Listen 京都三条ラジオカフェ 79.7 Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. 京都三条ラジオカフェ 79.7 free internet live radio.
          Comment on Banners Design for Mobile Unlock Base by MichaelImmed        
Our team is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          Dstv sues Champion TV for illegally broadcasting live matches        

Multichoice Ghana Limited, agents of SuperSport International, has sued Champion Broadcasting Limited (Champion TV) for infringing on its copyrights by unlawfully showing the English Premier League, La Liga and the […]

The post Dstv sues Champion TV for illegally broadcasting live matches appeared first on Latest updates on satellite world in Africa.


                  
high times in kaiserslautern - no injuries, thank God


real life american travelers! omar, troy, jose, brian, and mathias (well... from denmark) these guys are on their graduation hurrah tour - all old friends from D.C. (not pictured, Amar - "el jefe" or in spanish circles....retarded tunisian)


azzuri buds - i predicted the score of the game beforehand- i was right, but the ref called back a goal...wanker. the back of my 'jersey' said "cazzo" - which got me laughs and dirty looks


the sureshot, jonas -köenigstrasse, stuttgart


the blessed father... italy v. ghana


someday my friend rusty ralston will own this stand
          rocking like pele back in his hayday...        

my apologies for MIA, but it has been a string of long, over-stimulated days of tramping around like a hobo with a pogo. let�s talk about spectrums for a moment. i started last week sleeping under an overpass in berlin eating other peoples� "trash" (don�t worry, mom...i still haven�t gotten herpes from this behavior) - to this week, waking up in a posh flat that overlooks all of stuttgart with a fridge full of beer, jello and cheese. the floors are all marble, too, so i feel like liberachi or sigmund and roy - without the tigers and the gay sex of course.

ok, moving on: top news...1) buying two overpriced tickets for italy v. ghana from some sleeze-ball italian guy named "salvatore" who had the chinese character for "trust" tatooed on his neck. turns out the tix were legit and my brother and i fulfilled a childhood vow to make it to the world cup together to see the azzuri play the game that we love. 2) meeting a talented, tramping welsh girl named faye who lives out of her van and busks enough money from playing songs with her guitar to get to her next temporary destination. a few of my new favorite english terms: minging - which means �disgusting� / rum - which means �risky� / see your ass - which means �to be humiliated ...another great comment she had concerning england was "soccer is the game that england gave to the world and now we can�t get it back." this was to describe a great english futbol song that talks about "thirty years of hurt" - england last won the world cup in �66.

the flybar continues to bring the people together and bring the kid out in those who are "rum" enough to hop on. one observation...though soccer has brought the world together this month in germany, all of the jerseys, flags and �ber nationalism keeps most of us at an arm�s length...until people start drinking, dancing, or flybarring. this is why i am doing what i am doing. i am addicted to seeing a tunisian hug a spainard after they have jumped around together for a few minutes in a sea of onlookers. stay tuned for some pictures- as soon as i figure out the damn website stuff. also, thought of the day: does hosting the world cup heal any residual guilt and shame from the nazi era?




          VIDEO: Fuse ODG – No Daylight        

Fuse ODG and his new African Movement took over the whole of London to you this new amazing new high energy banger. No Daylight was Recorded in Ghana. Produced by prolific producer, Killbeatz. Enjoy, dance and share with the world! DOWNLOAD VIDEO Fuse ODG – No Daylight

The post VIDEO: Fuse ODG – No Daylight appeared first on Jukebox Music.


          Kiehls #StayingAlive        
A few weeks ago I popped over to Glasgow for a bloggers brunch at Kiehl's on Buchanan Street to hear all about their #StayingAlive campaign in association with MTV.


I actually didn't know a lot about Kiehl's as a brand.  I'd only really become aware of them in the last 2 years or so, after Blair put a couple of Kiehl's men's skincare bits on his Christmas list that he'd seen in a magazine (ahh girls, remember the days when you used to get skincare and makeup recommendations from magazines, not blogs?).

After a morning at the Glasgow store being thoroughly schooled in the history of Kiehl's though, I am no longer in the dark (and now have a wishlist as long as my arm!).  I found it really interesting hearing about the background of the company, from the initial family run pharmacy in New York City, to the worldwide brand it is today.

One thing that has been consistent for Kiehl's is their dedication to helping communities and charitable causes.  In fact, their mission statement includes the phrase "making for better citizens, better firms, and better communities".  The main cause they support is AIDs and HIV research and prevention, which is what the MTV Staying Alive campaign is all about.



The campaign is doing some fantastic work, like providing vital HIV education in rural India, distributing condoms in Rwanda and Ghana, and providing safe spaces for young girls involved in commercial sex work to learn how to protect themselves again HIV.

You can help contribute towards the cause by purchasing a pot of the Kiehl's limited edition Ultra Facial Cream, with packaging designed by Laura Mvula.  Â£10 from every sale goes towards the cause, which is pretty impressive considering that when most brands do these type of charity collabs it's normally like "£1 from every sale".  I've been using it daily for a few weeks now and I LOVE IT.  I only use a tiny bit at a time but it is so moisturising, and it sinks in really quickly, so a really great product (as well as being for a great cause).

You can purchase the Ultra Facial cream in store or online.  Also, to donate £5 to MTV Staying Alive text kiehl98 £5 to 7007.


Thanks to Kiehl's for having us - and thanks to Halloumi Glasgow for the food, it was bloody lovely!

          Lassa fever carried back to Sweden        

A 73-year-old woman returning from travels in several African countries has been diagnosed with Lassa fever.

Lassa fever is a virus endemic to Benin, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone and Nigeria, which features symptoms such as fever, chills, joint pain, headache and diarrhea.

The case was confirmed by the Public Health Agency of Sweden after testing, and was subsequently reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) by the National IHR Focal Point for Sweden.

The woman returned to Sweden in early March after several weeks of travel in Liberia, Monrovia, Yekeba and other African locations. Officials said that, in Liberia, the woman was exposed to rodents, who are the most common vectors for the virus.

Approximately 1 percent of people who contract Lassa fever die.

WHO officials said they are following up with 74 contacts who may have been in a position to contract the virus from the woman, who was placed in isolation.


          Five CSU Students Selected as Gilman Scholars         

U.S. Department of State initiative funds study abroad experiences around the world

Saida MarkovicFive Cleveland State University students have been selected as Gilman Scholars, by the U.S. Department of State. The initiative provides funds to assist college students in participating in study abroad and internship programs in nations around the world. The students, Alix Kosmala, Saida Markovic, Lakiel Wade, Sophie Warner and Erica Young, are spending the summer of 2017 in Japan, Spain, Serbia, Canada and Ghana respectively.

“The Gilman Scholarship program is one of the U.S. government’s top international education programs and offers students an incredibly unique opportunity to experience other cultures, develop new skills and improve our world,” notes Julie Good, manager for education abroad programs at CSU. “We are extraordinarily fortunate to have five individuals selected for the 2017 cohort, and this illustrates the tremendous drive and caliber of our students.”

Kosmala, who is majoring in environmental studies, is spending the summer studying at the KCP International Japanese Language School in Tokyo. She also received a Freeman-ASIA scholarship, sponsored by Institute of International Education, to assist in funding her study abroad experience. Markovic, a psychology major, is conducting Spanish language and cultural studies in Granada, Spain.

Wade, who is majoring in computer and information science, is conducting an International Engineering Internship at the University of Novi Sod in Serbia, sponsored by the International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experiences. Warner, a biology major, is conducting conservation research on the Taku River in northwest British Columbia, Canada. Young, a black studies major, is studying at the University of Ghana in Accra.

“I'm honored and humbled to have been selected as a recipient,” adds Markovic. “This scholarship has lifted a financial burden and will allow me to focus on my studies in order to finish my minor in Spanish.”

The U.S. Department of State’s Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship is a grant program that enables students of limited financial means to study or intern abroad, thereby gaining skills critical to our national security and economic competitiveness. The program is named in honor of Congressman Benjamin Gilman, the author of the legislation establishing the program.

Learn more about the Gilman scholars program.

###


          Kwanzaa Flag Decoration        
Kwanzaa Flag Decorationfenadminuser Tue, 12/05/2006 - 14:33

Kwanzaa Flag Decoration

Materials
  • Construction paper in red, green, blue, yellow and white
  • Scissors
  • Thin ribbon or yarn
  • Glue
  • Black marker

 

 

Directions

The Flag of Gabon:

  1. Cut a rectangle from the green construction paper, measuring about 3" x 6".
  2. Cut bands from the blue and yellow paper, measuring about 2" x 6".
  3. Paste the strips horizontally across the green rectangle, starting at the bottom with the blue.
  4. Paste the yellow directly above the blue strip, so that you are left with three bands of equal size running horizontally across the flag: green on top, yellow in the center, and blue on the bottom.

The Flag of Ghana:
  1. Cut a rectangle from the green construction paper, measuring about 3" x 6".
  2. Cut bands from the red and yellow paper, measuring about 2" x 6".
  3. Paste the strips horizontally across the green rectangle, starting at the top with the red.
  4. Paste the yellow directly below, so that you are left with three bands of equal size running horizontally across the flag: red on top, yellow in the center, and green on the bottom.
  5. Use the black marker to draw a five-point star in the center of the yellow band.

The Flag of Benin:
  1. Cut a rectangle from the green construction paper, measuring about 3" x 6".
  2. Cut bands from the red and yellow paper, measuring about 1½" x 5".
  3. Glue the yellow strip to the top right of the green rectangle.
  4. Paste the red band at the bottom right of the rectangle so you are left with a green vertical band on the left, and yellow and red horizontal bands of equal size.

The Flag of Nigeria:
  1. Cut a rectangle from the green construction paper, measuring about 3" x 6".
  2. Cut a strip from the white paper, measuring 2" x 3".
  3. Paste the white strip directly in the center of the green rectangle so that it runs vertically.

Paste the ribbon or yarn behind each flag, so that they are strung together. Hang your flag decoration and enjoy! For added fun, research other flags of Africaand include them in your wall decoration!

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          blotelli siap di sepak        

Balotelli Siap Di Depak

Published by MR. Ball at 1:14 pm under Liga Champion, Liga Italia

Dengan tindak-tanduknya yang membuat kubu Inter Milan gerah, Mario Balotelli diprediksi bakal hengkang akhir musim ini. Kepastian nasib sang striker baru akan diketahui tengah pekan depan, usai laga di Liga Champions.

Masalah terakhir yang dibuat Balotelli adalah saat Inter memetik kemenangan 3-1 atas Barcelona di semifinal Liga Champions tengah pekan kemarin. Masuk sebagai pengganti, dalam beberapa kesempatan dia tak mendengarkan perintah Jose Mourinho di pinggir lapangan, sementara usai laga dia membanting ke tanah seragam Nerazzurri.

Beberapa kali dibuat kesal, kubu Inter mencoba mengambil tindakan tegas. Mereka mengirim striker Italia berdasarh Ghana itu pulang saat tengah menjalani latihan bersama rekan-rekannya, yang tengah mempersiapkan diri untuk laga kontra Atalanta.

Walau peristiwa terakhir tersebut membuat peluang Balotelli terdepak makin besar, namun agennya bersikeras kalau striker belia itu masih punya kesempatan di Giuseppe Meazza. Kepastian soal hal tersebut akan diketahui saat pihak Balotelli dan kubu Inter dijadwalkan melakukan pembicaraan usai leg kedua semifinal Liga Champions.

“Dengan hormat untuk klub dan untuk tidak mengganggu persiapan mereka di (laga) selanjutnya, pertemuan dengan Inter akan dilakukan setelah pertandingan menghadapi Barcelona,” tegas Mino Raiola seperti dikutip dari AFP.

“Saya tak mau menciptakan sirkus medua dan begitu juga dengan Mario. Dia ingin seluruh tim berkonsentrasi pada target besar mereka. Jadi saya tak akan mengatakan apapun sampai konferensi pers pada Kamis mendatang,” lanjut Raiola.

Kalau Balotelli benar-benar hengkang, dia sangat mungkin masih akan bertahan di Kota Milan karena AC Milan dikabarkan bersedia menampungnya. Apalagi striker 19 tahun itu sempat mengakui kalau dirinya adalah fans Rossoneri dan bahkan pernah dikerjai sebuah acara televisi untuk memakai seragam ‘Merah-Hitam’.

Berita Bola Favorit


          Our ongoing commitment to support computer science educators in Europe        

The need for employees with computer science (CS) and coding skills is steadily increasing in Europe—by 4 percent every year between 2006 and 2016 according to DigitalEurope.  But educators are struggling to keep up with the demand, often because they lack the professional development, confidence and resources to successfully teach their students. 

Because of these challenges, we’re working to increase the availability of quality computer science education and access to CS skills by empowering CS teachers globally. We’ve recently launched new support in Europe, the Middle East and Africa through CS4HS, a program to fund universities and nonprofits designing and delivering rigorous computer science professional development for teachers.

We’re excited to be working with 79 organizations worldwide, and 28 in the EMEA region, who are committed to increasing the technical and teaching skills of educators, and building communities of ongoing learning. We believe that these organizations are committed to delivering high-quality teacher professional development programs with a deep impact in their local community and a strong potential to increase their reach.

Classroom image

Growing the community of computer science educators  

Over the past 10 years, CS4HS has contributed $10 million to professional development (PD) providers around the world to help develop and empower teachers—like Catrobat, a non-profit initiative based at Graz University of Technology in Austria who created a free online course for students and teachers, and the University of Wolverhampton, who created a free MOOC to empower teachers of computing to teach programming in the new computing syllabuses in England, among others.

We’re excited to support new and future CS educators around the world. Even though computer science is a relatively new discipline for most schools, the enthusiasm is growing and teachers have a critical role to play in fueling their students’ interest and participation. These grants will help universities and nonprofits reach educators with PD opportunities that enhance their CS and technical skills development, improve their confidence in the classroom, and provide leadership training so that they can be advocates for CS education in their communities.

2017 awardees in EMEA

Asociatia Techsoup Romania

Ideodromio, Cyprus

Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Informatica, Italy

Lithuanian Computer Society

Dublin City University, Ireland

Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland

EduACT, Greece

Graz University of Technology, Austria

University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

Asociatia Tech Lounge, Romania

Association Rural Internet Access Points, Lithuania

University of Wolverhampton, UK

Universidad de Granada, Spain

University UMK Toruń, Poland

Hasselt University, Belgium

Jednota školských informatiků, Czech Republic

University of Lille - Science and Technology, France

University of Roehampton, UK

University of Urbino, Italy

ETH Zürich, Switzerland

Vattenhallen Science Center, Lund University, Sweden

University College of Applied Sciences, Palestine

Hapa Foundation, Ghana

Let’s Get Ready, Cameroon

Swaziland Foundation for STEM Education

Laikipia University, Kenya

Mobile4Senegal

Peo Ya Phetogo in partnership with University of the Western Cape & Mozilla Foundation, South Africa

To discover more about CS opportunities near you, explore our educator resources, student programs and resources, and tools.



          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 05-01-2017 with Cal Huss        
Playlist:

Darondo- Didnt I - Let My People Go
- voicebreak -
Fathers Children- Whos Gonna Save The World - Whos Gonna Save The World
Money Mark- Hand In Your Head - Marks Keyboard Repair
James Brown- Mind Power Alt Take Edit - 12
- voicebreak -
Lee Scratch Perry The Upsetters- Huzza A Hana - Return Of The Super Ape
Fat Freddys Drop- Wairunga Blues - Bays
The Whitefield Brothers- Sol Walk - In The Raw
Orchestra Baobab- Sey - Tribute To Ndiouga Dieng
- voicebreak -
Chicano Batman- Angel Child - Freedom Is Free
LAKE- OverUnder - Forever Or Never
Imaginary Tricks- Big Hassles - Skommel
Alfa Mist- Kyoki - Antiphon
- voicebreak -
Valerie June- If And - The Order Of Time
Hush Arbors- Bones Of A Thousand Suns - Landscape Of Bone
Woods- With Light And With Love - With Light And With Love
Mr Airplane Man- Sun Sinking Low - Moanin
- voicebreak -
Muddy Waters- I Am The Blues - After The Rain
Robert Glasper- Afro Blue feat Erykah Badu - Black Radio
My Morning Jacket- Cobra - Chocolate And Ice EP
- voicebreak -
Damaged Bug- The Cryptologist - Bunker Funk
Messer Chups- Sex Euro And Evils Pop - Crazy Price
Nobody- Shades Of Orange - Soulmates
Brand Nubian- Love Vs Hate - Foundation
- voicebreak -
Masta Killa- Then And Now feat Kareem Justice Shamel Irief Young Prince - Made In Brooklyn
Billy Boyo- One Spliff A Day - Hi Grade Ganja Anthems Vol 2
Sick Team- Tokyo Driftin feat Meccagodzilla Gapper - Sick Team
Gyede Blay Ambolley The Steneboofs- Simigwado - Ghana Soundz AfroBeat Funk And Fusion In 70s Ghana
- voicebreak -
Roya- End Times - Roya
Parquet Courts- N Dakota - Light Up Gold
Eno Hyde- Lilac - High Life
- voicebreak -
Juana Molina- Cosoco - Halo


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2017-05-01
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 01-19-2017 with Cal Huss        
Playlist:

Gil ScottHeron- The Revolution Will Not Be Televised - Pieces Of A Man
- voicebreak -
JOSH WHITE- Trouble - FREE AND EQUAL BLUES
David Honeyboy Edwards- Worried Life Blues - Library Of Congress A Treasury Of Field Recordings
Bessie Smith- Poor Mans Blues - The Complete Recordings Vol 4
- voicebreak -
Leadbelly- Bourgeois Blues - Bourgeois Blues
SWEET HONEY IT ROCK- Aint Gonna Let Nobody Turn Me Round - Freedom Song
Billie Holiday Tony Scott Orchestra- Strange Fruit - Lady Sings The Blues
- voicebreak -
John Coltrane Quartet- Alabama - Live At Birdland
Sam Cooke- A Change Is Gonna Come - Aint That Good News
Mingus Big Band- It Was A Lonely Day In Selma Alabama Freedom - Blues Politics
Various Artists- The Posittive Force With Ade Olatunji The Afrikan In Winter - Spiritual Jazz 19681977
- voicebreak -
Bob Dylan- Masters Of War - In Concert Brandeis University 1963
Rodriguez- This Is Not A Song Its An Outburst Or The Establishment Blues - Cold Fact
ric Landry- Out Of The Blue - Native North America Vol 1 Aboriginal Folk Rock And Country 19661985
- voicebreak -
Neil Young- Indian Givers - Peace Trail
Johnny Cash- The Vanishing Race - Bitter Tears Ballads Of The American Indian
Willie Dunn- I Pity The Country - Native North America Vol 1 Aboriginal Folk Rock And Country 19661985
- voicebreak -
James Brown- Say It Load Im Black And Im Proud - Say It Load
Syl Johnson- Im Talkin Bout Freedom - Is It Because Im Black
Richie Havens- What About Me - Unreleased 1974 Concert Performance
- voicebreak -
Bob Marley The Wailers- Four Hundred Years - African Herbsman
Burning Spear- The Invasion aka Black WaDaDa - Marcus Garvey
Max Romeo- Get Up Stand Up Acoustic Version - Bass Culture Vol 3
UB40- Burden Of Shame - Signing Off
- voicebreak -
Fela Kuti Egypt 80- Teacher Dont Teach Me Nonsense - Finding Fela Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
The 3rd Generation Band- Because Of Money - Ghana Soundz AfroBeat Funk And Fusion In 70s Ghana
Ofo The Black Company- Allah Wakbarr - Nigeria 70 Original Afro Classics
- voicebreak -
Death- Politicians In My Eyes - For The Whole World To See
Paul Ngozi- Help Me - The Ghetto
The Mothers Of Invention- Trouble Every Day - Freak Out
- voicebreak -
MC5- The American Ruse - Back In The USA
Crass- Where Next Columbus - Penis Envy
Government Issue- These Boots Are Made For Walkin - Complete History Vol 1
GLOSS- Fight - Trans Day Of Revenge
- voicebreak -
Mexican Institute Of Sound- Mxico - Politico
Gang Starr- Conspiracy - Daily Operation
- voicebreak -
Common- Letter To The Free feat Bilal - Black America Again


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2017-01-19
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 12-01-2016 with Marco Mangione        
Playlist:

Parliament- Chocolate City - The Best Of Parliament Give Up The Funk
Funkadelic- I Wanna Know If Its Good To You - Free Your Mind And Your Ass Will Follow
K Frimpong Vis A Vis- Aboagyewaa - Ghana Soundz Vol 2 AfroBeat Funk And Fusion In 70s Ghana
- voicebreak -
The New Matersounds- Carrot Juice - Nashville Session
A Band Of Bitches- Feelin Blue - Quiero Creedence
- voicebreak -
Jake Xerxes Fussell- Boats Up The River - Jake Xerxes Fussell
Camera Obscura- Number One Son - Underachievers Please Try Harder
Aziza A- Bundan Sonrasi - Kendi Dunyam
- voicebreak -
Pepper- Stone Love - Kona Town
HIRIE- Good Vibration feat Trevor Hall - Wandering Soul
Sultana- Kaymak - Cerkez Kizi
Rob Swift- Sound Event - Sound Event
MIA- Foreign Friend feat Dexta Daps - AIM Deluxe
Danny Brown- Tell Me What I Dont Know - Atrocity Exhibition
Aretha Franklin- Think - Aretha Now
Tom Z- Jimmy RendaSe - Tom Z
Nina Simone- Take Care Of Business - I Put A Spell On You
Moussa Doumbia- Keleya - World Psychedelic Classics 3 Loves A Real Thing The Funky Fuzzy Sounds Of West Africa
- voicebreak -
Gramatik- Muy Tranquilo - SB3
Daby Toure- Mi Malama - Diam
Treetop Flyers- Making Time - The Mountain Moves
Lil Ed The Blues Imperials- Black Diamond Love - The Big Sound Of Lil Ed The Blues Imperials
- voicebreak -
Damian Jr Gong Marley- Stand A ChanceAnd You Be Loved - Halfway Tree
- voicebreak -
10 Foot Ganja Plant- Suits And Ski Masks - Bass Chalice
Various Artists- Ceddo End Title Manu Dibango film Music - Loves A Real Thing
- voicebreak -
Chicha Libre- Un Shipbo En Espana - Sondio Amazonico
MARTIRES DEL COMPAS- Colores - Simpapeles Es CompapelesSon
The Green- Wake Up - The Green
Various Artists- Dean Martin Jingle Bells - Christmas Remixed
- voicebreak -
Crooked Eye Tommy- Love Divine - Butterferflies Snakes
William Clarke- Please Let Me Be Your Santa Claus - The Alligator Records Christmas Collection
- voicebreak -
The Spy From Cairo- Reggada - Secretly Famous
Ifa- Salva Dor - Ijexa Funk Afrobeat


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2016-12-01
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 09-08-2016 with Marco Mangione        
Playlist:

Shankar Mahadevan- Jhoom - Jhoom Barabar Jhoom Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Ansel Collins Dalton Browne- West Of The Sun - Interpertations Improvisations A Tribute To Reggaes Keyboard King Jackie Mittoo
Whiskey Blanket- Pound Boom - No Object
Sultana- Pek Yaman - Cerkez Kizi
Christy Azuma Uppers International- Naam - Ghana Soundz Vol 2 AfroBeat Funk And Fusion In 70s Ghana
Soulive- Hurry Up And Wait - Doin Something
- voicebreak -
Nneka- My Love My Love - My Fairy Tales
Roop Kumar Rathod- Tujh Mein Rab Dikhta Hai - Rab Ne Bana Di Jodi Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Visionaries- Strike - Pangaea
7L Esoteric- Herb - Dangerous Connection
- voicebreak -
Pluxus- April 1724 - European Onion
Ofo The Black Company- Allah Wakbarr - Nigeria 70 Original Afro Classics
Dub Nation- Bubonic - Let The Truth Be Known
Femi Kuti- Eko Lagos - Fight To Win
RJD2- Her Majestys Socialist Request - More Is Than Isnt
El Pesetita- Se Que Tu Sientes Tangos - TecnoRumba Vol 3
- voicebreak -
Rahul Saxena Shaan Shreya Ghoshal Sunidhi Chauhan Udit Narayan- Deewangi Deewangi - Om Shanti Om Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Calvin Harris- The Girls - I Created Disco
Prince Alla Junior Ross- Jah Jah Bird - I Can Hear The Children Singing
Peter Tosh- Moses The Prophet - Peter Tosh 19781987
DJ Sun- Sensation - One Hundred
The New Mastersounds- Pure Feat Sam Bell - This Is What We Do
- voicebreak -
Fanfare Ciocrlia- Banatzeana - Iag Bari
Zeb- Turbo Jeepsy - Turntables On The Hudson Lunar New Year 4707
Soap Kills- Ya Jarha Galbi - Arabesque Arbaa 4
The Diplomats Of Solid Sound The Diplomettes- Lights Out - The Diplomats Of Solid Sound Featuring The Diplomettes
BUDAMUNK Ill Sugi- Into The Unknown - Spirit Of The Golden Era
Various Artists- Dreamcatcher By Bahramji Manish De Moor - Tandaua
Cold Chilling Collective- It Was A Good Day feat Danelle - Cold Chilling Compton
CULTURE- World Peace - World Peace
- voicebreak -
DuOud- Chase - Wild Serenade
Najma- Dil Pukare - Forbidden Kiss The Music Of SD Burman
Niyaz- Nahan - Niyaz
Baba Zula Mad Professor- Sipa - Duble Oryantal
- voicebreak -
Bush Chemists- Double Drum - Raw Raw Dub


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2016-09-08
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 07-21-2014 with Adam Taylor        
Playlist:

- Every Day I Have The Blues - Dues Paid The Bluestime Story
Mungos Hi Fi Prince Fatty- Scrub A Dub Style Prince Fatty Mix feat Sugar Minott - Prince Fatty Versus Mungos HiFi
Afro Fiesta- Jah Guide - Fire Down Babylon
- Get Up In Your Hot Pants - The Soul Fire Box Set
- Rock Me Baby - Delmark 60 Years Of Blues
- voicebreak -
Mogwai- Remurdered - Rave Tapes
The Plates- Boom Boom Rockers - Punky Reggae
- Unbelievable - A Tribute To Bob Dylan In The 80s Volume One
St Vincent- Digital Witness - St Vincent
- So Much To Say - Small Faces Friends
Dave Alvin Phil Alvin- Key To The Highway - Common Ground Dave Alvin Phil Alvin Play And Sing The Songs Of Big Bill Broonzy
Sierra Leones Refugee All Stars- Ghana Baby - Libation
The Railsplitters- Boarding Pass Thats The Way It Is - The Railsplitters
Leon Russell- Come On In My Kitchen - Life Journey
Sylvan Esso- Coffee - Sylvan Esso
- voicebreak -
Johnny Winter- Bright Lights Big City - Roots
Johnny Winter- Gangster Of Love - A Lone Star Kind Of Day
TuneYards- Time Of Dark - Nikki Nack
The Black Keys- Turn Blue - Turn Blue
Arctic Monkeys- Arabella - AM
Ha Ha Tonka- Arabella - Lessons
Rodrigo Y Gabriela- The Russian Messenger - 9 Dead Alive
Esme Patterson- Valentine - Woman To Woman
Jolie Holland- On And On - Wine Dark Sea
Courtney Barnett- Avant Gardener - The Double EP A Sea Of Split Peas
Atmosphere- Puppets - When Life Gives You Lemons You Paint That Shit Gold
Pretty Lights- Around The Block Datsik Remix feat Talib Kweli - A Color Map Of The Sun Remixes
Blitzen Trapper- Feel The Chill - VII
Jason Isbell- Super 8 - Southeastern
- voicebreak -
Nikki Lane- Sleep With A Stranger - All Or Nothin
William Onyeabor- Body And Soul Scientist Remix - What
Jurassic 5- Thin Line - Power In Numbers
- voicebreak -
Grieves- Astronauts feat Slug - Winter The Wolves
Chatham County Line- The Traveler - Tightrope
Neil Young- After The Gold Rush Live At The Cellar Door - Live At The Cellar Door
Kasai Allstars- The Chiefs Enthronement Oyaye - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2014-07-21
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 07-07-2014 with Adam Taylor        
Playlist:

Ginger Baker- Footprints - Why
Preservation Hall Jazz Band- Dear Lord Give Me The Strength - Thats It
Rebirth Brass Band- Texas Pete feat Javon Carter - Move Your Body
Dirty Dozen Brass Band- Big Chief Pt 2 - New Orleans Funk 3
- Soul Dynamite - The Soul Fire Box Set
- voicebreak -
Richard Buckner- Blue And Wonder - Bloomed Remastered
Richard Buckner- Surprise AZ - Bloomed Remastered
- Losers Can Win - Made In Iceland VII
Sierra Leones Refugee All Stars- Ghana Baby - Libation
Kasai Allstars- As They Walked Into The Forest On A Sunday They Encountered Apes Dressed As Humans - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5
Seun Kuti Egypt 80- African Smoke - A Long Way To The Beginning
- voicebreak -
William Onyeabor- Body And Soul - What
The Plates- Boombox Vibin - Punky Reggae
Quantic- Descarga Cantica feat Fruko Michi Sarmiento - Magnetica
Rodrigo Y Gabriela- Somnium - 9 Dead Alive
King Sunny Ade- Adena Ike - The Best Of The Classic Years
- voicebreak -
The Railsplitters- Room At The Top Of The Stairs - The Railsplitters
Chatham County Line- Final Reward - Tightrope
Musketeer Gripweed- End Of The Day - Floods And Fires
Greg Brown- Brand New Angel - Hymns To What Is Left
Ani DiFranco- Shameless - Dilate Remastered
Randy Newman- You Can Leave Your Hat On - The Best Of Randy Newman
- voicebreak -
The Budos Band- Rite Of The Ancients - The Budos Band III
TuneYards- Time Of Dark - Nikki Nack
Nathaniel Rateliff- Falling Faster Than You Can Run - Falling Faster Than You Can Run
Arctic Monkeys- R U Mine - AM
Beck- Blue Moon - Morning Phase
The Black Keys- Gotta Get Away - Turn Blue
Nikki Lane- Loves On Fire - All Or Nothin
Johnny Cash- Im Movin On with Waylon Jennings - Out Among The Stars
Jolie Holland- On And On - Wine Dark Sea
Sylvan Esso- Coffee - Sylvan Esso
Esme Patterson- Valentine - Woman To Woman
Amos Lee- Stranger - Mountains Of Sorrow Rivers Of Song Deluxe


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2014-07-07
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 06-16-2014 with Adam Taylor        
Playlist:

Phosphorescent- Its Hard To Be Humble When Youre From Alabama - Heres To Taking It Easy
Cibo Matto- Hotel Valentine - Hotel Valentine
Leon Russell- Come On In My Kitchen - Life Journey
Son Palenque- Palengue Palengue - AfroColombian Sound Modernizers
Anglique Kidjo- Kulumbu with Dr John - Eve
Willie Nelson- Have You Ever Seen The Rain feat Paula Nelson - To All The Girls
- voicebreak -
Musketeer Gripweed- End Of The Day - Floods And Fires
The Black Angels- Diamond Eyes - Clear Lake Forest
Ana Tijoux- Mi Verdad - Vengo
Thao The Get Down Stay Down- Train In Vain - The Feeling Kind EP
Tinariwen- Emajer - Emmaar
Rodrigo Y Gabriela- Sunday Neurosis - 9 Dead Alive
- voicebreak -
Tennis- 100 Lovers - Small Sound EP
Mungos Hi Fi Prince Fatty- Scrub A Dub Style Prince Fatty Mix feat Sugar Minott - Prince Fatty Versus Mungos HiFi
The Plates- Boom Boom Rockers - Punky Reggae
- Mr Talkative - Studio One Ska Fever
Thievery Corporation- Dcollage feat Lou Lou Ghelichkhani - Saudade
- Nunca Mais - Six Degrees Of Brazil Vol 2
- Balana No Pode Parar - Six Degrees Of Brazil Vol 2
- voicebreak -
- A Minha Menina - Everything Is Possible The Best Of Os Mutantes
William Onyeabor- Body And Soul - World Psychedelic Classics 5 Who Is William Onyeabor
Morcheeba- Release Me Now - Head Up High
Dirty Dozen Brass Band- What You Want - New Orleans Funk 3
Nikki Lane- Loves On Fire - All Or Nothin
The Black Keys- Weight Of Love - Turn Blue
Tift Merritt- Traveling Alone - Traveling Companion
- voicebreak -
Dave Rawlins Machine- To By Young is To Be Sad Is To Be High - A Friend Of A Friend
Asheru- Funky DC feat Funk Ark Sitali - Sleepless In Soweto
Shaheed DJ Supreme- Keep Climbing feat Angie King - Knowledge Rhythm And Understanding
Roots Manuva Meets Wrongtom- Lick Up Ya Foot - Duppy Writer
TuneYards- Time Of Dark - Nikki Nack
Pretty Lights- Around The Block Datsik Remix feat Talib Kweli - A Color Map Of The Sun Remixes
DriveBy Truckers- Sht Shots Count radio Edit - English Oceans
Various Artists- The Mercury Dance Band Kai Wawa - Ghana Special Highlife Ghanaian Blues 6881


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2014-06-16
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 05-19-2014 with Adam Taylor        
Playlist:

Magic Sam- Dont Want No Woman - Live At The Avant Garde
Sierra Leones Refugee All Stars- Ghana Baby - Libation
- Miam Maikan - Putumayo Presents Native America
Quantic- You Will Return feat Alice Russell - Magnetica
Chico Trujillo- Gran Pecador - Gran Pecador
The Crystal Method- Emulator - The Crystal Method
Sly Robbie- French Woman - Underwater Dub
- voicebreak -
Ana Tijoux- Mi Verdad - Vengo
Mungos Hi Fi Prince Fatty- Dry Your Tears Mungos Hi Fi Mix feat Winston Francis - Prince Fatty Versus Mungos HiFi
Anglique Kidjo- Eva with ASA - Eve
Anoushka Shankar- The Sun Wont Set feat Norah Jones - Traces Of You
Nickel Creek- You Dont Know Whats Going On - A Dotted Line
Elvis Costello And The Roots- Walk Us Uptown Antibalas Rework Chico Mann Edit - Wise Up Thought Remixes Reworks 2013
Tennis- Mean Streets - Small Sound EP
Nikki Lane- Good Man - All Or Nothin
Lucinda Williams- Something About What Happens When We Talk - Lucinda Williams Deluxe Edition
- Sugarfoot Stomp Pete Rock Remix - Boardwalk Empire Presents Sounds Of The Onyx
Tift Merritt- Traveling Alone - Traveling Companion
- Aint It Funky Now - The Soul Fire Box Set
The Holmes Brothers- Lickety Split - Brotherhood
- voicebreak -
Tim Easton- Lickety Split - Not Cool
- All Or Nothing Live - Small Faces Friends
Special Request- Lana Del Rey Ride Special Request Remix - Soul Music
- Jokerman - A Tribute To Bob Dylan In The 80s Volume One
Morcheeba- Release Me Now - Head Up High
William Onyeabor- Heaven And Hell - What
Dirty Dozen Brass Band- Big Chief Pt 2 - New Orleans Funk 3
Marcia Ball- Roadside Attractions - Roadside Attractions
The California Honeydrops- Soul Tub - Soul Tub
Tab Benoit- Howlin For My Darling - The Sea Saint Sessions
Men In Burka- Bismillah - Warmagic
Beck- Say Goodbye - Morning Phase
Dave Alvin Phil Alvin- Key To The Highway - Common Ground Dave Alvin Phil Alvin Play And Sing The Songs Of Big Bill Broonzy
Johnny Cash- Im Movin On with Waylon Jennings - Out Among The Stars


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2014-05-19
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 05-05-2014 with Adam Taylor        
Playlist:

The Pogues- A Pair Of Brown Eyes - 3030 The Essential Collection
Halden Wofford And The HiBeams- Loser - Rocky Mountain Honky Tonk
Quantic- Descarga Cantica feat Fruko Michi Sarmiento - Magnetica
The Holmes Brothers- Lickety Split - Brotherhood
Anglique Kidjo- Kulumbu with Dr John - Eve
- voicebreak -
Allen Toussaint- Get Out Of My Life Woman - Songbook
- WhirlYReel No 1 - The Ultimate Guide To Irish Folk
- First Morning Putumayo Version feat Will Clipman - Putumayo Presents Native America
Chico Trujillo- La Escoba - Chico De Oro
The Crystal Method- Storm The Castle feat Le Castle Vania - The Crystal Method
The Souljazz Orchestra- One Life To Live - Inner Fire
Mungos Hi Fi Prince Fatty- Scrub A Dub Style Prince Fatty Mix feat Sugar Minott - Prince Fatty Versus Mungos HiFi
Sly Robbie- French Woman - Underwater Dub
- Stolen Youth - Zen A Ninja TuneBig Dada Sampler 2013
Sierra Leones Refugee All Stars- Ghana Baby - Libation
- Mr Talkative - Studio One Ska Fever
DR LOCOS ROCKIN JALAPENO- Migra - Movimiento Music
- voicebreak -
Calexico- Maybe On Monday - Algiers
The Head And The Heart- Shake - Lets Be Still
Dirty Dozen Brass Band- Go To The Mardi Gras - New Orleans Funk 3
- Im The Man - The Soul Fire Box Set
Xavier Rudd- Let Me Be - Solace
Kurtis Blow- The Breaks - The Breaks Single
Wayne Hancock- Jump The Blues - Viper Of Melody
- Sugarfoot Stomp Pete Rock Remix - Boardwalk Empire Presents Sounds Of The Onyx
Neil Young- Down By The River Live At The Cellar Door - Live At The Cellar Door
Lucinda Williams- Changed The Locks live - Lucinda Williams Deluxe Edition
Beck- Morning - Morning Phase
Morcheeba- Release Me Now - Head Up High
Magic Sam- Thats All Right - Live At The Avant Garde
Medeski Martin Wood- Bubblehouse - Bubblehouse
William Oneyabor- Body Soul Scientist Remix - What Willieam Oneyabor Remixed


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2014-05-05
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 04-04-2014 with 99 & Barry        
Playlist:

Tinariwen- Toumast Tincha - Emmaar
Amy Denio- Root Dance - Prodigal Light
Kletka Red- Give Me Your Doorstep Donnerstag - Hijacking
The Books- S Is For Evrysing - The Lemon Of Pink Remastered
Frank Pahl- 1001 Real Apes - In Cahoots
The Ordinaires- The Dance Of The Coco Crispies - One
- voicebreak -
Quantic- Muvelo Negro - Magnetica
Rob Symeonn- Ithiopia - Indigenous
Tackhead- For The Love Of Money Instrumental Version - For The Love Of Money
Tommy Guerrero- Cut The Reins - Lifeboats And Follies Deluxe Edition
Ed Schraders Music Beat- My Mind Is Broken - Jazz Mind
- On A Bicycle Made For 3 - Inner City Beat Detective Themes Spy Music And Imaginary Thrillers
Mr Bungle- Ars Moriendi - California
- voicebreak -
Francoise Hardy- Harley Davidson - Vamps Et Vampire The Songs Of Serge Gainsbourg
Oleg Kostrow- Lego For 4 - Legomarsch
Philip Perkins- Mechanical Piano Parade - Drive Time
Amon Tobin- Lost Found - Isam Bonus Track Version
Dubblestandart- Marijuana Dreams Adrian Sherwood Dub - In Dub
Jah Wobble The Nippon Dub Esemble- Shinto Dub - Japanese Dub
- voicebreak -
James Booker- Junco Partner - Junco Partner
Various Artists- Pappa En Gang Till - Otis Fodders 365 Days Project UBUCOM
Wanda Jackson- Busted - The Party Aint Over
Yukari Fresh- Horsey Marie - Trefoils Hat
Tom Z- Peixe Viva IQuitngue - Jogos De Armar
Miam Vandale- Dana Gostosa - Funk Globo The Sound Of Neo Baile Compiled By Funk Na Caixa Club Popozuda
Survival- Survival - Simmer Down
Frank Zappa- King KingChungas RevengeMr Green Genes - Roxy By Proxy
The Ed Palermo Big Band- Why Is The Doctor Barking - Oh No Not Jazz Palermo
Nels Cline Singers- Respira - Macroscope
John Zorn- Squaring The Circle - Psychomagia
- voicebreak -
Alsarah And The Nubatones- Nuba Noutou - Silt
Anon- Amore Amore Ce MHai Fattu Fare - Italian Treasury Puglia The Salenta
Christy Azuma And Uppers International- Din Ya Sugri - Ghana Special Modern Highlife Afro Sounds Ghanaian Blues 196881
Arve Henriksen- Lament - Places Of Worship
Leo Welch- Mother Loves Her Children - Sabougla Voices
Dot Wiggin Band- Your Best Friend - Ready Get Go
Salma And Sabrina- Toba Toba Mamma Mia - Abba In Hindi


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2014-04-04
          Set-pieces see Selecao scrap their way into semis: how Stats Zone saw Brazil 2-1 Colombia        
Paulinho earned a recall to Luiz Felipe Scolari's starting XI in place of suspended defensive midfielder Luiz Gustavo, while 32-year-old right-back Maicon was selected ahead of Dani Alves. Fredy Guarin and Victor Ibarbo were back in the Colombia XI with Abel Aguilar and Jackson Martinez dropping to the bench. Three of the previous four meetings between the sides had ended goalless... ...but the Selecao came flying out of the blocks in Fortaleza, and their early endeavours were rewarded as skipper Thiago Silva bundled in from a corner-kick inside seven minutes. It was a busy opening 20 minutes for Colombia goalkeeper David Ospina as Brazil surged forward in search of more goals, with poster boy Neymar eager to get involved at every opportunity. Brazil continued to enjoy the lion's share of possession, 61% of it by the 35 minute mark. But Jose Pekermen's side were slowly but surely imposing themselves on proceedings, and although they had seen less of the ball overall, Los Cafeteros had made almost as many passes in the attacking third. ...yet they weren't giving goalkeeper Julio Cesar too much to worry about. In contast, Brazil had peppered the Colombia goal with 11 first half efforts, 4 of them on target. The Selecao's full-backs were frequently rampaging forward; by the interval Marcelo and Maicon were involved in the top three pass combinations of the match. While Colombia's star man James Rodriguez had mixed fortunes in the first half; successful with all 3 of his take-ons but also dumped on his backside on multiple occasions as Brazil looked to stop him in his tracks. The start of the second half was more even, with Colombia looking the more likely to score next only to be continually upended. Brazil conceded 12 free-kicks in the first 22 minutes after half-time. But it paid off as the hosts doubled their lead with another set-piece, only this time in spectacular style. David Luiz's howitzer gave Ospina no chance - it was Brazil's first shot on goal of the second period. Undeterred, Colombia ploughed on in search of salvation, and a grandstand finale was ensured after Cesar wiped out substitute Carlos Bacca in the box. Rodriguez confidently converted from the spot to become the first player since Rivaldo in 2002 to net in the first five games of a World Cup. A late siege on the Selecao goal failed to produce a leveller and force extra-time. Colombia fired in 7 second half efforts compared to Brazil's 2, while Scolari's men had to make 26 clearances after the break to Colombia's 3. 28 fouls in the second half disrupted the flow and denied either side the chance to build momentum. The game saw more fouls (54) committed than in any match at Brazil 2014 so far (the previous record was 51 during Brazil's clash with Chile), while the hosts' 31 fouls was their highest tally in a World Cup match (1966-2014). Credited with having one of the best defences in the tournament, it was Brazilians who stood out in the defensive charts to help haul them into the final four. Fernandinho made more ball recoveries than anyone else on the pitch, while Paulinho - deputising for Luiz Gustavo - was his team's best tackler, winning 6/8. Skipper Thiago Silva led by example, scoring the opener and topping the charts for blocks (3), clearances (14) and aerial duels (5/7) and he will be suspended for the semi-final against Germany. And bad news became devastating after it was revealed Neymar could miss the rest of the tournament after damaging a vertebrae. The 22-year-old set up 4 chances including the cross for Silva's deadlock-breaker and made more attacking third passes than any other Brazil player (10/15). Facts and figures Neymar recorded his first assist of the World Cup with his delivery for Brazil’s opening goal. Thiago Silva scored Brazil’s quickest World Cup goals since Ronaldo’s striker versus Ghana in 2006 (5 mins). David Luiz scored with Brazil’s first attempt of the second half. 2 of Brazil’s 13 shots came in the second half. James Rodriguez has scored in each of his 5 World Cup appearances, scoring 6 goals in total. The Colombian is the first player since Ronaldo (8) in 2002 to score more than 5 times in a single World Cup. Rodriguez (71) had more touches than any other player in the match. Rivaldo (in 2002) was the last player to score in every one of a team’s opening 5 games in a World Cup. This game saw more fouls committed than any match at this tournament so far (54; previous most was 51 during Brazil vs Chile). Brazil (31) conceded more fouls than they have done in any World Cup match (1966-2014). The last time there were more fouls in a single World Cup game was Germany vs Argentina in 2006 (55). Brazil have reached the semi-finals of the World Cup for the first time since 2002. Brazil have won 14 of their 21 competitive meetings with Colombia (D6 L1). Brazil are unbeaten in 13 clashes with Colombia, winning 8 and drawing 5. Just 2 of Colombia’s 11 attempts were on target. Oscar has now made 25 tackles at this World Cup, more than any other player in the tournament. Analyse Brazil 2-1 Colombia yourself using Stats Zone
          Mali beat Ghana to retain U17 title        
Mali successfully defended the Under-17 Africa Cup of Nations title with a 1-0 victory over Ghana in
          MTN fait dans l’évasion fiscale en Afrique        

Les filiales du groupe télécom sud-africain MTN, en Côte d’Ivoire, au Ghana, au Nigeria et et en Ouganda, d’évasion fiscale sont accusé par une enquête de « Finance Uncovered », un réseau de journalistes issus de plus de 55 pays à travers le monde. « Finance Uncovered » révèle qu’entre 2003 et 2009, MTN Ouganda […]

Cet article MTN fait dans l’évasion fiscale en Afrique est apparu en premier sur TechOfAfrica.


          Concours App Challenge: un malgache et un ghanéen lauréats        

Les lauréats de la phase africaine du concours de développement d’applications mobiles « App Challenge » organisé par Airtel, en partenariat avec Samsung Group et Singtel, sont respectivement malgache et ghanéen. Deux projets ont été retenus à l’issue de la compétition: « Companion » de Madagascar et « e-coach » du Ghana. Les deux projets […]

Cet article Concours App Challenge: un malgache et un ghanéen lauréats est apparu en premier sur TechOfAfrica.


          Android One de Google arrive en Afrique        

Le programme Android One, qui associe des smartphones low-cost et des applications peu gourmandes en ressources, est lancé dans six pays africains : Maroc, Egypte, Nigeria, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana et Kenya. Malgré le succès mitigé d’Android One en Inde, Google croit toujours en son programme destiné à booster l’internet mobile (et ses propres services) dans […]

Cet article Android One de Google arrive en Afrique est apparu en premier sur TechOfAfrica.


          Lyndon Sam: Why I Don’t Believe In The Youth        

Circumspecte
Circumspecte - Development. Lifestyle. Travel. Technology.

In one of my favourite Whatsapp chat groups, we often find ourselves debating topics ranging from politics to artificial intelligence to Valentine’s day plans. Often, our debates about Ghana orbit around problems with ‘the system’ and ways we can solve them. No system has been spared our wrath; we’ve taken swings at the political system, [...]

The post Lyndon Sam: Why I Don’t Believe In The Youth first appeared on Circumspecte.


          Five Great Reasons to Volunteer        

Circumspecte
Circumspecte - Development. Lifestyle. Travel. Technology.

  2015 has been a particularly trying year for most Ghanaians. Between dumsor, the economy, and our impeccable prowess at airing our dirty linen in public (read, worldwide) we just can’t seem to get a break. Luckily, there’s one just around the corner – a break, that is – and with it, the opportunity to [...]

The post Five Great Reasons to Volunteer first appeared on Circumspecte.


          Bandeka : le média social pour les intellectuels        

Si vous considérez faire partie de l’élite africaine, le réseau social qui vous sied le plus sera certainement Bandeka. Créé par le Ghanéen Yaw Boateng et le Nigérian Tunde Kehinde quand ils étaient étudiants à Harvard Business School, il a été lancé en octobre 2011. Bandeka donne aux Africains instruits la possibilité d’entrer en contact […]

Cet article Bandeka : le média social pour les intellectuels est apparu en premier sur TechOfAfrica.


          Park Shin Hye in Manila 2017: Concert + Meet and Greet        

I never imagined I'll get to see a Kdrama idol up close, and two times at that!!! They are always super private, and they're so good in disguising themselves with caps and face masks... you won't even notice you're passing by a K-star along Myeongdong or Gangnam!  

Park Shin Hye is one of my first favorite Kdrama girls because of The Heirs! Every time she cries, I cry, her laugh is contagious, her kilig during Lee Min Ho scenes goes through my computer screen, and her eyes! They are just so expressive! The best part is seeing her outside all the various roles she played onscreen. Thank you Bench for bringing our favorite Korean actress here in Manila! I really hope that there will be more chances to meet them (and more budget for me to afford going to these shows hahaha)!

With Pax and Ashley in Araneta Coliseum last July 28, 2017 for the Flower of Angel: Park Shin Hye Fun Meet & Concert. 

Prior this event, my @koreainmanila friends Ashley, Ava and I bought our Php 1800 worth of Bench merch to get the limited patron passes on the first day they were released! Sobrang desidido kami to watch! Sadly, Ava suddenly had a trip to Japan with her family, so Pax bought her ticket. 

On the day of the event, Pax, who lives in Cubao, helped me get my real ticket since it's not yet the pass we got from our purchase. I thought it ends with that, but seating arrangement is another story! Learned that it's on first come, first served basis. We have to thank our baby Chelsi for helping us save good seats since we all came from work and prior engagements! Upon entering the coliseum, the crowd was already hyper! They were singing K-Pop songs like Fire from 2NE1. We couldn't find Chelsi because of the riot, so we were going around the whole section looking for her! Haha! Honestly, nakaka-excite lalo!!


Thanks baby Chelsi! Sorry if nahassle ka namin! We love you!!!


Now I know why most of Park Shin Hye's fan meets have the word "Angel" in the title... She's a real one here on earth! These kids are part of the Shin Hye Center here in Manila. The actress first opened up her charity organization for malnourished children in Ghana, and now reaching out to our kababayans.

Yes we do!

It was my first fan meet, so I had zero idea on what's going to happen. I thought it's going to be just a night of songs, dance numbers, and interviews, but it's so much more than that!

Of course, the show started with Park Shin Hye singing a few songs...

I was almost got up from my seat (kaso bawal) when she started singing a soundtrack from The Heirs... Complete with visuals! I remembered watching this series even during my bus and cab commutes! Take note that I usually just watch Kdrama at night in my bed, but dito hanggang umaga dala ko sya! Haha!

So here are the other segments during Park Shin Hye's fan meet. Ashley said na parang everything in the show is conceptualized by the actress herself. Siya pa nga mismo ang nag host ng fan meet niya, nakakatuwa! 

Here she prepared a 3-layer bento for one lucky audience:


Meanwhile on the next segment, PSH wore her lab gown ala Doctors to give advice to 2-3 lucky fans. She gave a hand-written version of her advice, and even had the fan onstage with her! Here you will really feel her sincerity, and how she wishes her fans to just achieve their dreams! You can't help but love her even more.


Cute segment where the contestants have to copy different scenes from Doctors, and get an Instax print with Park Shin Hye! Akkk.. Lucky girls!

Jukebox segment! Selected audience members played "Name That Tune" and sang Park Shin Hye songs onstage! One of them stood out as she knows almost all the titles, and even impressed PSH by singing the Korean lyrics! They were all given signed Doctors picture books, roses, and hugs from PSH... Sobrang kainggit!

Two hours went by... The show ended with a selfie! ❤



Wearing pink and denim with my girls. 💖 Not so obvious, but I was wearing a shirt with California that day. If you've seen The Heirs, you'll get why!! 

By the way, you can watch snippets from the concert in my Youtube account! 😊

---

An unexpected invite, I was able to see the actress twice during her Manila tour! SM and Bench team invited me to the SM Megamall meet and greet last Sunday! The show was short but sweet, but it was even more up close than my concert experience! Also, wouldn't miss this chance coz kelan pa ba uli ito mauulit diba! 


I came on time, and the show started immediately! Buti nalang di ako na-late, huhu! They had a short interview with Park Shin Hye, which you can also watch in my Youtube channel. And I must say, she's even prettier up close!



After the interview, 50 lucky fans were able to go up the stage and receive a gift + poster from the actress. 

Best effort ko na to, hahaha! I love you Shin Hye! 😌


I also met a few online friends and readers thanks to these events! Life of a fan girl has been good this year, noh? ❤ I am grateful for all these big and small happy moments, as they say, appreciate--and all these good vibes will come rushing your way! To MORE MORE MORE real-life kdrama moments for all of us. 😌 Have a great start of a new month!



          Korea In Manila #001        

The past months, I am constantly on the look out for anything Korean here in the country. Something accessible, since I cannot always go to Seoul whenever I miss it (I wish lang diba!). It's not only because my blog is recently turning into a klog (Korean themed blog), but these things really interest me as of the moment. I am the type who, once I get into something, I go all-out. That's the reason why never ako nag attempt to start mag Everwing because I just know kakainin din ako ng sistema once I do! ðŸ˜‚

Anyway, if you're also an enthusiast for all things Korean, here are some "Korea In Manila" discoveries by yours truly or with my friends. Some are blog invites, but most are just stuff we tried on our own. If I encounter more K stuff here in the Philippines, I'll be making more posts like this in the future and hopefully turn this into a series. You can also follow our group on Instagram @KoreaInManila for our random, day-to-day finds and happenings. Kamsahamnida! ❤



Korean Food Festival in Marriott Cafe

There's an on-going Korean Food Festival at the Marriott Cafe that you should not miss! Manila Marriott, in collaboration with Korean Cultural Center of the Philippines, flew in a team of 4 esteemed chefs from one of the largest and famous resorts in Seoul, the Elysian Gangchon, to cook authentic Korean dishes for us until July 31, 2017.

During the media launch, we met the chefs and had a brief kitchen tour and cooking demo, took photos wearing the Hanbok (traditional Korean costume), and watched a cultural sword dance called Geommu, which reminded me of Scarlet Heart Ryeo!

The Korean delicacies such as bibimbap, beef bulgogi, japchae, haemul pajeon (or Korean pancakes), kimchi and other Korean side dishes and even desserts will be part of Marriott Cafe's standard buffet. Price starts at Php 1990 (lunch) to Php 2100 (dinner). Follow Manila Marriott Hotel for more info.












Kko Kko Opens in Market! Market!

To me, I finally tasted the best Korean cheese dip in town! Kko Kko, a local Korean themed restaurant partly owned by celebrity and host Grace Lee, takes pride of their original recipes from Korea. Even their kimchi and other side dishes aren't grocery bought, but original recipes by Grace's mom! They recently opened their third store in Market! Market!, and introduced more items in their menu like the snow jelly bingsu. Try it and let me know if you liked it!







Korean Grocery: Assi Fresh Plaza

I chanced upon Assi Fresh Korean convenience store on my way to an event in Taguig. It's in the same building as Relik, so I made sure to stop by after my dinner. Assi Fresh Plaza carries an assortment of Korean foods (raw and cooked), drinks, beauty products, snacks, sauces, etc. Think 7Eleven but filled with just Korean brands! They have soju, cheese ramyeun, Ghana chocolates, gochujang or Korean ketchup, and almost everything that I miss in Korea!

Just learned that they already have several branches around Metro Manila (one near me is in Commerce Center Alabang!). Follow them on Facebook for your questions!








Korean School in Manila: KCC Philippines

Also in Taguig, I discovered the Korean Cultural Center of the Philippines (or KCC) online while I was searching for a school where I can learn how to speak in Korean. Their school is very active in organizing Korean themed exhibits, contests, and other activities like film viewing or even celebrations of Korean celebs' birthdays! 

When Ava and I visited the school months ago, they have an on-going art exhibit by Korean artist Han Ho called "Eternal Light". I think they have different featured artists from time to time, currently they are showing "Moving Korea" art installations. Entrance is always FREE. The staff were also kind enough to answer our inquiries regarding their classes, and even allowed us to go around the school. We went to the exhibit, and then their library which is filled with Korean books, magazines, and even Kpop and Kdrama CD collections! I can live here!

I actually tried to enroll for their Korean classes this term, but I was in Seoul during the physical enrolment, thus I missed my slot! Will just wait for their next sessions, and hopefully will get in this time! Make sure to get updates on their next projects and classes by following KCC Philippines on Facebook!














DMZ Docs Korean Film Festival

One of KCC Philippines' projects that I was able to attend to was their day 1 for DMZ Docs Korean Film Festival, which was held last May in UP Diliman. They showed two films that afternoon, one is a documentary about a North Korean woman and her struggles as she escaped their country, while the second is the life changing and unforgettable film "My Love, Don't Cross That River". I am not exaggerating when I say that everyone was crying by the end of the movie!! Will dare say that this is my top favorite foreign film as of the moment, and was able to watch it pa for free! Hope you also get to watch it yourself, and I hope KCC will have more Korean Film Fests in the future.





Seoul Train Korean BBQ

After the film fest, Ava and I decided to maximize our time in Quezon City (since we both live in the south) by having our dinner at the Insta-famous Seoul Train Korean BBQ. Every corner of this restaurant screams Seoul and Kpop! Even their restroom and hallways have a touch of Korea! Make sure to arrive early or eat light snacks before going there, they usually have long lines with small dining capacity! Food and service are both good though, so definitely worth the wait.


  

  




Korean Cafe and Bakeshop: Mr. Park's Bread & Cake

While waiting for my friends for our Molito Alabang date, I decided to waste time and have coffee in Mr. Park's Bread & Cake. Aside from the usual cakes and latte, they have at the center of their shop tables filled with breads and pastries. It's like Bread Talk but Korean version, hehe! From browsing their Facebook page, I learned that they have a lot of branches na pala around the Metro, and all their breads they make sure they bake with probiotic which helps relieve digestive discomfort, bloating, and even constipation! Wow.


  



Planning a Korean food trip? Mr. Park's Bread & Cake Molito is right beside two other Korean places: Chicken & Beer and Ice Flower (best bingsu for me):

Where to go next? What will you try from this list? Tweet me @anagon, let's discuss! ❤😋



          DJ Sawa ft Mr Eazi, Stonebwoy & Moelogo – Tomorrow (Remix)        

UK based DJ Sawa release the remix to his buzz single tagged “Tomorrow”. He retains Mr Eazi on the hook and enlists additional verses from Ghanaian superstar Stonebwoy and budding singer Moelogo. Cop below. DOWNLOAD DJ Sawa ft Mr Eazi, Stonebwoy & Moelogo – Tomorrow (Remix)

The post: DJ Sawa ft Mr Eazi, Stonebwoy & Moelogo – Tomorrow (Remix) Is Part Of OkHype, Published By Khan Wayne.


          Moelogo ft. Davido & Sarkodie – Penkele (Remix)        

Following the recent release of his sophomore EP Ìréti which has been championed by Apple Music/Beats 1 , The FADER, BBC 1Xtra , Rinse FM and MTV UK among others, British Nigerian Afrobeats artist and MOBO Awards nominee Moelogo has joined forces with Sony Music’s Nigerian Pop star Davido and BET Award-winning Ghanaian rapper Sarkodie […]

The post: Moelogo ft. Davido & Sarkodie – Penkele (Remix) Is Part Of OkHype, Published By Khan Wayne.


          Dunia Sambut Obama Dengan Gembira        
By Republika Newsroom
Rabu, 21 Januari 2009

PARIS--Dunia pada Selasa menyambut era Barack Obama tapi para pemimpinnya yang presiden baru AS itu akan hadapi juga memperingatkan dia mengenai kesulitan-kesulitan di depan.

Jutaan orang mengikuti pelantikan itu di sekeliling dunia dan menekankan unjuk kepercayaan besar-besaran, dengan Presiden Prancis Nicolas Sarkozy mengatakan: "Kami ingin sekali bekerja dengannya supaya bersamanya kita dapat mengubah dunia".

PM Inggris Gordon Brown memuji pelantikan Obama sebagai "babak baru dalam sejarah Amerika dan sejarah dunia".
Obama adalah "seorang dengan visi besar", kata Brown. "Ia tidak hanya presiden Amerika keturunan Afrika pertama tapi ia berangkat dengan keputusan untuk memecahkan masalah dunia."

PM Jepang Taro Aso juga berjanji untuk bekerja dengan Obama untuk mendorong "perdamaian dan kemakmuran di kawasan Asia-Pasifik dan dunia". Pesta menyambut pelantikan Obama telah diadakan di ibukota dari London hingga Sydney dan ribuan orang menari di desa Kenya tempat ayah Obama dilahirkan.

Namun beberapa pemimpin berusaha untuk mengurangi harapan tinggi dunia itu. Kanselir Jerman Angela Merkel ingin Obama sangat beruntung tapi memberi yang terakhir dalam serangkaian peringatan pada presiden baru AS itu -- kali ini mengenai pengiriman tentara ke Afghanistan dan hubungan dengan Iran.

Ia mengatakan Obama tak akan mempengaruhi Jerman untuk menambah lagi pada 4.500 tentaranya yang telah bertugas di Afghanistan. "Kami mengambil keputusan kami berdasar pada kemampuan kami, ketrampilan kami -- tidak pada siapa presidennya," katanya.

Merkel, yang telah mengirim selebaran mengenai bantuan AS ke industri mobilnya pada saat kekacauan keuangan, mengatakan ia mengerti rencana Obama untuk mengusahakan pembicaraan langsung dengan Iran -- yang banyak negara itu tuduh sedang mengusahakan senjata nuklir -- tapi ia merasa skeptis bahwa itu akan berlaku.

Obama mewarisi ekonomi negerinya dalam krisis, perang di Afghanistan dan Irak dan konflik di Timur Tengah tempat AS memiliki peran penting, meskipun kedudukannya di dunia dianggap lebih rendah ketimbang waktu kapanpun selama beberapa dasawarsa. Paus Benedictus XVI mengirim pesan pada Obama memintanya "untuk meningkatkan pengertian, kerjasama dan perdamaian" di antara bangsa-bangsa.

Di Gaza, tempat gencatan senjata baru saja diadakan setelah tiga pekan perang Israel-Hamas yang merenggut jiwa lebih dari 1.300 warga Palestina. Ibu janda dari enam anak Leila Khalil mengatakan: "Obama tidak akan membawa suami saya kembali hidup. "Ia telah syahid dan meninggalkan saya dengan enam anak untuk saya beri makan sendiri. Dan Obama tidak akan memperbaiki rumah kami yang rusak akibat serangan itu," katanya.

Di sisi lainnya dari Timur Tengah yang terbagi, pemimpin oposisi Israel Benyamin Netanyahu mengatakan ia mendapat kesan bahwa "Barack Obama telah mengerti keadaan sulit kami dengan sangat baik, dan juga kekejaman musuh yang kami hadapi."

Menlu Prancis Bernard Kouchner mengatakan ia "telah membagi kebanggaan dan emosi seluruh dunia" untuk Obama.
Namun ia menambahkan: "Saya pikir kita tidak akan mengharapkan dia akan memecahkan dengan segera semua masalah Amerika, maupun masalah kita. Barack Obama tidak memiliki tongkat sulap. "Ia akan memiliki tugas sangat besar, meskipun manfaatnya sangat besar."

Perdana Menteri Rusia Vladimir Putin juga menetralkan optimisme itu. "Saya yakin sekali bahwa kekecewaan terbesar adalah tak terpenuhinya harapan besar," katanya dalam kunjungan ke Berlin pada akhir pekan ketika ia ditanya mengenai Obama.

China mengatakan Obama akan mendorong hubungan militer yang lebih kuat antara kedua negara. Juru bicara kementerian pertahanan Kolonel Hu Changming mengatakan ada "kesulitan" dalam hubungan militer dengan adidaya dunia itu. "Dalam periode baru ini kami mengharapkan bahwa China dan AS dapat melakukan upaya bersama untuk menciptakan kondisi yang baik serta meningkatkan hubungah militer-dengan-militer," kata Hu pada wartawan di Beijing.

Jajak pendapat internasional, bagaianapun, menunjukkan dukungan publik besar-besaran pada presiden dari partai Demokrat itu. Jajak pendapat BBC World Service pada sejumlah orang di 17 negara mendapati bahwa sebagian besar - rata-rata dua pertiga -- yakin Obama akan meningkatkan hubungan antara AS dan bagian dunia lainnya.

Rakyat Ghana adalah yang paling positif, dengan 87 persen, diikuti oleh Italia (79 persen), Jerman dan Spanyol (masing-masing 78 persen), dan Perancis (76), ddikuti oleh Meksiko dan Nigeria (masing-masing 74 persen).

Beberapa kata yang membesarkan hati diberikan pada Presiden George W. Bush ketika ia meninggalkan jabatannya, warisannya yang dirusak oleh perang Irak. Times di Afrika Selatan mengatakan dalam satu komentar: "Dunia akan mengatakan selamat berpisah pada orang yang telah dilukiskan sebagai salah satu presiden terburuk Amerika".Antara,AFP/yto













          Mental heath treatment in Africa        
Bookmarked for later reading.

Get religion discusses a Harper's piece on mental health problems and hospitals in Ghana (which alas is only readable if you are subscriber).

when I was in Africa, the joke was that all of our schizophrenics spoke English: Many had stress related psychoses from the culture changes.

But we also saw a lot of "conversion" reactions.

How many are demon related? Probably few. However, this is not a Pentecostal belief, because traditionally some people were affected by a spirit at puberty.

Conversion reactions will respond to suggestion and hypnosis, which is why prayer (or the traditional treatment by the local Nganga) works.

But there is also vitamin related problem, infection related problems, post concussion related problems, etc.

In the old days, if you had a spirit you might be revered, but if you were crazy, you would be beaten and thrown out on your own to live (reminds me of the man in the cemetary in the bible). Or you might be poisoned, either accidentally (by giving them herbal medicine to treat the problem.. we had lots of death from accidental poisoning to treat illness), or even deliberately.

This is what people did in the good old days to those who threatened them, before police and the court systems.

My friend in Africa had one of her nieces develop mental problems in puberty, perhaps from the stress of loving her dad to HIV and from school.

My friend cured her by taking her on a pilgrimage to the grave of John Bradburne, where she was healed, although she only lived a few more years. What did she die of? HIV? Infection? I have no idea.


Bradburne was gentle guy, a veteran with PTSS, who found God and who later worked at a leper colony and was martyred. Now, at least 30 of my collegues there were martyred, but the Africans only spontaneously saw him as a saint... I presume because the rest of us were bossy do gooders, and he only was known for his love.



          Pilates in Dubai, UAE        
A little late in posting, and not very straight, and they misspelled my blog address but you get the idea!

Senarai Pemain Baru Melaka United 2017. Melaka FA dikenali dengan nama Melaka United Soccer Association atau Persatuan Bola Sepak Melaka Bersatu bermula tahun 2014 akan beraksi di Liga Perdana Malaysia 2016 setelah menjuarai Liga FAM 2015 dan Liga Perdana 2016. Berikut adalah senarai barisan pemain baru Melaka United 2016 termasuk pemain baru untuk panduan peminat bolasepak semua.

Untuk peminat bolasepak, musim Perpindahan Pemain 2016 Liga Malaysia akan di buka pada tarikh berikut :-
  • Pendaftaran pertama : 23 November 2016 sehingga 14 Februari 2017. 
  • Pendaftaran kedua : 20 Jun 2017 sehingga 15 Julai 2017.

    Melaka United 2016

    Senarai Pemain Melaka United 2017 Terkini


    Jurulatih : Eric Williams




    POSISINAMANO. JERSINEGARA
    GKMohd Fazli Paat
    Malaysia
    GKNorhadi UbaidillahMalaysia
    GKMohd Firdaus MuhamadMalaysia
    GKMuhd Syazwan AbdullahMalaysia
    DFMohd Alif ShamsudinMalaysia
    DFGodwin AntwiGhana
    DFAbdul Thaufiq Abdul HaqMalaysia
    DFMuhd Syawal NorsamMalaysia
    DFMohd Faizal MuhammadMalaysia
    DFAhmad Khuzaimie PieeMalaysia
    DFMohd Akmal Md ZahirMalaysia
    MFSurendran RavindranMalaysia
    MFOmid NazariFilipina
    MFG. PuaneswaranMalaysia
    MFJasmir MehatMalaysia
    MFKhair JonesMalaysia
    MFAhmad Ezrie ShafizieMalaysia
    MFKhairu Azrin KhazaliMalaysia
    MFAkmal IshakMalaysia
    MFSyed Sobri Syed MohamadMalaysia
    MFTam Sheang TsungJepun
    MFAshvin TharumanathanMalaysia
    FWIlija Spasojević (Captain)Montenegro
    FWIzzaq Faris RamlanMalaysia
    FWSergio Ezequiel AgueroArgentina
    FWMohd Amri YahyahMalaysia
    FWNurshamil Abd GhaniMalaysia
    FWMohd Fauzi RoslanMalaysia

              Mundo- El gran sueño Africano        
    6-7-17   Le Monde Diplo en español

    El gran sueño africano


    Ignacio Ramonet



    Con la llegada del verano, volvemos a asistir a los repetidos y a veces trágicos asaltos contra las murallas alambradas de Melilla, llevados a cabo –con sofisticadas técnicas y artimañas de asedio medieval– por disciplinadas columnas de jóvenes subsaharianos. En otras zonas (Canarias, la isla italiana de Lampedusa, las costas de Sicilia, de Grecia, de Chipre, de Malta y la isla francesa de Mayotte, cerca de Madagascar), los “invasores” llegan casi siempre a las playas de noche –cuando no zozobran–, en silenciosas embarcaciones, como antaño lo hacían sin duda vikingos, normandos o sarracenos.
    En Europa y en otras partes del mundo rico, muchos (entre ellos el presidente estadounidense Donald Trump) tienden a considerar a esos “asaltantes” como agresores, delincuentes y hasta criminales. La extrema derecha europea reclama más mano dura para repeler a los intrusos, menos miramientos, y la adopción urgente de medidas más radicales. Más vigilancia, más policía, más ejército, más expulsiones... Y no siempre se pregunta: ¿por qué causas están dispuestas esas personas a correr tantos riesgos para, en definitiva, poner, por precio vil, al servicio de nuestro confort y nuestro alto nivel de vida, su fuerza de trabajo?
    El África Subsahariana es una de las regiones más empobrecidas del planeta.
    Con una pobreza extrema que se explica por diversos factores. En primer lugar: la trata de esclavos, crimen y genocidio que vació durante siglos el subcontinente de millones de sus hombres y mujeres más jóvenes, sanos y fornidos, obligando a comunidades enteras a vivir escondidas y aisladas en las profundidades de la jungla, sin contacto alguno con los progresos de la técnica y de la ciencia.
    Rememorarse también que África ha sido, hasta hace apenas unos decenios, tierra de colonización. De una colonización impuesta por las potencias europeas a sangre y fuego, a base de guerras, exterminios y deportaciones. Todos los poderes locales que osaron oponerse y resistir a los conquistadores –portugueses, holandeses, británicos, franceses, alemanes, italianos o españoles– fueron aplastados.
    En el aspecto económico, las potencias coloniales establecieron, de modo autoritario, una economía fundada en la exportación de materias primas hacia la “metrópoli” y en el consumo obligatorio de productos manufacturados producidos en Europa. De esa manera, África perdió en los dos tableros. Y esa doble explotación, por lo esencial, no se ha modificado.
    Por ejemplo, Costa de Marfil, primer productor mundial de cacao (el 40% del volumen mundial) nunca ha podido desarrollar una industria chocolatera exportadora. Lo mismo se puede afirmar de Malí o Níger, dos de los principales productores de algodón, quienes se han hallado en la imposibilidad de montar una verdadera industria textil. Y eso porque, en general, las excesivas tarifas aduaneras impuestas por los países importadores ricos a los eventuales productos elaborados en el Sur arruinan toda posible competencia con los productos fabricados en el Norte.
    Los países desarrollados quieren conservar la exclusividad de la transformación de las materias primas, o, en el marco de la globalización liberal, aceptan deslocalizar sus fábricas hacia China o Bangladesh, donde la mano de obra es hábil, dócil y sobre todo barata, pero no están en absoluto dispuestas a invertir en África, ni en desarrollar en este continente un sector industrial importante.
    La división internacional del trabajo, efectuada en favor de los intereses de los países del Norte, atribuye a África un papel subalterno, marginal, lo cual impide a este continente entrar en la espiral virtuosa del desarrollo.
    Las fabulosas riquezas mineras y forestales del continente africano son vendidas a precios de saldo, para el mayor enriquecimiento de las empresas importadoras y transformadoras del Norte. De ese modo, no se crean empleos ni siquiera en las industrias agroalimentarias, que es el sector básico a partir del cual se puede edificar un verdadero desarrollo agrícola, y más tarde industrial. Por eso también, África es el último continente que aún conoce con regularidad crisis alimentarias y hasta hambrunas.
    Esta región del mundo, tan a menudo calificada por los medios dominantes del Norte de “subdesarrollada”, “violenta”, “caótica” e “infernal”, no habría conocido tal inestabilidad política – golpes de Estado militares, insurrecciones, masacres, genocidios, guerras civiles, terrorismo yihadista–, si los países ricos del Norte (empezando por las antiguas potencias coloniales) le hubiesen ofrecido posibilidades de desarrollo reales en lugar de seguir explotándola. La pobreza creciente se ha convertido en causa de desorden político, de corrupción, de nepotismo y de inestabilidad crónica. Y esta misma inestabilidad desalienta a los inversores, tanto locales como internacionales. Con lo cual se cierra el círculo vicioso del laberinto de la pobreza.
    Todo esto explica por qué hoy un (o una) joven del sur del Sahara, en plena salud y a menudo con buena formación educativa, no desea seguir viviendo en lo que es el calabozo del mundo. Decenas de miles, en este momento, están marchando hacia los vados que conducen a Europa, con la esperanza de poder vivir, por fin, una vida normal. Y quizá también con la reivindicación inconsciente de que algo les debemos de nuestra riqueza actual.
    Esto es solo el comienzo, y no se sabe qué tipo de muros habrá que construir para desalentar el flujo. Porque el Banco Mundial acaba de advertir de que la bomba demográfica ya ha estallado, y que ya hay en los países pobres unos 2.500 millones de jóvenes menores de 22 años que no encuentran trabajo en sus países. Y cuya única perspectiva es correr al asalto de las murallas de Europa...
    Para algunos países africanos del Sahel, que están entre los Estados más pobres del mundo, como Malí, Burkina Faso, Níger y Chad, el algodón, “oro blanco”, representa entre un 30% y un 40% del valor de sus exportaciones. Es, por consiguiente, un producto vital del que, en estos Estados, viven directamente tres millones de agricultores e indirectamente más de quince millones de personas… “El algodón está ligado a la historia de África y a la penosa historia de la esclavitud –dice Aminata Traoré, exministra de Cultura de Malí–, pero hoy queremos que nos ayude a liberarnos y no que nos esclavice de nuevo”.
    Estos países pobres, en los últimos decenios, han sacrificado otras infraestructuras y han hecho esfuerzos considerables (construcción de embalses, canales de riego) para aumentar las superficies dedicadas al cultivo del algodón. Y hoy se encuentran en una situación dramática porque, a pesar del bajísimo coste de una producción realizada por campesinos pobres, el algodón africano se vende mal a la exportación y resulta más caro que el que producen algunos países ricos como Estados Unidos, que controla el 30% de las exportaciones mundiales de la fibra blanca.
    ¿Cómo es posible que el algodón producido a precio de oro en Norteamérica resulte más barato que el que se cultiva a coste infrahumano en África? Sencillamente porque Washington vierte a sus productores de algodón unas subvenciones anuales de unos 3.000 millones de dólares… Por eso el algodón estadounidense puede venderse en el mercado internacional a un precio inferior al de su coste y hasta más bajo que el precio del “oro blanco” africano.
    Consecuencia: si esas subvenciones se mantienen, se producirá una catástrofe económica de gran envergadura en esos países africanos del Sahel que ya se encuentran entre los menos avanzados del planeta. Millones de agricultores seguirán abandonando el campo para ir a enrolarse en los ejércitos yihadistas que controlan gran parte del Sahel; o irán a hacinarse en los barrios de chabolas de las periferias urbanas desde donde la miseria y el hambre empujarán a los más atrevidos a tratar de emigrar a Europa. A bordo de cayucos hasta Canarias, o atravesando el desierto del Sahara hasta Libia intentando después cruzar a Italia.
    Del algodón a la patera solo hay un paso. Y aunque parezca que una cosa no tiene que ver con la otra, los países de la Unión Europea, y entre estos los más expuestos a la entrada de los inmigrantes clandestinos subsaharianos, deberían insistir para que se supriman las subvenciones a las exportaciones agrícolas, y en particular a las del algodón, que solo benefician a unos miles de agricultores norteamericanos mientras arruinan a millones de africanos.
    Recordemos que la actividad principal, a escala planetaria, sigue siendo la agricultura. De todos los campesinos del mundo, apenas unos 30 millones disponen de un tractor, 250 millones trabajan con instrumentos de tracción animal y 1.300 millones usan herramientas manuales… Esa es la dramática realidad de la agricultura de hoy.
    En junio de 2005, para tratar la situación de África y como coartada en dirección a la opinión pública mundial, los jefes de Estado del G-8 invitaron a los presidentes de Sudáfrica, Argelia, Etiopía, Ghana, Senegal y Tanzania, además de a Kofi Annan, entonces secretario general de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU). La idea de Tony Blair, primer ministro británico en aquel momento y que presidía ese G-8, era reducir la deuda externa de los países intermediarios, después de haber reducido la de trece países pobres de África. También proponía aumentar la ayuda pública al desarrollo (APD) unos 25.000 millones de dólares al año durante un lustro hasta alcanzar el 0,75% del producto nacional bruto (PNB). El presidente estadounidense George W. Bush se opuso a ello bajo el pretexto de que África no sería capaz de absorber tal cantidad de capitales... Sin embargo, la ayuda propuesta por Tony Blair era inferior a lo que estaba costando entonces la guerra de Irak. Otros observadores recordaron que Estados Unidos consintió consagrar, después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, no el 0,75% de su PNB, sino el 1% durante cuatro años para ayudar a reconstruir Europa con el Plan Marshall...
    Si de verdad quisieran ayudar a África, los países ricos tendrían que tomar, con urgencia, cinco sencillas medidas:
    — Primera, suprimir definitivamente la deuda externa africana (por cada dólar prestado, África ya ha devuelto 1,3 dólares solo en intereses).
    — Segunda, suprimir las subvenciones a las exportaciones agrícolas que inundan, a precios de saldo, los mercados de los países en desarrollo y destruyen la agricultura local.
    — Tercera, abrir los mercados agrícolas de Norteamérica, de la Unión Europea y de Japón a los productos africanos.
    — Cuarta, aceptar que los países africanos establezcan una política proteccionista en favor de sus producciones locales tanto agrícolas como industriales, sin que el Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI) o el Banco Mundial los sancione.
    — Y quinta, reorientar la investigación farmacéutica para curar las epidemias endémicas de África (cuando hoy, el 90% de la investigación farmacéutica está orientada a mejorar la vida del 10% de la población rica mundial).
    Los recursos abundan y existen soluciones para erradicar la pobreza en África y en el resto del planeta; falta voluntad política. ¿Cuándo se acabará de admitir que suprimiendo la pobreza y las injusticias, se suprimen las principales causas del terrorismo en el mundo?

    http://www.monde-diplomatique.es/?url=editorial/0000856412872168186811102294251000/editorial/?articulo=234c9d2c-9c0d-4bd9-9150-1b8399d6f7ab


              Owusu Ankomah        
    Owusu Ankomah’s canvases employ geographically and historically diverse visual references, from Saharan rock painting and Italian Renaissance sculpture, to Ghanaian textile designs, Chinese calligraphy, New York graffiti and capoeira martial arts from Bra
              Reading Comprenhension        


    Reading Comprehension Test # ALPHA -1


    Incident Report # SSU 007/2333

    At 2325 hours on Sunday 14 April 2000, the UNMIK Police control received a telephone call, reporting the sound of gunshots from the area of the Bus Garage (Grid reference 125 185). An UNMIK police patrol and a KFOR patrol responded to the scene. On arrival, the police patrol found a large number of people gathered outside an apartment building, the patrol was directed to Apartment Number 4. Inside the apartment, a male person was found lying on the hallway floor, dead from gunshot wounds to the body and head.  Investigations revealed that the body was that of a 46 year old Goran male who lived in the apartment with his wife. The wife stated that at 2325 hours there was a knock at the door of the apartment and when her husband answered the door he was shot twice, the gunman then kicked him and ran off down the stairs. She described the gunman as being very tall, approximately 2 meters, wearing a red cap, blue jeans and white trainers. The police secured the scene and informed the Murder Squad. KFOR remained in the area to control the large crowd outside.

    Follow up Report # SSU 007/2333/02

    Investigations by the Murder Squad confirmed that the deceased was a 46 year old Goran male, who received two fatal gunshot wounds to the chest and head. One of these bullets passing through the body and lodging in the dining room table, this was recovered for forensic examination. Also recovered from the apartment hallway were three 10mm empty cartridges. The building landlord identified himself as making the initial call to Police control and had been in his apartment, number 1, at the time of the shooting. When interviewed he stated that at 2325 hours he heard five gunshots and when he looked out of his door he saw a tall male person run pass him out of the building door. He described this person as wearing a blue jacket, a dark ski mask and white trainers. A further search of the deceased's apartment produced a further two empty 10mm cartridge, found in the pocket of a coat hanging in the hallway.

    Follow up Report # SSU 007/2333/03

    A search of the whole area was carried out by the Police and KFOR, at the rear of the apartment building a military police dog found a red cap and a blue jacket in a rubbish skip. These items were seized for further examination. Further interviews revealed that, earlier in the day of the 11 April 2000, the deceased had been seen arguing with a young Albanian male, who wanted to buy his apartment. In the main those people interviewed were very uncooperative and no other witnesses came forward or were identified. The building landlord will be re-interviewed to obtain any information of persons wanting to buy the apartment. The investigation is continuing.







    QUESTIONS        READING TEST ALPHA -1

    Family Name: ………..…………… First name: ….…………….. CP #: ………………………..
    Country:…………………..                                                                                                                   Date:……...…………………

    Q1:    Who reported the gunshots to the Police Control?
    Q2:    What was the ethnicity of the victim?
    Q3:     How many empty cartridges were found in the victim's apartment?
    Q4:    Who responded to the initial report of gunshots?
    Q5:    What items were found at the rear of the apartment building?
    Q6:    What was the date, of the incident? 
    Q7:    Who was the victim seen arguing with and why?
    Q8:     Why did the Police want to re-interview the building landlord?
    Q9:    Why did KFOR remain at the scene?
    Q10:    What was the caliber of the gun used?


    ANSWERS    READING TEST # ALHPA-1

    Q1:    Who reported the gunshots to the Police Control?
        The Building Landlord
    Q2:    What was the ethnicity of the victim?
    Goran
    Q3:     How many empty cartridges were found in the victim's apartment?
    Five
    Q4:    Who responded to the initial report of gunshots?
    UNMIK Police and KFOR.
    Q5:    What items were found at the rear of the apartment building?
    Red cap and a blue jacket.
    Q6:    What was the date of the incident?
    14 April 2000.
    Q7:    Who was the victim seen arguing with earlier in the day and why?
    A young Albanian male, who wanted to buy the apartment.
    Q8:     Why did the police want to re-interview the Building landlord?
        Obtain any information of persons wanting to buy the apartment
    Q9:    Why did KFOR remain at the scene of the shooting?
    To control the large crowd.
     Q10:    What was the caliber of the gun used?
        10mm.





    Reading Comprehension Test # BRAVO-1



    Incident Report # SSU 007/00.

    At 1745 hours on Sunday 09 April a Serbian male went to the UNMIK police station and reported that his 19year old son had been missing since the previous night. He stated that his son and their neighbor's son had left their house at 2000 hours to go to a café downtown. At 2150 hours the neighbor's son returned home, but their son did not and he was worried. The father had checked with the neighbor's son who informed him, that at 2130 hours last night they both went to the Café Bar near the Bank Building to have a drink. About five (5) minutes later his son left the café with a group of five (5) young people, who he had not seen before. At 0815 hours the next morning, the father went to the Café Bar and asked the owner whether anyone had seen his son. The owner informed him that one of his waiters had seen his son, the previous evening, quarreling with five young males outside the café. He described the males as being all about 20 years old, all had long black hair and one had a ring in his left ear, he had not seen them before.
     They then had forced the son into a White Mercedes, which then drove off at speed in the direction of the hospital. The father gave the police a picture of the missing boy and requested help to find his son. The police made a report and advised the father they would inform the Missing Persons unit.

    Follow up Report # SSU 007/00/04

    On the 10 April, UNMIK police Missing Person Unit conducted the primary investigation regarding the incident. A check was made at the local hospital, which proved negative. At the Café Bar the police interviewed the owner and a number of waiters who were working at the time of the incident. From this the Unit obtained information that the suspects were all local Kosovo Albanians and that one of the waiters had remembered the registration number of the Mercedes as SK0321. A police patrol located the suspect vehicle parked on the Airport road 15km from Pristina, at Grid reference 015156. The police seized the vehicle’s registration book, which identified the name and address of the vehicle owner and also a gold ring, which was identified as belonging to the missing boy. Enquiries are continuing.

    Follow up Report: 0039/00/04

    On 11 April, UNMIK police and KFOR searched the address shown in the seized registration book and arrested the owner of the Mercedes, who admitted to being involved in the abduction of the boy. He stated that the boy owed him money for drugs, he also gave the location of the house where the boy was being held. UNMIK police and KFOR conducted a search of this house and the missing boy was located, six (6) Kosovo Albanian males were arrested at the scene. The missing boy's injuries were a bruised chest and a broken left wrist, a result of beatings received when held. He was taken to the hospital and later returned to his parents. Also seized from the house was a Smith and Wesson revolver and 200 Ecstasy tablets.  The suspects were taken to the detention center and held for court. Case is closed.





    QUESTIONS            READING TEST BRAVO-1


    Family Name: ……………………First Name: …………….. CP #:……………..
    Country:………………………..                                                                                Date:……………..

    Q1:    What reason did the suspect give for abducting the boy?
    Q2:    What was seized from the suspect's vehicle?
    Q3:    What is the nationality of the suspects?
    Q4:    The Grid Reference where the suspect vehicle was located?
    Q5:    Who gave the police the description of the suspect's vehicle?
    Q6:    Where was the missing boy last seen?
    Q7:    What did the police seize from the second house they searched?
    Q8:    Describe the suspect vehicle?
    Q9:    Describe the injuries of the missing boy?
    Q10:    How many suspects were arrested?


    ANSWERS    READING TEST # BRAVO-1

    Q1:    What reason did the suspect give for abducting the boy?
        He owed money for drugs.       
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q2:    What was seized from the suspects' vehicle?
        Vehicle registration book and Gold Ring.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q3:     What is the nationality of the suspects?
        Kosovo Albanian.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q4:    The Grid Reference where the suspect vehicle was located?
        Grid Reference 015156
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q5:    Who gave the police the description of the suspect's vehicle?
        Café Bar waiter.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q6:    Where was the missing boy last seen?
        Outside the Café Bar.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q7:     What did the police seize from the second house they searched?
        Smith and Wesson revolver and 200 Ecstasy tablets.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q8:     Describe the suspect vehicle?
        White Mercedes, registration SK0321
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q9:    Describe the injuries of the missing boy?
        Bruised chest and broken left wrist
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q10:    How many suspects were arrested?
        Seven
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   

    READING COMPREHENSION TEST CHARLIE-1

    Incident Report # MSU 0010/137B

    At 0055 hours on Wednesday 11 October 2000, Regional Murder Squad Investigator Jean PAIN received a radio message from Pristina Control. It reported a drive-by shooting in Dragodan, Pristina Grid Reference 125 230. The victim Arden GASHI, born 22 February 1928 had been taken to Pristina hospital and declared dead on arrival. Investigator PAIN arrived at the scene at 0115 hours, where he interviewed the wife of the victim, Fetija GASHI, born 20 April 1932. She stated that she and her husband had been walking along the street towards their house when a dark brown Opel Kadett drove by them, without any lights on. A man leaned out of the rear offside passengers' window opening fire at them from a gun he was holding, her husband fell to the ground bleeding from several bullet wounds he had received. She did not see how many people were in the Kadett and she only remembered the letters KS from the registration plate. Fetija was able to raise the alarm and the Police and Ambulance were called. The Forensic Identification Unit and the Investigative Judge arrived at the scene at 0120 hours. Two empty 7.56 cartridges were recovered at the scene, and then the area was sealed for further examination in daylight. Pristina Control circulated details of the suspect vehicle to all units.

    Follow up Report # MSU 0010/137B/02

    At 0145 hours a police patrol saw the suspect vehicle traveling on the Skopje road out of Pristina and they stopped the Kadett at the Swedish KFOR checkpoint Grid Reference 123 201. The police in co-operation with KFOR troops, searched the three male occupants and the vehicle. No firearms were found, however four empty 7.56 cartridges were recovered from the rear passenger area. The registration number of the Opel Kadett was 246 KS 673, the vehicle was impounded at Police Station Number 1. On the authorization of the Investigative Judge, the three male occupants were arrested on suspicion of murder and taken to the Detention Centre, Pristina.

    Follow up Report # MSU 0010/137B/03

    At 0215 hours the Investigative Judge attended the Mortuary, Pristina Hospital, where the body of Arden GASHI was examined. The examination revealed three gunshot wounds to the chest, two penetrated the left lung and one passed through the heart, death was instantaneous. Property removed from the victim included a silver wristwatch and an empty brown leather wallet, which were retained by the Investigative Judge. Investigations are continuing.













    READING COMPREHENSION TEST CHARLIE-1


    Incident Report # MSU 0010/137B

    At 0055 hours on Wednesday 11 October 2000, Regional Murder Squad Investigator Jean PAIN received a radio message from Pristina Control. It reported a drive-by shooting in Dragodan, Pristina Grid Reference 125 230. The victim Arden GASHI, born 15 September 1936 had been taken to Pristina hospital and declared dead on arrival. Investigator PAIN arrived at the scene at 0115 hours, where he interviewed the wife of the victim, Fetija GASHI, born 20 April 1942. She stated that she and her husband had been walking along the street towards their house when a dark brown Volkswagen Golf drove by them, without any lights on. A man leaned out of the rear offside passengers' window opening fire at them from a gun he was holding, her husband fell to the ground bleeding from several bullet wounds he had received. She did not see how many people were in the Golf and she only remembered the letters KS from the registration plate. Fetija was able to raise the alarm and the Police and Ambulance were called. The Forensic Identification Unit and the Investigative Judge arrived at the scene at 0120 hours. Two empty 7.56 cartridges were recovered at the scene, and then the area was sealed for further examination in daylight. Pristina Control circulated details of the suspect vehicle to all units.

    Follow up Report # MSU 0010/137B/02

    At 0225 hours a police patrol saw the suspect vehicle traveling on the Skopje road out of Pristina and they stopped the Golf at the Swedish KFOR checkpoint Grid Reference 123 201. The police in co-operation with KFOR troops, searched the three male occupants and the vehicle. No firearms were found, however six empty 7.56 cartridges were recovered from the rear passenger area. The registration number of the Volkswagen Golf was 246 KS 673, the vehicle was impounded at Police Station Number 1. On the authorization of the Investigative Judge, the three male occupants were arrested on suspicion of murder and taken to the Detention Centre, Pristina.

    Follow up Report # MSU 0010/137B/03

    At 0245 hours the Investigative Judge attended the Mortuary, Pristina Hospital, where the body of Arden GASHI was examined. The examination revealed three gunshot wounds to the chest, two penetrated the left lung and one passed through the heart, death was instantaneous. Property removed from the victim included a gold ring and a copper bracelet, which were retained by the Investigative Judge. Investigations are continuing.












    QUESTIONS                READING TEST CHARLIE-1
    Family Name: ……………….…… First name:……..…………….. CP #: ………………………..
     Country:………..………………. .….                                                                                                  Date:…………………………

    Q1:     What time was the suspect vehicle seen and stopped by the police?
    Q2:     What is the name of the victim's wife?
    Q3:     What was the date of birth of the victim?   
    Q4:    How did the victim die?
    Q5:    What was the nationality of the KFOR troops?
    Q6:    Who reported the incident to Jean PAIN?
    Q7:    What was the make and type of the vehicle involved
    Q8:     How many empty cartridges were found?
    Q9:    What property was recovered from the victim?
    Q10:    Who authorized the detention of the suspects?

    ANSWERS    READING TEST # CHARLIE-1

    Q1:     What time was the suspect vehicle seen and stopped by the police?
         0225 hours.
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q2:     What is the name of the victim's wife?
        Fetija GASHI   
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q3:     What was the date of birth of the victim?
        15 September 1936   
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q4:    How did the victim die?
        Three gunshots wounds to the chest   
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q5:    What was the nationality of the KFOR troops?
        Swedish
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q6:    Who reported the Incident to Jean PAIN?
        Pristina Control
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q7:    What was the make and type of the vehicle involved?
         Volkswagen Golf
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q8:     How many empty cartridges were found?
        Eight
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q9:    What property was recovered from the victim?
        Gold ring, Copper bracelet
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q10:    Who authorized the detention of the suspects?
        Investigative Judge
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    READING COMPREHENSION TEST DELTA-1

    Incident Report # SSU 007/141125


    At 2315 hours on Thursday the 18 of July 2000 the UNMIK police station in Lipljan received a phone call reporting shots fired in the Bird’s Restaurant, grid reference EN009 008. UNMIK Police sent a patrol unit to the restaurant, a KFOR unit also responded to the call. When they arrived they were directed to a back room of the restaurant, where they found a body of a male person lying on the floor. A check of the body revealed that he had died from three gunshot wounds to the body. Beside the body was a table covered with playing cards, it appeared that there had been a game of cards in progress at the time of the shooting. A witness stated, that he with had been playing poker in the back room, with the deceased and 3 other men. He identified the dead man as Goran who had been having a lucky day at cards, winning several thousands German Marks. Goran became involved in an argument with one of the other players, a young Serbian who spoke with a Belgrade dialect. The young man accused Goran of being a cheat, Goran hit this person several times with his fists. Suddenly the young man pulled out a gun and shot him and then ran away. He was described as about 20 years old, 1.75 meters tall, had short brown hair, dressed in blue jeans and a blue pullover and he was known as Dejan.

    Follow up Report # SSU 007/141125/02

    The murdered Serbian, known as Goran BRESOVIC, was 37 years old living at 12 Main Road, Lipljan. The autopsy revealed that, he had been shot 4 times in the head and twice in the chest death was instantaneous. Three spent bullets were recovered from the body. The owner of the restaurant was interviewed, who stated that he heard 7 or 8 shots, and then he saw the young man run from the building. A further search of the room revealed three fresh bullet holes in the card table. Three spent bullets were recovered from the table for forensic examination. Nine empty bullet cases were found and retained for further examination.


    Follow up Report # SSU 007/141125/03

    A further witness, who lived next door to the restaurant, came forward and stated that at 2320 hours she saw a man running to a green and black Lada car, parked next to her house. The car had a Belgrade registration plates but she could not remember the number. Children, playing in the same area as where the Lada had been parked, found a 9mm FN semi-automatic pistol its magazine was empty.  No further information was forthcoming, investigations are continuing.


    ANSWERS    READING TEST # DELTA-1

    Q1:    What was the make of the revolver?
     Smith and Wesson.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q2:    How many persons were in the back room of the restaurant, at the time of the incident?
        Five.
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q3:     How many empty cartridges were found?
        None.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q4:    How many shots were fired?
        Six.
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q5:    What registration plate did the car have?
        Belgrade registration plate.   
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q6:    Describe what the suspect was wearing? 
        Blue Jeans and Blue Pullover.
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q7:    What was the victim's age?
        42 years.
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q8:     What was the color of the car involved?
        Green and black.
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q9:    What was the victim doing, at the time of the incident?
        Playing cards (poker).
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Q10:    Describe the wounds of the victim?
        Two shots to the head and one to the upper left arm.
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    READING COMPREHENSION TEST PS#1/06
    Reading Comprehension Test PS#1/06

    Incident Report #01

    On 22 November 2006 at 0600 hours, Police Station # 4 of Laguna Region was reported of a dead body that was found in the Central Park. Alpha Unit responded to the scene of incident located at Grid Reference
    114-253. At 0615 hours, two police officers arrived at the scene and observed a 165 cms tall female body lying in supine position behind the bush near the swimming pool. The face of the dead was disfigured and a U-shaped mark was seen on the right side of the neck. They searched the crime scene area and recovered a black leather bag, a 200ml empty bottle and a wrist watch. Two security guards were also interviewed. On the day before at 1830 hours, a guard named Daniel Seal had seen a girl with a man outside the changing room. He had inquired about their presence in the area as the swimming pool service of the Park had already closed an hour and a half before. The lights, then, suddenly went out and he went to see what had happened. He returned at 1900 hours after fixing the fused wire of the main switch but nobody was there. The guard identified the dead as the same young girl and claimed that he could recognize the man. He described the man as a 25-year-old muscular built about 180 cms tall with long dark brown hair, dark complexion and had the most unusual involuntary head movement. The description about the suspect was radioed to all police units and the dead body was sent to the hospital for post mortem.
    Follow-up Report #02
    On 23 November 2006 at 1000 hour, a woman from Brajislav Village came to the Police Station to report about her missing daughter Emilia Kusnova. She identified herself as Sejila Kusnova and reported to the Missing Person Unit that her 19-year-old daughter had left the house on 21 November at 1500 hours and did not come back since then. She expressed her concern over the disappearance of her missing daughter. At 1100 hour, she was taken to the mortuary; she noticed the birth mark on the right side of the neck and identified the dead as her own daughter. Three hours later, she arrived at the Police Station and informed the police about Emilia's fear from a man who lived in Vustri. She told the police that her daughter had once mentioned about a man named Roger Mulav who had asked her to marry him else she would face terrible consequences. At 1630 hours, 28-year-old Roger Mulav was arrested by Alpha Unit from his house in Vustri. The arrestee confessed threatening Emilia to marry him but he denied the allegation of murder.

    Follow-up Report #03
    On 24 November 2006, the post mortem report of Emilia revealed disfigurement of her face was due to acid and concluded her death due to asphyxia. From the report of the forensic lab it was determined that the empty bottle contained concentrated sulphuric acid and the fingerprint sample of Roger did not match with the fingerprint found in the surface of the empty bottle. Roger was released after receiving the forensic report and his features too did not match with the description of the suspect. At 1700 hours, Delta Unit, on the basis of the description of the suspect, arrested a person named James Blake from ‘Burmuda Café’ situated in the Hill Side. James told the police that he was a carpenter and denied the allegation. On the following day the guard from Central Park identified James as the same person he had seen in the park with the girl. The forensic test also confirmed that his fingerprint sample matched with the sample collected from the surface of the empty bottle. A charge sheet was filed against him for the murder of 19-year-old Emilia Kusnova.


    QUESTIONS      Reading Comprehension Test PS#1/06          A

    Family Name:..…………… ……First name: …………. CP. ..………
    Country:…………………..                                                                                  Date:……...……………
    Q1:    When was the swimming pool service of the Park closed?
    Q2:    What was the name of the chemical used to disfigure the face?
    Q3:    Why did the Police apprehend Roger Mulav?
    Q4:    Which Police Unit arrested the key suspect?
    Q5:    Who was charged for the murder of 19-year-old Emilia Kusnova?
    Q6:    What was the date and time when Daniel Seal had seen the girl with a man?
    Q7:    At what time did Sejila Kusnova inform Police about Roger Mulav?
    Q8:    What was the most unique characteristic of James Blake described by the guard?
    Q9:    How did Sejila Kusnova recognize her daughter?
    Q10:    What was the cause of death of Emilia Kusnova?

    QUESTIONS      Reading Comprehension Test PS#1/06          B
    Q1:    Who was charged for the murder of 19-year-old Emilia Kusnova?
    Q2:    At what time did Sejila Kusnova inform about Roger Mulav?
    Q3:    What was the cause of death of Emilia Kusnova?
    Q4:    How did Sejila Kusnova recognize her daughter?
    Q5:    When did the swimming pool service of the Park close?
    Q6:    What was the date and time when Daniel Seal had seen the girl with a man?
    Q7:    Which Police Unit arrested the key suspect?
    Q8:    What was the name of the chemical used to disfigure the face?
    Q9:    What was the most unique characteristic of James Blake described by the guard?
    Q10:    Why did the Police apprehend Roger Mulav?

    ANSWERS     Reading Comprehension Test PS#1/06   A

    Q1:    When was the swimming pool service of the Park closed?
    At 1700 hours
    Q2:    What was the name of the chemical used to disfigure the face?
    Sulphuric Acid
    Q3:    Why did the Police apprehend Roger Mulav?
    Because he had threatened Emilia of terrible consequences if she did not marry him
    Q4:    Which Police Unit arrested the key suspect?
    Delta Unit
    Q5:    Who was charged for the murder of 19-year-old Emilia Kusnova?
    James Blake
    Q6:    What was the date and time when Daniel Seal had seen the girl with a man?
    21 November 2006, at 1830 hours
    Q7:    At what time did Sejila Kusnova inform Police about Roger Mulav?
    1400 hours
    Q8:    What was the most unique characteristic of James Blake as described by the guard?
    Involuntary head movement
    Q9:    How did Sejila Kusnova recognize her daughter?
    She noticed the birth mark on the right side of the neck
    Q10:    What was the cause of death of Emilia Kusnova?
    Asphyxia

    ANSWERS     Reading Comprehension Test PS#1/06       B
    Q1:    Who was charged for the murder of 19-year-old Emilia Kusnova?
    James Blake
    Q2:    At what time did Sejila Kusnova inform about Roger Mulav?
    1400 hours
    Q3:    What was the cause of death of Emilia Kusnova?
    Asphyxia
    Q4:    How did Sejila Kusnova recognize her daughter?
    She noticed the birth mark on the right side of the neck
    Q5:    When was the swimming pool service of the Park closed?
    At 1700 hours
    Q6:    What was the date and time when Daniel Seal had seen the girl with a man?
    21 November 2006, at 1.30 hours
    Q7:    Which Police Unit arrested the key suspect?
    Delta Unit
    Q8:    What was the name of the chemical used to disfigure the face?
    Sulphuric Acid
    Q9:    What was the most unique characteristic of James Blake as described by the guard?
    Involuntary head movement
    Q10:    Why did the Police apprehend Roger Mulav?
    Because he had threatened Emilia of terrible consequences if she did not marry him

    Reading Comprehension Test # 4.
    “AIRPORT”
    Situation report # 01
    Airport is the place where people meet and depart. Airport is the place what UN peacekeepers see upon their arrival in the mission. United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) started peacekeeping operation on 1-st October 2003. The first international police officers came to Liberia by air and landed at the Roberts International Airport, located 60 kilometers east from Monrovia.
    The state of Liberia was founded in 1847 by immigrants of African descent who returned from the US to their native continent. The first president of Liberia was Joseph Jenkins Roberts. He was born in Norfolk, USA, on March 15, 1809, and arrived in Liberia in 1828 with his widowed mother, four brothers and two sisters. He was one of the famous Liberian-political figures of the nineteenth century. He lead Liberia to independence in 1847.He served as President of Liberia from 1847-1856 and from 1872-1876.
    The main International Airport was built in the second half of the previous century and named after the first Liberian President - Roberts International Airport.
    The reconstruction of the Liberian economy after the Civil war requires broad air connection with neighboring African countries and Europe. Much humanitarian Aid is being sent to Liberia by air and received at the Roberts International Airport.

    Situation report # 02
    UN peacekeeping equipment was mainly transported to Liberia by air. United Nations heavyweight cargo aircrafts only within one month had completed a series of flights, delivering 560 tons of equipment and supplies for UN peacekeeping forces in Liberia.
    The second Liberian airfield is located in Monrovia and called Spriggs Payne Airport. This airfield is mostly used for domestic flights within Liberia.
    UNMIL has two helicopter bases located at the Roberts International Airport and the Spriggs Payne airport. Helicopters, located at the Roberts International Airport are operated by the UN military personnel from Ukraine and helicopters from Spriggs Payne Airport are operated by the Russian civilian helicopter crew. A high level of safety of flights and strong technological discipline of both divisions participating in implementing peacekeeping operation in Liberia is being observed.
    Situation report # 03
    The United Nations personnel are authorized to use UN flights to fly from Liberia to Ghana and Sierra Leone. With effect from 15 October 2004 these flights are operated from Roberts International Airport three times a week: Tuesdays, Thursdays and Sundays. There is no charge for official duty travels. UN members have to submit approved Movement of Personnel form to the booking office at least 48 hours prior to the proposed flight. All Movement of Personnel forms should indicate a valid telephone number, where the traveler can be reached in the event of changes to the flight. All passengers are authorized to carry up to 25 kgs of accompanied luggage and 5 kgs of hand luggage. A bus service is available to Roberts International Airport 3 hours prior to flight from the Mission Head Quarters.

    QUESTIONS.      READING TEST.         “AIRPORT
    Q1:         On what date did the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) start peacekeeping  
                           operation?
    Q2:         By whom was the state of Liberia founded?
    Q3:         Whom did Joseph Jenkins Roberts arrive with in Liberia in 1828?
    Q4:        When did Joseph Jenkins Roberts serve his first Presidential term?
    Q5:          What is the nationality of the helicopter crew located at the Spriggs Payne Airport?
    Q6:           How was the UN peacekeeping equipment mainly sent to Liberia?.
    Q7:          What is the name of the airfield which is mostly used for domestic flights within  
    Liberia?
    Q8:     To what countries the United Nations personnel are authorized to fly with UN flights
             from    Liberia?
    Q9:          On which days of the week the UN flights are not operated from Roberts International 
                                Airport?          
               Q10:       What type of service the UNMIL makes available to Roberts International Airport from the
                            Mission Head Quarters?
     -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ANSWERS:    READING TEST.          “AIRPORT”.            “A”


    Q1:         On what date did the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) start peacekeeping  
                           operation?
                             1. October 2003
    Q2:         By whom was the state of Liberia founded?
                          By immigrants of African descent.
    Q3:         Whom did Joseph Jenkins Roberts arrive with in Liberia in 1828?
                           With his widowed mother, four brothers and two sisters.
    Q4:        When did Joseph Jenkins Roberts serve his first Presidential term?
                     1847-1856.
    Q5:          What is the nationality of the helicopter crew located at the Spriggs Payne Airport?
                 Russian                 
    Q6:           How was the UN peacekeeping equipment mainly sent to Liberia?.
                      By air    
    Q7:          What is the name of the airfield which is mostly used for domestic flights within Liberia?
                 Spriggs Payne                   
    Q8:          To what countries the United Nations personnel are authorized to fly with UN flights from  
                     Liberia?
            Ghana and Sierra Leone.                  
    Q9:       On which days of the week the UN flights are not operated from Roberts International 
                                   Airport?          
                             Monday, Wednesday, Friday, Saturday.
    Q10:       What type of service the UNMIL makes available to Roberts International     
                   Airport from the  Mission Head Quarters?
                      Bus.








    Listening Comprehension



    ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEST                    # LC - 1
    Name:                    D.O.B.    :            Date:   

    Listening Comprehension            Time allowed 15 mins.    
    Title: CivPol Monitor harassed by local police 
    A civilian police monitor reports to his Station Commander that he was stopped by the local police at a checkpoint on the Highway about 100 meters west of Khilsa Bridge, Pristina. He was asked to take his vehicle to a side  in the highway. His vehicle was thoroughly searched and he was accused of selling some pornographic pictures  to the youngster Muslims of Pristina. He was stopped at 8:30 in the morning and was detained for three hours. He was not allowed to make radio calls to his station. The CivPol monitor did not recognize the police officers but he heard during discussion that one was Mohammed Janim and another Alice.
    Monitor: Good Afternoon Sir!
    Station Commander: Good afternoon officer, How are you?
    Monitor: Sir, I have a complaint against the local Police.
    Station Commander: What's the
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              Chris Blattman on Chickens, Cash, and Development Economics        

    poverty%20chickens.jpg Chris Blattman of the University of Chicago talks with EconTalk host Russ Roberts about whether it's better to give poor Africans cash or chickens and the role of experiments in helping us figure out the answer. Along the way he discusses the importance of growth vs. smaller interventions and the state of development economics.

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    Highlights

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    HIDE HIGHLIGHTS
    0:33

    Intro. [Recording date: June 12, 2017.]

    Russ Roberts: Today's episode is a little strange. It starts with the fact that a while back you wrote--not so long ago--you wrote an open letter to Bill Gates, a very wealthy man, reacting to his idea of giving poor people chickens--poor people in Africa--as a way to escape poverty. That open letter of yours to Bill Gates prompted a response from Lant Pritchett. And so, I interviewed Lant about the topic of how do we help the poor. And inevitably some of your arguments and points came into the conversation. So, I want to get your side of the story today on some of those issues and more broadly and more generally on how we should think about development. Let's start with Bill Gates's original idea. What was he suggesting, and how did you respond to it?

    Chris Blattman: So, Gates and the Gates Foundation have a lot of big ideas; and this includes driving down financial transaction costs and tackling serious diseases. And generally terrific programs. One idea that Bill Gates has floated a few times in the last year is the idea that chickens are the future for Africa: basically, that they are very poor people who don't have a lot of income, and they are basically scrounging around a subsistence [?]. And, if we could give them chickens, they they'd be able to raise them. They could eat them, of course. But more importantly, they could sell them or they could sell the eggs, and make some extra money. And, this would make them much less poor: maybe they earned $2/day; maybe now they'll earn $4/day. Who really knows? And he called this one of the best investments we could make. Which is probably true to some extent, except what was unusual about his idea is that he envisioned perhaps 30% of Africans. So, this would be 300 million people raising these chickens rather than the existing number, which is maybe 5% of Africans--so, maybe 15 million people, for argument's sake.

    Russ Roberts: And, you wrote this open letter. What did you say in that letter?

    Chris Blattman: Well, I mean, so, you know, we share a common premise is that one of the reasons people are very poor is that they don't have the opportunity to engage in business: that it's actually not so hard for a lot of people to go from earning $1 a day to earning $2 a day or $2-$4 a day, or $5-$10 a day by starting up a small enterprise; and that the main thing stopping them from doing this is they don't have any capital. If they had capital, they wouldn't be poor. So, they don't have a lot of cash; they don't have a lot of assets; they don't have productive assets. And that could be tools, it could be buildings to build things in; that could be the raw materials, and the skills to build these things. It could be animals. A cow is an asset, or a form of capital; a chicken, or a bunch of chickens is. So, they don't have these things; and they generally don't have access to borrowing. And so, if they get access to capital, you often see people leap ahead and start businesses. So, I think we share this idea. And chickens probably aren't a bad--they aren't a terrible investment. I guess I--before Bill Gates, who is one of the most influential people in development--writes influential development letters--I think it's important to try to correct some possible problems. One is that it's not clear that anyone's going to actually make money if you suddenly go from 15 million to 300 million Africans producing--I think I've actually got my numbers wrong, actually: I'm not doing division and multiplication in my head.

    Russ Roberts: It doesn't matter. It's a big [?] increase. And we're pretty sure that--

    Chris Blattman: Yeah, 33%--a third of Africa.

    Russ Roberts: That could affect the price of eggs. You know. Hypothetically.

    Chris Blattman: Yeah. You know. I was surprised he made this argument because he's a very smart guy and he understands economics. So, this isn't a crazy idea: If a third of Africans start producing chickens and eggs, that the price of chickens and eggs are going to fall pretty fast. And there's probably limits to how many chickens and eggs people can eat. So, that's--it just struck me as an odd idea. And if it was some other organization saying, 'We're going to do this,' then I sort of roll my eyes. But when Bill Gates says he's going to do it, there's a good chance he's really going to try, and maybe succeed. So, it's not the best--not everyone should invest in the same thing. And then, of all the things people could invest in, it's not clear to me--and I think there's a lot of evidence pointing to the idea that: Chickens are a fine investment. But they are not necessarily a great investment. And so, why were folks [?] on giving people chickens? I don't know.

    6:01

    Russ Roberts: But, I thought your real point was: If we gave them money, they'd be free to buy chickens if they wanted; or they could buy a piece of a cow [i.e., a share of a jointly-owned cow--Econlib Ed.]; or they could buy a hammer; or they could buy access to electricity--or whatever it is. And presumably, people have a pretty good idea of what they need relative to what you think they need. And, chickens just obviously--to me--we're going to get more deeply into the economics of this--but it's obvious that chickens is the wrong answer. Whatever the virtues of chickens are, it can't be the case that giving 300 million something is--it's going to be better to give them money. I'm pretty confident about that. Now, you could argue that if you give them money they are going to use it on gambling, or drinking, or partying, or whatever you think is the wrong use of the money; but, 'They can sell the chicken, come on! They can convert it into money.' So, this romance, I think, 'Chickens are the key to the future,' like plastics are in the movie, The Graduate--it's just--or computers in 1978--it does seem a bit naive for someone who is clearly not a naive person. You could think of it as symbolic. But I think your point was: We've had these debates--which is what I think we talked about in a previous episode about different ways to help people with small amounts. Obviously, if you give them 1000 chickens--one person a thousand chickens, and one person a thousand of something else, and another person a thousand of something else, maybe it would really change their lives. But if we're going to give micro-amounts, like 5 chickens, or 1 chicken, cash might be even better. And you and I are both kind of fans of cash. There are problems with cash. That's a different episode. That's not what we're talking about today. We all understand that cash has drawbacks, too. But, I think you proposed--what was interesting about your response to Gates was: 'Let's have a horse race,' to add another animal to the metaphor mix. 'Let's see whether chickens outperform cash.' Right? Wasn't that the thrust of your point?

    Chris Blattman: Yeah. And the reason is, is because it may be like a deeper point. It's not about whether--there's lots of reasons cash could be better than chickens, and for the reasons you've just mentioned; and there's some risks, as well. Those are all--and we don't have to talk about--I think generally the picture looks pretty good for cash, and we don't have to talk about the details today. But, the deeper point is the problem with a lot of programs--given that we're already giving--a lot of aid is donor agencies and governments giving very poor people stuff. It's giving them skills-training. It's giving them chickens. It's giving them cash. It's giving them other forms of capital. It's giving them productive assets. Right? And I'm excluding all the stuff that's about public goods, and water, and health--these are huge and they are important. And we're going to set them aside because they are just a different kind of thing. A lot of assistance is giving poor people stuff to either eat or to turn into something they can eat. Meaning, they can start a small business with it. And that's what the training and the cows and the [?] and some of the cash are mainly for. So, the problem with most of these programs is everyone thinks about the numerator: What's the impact of this program? And nobody thinks about the denominator, which is: What's the cost of providing this program? And then, we sort of divide that to get some sort of return. And when we compare those things, if you ignore the fact that some of these programs are dramatically more costly than others to deliver, then even if one is more effective in terms of its impact, in terms of how big a business someone can grow, if it's also 10 times as costly, that's a problem. And this is the problem with chickens, in some sense, is: Somebody has to go and buy the chickens; and then deliver them to the people. Or, somebody has to go and hire a trainer and bring them to the village, to train people in whatever it is you want to train. Maybe it's raising chickens--this is often a big part of these chicken programs. But maybe it's something that's standalone, like how to start a business. Or something. So, this is a problem, because those people--all that labor and all that transport is really, really, really expensive. And these people are often in remote areas. They are very poor. Even if they are in an urban area and not that remote, they are earning so little that giving some reasonably middle-class person in that country to go off and buy the chickens and then deliver them, or deliver the training, or even get the training to go and deliver the chicken, is so costly that it totally outweighs any potential benefits that--maybe not totally, but it grossly outweighs a lot of the benefits. Such that, some of these programs--the studies that have looked at chickens and giving people chickens and cows and goats randomly pay off, but it takes something like 15 or 20 years before they cover the costs. Basically, the impact is as much as the program costs. And that's a lot.

    11:02

    Russ Roberts: But I also thought your main--and that's a great point. Those are great point. And they raise a separate issue we may come back to, which is: 'Hey, I know what you need. Here.' I alluded to that earlier. It's like, 'You need to learn how to make butter. Here, let me teach you. I'll give you some butter machinery.' There's a certain lack of appreciation for knowledge and how hard it is to understand how to impact a person's life, and the material versus spiritual, and [?]--

    Chris Blattman: Well, one of the other things that's going on--I have a lot of friends in these organizations. My wife works for an international rescue committee. I've spent a lot of time working with these organizations. And one of the--if you put yourself in their shoes--first of all, you don't always know. And the thing is that you've seen a lot of programs where people get chickens without the training--because that seemed like a good idea. Or they just get cash. Like, you see a lot of examples where people fail. You don't know if everyone fails. You don't know how many people succeed. You know a lot of people fail. And we know this is true. Like, the big cash experiments I've done, others have done--at least half the people don't really move ahead as a result of this cash. They start a small enterprise and it fails. This is what business is. And that's hard to--you don't know if on balance people are succeeding or failing, especially when you just give them cash. At least with the chickens you can see something there. And you are really hesitant to let people fail. So, you want to do, you want to invest as much as possible in people to minimize the risk of failure, because they are in your circle. You see them, you care about them, you are responsible, you've done something to their lives and in some ways you are responsible. And you have the ability to continue to help them. And you don't see all these other people you are not helping. So, doubling or tripling or quadrupling or even further increasing the cost of a program--not to make them dramatically more successful but just to reduce their costs of failure--is really natural human instinct. Some people would say that's their responsibility; you could make a moral argument that that's appropriate. But I think that's what drives this cost up. So, it's easy for me to sort of, from afar, say, 'Well, I don't know any of these people. They are all strangers to me, and I'd rather see more people helped for less; and if some fail, that's going to happen anyways,' rather than just investing in a small number of people and trying to keep them from failing. But, if I were in their position--certainly when I raise my children I don't take that approach. And that's another extreme example, right? So, you know, I'm sympathetic. But as a small NGO--a small Non-Governmental Organization--you can afford to make your own moral choice about whether you help a lot of people a little bit and let them fail sometimes, or if you help just a few people and really foster them through. But if you are the U.S. Government Aid agency, or you are the Ugandan Bureau of blah-blah-blah that's in charge of this, in some sense you don't get to make that choice. In some sense, your responsibility, I think, is to help the most people.

    Russ Roberts: But I also thought you are making a methodological point with Gates which is really interesting, which is: Well, maybe it will have a good impact; maybe it won't. Obviously if you sat down, if you and I had 30 minutes with Mr. Gates we'd say, 'Gee, 300 million is a big increase. Maybe that's going to have an unexpected effect on--you wouldn't want to generalize from the 5% who have chickens now to the 30% you'd like to have them.' And he'd nod, say that's a good point. But I think you are trying to say, 'Let's try to actually measure this. Let's try to actually see--let's learn something. Before we launch this enormous, grandiose experiment, let's do a pre-experiment where we try to see which is better. And we'd learn so much that we would be able to help people much more down the road, not just with your venture.' Is that a fair summary?

    Chris Blattman: Yeah. This is actually--I make [?] this point sort of in general: If I go to--pick a country--if I go to Uganda or like Uruguay[?] or Colombia which are all places where I spend a lot of time or have spent a lot of time, you'll see that the government or the World Bank or somebody saying, 'All right, we have this $5 million, or $100 million, or $500 million dollar program that we're going to roll out over the next 5 years; and we've written the program manual and we [?] spend all that money doing x.' And x is quite specific. It might be like chickens. It might be job training. And then they just launch into it. And inevitably it fails, because, what are the chances that you ever get that formula right from the outset when you implement it? And so, 2 or 3 years in they redesign and they start figuring it out; and, they don't have a lot of sense of what's going on. Maybe then they run some evaluations or they turn to more of the evidence. And let's say they get a slightly better program for the last half of that 5-year program. Then, that's a lot of money wasted. And if it's a credit to that country, meaning it's a loan to that country, then some future taxpayer of that country has to pay that back. Which seems kind of tragic. Or it has to be forgiven--some future taxpayer of this country has to pay that back. And that just was all money that--you know, that could have been averted. And I, so every time I'm there, I'm saying, 'Listen, instead of doing this, I'm saying: Why don't you do 5 or 10 things on a small scale for the first year? You have to scale up, you have to get moving. I understand the political pressure. So get moving; but why don't you just try 5 or 10 things? And maybe you then really rigorously study what you're going to do?' That would be fine. Sometimes we should do that. But even if you don't, it will probably be obvious which of those 5 or 10 things seems to be more successful than the others. Certainly the ones that are failures will be more obvious. And then you'll know with more precision, if you invest some money in studying it. So, as a general principle, this is just something that's not done with aid--the sort of trial and error and with some rigorous testing. And we've managed in the last 10 years to introduce the idea of randomized testing with randomized trials without introducing this idea of trial and error and moving ahead and trying many ideas. And that's a problem. I would like to see both. So, that's kind of what I'm saying--this is just another case. Instead of just scaling up your crazily specific program that's only been a little bit tested, why don't you try a few different things and then push ahead with the thing that's most successful? And in this case, I think we've got enough evidence to say, 'Actually, we're doing a lot of this chicken stuff, regardless of what Gates is doing. We're doing a lot of handing out of chickens and cows. And--I don't know if it's $1 billion, or $10 billion, or $100 million dollars a year, but it's somewhere in that range. And if we could spend $10 million dollars just to, like, tweak the direction of that, to sort of kill a bad idea and replace it with a less bad idea'--that's kind of what I want to see. I want to see us rigorously evaluate, like, run a horse race between these different things that we could do, these different varieties, kind of like trial and error but in a structured way. And then just replace the bad things with less-bad things. And thereby make a lot of very, very unfortunate people a bit better off. That's basically it.

    18:05

    Russ Roberts: So, I have a lot of things to say to that. It's a fantastic summary of, I think, the position you are taking. I just have to mention in passing, though: you said, 'Well, of course it fails.' And I think a lot of people would say, 'How could it fail? You are injecting all this money into these sectors, regions, poor people, whatever. It's got to have some effect--some overwhelmingly good effect. You're putting--you are going to add $100 million into this community?' And it's really, I think, a sobering reality that it often doesn't work very well. So I just want to mention that to the point where you say, 'Well, of course it doesn't work.' But I think most intuitive, everyday people would say it would work, akin to their natural inclination to inject money into the U.S. school system. 'Because the more you spend, the more education you get.' Which of course isn't true. It might be true. But it need not be true. And, if the incentives--

    Chris Blattman: Right. And I would say, even if you are more optimistic--and I think if you put in more input you are going to get more output. You put in more money to the educational system, I think probably you are going to get more education, or better outcomes--not always, you are right. Same with this aid, chickens. The chickens are not going to be a bad idea. They are not going to all fail. It's just: We're putting so much money into this that--not only is someone going to have to pay back in future, but it's such a missed opportunity. Like, it's really desperate to--if you were making $1 or $2 a day, this means like, your child is probably going to--the chance your child dies in infancy or of some disease or that some crisis hits and really terrible things happen to someone in your family is just so high. And that's also true at any level of poverty. And it's just more dire and risky, the poorer you are. So, to sort of callously and irresponsibly, in my mind, not try to use the sort of trial-and-error approach and try to do the right thing, and rather than just have 33% of Africans or something producing chickens--they might be a bit better off, they'd probably be better off. What if--that's such a missed opportunity to really change some people's lives? One of the rare instances where I really think aid can have a big impact. It really is an area where we can be super-effective; and I don't say that about a lot of things. And so, it's such a sad, tragic thing not to do this more responsibly.

    20:34

    Russ Roberts: Well, I want to challenge the premise that underlies that, even though I'm sympathetic to it and it sounds great. We had on the program a while back, Adam Cifu, author of a very provocative book, co-author of a book, Ending Medical Reversal, where he shows that so many times a study will be done, a cross-sectional, longitudinal study, a statistical analysis of some device or some dietary change, some relationship in epidemiology, is alarming or effective, whatever it is. And people start doing this technique or avoiding this technique. And then, 15 years later, there's an actual randomized control trial where people are put into two different groups: You're not using statistical techniques to try to hold things constant; you are actually using a real experiment, not a pseudo-experiment. And you find out that the original finding doesn't hold up under the randomized control trial. So, this is why--we can call it the gold standard of experimental science. It's what scientists do: They see if things can be replicated; they try to actually test things directly. It's a really nice thing. And, there's a huge--I don't want to call it a fad--a trend, we'll call it a trend--it could be a fad--in Development Economics to do randomized control trials. Which is what you're talking about: Wouldn't it be great, do 5 or 10 experiments to see what works and what doesn't work? But, the problem it seems to me is that unlike epidemiology or medical things where a trial could actually often illuminate what does and doesn't work, it strikes me that in human societies, that's a lot more difficult. So, an example we've mentioned before on the program is deworming. Deworming, a lot of excitement about it because some experiments had showed it to be very effective in helping children--if you took the worms and parasites out of their system, they could sit in school longer, make more money, etc.--have better lives. But, it's not obvious that it scales. It's not obvious that it worked in other villages. It's not obviously--etc. So, isn't [?] part of the problem here--and is this a reality or am I being too skeptical?--that, the kind of knowledge that you would like to produce with those trials in the early stages of a large-scale rollout of a program--they are not necessarily going to be as reliable as a true scientific experiment would be?

    Chris Blattman: Right. Well, yes. So, this is basically right. But the question is--I guess, my argument would be, I guess I think is a pretty basic premise: Through the accumulation of lots and lots of empirical evidence and theoretical thinking and then using that empirical evidence to sort of understand our theory of poverty--why are people poor and what kinds of things make them less poor? The accumulation of lots of evidence from lots of places is how we get a better theory. This is just how it works; and it will be harder than in physics or medicine for exactly the reasons you say. But, there's a big difference here. So, the deworming excitement is coming off of--I don't know if you know this: I worked on this experiment when I was a graduate student. This was like one of my first jobs in development: I ran one of the followup surveys.

    Russ Roberts: I did not know that.

    Chris Blattman: Yeah. So, I ran the 5-year followup survey. So, I spent a lot of time with these kids who got this deworming medicine. It's a very incestuous group, a small, incestuous group, development economics. So, listen: There was one big trial showing big effects, and it was on the shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya, which is the birthplace of humanity, and then not coincidentally the birthplace of human parasites. So, an impact of deworming medicine there is going to be not surprisingly quite impactful; and if you go somewhere else, where you are not on the shores of a parasite-filled lake, then maybe it's going to be different. And that doesn't surprise me. And we don't actually have a lot of trials of deworming medicine elsewhere. And, the other ones haven't been very good, or they haven't been very long term, or they haven't measured economic outcomes and educational outcomes. So, we just don't know. Whereas, when it comes to policy, we have dozens and dozens and dozens and dozens and dozens. So, it's not just randomized control trials but all sorts of evidence. A great book is Poor Economics, by Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo, who sort of pulled together all the descriptive and observational and qualitative, and experimental data. And just a lot of it points to a particular view of poverty--that people have constraints; that from little access to credit and to capital and little access to insurance; and overwhelming evidence that just one of those constraints is relieved, maybe cash, maybe by a chicken, that people leap ahead. That you can make improvements on the margin. And it's not some magic formula. And you can also improve the way financial markets function; and then people get more access to insurance and credit and capital and things. So, it's just a totally different story. And everything I'm saying about both chickens and cash are very consistent with that theory. And now, the randomized trials which I was proposing we do, on large numbers of people and large numbers of countries in different parts of the world, in a way that we could get at what you're saying is sort of getting at the finer details: saying, okay--not knowing if we can make any general statements but, do we see a general pattern across many types of people in many types of places that chickens tend to be lower return than cash? That, people tend to use cash wisely in many places. And then also, very importantly, to figure out what we call the general equilibrium effects. Or the spillover effects. Like, what happens to the whole local economy when you get this giant influx of chickens, or cash? Like it's good? Bad? And it could go either way. We don't really know. So, there's a really different evidence base. And then, the kind of experiment I was proposing, which costs $15 million dollars or some number like that because it's much bigger than anything that's ever been run, is in some sense designed to get around exactly this concern.

    26:48

    Russ Roberts: So, that's a nice defense. In fact, you are kind of channeling your inner Lant Pritchett there. When you talked about the accumulation of knowledge, he made this similar argument, which I found unpersuasive. But, I find it a little more persuasive in your case. He was talking about general economic theory that's small--any one piece of economic research may not be that informative but it eventually creates this great base of knowledge. And I think that's romanticizing what economic research does, somewhat inaccurately. But let's put that to the side--

    Chris Blattman: Well, if I could just interrupt--one thing is: I don't think that knowledge is accumulated to a consistent understanding of how something works across lots of different areas. I also study--I mean, I'm a professor of global conflict studies. In principle, I spend most of my time studying violence, as well. And, we don't really have a good understanding of what reduces violence. Like the things have not accumulated to a coherent answer. Or if you take the macro study of aid, and whether aid is good or bad, and what its good or bad affects our economics or politics--we don't have a coherent answer. It's sort of cumulated into a mess. That was my--

    Russ Roberts: Yeah, that was my--it's my, it's close to my view.

    Chris Blattman: But there's--but, right. But, other things have turned out--sometimes in certain medical research, and in this case, I think [?] our micro-understanding of poverty turns out, 'Oh, this thing seems to work pretty much similar ways'--you know, we're wrong in lots of details I'm sure. But, more than other things I've understood. And this is why I come on podcasts, you're right, about we should act on this and I don't come on and talk about violence. I don't have a coherent message about what we should do to reduce violence. I don't know that we've accumulated a coherent answer. But, in this case the world works in a simple or straightforward-enough way to have enough evidence, or something about, something the situation is just, I think, points us to more confidence than a lot of other areas. And so, great. And the wonderful thing is it can, like, a lot of people who are in a really, really, really terrible place can benefit from that, in a relatively simple way. This is one of the things that aid does well. Like, just logistically, like just get a lot of stuff out there that seems to work on its own.

    29:04

    Russ Roberts: This isn't where I thought we'd end up. But let's stay here for a while, because it's so interesting. You are telling me that the aid literature is indecisive--imperfect. Which I think is true. Many people would disagree with you, by the way. I think some people would say, 'Oh, we know exactly what works.' In fact, Lant Pritchett said so: we know it's property rights and free markets and prices. And, while I'm sympathetic to that, I think it actually is more complicated than that. Other people would say, 'We know what works.' Jeffrey Sachs, on the program, 'We just need to give a lot more money. We need to spend it well.' And he thinks he knows how to spend it well. But you are skeptical. Okay. Fine.

    Chris Blattman: Well, you know, but Jeffrey Sachs--if you want to say, like an African nation--how do we help an African nation go from $1500 a head to $3000 a head? That's not necessarily a hard problem. Or, you know, that's a hard problem. But it's a much different problem to say, how does that nation, what could we do as outsiders or what could that government do as insiders to get to $20,--- a head? Some sort of like middle-income status. And then nobody has a good answer to that. So, sometimes they are just talking about different changes. When you are talking about development, they can be talking to different things.

    Russ Roberts: That's a great point. Just what I was going to say, actually. So, what I was going to say is that, if you are telling me that at the micro level, we know that it's good to give people more access to financial markets--the ability to borrow--because they are often financially constrained. Or, we know that if we give them things they will be better off--it's not so interesting, really. But it really comes to what I think is the crux of the matter. Which is, the, what I would call, the real essential point that Pritchett was upset about in that previous episode, which is the following. He is claiming that--and I have mixed feelings about this, but I don't care, it doesn't matter; whatever you have to say--he's claiming that the real problem isn't poor people. It's poor countries. These people are in places with bad economies: Bad government, bad economies. And to put a band aid on their economies with a chicken is the wrong thing to be spending time on. We ought to be spending time on [?] we ought to figure out how to liberate their economy, liberate the skills to cooperate together in a market setting--which is how we know, that's [?] how you get to $20,000. When you get to $20,000, you've got to have a vibrant labor market. You've got to have a vibrant skills market. You've got to have people trade and exchange with each other within a country and outside of a country. And, we know all that already. And so that's what we ought to be spending our time on, not whether 5 chickens are going to improve somebody's life. Of course they would. They'd improve mine, too. I'd eat them. I like chicken. My wife, she's a vegetarian, but she'd be happy to see me happy. We know all that. So, what's the--what is the defense of the approach that you are suggesting of these micro-experiments to get people truly out of poverty? We understand--what you're saying is all true. It's not important.

    Chris Blattman: So, you know, these things aren't in complete contradiction. So, if you want to make--I think Lant's larger--he's got two big points. Lant--I think I've mentioned to you in the past--Lant is, I mean, Lant was one of my first teachers in Development, and still remains sort of one of my idols in Development. And everything of his I can read, I do read, because I think he's got--you know, he has a really, he says a lot of original things and he has his finger on the pulse of these things. And he's made two points here that I think are true. One is that the Development community at large has tended to focus on sort of this weird, extreme form of poverty rather than just thinking of other people who are vey poor instead of extremely poor. So, there's this artificial threshold of $1, $2 a day that distorts a lot of policy. That's fine; I agree with that; and a lot of things--all the chickens and cash stuff I'm talking about, you can ignore that concern. You could say, 'Well, I think the chickens and cash could help someone who is extremely poor and very poor and just a little bit poor.' All these people have limited access to capital. I think that's what we would, what we are learning from the evidence, what we would learn from my experiment. His bigger point is that there is maybe a misallocation of time and policy in academia: That, a lot of people are just focused on the small stuff; that there are these bright, shiny [?]s that come along; it's very appealing to get an answer that a lot of people--there's all this data and computer technology that lets us do, answer a lot of small questions while [?]--

    Russ Roberts: You get an article real quick; you get an article on your CV (Curriculum Vitae).

    Chris Blattman: Yeah. And so there's two--with a profession--the world would be a better place if more smart policy-makers and more smart economists and political scientists were spending more sweat and brains and money on big questions about growth in this case[?]. And then, and so--and I think that's probably right. I think we probably do have a slight misallocation--I think you could make a good argument. But that doesn't mean--it doesn't mean--he sort of made a--he sort of exaggerates as some do and say, 'We should only focus on growth. Most people should focus on growth.' And I think that's wrong for two reasons. One is, I think it's wrong big thing to focus on. And we could get to that. But I think more immediately, I think you can't ignore the poverty. Because, what this says--so listen: If I say, 'I'm going to--everyone needs to be focused on growth.' If we just dedicate all this time, even if he's right, and we were able to make future unborn generations better off, because we're spending all this time and money and brains and energy, on growth, the fact is that there's still a lot of horribly-off people today. Now, if you, if you sort of--some people make that tradeoff. They'll say, 'Listen. Better make 20 generations much better off than trade off making them slightly better off just to make these people less poor.' That's just--someone who is, say, a utilitarian who wants to make the most good for the most people, would say we need to sacrifice today's generation and help these future generations. That's the way to maximize the good. But if you have sort of a different moral calculus--that if you think, for example, that we're only as good as, say, the least among us; or that we have a responsibility to help the very, very least among us even if that means we wealthy people or future wealthy people who are not yet born will be substantially worse off--that's also a defensible claim. And I guess I would say I'm willing to make that tradeoff, to some degree. And I think a lot of--I think that's fundamentally why so much policy is dedicated toward alleviating poverty. That, even if we knew how to make future generations off with certainty, it would still make sense to spend a lot of time worrying about poverty today. That's a--not everyone is going to feel that way, but it's a totally justifiable way. And that's how I feel.

    36:03

    Russ Roberts: So, I'm not a utilitarian. But I do think we should improve future generations at the expense of the current one--for a different reason. So, let me lay that out. And you can respond. The people themselves who are alive today would want us to do that, because they love their children and their grandchildren. And if I said to them, 'I'm going to give you a choice. I'm going to give you a bunch of chickens and I'm going to make your suffering less dire,' or, 'You're not going to get any chickens. You're going to lead a miserable life, but your children and grandchildren are going to lead very, very greatly improved, materially improved lives,' I think most, if not all people would jump at the chance. And we see that people do that all the time. They take risks, and they impoverish themselves. They risk death to come to richer countries. So, that would be my argument there. But I think, to me, the real issue is just the severity of the poverty. For people who are, you know, near death, that, yes, we need to do something for those people now. For people who are just having a hard time--if we can, I add that proviso of course, if we know how. And I think people should choose morally to do that. But for people who are just uncomfortable, I think they'd be thrilled to live with that discomfort and have their children thrive.

    Chris Blattman: Right. So, I mean, we can debate this. On some level it's a moot point to--yeah, I mean, it's a moot--sort of the defense of my argument--where we should--and I want--I'm, personally in my life, I agree with Lant[?]; I spend too much time on stupid randomized control trials and on poverty alleviation. It's important, but this is not what I think is really important or really where I can, you know, contribute in some way. So, in some sense I'm unbalanced. I fundamentally agree. But still I think this experiment, this grand thing that I pitched to Bill, Bill Gates, is important. And I would even work on it. The last thing I really want to do--it's really miserable to run these--it's really, really hard and miserable. I hate running these things. It's so logistically and managerially intensive. And you don't think. You just sort of make things happen. And I'm okay at that, I'm pretty good at that. But I don't enjoy it. And I would rather spend my time on something else. But I will do it, if I have to. Because nobody else seems to be doing it. I will do it, because we live in a world not where we are making these grand, philosophical choices, but how to orient aid--and we live in a world where the rich countries and poor countries have made the decision that we are going to spend $10 or $100 billion a year giving the very poorest people stuff. And if I can do a little thing, spend, like 10% of my time for 3 years and $15 million dollars, somebody else's money, to sort of say, 'Guess what? You could be twice as effective and really make an impact on people's lives if you just killed this bad idea and did something less bad,'--that's a huge thing. There's a way to just sort of--given the world we live in, on the margin, there's a handful of studies that I think could really reallocate how this giving people stuff is done. And, and that would be a big thing. And I think that's actually what--I think because I look back at the last 10 years and the cash-transfer work that's been done, including my own experiments--and I say, 'That's the impact this had.' Despite the fact that I wasn't working on what I really wanted to work on, it was important to work on and I actually think that had a lot more immediate impact, precisely because we live in a world where there's just buckets of money, pipelines of money going to these places, being spent poorly. And that can be improved, on the margin.

    Russ Roberts: Superbly said. I salute that. Beautiful.

    39:41

    Russ Roberts: Has Bill Gates responded?

    Chris Blattman: No. And, you know what? Someone pointed out to me--

    Russ Roberts: Sound of crickets--

    Chris Blattman: Well, I even--I got a chance to--so, someone pointed out to me after I wrote this letter that, 'Do you know that Bill Gates follows your Twitter?' Then it turns out he only follows, like, 300 people; and a number of them are development people, for obvious reasons; and one of them, it turns out, was me. So, I thought--I had no idea. I'm going to direct-message Bill Gates. Maybe he reads his Twitter feed. Like, why else would he only follow it, 2-300 people? So I even direct-messaged him on Twitter--politely, saying, 'With all due respect, this was my [?]; I'd love to have a conversation about this, if you're interested.' And then: Crickets.

    Russ Roberts: Well, I don't know that he listens to EconTalk; but this could put him over the edge, if he does. You may be getting--when this comes out, you'll probably get a summons. And I'd be happy to interview Mr. Gates, by the way.

    Chris Blattman: I'm a marginalist, right? I think that every little bit matters.

    Russ Roberts: Definitely raised the probability. And I want to just say publicly I would love to interview Bill Gates for EconTalk. So, Bill, if you are listening, or if someone who knows you is listening and thinks that would also be a good idea, please get in touch. But it is an interesting question. By the way--this is a sub-point; and you're sort of--I think you have feet in all the various camps: The academic world--there's the academic world; there's the money world--which would be the Gates foundation--and then there's this weird, nether-region of international organizations like the World Bank that has academic people in it, in and out of it--they come and go. So, that whole thing is--they all have their own rules. I'd like to hear you react to the idea that the incentives are what ruin where development economists spend their time. Of course, people have written not-so-nice things about the appeal of traveling to exotic places and having nice meals and Range Rovers to carry you around, and all that. But, talk about the incentives that you experience as an academic, but also as somebody who is in these different worlds, even if you're not--you don't get calls from Bill Gates's cellphone.

    Chris Blattman: Mmmhmmm. The incentives to go do these kinds of--

    Russ Roberts: Whatever it is. I mean, they are incentives that encourage some people to just do all kinds of things--articles on this or that, spend time in a particular country because the World Bank funds it. And all of the--we do what we like, and we also care, most of us do, about what makes the world a better place. As you point out. And you confessed a minute ago that you wish you'd maybe spent a little less time on some of these things and more on the bigger things. So, just reflect on that.

    Chris Blattman: Well, answering the bigger questions would still put me firmly, even more often, in foreign places. Like, right now, I'm really interested in, I happen to be studying a lot of gangs in Latin America and also in Chicago. And, the thing that's holding me back from being more effective is my lack of tie-in to go and spend time in these places. One of the fundamental incentives is that, I think that to answer important questions about other parts of the world, you have to spend a lot of time in other parts of the world. And you also--not just talking to people and collecting data, but also building relationships with other academics who are there or other policymakers. Because it's not an individual production function. So, that's--answering the question requires be there, big or small question, whatever if you are going to do this right. The incentives in the economics profession, for a long time, and to a lesser extent now, were always against young economists and especially graduate students going and spending lots of time in the field. And in some sense, there is still a discouragement to spend a lot of time often in other countries: still spend relatively little time compared to other academic disciplines. And it used to be zero. There's--an interesting set of people to bring on would be people like Michael Kremer, Chris Utry, who are development economists who broke the path in the, maybe the 1980s and 1990s by spending a lot of time in places like Ghana in Chris's case, and Kenya in Michael's case, doing this kind of work, pioneering it. There are others as well. They sort of stand out in my mind. And showing that you could do important work, and making development economics credible again in the profession. And showing--and sending their students to Ghana--like, this is why--why was I in Busia[?], Kenya running this deworming experiment? Because Michael's student, Ted Miguel [?], he sent to run some experiments and collect data. And Ted did his dissertation there; and he started his own studies in Busia[?], Kenya. And then I showed up at Berkeley, and Ted was this young prof, maybe just one or two years in, who became my dissertation adviser. And he sent me to Kenya, my first semester. And then, why did I end up working on violence in northern Uganda? Because the second time I got sent to Kenya, I was sitting in a cafe, and I met a woman--because it takes 20 minutes or 30 minutes for the Hotmail page to load up, which should tell you what year it was. And so I struck up a conversation with a woman next to me who was doing this qualitative study of children affected by conflict and child soldiers in northern Uganda. And then a year later I was landing by plane in northern Uganda to run a survey that looked a lot like what Ted was doing in deworming except I was studying the effects of violence. And that became my dissertation. And it also so happens that we produced several papers and a marriage, and now two children. Because they're more important than the papers.

    Russ Roberts: Yeah; of course it is. But the best part about that story is--most unintended consequences are negative. But here we have the positive unintended consequence of a lousy internet access. That you were sitting there for 20 to 30 minutes waiting for your page to load, and you meet your future wife. What a great--

    Chris Blattman: Right. But my--then I've sent my students to go work on my project in northern Uganda, and later Liberia; and now, Colombia. And now, they are graduating, they're Ph.Ds., they're getting jobs; and they are doing amazing research; and they are sending their students to these--or wherever they happen to work. And so, this has been this amazing thing that has happened: You talk about the incentives. It's against the grain, against the incentives to go and invest all this time really understanding a place. All the inputs required for all these experiments, or any big study, data--you have to collect your own data in a place like Africa. Most of the time. And so, the incentives are all against that. So, why are people doing it? I think they are really passionate about the questions. And, of course, now there's its own set of esteem[?], and you have your own dysfunctions as a profession; and we're doing a lot of the wrong things; and so on, and so on. But, nonetheless, like, this is still a big, positive change. And I've always said that the most important thing about randomized control trials is not the causal effect that lots of people, we've identified. The effect of like--the important part about the deworming experiment in all this time in Kenya by all these people is not--it's now[?] the fact that Ted Miguel and Michael Kremer could lecture you for hours on Kenyan politics and development in a very sophisticated way that has nothing to do with the causal estimate. Economists now have a much richer understanding of the way world works, how the aid sector works, what the political and social and organizational dysfunctions are from everything from USAID (United States Agency for International Development) to some government in some far corner of the world. There's this rich knowledge that was just not there before that I think is really affecting the way the theories were developing. It's affecting the cognitive teaching; it's affecting the questions we're asking; it's affecting the advice. And I think that's been so much more important than any stupid little causal effect.

    Russ Roberts: That's great. And I think Adam Smith would be happy about it. Maybe I'm wrong. I like to think of Adam Smith--maybe I'm romanticizing, which I am prone to--but I do think of him as open to the richer understanding of human activity than our sort of blackboard theories; and obviously was a student of many aspects of human life, not just the financial and monetary side.

    Chris Blattman: Right, right.

    Russ Roberts: What you are really arguing is that it's good that we've become more like sociology. Which could be true.

    48:37

    Russ Roberts: I would have argued that the reason we shouldn't work on big picture issues and big picture questions is because we don't know much about them. So, I think most people would argue that governance, political institutions are a big problem. I suggested recently that what we should do with that $15 million dollars, say, is pay a leader to leave, and replace him with someone more--of course, obviously, replace him with another dictator is the problem. But if you could change a political system, that would be the way you'd spend your money. We don't know how to do that. And the idea that we should be spending more time understanding that doesn't necessarily follow; the idea that that's the most important thing. If we can't figure out the levers to improve it, it really doesn't matter. So, what are your thoughts on that?

    Chris Blattman: I'm more hopeful. I think we don't know a lot about it. I think we also--I think that--I actually teach a class on this, and it turns out Lant Pritchett has just written a book on this as well, with two co-authors. He's focused more on building, on something a bit narrower, which is building state capabilities--which is basically making states more effective. And that includes public sectors and governments. It's actually a free book online, and I think it's actually one of my favorite books I've read this year. So, he didn't talk about that, but--

    Russ Roberts: What's it called?

    Chris Blattman: I think it's called Building State Capabilities.

    Russ Roberts: We'll put a link up to it, for this episode.

    Chris Blattman: Exactly. And he even negotiated to be able to get this free online. And I think he has a course, as well, where you can go along this as well. And so, there's both a book and a free course online. And I teach a class. Sometimes I call it "Order and Violence." Sometimes I call it "Political Economy Development." But, it's really about these big questions about saying: You know what? What doesn't--I think Lant would agree with this: Growth is the wrong way to think about this. We don't need more people focused on economic growth. I think we need more people focused on understanding state capabilities, and democratization, and politics in these countries. There's a fair amount already: most other political science--there's a lot of bad research; there's a lot of good research. And I--by spending a lot of the last 10 years reading that research and trying to teach it, and learning it; and when I say I want to reorient what I do, in some ways, I--this is the book I would like to write. Probably I won't write it for 10 years. But one day I will write this book about this kind of political development, if you will. And I think that's fundamentally the problem. And it's hard for me to believe, partly because I've read so much that really has changed the way I think about how the world works; and I think if it could be translated into terms, sort of messages that people could absorb and understand in a less academic way, I think it would be really impactful. So, one, I think we could translate more; two, I think we could do more of it. But it kind of a big--it's a big risk. It's hard to see immediate payoffs. Yet, I guess the reason I think it can't be ignored is, maybe you could put it simply like this: That, China and Brazil and Russia and Vietnam and a whole host of countries that are currently like middle income, or a little poorer or a little richer, are generally growing, you know, at a reasonably quick pace--like, say, I don't know, maybe it's 5% a year. In some years that will be higher; in some years that will be lower. But they are basically on their way to being high-middle, or upper-middle--or even upper-income countries. So, they are growing. And as long as there is no major world cataclysm, then in 20 years, those are going to be basically rich countries. And that's going to be most of the population of the world. And that's probably most countries in the world. But there's a bunch of countries, a couple in, you know, Central and South America, maybe Bolivia, certainly Guatemala, and maybe like a Honduras or Jamaica, and much of sub-Saharan Africa, and some parts of Central Asia that are just not growing at all, or they are growing a little bit but not very fast. Or, they are growing a little bit but there is a lot of inherent political instability and it's hard to imagine that growth lasting for long before there's some tanking[?]. So, it's possible that in 15 or 20 years there will be about 20 or 30 countries in the world that are still enormously poor and unstable, next to what are generally a relatively homogenous group of middle- and high-income countries. And that's going to be a bad situation. It's not--it's a better situation than today, where we've got a lot of poor people. But there's going to be this growing inequality; and these are going to be places of instability. And there's going to be a lot of negative spillovers for the

              Slavista Ngadeu z Kamerunem w półfinale Pucharu Afryki spotyka Ghana        
    Bracia Jordan i Andre Ayewové zdecydowali się przejść do półfinału piłkarze Ghana Africa Cup po zwycięstwie 2: 1 nad Demokratycznej Republice Konga, za który zyskał tylko Paul-Jose M’Poku. Srebrna medalistka ostatnich mistrzostw w Gwinei Równikowej jest ostateczna zderzenie z Kamerunu. Drugi półfinał para składa się z Burkina Faso i Egipcie, które zdecydowały o zwycięstwie. 1:
              2 - Seven Sisters        
    Seven Sisters

    You could blindfold yourself in Seven Sisters, spin around a few times, and throw a dart in any direction (although I wouldn't recommend it), and there is about a 4% chance that you will hit a musician with it. The place is positively teaming with them. Studios, and musician flat-shares, everywhere. And it is easy to see why. Firstly, it is a little "rough around the edges" Not in a bad way too. What it lacks in clean lines, 5 year plans and commercial aesthetics, it more than makes up for in atmosphere and vibrancy. It's unlike any other area in London.

    The best part of Seven Sisters is undoubtedly West Green Rd. For several reasons. I am of the strong belief that any business why decides that their staff need to wear uniform in order to show the customer who works at the store is missing a trick. I can understand a huge chain store warranting them, for brand identity, etc. However, a better way to show your customers who runs the shop, and who they need to chat to is to simply make your presence known to the customers. And that, in a nutshell, is West Green Rd. Walk down the road, and many shopkeepers are standing in doorways. Some will say "Hello my friend, have a look around, best price for you my friend, best price....." They are all passionate, many of them will have their kids working on the weekend. Signs are handwritten on bright yellow and pink cards. There are only 4 chain shops on the road out of about 130-150. Let me just repeat that -  there are just 4. A fried chicken shop, a betting shop, an estate agents and a convenience store.   There is not one chain shop on the Tottenham end of West Green Rd. None. 

    Here is something that says a lot about the area. There was a Pound Store there. (Not the big chain, an independent one). Someone set up a shop called "99p or less." In an act of business bravado that was mind-blowingly simple as it was brilliant, someone down the road set up the "98p shop". (Right now, in Tottenham, someone is plotting the opening of the 97p store...) It's that sort of place. Shopkeepers live on their wits, you can bargain with them.  I once bought 2 suitcases that were £35 each for £39 in total, and the shopkeeper seemed happier with my purchase than the guy before who paid full price for his parrot cage. Yep, a parrot cage and suitcases being sold in the same shop. That's West Green Rd. 

    There is a road with 19 African churches on it too, Lawrence Rd. This isn't the longest road in the area by the way, you can walk it in about 4 mins. The local community centre is called the Bernie Grant Arts centre, and has the Marcus Harvey Library in it. Not some 16th century aristocrat who many people fire up wikipedia to find out who he is, but men who meant something to the people there, in the late Local Labour MP Bernie Grant, the first British Black politician, and Marcus Garvey, the Jamaican Political leader who died in 1940.

    Some roads in London have an African shop. West Green Rd has a Ghanian shop, an Ethiopian Shop, a Kenyan Shop, etc. I used to work as a Butcher, and used to do shifts as a fishmonger on the side. There are fish shops selling fish I had never heard of there. Instead of the local travel shop having promotional deals to Barcelona, Paris and New York, instead there are trips in Nairobi, Kingston Jamaica and Akra. Now, I probably have more need of a cheap flight to New York, rather than Ghana, if I am honest - but the difference is that 99% of all of the travel agent shop windows in London show the prices to the same places. These ones do not. Instead of a package holidays, it's flights only. These people are not going away for a 2 week holiday in the sun, they are making a pilgrimage home. Not many people based in the area have family in New York, compared to Ghana, Nigeria and the Caribbean. Thus, these shops are actually representative of the area. The products they sell are actually tailored to the area, as opposed to being a homogenized Starbucks-Costa Coffee-Pizza Express parade of the usual suspects. 

    What a novel idea!! They are shops by the people of the area, for the people of the area. Instead of a multinational company deciding what their customers want, and convincing them that they want it, these shops have a different approach. As the sign in a shop window a few weeks ago said: "We book tickets to anywhere. Ask Amin for details." Amin. Not "your local store manager". Ask Amin, he'll sort it out for you. There is no Starbucks. No "head of marketing and brand development." The guy who cashes up and signs the lease is the same guy who mops the floor at the end of the day. It is business as it should be, and as a business owner in the area, I have to admit that sometime I walk down the road, and get a great feeling from seeing these independent business owners go about their trading. And that is because I actually feel part of the community here. I feel that I am actually contributing to the area, and I feel that I know the other people that are too.

    Another great place is the South American Indoor market that is right next to the entrance of Seven Sisters station. Its a fantastic indoor market, where the sellers and shop staff have personality and rapport with their customers. (I once went into a shop on the road, just outside the market, looking for a deal on some soft drinks, and the shop owner shouted down into the basement, "Dex? I'm sending a guy down to see you, sort out some cheap drinks for him. He's might order some extra stuff off us, so don't f**k up his order, right?" To be fair, he didn't f**k up my order, which I was glad for.) The shops might not be on the same scale as the Westfield, but nor should it be. The best selling point of the area as a whole is that, when people say to me "What's it like", it takes me about 3 mins to explain it all. It usually ends with me saying "Well, you should go there." Sure, many of the stores are a bit rundown, and need a bit of a clean up, but it's all part of the character for me.

    Aside from this vibrancy, which is it's greatest selling point, there are other good points too. Transport is great. Central London in 15 mins. The buses are good. Night buses too. Many of the properties rival Northumberland Park in terms of size and quality. More bands that come to the studios come from Seven Sisters rather than any other area, and a lot of them are working in the city, or students, looking for more bang for their buck within the rental market. If you;re looking for that, as Bally Studios staff can personally testify, there are worse areas than Seven Sisters. 
     
    Of course, the area is not perfect, not by a long stretch. There are prime buildings that have sat empty for 10+ years. The building that used to be the bank, right on the corner next to the station,and Wards Corner, the empty building opposite, both have huge potential. But alas, they have been empty for years, and that is sad. It is also very hard for the local shops to compete with the local Tesco. Maybe this is the reason that all of the shops that are in the area specialise in the sort of food that Tesco would not usually handle.

    This part of Tottenham has been in the news recently, as many of the residents are concerned with plans to open a shopping arcade in the area. We have touched upon in in our Blog post in the area, and our views on the subject are mixed. On one hand, the jobs for the area will be great, and hopefully it might encourage people to visit the area. However it is also hard enough for the local businesses to survive while being in competition with Tesco, so we hope that this is taken into effect when the local council decide whether to press ahead with the plans, as it would be a real shame to lose so many of these great shops that already add to the area. More details are here. http://sevensistersregeneration.co.uk/

    The Best Parts:
    The shops of West Green Road.
    Transport Links

    Room For Improvement:
    Let's hope that the council decides to make sure that the current South American Market can, in some way, be saved, while still redeveloping the area.


              Obama's Address to Ghana Parliament        

              The Morning Sound Alternative 04-13-2015 with Cary Wolfson        
    Playlist:

    - voicebreak -
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    Joan Baez- CuCuRruCuCu Paloma - The Complete AM Recordings
    Dave Van Ronk- Dinks Song - Down In Washington Square The Smithsonian Folkways Collection
    Ian Sylvia- Rocks And Gravel - Ian Sylvia Complete Vanguard Studio Recordings
    Judy Henske- High Flying Bird - High Flying Bird
    Richard Thompson Band- Here Without You - More Guitar
    Dave Alvin- Dont Make Promises - Dave Alvin And The Guilty Women
    Eilen Jewell- Dusty Boxcar Wall Live - Live At The Narrows
    Tim Hardin- Go Bum Again - Remastered Recordings 19631980
    Bruce Cockburn- Water Into Wine - Speechless
    The TourRaichel Collective- Tidhar - The Paris Session
    David Philips- Venomous Soul - If I Had Wings
    Fairport Convention- The Lord Is In This Place How Dreadful Is This Place - What We Did On Our Holidays
    John Renbourn Jacqui McShee- Nobodys Fault But Mine - Another Monday
    Katie Webster Ashton Conroy- I Want You To Love Me - Rhythmnbluesin By The Bayou Mad Dgos Sweet Daddies Pretty Babies
    Boz Scaggs- High Blood Pressure - A Fool To Care
    Barbara Lynn- Cant Buy My Love - The Jamie Singles Collection
    The Righteous Brothers- My Babe - Righteous Brothers The Definitive Collection
    Pete Guitar Lewis- Louisiana Hop - Dancing Around The World Vol 3
    BB King- Dark Is The Night Pt 1 - Do The Boogie BB Kings Early 50s Classics
    Bobby Benson His Combo- Niger Mambo - Highlife On The Move Selected Nigerian Ghanaian Recordings From London Lagos 195466
    Barrance Whitfield The Savages- Madhouse - Ow Ow Ow
    Rhiannon Giddens- Up Above My Head - Tomorrow Is My Turn
    Sam Cooke- Must Jesus Bear This Cross Alone - Sam Cooke With The Soul Stirrers
    Jerry Garcia Band- Ill Be With Thee - Warner Theater 780318
    Darlene Love- Lean On Me feat Lisa Fischer Jo Lawry Judith Hill - 20 Feet From Stardom Music From The Motion Picture
    Donnie Hathaway- The Ghetto Part 1 single Version - Never My Love The Anthology
    Savoy Brown- All I Can Do - Street Corner Talking
    Grateful Dead- Easy Wind - Road Trips Vol 3 No 3 19700515
    Lucinda Wiliams- It Aint My Cross To Bear - Live At Hardly Strictly Bluegrass 2014
    SPIRIT- Cosmic Smile - Cosmic Smile


    playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/4/playlistDate/2015-04-13
              Graduate Internal Control Associate at House of Tara International        

    House of Tara International – We are House of Tara, the largest brand in the beauty and cosmetics industry out of Africa. We currently have over 20 branches in states across Nigeria and have sales presence in Ghana, Tanzania, Kenya, South Africa. Our company takes pride in not just beauty consultation, but in empowering women, […]

    The post Graduate Internal Control Associate at House of Tara International appeared first on Career Hob.


              Bästa inslaget i valkampanjen 2014        
    B.B. 

    Mitt favoritinslag i 2014 års valrörelse är helt klart när den globalt influerade jazzmusikern Bengt Berger -- själv säger han att han spelar country and eastern -- känd från band som Arbete & Fritid, Rena Rama, Spjärnsvallet, Archimedes Badkar, Bitter Funeral Beer Band, Stockholms Gahuklubb, Chapter Seven, Enteli, Kalousch, Old School, Viltvarning, STRIKE, och Beches Brew dök upp i Vänsterpartiets kulturpolitiska kampanj, som en av många kulturprofiler som ordlöst men med en låt, en video eller liknande tog ställning för Vänsterpartiet i valet. Berger, som har med låten "Babel Twist", presenteras lakoniskt med den lysande kulturgubbe bilden från ovan och så denna helt magiskt kulturmarxistiska presentation.

    "Bengt Berger är jazzmusiker (trumslagare), kompositör och producent. Berger har studerat nord- och sydindisk musik sedan 1960-talet i bland annat Indien och spelar tablas och mridangam. Under 1970-talet studerade han västafrikansk xylofon- och slagverksmusik i Ewe- Brong-Ahafu och Lo-Birifortraditionerna i Ghana."
     Jo, det är ju en bit frÃ¥n Da Buzz och Springsteen, svensk politiks tvÃ¥ största partier, det här.

    * * *
    fyra topplåtar med Bengt Berger: "Till mera" med Beches Brew, "Engelska kanalen" med Arbete & Fritid, "Badiboom" med Archimedes badkar, "Taivas kesän valkaistua palttinaa" med Mirja Mäkelä.

              Hello Ghana!        
    none
              Killing us softly         

    A recent public outcry in China, sparked by a damning documentary about air pollution, was based on well-founded fear:

    Of the 100 million people who viewed the film on the first day of its online release, 172,000 are likely to die each year from air pollution-related diseases, according to regional trends.* 

    Worldwide, pollution kills twice as many people each year as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined,** but aid policy has consistently neglected it as a health risk, donors and experts say. 

    Air pollution alone killed seven million people in 2012, according to World Health Organization (WHO) figures released last year, most of them in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the Asia Pacific region.*** 

    In a self-critical report released late last month the World Bank acknowledged that it had treated air pollution as an afterthought, resulting in a dearth of analysis of the problem and spending on solutions. 

    “We now need to step up our game and adopt a more comprehensive approach to fixing air quality,” the authors wrote in Clean Air and Healthy Lungs. “If left unaddressed, these problems are expected to grow worse over time, as the world continues to urbanise at an unprecedented and challenging speed.”

    A second report released last month by several organisations – including the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution, an international consortium of UN organisations, governments, development banks, NGOs and academics – also called for more funding towards reducing pollution. 

    “Rich countries, multilateral agencies and organisations have forgotten the crippling impacts of pollution and fail to make it a priority in their foreign assistance,” the authors wrote. 

    Housebound in China 

    A dense haze obstructs visibility more often than not across China’s northern Hua Bei plain and two of its major river deltas. Less than one percent of the 500 largest cities in China meet WHO’s air quality guidelines. Anger over air pollution is a hot topic among China’s increasingly outspoken citizenry.  

    “Half of the days in 2014, I had to confine my daughter to my home like a prisoner because the air quality in Beijing was so poor,” China’s well-known journalist Chai Jing said in Under the Dome, the independent documentary she released last month, which investigated the causes of China’s air pollution.

    The film was shared on the Chinese social media portal Weibo more than 580,000 times before officials ordered websites to delete it. 

    Beyond the silo

    Traditionally left to environmental experts to tackle, the fight against pollution is increasingly recognised as requiring attention from health and development specialists too. 

    “Air pollution is the top environmental health risk and among the top modifiable health risks in the world,” said Professor Michael Brauer, a public health expert at the University of British Columbia in Canada and a member of the scientific advisory panel for the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, a consortium of governments and the UN Environment Programme. “Air pollution has been under-funded and its health impacts under-appreciated.”

    Pollution – especially outdoor or “ambient” air pollution – is also a major drag on economic performance and limits the opportunities of the poor, according to Ilmi Granoff, an environmental policy expert at the Overseas Development Institute, a London-based think tank. It causes premature death, illness, lost earnings and medical costs – all of which take their toll on both individual and national productivity.

    “Donors need to get out of the siloed thinking of pollution as an environmental problem distinct from economic development and poverty reduction,” Granoff said. 

    Pollution cleanup is indeed underfunded, he added, but pollution prevention is even more poorly prioritised: “It’s underfunded in much of the developed world, in aid, and in developing country priorities, so this isn’t just an aid problem.”

    Mounting evidence 

    Pollution kills in a variety of ways, according to relatively recent studies; air pollution is by far the most lethal form compared to soil and water pollution. 
     

    Microscopic particulate matter (PM) suspended in polluted air is the chief culprit in these deaths: the smaller the particles’ size, the deeper they are able to penetrate into the lungs.  Particles of less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5) are small enough to reach the alveoli, the deepest part of the lungs, and to enter the blood stream.  

    From there, PM2.5 causes inflammation and changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and blood clotting processes - the precursors to fatal stroke and heart disease.  PM2.5 irritates and corrodes the alveoli, which impairs lung function - a major precursor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It also acts as a carcinogen.

    Most research looks at long-term exposure to PM2.5 but even studies looking at the hours immediately following bursts of especially high ambient PM2.5 (in developed countries) show a corresponding spike in life-threatening heart attacks, heart arrhythmias and stroke.

    Asia worst affected

    The overwhelming majority - 70 percent - of global air pollution deaths occur in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia regions.  South Asia has eight of the top 10 and 33 of the top 50 cities with the worst PM concentrations in the world.  

     

    WHO says a city’s average annual PM levels should be 20 micrograms per cubic meter.  But cities such as Karachi, Gaborone, and Delhi have yearly PM averages above 200 micrograms per cubic meter. 

    The main source of PM2.5 in indoor air, or household air, is burning solid fuels for cooking and heating, using wood, coal, dung or crop leftovers - a common practice in rural areas of low and middle-income countries that lack electricity.  

    Almost three billion people live this way, the majority in the densely populated Asia Pacific region: India and China each hold about one quarter of all people who rely on solid fuels. For these people, the daily average dose of PM2.5 is often in the hundreds of micrograms per cubic meter. 

    Filling the gaps

    Unlike many other health risks air pollution is very cost-effective to address, Brauer said. Analysis of air quality interventions in the US suggests a return on investment of up to $30 for every dollar spent. 

    “We already know how to reduce these risks, as we have done exactly that in high income countries, so this is not a matter of searching for a cure - we know what works,” he said.

    But the World Bank report said that unless it starts gathering better data on local air quality in LMICs, the amounts and sources of air pollution and the full gamut of its health impacts, “it is not possible to appropriately target interventions in a cost-effective manner.”

    Granoff said there are also gaps in government capacity to monitor, regulate and enforce pollution policy. 

    Beijing hopes to bring PM2.5 concentrations down to safe levels by 2030, and has said it will fine big polluters. 

    The World Bank report said China is also charging all enterprises fees for the pollutants they discharge; establishing a nationwide PM2.5 monitoring network; instituting pollution control measures on motor vehicles; and controlling urban dust pollution.

    But enforcing environmental protections has been a longstanding problem in China.

    “Pollution policy will only succeed if citizens are aware of the harm, able to organise their concern [through advocacy campaigns], and have a responsive government that prioritises public welfare over the narrower interests of polluting sectors,” Granoff said. 

    While more people die from household air pollution than from ambient air pollution, the latter – through vehicles, smokestacks and open burning – still accounted for 3.7 million deaths in 2012, according to the WHO. 

    A change in the air

    Kaye Patdu, an air quality expert at Clean Air Asia, a Manila-based think tank - and the secretariat for the UN-backed Clean Air Asia Partnership, comprising more than 250 government, civil, academic, business and development organisations - said the aid community is finally starting to recognise the importance of tackling air pollution.  

    • Last year’s inaugural UN Environment Assembly adopted a resolution calling for strengthened action on air pollution.  
    • WHO Member States are planning to adopt a resolution on health and air quality at the upcoming World Health Assembly in May. 
    • The proposed Sustainable Development Goals, which will set the post-2015 international development agenda, address city air quality and air, soil and water pollution. 

    None of the experts IRIN contacted could provide a breakdown of total aid spending on all forms of toxic pollution (air, water and soil pollution that is harmful to human health).  So IRIN asked each of the major global donors for their figures.  

    Three responded.  

    A back-of-envelope calculation of all reported spending on toxic pollution by USAID, the European Commission and the World Bank suggests that between them they committed about US$10 billion over 10 years. This does not include aid spending on the diseases that pollution causes. The World Bank’s spending figures eclipsed those of other the other donors. 

    By very rough comparison, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, with half the death toll of air pollution, received $28 billion via public sector commitments to the Global Fund – the world’s largest financier of programs that tackle these diseases – over the same period, a fraction of total spending on these diseases. 

    gh/ha/bp

    *Based on WHO statistics for per capita mortality rates in the Western Pacific region in 2012. 

    **The mortality figures for air pollution come from 2012 statistics and were released by WHO in 2014, while the figures for the infectious diseases come from 2013 statistics and were released by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in 2014 (the Global Burden of Disease study).

    ***Includes deaths from both household air pollution (4.3 million) and ambient air pollution (3.7 million): the combined death toll is less than the sum of the parts because many people are exposed to both. 

    For more: 

    The relationship between household air pollution and disease

    Ambient air pollution and the risk of acute ischemic stroke 

    Cardiovascular effects of exposure to ambient air pollution 

    Particulate air pollution and lung function  

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of cerebrovascular events: Results from 11 European cohorts within the ESCAPE Project  

    OECD's The Cost of Air Pollution report
     

    101285 200901271.jpg Analysis Health Killing us softly Gabrielle Babbington IRIN HONG KONG Congo, Republic of Djibouti DRC Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Rwanda Somalia Sudan Tanzania Uganda Angola Botswana Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Cape Verde Chad Côte d’Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Nigeria Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Colombia Haiti United States Bangladesh Cambodia Indonesia Iran Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Lao Peoples Democratic Republic Myanmar Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines Samoa Sri Lanka Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vietnam
              Widespread HIV and Syphilis in Central Ghana Top the HIV Sentinel Surveillance (HSS) Report – VyGone Introduces Syphilis Treatment.        

    The HSS recently reported that the Central Region of Ghana has the highest percentage of people suffering from sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV and Syphilis. VyGone has introduced treatments for Syphilis on http://www.ultimatecoldsoretreatment.com.

    (PRWeb December 31, 2012)

    Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2012/12/prweb10247642.htm


              Central Region of Ghana Infected With Syphilis and HIV According to the HSS Report – VyGone Offers Treatments.        

    The Ghana Business News posted an article recently which informed readers of the increasing STD problem in Ghana. VyGone offers treatments for Syphilis on http://www.ultimatecoldsoretreatment.com/.

    (PRWeb December 27, 2012)

    Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2012/12/prweb10244486.htm


              A .RADIO 00s JUICE        
    00s JUICE | LATE 90s EARLY 10s | SATURDAY & SUNDAY 00s DANCE | 24-7 | ENJOY! Listen A .RADIO 00s JUICE Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A .RADIO 00s JUICE free internet live radio.
              A .RADIO 70s JUICE        
    70s JUICE | LATE 60s EARLY 80s | SATURDAY & SUNDAY 70s DANCE | 24-7 | ENJOY! Listen A .RADIO 70s JUICE Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A .RADIO 70s JUICE free internet live radio.
              A .RADIO 80s JUICE        
    80s JUICE | LATE 70s EARLY 90s | SATURDAY & SUNDAY 80s DANCE | 24-7 | ENJOY! Listen A .RADIO 80s JUICE Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A .RADIO 80s JUICE free internet live radio.
              A .RADIO 90s JUICE        
    90s JUICE | LATE 80s EARLY 00s | SATURDAY & SUNDAY 90s DANCE | 24-7 | ENJOY! Listen A .RADIO 90s JUICE Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A .RADIO 90s JUICE free internet live radio.
              A .RADIO TOP 40        
    ONLY THE TOP 40 - 24-7. ENJOY! Listen A .RADIO TOP 40 Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A .RADIO TOP 40 free internet live radio.
              A .RADIO TOP 40 DANCE        
    ONLY THE TOP 40 DANCE - 24-7. ENJOY! Listen A .RADIO TOP 40 DANCE Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A .RADIO TOP 40 DANCE free internet live radio.
              A 80\'S DREAM - Just 80\'s 24H        
    Just 80\'s Hits, DANCE / POP / ROCK - 24 Hours Listen A 80\'S DREAM - Just 80\'s 24H Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A 80\'S DREAM - Just 80\'s 24H free internet live radio.
              A 90's DREAM - Just 90's 24H        
    Just 90's Hits, DANCE / POP / ROCK - 24 Hours Listen A 90's DREAM - Just 90's 24H Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A 90's DREAM - Just 90's 24H free internet live radio.
              A Better 40s Music        
    A Better 40s Music Wartime Radio plays all of the popular hits from the World War II – WWII era. Listen online to all the hits from this memorable decade…from Big Bands, Swing to Shore to Crooners and Sinatra. A great 40s Music station to relive this tough decade. Listen A Better 40s Music Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better 40s Music free internet live radio.
              A Better 70s Radio        
    A Better 70s Radio plays the Pop, Rock, One Hit Wonders, R&B and Disco of the 70s. If you grew up in the 70s then you are going to love this station. A Better 70s Radio also plays the best in Groovy 70s AM Classic Radio Hits. Pop dominates this channel, No Rock. This 70s Music Radio also plays the not too light, not too heavy. A great mixture of the 70s lighter hits with a little pick me up spread in to make for a truly unique 70s Radio channel. Listen A Better 70s Radio Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better 70s Radio free internet live radio.
              A Better 80s Radio        
    A Better 80s Radio features the Pop, Rock, One Hit Wonders, New Wave and Dance Hits of the Awesome 80s. In addition to hearing the best upbeat 80s Pop Hits, you’ll also hear the not too light, not too heavy. Online 80s Radio plays a great mixture of the 80s lighter hits with a little pick me up spread in to make for a truly unique 80s Radio channel. Listen A Better 80s Radio Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better 80s Radio free internet live radio.
              A Better 80s Rock Radio        
    A Better 80s Rock Radio is for those about to Rock – we salute you! Hairband Rock Radio plays a great mix of your favorite Glam Rock 80s music. Listen A Better 80s Rock Radio Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better 80s Rock Radio free internet live radio.
              A Better Christian Radio        
    A Better Christian Radio plays uplifting Contemporary, Gospel and Rock Hits. Radio Christian features the most beautiful, Intimate Praise & Worship Music This Side Of Heaven. A Christian Radio Station like no other. Listen A Better Christian Radio Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better Christian Radio free internet live radio.
              A Better Christmas Radio Station        
    A Better Christmas Radio Station plays all of your favorite Christmas and Holiday Hits. Perfect for the office! Listen A Better Christmas Radio Station Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better Christmas Radio Station free internet live radio.
              A Better Classic Blues Vintage Station        
    A Better Classic Blues Vintage Radio Station plays all of the classic Blues gems that you will not find anywhere else on the net. Featuring all of your favorite artists and sound recordings from the Delta to New Orleans. Listen A Better Classic Blues Vintage Station Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better Classic Blues Vintage Station free internet live radio.
              A Better Classic Country Radio        
    A Better Classic Country Radio plays the best toe-tappin’ music spotlighting the greatest era of Traditional Country Music from the 1950s-1970s. If you want to hear great lyrics by the Nashville Legends, look no further than Classic Country Radio. Listen A Better Classic Country Radio Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better Classic Country Radio free internet live radio.
              A Better Classic Rock Radio        
    A Better Classic Rock Radio plays a great mix of 60s and 70s Classic Rock Music with some Deep Cuts thrown into the mix. Radio Classic Rock opens the vault to the Guitar Gods that made Rock Music what it is today. Listen A Better Classic Rock Radio Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better Classic Rock Radio free internet live radio.
              A Better Classical Radio        
    A Better Classical Radio plays the most beautifully composed Classical Music in the world. The Great Masters of Baroque come alive on A Better Radio! Listen A Better Classical Radio Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better Classical Radio free internet live radio.
              A Better Country Radio        
    A Better Country Radio plays today’s top hits and your sing along favorites from Nashville. Featuring your favorite songs from the 90s to Now! Listen A Better Country Radio Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better Country Radio free internet live radio.
              A Better Dance Radio        
    A Better Dance Radio plays Top 40 Pop Remixes, House Music and Trance Anthems. Expect to hear lots of Vocals and Classic Dance Hits on this channel. Listen A Better Dance Radio Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better Dance Radio free internet live radio.
              A Better Hard Rock Radio        
    A Better Hard Rock Radio features Album-Oriented Rock music playing the best of Y2K and today’s Hard Rock. Nothing weak, nothing wimpy, just pure Hard Rock Music. Listen A Better Hard Rock Radio Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better Hard Rock Radio free internet live radio.
              A Better House Radio        
    A Better House Radio plays the best in uptempo House, Electro, Funky House, Tech and Progressive beats. This cutting-edge House Radio station features the hottest House Music trends playing in clubs from around the globe including Miami, New York, Chicago, Orlando, Tampa, LA, and Europe. Listen A Better House Radio Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better House Radio free internet live radio.
              A Better Love Songs Radio        
    A Better Love Songs Radio Station plays the music that brings back those magical moments. Whether falling in or out of love, we hope these songs might help you to find words for the experience. Listen A Better Love Songs Radio Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better Love Songs Radio free internet live radio.
              A Better Motown Radio Magic        
    A Better Motown Radio Magic plays all the classic Soul grooves from the golden years in the motor city. Motown and nothing but Motown. Listen A Better Motown Radio Magic Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better Motown Radio Magic free internet live radio.
              A Better Oldies Radio        
    A Better Oldies Radio brings back the Malt Shop and Happy Days Memories. Radio Station Oldies plays a great mix of songs from the Oldies Golden Ages of the 50s and 60s. Expect to hear lots of Doo Wop, Oldies Rock N Roll, R&B, Soul and more on this channel. Listen A Better Oldies Radio Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better Oldies Radio free internet live radio.
              A Better Slow Jams        
    A Better Slow Jams plays a sexy mix of your Classic R&B Hits. If you want the best Slow Jams from the past decade of the 20th Century, look no further. This is your Classic R&B, Quiet Storm and Slow Jams Radio Station Listen A Better Slow Jams Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better Slow Jams free internet live radio.
              A Better Vocal Trance Radio        
    A Better Vocal Trance Radio plays cutting-edge, uplifting Trance Music with lots of Vocals, Mainstream Dance and the Hottest Trance Classics. Listen A Better Vocal Trance Radio Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Better Vocal Trance Radio free internet live radio.
              A Black Flow - Riw Urban channel        
    THE WORLD OF BLACK MUSIC Listen A Black Flow - Riw Urban channel Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Black Flow - Riw Urban channel free internet live radio.
              A BLUES DREAM - Classic & New Blues 24H        
    The Best of Classic & New Blues 24 Hours Listen A BLUES DREAM - Classic & New Blues 24H Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A BLUES DREAM - Classic & New Blues 24H free internet live radio.
              A Christmas Dream        
    The Best Christmas songs 24 hours Listen A Christmas Dream Live radio online from Ghana / Local Music / Euro Hits radio ststion. A Christmas Dream free internet live radio.
              Waangalizi wa uchaguzi Kenya wazungumza na timu ya Raila Odinga        
    Waangalizi wa kimataifa wa Umoja wa Afrika na Jumuiya ya Madola wametoa ripoti yao ya awali kuhusu uchaguzi Kenya na mazungumzo yao na kambi ya upinzani ya National Super Alliance (Nasa) waliowasilisha madai kwamba kompyuta za IEBC zimeingiliwa na upande Jubilee kuvuruga matokeo halisi ya kura.
    Kiongozi wa ujumbe wa Waangalizi wa Umoja wa Afrika, Thabo Mbeki alisema ni kweli mgombea wa Nasa, Raila Odinga na ujumbe walikutana nao wakiwa na nyaraka za madai kuhusiana na Jubilee walivyovamia kompyuta hizo.
    Mbeki alisema waliwasikiliza na kuwaeleza kuwa watalifikisha suala hilo IEBC. Hata hivyo alisema Nasa walitaka waangalizi hao wafanyanyie kazi nyaraka hizo kwa kuchunguza.
    "Kwa mtu kama sina utaalamu wa teknolojia kuniambia nichunguze ni sawa na kuniambia nifanye kazi ambayo sina ujuzi," alisema Mbeki.
    Alisema kazi ya waangalizi ni kuangalia ni si kuchunguza, kwa kuwa wao jukumu lao ni kuangalia namna mchakato mzima ulivyofanyika kama ulifuata sheria za nchi husika na taratibu za kuheshimu demokrasia walizojiwekea katika Umoja wa Afrika.
    Alisema tuhuma zote zilizotolewa na Nasa wameziwasilisha kwa mamlaka husika ndani ya Kenya.
    Kwa upande wake mkuu wa ujumbe wa waangalizi wa Jumuiya ya Madola, Rais wa zamani wa Ghana, John Dramani Mahama alisema walikutana na Odinga na ujumbe wake na walitoa madai ya kompyuta za IEBC kuvamia huku wakiwa na nyaraka kama ushahidi wa madai yao, hata hivyo Mahama alisema nao waliwaeleza kwanza hawana utaalamu wa teknolojia hiyo, lakini jukumu lao ni kuangalia kama utaratibu mzima wa uchaguzi umefuata sheria na katiba ya nchi na madai mengine ya ukiukwaji wa taratibu yana utaratibu wake uliowekwa kwa mujibu wa sheria.

    Chanzo: Mwananchi

              Full Apartment! (are you sick of me yet?)        
    Some of you asked in my last post for a full apartment tour. So here is the image-heavy post to prove that I have more to my home than a living room and guest room...
    DSC_0155

    DSC_0157
    coming up the front stairs. the only time i will ever even kind of post my kitchen.
    DSC_0161
    top of the stairs; babies from mali, mask from ghana. my apartment is a random mix of african art, kitsch, and antique gems.
    DSC_0173
    down the hallway we go, bedroom is the door at the end.
    DSC_0163
    this is the studio, more specifically my boyfriend's studio... you can just tell by the door that it is a disaster in there.
    DSC_0166
    DSC_0169
    just a peek. this is where collaging happens, messes are made, and I am eternally cringing at gesso ending up on beautiful hardwood floors :/

    DSC_0181
    into the bedroom!
    DSC_0175
    that bedspread is one of my favorite things in my apartment. the wall color came from the irrational NEED to have a cadmium red light wall in our place. the paint is Behr "fire island"
    DSC_0182
    depending on the lighting it varies from traffic cone orange to deep salmon. it took some adjusting to, but i am currently loving it.
    DSC_0185
    DSC_0186
    cats & inappropriate folk art & dante's inferno.

    DSC_0156
    back in the living room/dining room area of the apartment.
    DSC_0154
    my table was the yard sale find of the century.
    DSC_0153
    rocking chair that was my grandmother's.
    DSC_0151
    DSC_0150
    DSC_0159
    I've already posted my living room on here, but this is the painting above my couch. The artist is Thorpe Feidt.
    The wall color is Disney's Hometown Hero.
    DSC_0139
    and lastly, the recently posted guest room.
    DSC_0140
    bed & book nook.
    DSC_0141
    that star projector is pretty amazing also.
    Wall color in this room is Behr "desert glow" and the stenciling is done in Behr "powdered snow" and Behr "Beluga".
    DSC_0148
    thanks for stopping by! and thank you for all of the love on my last post!

              VIDEO: Majid Michel, Shatta Wale, Bisa Kdei, Martha Ankomah, others start campaign against domestic violence        
    Majid Michel, Shatta Wale, Bisa Kdei, Martha Ankomah and BismarkThe Joke have started a campaign against domestic violence in Ghana.
              Photos: Ghana Actors Guild donates to sick and ageing veteran actors        
    King Brenya, Mr Kwaku Twumasi, Dora Kwarteng and Mary Afriyie Forson benefited from the benevolence.
              Grace Omaboe: Veteran actress says Ghanaian film directors need training        
    She said most Ghanaian directors lack the extra skills to push their craft onto the next level.
              Lance Gross: American actor is coming to Ghana        
    The trip down is sponsored by R’ajwa experience and he is scheduled to arrive on August 25 until the 27 of this year.
              Tracy Boakye: "I deserve praise not ridicule over sex scene" - says actress        
    Actress Tracy Boakye says Ghanaians should applaud her for her sex scene in "Devil Between My Legs".
              Investment: Zylofon Media to finance Ghanaian movies        
    Zylofon Media is ready to invest in the movie industry after signing five actors.
              Fantastic 5: Zylofon Media signs 5 actors, buys Ghana Movie Awards franchise        
    They are James Gardiner, Bibi Bright, Toosweet Annan, Zynnell Zuh and Benedicta Gafah.
              "House Girl": Ghanaian-British director Koby Adom makes film exploring the African diaspora’s experience in the motherland        
    The film was shot on location in Accra, Ghana early last year and has since been officially selected for the Africa International Film Festival 2016 in Lagos as well as getting a nomination for best student short film at the BAFTA qualifying London Short Film Festival 2017.
              Make mine a T'a: Chocolate breakfast at Maze with Jason Atherton and T'a chocolates        

    Chocolate is high on the list of essential foodstuffs in this household. Along with good bread, butter, porridge oats, yoghurt, anchovies and brown cheese, dark chocolate is always in stock. I began my love affair with the dark stuff when I needed all the help I could get for a dastardly International Baccalaureate maths exam in 1998 and scarfed an entire bar of 70% Lindt before going in for the trigonometry kill. Armed with a ruler, plenty of sharpened pencils and a nifty Hewlett Packard calculator I was as wired as a nerd could get.

    Needless to say it wasn't the most brilliant idea and in the pantheon of hairbrained ideas I've had over the years this was sheer lunacy. I could Not. Sit. Still. and was acutely aware that as my mind whirled around like a demented dervish I was losing precious time. Forget Pythagoras' theorem, I could barely scribble my own name.

    So maths was never going to be my forte, with or without the ill-fated inhalation of Lindt's 70%. But the kick that ensued from this act of theobromide madness was a salutary lesson: dark chocolate makes you alert. I mean, really really alert. I may not have been able to write anything for the first ten minutes of the exam, but then I suddenly nailed it. Why snort the Columbian white stuff when you can have an instant hit of adrenaline from good dark Venezuelan chocolate I say.

    So when I received an invitation to a chocolate breakfast held at Jason Atherton's restaurant Maze to launch snazzy Milan brand T'a Chocolate I did a little dance. After a gloomy and illness-laden January I was ready to enter the land of the living and what better way to welcome February's arrival than with a chocolate breakfast at Maze?

    It may have been a grey and damp day in foggy Londontown yesterday but I virtually skipped all the way way to Mayfair from Bloomsbury. Upon arrival, Andre Dang who organised the event as part of T'a Chocolates' launch at Selfridges introduced me to the lovely Jason Atherton. I'd heard much about Jason and how great he is to work with from soon to be Iron Chef and all-round great gal Judy Joo. Judy knows Jason from her time working as a pastry chef at Gordon Ramsay's Royal Hospital Road restaurant and speaks highly of him so I was curious to chat to Jason about the chocolate breakfast he'd concocted for T'a.


    Along with the T'a chocolates on display at the tasting, there was a table replete with four delectable chocolate spreads. Some food connoisseurs turn their noses up at chocolate spread but it's a cherished part of my childhood and in recent months I have been known to slather both chocolate spread and peanut butter on Peter's Yard crispbread as a mid-afternoon snack. The good people at Peter's Yard no doubt wince at my desecration of their delicious crispbread, but trust me it's amazing.

    All of Jason's chocolate spreads were inspired by his time spent cooking and training in Spain, Dubai, France and of course here in the UK which was a thoughtful approach to creating four distinctive flavours. The British ale vinegar and winter berries chocolate spread (picture above) was mellow and tangy at the same time, a real treat using the very best of British ingredients. Sampling his Middle Eastern-inspired chocolate spread with saffron, Greek thyme and Arabian honey I thought "Saffron and chocolate, it works!" and I can imagine this spread would knock the socks off regular chocolate spread on pancakes this coming Shrove Tuesday. We then sampled an Iberico ham and sherry vinegar chocolate spread which was subtle in its porcine and sherry flavour, inspired by his time at El Bulli. But the star of the spreads was undoubtedly this baby:


    Holy mackerel! I had seconds. Being the incorrigible magpie that I am I may even have contemplated sneaking the entire jar into my handbag. Mediterranean sea salt, lemon and chocolate: this is the ne plus ultra chocolate spread. If it isn't on sale soon in Selfridges alongside T'a's chocolates I shall have to do a Lisbeth Salander and hack into Jason's laptop to nick the recipe. It's quite possibly the best way - other than porridge, smoothies and eggs benedict - to wake up in the morning: a light and refreshing lemon, sea salt and chocolate spread on sourdough toast. Or so I imagine. We had it with baguette.

    But it wasn't all spreads and creative flavours, there was the serious business of chocolate tasting too. Selfridges has a history of launching hot-to-trot chocolate brands such as Willie Harcourt Cooze's Cacao bars, so I expect we'll see a lot more of T'a Chocolate soon enough. While it may be unknown over here, T'a is owned by Tancredi and Alberto Alemagna, two brothers who come from a long line of celebrated confectioners and patissiers in Milan. Tancredi told me Alemagna was the first place to make panettone way back when, a claim I'm not entirely convinced of but I learnt never to argue with an Italian about the origins of panettone. We chatted more about the origin of the cocoa beans in his chocolate bars and the varying degrees of cocoa percentage. Nibbling my way through the 55, 60, 72 and 80% samples I found the smoothness of T'a chocolates comforting and the flavours not nearly as intense as some artisan chocolate brands such as Michel Cluizel or Amadei. Having just reprised yesterday's sampling as I type this blog post I reckon the mellowness of the 40, 55, and 60% T'a chocolates makes for a perfect afternoon lift.

    Having tasted the best molten hot chocolate ever in Cova, an old-school pastry shop and cafe in Milan's fashionable Via Montenapoleone, I have absolute faith in the Milanese brothers Tancredi and Alfredo's ability to craft fine chocolate, and one that is more accessible than some of the complex terroir-laden big guns out there.

    Not that terroir is irrelevant to T'a, they source cocoa beans from single estates in Mexico, Venezuela, Ecuador, Columbia, Brazil, Ghana and Tanzania and there's a selection of small tasting chocolate pieces, pralines and dragees to showcase the best of those countries' cocoa beans.

    It just wouldn't be Milanese if it weren't stylish, and I have to confess I love T'a Chocolates' style with its vivid colours and clever packaging. It's bright, enticing and pretty. If you're looking for a gift for a chocoholic this Valentine's day then you might want to swing by Selfridges in the next week and pick up one of these eye-catching T'a Chocolate boxes:


    What can I say? Good design and good chocolate do it for me. Now if you'll excuse me, I have to hack into Jason Atherton's computer for that lemon sea salt chocolate spread recipe ;-)
              Â Â GOT - Growing Our Tourism( Episode 1) -   Tourists        
    GOT , Episode 1. Of course with all the lsquo; rsquo;craze rsquo; rsquo; in town and the hype surrounding it, you may we thinking about the very popular hit series lsquo; rsquo;Game of Thrones rsquo; rsquo;. Sorry to disappoint you but also happy to discuss a very important foreign exchange earner for our dear mother Ghana. For the purposes of ...
              PIALA DUNIA 2010        
    Piala Dunia dah sampai ke pertengahan perlawanan. Ada negara yang tamat perjuangan. Negara-negara yang menjadi igauan dan pilihan jutaan peminat bola sepak terus mempamerkan aksi-aksi cemerlang untuk mara. Pasukan Argentina, Sepanyol, Brazil, Jerman dan Ghana mara ke peringkat suku akhir...Semoga kita dapat melihat kemaraan pasukan yang terbaik tidak kira dari benua Amerika, Afrika atau Eropah. Barulah seronok menonton bola dapat melihat pemain-pemain terbaik dunia beraksi seperti Lionel Messi,Gonzalo Higoain dan Cristiano Ronaldo.Yang pasti pasukan terbaik layak bergelar juara! Untuk meninjau keputusan dan jadual perlawanan. Ambil kesempatan untuk mengenal setiap negara yang bertanding, juga tuan rumah Afrika Selatan...geography is fun...learn with your surroundings...
              Question: Are you a feminine girl, a normal girl, or a tomboy?        
    I don't like sports and I don't watch sports channels on tv. Sports is boring and it's a masculine hobby. It takes large amounts of strength and energy. And I don't have that kind of strength or energy because I am not a tomboy or a man. I am a weak woman. I don't like baseball, basketball, soccer, football, tennis, volleyball, hockey, bowling, pool, ping pong, or golf. I am unpopular and I don't participate in cheerleading. I don't know how to do a backflip or a cartwheel. I don't know how to ride a bicycle or a scooter. I don't know how to rollerskate or skateboard. I don't know how to swim or surf. I don't know how to ski or snowboard. I don't know how to ice skate. I am not flexible and I don't participate in gymnastics. I don't participate in boxing. I don't participate in wrestling. I don't participate in track and field. I don't dress like a guy and I don't hang out with guys. I prefer watching women's fashion shows on YouTube and listening to Ghanaian gospel music on my phone. I am very feminine.
              University of the Philippines in Mindanao Recognition 2016        
    Earlier this week, I was informed that I am being recognized by my Alma Mater as one of the Most Distinguished Alumni of UP Mindanao for 2016. Below is what I had to say:

    Salamat sa mga nagbigay ng parangal na ito. Pero ano nga ba ang ibig sabihin ng parangal na ito? Para sa akin, ang tanong ay ano nga ba ang puedeng magawa ng isang estudyante ng UP Mindanao 20 years mula ng kanyang unang  enrolment? Opo, 1996 po kasi ang aking student number.
    Sa loob ng 20 years, dapat po sana ay graduate ka na. Dapat sana ay tapos ka na sa pag-aaral mo at ikaw ay may trabaho na para kumita at may sarili ka nang pera. Para naman hindi ka na hingi ng hingi ng pera sa mga magulang mo. Maawa ka naman sa kanila kung sa loob ng 20 years ay humihingi ka pa rin ng pera hanggang ngayon. “Ang makagradweyt at makahanap ng trabaho.” Ulitin ko. Ang makapagtapos ng pag-aaral para makahanap ng MAGANDANG trabahong magbibigay sayo ng MAGANDANG sweldo ay HINDI po tinuturo sa UP. Hindi rin po yan ang natutunan ko sa UP, kaya alam kong hindi rin po yan ang ibig sabihin ng parangal na ito.
    Noong kami ay nasa PCA compound pa bilang mga estudyante, ang tinuro sa amin ay kung paano makitungo sa ating kapwa tao mula sa iba’t ibang antas ng buhay. Noong kami ay nasa Pahinungod at umakyat ng Diwalwal o sa Boys Town ay tinuro sa amin kung paano pahalagahan ang kapakanan ng iba higit sa sarili. Noong kami ay volunteer sa Eagle Center at binabantayan ang Agila sa Arakan Valley kahit may panganib, tinuro sa amin kung paano pahalagahan ang kalikasan. Noong kami ay dumalaw sa mga komunidad ng Mandaya, Bagobo at Tboli ay tinuro sa amin ang kahalagahan ng ating kultura. Noong kami ay naglakad sa lansangan ng Magallanes at Claveria, natuto rin kaming ipaglaban ang katarungan. Noong kami ay umakyat sa bundok ng Hamuigitan at noong nagsurvey sa Davao Gulf ay tinuro sa amin ang kahalagahan ng pagtuklas at pagsaliksik ng bagong kaalaman. Hindi po PAANO maghanap buhay ang tinuro sa UP.
    Ang natutunan po naming ay paano maglingkod sa kapwa, sa kalikasan, sa Diyos at sa Bayan. Pagkalipas ng 20 years, ano nga ba ang puedeng magawa ng isang estudyante mula sa UP Mindanao? Walang iba kundi ipagpatuloy ang nasimulan at natutunan sa UP. Ipagpatuloy ang tamang pakikitungo sa kapwa, ipagpatuloy ang pagtulong sa mga nangangailangan, ipagpatuloy ang paghingi ng katarungan, ipagpatuloy ang pangangalaga sa kalikasan, ipagpatuloy ang pagtuklas sa bagong kaalaman, ipagpatuloy ang pagsulong ng kaunlaran, at ipagpatuloy ang paglingkod sa bayan. Opo, pagkalipas ng 20 years ay hindi pa rin po ako tapos sa pag-aaral dahil estudyante pa rin po ako sa UP. Pero salamat po sa pagkilala sa mga gawaing itinutuloy lamang natin.
    At ang pagkilalang ito ay pagkilala rin sa mga katuwang natin sa mga gawaing ito… ang mga taong tumulong sa atin sa komunidad, mga lider ng people’s organization, Civil Society groups, mga nakatrabaho ko at fellow development workers, mga kaibigan kong nagbibigay suporta at panalangin (sana dagdagan niyo ang inyong donations), mga fellow Pioneers (sayang at wala ng UKLAS Mountaineers) mga naging guro ko lalo na dito sa UP hindi ko na po kayo iisa-isahin (pero especial mention kay Ma'am Novero na nagtiwala sa ating kakayahan) at sa mga una kong guro... ang aking ama at ina; ang aking pamilya na lagi kong kasama at higit sa lahat si Bathala.
    Daghang Salamat. Padayon…

              Beyin Beach Resort         
    Location Ghana (Ghana)
              Ghana Tourism Authority: Ghana now has an official ‘Jollof Rice Festival’ and here are the details        
    Jollof was made in Ghana and there is a new festival in town. You don't wanna miss it.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare tilapia okro soup        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare fried egg and avocado sandwich        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare avocado bread        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipe: How to prepare fried yam and grilled tilapia        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare spaghetti omelette        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare Ghanaian 'masa' with sausage        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare stir-fried beef noodles with vegetables        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare palm oil fried rice        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipes: How to make tiger nut milk        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare homemade cherry tart        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipe: The simplest way to prepare Ghanaian Palava sauce        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare Ghanaian vegetable stew        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              The Queen's Waakye: 4 types of Waakye we think Chef Amoo is cooking for Queen Elizabeth        
    Waakye is truly Ghanaian dish that is not just full of much-needed nutrients but also, a perfect blend of rice and beans, and that is what Chef Amoo is cooking Queen Elizabeth.
              Elijah Amoo Addo: Ghanaian chef to cook waakye for Queen Elizabeth        
    Elijah Amoo Addo to cook one of his favourite dishes for Queen Elizabeth after receiving the Queen’s Young Leaders Award
              DIY Recipe: 5 simple steps to make vanilla parfait this weekend        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipe: Serve your family breaded pork chop this weekend        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare mocha cupcakes        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipe: How to prepare spiced peanut        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              American Dream: Custom-designed Harley Davidson pizza delivery motorcycles arrive in Ghana        
    Famous Famiglia Ghana’s “American Dream” - The World’s first and only custom designed Harley Davidson Pizza Delivery Motorcycles - are revved up to deliver authentic New York City pizza in Accra, Ghana, West Africa.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare fried pork and crispy yam        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare chocolate banana freezer pie        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare creamy Quinoa Porridge        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              Tech: Uber offers riders free food on its first anniversary        
    Taxi-hailing app, Uber, is celebrating the first anniversary of its launch in Ghana with a big party.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare Guinea fowl tomato stew        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              Judgement: Ghanaian jollof is bad - Wizkid        
    The question of who best prepares the meal has been the subject of fierce dispute over the years particularly between the two countries
              Culinary War: Ghana jollof better than Nigeria jollof - Jon Benjamin        
    British High Commissioner to Ghana Jon Benjamin has said jollof from Ghana is superior to Nigerian jollof
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare rice with palava sauce        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
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    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
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    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
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    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
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    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              Easter Jollof: How to prepare Ghanaian Jollof with herrings        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              Easter Recipes: How to prepare beans stew and kelewele        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              Easter Recipes: How to prepare Ghanaian vegetable fried rice        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare fried plantain and egg stew        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              DIY Recipes: How to prepare moinmoin scones        
    Pulse daily DIY recipe teaches prospective chefs how to prepare healthy, Ghanaian dishes in a simple way.
              #5 Alicia Sánchez-Camacho pacta con Método 3 retirar las acusaciones a cambio de 80.000 euros        

    Espionaje con final feliz

    » autor: jaghanat


              #4 Alicia Sánchez-Camacho pacta con Método 3 retirar las acusaciones a cambio de 80.000 euros        

    Es lo que cobra por un servicio completo

    » autor: jaghanat


              Just under a month ago, 32 teams started out on a path to join the eli in Ajutor și asistență tehnică : Instalare, dezinstalare, actualizare, update. upgrade ...        
    Topic: Just under a month ago, 32 teams started out on a path to join the eli Message: Just under a month ago, 32 teams started out on a path to join the elite club of World Cup Champions. Two teams remain in pursuit of that goal, but both nations – Germany and Argentina – have multiple titles to their credit. Germany reached the Final with the most unpredictable of performances, piling goal after goal on a stunned Brazilian team en route to a 7-1 thrashing. The Argentinian team, meanwhile, snuck by a powerful Dutch side by the slimmest of margins: waiting out 120 minutes of cautious, scoreless play and settling things in penalty kicks. So, with the Final looming on the horizon, which nation do you like to capture its first title in over two decades? Germany started their campaign in Brazil with authority, drubbing Portugal 4-0 in their group stage opening and providing the margin of victory that would inevitably send Cristiano Ronaldo and his compatriots home before the knockout stage. A 2-2 draw to Ghana would provide the only blemish on Germanys record thus far but the team would clinch the top of Group G by edging out former coach and World Cup hero Jurgen Klinsmann and his American side 1-0 in their opening round finale. The Algerians would give Germany a scare in the round of 16, forcing extra time before Andre Schurrle and Mesut Ozil put away what would stand as a 2-1 victory. They would then ride an early header from defender Mats Hummels past a high-scoring French side in the quarters to set up their drubbing of the host Brazilians in the semis. Along the way the Germans have seen one man write his name in the annals of World Cup history and another serve notice that he may be next in line. Miroslav Kloses mark in the semifinal thrashing put him in sole possession of the all-time World Cup goal scoring record, one ahead of Brazilian great Ronaldo with 16. Not to be outdone, however, is 24-year-old Bayern Munich striker Thomas Müller. After earning a share of the Golden Boot in South Africa with five goals, Müller has piled on another five and enters the Final one shy of an unprecedented second straight. Argentinas performance has been a study in doing just enough to win. Though they have won all six of their contests in Brazil, they have done so by just a single goal in each match. The team emerged from a group devoid of titanic opposition, edging out Bosnia and Herzegovina in part thanks to a third-minute own-goal and Iran thanks to an unforgettable Lionel Messi free kick in second half stoppage-time. With the group hanging in the balance, the Argentines went back and forth with Nigeria in the opening round finale, eventually outlasting their African opposition in a 3-2 victory. In the knockout round, however, the Argentinians have used lone goals to get past highly-ranked European opposition. Switzerland – the top seed in Group E entering the tournament – held them scoreless through nearly two hours before Angel di Maria broke through in the 188th minute. Against Belgium it was the opposite, with Gonzalo Higuain finding the back of the net eight minutes in to provide the matchs lone goal. The question begs whether the team can find the firepower to match the German machine. Messi enters the Final tied for third in the competition with four goals and all eyes will be on the Little Magician to see if he can step up and add to his “Best Player in the World” argument when it matters most for his country. A double-sided historical note to help you make up your mind: Germany has lost just once to Argentina at the World Cup and has ended Argentinas tournament at each of the last two. However, Germanys one loss came in the 1986 Final, the last time the nation was crowned World Champions. So, who do you like? Will the balanced German attack find its way through the Argentine defence to earn a first World title as a unified nation? Or, will Messi heed Diego Maradonas claims as the future of Argentinian football and continue the trend of European World Cup futility in the Americas? As always, its Your! Call. Adidas Shoes Clearance .J. -- The New York Jets have promoted Tony Sparano Jr. Adidas Shoes Online . -- Aaron Rodgers isnt out for revenge in Green Bays season opener. http://www.originaladidasshoe.com/ . Harrison Barnes had 15 points and Reggie Bullock scored 11 for the Tar Heels (17-3, 4-1 ACC), who took the court for the first time without starter Dexter Strickland. The junior guard tore his right ACL last Thursday at Virginia Tech and will miss the rest of the season.(SportsNetwork.com) - The Miami Heat stopped a four-game losing streak last time out and thats the same length slide their opponents Wednesday night, the Denver Nuggets, will try to halt when the two teams meet at the Pepsi Center. The Heat marched into Phoenix on Tuesday night and left with a 103-97 victory. That ended a four-game slide, a three-game road losing streak and got the Heat a win on this five-game trek, which ends Friday against the Utah Jazz. Chris Boshs personal seven-point run late in regulation carried the Heat to victory. Miami, which had lost four in a row all by double digits, trailed 91-90 after Marcus Morris drained a 3-pointer with 3:17 left in the fourth quarter. Bosh, though, hit a 14-footer, scored in the lane and drained a dagger 3-pointer on consecutive possessions to give the Heat the lead for good. I wanted to win really bad tonight, said Bosh. We played together and things worked out great. After being limited to 12 points in Sundays loss to Memphis, Bosh poured in 34 on 14-of-21 shooting. Luol Deng chipped in with 23 points and Dwyane Wade netted 16 for Miami, which shot 53.8 percent from the floor and forced 23 turnovers. The Nuggets have dropped four in a row, inccluding three straight on the road.dddddddddddd. They had the Toronto Raptors on the ropes Monday night, but fell in overtime, 112-107. Denver led in the fourth quarter after it overcame a 16-point deficit. The 35-point first quarter set us back, Nuggets head coach Brian Shaw said. Thats been our problem, not only on this trip, but this entire season. We dig a hole for ourselves. Arron Afflalo and Ty Lawson combined to score 47 points for the Nuggets. Lawson had 12 assists to go with his 22 points. Wilson Chandler scored 18 in the loss and Timofey Mozgov had 15 points and 12 rebounds. Denver had a chance to win in regulation but turned the ball over on a shot- clock violation, giving Toronto possession with 4.3 seconds left, but Lowry missed a 3-pointer at the buzzer. Chandler knocked down a 3 for Denver to start overtime, but the Nuggets didnt score again until Alonzo Gees bucket in the final seconds. The Nuggets visit the Houston Rockets on Saturday, then play four straight at home. The Nuggets ended a three-game series losing streak with a win in March, but the Heat have won two in a row in Denver. Prior to that mini streak, the Nuggets were 10-0 as the host against Miami. Cheap NFL Jerseys Wholesale Jerseys Wholesale NFL Jerseys Jerseys From China Wholesale NFL Jerseys Cheap NFL Jerseys Cheap Jerseys ' ' '
              Comment on 3 Tips To Slow Down Thinning Hair by HOMEMADE ONION JUICE AND HONEY HAIR LOSS TREATMENT – Ghana Media World        
    […] many have turned to homemade remedies that are both much less costly and also much more effective. This is especially true with the condition of hair loss and hair thinning. One of the best ways to promote the growth of healthy hair is onion juice and honey, an […]
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              The Desires of a PCV        
    Hey all! I have noticed that my birthday is a-coming. I know that for my entire life I’ve been hard to shop for but I think this year we can make it a bit easier. Here’s a list of stuff that would drive any PCV (especially this one) crazy. Of course, I don’t actually ‘need’ any of these things, so don’t stress over anything and, of course, anything will be greatly appreciated.

    Joseph Mahach, PCV
    Peace Corps
    B.P. 3194
    Lomé, Togo, West Africa

    Books: any travel books (I’ve got access to Africa and West Africa travel guides, but would love stuff like the “Best American Travel Writing of 2010”), books on/about West and North Africa, especially Nigeria, Mali and Algeria, stuff by Keith Gessen (I read “All the Young Literary Men” and really liked it), stuff by Mark Jenkins (travel writing), I saw a travel guide called “The World’s Most Dangerous Places” it was really, really cool, but from 1996, if they still make it that would be cool to have, and anything else (I read a lot).

    Magazines: National Geographic, Travel, Outside, Travel Africa, Men’s Health/Journal, Saveur.

    Maps: Of anything - Africa, the US, California, Santa Cruz, and anything kinda weird and interesting. I really like maps.

    Pictures: I can see pictures of all of your smiling faces on Facebook and what not, but it is a pain to download them or print them out. I’m currently making a push to decorate my house and I’d love to have pictures of family and friends to hang.

    Wall calendars: people here leave calendars up for years (seriously, my chief has one from 2003) and they make great gifts. Anything with scenes of America or crazy stuff (like snow) that will blow Togolese minds.

    Music: Little flash drives with new music, movies or TV shows would be a hit in the PCV community.

    Sustenance: Don’t get me wrong, I love my daily regimen of oatmeal, rice and beans, rice and beans, rice and beans, and fried tofu, but good old Stateside food is awesome. Dried fruit, all candy, powdered sauces, and cheap, fake Cheese (Velveta) are just the tip of the iceberg of possibilities. Propel Fitness Water mix is great. Hot sauce. As always, Cheez-Its will drive PCVs crazy.

    Money: While I am hesitant to start any project that requires me to hit up family and friends for money (seriously, that is probably the biggest problem that I have with Peace Corps and development organizations in Africa, but that’s another blog) I will be traveling to Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria and maybe other places soon and visas, travel and bribes for border guards can eat up a Peace Corps living allowance pretty quick. And goals 2 and 3 of the Peace Corps are to expose other cultures to Americans and to expose Americans to other cultures, so any donations to “Joe’s Goal 2 and 3 Fund” do support the mission of the Peace Corps (I’ll check on their tax deductable status).

    A phone call to say hey: +228 745 9207
              Chez Moi La Bas        
    So I figure that it is about time that I put some sort of account of my time in Togo on the internet for all my adoring fans to read. Sorry it has taken so long. I have many great excuses for not getting anything up involving, but not limited to, living oh-so-far from reliable internet, writer’s block, a best friend/dog dying and a motorcycle-bat collision at high speed. But that is neither here nor there. Anyway, I hope this can help my friends and family understand what it is that I’m doing over here and I hope that I can convey some of the great experiences I’ve had as well as a bit of Togolese culture. Oh, and I’ll try to get pictures up, but don’t hold out for them, most days the internet is just too slow to upload stuff.

    So here is a rundown of my life here: I live in the village of Asrama, which has anywhere between two and five thousand people in it, depending on who you ask and whether or not you are counting votes. Asrama is both a village and a canton, which basically equates to a county in the states, sort of. I consider the canton to be “my turf” as the chief of the canton is my boy (really, he’s probably my best friend in village) and with four middle schools and a high school the canton seems about the right size for Joe’s Kingdom. I can ride my bike from one side of it to the other in probably half an hour.

    My housing arrangement is the Peace Corps Base Model. That means two rooms, about 12’ x 12’, one peach and one an electric blue/green (those may be the only colors available here), with an outdoor shower and latrine. The community was also nice enough to build a fence for me so I have a little yard that is a bit bigger than one of my rooms. Also I have a nice place where I can have my own garden, but right now I am using it to see how undisturbed soil can be used in development (results inconclusive). No electricity or running water (as that would ruin my street cred) but I do have a piece of cardboard that I use to fan myself with, so that’s nice. I bought a mattress and had a nice bed made (carpenters and tailors abound here, so all furniture and clothing is custom made) but it is just too friggin’ hot to sleep on it. Instead, I sleep on the lipicot (lip-ee-coh) that I bought. A lipicot is a metal frame, the size of a twin bed, with that string that you can melt, whatever that’s called, woven across. The result is a bed that let’s air move all around you and sweat fall away. It is awesome. And it gives me great decorations on my skin in the mornings.

    For food, I pretty much cook for myself. I bought a gas tank and stove, but I also have a little charcoal stove for stuff that takes longer (gas is not expensive, but a hassle to get, so I only use it for quick cooking). The standard menú de jour consists of a breakfast of oatmeal and a hardboiled egg, then I make enough rice and beans to last me lunch and dinner. On market days (once a week) I can usually get some chicken that I like, but the usual meat options for sale here are not exactly in tune with my palate. Also, most days I can get fried tofu with a spicy sauce on the street which is really good. If I go to someone’s house to eat we usually eat fufu (yams pounded until they resemble uncooked pizza dough), or pâte (literally ‘paste’ in French) which is cornmeal and water. Like polenta minus flavor, texture, color, or fun. I have gotten used to Togolese food and can eat it without trouble (that has not always been the case) but I certainly wouldn’t order it in a restaurant or buy boxed, powdered fufu and make it myself (you know who you are fellow volunteers).

    I get my water from a well and then I filter and bleach it (I could boil and filter, but boiling uses too much gas and takes too long on charcoal). And when I say “I get my water” I mean I pay a kid to fill a 25 gallon barrel on my porch as needed. He also sweeps my porch, keeps the outside of my house looking nice and disposes of my garbage. I also pay a girl to do my laundry every other week. Don’t judge me; I would do these things, but I just really don’t want to. Anyway, water. Every two weeks or so I clean the filter and damn, I sure am glad I have a filter. That well water is pretty dirty. Water is probably one of the easiest ways to get sick here (not that any way is terribly hard). Between the amoebas and other parasites that live in it or the malaria bearing mosquitoes that breed in it (I take a weekly malaria prophylaxis) the water is something not to be trusted.

    Basically Africa is trying to beat us. It’s not like we’re running from lions or anything (poached out of this area decades ago) but Africa is trying to get us sick enough that we have to go home to the States. Already we’ve lost volunteers to stress, breathing in the dust and weird skin rashes (I hear they are all fine now in the States and planning their comebacks for other Peace Corps countries). And for those of us still here, well most of us know our latrines or toilets pretty well. There is really no use in asking how someone here got sick, it could have been from touching anything, or even just breathing. But don’t worry about us. We’ll be fine. The Peace Corps Medical Officers (PCMOs) are great and keep us patched up and able to work. I’d say there is possibly a very good chance that I’ll survive these two years.

    So, work. The program that I am in is Girls’ Education and Empowerment (I know, it is a great line) and right now I teach English at the high school. The GEE program works a lot with students and teachers to encourage girls to stay in school and to have a positive effect on their communities through a good education. It really is a great and necessary program. For example in my Terminale class, the final year of high school, there are 42 boys and only 3 girls. It seems simple to us: girls and women make up half (or more) of the population, so to not have them educated and contributing to the development of the community is a huge waste, but it is hard to pass on that reasoning. That’s not to say that there aren’t many people here that do understand the immense value of educating and promoting girls, but we’ve still got quite a ways to go.

    I teach and work at a combined CEG and Lycée (middle and high school). About five kilometers away is another CEG. For the 11 classes of these three schools there is only one state English teacher. He is assisted by two other teachers that normally teach Math and French and may have been to Ghana once and thus speak a little English. So, as I am fairly confident in my English-speaking skills, I have taken up the three lycée classes. Togolese grades start at sixth in middle school and count down, so I teach Seconde, Primiere, and Terminale, basically 10th-12th grades. In Seconde I have 110 students, Primiere: 75 and Terminale: 45. That makes for a lot of tests to grade and some stressful class management. The most common method of classroom management here is either punishment via manual labor or beatings. Of course Peace Corps and I are working with teachers to get away from the beatings, but I’d be lying if the thought didn’t cross my mind every once and a while (really though, I have pretty great students).

    I think that teaching is a great way to at least start my service and I think I will continue next year as well. Basically I have 230 students that have to sit and listen to me for four hours a week. It is incredibly hard to get people to show up to meetings, so to have a (semi-)captive audience on a regular basis is a blessing for a PCV. This has enabled me to utilize one of my favorite strategies, sneak sensitization. For example, “here class, translate the following passage from French to English…ha ha! It’s the Universal Declaration of Human Rights! You didn’t even see that coming did you!?” I’m pretty sneaky. We’ve used some Obama speeches in class that have brought up talks about homosexuality, equality and democracy, and I routinely use passages from a Peace Corps manual that promotes gender equity and healthy lifestyles which always leads to great discussions. And they think that they’re just learning English! Ha ha ha!

    That’s what’s going on now and soon I hope to start a few peer educator groups to educate the youths about sex, gender equity, self-confidence, goal setting and stuff like that. Also, we are hopefully about to start a village bank for development, I’ll let you know how that goes. And we’ve also got some ‘stay in school’ campaigns, micro finance projects for girl students, new/expectant mothers’ health talks, school and community gender equity committees, and other fun stuff planned. On va voir.

    I hope this bit has painted a good picture of my set up here and doesn’t seem too scary (mom, I’m fine). I really am happy to be in the Peace Corps and I couldn’t imagine doing anything else at this point in my life. All of you need to visit me at some point. Seriously, I’ll write as much as I can, but come spend two weeks or so here and you can really get a feel for life here. I miss you all terribly and thank you all so much for calls and care packages. The packages have been amazing. Stuff that we take for granted in the States is so great for a PCV. Stuff like news magazines, Cheez-Its, candy, cheap-crappy powdered buffalo wing sauce, etc. are oh so great. And fun fact: although kinda gross in the States, when eaten here a SlimJim is exceedingly delicious. Much love and thanks for all your love. Oh, and I’ve lost fifty pounds and look oh so sexy.

    It’s definitely not easy, but if it was I don’t think it’d be any fun.
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              HEADS UP 2/15        
     
     
    Top World News Now                 
    February 15, 2013
     

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              US, BRAZIL INVESTIGATE SECT ACCUSED OF ABUSE, TRAFFICKING        


              Lo Mismo - The Same        
    Walking in town the other day I saw ahead on the sidewalk two younger women looking up and across the street pretty intently. I get up there and didn't see much and asked and a one word response from both was "mangos". These below are a few feet away. I will not see these get ripe unfortunately.
    So when they said mangos immediately I was taken back to West Africa and the first time I saw these small boys with their homemade sling shots. You can be an older man and still be a "small boy" the same goes for females however these were kids but there you were a small boy not a boy.

    So these kids were going around looking up in the trees at what I didn't know and asked. Ah - the one word response was "mango's". So these kids as mango season was just about to arrive were looking up at the top of the trees for that is where the first mangos ripen and would try and knock them out of the tree and did.

    Mango season in the tropics is a big deal to many - me too if I was here. Whether in Ghana West Africa or on the streets of Emiliano Zapata in Puerto Vallarta it's the same. Everybody is looking forward to this simple pleasure that falls from the trees just for you.
              NoCo Beer News 090216        

    [Northern Colorado Beer News] - Happy Labor Day Weekend! It's going to be 4 straight days of fun. Be sure to enjoy it with some local Colorado craft beer. There's a lot of new beers being poured today along with several more announcements of celebrations and upcoming brews. Stock up for the weekend. Here's what's happening around the Northern Colorado craft beer scene today, Friday, September 2nd, 2016. If you aren't reading this article on FermentedlyChallenged.com, you're not getting the full story.
    Picture of the Day: 1933 Brewing Company - Ft. Collins, CO.

    Featured Brewery News of the Day

    Big Thompson Brewery - Tonight's the night for the Rocky Mountain Showdown and the kick off for Colorado College Football Season. Stop in tonight wearing either your CU or CSU gear during the game and you'll get $1 off your beers. Also, mark your calendar for Saturday, September 24th - that's the date for Big Thompson Brewing's 1st Birthday Extravaganza. All day fun with special games and tournaments, special beer releases every hour, live music, food, prizes, giveaways and more. Located at: 114 E 15th St, Loveland, CO.

    Boulder County Breweries

    300 Suns Brewing - Plan to attend "Barley-Har-Har Open Mic Comedy Night" tonight, September 2nd at the brewery from 9pm to 11pm. Every First Friday of the month come see their premiere open-mic night at 300 Suns Brewing. Come enjoy our favorite beer in town, while supporting comics from all over Colorado. Show starts at 9:00, lasts until 11:00 with a Beermission for refills and potty-ing. Come early to grab your beer. This event is FREE - like Sparta, only better. They also do this event every 3rd Thursday of the month from 7pm to 9pm as well. Located at: 335 1st Ave Unit C, Longmont, CO.

    Boulder Beer Company - Here's what is being planned at Boulder Beer for the month of September. Every Monday this month is Open Mic Night from 6pm to 9pm. Every Tuesday this month you can get $0.25 wings. Every Wednesday this month they host the Boulder Beer Bags League Tournaments from 6pm to 9pm. Sign up at the pub. Then on Saturday, 9/17 it's their "Halfway to St. Paddy's Day Party". Special St. Patty's brews will be served. Then on Saturday, 9/24 they will host an Oktoberfest Pub party. Details here. Also look for their fresh hop beer to debut this month called Harvest 16. And just in time for the GABF, Boulder Beer will debut the official GABF 35th Anniversary beer - an India Pale Lager - in late September. Located at: 2880 Wilderness Pl, Boulder, CO.

    BRU handbuilt ales & eats - The next beer dinner date has been set for Wednesday, September 21st at 7pm. This will be a four course meal featuring a different beer with each course. The cost is $35. Get your seats reserved by calling (720) 638-5193. Located at: 5290 Arapahoe, Boulder, CO.

    Front Range Brewing Co - For a limited time, they now have a limited batch of their Belgian Witbier (4.9% ABV) back on tap. Enjoy the last tastes of summer while you can. Located at: 400 W South Boulder Rd, Ste 1650, Lafayette, CO.

    Left Hand Brewing Co - Today's Friday Infusion is their Black Jack Porter infused with vanilla bean & cherries. Yum! Ask for one in the taproom today. Also, get ready for Left Hand Brewing's 23rd Anniversary celebration - coming on Wednesday, September 21st. Details to come. Located at: 1265 Boston Ave, Longmont, CO.

    Odd13 Brewing - Good news! Their "Hawaiian Bartender" tropical sour ale is back on store shelves in cans! It's also on draft in the taproom where they will also sell you some cans to take home with you. Located at: 301 E Simpson St, Lafayette, CO.

    Oskar Blues Brewery - Imperial Stout lovers rejoice! Oskar Blues is releasing the 2016 edition of their popular Ten Fidy Imperial Stout today at a release party at The Tasty Weasel Taproom in Longmont from 4pm to 8pm. This brew is available once again on draft and in cans to take home. They will also be tapping a special Bourbon Barrel-Aged Fidy, a 2012 Ten Fidy, and a super special barrel of Java Fidy during this event. Live entertainment from Brian Rezac from 5-7pm too. Located at: 1800 Pike Road, Longmont, CO.

    The Old Mine - Do you love hops? Do you enjoy hard cider? Wishing there was a way to get the best of both worlds? Now there is. Try The Old Mine's Hop Miner Hard Cider. They took the citrusy Citra hop and dry-hopped it in their Sweet Tart Hard Cider. The result is what they call "wildly special and totally delicious liquid gold". Try a glass today. Located at: 500 Briggs St, Erie, CO.

    Upslope Brewing Co - Next Thursday, September 8th 5-9pm debuts Volume 9 in their Lee Hill Series of specialty brews: "Barrel Aged Doppelbock", a big 9.1% ABV beer served up in big 19.2oz cans to go. Special 1st day price of $10 per can. The next day the price goes up. Located at: 1501 Lee Hill Rd No. 20, Boulder, CO and at 1898 S Flatiron Ct, Boulder, CO.

    Wild Woods Brewery - Fresh out of the woods today - there's a new cask being tapped: "Campfile Red", a red ale made with bourbon barrel wood smoked peppercorns. Get yourself a 16oz pour for $6. Located at: 5460 Conestoga Ct, Boulder, CO.

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    Larimer County Breweries

    Black Bottle Brewery - Today is the release date for their newest tapping: "Static Age", a hazelnut breakfast stout. It pairs well with any meal of the day - including breakfast. Located at: 1611 S College Ave, Ste 1609, Fort Collins, CO.

    Crow Hop Brewing Co - This week the brewery has been busy making four pilot wet hop batches of beer. Look for these beers to be featured on tap starting around September 24th. Also, today they have a growler special going on. Get a new growler glass for $7 and a Flagship Growler Fill for $13. Located at: 217 E 3rd St, Loveland, CO.

    Gilded Goat Brewing Company - It's finally official - Gilded Goat's federal brewing license was approved and arrived this week. Look for word on their opening day very soon! Should be sometime before the end of this month. To be located at: 3500 S College Ave, Fort Collins, CO.

    Grimm Brothers Brewhouse - Today's Friday Firkin tapping features their seasonal Farmer's Daughter Oktoberfest brew infused with pears. Try one in the taproom tonight. Located at: 623 Denver Ave, Loveland, CO.

    Horse & Dragon Brewing Co - Freshly tapped this week is H&D's "Kahlo by Muray", a Munich Dunkel. Its was brewed to celebrate Fort Collins Museum of Art's upcoming exhibit, "Frida Kahlo: Through the Lens of Nickolas Muray". Located at: 124 Racquette Dr, Fort Collins, CO.

    Loveland Aleworks - Today marks the start of their new crowler cans for take home beer. You can now ask for any Loveland Aleworks beer in a 32oz crowler can. It's a great way to take some beer with you this weekend. Stock up! Located at: 118 W 4th St, Loveland, CO.

    New Belgium Brewing - Don't forget! Tomorrow is TOUR DE FAT in Fort Collins! Get in on the fun. Details posted in this week's Press Release. Be there at Civic Center Park at 9am with your bike and costume! Taproom located at: 500 Linden St, Fort Collins, CO.

    Odell Brewing Co - This week Odell Brewing obtained over 600 pounds of freshly harvested Chinook hops. They were on the vine, harvested and put into a brew kettle in less than 12 hours. That's fresh! They'll be featured in their upcoming "Hand Picked Pale Ale" on draft in the taproom and where other great Odell beers are served starting on September 23rd. Located at: 800 E
    Lincoln Ave, Fort Collins, CO.

    Rally King Brewing - Releasing today: "Peachy Noosey", a peach kettle sour pale ale. It has a load of fresh Colorado peaches in every glass. Located at: 1624 S Lemay Ave, Unit 4, Fort Collins, CO.

    Snowbank Brewing CO - Good news for chocolate lovers. Snowbank has another Nuance Chocolate collaboration beer tapping today - "Mocha Porter", a beer infused with Ghana cacao beans and freshly roasted coffee beans from Peritus Coffee. Come and grab a few bombers to go. Taproom is open tonight until 9pm. Located at: 225 N Lemay Ave, Ste 1, Fort Collins, CO.

    Zwei Brewing - The date has been set for Zweitoberfest - Saturday, September 17th from 11am to 10pm. Festivities will include the tapping of their ever-so-popular Zwei Fest Marzen at 12:00 PM, as well as live music including Neue Polka Colorado, and a live accordion. Food will be served up hot and fresh by Hush Truck. Make sure to save the date. Located at: 4612 S Mason St, Fort Collins, CO.

    Weld County Breweries

    Brix Taphouse & Brewery - Congrats to Brix Taphouse & Brewery for being named "Best Bar" in the 2016 Best of Greeley survey run by the Greeley Tribune and its readers. Always 60 Colorado beers and hard ciders on tap including several of Brix own brews. Located at: 813 8th St, Greeley, CO.

    Broken Plow Brewery - To celebrate the end of Summer, Broken Plow is today releasing a new beer "Sunshine Bunny", a coconut Hefeweizen. Toast to the end of summer. Live music tonight (7pm) and Saturday night as well. Located at: 4731 W 10th St, Unit G, Greeley, CO.

    Crabtree Brewing Company - There's a Firkin Tapping tonight after 6pm. Stop in to see what the brewers cooked up this time. Plus, those who enjoy a glass from the firkin have a chance to win a Growler Give-Away. Located at: 2961 29th St, Greeley, CO.

    High Hops Brewery - Yesterday, High Hops released their latest brew: "Gose Down Easy". It has a wheat base, a touch of sea salt, and hopped with Pekko hops for an orange and mint aroma. Highly sessionable at 4.2% ABV. Located at: 6461 Hwy 392, Windsor, CO.

    WeldWerks Brewing Company - Due to the overwhelming popularity of their crowler cans, staring November 1st, 2016, WeldWerks will no longer fill growlers. Instead, they will offer beer to go exclusively in 32oz crowler cans. This will allow WeldWerks to maintain a certain level of consistency, quality and freshness in their beers. Also, starting today, WeldWerks now have 3-pack crowler holders which will help you take home all those cans much easier.

    Wiley Roots Brewing Co - A new special beer release is coming on Friday, September 16th at 2pm. That's when they'll tap their new "ISO Hype #1: The Boston Hop Party", a New England-style IPA made with Citra, El Dorado and Simcoe hops. This beer will be on draft and also available in 32oz crowler cans (limit 3 per person). Located at: 625 3rd St, Unit D, Greeley, CO.

    Special Events


    Longmont Oktoberfest - [Press Release] Time to fill your stein with local libation and welcome the fall season - Longmont Oktoberfest returns September 23rd- 24th! Presented by Left Hand Brewing Company, Longmont’s favorite fall gathering will showcase 10 breweries alongside 12 bands, featuring 2016 headliner The Wailers, the legendary reggae band! Ranked as a “Must Visit Oktoberfest” by DRAFT Magazine, Longmont Oktoberfest brings the community together over local fare, the arts, and German tradition.

    The celebrations begin on Friday September 23rd with live music kicking off at 4pm! The Mayor of Longmont accompanied by local brewers, will lead a bike parade with the first keg of Oktoberfest to the event grounds. Attendees are encouraged to don their lederhosen & dirndls, and join the Brat Eating & Stein Holding contests & festivities. Friday night, local favorites, FACE, take the stage, followed by the fiery & soulful Con Brio, guaranteed to get the people dancing, concluding with the world’s premiere reggae band – The Wailers, bringing the words of Bob Marley to the Longmont stage.

    On Saturday September 24th Longmont Oktoberfest will recommence at noon with another day of festivities for all ages including the Best Dressed Contest, Malt Sack Races, and Longmont’s fourth year building the world’s longest bratwurst, at over 300+ feet! Live music will play throughout the event, with Jaimoe’s Jasssz Band, Gabriel Kelley, and Bright Light Social Hour bringing psychedelic rock to close the night.

    [ September Beer Fests ] - [ October Beer Fests ] - [ November Beer Fests ]

    Brew Fests This Week
    - Keystone Oktoberfest - Sept. 3 - River Run Village - Keystone, CO.
    - Beaver Creek Oktoberfest - Sept 3-4 - Beaver Creek, CO.
    - Tour de Fat - Sept. 3 - New Belgium Brewing - Ft. Collins, CO.
    - Pints in the Park - Sept. 3 - Community Park - Louisville, CO.
    - Brews & Views Beer Fest - Sept. 3 - Hudson Gardens & Event Center - Littleton, CO.

    Find all the details of these events in the September 2016 Colorado Beer Festival Calendar.


    Catch up on Northern Colorado Beer News from earlier this week:
    [ Tuesday ] | [ Wednesday ]


    View Northern Colorado Brewery Maps
    [ Boulder County Brewery Map ] | [ Larimer & Weld County Brewery Map ]

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    Northern Colorado Beer News is published on Fermentedly Challenged several times a week with craft beer stories as they break from newsletters, emails and social media sites. This news is intended for audiences of legal drinking age (21+). Please, always drink responsibly and use a designated driver.


              Robert Mugabe 'not sleeping, just resting his eyes'        

    Zimbabwe’s 93-year-old president has been photographed seemingly nodding off at several conferences, but his spokesman says it’s an optical affliction

    Robert Mugabe is not sleeping in meetings – as a series of images would suggest. In fact, his PR man has said, he is simply resting his eyes.

    The state-run Herald newspaper on Thursday quoted spokesman George Charamba as saying the 93-year-old Zimbabwean president has a medical condition that means his eyes can’t handle bright lights.

    #Mugabe sleeping at the #WEF during a discussion on youth involvement in decision making. Sad.... pic.twitter.com/OYQjuTkFE3

    #Ghana is 60 and ongoing is the independence day parade. Mugabe is caught sleeping while ceremony is ongoing. #Ghana60YearsOn pic.twitter.com/5qajyiFnUw

    Continue reading...
              Certificate In HR Policies And Procedures - LEORON Professional Development Institute , Bahrain, Ghana, Kuwait, Malaysia, Nigeria, Oman, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Muscat, Johannesburg, Lagos         
    Human resources policies and procedures are detailed guidelines and glue for both management and employees must observe to ensure the company will achieve its strategic direction and desired corporate culture.
    As a company's policies are developed they become a framework for consistency and fairness for all. Polices define management's standards for making decisions on various personnel and organizational issues.
    Clearly defined procedures and standards, are developed from polices that are well thought out by Senior management, express the company's intent to make consistent and evenhanded decisions. Not enough can be said about the value that comes from policy development.
    Policy can help an organization run at its most efficient and effective level.
    At the end of the workshop participants will have:

    1. Learned why good quality HR policies and procedures are important to employees and the overall success of the company 
    2. Understood the difference between a policy and procedure
    3. Learned how to write both a high quality HR policy and procedure
    4. Understood the major areas in which HR Policies and procedures need to written and communicated
    5. Become familiar with the contents of a robust Employee policy and Procedure manual;
    6. Practiced and received feedback on specific policies and procedures they drafted for management's approval
    7. Understood how HR policies and procedures relate to the overall success of the company and employee motivation
    8. Prepared a presentation for senior management on critical HR policies and procedures they drafted for approval and implementation to meet the growth plans of the company.
    9. Realized the importance of designing an organizationwide employee communication program to implement the upgraded HR policies and procedures.
     

    Cost:

    Certified


              Strategic Quality Management - LEORON Professional Development Institute , Bahrain, Ghana, Kuwait, Malaysia, Nigeria, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Doha, Riyadh, Jeddah, Muscat, Lagos,Accra,London         

    This intensive three-day program is designed for those in senior leadership positions. Participants will gain a practical understanding of how to assess risk from a strategic business perspective and tactical operations perspective to align all functions within an organization, manufacturing or service to be positioned to meet the challenges faced by rapid changes by market forces, as well as the ever changing consumer demands and technological advancements.

    This program will utilize the applications of quality theory and methodology in a holistic approach to supporting business excellence. The use of quality tools to support fact based strategic decision making, as well as tactical decision making will be emphasized. Participants will not become quality professionals, but they will gain an advanced understanding of how a quality management system supports strategy and operations.

    Cost:

    Discount: Discounts Up to 100% OFF

    Next Session:

    Duration: 5 Days

    Certified


              Executive Certificate in HR and Business Strategy - LEORON Professional Development Institute , Bahrain, Ghana, Kuwait, Malaysia, Nigeria, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom         

    In today's turbulent business world, most companies find themselves in a complex, competitive environment in which the formulation and execution of strategy are more critcial than ever before. When companies fail to deliver on their promises, most blame poorly designed strategy. No worthwhile strategy can be planned without taking into account the organization's ability to execute it - strategies most often fail because they were not executed well. Things that are supposed to happen don't happen. Either the organization's aren't capable of making them happen, or the leaders of the business misjudge the challenges they face, or both.

    HR leaders need to provide strategic insights on how the firm's human capital can best deliver on its' strategic business objectives. Participants will learn and use a variety of strategic tools, frameworks and mindsets to better understand the company's business strategy and business model, their competitive position of their industry, and it's human capital value proposition for competitive advantage. HR leaders will have a firm grasp of the key concepts, models and language of strategy and the implications strategy has on the design, capabilities and deployment of the workforce.

    Special emphasis is placed on connecting strategic and tactical organizational design issues, budgeting and analytics, developing a high performance culture, and how it can create new organizational possibilites.

    Cost:

    Discount: Discounts Up to 100% OFF

    Next Session:

    Duration: 5 Days

    Certified


              Contract and Commercial Management Practitioner - LEORON Professional Development Institute , Bahrain, Ghana, Kuwait, Malaysia, Nigeria, Oman, Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Doha, Riyadh, Jeddah, Muscat, Lagos, Accra, London         

    People enter Contract and Commercial Management discipline from a wide variety of backgrounds, often with little or no specific training. They may be financial or legal professionals, they may have come from sales or from  a market intelligence function. A key value offered is that the IACCM learning provides everyone with a consistent base level of knowledge. IACCM also introduces the concept of a professional standard and matching certification, to encourage individuals in their continued development. This enables IACCM to deliver a valid assessment of current capabilities at Associate, Practitioner and Expert level.

    Learning Outcomes

    • Make a greater contribution to corporate goals and objectives 
    • Achieve smarter analysis, execution and processes 
    • Companies experience increased workforce status and morale through visible investment in their development 
    • Companies ensure the best targeting of investment dollars
    5 Key Take Aways

    1. Understand and embrace best practices in contracting and contract management 
    2. Deliver greater value to the enterprise through enhanced contracted outcomes 
    3. Manage risk with greater effectiveness 
    4. Accelerate the contracting and contract management process 
    5. Minimize disputes and reputation damage related to ineffective contracts
    Who Should Attend

    This highly practical and interactive course has been specifically designed for: 

    • Contracting Professionals 
    • Contract Negotiators 
    • Contract Managers and Administrators 
    • Contract Attorneys 
    • Contract Drafting Professionals 
    • Contract Strategists 
    • Procurement Professionals 
    • Strategic Sourcing Professionals 
    • Supply Chain Management Professionals 
    • Commercial Managers 
    • Sales Account Managers 
    • Commercial Project Managers
    Benefits for Attending

    • IACCM eLearning Resources (12 months access) 
    • e-Book of the Operational Guide, the core referencework for contract and commercial practitioners 
    •  Access to insights and tools for a full year 
    • Certified candidates become members of IACCM and gain access to global content and advice provided by expert contributors in industry.

    Cost:

    Discount: Discounts Up to 100% OFF

    Next Session:

    Duration: 5 Days

    Certified


              Certified Budget Analyst - LEORON Professional Development Institute , Ghana, Nigeria, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Riyadh, Jeddah, Lagos, Accra         

    In our rapidly developing markets, the need for companies to react promptly to the changing environment is crucial. Historical accounting records are essential but are not enough for managers to make informed strategic operational and financial decisions. Management's pre-defined goals should be filtered down into budgets, forecasts and plans of action. Most of the mid-sized companies and almost the entire large corporates engage in some forms of budgeting, planning and forecasting.

    However, many are characterized by being not dynamic or interactive which may negatively impact the decisions

    made by top management. Making the right decision in such an atmosphere is easier when there is a clear view on what the future will bring. The future, however, may be predicted only from the moment when a good understanding of the past has been achieved; fast-changing business conditions call for agile planning, budgeting and forecasting.

    This 5-days intensive event is targeting those responsible for the preparation of budgets, plans and forecasts and those

    who are using them as well. The course will start with some exceptionally important advanced Excel tips that will be utilized during the course. All of these tips coming together will orchestrate professional models that are dynamic and interactive.

    Very advanced tools like Monte Carlo simulation using Crystal Ball in Excel and PowerPivot (that is introduced recently in Excel) will be an inherent part of the program. When it comes to planning for the future in any organization, the biggest problem is how to account for uncertainty. Strictly (in financial terms), uncertainty is where there is more than one possible outcome to a course of action; the form of each possible outcome is known, but the probability of getting any one outcome is not known. It is a challenge to quantify uncertainty because it is on not an observable variable rather one that is deduced from others. However given a complete range of possible outcomes, one can make decisions that reduce this uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation gives the power to solve a problem by directly simulating the underlying process and then calculating the possible results of the process with varying degrees of probability.

    You will learn how to develop Power Pivots that can handle data of up to 200 million rows of data on a standard desktop or laptop computers knowing that normal pivot tables in Excel usually choke after about 30,000 rows of data or so. In addition, there are numerous other features in PowerPivot that will enrich the analysis of your data. For example, a powerpivot can read data from different ranges which is something a normal pivot table cannot accomplish. A professional case study will examine the interactions within a powerpivot example that will be a guide of something that can be implemented upon the completion of the course.

    The course is very hands on and practical in nature. That is what the trainer has been renowned for in different countries around the world. Please bring your laptop with Excel 2010 or higher. Powerpivots don't work on Excel 2007.

    Cost:

    Discount: Discounts Up to 100% OFF

    Next Session:

    Duration: 5 Days

    Certified


              Africa's mixed political transitions in the 3 Gs: Gabon, the Gambia, and Ghana        

    The investment case for Africa is predicated on standards of governance improving. Unsurprisingly there is considerable variability in performance across the continent, nevertheless the general trend is toward gradual improvement and that is a very positive development. The recovery in commodity prices is an additional positive development from an investment perspective.


              Facility Management Professional - Review Course - LEORON Professional Development Institute , Bahrain, Ghana, Kuwait, Malaysia, Nigeria, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Doha, Riyadh, Jeddah, Muscat, Lagos, Accra, London         

    IFMA's Facility Management Professional (FMP) designation is a knowledge-based credential that will help to accelerate an FM's transition into the profession and demonstrate a proven comprehension of the foundations of facility management. 

    It is ideal for:

    •  Facility management practitioners looking to increase their depth-of-knowledge in the foundational FM topics deemed critical by employers. 
    • Individuals who are transitioning into the FM profession. 
    • Related-industry practitioners such as architects, designers and safety engineers. 
    • Facility-related product and service providers. 
    • Students entering the profession from colleges, universities, certificate or technical programs. 
    • Experienced FMs intending to pursue the CFM credential

      Cost:

      Discount: Discounts Up to 100% OFF

      Next Session:

      Duration: 5 Days

      Certified


                Falling out of love        

      While many people across the globe are falling in love, this girl, who happens to be one of the closest friends of mine consulted me about her big problem regarding their marriage. She wanted me to analyze her situation if what she feels is already a sign of having been fallen out of love with her husband or just a miscommunication on her part. She said she might had just become too perfectionist or  had expected too much from him that now she got so disappointed as he failed to meet her expectations.

      I asked her, “bakit, may nabago ba? Was he a better man before or ganyan na talaga s’ya at ikaw lang itong naging mapaghanap ngayon?”

      “Siguro nga ate may mali sakin, pero ewan ko, I noticed he had changed a lot.. at ako, hindi ko maexplain nang husto yung feelings ko, pero parang… parang hindi na ko masaya e!” she exclaimed.

      “You mentioned  he had changed a lot… gaya ng….?”

      “Like dati, he would hurry up to get home para magkasama kami agad pero now, hindi na s’ya nagmamadali.. he still gets home though pero parang wala na yung excitement to see me..”

      “Hindi kaya feeling mo lang yun? Malay mo naman sa iniisip nung tao habang pauwi s’ya no!” I said to her then she laughed. “Kita mo, natawa ka tuloy.. ikaw lang eh!.. what if all this time, ikaw pala ang hindi na excited na makita s’ya?” 

      She paused for a little while. Maybe she was thinking about it so I gave her the time she needed to internalize kung anuman yung nararamdaman n’ya. After a short while, she burst out in tears. Mukhang mabigat nga ang pinagdadaanan, sa loob-loob ko. I asked her to continue, I’m not a psychologist, a marriage counselor nor an expert in a relationship, I admit our relationship has also ups and downs but I can be a good listener naman. And in between sobs she confessed,

      “Pero ba’t ganun yung nararamdaman ko? If it’s true that I'm the one who’s not excited to see him, was that a sign of falling out of love?” she looked at me and waited for my answer  but I decided not to comment, I don’t want to add fuel into fire, ika nga. I can see the pain in her eyes at that moment.

      “Dati, kinikilig ako sa mga ginagawa nya for me but now I easily get annoyed. Iba na kasi tingin ko sa ginagawa nya eh. Kita mo, nung dati hindi pa s’ya marunong magluto, he will try hard to make it delicious and special to please me at super excited s’ya sa magiging comment ko, but now na he considered himself expert in his favorite dishes, parang lumaki na yung ulo nya. Minsan nga kahit may gusto akong i-comment, di ko na mai-voice out kasi yung tingin nya sa luto nya, “perfect!”.. dati kasi nakapagcomment ako ng something negative, nainis s’ya sakin at ang sabi nya ang yabang ko raw, na ako na raw ang magaling magluto..” (whatda?*sigh*)….. “ngayon tuloy pag nagluluto s’ya ang tingin ko, it’s just to satisfy himself and not to please me anymore.” She paused again, matagal din ang lumipas bago s’ya kumalma at tumigil sa pag-iyak.

      “Eh ikaw naman, when was the last time na ipinagluto mo s’ya ng favorite dishes n’ya to please him?” I asked afterwards.

      “Huh? Naku kelan nga ba? I don’t remember na, it’s been a while.. teka ate, what are you trying to say? I always cook naman pag may maluluto, puro delata nga lang like cornbeef, maling, tuna, kasi yun yung available.. but when I cook, kahit delata lang yun, nilalagyan ko ng twist para maging special at magustuhan n’ya.. saka I still feel excited pa rin naman makasabay s’ya kumain, kahit nga gutom na ko hinihintay ko pa rin s’ya para sabay kami..”… 

      “O, e yun naman pala eh.. that means, you’re still inlove with your husband..” 

      “You think so? Well, I guess, yes.. maybe.. but I’m really confused. Tapos sa tuwing uuwi s’ya, wala s’yang ibang kwento kung hindi mga ka-officemates, until matulog kami mga officemates n’ya pa rin ang naaalala n’ya. Sa nakikita ko, napaka-importante para sa kanya ng sasabihin ng officemates n’ya. Sa kung anong isusuot at gagawin n’ya sa office, palagi na lang nyang sinasabi na ano kaya sasabihin ni ganito at ni ganyan? eh ako.. hindi ba mahalaga opinion ko?.. Haynaku… Actually, we rarely talked about us na, hindi kagaya dati na kahit may kanya-kanya kaming buhay pag nasa office, pag nasa bahay na, sa amin na ang mundo. Dati, he didn’t get tired of listening to my stories during bedtime kahit pa boring na yung ibang kwento ko, he listened, but now, I feel that he’s not interested to hear them anymore. Ang daming dati.. dati.. dati.. I don’t feel like sleeping with him na nga eh! Saka bkit ganun, I knew I accepted him for who he was when we first met, but now, I can’t tolerate his actions. Madali uminit ulo ko. Like for instance, pag may ginawa s’yang mali at yung mali na yun eh something na sinabi ko na dati. I mean, I gave him instructions on what to do but he didn’t do it as instructed, kaya ang dating for me, parang hindi n’ya ko iniintindi, na parang I’m talking to someone na hindi naman talaga nakikinig, pasok sa kabilang tenga, labas sa kabila kaya ang ending magagalit ako then he’ll say simpleng bagay lang galit agad and I would look kontrabida again.

      Isa pa, I don’t know if I’m being maarte or what, but being hygienic is essential naman di ba? I said this because, I don’t kiss him back pag mahaba yung balbas n’ya or hindi pa s’ya nagtoothbrush after kumain unlike before na you don’t even care di ba?” I sort of laughed at that one then I let her continue.

      She added, “nung hindi pa kami kasal and he will buy something for me, it makes me happy.. starbucks man yan or mani sa kanto okay lang, kahit ano.. very much appreciated. . konting dikit lang ng katawan namin super kilig na to the bones.. tumingin lang s’ya sakin, ang saya ko na sobra, pero now, wala ng ganung effect..wala na yung sparks.. In fact, when he buys something for me, instead of appreciating it, what I think off is gastos na naman.. bawas na naman sa cash on hand.. hayz!..” 

      “Well that’s a mistake on your part my dear.. dapat maappreciate mo yung value ng ginagawa n’ya. Material thing man yun, nabawasan man ang pera n’ya or pera n’yong dalawa, it’s the thought that counts.. ang pera mahahanap mo yan kahit saan but yung love mahirap tumbasan yun.. sa tingin mo he bought it just because he wanted to waste your hard-earned money? Syempre, he bought something for you to make you feel special.. I think it’s his way of showing his affection!” sabi ko sa kanya.

      “Sabagay, ako nga gustung-gusto ko s’yang binibilhan ng kung anu-ano. Abutan man ako ng closing sa mall kahit mag-isa lang ako kaiikot at kapipili ng mga bagay na alam kong makakapagpasaya sa kanya, kahit wala akong mabili for myself at para sa kanya lang lahat ng mabili ko, happy na ko dun. Well, siguro, ayoko lang na gagastos s’ya for me..”

      Natawa ko bigla. “Eh adik ka pala eh, halos lahat ng kilos ngayon kelangan mo gumastos talaga..”
      “Tingin mo ate inlove pa rin kami sa isa’t isa? We have been married for couple of years and you knew naman, may kids na rin.. para kasing ang hirap ibalik ng dating kayo.. ganun ba talaga pag kasal na at may mga anak?.. hay, kahit naman anong sabihin ko sa ‘yo ngayon at ikwento, hindi rin naman magbabago itong nararamdaman ko.. paulit-ulit pa rin akong magwowonder kung mahal pa ba n’ya ko o hindi na at kung mahal ko pa s’ya o hindi na..”

      “Bakit, did you ever think what your life would be like without him?  Kaya mo ba na mawala s’ya sa buhay mo?”
      “Of course, naisip ko na yan and no, I don’t think I can’t live without him, pero minsan, naiisip kong subukang lumayo, mabuhay ng wala s’ya, it could be miserable but it could also turn out as the other way around.”

      “Haynaku girl, sira ka talaga! Magkaka-wrinkles ako sa’yo eh! Pano ang marriage n’yo and pano ang mga kids? Ganun-ganun na lang yun? Ang masasabi ko, ikaw ang gumagawa ng sarili mong multo. Yung mga thoughts mo yung nakakapagpa-sad sa’yo. Why don’t you talk to him na lang at sabihin mo lahat yan.. maybe this time he’ll be sweeter to you. Baka kasi hindi ka lang matantiya ng husband mo. Sometimes kasi mahirap hulaan ang gusto ng isang tao kahit matagal na kayo magkasama kaya it helps kung minsan sasabihin mo sa kanya yung gusto mo at yung mga changes na naobserved mo para maexplain nya yung reasons behind them at makapag-adjust kayong dalawa to enjoy each other’s company. Tandaan mo, wala pang expiration date ang marriage contract so matagal kayong magsasama n’yang husband mo. Mahirap yang ke bago-bago n’yo pa lang eh may ganyang drama na, umayos ka!” mahaba kong litanya sa kanya. After that, natawa ako. Para namang may alam ko ang sinasabi ko, hahaha!


      To be honest dear readers, my friend badly needs your advice now. I thought of posting it to my blog to get your opinions, too. Who do you think is at fault? Like I said, I’m not an expert with this matter so maybe you guys can save my friend and their marriage. Please post your comments and suggestions on what could be done by someone who’s slowly falling out of love with his or her partner specially married couples. Thank you in advance.

                Ang “Etsus” na araw ni Juanita Paula        
      Maikling kwento. Para lubos na maunawaan, mahalagang basahin ang aking naunang 'post' na may pamagat na: "Juanita Paula, ang tsismosang Kapitbahay". hehehe. This is FOR ADULTS ONLY.


      Labis na pagkatakot ang mababakas sa mukha ni Andrew nang mapagtantong nasa loob siya ng kwarto ng kanilang kapitbahay na si Juanita Paula, isang tsismosang baklang nasa edad bente syete at balitang mahilig 'mangmolestiya' ng mga kabataang lalaki. Kanina lang ay kaysaya ni Andrew kasama ang dalawa niyang kapatid na sina Perky at Roy na naglalaro ng 'taguan' sa loob ng kanilang bahay nang di sinasadya ay naaksidente ang bunso niyang kapatid na si Perky at nahulog mula sa itaas ng aparador na pinagtataguan nito. Dahil doon ay napilitan siyang puntahan ang kapitbahay na si Juanita, dahil ito ang tanging saksi sa pangyayari at balak sana ay pakiusapan niya itong huwag magsumbong sa kanyang nanay dahil alam niyang mapapalo na naman siya ng ina kapag nalaman na nasaktan ang kapatid. Subalit ang balak niyang ito ang nagdala sa kanya sa isang alanganing sitwasyon. Nagsimulang pagpawisan si Andrew sa labis na takot kay Juanita. Tinangka niyang tumakas dito subalit napigilan siya ng bakla sa braso. Nanlamig ang kanyang katawan.


      "Relax ka lang Andrew.. bakit parang takot na takot ka sa kin. Matagal na rin naman tayong magkapitbahay di ba? Dati naman ay palagay ang loob mo sa kin kapag nakikita mo ko..” anang tsismosang kapitbahay ni Andrew. Gustong panindigan ng balahibo ng labindalawang taong gulang na bata nang magsimulang haplus-haplusin ni Juanita ang kanyang braso. Hindi siya sumagot sa tanong nito at sa halip ay umusal nang taimtim na dalangin na sana ay hayaan na siya nitong makauwi ng bahay.

      “Alam mo ba Andrew, na nung maliit ka pa ay tuwang-tuwa ako sa yo kasi madalas ay naliligo ka ng hubo’t hubad dyan sa poso sa harapan ng bahay ni Manong Jim kaya labas ang patotoy mo..” humahagik na wika nito na ang tinutukoy ang ang isa pa nilang kapitbahay. Nasa loob ng iisang bakuran ang bahay nina Andrew, Juanita at Mang Jim. Nanatiling walang kibo si Andrew sa tinuran ng baklang si Juanita. Kung dati-rati ay palagay ang loob niya dito at nagpapaturo pa siya ng sagot sa ilang takdang-aralin nila, ngayon ay parang estranghero ito sa kanya.

      “Magsalita ka naman Andrew… gusto mo ba ng maiiinom?.. Ipagtitimpla kita. Alam mo ba, nung maliit ka pa ay nakikipanuod kayo ng t.v. ng kapatid mong si Roy dito sa bahay. Noon ay di pa nakakabili ng t.v. ang Inay mo..kung minsan nga ay nakakatulog ka pa sa panunuod tapos ay binubuhat kita at inihihiga sa sofa, natatandaan mo pa ba?” anito at patuloy ang paghimas sa kanyang braso.


      Sunud-sunod na iling lang ang naging tugon ni Andrew. Ayaw na niyang marinig pa ang anumang sasabihin ni Juanita. Alam niya na anumang sandali ay pwedeng may gawin itong hindi maganda. Sa murang isip niya ay alam niya ang posible nitong gawin. Kahit papano ay hindi na siya 'tanga' sa ganung bagay. Isa pa ay narinig niya ang kwentuhan ng mga kalaro patungkol sa baklang kapitbahay.



      “O sige, yaman din lamang at ayaw mong magsalita, mabuti pa ay simulan na natin ang “sesyon” makahulugang sabi ng baklang si Juanita at kinindatan pa si Andrew.

      “Ate Juanita, huwag! Hayaan nyo na po akong uuwi dahil parating na ang nanay, tiyak na hahanapin ako nun!” babala ni Andrew. Yun lang ang tanging naisip niyang pwedeng idahilan dito.

      “Naku, alam ko yatang kaaalis lang ng nanay mo at sa tuwina’y inaabot iyon ng dalawang oras o mahigit pa sa pamimili, lalo na at sabado ngayon. Tiyak kong namimili si Aling Kirsty ng mga paninda sa tindahan nyo.. mamaya pa yun darating” anang baklang si Juanita na tila sigurado na sa gusto nitong gawin. Iniupo nito si Andrew sa kama at saka tumungo sa pinto at ikinandado iyon. Dahil nanlalambot ang tuhod ay napaupo na rin si Andrew sa kama. Ang isip niya ay abala sa kung paano siya makakatakas sa kapitbahay.

      “Sana po ay isa kina Roy o Perky ang pumunta dito at tawagin ako..” piping usal nya. Nagsisimula ng magtanggal ng butones ng suot na blusa ang baklang si Juanita nang biglang makarinig ng sunud-sunod na katok sa pintuan.



      “Kalurky! Sino namang etsusera yun?!” naiinis na wika ni Juanita at muling ibinutones ang suot na blusa sabay labas ng kwarto dahil walang tigil sa pagkatok ang kung sinumang nasa labas. Pero bago niya tuluyang pagbuksan ang kumakatok sa pintuan ay siniguro niyang nakakandado ang pinto sa kwarto. Kahit papano ay nakahinga ng maluwag si Andrew nang makalabas ang baklang si Juanita. Naghanap siya ng pwedeng daanan para makatakas ngunit napapaligiran ng bakal ang bintana sa kwarto ng kapitbahay.

      Samantala, pagbukas ni Juanita Paula ng pintuan ng sala ay ang naiinip na mukha ni Mang Dencio ang nabungaran nya. Si Mang Dencio ang may-ari ng paupahang apartment na tinutuluyan ni Juanita Paula. Nakalimutan nga pala niya kahapon na magbayad ng renta kaya ngayon ay naniningil na ito.

      “Oy Juanita, bakit ba ang tagal mong magbukas ng pinto? Siguro may ginagawa ka na namang milagro dyan ano?” sita ni Mang Dencio sa nagulat na si Juanita.
      “Ano ba Mang Dencio?! Nang-eetsus na naman kayo! Balak ko sanang matulog, medyo napapaidlip na nga ako nang kumatok kayo?” taas-kilay na sagot naman ng bakla.

      "Aysus, matutulog ka ngayon eh ang aga-aga, bakit saan ka ba humada kagabi at hindi ka natulog?” pag-uusisa pa rin nito.

      “Hmp! Tantanan nyo nga ako noh! Sandali at kukunin ko ang pambayad ko sa renta..” anitong tumalikod na sa kasera. Pakembot-kembot pa itong naglakad papasok ng bahay kaya nailing na lang si Mang Dencio na nag-intay sa harap ng pintuan. Madali namang nakuha ni Juanita ang perang pambayad dito dahil nakapatong lang ito sa ibabaw ng kanyang tv. Ang totoo ay balak sana niyang magbayad ng upa sa bahay ngayong araw pero naantala ang pagpunta niya sa bahay nang kasera nang dumating ang batang si Andrew.

      “O ito na ho ang bayad ko Mang Dencio, sige ho at baka marami pa kayong sisingilin” pagtataboy ni Juanita pagkatapos iaabot ang isang lilibuhing papel sa kasera.

      "At bakit isang libo lang ito Juanita? Hindi ka na yata marunong magkwenta ngayon. Hindi ba’t 1,500 ang upa mo buwan-buwan? At nung nakaraang buwan ay isanlinbo rin lamang ang ibinigay mo? Kaya dapat ay dalawang libo ang bayad mo ngayon!”

      “Pasensya na ho kayo Mang Dencio, nagipit lang ho talaga ako, mahina ho kasi ang 'raket' nitong mga nakaraang araw..” kakamot-kamot sa ulo na sagot ng baklang si Juanita.
      “Sus, palagi na lang yan ang dahilan mo sa kin eh!"


      "Wag ka na magalit Mang Dencio, babawi na lang ako sa susunod” wika ni Juanita at malanding pinagapang ang kamay patungo sa harapan ni Mang Dencio. Kamuntik ng makamas ng bakla ang maumbok na harapan ng kasera.


      “Tse!.. Pati ako idadamay mo sa kalokohan mo Juanita. Dyan ka na nga!” tinabig nito ang kamay ng bakla at nagmamadaling umalis.



      Naiwan namang natatawa si Juanita Paula. Sa loob-loob nya ay may-araw din ang kasera nya at sa tamang panahon ay 'masasarili' nya ito.

      Nang wala na si Mang Dencio sa paningin ni Juanita ay agad syang bumalik sa kwarto. Kanina pa syang gigil na gigil dito kaya ayaw na nyang magsayang ng sandali. Pagpasok nya sa loob ay nadatnan nyang umiiyak ang bata. Kahit papano ay naantig ang damdamin ng bakla. Mabilis nitong nilapitan si Andrew at hinagud-hagod ito sa dibdib. Kung alam lamang ni Juanita ay labis ang pagpapapasalamat ni Andrew at dumating si Mang Dencio sa tamang oras.

      “Andrew.. bakit ka umiiyak?.. tahan na.. pasensya ka na at dumating si Mang Dencio para maningil ng upa kaya di ako nakabalik agad.. ano bang nangyayari sa yo ha?”
      “Ate Juanita… please.. payagan mo na akong umuwi..” wika ni Andrew sa pagitan ng mga hikbi.

      “Kala ko ba ayaw mong isumbong kita sa nanay mo?.. Para ka namang hindi lalaki nyan eh!.. tahan na.. wag ka ng umiyak.. akala mo ba eh may gagawin akong masama sa yo eh parang kapatid na rin ang turing ko sa yo?” alo nito. Napatingin si Andrew sa tsismosang kapitbahay at biglang nagliwanag ang mukha. Malambing namang pinahid ni Juanita ang mga luhang naglalandas sa pisngi ng bata.

      “Talaga ate?.. eh bakit po dito pa tayo sa kwarto?.. pwede naman pong sa sala na lang..”

      “Aba siyempre! Ayaw ko namang may makakita na kung sino sa gagawin natin.. baka kung anong isipin ng ibang tao, baka sabihin pinagsasamantalahan kita… ayun oh.. abutin mo yung 'massage oil' dyan sa may ibabaw ng tokador ko.. maghuhubad na ako.. balak ko lang namang magpamasahe sa yo.. hindi kasi ako nakatulog kagabi at ngayon naman ay hindi ako dalawin ng antok kaya tiyak na matapos mo akong masahehin ay aantukin na ako..” anito.

      Dali-dali namang tumalima si Andrew at kinuhay ang itinuro nitong 'massage oil'. Lingid sa kaalaman ni Andrew ay pinasasakay lang siya ng kapitbahay para muling mapalagay ang loob ng bata sa kanya.
      Hiyang-hiya si Andrew nang magsimulang dumapa sa kama ang tsismosang si Juanita at lumantad sa kanya ang hubad na likuran nito. Kahit nakakakita siya ng hubad-baro sa baryo nila ay iyon yung matatandang sabungero na sanay kumalat sa lansangan ng walang suot na pang-itaas at hindi katulad ngayon na nasa loob pa sila ng isang pribadong silid.

      Sinimulang hagurin ni Andrew ng 'massage oil' ang likod ng baklang si Juanita. Maya’t maya ay napapaungol ito. Makalipas ang halos sampung minutong masahe ay biglang tumihaya ito kaya hindi sinasadyang nahawakan ni Andrew ang dibdib ng kapitbahay. Biglang binawi ni Andrew ang kamay na parang napaso ngunit dagli rin itong hinawakan ni Juanita.. “Ang sarap mo pa lang magmasahe eh! Binata ka na talaga.. pwede ng mapakinabangan..” anitong titig na titig sa mukha nya.

      “Ate tapos na po ba? Baka pwede na po ako umuwi.. baka magtaka na po sina Perky at Roy at hanapin ako” patay-malisyang tanong nito.

      “Ah.. oo nga ano, sige, isa na lang.. pagkatapos dito ay pwede ka ng umuwi..” wika ni Juanita na nakahawak sa dibdib. Ibig sabihin ay sa dibdib naman magmamasahe si Andrew. Wala namang tanung-tanong na nilagyan ng 'massage oil' ni Andrew ang dibdib ng bakla at sinimulan ulit ang marahang paghagod. Lihim na nangingiti si Juanita dahil kagat na kagat si Andrew sa pang-uuto niya. Nakapikit ang baklang kapitbahay ni Andrew at ninamnam ang sarap ng masahe habang nag-iisip ng sunod na hakbang kung paano niya sisimulan ang talagang pakay sa bata na hindi nito ikabibigla. Maya-maya pa ay pinatigil na niya si Andrew sa ginagawa nito at sinabing bilang kabayaran sa masahe ay mamasahehin din niya ito.

      “Naku, nakakahiya po ate.. wag na po ate.. wala pong anuman sa kin.. uuwi na lang po ako..” ani Andrew at bumaba ng kama ni Juanita subalit nahatak ni Juanita ang kamay nito at dahil nawalan ng balanse ay napadagan itong bigla sa baklang kapitbahay. Biglang niyakap ng hubad pa ring si Juanita ang batang si Andrew at pilit na pinahaharap gamit ng isa nitong kamay ang mukha ng bata sa kanya pero nagpupumiglas ito. Samantala, hindi namalayan ng dalawa na papasok na pala sa bahay ng mga sandaling iyon ang mga magulang ni Juanita. Naiwan pala ni Juanita na bukas ang pinto sa sala kanina sa pagmamadaling makalapit kay Andrew kung kaya’t tuluy-tuloy na pumasok sina Perky at Roy kasunod sina Aling Arra at Mang Gaspar na siyang mga magulang ni Juanita. May nakapagsabi sa mga ito na sa bayan ng San Juan, Batangas matatagpuan si Juanita Paula kaya nagmakaawa si Aling Arra sa asawang si Gaspar na tigilan na ang pagmamatigas at puntahan nila ang panganay na anak. Hindi naman nagtagal ay nakumbinse na rin ng ginang ang asawa kaya’t tinungo nila ang bayan ng San Juan at nangupahan sa isang ‘apartel’ na nakita nila sa may bayan pero isang linggo na silang naghahanap dito ay hindi pa rin nila ito natatagpuan. Nagpasya si Mang Gaspar na kumuha muna sila ng upahang 'apartment' para may matuluyan sila pansamantala dahil malaki na rin ang nagagastos nito sa pagbabayad sa ‘apartel’. Inirekomenda ng taga-bantay sa ‘apartel’ ang lugar ni Mang Dencio dahil malapit daw sa bayan at murang maningil ng upa. Nagpasalamat ang mag-asawa dahil iyon pala ang susi para mahanap ang anak na matagal nang hindi nakikita. Nabanggit nila kay Mang Dencio ang dahilan kung bakit kelangan nilang mangupahan at nagulat ito ng malamang sila ang magulang ni Juanita Paula. Ang akala raw kasi ng kasera ay ulilang lubos na ito. Itinuro ni Mang Dencio ang mag-asawa sa compound nina Andrew at sinabihang ipagtanung-tanong sa loob ang bahay ni Juanita Paula. Sakto namang naglalaro sa harapan ng bahay sina Perky at Roy na inabot na ng inip sa paghihintay sa panganay na kapatid na si Andrew. Sa dalawang bata nagtanong ang mga magulang ni Juanita Paula na kaagad namang nagmagandang loob na samahan ang mga ito sa bahay ng baklang kapitbahay.

      Pagpasok pa lang ni Mang Gaspar sa loob ng bahay ni Juanita Paula ay nakunsume na ito dahil panay pambabaeng gamit ang nakita niya sa paligid. Kahit nakahanda na niyang patawarin ang anak dahil sa pinili nitong buhay ay hindi pa rin niya magawang tanggapin ng lubusan ang pagiging bakla nito. Sa kabilang banda naman ay maluha-luha si Aling Arra nang makita ang larawan ng anak na nakapatong sa ibabaw ng tv at tila ‘dyosang’ nakabilad sa araw. Kinuha ni Aling Arra ang larawan at niyakap.

      “Gaspar, tingnan mo ang anak natin. Siyanga ang anak natin! Kahit matagal na panahon na natin siyang hindi nakikita, sigurado akong siya nga ang ating anak na matagal ng nawawala…” maluha-luhang sabi nito sa asawa. Tahimik lamang si Mang Gaspar at hinagod ang likod ng kabiyak upang tumigil ito sa pag-iyak.

      “Teka kuya Roy, bakit parang wala si ate Juanita?” untag ni Perky sa nakatatandang kapatid.

      “Baka natutulog..” sabi naman ni Roy.

      “Pero di ba sabi ni Kuya Andrew pupunta daw siya dito? Nasan ang kuya And..? hindi pa ito tapos sa sasabihin ng makarinig nila ang tinig ng kapatid.

      “Ate Juanita, huwag!” sigaw ni Andrew.

      Biglang napatakbo ang magkapatid na Perky at Roy kasunod ang mag-asawang Gaspar at Arra sa pinagmulan ng tinig. Nadatnan nilang yakap at pilit hinahalikan ni Juanita Paula ang kawawang si Andrew.

      “Paulo Jonathan!” tumataginting ang tinig ni Mang Gaspar. Sa kabila ng mahabang panahong lumipas ay matikas pa rin ito at parang hindi man lang tumanda.

      Sa labis na gulat ay nabitiwan ni Juanita Paula ang batang si Andrew. Nabalot ng takot si Juanita nang mapagsino ang bagong dating.

      Dali-dali namang tumakbo palabas ng bahay si Andrew kasama ang dalawa niyang kapatid na sina Perky at Roy. Pagdating ng bahay ay kinausap niya ng masinsinan ang dalawa at sinabihang hindi dapat ikwento sa iba ang nangyari maski sa nanay nila. Kahit balot pa rin ng hilakbot at pagkagulat sa ginawa ng tsismosang kapitbahay si Andrew ay hindi siya nagpahalata sa mga ito. Nilibang niya ang dalawang kapatid at inayang maglaro ulit. Nagulat na lamang sina Andrew nang may dumating na sasakyan na patuloy ang pag-'wangwang'. Napatingin silang magkakapatid sa bintana at nakita ang parating na ambulansya.

      Huminto ang mga ito sa harap ng bakuran nila at sunud-sunod na lumabas ang mga nakaunipormeng 'nurse'. Kitang-kita nila ng ilabas ng mga ito sa bahay ang hindi halos makilalang si Juanita Paula na putok ang nguso at duguan ang mukha. Nagdilim pala ang paningin ng ama nitong si Mang Gaspar sa nadatnang eksena kanina kung kaya’t nabugbog nang husto ang anak. Kamuntik na nitong napatay ng tuluyan ang baklang si Juanita. Buti na lang at listo si Aling Arra at nakatawag agad ng ambulansya. Saktong kaaalis pa lang ng ambulansya ng dumating ang Nanay ni Andrew. Nag-usisa ito kung sino ang nakasakay doon pero walang sinuman sa magkakapatid ang sumagot. Sa halip ay tuluy-tuloy na kinuha ng mga ito ang pinamili ng ina. Si Andrew ay nagsimulang magsalansan ng paninda sa kanilang tindahan samantanlang sina Perky at Roy ay nilantakan ang pasubong nitong mais.

                Comment on Save our Tigers, Really? by Meghana Kadu        
      Good efforts going on..n we must..as we shall start b4 its too late n not wait for they day of thinking a new "National animal"..so dont just say..contribute ur best.
                Manifestation de soutien avec des réfugiés et contre les racistes // Refugees In, Racists Out! (Stade Olympique, dimanche 12h)        

      [Svp partagez dans vos réseaux] [Please share widely]

      [facebook: http://ift.tt/2wdLj1L]

      *Bienvenue aux réfugiés! Expulsons les racistes!
      Manifestation en support aux migrants et aux réfugiés*
      DIMANCHE LE 6 AOÛT, 12h pile.

      Stade Olympique (Montréal)
      4545 Avenue Pierre-de-Coubertin – allez à porte ‘D’ (Métro Pie-IX ou Métro Viau)

      *SVP arrivez à l’heure! Nous allons manifester jusqu’a 15 heures au minimum.
      Apportez vos affiches et banderoles en support aux migrants et aux frontières ouvertes*

      Un appel lancé par le Comité de réponse anti-raciste/anti-fasciste et le Comité Cité sans frontières de Solidarité sans frontières et le Comité d’action des personnes sans-statut haïtiens, avec le soutien du Collectif de résistance antiraciste de Montréal (CRAM), le Réseau Résistons Trump et l’extrême droite, et d’autres groupes.

      Racistes et fascistes: No Pasaran!

      Des individus de groupes d’extreme-droite, racistes et anti-immigrants, en particuliers Soldiers of Odin et La Meute, organisent eux aussi une manifestation (anti-immigrante) dans les parage du stade olympique ce dimanche. Ces racistes et groupes d’extreme-droite n’ont droit à aucune plate-forme pour exprimer leur haine. Nous lançons un appel aux anti-fascistes et anti-racistes de partout à Montréal et du Québec en général à se mobiliser massivement pour notre manifestation et pour garder les racistes loin du stade olympique. Voici leur événement raciste: http://ift.tt/2v37sBe

      Nous encourageons les organisations d’endosser et de partager cet appel et à mobiliser leur communauté et contacts.

      Contact: solidaritesansfrontieres@gmail.com
      438-933-7654
      Sur la toile: http://ift.tt/2wdZvb6
      Facebook: http://ift.tt/2v3S6MT
      Twitter: https://twitter.com/SolidariteMTL

      Nous vous encourageons d’assister à la Marche Trans ce dimanche. Quand c’est possible, nous allons aller ensemble de Stade Olympique (par métro ou sur les rues) au Marche Trans. Info: http://ift.tt/2wdxoJ5 703884209/

      Plus de renseignements ci-dessous. ——-

      *Refugees In, Racists Out!*
      *Emergency Demonstration in Support of Migrants and Refugees*
      SUNDAY, AUGUST 6, 12pm sharp
      Montreal Olympic Stadium – 4545 Avenue Pierre-de Coubertin – Go to Gate “D” (métro Pie-IX or métro Viau)

      *Please arrive on time! We will be demonstrating until at least 3pm.
      Bring your signs and banners in support of migrants and open borders.*

      A call by the Anti-Racist/Anti-Fascist Response Committee and Solidarity City Committee of Solidarity Across Borders and the Non-Status Haitian Action Committee, with the support of the Collectif de Résistance Antiraciste de Montréal (CRAM), the Resist Trump and the Far Right Network, and many others

      Racists and Fascists: No Pasaran!

      Individuals with far-right, racist, anti-immigrant organizations, particularly Soldiers of Odin and La Meute, are organizing an anti-immigrant demonstration in the vicinity of the Olympic Stadium this Sunday as well. These racist, far-right groups deserve no platform to express their hatred. We call on anti-fascists and anti-racists from all over Montreal and Quebec in general to mobilize in massive numbers for our demonstration, and to keep the racists far away from the Olympic Stadium complex. Here is the facebook event for the racist anti-immigrant demo: http://ift.tt/2v37sBe

      We encourage organizations to endorse and share this callout, and to mobilize their communities and contacts. Get in touch if you can support this mobilization.

      Contact: solidaritesansfrontieres@gmail.com
      438-933-7654
      Web: http://ift.tt/2k6D7wm
      Facebook: http://ift.tt/2v3S6MT
      Twitter: https://twitter.com/SolidariteMTL

      We also encourage you to also attend the Trans March and related activities. When possible, we will move together from the Olympic Stadium (by metro or on the streets) to attend the Trans March together. More info available here: http://ift.tt/2wdZa8a

      [English below] ——-

      Bienvenue aux migrants et aux réfugiés!

      Par cette manifestation nous démontrerons notre support et notre solidarité envers l’arrivée récente de réfugiés avec un message clair: Bienvenue aux migrants et aux réfugiés! Nous encourageons la participation massive de tout les gens qui supportent la justice pour les migrants. Une partie du complexe du stade olympique de Montréal est utilisée comme refuge temporaire pour les réfugiés arrivés récemment, les migrants haïtiens en particulier. Plus que jamais, il est important de partager notre message collectif de bienvenue et de support.

      Nous manifestons aussi pour rejeter le narratif raciste qui mets en contraste les migrants avec les itinérants et les pauvres qui demeurent déjà au Québec. Nous lançons un appel pour faire un lien entre les luttes de tout les opprimés, pauvres et de classe ouvrière contre les riches et privilégiés. Au lieu de blamer les migrants d’avoir fait des choix valides, nous mettons nos énergies à nous opposer aux systèmes d’oppression, spécifiquement les systèmes coloniaux, corporatifs et capitalistes.

      Nous militons pour bâtir une Cité sans frontières : pour la création d’une communauté qui rejette un système engendant la pauvreté et l’angoisse chez les immigrant(e)s et les réfugié(e)s, mais aussi chez les autres Montréalais(e)s confronté(e)s aux mêmes réalités. Nous luttons et nous organisons pour un monde sans frontières, un monde de justice et de dignité pour tous et toutes!

      Nos revendications

      OUVREZ LES FRONTIÈRES ! Permettez l’entrée à tous.tes migrants qui tentent de s’échapper de la pauvreté, d’interdictions de vol et de voyage, et d’attaques contre leur intégrité en tant qu’être humains. Toutes personnes ont le droit de se déplacer, le droit de rester, et le droit de résister aux déplacements forcés.

      ANNULEZ L’ENTENTE DES TIERS PAYS SÛRS ! Les États-Unis ne sont pas un pays sûr, et le maintien de cette entente signifie que les réfugiés prospectif.ves quittant les ÉU doivent traverser irrégulièrement vers le Canada, subissant souvent de graves blessures et risquant la mort.

      RÉGULARISEZ LE STATUT DE TOUS.TES IMMIGRANTS SANS PAPIERS AU CANADA ! Le Canada comprend également une énorme population d’immigrants sans statut légal – au moins 500,000 personnes habitent sans statut régulier dans le pays. Le Canada doit mettre en place un programme de régularisation compréhensif, inclusif, et continu.

      Racistes et fascistes: No Pasaran!

      Des individus de groupes d’extreme-droite, racistes et anti-immigrants, en particuliers Soldiers of Odin et La Meute, organisent eux aussi une manifestation (anti-immigrante) dans les parage du stade olympique ce dimanche. Ces racistes et groupes d’extreme-droite n’ont droit à aucune plate-forme pour exprimer leur haine. Nous lançons un appel aux anti-fascistes et anti-racistes de partout à Montréal et du Québec en général à se mobiliser massivement pour notre manifestation et pour garder les racistes loin du stade olympique. Voici leur événement raciste: http://ift.tt/2v37sBe

      Pourquoi les gens traversent-ils irrégulièrement vers le Canada ?

      Les réfugiés ont traversé irrégulièrement à Roxham Road et à d’autres frontières québécoises et canadiennes en grand nombre depuis la mise en place de l’entente honteuse des Tiers pays sûrs entre le Canada et les États-Unis en 2004. Cette entente empêche les migrants de demander un statut légal de réfugié. e s’ils traversent des États-Unis vers le Canada d’après une frontière régulière. Or, les réfugiés peuvent encore demander ce statut légal s’ils traversent via une frontière « irrégulière » comme Roxham Road, qui s’agit d’un endroit relativement sécuritaire pour traverser.

      Récemment, nous observons une augmentation marquée du nombre de personnes traversant de façon irrégulière des États-Unis vers le Canada en raison de la rhétorique et des politiques de l’administration Trump, qui incluent interdictions de voyage et attaques contre l’intégrité de groupes entiers, tels que les musulmans, les Arabes, et les Mexicains. Plus récemment, l’administration Trump a annoncé que le statut temporaire de plus de 50,000 migrants haitiens leur serait potentiellement enlevé, beaucoup d’haitiens ont migré vers le Canada de manière irrégulière.

      Ceci se déroule dans un contexte plus large, dans lequel des pays comme le Canada et les États-Unis sont responsables d’une importante dégradation économique et sociale dans des pays du Moyen-Orient, d’Amérique latine, des Caraïbes, d’Afrique et d’Asie, et cherchent pourtant à limiter sévèrement la capacité migratoire de gens originaires de ces pays .

      L’entente des Tiers pays sûrs force les réfugiés prospectifs à traverser de façon non sécuritaire ou même dangereuse. En mai 2017, Mavis Otuteye, une candidate réfugiée de 57 ans originaire du Ghana, fut retrouvée morte, exposée aux éléments, au sud de la frontière manitobaine. Elle est morte en tentant de traverser au Manitoba pour retrouver sa fille. En hiver, plusieurs autres réfugiés ont perdu des membres à la gelure ou risqué la mort par hypothermie.

      Des groupes racistes et anti-immigrants comme Soldiers of Odin, Storm Alliance et La Meute démonisent et blâment les réfugiés. Au contraire, nous appuyons et saluons les réfugiés qui traversent vers le Canada, et nous soutenons le droit de tous à immigrer en toute sécurité.

      Déclaration anticoloniale

      Solidarité sans frontières reconnaît que nous sommes sur un territoire traditionnel des Kanien’kehá:ka. Les Kanien’kehá:ka sont les gardiens de la Porte de l’Est de la Confédération Haudenosaunee. L’île appelée « Montréal » est nommée Tiotia:ke dans la langue des Kanien’kehá:ka, et elle a historiquement été un lieu de rencontre pour d’autres nations autochtones. Nous appuyons l’autodétermination et la souveraineté autochtones et cherchons activement à approfondir notre compréhension collective des luttes autochtones.

      Le Canada s’est construit sur le vol des territoires autochtones ainsi que sur le déplacement et le génocide toujours en cours des peuples autochtones. Ses frontières ont été établies par des guerres coloniales pour en faire bénéficier les colonisateurs. Cette reconnaissance se situe au coeur de notre rejet des frontières de l’État canadien et de ses déportations, détentions et statuts à plusieurs niveaux créés par ses lois sur l’immigration. Nous rejetons la légitimité de l’État canadien puisqu’il incarne ces structures, et c’est pourquoi nous refusons de collaborer avec l’État tout comme avec ses agents frontaliers et ses policiers. ——-

      Nous encourageons les organisations d’endosser et de partager cet appel et à mobiliser leur communauté et contacts.

      Contact: solidaritesansfrontieres@gmail.com
      438-933-7654
      Sur la toile: http://ift.tt/2wdZvb6
      Facebook: http://ift.tt/2v3S6MT
      Twitter: https://twitter.com/SolidariteMTL

      +++++++++ +++++++++

      Refugees In, Racists Out!
      Emergency Demonstration in Support of Migrants and Refugees
      SUNDAY, AUGUST 6, 12pm sharp Montreal Olympic Stadium – 4545 Avenue Pierre-de Coubertin – Go to Gate “D” (métro Pie-IX or métro Viau)

      Please arrive on time! We will be demonstrating until at least 3pm.Bring your signs and banners in support of migrants and open borders.

      A call by the Anti-Racist/Anti-Fascist Response Committee and Solidarity City Committee of Solidarity Across Borders and the Non-Status Haitian Action Committee, with the support of the Collectif de Résistance Antiraciste de Montréal (CRAM), the Resist Trump and the Far Right Network, and many others .

      We encourage organizations to endorse and share this callout, and to mobilize their communities and contacts. Get in touch if you can support this mobilization.

      Contact: solidaritesansfrontieres@gmail.com
      438-933-7654
      Web: http://ift.tt/2k6D7wm
      Facebook: http://ift.tt/2v3S6MT
      Twitter: https://twitter.com/SolidariteMTL

      We also encourage you to also attend the Trans March and related activities. When possible, we will move together from the Olympic Stadium (by metro or on the streets) to attend the Trans March together. More info available here: http://ift.tt/2wdZa8a ——-

      Welcome Migrants and Refugees!

      This demonstration will express support and solidarity with recent refugee arrivals, with the clear message: Welcome Migrants and Refugees! We encourage the massive participation of all who support migrant justice. A part of Montreal’s Olympic Stadium complex is now being used as a temporary shelter for recent refugee arrivals, particularly Haitian migrants. More than ever, it’s important to share our collective message of welcome and support.

      We also demonstrate to reject the racist discourse that contrasts migrants with the homeless and poor already living in Quebec. We call for a linking of the struggles of all oppressed, poor and working class people against the rich and privileged. Instead of blaming migrants for exercising valid choices, we focus on opposing and resisting systems of oppression, specifically colonial, corporate, capitalism.

      We campaign to build a Solidarity City, the creation of a community that rejects a system that engenders poverty and anguish, not solely for immigrants and refugees, but also for other Montrealers confronting these same realities. We support open borders and the free movement of people seeking justice and dignity, meaning freedom to move, freedom to return, and the freedom to stay.

      Our Demands

      OPEN THE BORDERS! Allow access to all migrants fleeing poverty, travel bans, raids and other attacks on their integrity as human beings. All human beings have the right to move, the right to remain, and the right to resist forced displacement.

      CANCEL THE SAFE THIRD COUNTRY AGREEMENT! The USA is not a safe third country, and maintaining this agreement means that refugees leaving the USA need to enter Canada irregularly, which results in serious injuries, and will lead to more deaths.

      REGULARIZE ALL UNDOCUMENTED PEOPLE IN CANADA! Canada too has a significant undocumented population, with at least 500,000 people living without regular status. Canada must implement a comprehensive, inclusive and ongoing regularization program.

      Racists and Fascists: No Pasaran!

      Individuals with far-right, racist, anti-immigrant organizations, particularly Soldiers of Odin and La Meute, are organizing an anti-immigrant demonstration in the vicinity of the Olympic Stadium this Sunday as well. These racist, far-right groups deserve no platform to express their hatred.

      We call on anti-fascists and anti-racists from all over Montreal and Quebec in general to mobilize in massive numbers for our demonstration, and to keep the racists far away from the Olympic Stadium complex. Here is the facebook event for the racist anti-immigrant demo: http://ift.tt/2v37sBe

      Why are people crossing irregularly into Canada?

      Refugees have crossed irregularly at Roxham Road, near Hemmingford and other border crossings across Quebec and Canada in larger numbers ever since the shameful Safe Third Country Agreement between Canada and the USA was implemented in 2004. This agreement prevents migrants from making refugee claims if they come to Canada from the USA at a regular border crossings. However, refugees can make claims if they make an “irregular” crossing at any other point at the border, such as at Roxham Road, which is a relatively convenient and safe place to cross.

      There has been a marked increase in irregular crossings into Canada by asylum seekers currently in the USA due to the rhetoric and policies of the Trump administration, which includes attempted travel bans and attacks on the integrity of entire groups, such as Muslims, Arabs and Mexicans. More recently, with the Trump administration indicating that the temporary status to close to 50,000 Haitian migrants might be removed, many Haitians have been migrating to Canada via irregular crossings.

      This is in a broader context, in which states like Canada and the United States are responsible for economic and social devastation in countries throughout the Middle East, Latin America, Caribbean, Africa, and Asia, and yet seek to limit who from those countries can live here.

      The Safe Third Country agreement forces refugees to make often dangerous border crossings. In May, a refugee claimant from Ghana, Mavis Otuteye, 57, was found dead due to exposure south of the Manitoba border, where she had travelled to try to reunite with her daughter. During the winter months, other refugee claimants lost limbs due to frostbite, or risked death due to hypothermia.

      Racist anti-immigrant groups like Soldiers of Odin, Storm Alliance and La Meute demonize and blame refugees. In contrast, we support and commend refugees who cross into Canada, and we express our welcome and solidarity.

      Anti-Colonial Statement

      Solidarity Across Borders acknowledges that we are on the traditional territory of the Kanien’kehá:ka. The Kanien’kehá:ka are the keepers of the Eastern Door of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy. The island called “Montreal” is known as Tiotia:ke in the language of the Kanien’kehá:ka, and it has historically been a meeting place for other Indigenous nations. We actively support Indigenous sovereignty and self-determination, and undertake to deepen our collective understanding of Indigenous struggles.

      At its foundation, Canada is based on the theft of Indigenous lands, and the ongoing genocide and displacement of Indigenous peoples. Its borders were established by colonial wars, to benefit colonizers. This recognition lies at the heart of our rejection of the Canadian state’s borders and the system of multi-tiered status, deportation and detention created by its immigration laws. We reject the legitimacy of the Canadian state as the embodiment of those structures. For this reason, we refuse to collaborate with the state, including police or border agents. ——-

      We encourage organizations to endorse and share this callout, and to mobilize their communities and contacts. Get in touch if you can support this mobilization.
      Contact: solidaritesansfrontieres@gmail.com /
      438-933-7654
      Web: http://ift.tt/2k6D7wm
      Facebook: http://ift.tt/2v3S6MT
      Twitter: https://twitter.com/SolidariteMTL

       



      on the main Kersplebedeb website: http://ift.tt/2v3BMvw
                Bid’ah Dan Jenis-Jenisnya        

      Menerusi kebanyakan karya-karya dalam ‘UlËm al-×adÊth dan lain-lain dalam bidang ÍadÊth, para sarjana ÍadÊth telah mengkategorikan bid’ah kepada dua bentuk iaitu bid’ah mukaffirah dan bid’ah mufassiqah.[1]

      Al-Bid’ah al-Mukaffirah yang juga dikenali sebagai al-Bid’ah al-KubrÉ ialah kategori bid’ah yang menyebabkan pelakunya menjadi kufur. Ini kerana ia melibatkan pengingkaran kepada perintah-perintah syarak yang mutawÉtirdan dikenalpasti dalam urusan agama sebagai suatu yang mustahak. Selain itu, bid’ahini juga melibatkan penyelewengan-penyelewengan dalam perkara akidah yang menyebabkan penganutnya tergelincir dari landasan Islam.[2] Antara golongan yang termasuk dalam kategori ini ialah kelompok al-RafÌ al-KÉmilyang jelas perlakuan melampau mereka dalam mencerca para sahabat seperti Abu Bakr r.a, Umar r.a, Uthman r.a dan lain-lain. Selain itu, mereka juga dengan jelas menyebar seruan tersebut kepada masyarakat dan mempengaruhi mereka dengannya.[3]

      Al-Bid’ah al-Mufassiqah atau al-Bid’ah al-SughrÉ pula ialah kategori bid’ahyang menyebabkan pelakunya menjadi fasiq. Ini kerana bid’ah tersebut tidak menuntut para pelakunya melakukan perkara-perkara yang menjatuhkan mereka ke lembah kekufuran.[4] Ia adalah seperti golongan al-KhawÉrij, al-RawÉfiÌ, dan lainnya yang berbeza dengan Ahl al-Sunnah sedang mereka tidak melampau atau keterlaluan dalam bid’ahnya.[5]

      Berikut ialah beberapa cabang bid’ah yang masyhur dan jelas bertentangan dengan ijmÉ’ al-Salaf [6]serta terkeluar dari kelompok Ahl al-Sunnah Wa al-JamÉ’ah:

      i.                    Al-Sabaiyyah.

      Kelompok ini adalah kelompok sesat yang namanya dinisbahkan kepada individu pengasasnya iaitu ‘Abd Allah bin Saba’ yang keterlaluan terhadap ‘AlÊ r.a. Mereka mendakwa bahawa ‘AlÊ r.a adalah salah seorang daripada para Nabi. Mereka kemudiannya melampau dengan menyatakan bahawa ‘Ali r.a adalah tuhan. Ketika tersebarnya berita ‘AlÊ r.a telah dibunuh oleh golongan al-NawÉÎib dan al-KhawÉrij, mereka mendakwa bahawa ‘AlÊ telah diangkat ke langit sebagaimana ‘ÔsÉ bin Maryam sedang yang dibunuh itu adalah lelaki yang wajahnya menyerupai ‘AlÊ r.a.[7]

      ii.                  Al-KhÉwarij.

      Kelompok ini ialah golongan yang telah mengingkari dan mengkafirkan ‘AlÊ r.a yang mana telah mengadakan majlis TaÍkÊm usai peperangan SiffÊn sekaligus berlepas diri dari majlis tersebut. Golongan ini menghukum orang yang bersetuju dengan majlis TaÍkÊm sebagai kafir. Mereka juga turut mengkafirkan dan memerangi khalifah Uthman r.a beserta keturunannya. Selain itu, para sahabat yang terlibat dalam peperangan Jamalseperti ‘Óishah r.a, ÙalÍah r.a, dan al-Zubayr r.a juga turut dianggap sebagai kafir. Golongan ini turut mendakwa orang yang melakukan dosa besar sebagai kafir selain berpendirian setiap individu adalah wajib keluar untuk memerangi pemimpin yang tidak adil.[8]

      iii.                Al-NawÉÎib.

      Al-NawÉÎib adalah kata Jamak bagi al-NÉÎibÊ. Golongan ini dinamakan sedemikian kerana telah bermusuhan dengan ShÊ’ah lantaran pendirian mereka yang marah dan benci pada ‘AlÊ r.a dan Ahl al-Bayt bahkan mereka mendahulukan sahabat yang lain berbandingnya.[9]Umpamanya mereka lebih mengutamakan Abu Bakr r.a, dan ‘Umar r.a berbanding ‘AlÊ. Sebahagian tokoh-tokoh ShÊ’ah menggolongkan Ahl al-Sunnahdengan kelompok al-NawÉÎib ini. Namun hakikatnya Ahl al-Sunnahberlepas diri dari kelompok ini kerana Ahl al-Sunnah tidak membenci dan mencerca ‘AlÊ r.a. Selain itu, golongan al-NawÉÎib ini juga turut mendakwa bahawa tujuan ‘AlÊ r.a berperang adalah kerana ingin mendapatkan harta dan kekuasaan semata.

      iv.                Al-Qadariyyah.

      Kelompok ini adalah golongan yang mengingkari al-Qadariaitu ketetapan dan ketentuan dari Allah SWT. Mereka adalah orang-orang yang berkata bahawa perlakuan-perlakuan hamba[10] atau makhluk adalah dengan kudrat dan keinginan mereka sendiri. Ia bukanlah dari kudrat Allah SWT dan keinginan-Nya. Kelompok ini dinamakan sedemikian lantaran terlalu banyak membahaskan mengenai persoalan al-Qadar.[11]Golongan ini berhujjah dengan menyatakan bahawa kekufuran dan maksiat bukanlah ketentuan dari Allah SWT, namun ia adalah dimulakan perlakuannya daripada manusia. Mereka juga turut mentakwilkan al-Fitrah bukan dengan makna Islam.[12]

      v.                  Al-Jahmiyyah.

      Golongan ini dinisbahkan kepada pengasasnya iaitu Jahm bin ØafwÉn yang berasal dari Kufah. Mereka bertentangan dengan Ahl al-Sunnah dalam banyak perkara uÎËl atau pokok dalam Islam umpamanya dalam persoalan al-Ru’yah dan kethabitan sifat-sifat Allah SWT.[13] Mereka menafikan bahawa Allah SWT bersemayam di atas ‘Arash-Nya. Mereka turut menafikan Allah SWT telah bertutur dengan Musa a.s. Selain itu, mereka juga menafikan bahawa al-Quran adalah kalam Allah SWT.[14]Golongan al-Jahmiyyah juga mendakwa bahawa nama-nama Allah SWT adalah makhluk kerana nama tersebut bukanlah apa yang dinamakan iaitu Allah SWT. Mereka menyatakan bahawa Allah SWT adalah lebih dahulu wujud sebelum nama-nama tersebut dicipta-Nya. Kemudian nama-nama tersebut manusia nisbahkan kepada-Nya kembali.[15]

      vi.                Al-Tashayyu’ MaÍabbah ‘AlÊ.

      Golongan ini ialah kelompok yang cenderung ShÊ’ahkerana terlalu cinta dan kasih kepada ‘AlÊ r.a sehingga melebihi batasan. Mereka telah mengutamakan ‘AlÊ r.a berbanding dengan para sahabat yang lain umpamanya mereka mendahulukan ‘AlÊ berbanding Abu Bakr r.a dan ‘Umar r.a. Termasuk dalam kelompok ini ialah golongan al-RafÌ atau ShÊ’ahyang dinamakan sedemikian lantaran mereka terang-terangan dalam membenci para sahabat selain ‘AlÊ r.a dan Ahl al-Bayt.[16] Mereka muncul pada zaman Khalifah ‘AlÊ r.a dan pegangan ini terus berkembang sehingga membentuk pelbagai manhaj dan mazhab.

      vii.              Al-IrjÉ’.

      Asasnya kelompok ini adalah golongan yang meremehkan amal berbanding iman. Golongan ini terbahagi kepada dua cabang. Pertamanya ialah mereka yang mengabaikan untuk meletakkan hukum yang manakah benar antara salah satu pihak yang saling berperang selepas zaman Khalifah ‘UthmÉn r.a.[17]Keduanya ialah mereka yang mengabaikan untuk menentukan hukum terhadap orang yang melakukan dosa besar dan meninggalkan perkara-perkara fardu, akan diazab dengan neraka. Ini kerana menurut mereka, iman hanyalah pengakuan dan pegangan keyakinan, manakala amal perbuatan yang mestilah seiring dengan iman menurut Ahl al-Sunnah adalah tidak mustahak.[18]

      viii.            Al-IbÉÌiyyah.

      Golongan ini adalah pengikut kepada ‘Abd Allah bin IbÉÌ al-TaymÊ dan merupakan salah satu dari cabang al-KhawÉrij.[19] Mereka berpendapat seseorang Muslim yang becanggah dengan mereka adalah terlepas dari syirik dan iman. Muslim tersebut bukanlah orang yang beriman dan bukan pula orang yang musyrik, namun dia telah kufur. Dibolehkan kesaksian dari mereka, diharamkan menumpahkan darahnya dalam keadaan sembunyi, dan dihalalkan menumpahkan darahnya secara terang, sah untuk menikahinya, serta mewarisi pusaka darinya. Kelompok ini juga mendakwa bahawa muslim tersebut boleh diperangi kerana Allah dan rasul-Nya, dia tidak beragama dengan agama yang benar dan dihalalkan sebahagian harta mereka termasuk kuda, senjata, emas, dan perak untuk diambil sebagai al-GhanÊmah.[20]

      ix.                Al-Qa’idiyyah.

      Golongan ini juga adalah cabang dari al-Øafrafiyyahdan al-KhawÉrij.[21]Kelompok ini manusia yang menghiasi diri mereka untuk keluar bagi memerangi para pemimpin namun tidak menyertainya.[22]

      x.                  Al-WÉqif FÊ al-Qur’Én.

      Mereka ialah golongan yang tidak menyatakan pendirian berhubung isu al-Quran sama ada ia makhluk atau tidak.[23]

      xi.                ×ashwiyyah.

      Golongan ini adalah mereka yang berpegang dengan perkara-perkara zahir dan pergi kepada al-TajsÊm. Mereka menyatakan bahawa huruf-huruf, suara, dan bacaan al-Quran adalah qadÊm. Begitu juga dengan iman dan ruh, kedua-duanya adalah qadÊm.[24]

      xii.              Al-FalÉsifah.

      Mereka ialah kelompok yang mencampur adukkan perkara-perkara cabang dalam agama hingga akhirnya mereka tergelincir ke dalam kekufuran kerana menafikan aspek ketuhanan. Berlakunya demikian kerana mereka tunduk pada dalil-dalil yang fasad.[25]


      [1] MannÉ’ al-QaÏÏÉn (2007), MabÉÍith FÊ ‘UlËm al-×adÊth. Kaherah: Maktabah Wahbah, cet. 5, hlm. 147.

                Kai Löffelbein        
      E-Waste Dump, Accra, Ghana 2011 Kai Löffelbein (b. 1981, Germany) majored in political science and in 2008 began his studies in photojournalism and documentary photography at the University of Applied Sciences and Arts in Hanover. Since 2007, he has been working as a freelance photographer for different NGOs and several newspapers. Kai traveled through various […]
                Jessica Hilltout        
      Tawfig, Kusawku, Ghana, 2008 Jessica Hilltout (b. 1977, Belgium) has been traveling ever since her parents exposed her to the world and this sparked her fascination with images. As a young woman, she attended Art College in Blackpool, England and later worked briefly (and unhappily) in commercial photography. In 2002 she traveled through Central Asia […]
                Peter DiCampo        
      Children play in groundnut plants  after helping their families harvest, Wantugu, Ghana, 2007 Peter DiCampo (b. 1984, USA) is an American photographer who divides his time between Africa and the United States. With the help of a grant from The Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, he is currently documenting Ghana’s Kayayo, a class of thousands […]
                Dana Romanoff        
      Emilia, Ewe Region, Ghana Dana Romanoff is an award-winning photographer freelancing outside of Denver, Colorado. She recently completed a project for National Geographic Magazine entitled: No Man’s Land about the changing roles of women in left behind in Mexico due to immigration. Before working freelance, Dana worked as a staff photographer at newspapers including The […]
                Olivier Asselin        
      Ghana, 2008 Olivier Asselin is an award-winning Canadian photographer based in Accra, Ghana, West Africa. His work has appeared in major newspapers and magazines worldwide including: TIME, Newsweek, The New York Times, Le Nouvel Observateur, Chicago Tribune, Boston Globe, Toronto Star, Vancouver Sun, and The Washington Post among others. His awards include: PX3 Prix de […]
                Karl Banchet        
      Boxing in Accra , Ghana 2005 Karl Blanchet is a freelance photographer based in London. Through his work, Karl tries to tell the stories of people who have something to say and bring attention to humanitarian issues. Karl is an active member of the international collective of photographers Luna. Karl’s images are distributed by the […]
                Thomas Lee        
      Musican celebrating during a soccer event in Ghana Born 1982 in Taipei, Thomas Lee was raised in Hong Kong, educated in Chicago, and now based in New York. Thomas meanders between the East and the West, seeking inspiration for his work as a journalist-artist. He has completed projects in Afghanistan, Uganda, the United States, and […]
                Palm Oil Mill Data: A Step Towards Transparency        

      Palm Oil Mill Data: A Step Towards Transparency

      Palm oil production, a major driver of deforestation in the humid tropics, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia, poses potential reputational risks to companies associated with it. Recognizing these risks, a growing number of firms have announced ambitious commitments to reduce or even completely remove deforestation from their supply chains. The zero-deforestation pledges of more than 50 companies leave the world awaiting the translation of commitments to change.

      One of the big challenges facing corporations in is tracing palm oil through large and complex supply chains to commercial product. By locating areas of production, companies can identify deforestation risk throughout their supply chains and then engage suppliers and monitor behavior to make progress. But for most companies, tracking palm oil to the farm where it’s grown is difficult, costly and time-consuming. An increasing number of processors, traders, and buyers have, however, begun taking the important interim step of tracing their supply chains to the mill level.

      A new data set launched on Global Forest Watch Commodities helps to globally map palm oil supply chains by showing the locations of almost 800 mills. Created by World Resources Institute, the traceability platform KnownSources, from FoodReg and several processors, traders, and buyers, the mill data provides a clearest picture of palm oil production publicly available. It creates new opportunities to analyze production areas and mills on a global scale, as well as to focus attention on new areas where palm oil production is having an impact on forests.

      Changing the Game for Deforestation Analyses

      Mill locations can indicate where palm fruit is processed as well as where palm plantations are located. Because it is highly perishable, fresh palm fruit must be processed within 24 hours of harvest, limiting plantation sourcing to an approximate 30-mile (50 km) radius around the mill, according to company estimates (though this may vary depending on available infrastructure, such as road density and quality). This means analyzing the area immediately surrounding a mill can reveal useful information about plantations that fall within its sourcing area. When used with other data layers on the Global Forest Watch Commodities platform, the new mill data set can help companies identify mills in environmentally sensitive areas.

      Figure 1. A mill’s sourcing radius (outlined by the red circle) contains oil palm concessions and overlaps both intact and degraded primary forest.

      Figure 2. A mill’s sourcing area overlaps Taman Negara National Park, Malaysia (included in the World Database on Protected Areas).

      Mill Distribution

      This unprecedented data set consists of 782 palm oil mills, spread across 15 countries. As anticipated, the vast majority of these mills are found in Malaysia (50 percent) and Indonesia (44 percent). Production outside of the Southeast Asia region now accounts for 6 percent of the global market, as detected by WRI’s new data set, in countries as diverse as Ecuador, Colombia, Ghana and Sudan. Of these, Colombia possesses the most mills with just under 2 percent, or 15 mills, surpassing the Asian palm oil producing countries like Thailand and India.

      Within Indonesia, palm oil mills are largely concentrated in a few provinces. Nearly 13 percent of all mills included in the data are in the Riau province of Sumatra, Indonesia, which is also a hotspot for recent fires that caused severe haze and alarming air quality.

      Figure 3. Distribution of mills.

      Implications for the Future

      The new data represents the most comprehensive set of palm oil mills assembled to date. However, the total number of palm oil mills in the world is unknown and the data set, although large, only represents the mills within the supply chains of a handful of traders and buyers. It is difficult to determine what portion of total mills is captured in the data, but it is certainly a significant improvement in transparency and traceability for the palm oil industry. Continuing contributions will add to this data set as more companies realize the importance of traceability and good stewardship in a globally competitive market.


                Measuring Business Practices in Small Firms        
      Chris Woodruff and I have a recent working paper in which we look at the importance of business practices for small firms in developing countries, using surveys administered to over 20,000 small firms in Bangladesh, Chile, Ghana, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, and Sri Lanka.

                Download: Kae Sun "Outside The Barcode" EP        


      I've just come across this lovely artist of Ghanaian extraction based in Canada, Kae Sun. I really like the stripped down sound of his "Outside The Barcode" EP, which he released for free at the end of June. The video above was shot at the farm where the EP was recorded, he reminds me in places of both Nneka and Paul Simon, there's something warm and endearing about this music.

      Download: Kae Sun "Outside The Barcode" EP

                Mondelēz International accepte de s’attaquer aux inégalités dont souffrent les femmes dans la production du chocolat        

      Sous la pression exercée par les consommateurs dans le cadre de la campagne « La face cachée des marques » menée par l’organisation internationale Oxfam, le plus grand fabricant de chocolat au monde, Mondelēz International, a accepté de prendre des mesures visant à réduire les inégalités dont souffrent les femmes dans sa chaîne d’approvisionnement en cacao.

      L’annonce de Mondelēz International vient s’ajouter aux engagements pris par Mars et Nestlé en la matière le mois dernier. À elles trois, les sociétés Mars, Mondelēz et Nestlé représentent 40 % du marché mondial du chocolat.

      Plus de 100 000 personnes ont signé des pétitions et se sont mobilisées pour pousser Mondelēz et ses concurrents à lutter contre la faim, la pauvreté et les inégalités salariales auxquelles se trouvent confrontées les productrices de cacao. Les trois sociétés ont également reçu sur Facebook et Twitter une pluie de messages les invitant à prendre des mesures concrètes. En tant qu’actionnaire de Mondelēz, Oxfam a en outre présenté une résolution exigeant qu’une attention plus grande soit accordée à la problématique de l’égalité entre les femmes et les hommes dans la chaîne d’approvisionnement ; cette résolution sera retirée compte tenu des engagements annoncés.

      « Ces promesses, si Mondelēz, Mars et Nestlé les tiennent, auront des répercussions dans l’ensemble des chaînes d’approvisionnement en cacao, explique Judy Beals, responsable de la campagne La face cachée des marques d’Oxfam. L’autonomisation des productrices de cacao pourrait permettre d’améliorer la vie de millions de personnes, dont certaines gagnent moins de deux dollars par jour.

      « Nous saluons la décision de Mondelēz de prendre ces engagements. Le programme Cocoa Life de la société constitue une bonne base pour lancer des initiatives de développement durable tenant compte de la dimension de genre ; ces nouveaux engagements viennent renforcer cette démarche et garantiront que les femmes en bénéficient autant que les hommes.

      « Mondelēz doit aller au bout de ses engagements et prendre les choses en main pour assurer un moyen de subsistance durable et digne à tous les cacaoculteurs, hommes et femmes. Oxfam continuera de contrôler les actions que prendront les trois sociétés pour concrétiser leurs engagements et qui devront être précises et mesurables.

      Oxfam se réjouit que Mondelēz se soit engagée à :

      • réaliser, par le biais d’organisations tierces, des évaluations d’impact sur les femmes afin d’établir leurs conditions de travail dans sa chaîne d’approvisionnement du cacao, et à en publier les résultats. La société commencera par publier les études d’impact menées au Ghana et en Côte-d’Ivoire en 2014.
      • mettre en place, d’ici le 1er avril 2014, un plan d’action précis visant à remédier aux problèmes soulevés par les évaluations et à améliorer les mauvaises conditions de travail au Ghana et en Côte-d’Ivoire. En 2018, Mondelēz publiera des plans d’action pour les quatre principaux pays producteurs participant à son programme Cocoa Life. Selon Oxfam, ces plans d’action devraient permettre aux cacaocultrices et aux ouvrières de la filière de s’assurer un moyen de subsistance durable.
      • souscrire, d’ici le 26 avril 2013, aux principes d’autonomisation des femmes définis par l’ONU. Ces principes montrent l’engagement de la société, au niveau de la direction générale, en faveur de l’autonomisation des femmes dans l’ensemble de ses opérations et, notamment, sa volonté de mesurer l’équité entre les femmes et les hommes et d’en rendre compte publiquement. Mondelēz sera le premier des trois grands fabricants de chocolat à y souscrire.
      • œuvrer avec d’autres acteurs puissants de l’industrie du cacao à l’élaboration de programmes de lutte contre les inégalités entre les femmes et les hommes dans le secteur. Mondelēz collaborera avec des organisations sectorielles comme la World Cocoa Foundation et des programmes de certification, tels que Rainforest Alliance et Fairtrade, dans le but de promouvoir l’égalité entre les femmes et les hommes.

      « Ce dernier engagement montre qu’aucune entreprise n’est trop grande pour ne pas écouter ses clients. Trois des géants mondiaux de l’agroalimentaire vont modifier la façon dont ils opèrent à la demande des consommateurs, se félicite Judy Beals.

      « Nous espérons que les mesures prises par Mars, Mondelēz et Nestlé serviront d’exemple au reste du secteur agroalimentaire et montreront que les consommateurs se soucient de l’incidence des entreprises sur les communautés au sein desquelles elles sont actives. Toutes les grandes entreprises du secteur peuvent et doivent prendre des mesures élémentaires, comme souscrire aux principes d’autonomisation des femmes définis par l’ONU. Faute de quoi, elles risquent d’être de plus en plus remises en question par leurs clients.

      « Les dirigeants de chaque entreprise du secteur agroalimentaire devraient revoir leur mode de fonctionnement et se demander s’ils contribuent vraiment à bâtir un monde dans lequel chacun et chacune pourra manger à sa faim. Il est temps que les entreprises cessent de tergiverser et aillent résolument de l’avant. »

      La campagne « La face cachée des marques Â» continuera de mettre en lumière les domaines dans lesquels les entreprises manquent à leurs devoirs à l’égard des communautés. D’autres actions auront lieu en 2013.

      Français
      Main picture: 
      Productrice de cacao. Photo : Oxfam
      Pull quotes: 
      Mondelēz doit aller au bout de ses engagements et prendre les choses en main pour assurer un moyen de subsistance durable et digne à tous les cacaoculteurs, hommes et femmes.
      Quotee's organisation: 
      Responsable de la campagne La face cachée des marques
      Notes aux rédactions: 

      Pour en savoir plus sur les engagements pris par les trois sociétés, consulter les liens suivants : 

      Documentation à la disposition des médias :

      Contact: 

      Ben Grossman-Cohen, Chargé des relations presse : Mobile +202-629-6018, bgrossman-cohen@oxfamamerica.org


      Space only: 
      Summary picture: 
      Productrice de cacao. Photo : Oxfam
      Quotee: 
      Judy Beals

                Now Playing: New Albums From Ebo Taylor, Orchestre Poly-Rythmo and Seun Kuti        
      I seem to have acquired three brilliant new albums from West Africa this spring, all on the funk inflected flex but not all strictly afrobeat.

      Photobucket

      The most recent is The 1st Album by Orchestre Poly-Rythmo de Cotonou of Benin released on June 7th through Analog Africa. Apparently Samy Ben Redjab came across a test pressing of a session by the band from 1973 which was rejected by their record label at the time because of background noise. The band had to record a second session which became their rare as hen's teeth official album, and The 1st Album features two tracks from each. OPR actually put out another album earlier this year on Strut featuring their first new recordings for 20 years entitled "Cotonou Club".
      Download:
      The 1st Album 07.06.2011, Analog Africa [iTunes link]
      Cotonou Club 29.03.2011, Strut [iTunes link]


      Photobucket

      The second is also a set of re-releases but from Ghana's Ebo Taylor, hot on the heels of his album Love and Death last October. My lovely friends over at The Revivalist have a great interview and feature on the man as part of their Transatlantic Issue. You can download a track from the album for free from Nora Ritchie's Soundcloud player below.

         Ebo Taylor - Atwer Abroba by noraritchie
      Download: 
      Life Stories 12.04.2011, Strut [iTunes link]
      Love and Death 22.10.2011, Strut [iTunes link]




      Finally, Seun Kuti's From Africa With Fury: Rise. The interview with Wax Poetics above is great, but I can't help but wonder what Africans who are based outside of Nigeria or Africa will be feeling in reaction to this kind of music.   
      Download: 
      From Africa With Fury: Rise 1.4.2011, Knitting Factory Records [iTunes link]


                Former Columbus Attorney Indefinitely Suspended        
      The Supreme Court of Ohio has indefinitely suspended the law license of former Columbus attorney Lilian A. Asante, who currently resides in her native country of Ghana, for conduct that resulted in her felony conviction for entering into a fraudulent marriage for the purpose of evading U.S. immigration laws.
                The Treatment of Black Citizens and Civilians in the Range of Nazi Germany        
      Hello, Friends!

      I’m excited to introduce a new contributor to our blog, Olivia. She is one of my spring interns and is working on her Masters of Art in History at Liberty University. Her primary field is Modern American Military History focusing on leadership in World War II and the Korean Conflict. Her work seeks to bring to light those leaders and subordinates whose impact is often overlooked or undervalued. She has also presented at several conferences and won an award for her work on the Japanese American Nisei Soldiers. I am very excited to have Olivia on board and hope you enjoy her post on treatment of African Americans in Nazi Germany!

      -Maggie

      __________________________________________________________________

      The horrors afflicted by Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 are ingrained in the world’s memory with the tragedy and loss still present in the minds of people around the globe. While the atrocities Nazi Germany afflicted on groups such as the Roma and Jewish communities are well known there are other groups, which also suffered at the hand of Nazi controlled Germany. One of these lesser-known groups the black and mulatto citizens of in reach of Nazi Germany.

      Before World War I there were not many black German citizens living in Germany. When Germany lost World War I the Treaty of Versailles stated Germany was so give up her colonies in land that is present day Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Ghana, Togo, Cameroon, and Namibia. With the loss of these military outposts, military men and German colonial students, artisans, writers, and performers both white and black returned to Germany. Many military and colonial leaders also brought with them a system of deep racism and discrimination of black citizens. The Treaty of Versailles also stated troops were to occupy the Rhineland region of West Germany. The French assigned 200,00 soldiers both nationals and colonials to occupy the Rhineland. Racist propaganda groups in Germany quickly moved to compound the situation in order to spread racism and discrimination against blacks in the Rhineland and Germany. Propaganda viewed the black colonial French soldiers as rapist and carriers of disease. Other special interest groups blamed black soldiers for all of the unrest, rape, and murder of German women by the occupying forces, causing panic and uproar. This escalated and even resulted in Pope XV asking for the removal of black French troops and people writing to US President Woodrow Wilson demanding the removal of the black colonial troops. Even before Hitler’s rise to power, discrimination began with forbidding black citizens from holding any type of government jobs or roles in the military. Interracial marriage was also banned in Germany and all of its holdings.

      However, with the rise of Hitler’s power in 1933 came wide spread persecution and further discrimination was implemented against blacks and mulattos living in Germany and the territories Hitler acquired. While there was never a program of systematic elimination, treatment of black citizens varied in levels of severity from discrimination and isolation to sterilization and medical experimentation. In Mein Kamph, Hitler stated that, “Jews had brought Negros into the Rhineland with the clear aim of running the hated while race by the necessarily-resulting bastardization.” In this statement Hitler used the previous post World War I tensions to push the German people to accepted racism and discrimination.

      By 1937 the Germans decided something had to be done about the approximately 800 mixed raced children living in the Rhineland which Hitler deemed “an insult to the German Nation. Therefore, a committee created Commission Number 3, giving the German government power to start sterilizing mixed race children deemed “Rhineland Bastards”. As many as 400 German African mulatto children were gathered and sterilized, many with out the parents knowledge beforehand. Hans Hauck was a teenager at the time this organization was commissioned and was serialized by the Nazis. Hauck recalled in the documentary, “Hitler’s Forgotten Victims,” he was serialized without anesthesia. Once his procedure was completed he was given a certificate validating his procedure and told to avoid sex with German women. At the same time women who were found pregnant with mixed babies were forced to have abortions.  At the same time, persecution was also happening to the small population of full black German citizens.

      Under Hitler’s rule all black citizens were banned from universities and in some cases the subjects of anthropological and medical studies, there were also cases of murder and abuse. Such is the case of Hilarius Gilges. Gilges was a 24-year-old native of Dusseldorf and an artist. In June of 1933 approximately a dozen SS officers attacked Gilges, captured, tortured, and killed the young man for his race identity and political affiliations. Today his life is memorialized in a plaza in Düsseldorf as the first marked death in Düsseldorf under the Nazi oppression. Others with similar stories are shared in published works such as Born to Witness: Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany, which tales the story of Hans Massaquoi who grew up during the War in Germany.


      At the time Hitler and the Nazi’s came to power there were approximately 25,000 black or mulatto citizens in Germany out of population of 65 million. Taking into account the low population proportion of black and mixed German citizens during Hitler’s rule combined with the world wide level of accustomed prejudice and discrimination toward men and women with African heritage at the time it, is easy to see how the plight of those souls tortured and maimed by Nazi practices went unheard of for so many years. However, the policies of hatred and abuse toward those deemed “impure” or “a threat to the master race” practiced by Nazi Germany goes beyond the treatment of Roma, Jews, and Russians. The torment and pain Nazi Germany inflicted on the population of men, women, and children with African decent deserves to be told in shared with the same hope of never allowing such a travesty to occur in our lifetime and in future generations. 


      -Olivia

                Cuba's health diplomacy in the age of Ebola        

      Amid the worst Ebola outbreak of our time, it has been the small island nation of Cuba that has provided arguably the most impressive policy response.


      Instead of offering financial assistance to those West African nations most in need, the Cuban government has focused on providing skilled healthcare workers passionate about helping Ebola victims.

      The Cuban response is based on a combination of pre-existing government commitments to the provision of universal healthcare, the establishment of a medical education system emphasizing service to others, and Cuba's efforts to bolster its international reputation.



      Health diplomacy


      Cuba's government has a long history of providing universal healthcare as a human right, a belief that was enshrined in the 1976 constitution.

      Consequently, it has always been committed to helping other nations in need, extending the government's policy beliefs beyond its borders.

      These efforts were partly inspired by Ernesto Che Guevara, the Argentine-born doctor who fought alongside Fidel Castro during the Cuban revolution.

      Che Guevara repeatedly encouraged doctors to use their medical skills in the service of others.

      Cuba's international reputation


      • Cuba has been run by the Communist Party since the 1959 overthrow of the US-backed regime of Fulgencio Batista
      • The revolution, led by Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, still shapes to a large extent how the Cuban government is seen abroad
      • Left-wing activists praise its ability to withstand pressure from the United States, which has maintained a trade embargo against the island since 1960
      • According to the World Bank, Cuba has the best education system in Latin America and the Caribbean
      • 2010 WHO figures suggest Cuba's doctor-to-patient ratio was among the top three in the world
      • Many governments and non-governmental organisations have raised concerns over Cuba's human rights situation, criticising the jailing of government critics
      • Human Rights Watch says it is "the only country in Latin America that represses virtually all forms of political dissent"
      • Its Communist Party leadership and its president, Raul Castro, remain in firm control of the country
      • Its current parliament was elected in 2013, in a poll which saw 612 pre-approved candidates stand unopposed for its 612 seats


      These beliefs were first put into practice during the 1960s, beginning with the provision of medical aid to Chile in response to its May 1960 earthquake.

      In the 1970s and 80s, Cuba offered medical assistance to warn-torn South Africa, Algeria, Zaire, Congo, and Ghana.

      More recently, Cuban doctors travelled to Sri Lanka following the 2004 tsunami.

      They also treated victims of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan and the 2010 quake which devastated much of Haiti.

      Last year, Cuba sent 4,000 doctors to Brazil alone in order to help provide healthcare in remote rural areas.

      Cuban doctor Carlos Alfredo Garcia paints a mural depicting Che Guevara's guerrilla epics on the wall of a medical clinic on 3 October 2007 in La Higuera, Bolivia.
      Cuban doctors have helped establish universal healthcare systems in Bolivia and Venezuela
      At present, more than 50,000 Cuban medical personnel are working in over 66 countries.

      'To serve'


      Cuba's medical students have always been taught that it is their duty to serve others.

      A Cuban nurse takes part in a practice drill on 22 September 2014 at a training camp for health workers in Havana due to be sent to fight Ebola
      An inscription by Fidel Castro emblazoned on a wall of Cuba's most prestigious medical school, the Escuela Latinoamericana de Medicina, sums up this ethos,

      "This will be a battle of solidarity against selfishness," it reads.

      Thus even prior to their arrival in West Africa, Cuba's healthcare workers believed that it was their duty to sacrifice themselves in the service of others, viewing themselves as true public servants, gladly volunteering and risking their lives to fight a virus that they had no experience of working with.

      "We know that we are fighting against something that we don't totally understand … But it is our duty. That's how we've been educated," Leonardo Fernandez, a 63-year-old doctor told Reuters news agency before departing Cuba for Liberia.

      Cuba's geopolitical strategy


      Cuba has also viewed its involvement in West Africa as an opportunity to bolster its international reputation as a nation capable and committed to helping others.

      And the government's strategy appears to have paid off.

      World Health Organisation (WHO) Director-General Margaret Chen recently applauded Cuba's efforts, stating that she was "extremely grateful for the generosity of the Cuban government and these health professionals for doing their part to help us contain the worst Ebola outbreak ever known".

      WHO's Director of Epidemiology Sylvia Brian and the United Nation's Ebola chief, David Nabarro, also praised Cuba's quick response.

      Various international humanitarian organisations have also expressed their thanks and support, in turn strengthening Cuba's international reputation.

      Cuba also sees the Ebola outbreak as an opportunity to establish a stronger partnership with the United States.

      Writing in Cuba's state newspaper Granma, Fidel Castro recently stated that he would be glad to work with the US in containing the epidemic, setting aside the two countries' political differences in order to help Ebola-affected countries.

      While the US has not formally agreed to work with Cuba, US Secretary of State John Kerry praised Havana for its efforts in West Africa.

      The US Ambassador to the UN, Samantha Power, echoed his sentiments, saying that she was "very grateful" to Cuba for its response.

      Big lessons


      Cuba's international reputation has in large part stemmed from its efforts to provide much needed human resources in response to Ebola.

      The island nation has so far provided the largest number of healthcare workers in the fight against Ebola: a total of 256, including doctors, nurses, surgeons and paediatricians, with another 200 expected to arrive shortly.

      While the US has provided 3,000 military troops, none of them provide medical assistance, instead mainly focussing on constructing Ebola Treatment Units.

      Apart from providing treatment, Cuba's medical workers also help to locate Ebola victims and guide them towards clinics.

      By providing constant reassurance of good treatment and care, Cuba's volunteers play a key part in helping Ebola victims overcome their fears of seeking medical treatment.

      This passion for locating, encouraging, and treating patients reflects Cuban health workers' unwavering belief in behaving in a selfless manner, treating patients with warmth, dignity, and respect.

      In this respect, little Cuba provides big lessons for other nations.

      While providing financial support is important, providing quality healthcare workers with a passion for helping others is equally - if not more - important for helping West Africa eradicate Ebola.

      Governments that have been ideologically committed to working closely with patients and ensuring universal access treatment in the past should strive to mimic Cuba's efforts, in turn establishing their reputation as caring, peaceful partners in the global fight against disease.

      Eduardo J Gomez is a senior lecturer in international development and emerging economies in the newly formed King's International Development Institute, King's College London.

      This article originally appeared on BBC News
                The Sound of Songwriter José Cónde        
      JoseConde11_1-c-MichelleCure

      José Cónde lives his lyrics. He gets grooves from the names of trees. He leaves melody lines on his own answering machine. He can turn a playful refrain to his dog into a dance anthem. His songs are odes to hot dresses, Brazilian muses, discombobulated elephants, and life-giving springs.

      Cónde brings a new focus and maturity to this whimsical world on Jose Conde. He turns highly personal songs into new global grooves and reflective, dynamic ballads.

      “When I was in my 20s, I didn’t dance at all. I had to come out of my shell,” Cónde exclaims with a laugh. “I’m a late bloomer, though I’ve always been explorer. Now I’ll go anywhere and do anything, I’ll try anything, experimenting with flavors and playing around with different elements and sounds.”

      As a songwriter and bandleader, Cónde developed a striking instinct for merging his Miami upbringing, Cuban roots, and the sizzle of New York’s Latin underground. But the new self-titled album is distinguished by a universality; catchy melodies and danceable rhythms likely to draw listeners of all stripes.  Cónde has traded in his Cubantres for a vintage Gresch guitar (and Hammond B3 and a dozen other instruments). Pan-American and trans-Atlantic influences flow effortlessly onJose Conde. “The whole idea of fusing elements of American funk, Cuban son, and Brazilian music has been kicking around in my head for years. But it was still in the context of a ‘Latin’ band. Now I’m free to move in any and all directions.”

      Cónde rocks a smoking tango (“El Vestido”) or sways through a sensuous, gentle samba (“Mabel”). Lyrically, he points to the absurdness of the habitat displacement that led to an elephant wandering into a Zambian hotel lobby (taken straight from the pages of National Geographic; on “Elephante en Hotel”). Or to the crazy, rockabilly-tinged capers of his dog (“Gordito Cabezon”).



      Rumba meets infectious Brooklyn break beats on “Amor y Felicidad.” The hard-grooving “Matapalo Matamusa” sparkles with electro blips while raising the roof off the sucker, thanks to funky guitar riffs and an irresistible bass line. Cónde’s musical exuberance bursts out at the least provocation. Witness the cool cha-cha-cha-suggesting phrase in the South African language of Tsonga (“Munghana Wamina”).Yet the irrepressible spontaneity is balanced by an emotional and introspective side that turns grooves into poetry.


      Click here to read the rest of the article!

                Meghana Latest Stills        

      Meghana Latest Stills Actress Meghana, Meghana, Actress Meghana Latest Photo Gallery, Actress Meghana Latest Stills, Actress Meghana Photos, Actress Meghana

      The post Meghana Latest Stills appeared first on teluguglobal.in/telugu.


                Meghana Stills At HBD Movie Audio Launch        

      Meghana Stills At HBD Movie Audio Launch Actress Meghana, Meghana, Actress Meghana Latest Photo Gallery, Actress Meghana Latest Stills, Actress

      The post Meghana Stills At HBD Movie Audio Launch appeared first on teluguglobal.in/telugu.


                Meghana Stills From HBD Movie        

      Meghana Stills From HBD Movie Actress Meghana, Meghana, Actress Meghana Latest Photo Gallery, Actress Meghana Latest Stills, Actress Meghana Photos, Actress

      The post Meghana Stills From HBD Movie appeared first on teluguglobal.in/telugu.


                BN Download: Get Introduced to Ghana’s Hip-Hop Elite on “Coptic Presents… The Rising Stars Of GH Vol.1”        

      BN Download welcomes the arrival of The Black Star Line’s project to unveil the underground Hip Hop rappers of Ghana to Africa and the world through US based Multi-Platinum Ghanaian producer, Coptic. “The Rising Stars Of GH Vol 1” dropped on Christmas day for free download online as Coptic’s Christmas present to all Hip Hop […]

      The post BN Download: Get Introduced to Ghana’s Hip-Hop Elite on “Coptic Presents… The Rising Stars Of GH Vol.1” appeared first on BellaNaija.


                Adquirir nuevas capacidades para promover mejor la educación de las niñas en Ghana        

      Los miembros del equipo de la Unidad de Educación de las Niñas (GEU, por sus siglas en inglés) del Servicio de Educación de Ghana (GES, por sus siglas en inglés) están mejorando su capacidad para promover la educación de las niñas y coordinar las actividades relativas a su educación en Ghana, en el marco de la Alianza Mundial para la Educación de las Niñas y las Mujeres UNESCO-HNA.

      Desde 1997, el Servicio de Educación de Ghana (GES) cuenta con una Unidad de Educación de Niñas (GEU) encargada de eliminar todas las formas de discriminación por razones de género en el sector educativo, así como para mejorar la incorporación y la permanencia de las niñas en la escuela. No obstante, una evaluación de las capacidades llevada a cabo en 2016 reveló deficiencias de la capacidad institucional de la GEU para desempeñar su papel de manera eficaz. El informe destacó, en particular, la ineficacia de la GEU en coordinar las múltiples actividades relativas a la educación de las niñas que los agentes no estatales implementan en el país.

      Para dar solución a esta cuestión, así como a otros problemas estructurales, tales como el financiamiento público insuficiente para la educación de las niñas o la falta de modelos femeninos en algunas escuelas y comunidades, la Oficina de la UNESCO en Accra ha organizado un conjunto de formaciones sobre reforzamiento de habilidades con miras a mejorar la capacidad del GEU en la promoción de la educación de las niñas en Ghana, mediante la Alianza Mundial para la Educación de las Niñas y las Mujeres de la UNESCO-HNA.

      Entre los días 24 y 28 de abril de 2017, se organizó un primer programa de formación, en Larteh, región oriental de Ghana, dirigido a 32 funcionarios de la GEU (30 mujeres y 2 hombres), entre los que figuraron nueve funcionarios de la Sede y algunos miembros del personal de diferentes regiones y distritos.  La formación hizo hincapié en la gestión de los programas centrados en los resultados, la movilización de recursos y la elaboración de informes. Dicha formación fue posible gracias a la colaboración del Instituto de la Sociedad Civil de África Occidental con una combinación de técnicas, tales como, presentaciones mediante PowerPoint, trabajo en grupos, cuestionarios, rompecabezas, estudios de casos y debates plenarios.

      Los participantes debatieron acerca de la manera en que la formación contribuyó a mejorar sus capacidades: "He adquirido las capacidades en materia de movilización de recursos locales para poder financiar las actividades en mi ciudad", afirmó Vida Owusu, responsable de la educación de las niñas en Kumasi. "Aprendí también a coordinar mis actividades en el distrito, así como a redactar mejor los informes". Otro participante, Christiana Azure Ayimzoya, responsable de la unidad de educación de las niñas en el área metropolitana de Accra, indicó cómo pensaba aplicar los conocimientos adquiridos: "Ahora sé cómo movilizar recursos para llevar a cabo programas que favorezcan a las niñas de mi región", afirmó. "La elaboración de informes es otra de las habilidades que he adquirido mediante este taller. Cuando regrese organizaré un taller de reforzamiento de capacidades para los responsables de la educación de las niñas de mi región".

      Con miras a garantizar un seguimiento adecuado de la formación, el personal de la UNESCO y los facilitadores tienen previsto efectuar visitas de seguimiento a las oficinas de los participantes a fin de determinar qué han hecho de manera diferente después de haber participado en la formación. Dichas visitas también permitirán que los facilitadores proporcionen el apoyo técnico necesario a los participantes en sus respectivas oficinas. La segunda formación está prevista del 21 al 25 de agosto de 2017, y está dirigida a 35 responsables de la educación de las niñas. En total, mediante la Alianza Mundial para la Educación de las Niñas y las Mujeres UNESCO-HNA, el proyecto tiene como objetivo la capacitación de 235 miembros del personal con miras a mejorar sus capacidades a la hora de promover y coordinar las actividades relativas a la educación de las niñas en Ghana.


                International Trends in Problem-based Learning Facilitator Development        
      International Trends in Problem-based Learning Facilitator Development Amien, Feroza The facilitator plays an important role in ensuring that a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) curriculum is successful. Their role is to guide and support students in their learning process and to challenge and probe students' knowledge of key issues relating to their work. PBL facilitation is a multifaceted skill which may require ongoing support and development of PBL facilitators. However, there is a paucity of information about the perceived need to support and develop facilitation skills on an ongoing basis, and whether support programs are in place in order to strengthen PBL facilitation skills. This resource describes how PBL facilitator training and development is conducted at various universities around the world. Information was gathered from medical educators at universities with PBL curricula from South Africa, Ghana, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Netherlands, and Chile. Other related factors that may affect facilitator development were also explored, such as the profile of facilitators and the much debated choice of using facilitators that are content or PBL process experts.
                Primary Impression for an Edentulous Patient        
      Primary Impression for an Edentulous Patient Nyarko, E; Hewlett, Sandra, Newman-Nartey, Merley. Sackeyfio, Josephine; Parkins, Grace; Adanu, Richard; Yebuah, Chris This multimedia-based module is part of a series designed for students to assist in preparation for clinical examinations in dentistry. This module explores basic guidelines in dentistry for making primary impression for an edentulous patient. This module has been internally reviewed by a cross-disciplinary committee within University of Ghana prior to releasing as an Open Educational Resource.
                Format C        

      These last couple of days can be summarized with very few words. World Cup, formatting, installing, importing and grinding.

      The World Cup was exciting, and one of my favorite sides are doing really well. Dieses Jahr ist der deutsche Jahr! Immer wieder Deutschland! I'm also rooting for Uruguay, because it's always fun to root for the underdog. It's a shame they knocked out Ghana in the manner that they did, but you can't do anything about it. I'm hoping they beat the crap out of the Netherlands, and that Diego Forlán wins the Golden Boot. I have some money riding on it. I also have money on Germany winning the World Cup.

      Formatting my disks was interesting. I had like zero space left on my disks and couldn't import anything to my HEM database or anything. I decided to format both my disks, so I moved everything essential to my external HDD, and formatted. I also downgraded from Windows Vista to Windows XP. Great success! If any of you are still using Windows XP, but you hate the themes available, you should check out Zune Theme. It's all black and sexy, and it looks really good. Formatting and re-installing everything took about 2 days effectively, because I started at night and there was World Cup matches in between etcetera. I timed it so I could watch the World Cup quarter finals while importing all my audio files into iTunes again, which was a genius move. Importing music into iTunes was probably the most work of those two days, even though I didn't really have to do anything. 35,000 mp3 files from my external HDD to iTunes, and copying them to their own location on my computer. I'm not sure how long it took, but I'm pretty sure it was at least 4 hours just doing that. With that out the window, I now could listen to music again while working on my PC, which is sweet. I fail to function without music.

      The next step was obviously reimporting all my hands to HEM, which I'm still doing. I've currently imported about 1,500,000 hands or something in that area, and I still have 23,000 files or something to go through. This is going to be a lengthy process, for sure. Bah. At least I can grind, albeit HUDless, while I'm importing hands. That, I can dig.

      Sunday was MTT Sunday. Or break even Sunday. I cashed in a $3 rebuy and a $26 thing on FullTilt, and some tournament on Stars. They were all mincashes though. I tried abusing some fish on the bubble in some hand, and got snapped by second pair on the river when I shoved on Q87J5. Sadface.


                180 People Go Bald for Penang Adventist Hospital Fundraiser and More News Shorts        
      In this week’s news roundup, 180 participants go bald for Penang Adventist Hospital charity fundraiser, Barbadian woman was shot to death while at an ATM, Florida church is sued by parents of girl molested by youth program worker, Zimbabwe church is ordered to pay suit court costs, Grace Symphony ministers through music in Fiji and New Zealand, and Adventist school children in Ghana plant trees for World Environment Day.

      In this week’s news roundup, 180 participants go bald for Penang Adventist Hospital charity fundraiser, Barbadian woman was shot to death while at an ATM,  Florida church is sued by parents of girl molested by youth program worker, Zimbabwe church is ordered to pay suit court costs, Grace Symphony ministers through music in Fiji and New Zealand, and Adventist school children in Ghana plant trees for World Environment Day.

      180 Participants Go Bald for Malaysian Adventist Hospital Charity Fundraiser. Penang Adventist Hospital in Malaysia held its third “Go Bald, Go the Distance” charity fundraiser in honor of the hospital’s Dr. J. Earl Gardner Fund for needy patients of chronic ailments. 180 participants went bald at the event this year. Penang Adventist Hospital chief executive officer Ronald Koh said that this year's “Go Bald, Go the Distance” included involvement and support from people of all walks of life beyond Penang. From The Star, “Bold move – 180 go bald for charity.”

      Barbadian Adventist Killed in ATM Robbery. In Barbados, Seventh-day Adventist Colleen Payne was attacked by two men and shot to death while using an automatic teller machine. The mother of one had worked for more than 30 years as a child-care worker at the Nightengale Children’s Home. Her death has left family members stunned that such a quiet and unassuming person died in this violent way. From NationNews, “ATM horror as woman shot dead,” and “Three men assisting with ATM shooting investigation.”

      Florida Church Sued by Parents of Girl Molested by Youth Program Worker. Horeb French Seventh-day Adventist Church in Miami, Florida, is being sued by the family of a girl who was molested by a worker at its youth program. In a lawsuit, the girl's parents claim church officials should have known that Jerry Ameris, now 33, was not fit for any position that would put him in contact with small children. The suit also names the Southeastern Conference Association of Seventh-Day Adventists which operates the youth program. Ameris has already been sentenced to ten years in prison for molesting the girl. From Miami New Times, “Family of Child Molested in Youth Program Sues North Miami Church.”

      Zimbabwe Adventist Church and Conference Ordered to Pay Suit Court Costs. The leadership of the South Zimbabwe Conference of the SDA Church has been ordered to pay the legal costs incurred during a case brought by a church member who was given a seven-month censure by his congregation. The censure barred the applicant from participating in the affairs of the church. It also prevented him from leading any church-related activity and terminated his election or appointment to all positions in church. In his founding affidavit, the applicant argued he was censured by members of the board, deacons and deaconess, and elders’ councils for confronting the pastor who indecently harassed his wife and reporting him to the police. From the Chronicle, “High Court rules against Seventh Day Adventist Church.”

      Fiji Adventist Gospel Group Grace Symphony Ministers Through Music. Grace Symphony, a gospel choir from Seventh-day Adventist churches in Fiji, has become a ministry for some of its young members, utilizing their talents in serving the Lord. According to the group's lead singer Eseta Cokanasiga, who is also one of their pioneer members, Grace Symphony began in 2007 with seven girls who all had a passion to glorify God using their voices and talent. The group now has grown to 22 members, performing in Fiji and New Zealand and recording many albums. From The Fiji Times, “10 years of singing God’s grace.”

      Ghana SDA School Students Plant Trees Commemorating World Environment Day. The Ghana Environmental Protection Agency, in partnership with the Ghana Seventh-day Adventist Church, has launched a tree-planting campaign for schools in the Ashanti Region to commemorate the World Environment Day. The campaign was organized to inspire children to grow trees to protect the natural environment. The EPA selected 27 schools mainly from Presbyterian and Adventist schools. Samuel Oteng, the Regional Director of the EPA, said the agency took into consideration how effective the schools would be in ensuring that the seedlings were looked after to grow well. Oteng expected that the chosen schools would plant a total of 2,200 tree seedlings. Students of the Gyinyase SDA Primary and Junior Secondary Schools said they were grateful to the EPA and to their schools' administration for educating them on the benefits of tree planting and how urgent it was that trees were planted to protect the environment. From Graphic, “EPA plants trees to commemorate World Environment Day.”

       

      Editor's Note: A previous version of this article incorrectly stated that Penang Adventist Hospital is in Vietnam; it is in Malaysia. 

       

      Pam Dietrich taught English at Loma Linda Academy for 26 years and served there eight more years as the 7-12 librarian. She lives in Redlands, California.

      Image Credit: The Star

       

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      Make sure your comments are germane to the topic; be concise in your reply; demonstrate respect for people and ideas whether you agree or disagree with them; and limit yourself to one comment per article, unless the author of the article directly engages you in further conversation. Comments that meet these criteria are welcome on the Spectrum Website. Comments that fail to meet these criteria will be removed.


                Comment on Mexico Mission Trip – Spring Break Report #4 by Peter Brooke        
      This brings back some very good memories of Spring Break 2014 (can't believe that it's already 3 years later!) when I went on this same missions trip with my son, Alan, who is now a world traveller, having been to 3 other countries (Costa Rica, Ghana and Uganda) to share the love of God and be changed in the process! Looking forward to seeing the evidence of changed lives in these 21 students who participated this time! It is almost impossible to encounter Elia and the other Mexican missionaries the Mexico team works alongside during that week and not be changed for the better!
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                Juliet Ibrahim and Iceberg Slim Show off New Tattoos as they Celebrate their Anniversary        
      Ghanaian actress Juliet Ibrahim and her Nigerian boyfriend, Iceberg Slim have shown the world how unconditional their love is. The couple got matching tattoos in celebration of their one year...

      -- This is a content summary only. Visit www.gistus.com for full content, and more! --

                "CURIOSIDADES CUBANAS" Y SU ORIGEN        
      Para la gente que le gustan estas cosas y quieran saber el origen de todo

      cid:00ab01c93be3$b4f5ea80$8331470a@desktop 
      El origen del fufú de plátano:
       Â¿Ha comido usted alguna vez el fufú de plátano?

      Según Don Fernando Ortiz, el gran investigador del folclore cubano, durante la dominación inglesa en Cuba, después de la toma de La Habana, entraron muchos esclavos llevados por los ingleses. La comida que normalmente se daba a los esclavos era plátano hervido y machacado y se cree que esta forma de comerlo venía de Ghana y Sierra Leona. Los negreros ingleses acostumbraban a decir "food,food,food" (comida, comida,comida!), cuando repartían las raciones a los esclavos; de ahí que éstos comenzaran a darle el nombre de "fu-fu".
                  Este plato se conoce en el Caribe y, en algunos lugares del  oriente cubano, como machuquillo, matajibaro, mofongo en Puerto Rico ; y mangu en República Dominicana.


      Los "Fotingos"
      cid:00ac01c93be3$b4f5ea80$8331470a@desktop
        Los cubanos del siglo pasado solían llamar a los automóviles "fotingos", pero es interesante saber el por qué, ya que la palabra no existe en el Diccionario de la Real Academia de la Lengua Española.
      En 1908, la Ford Motor Company de los Estados Unidos sacó su famoso Ford Modelo "T". Desde el punto de vista técnico el Ford Modelo "T"
       incorporó la modalidad del sistema de tres pedales: embrague, freno y acelerador.
                  La publicidad de la Ford describía la novedad como el sistema de "foot it and go", es decir, pisar y arrancar.
                  Los primeros automóviles arribaron a Cuba en 1899 y eran de
       fabricación francesa, pero cuando el modelo Ford llegó al país se hizo popular y los criollos comenzaron a usar la palabra "fotingo" (cubanizando la frase "foot it and go") para designar al modelo "T" de la Ford.Tambien le llamaban "tres patas" (embrague, freno y acelerador).

      cid:00ad01c93be3$b4f5ea80$8331470a@desktop 
      ¿Por que los cubanos les llaman a los campesinos "guajiros"?
       
      Durante la guerra de independencia de 1895 en Cuba el
       campesinado cubano se unió a las tropas libertadoras que comandaba el
       Generalísimo Máximo Gómez, nacido en la bella isla de Quisqueya y  por el Apóstol de la libertad de Cuba,  Jose Martí y Pérez.

                  La guerra del 95, como la llaman los cubanos a la guerra de la independencia, ya casi estaba ganada por los mambises (palabra despectiva  de los españoles hacia las tropas cubanas). Cuando las tropas norteamericanas desembarcaron en Cuba, le llamaban a los combatientes cubanos War Heroes (héroes de guerra), para el oído de los campesinos y otros cubanos al comando de la tropas sonaba Guajiro.  Y por esta razón que el único campesino en toda nuestra América es referido cómo "guajiro".
       

      cid:00ae01c93be3$b4f5ea80$8331470a@desktop 
      El gallo de Morón

                  Entre los cubanos es popular la frase:" se quedó como el Gallo de Morón, sin plumas y cacareando". Muchos piensan que se trata de un famoso gallo originario en Morón, Provincia de Camagüey , Cuba . Pues bien, la historia es que el Gallo de Morón ni era un gallo, ni era de Morón, ni tuvo que ver con Cuba .

                  Se trata de una leyenda del siglo XVI, cuando el recaudador de impuestos de Granada se presentó en Moron de la Frontera (Sevilla) a ejercer su oficio. Como el sujeto tenía aspecto de matón y forma de actuar muy grosera se le bautizo como el Gallo de Moron.
                  Los moronenses se hartaron de los desplantes de aquel gallo y un buen día le atizaron una tunda de palos tan contundente, que éste tuvo que marcharse de Morón sin atreverse a volver por más impuestos. De ese episodio surgió una copla popular que decía: "Anda que te vas quedando / como el Gallo de Moron / sin plumas y cacareando / en la mejor ocasion".


              cid:00af01c93be3$b4f5ea80$8331470a@desktop   El origen de los "guatacas"
       
      La azada es un apero de labranza que se utiliza en los campos de  Cuba para desbrozar los cultivos, es decir, eliminar las malas yerbas y para despejar las guardarrayas en los campos de caña. Los cubanos la llaman guataca.
                  También llamamos guataca a esos seres abyectos que se dedican a adular a los poderosos, sobre todo a los gobernantes. El origen de esta palabra se remonta a los tiempos del presidente Machado. Con Machado los aduladores se "pasaron de rosca", como se dice en cubano,en otras palabras estaban en abundancia. Le llamaban el egregio y le construían arcos triunfales a su paso..
                  El genial caricaturista Ricardo de la Torriente , del semanario satírico " La Política Cómica ", comenzó a publicar unas caricaturas en las que aparecia Machado rodeado de un grupo de aduladores que provistos  de azadas o guatacas, precedian al general limpiando la senda que este debia pisar.
                  El pueblo empezó a llamar a estos aduladores "guatacas" y el mote pegó. Había nacido la palabra guataca y el verbo guataquear.. Desde entonces a todo aquel que adula, "hala la leva" o "hace la pelotilla", se le llamó en Cuba guataca.
      cid:00b001c93be3$b4f5ea80$8331470a@desktop 
      La hora de los mameyes

      En el léxico cubano hay una frase que muchos usamos sin conocer su significado: "la hora de los mameyes" .
                  Esta frase, según me cuentan, se originó hace más de doscientos años durante la toma de La Habana por los ingleses. Durante ese episodio los habaneros, con esa costumbre tan cubana de ridiculizar a los que no podemos vencer, dieron en llamar "Mameyes a los soldados ingleses por el color del uniforme que vestían: chaqueta roja-mamey y pantalón negro. Por aquella época La Habana estaba rodeada por un muralla que la protegía de corsarios y piratas. Cada noche a las nueve se disparaba un cañonazo desde la fortaleza del Morro, para avisar a los habaneros que las puertas de la muralla se cerrarían durante la noche. Y como a esa hora los odiosos "mameyes" se hacían más visibles patrullando las calles, los habaneros bautizaron a las nueve de la noche como "la hora de los mameyes" .
      FIN



                it'll all work out!!        
      Hey y'all!!! This is all happening soooo fast. I've lost about 1/2 of the 19 members of my stage, but there are still 7 of us going on for direct transfer. Some PCV's are making safari trips, some going to the beautiful city of Cape Town, some going back home to the States. I did make it past the "first cut" but still have lotsa interviewing and more paperwork to do this week. We;re all going our seperate ways and whatever my future Peace Corps experience is, won't be the same without all of our stage together. What is cool, is how many friends I will know around America and the world. I'm grateful to have gotten to meet sooo many great people, but it just won't be quite as bright without them, especially my super fantastic friend, Lindsay. We were together since day 1- she was the first girl I saw in the Philly airport back in September, both of us lugging our over sized baggage across the airport and pointing out right away that we were Peace Corps/ Madagascar volunteers. It worked out for us to be in the same language group during all of training, and then placed in the same region. It's been important to have someone to really get to know and trust , as we went through the krazy adventure on the Red Island, together. But now I'm shifting gears and getting very excited of the prospect of seeing a brand new culture and forming a new family. Western Africa is actually where my heart desired to be placed originally- Ghana to be exact, but both Togo and Guinea are not too far away. I know all don't believe this philosophy, but I sure have faith that everythin' happens for a reason!! We'll see....
                reach out and connect with someone        

      While I was out on my run the other day, letting thoughts and feelings course through me, as they usually do while I exercise, a memory floated into my consciousness. A memory of an experience I'd had three years prior, close to this time of year. Just remembering this experience brought warmth to my heart, and I wanted to share it here with you. I wrote about it on my personal blog at the time, and I'd like to share an excerpt of that blog post with you.

      It was December of 2006. I was in upstate NY, visiting my in-laws for Christmas. A couple of days after Christmas, I took the train to Manhattan to go meet up with a few friends, and I spent a beautiful day in the city. The warmth and feeling of connection with my friends that day still feeds me now.

      ...

      On the train ride home, I found a seat to myself. At the first stop, a rather veloptuous lady got on the train and sat down next to me. My initial thought was to feel bummed that my space was being crowded. In fact, I almost felt a bit claustrophobic. I decided to shift my thought pattern, and, instead of feeling resistance and separation, chose to feel a connection to the person next to me. What really inspired me to do so and gave me that little extra push was a line I read in my book (Awaken The Giant Within, by Anthony Robbins) at that very moment. I'd just been reading a paragraph on loneliness. The last line of the paragraph read:

      Take immediate action to reach out and connect with someone.

      I sat there for a few minutes, slouched into my seat, and a bit resistant to break the invisible barrier between us. Usually, the way I strike up a conversation with a stranger is by seeking out eye contact first and then addressing them. Since this lady was sitting right next to me, there was no opportunity for our eyes to casually meet, as I would have had to turn and look straight at her. She was reading a book. I gathered my nerve, sat up straight in my seat and said to the lady: 'Is that a good book you're reading?' That started a 1 1/2-hour conversation that lasted the entire train ride home! She turned out to be quite a fascinating lady who had travelled to Ghana, contracted Malaria, lost a daughter... I talked a bit, but mostly listened to her. She told me much about her life, her family, her travels... It was neat. I was so glad I'd broken out of my comfort zone and opened myself up to making a connection. If we just are willing to open our hearts a little more, we can see that we are not seperate from the world. Instead of making assumptions about the people sitting next to us on a train, standing behind us in line at the check-out counter, or waiting next to us in the doctor's office, if we just reach out and give them the chance to open themselves up to us, we will discover a great deal of compassion for them and the world as a whole - and, thereby, compassion for ourselves, as well!

      ...

      Remembering this interaction during my run the other day brought me great joy. It got me to thinking how amazing one little gesture can be and just what a difference it can make in our lives and the lives of others. Three years later, I am still filled with warmth at the thought of this experience! I have no idea how much it touched the lady who I talked to on the train, but, chances are, the joy of this simple but beautiful connection continued to seep into the cracks of her life well after the fact, as it did for me.

      I hope this story serves as an inspiration for you to reach out and connect with others. Be it in line at the post office, at the grocery store, on the bus or a plane... Take immediate action to reach out and connect with someone. And remember to pay attention to the little signs that show up in your life - like a line you're reading in your book at a crucial moment ;), or a song playing on the radio, or a billboard ad that says something of meaning to you.

      May your holiday season be filled with lots of heart-warming connections and joy!
                FUNK DROPS transmission 29th april 2010        
      itunes pic
      "Funk Drops" set list: Isaac Hayes-Theme from Shaft (Stax 1970) Soul Children-One broken home for sale (Epic 1976) J. Blackfoot-Taxi (Sound Town 1983) Graham Central Station-Hair (Warner Bros. 1974) Bootsy's Rubber Band-I'd rather be with you (Warner Bros. 1976) Whispers-I can make it better (Solar 1981) Zapp-More bounce to the ounce (Warner Bros. 1980) Average White Band & Ben E. King-A star in the ghetto (Atlantic 1977) Magic Lady-Hold tight (A&M 1982) Syreeta-I too am wanting (Motown 1977) Fred Wesley & the Horny Horns-A blow for me, a toot to you (Atlantic 1977) Spinners-I'll be around (Atlantic 1973) Parliament-The goose (Casablanca 1974) Sir Joe Quarterman & Free Soul-(I got) so much trouble in my mind (Gsf 1973) Major Harris-Pretty red lips (Rca 1978) Otis Clay-Hard working woman (Rounder 1991) Wilson Pickett-Funky Broadway (live in Ghana 1971) Dottie Pearson-A house made of love (Grapevine 2003) Al Johnson-Peaceful (Marina 1978)
                Guru debuts new look (Photo)        
      Ghanaian rapper, Maradona Yeboah Adjei, known by his stage name Guru has showed off his new hair style. The ‘Akayida’ hitmaker’s new look is a natty dread hair which he has been hiding from the public under his love for caps for some time now. Guru joins the likes of Ghanaian Reggae/dancehall artistes Rocky Dawuni, Stonebwoy, Samini, hiplife great Kojo Antwi, Music producer DJ Breezy among others who have similar hair style. The new me #PROBLEM A post shared by GuruNkz (@gurunkz) on Aug 8, 2017 at 8:25am PDT             EnterGhana.com | Guru debuts new look (Photo)
                Guru advises musicians to stop wasting time on GHAMRO        
      Over the years, Ghanaian musicians have been criticising the body responsible for collecting and paying royalties, which is Ghana Music Rights Organisation (GHAMRO) for not living up to their expectations. Artistes like D Black, Tinny, Kwaw Kese et al and the latest artiste to add his voice to the growing canker is the NKZ Music front liner, Guru. Hiplife artiste Guru has called on musicians to stop wasting time criticising executives of the Ghana Music Rights Organization (GHAMRO) and rather take the bull by the horn by approaching the private sector for support. In a series of tweets, the artiste revealed that
                Guru’s music had no impact – GMA UK organizer        
      General manager of Ghana Music Awards UK, Nana Slick has explained the motive behind Guru’s inability to once again earn nomination for the coveted Artiste of the Year category at this year’s Ghana Music Award UK. Shatta Wale,EL,Kofi Kinaata,Sarkodie and Stonebwoy will be vying for the coveted artiste of the year award. There had been mixed reactions within the showbiz fraternity as to why the CEO of NKZ Music and the “Kokompe’ hitmaker Guru who had six nominations ahead of all the artistes excluding Sarkodie,failed to earn the nomination for the coveted top award. , ”You see, it is quite
                WATCH: Magnom – Tsoobi        
      Here are accompanying visuals for Magnom’s Tsoobi, off his recently- released “We Speed” project. It was produced By Vacs, and directed by Andy Madjitey. A 9-track project, the “We Speed” features appearances from Edem, Shaker , $pacely, Darkovibes, Yaa Pono, Mr. Eazi, and Bayku. Born Joseph Anthony Bulley in 1987, the Illuminati star has quickly risen up the ranks to become one of the country’s most sought after producers.  He has created gems for national and continental music icons as Sarkodie, Asem, Pappy Kojo, Edem, VVIP, Gasmilla, Raquel, Guru, Efya, Samini, LAX, Mr. Eazi, Okyeame Kwame among others.     EnterGhana.com | WATCH: Magnom – Tsoobi
                Guru buys G-Wagon AMG model        
      Sometimes I feel like ‘strangling’ the neck of people who normally say there is no money in our showbiz industry. Seriously,there is money in our showbiz industry; it’s all bounds to how you distinctly play your cards. In this light,after releasing his hit song ‘Kokonpe love’ featuring Singlet and signing ‘Wutah’ onto his NKZ music label,Celebrated Ghanaian hiplife/hiphop musician,Guru has added a new G-Wagon AMG Model to his fleet of cars. The Azonto frontrunner was spotted by Razzonline.com in the G-Wagon AMG model car whilst embarking on a test drive and enjoying his ‘Kokompe” hit song in it. The price of
                WATCH: Guru – Komkompe Love        
      Samba hit maker Guru has released another single “Kokompe Love” produced by Willis Beats. “Kokompe Love” like any of the bangers dropped by the Nkz music CEO has any in-depth meaning behind the term according the Alkahida hit maker. “Everyone needs someone who will love them regardless what they have, how they look and their level in society and that is what I term as “Kokompe Love” ;Said Guru Guru who recently signed Wutah to his label is expected to kick of his Europe tour in a couple months. Check out the “Kokompe” video       EnterGhana.com | WATCH: Guru
                Guru’s manager buys dad a brand new car on father’s day         
      Sunday was Father’s day and many people have expressed their love for their fathers in different ways To show how special his dad is, manager of hiplife/hip-hop superstar Guru and CEO of NKZ Music, Ray Moni has given a 2014 model of Chevrolet Cruze car; Limited edition to him. Ray Moni in a Facebook post, shared a video of his dad Nana Kweku Anane dancing in excitement to one of Guru’s hit songs in the car. He wrote: “I just bought my dad a brand new car on this special occasion”.           EnterGhana.com | Credit: Razzonline.com
                 SREE VENKATESHWARA ASHTOTHRAM -108 names In English        
       SREE VENKATESHWARA ASHTOTHRAM -108 names In English

      Om Sri VenkateshaayaNamaha
      Om SrinivasaayaNamaha
      Om Lakshmi PathayeNamaha
      Om AnaamayaayaNamaha
      Om AmruthamshaayaNamaha

      Om JagadwandhyaayaNamaha
      Om GovindaayaNamaha
      Om ShaswathaayaNamaha
      Om PrabhaveNamaha
      Om SheshadrinilayaayaNamaha

      Om DevaayaNamaha
      Om KeshavaayaNamaha
      Om MadhusudhanaayaNamaha
      Om AmruthaayaNamaha
      Om MahdavaayaNamaha

      Om KrishnaayaNamaha
      Om Sri harayeNamaha
      Om GnanapanjaraayaNamaha
      Om SrivathsavakshaseNamaha
      Om SarveshaayaNamaha

      Om GopalaayaNamaha
      Om PurushothamaayaNamaha
      Om GopishwaraayaNamaha
      Om ParasmaiJyothisheyNamaha
      Om VaikuntapathayeNamaha

      Om AvyayaayaNamaha
      Om SudhathanaveNamaha
      Om YadhavendraayaNamaha
      Om NithyayavvanaroopavatheNamaha
      Om ChaturvedaathnakaayaNamaha

      Om VishnaveNamaha
      Om AtchyuthaayaNamaha
      Om PadminipriyaayaNamaha
      Om DharaapathayeNamaha
      Om SurapathayeNamaha

      Om NirmalaayaNamaha
      Om Deva poojithaayaNamaha
      Om ChaturbhujaayaNamaha
      Om ChakradharaayaNamaha
      Om ThridhaamneNamaha

      Om ThrigunashrayaayaNamaha
      Om NirvikalpaayaNamaha
      Om NishkalankaayaNamaha
      Om NiranthakaayaNamaha
      Om NiranjanaayaNamaha

      Om NiraabhaasaayaNamaha
      Om NithyathrupthaayaNamaha
      Om NirgunaayaNamaha
      Om NirupadravaayaNamaha
      Om GadhadharaayaNamaha

      Om SharngjapaanayeNamaha
      Om NandhakineNamaha
      Om ShankadhaarakaayaNamaha
      Om Aneka MoorthayeNamaha
      Om AvyakthaayaNamaha

      Om Kati hasthaayaNamaha
      Om VarapradhaayaNamaha
      Om AnekaathmaneNamaha
      Om DheenabhandhaveNamaha
      Om Aarthalokaabhayapradhaaya Namaha

      Om AakaasharaajavaradhaayaNamaha
      Om YogihruthpadmamandiraayaNamaha
      Om DamodharaayaNamaha
      Om JatgathpaalaayaNamaha
      Om PaapaghnaayaNamaha

      Om Bhakta vathsalaayaNamaha
      Om ThrivikrayamaayaNamaha
      Om ShinshumaaraayaNamaha
      Om JatamukutashobhithaayaNamaha
      Om ShankamadhyollnmandhakimkinyaadhyakarandakaayaNamaha

      Om NeelameghashyamathanaveNamaha
      Om BilvapathrarchanapriyaayaNamaha
      Om JagadhvapineNamaha
      Om JagathkarthreNamaha
      Om JagathsaakshineNamaha

      Om JagathpathayeNamaha
      Om ChinthithaardhapradhaayaNamaha
      Om JishnaveNamaha
      Om DhasharhaayaNamaha
      Om DhasharoopavatheNamaha

      Om DevakinandhanaayaNamaha
      Om ShourayeNamaha
      Om HaayugreevaayaNamaha
      Om JanardhanaayaNamaha
      Om KanyashravanatharejyaayaNamaha

      Om PithambharadharaayaNamaha
      Om AnaghaayaNamaha
      Om VanamaalineNamaha
      Om PadmanaabhaayaNamaha
      Om MrugayaasakthamaanasaayaneNamaha

      Om AshwaroodayaNamaha
      Om KhadgadharineNamaha
      Om DhanarjanasamuthsukaayaNamaha
      Om Ghanasaarasanmadhyakasturi ThilakojwalaNamaha
      Om SachithaanandaroopaayaNamaha

      Om Jaganmagaladaayakaaya Namaha
      Om Yagnaroopaaya Namaha
      Om YagnaBhokthre Namaha
      Om Chinmayaaya Namaha
      Om Parameshwaraya Namaha

      Om ParamardhaPradhayaNamaha
      Om ShanthaayaNamaha
      Om ShrimatheNamaha
      Om DhordhandavikramaayaNamaha
      Om ParathparayaNamaha

      Om ParasmaiBhrahmaneNamaha
      Om Sri vibhaveNamaha
      Om JagadeswarayaNamaha

      Sri Venkateshwara Ashtothra Shatanaamavali

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      About RAAHU, GULIKA, DURMUHURTHA AND YAMA GANDA KAALA (TIME)

      SREE LAKSHMI STOTRAM

      Shiva Lingashtakam Mantra In English with Meaning

      NAVA GRAHA STOTRAS IN ENGLISH

      SREE DURGA (PARVATHI) ASTOTHARA NAMA POOJA

      SREE MAHA LAKSHMI ASTOTHARA NAMA POOJA

      SREE MAHA VISHNU ASTOTHARA NAMA POOJA 108. OM

      SIVA ASTOTHARA NAMA POOJA - 108 Names

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      Constitución

      Constitución (ciencia política), ley fundamental, escrita o no, de un Estado soberano, establecida o aceptada como guía para su gobernación. La constitución fija los límites y define las relaciones entre los poderes legislativo, ejecutivo y judicial del Estado, estableciendo así las bases para su gobierno. También garantiza al pueblo determinados derechos. La mayoría de los países tienen una constitución escrita. La de Gran Bretaña, encarnada en numerosos documentos (por ejemplo, la Carta Magna) y el derecho consuetudinario que definen las relaciones de los ciudadanos con la Corona, el Parlamento y los tribunales, no está escrita, pese a que, en muchas ocasiones, se ha postulado su redacción para que Gran Bretaña disponga de un texto análogo al de la gran mayoría de estados.


      Las constituciones pueden clasificarse mediante varios criterios: si están protegidas contra enmiendas (constituciones blindadas), si presentan una clara separación de poderes, si las disposiciones pueden ponerse en vigor mediante revisión de la actuación del ejecutivo o del legislativo, si establecen un Estado unitario o federado, etc. Las constituciones escritas están asociadas históricamente al liberalismo político y a la Ilustración. Tal es el caso de la historia del constitucionalismo español. Muchos estados autoritarios y totalitarios poseen unas elaboradas constituciones, pero, en la práctica, no tienen vigor para ser respetadas por el gobierno en el poder, que siempre puede no acatarlas, suspenderlas o invalidarlas.


      Constituciones en el mundo
      Constituciones vigentes en el mundo





      1. Afganistán: 1987 .suspendía tras el golpe fundamentalista al gobierno marxista en 1992
      2. Albania : 39 de abril de 1991
      3. Alemania: ley fundamental. promulgada en 1949
      4. Andorra : 1983
      5. Angola: noviembre de 1975. modifica en 1976,1980,1991
      6. antigua y barbuda: noviembre de 1981
      7. Arabia saudita: desde el 1 de marzo de 1992 , el gobierno monárquico absolutista se rige por intermedio del sistema básico gubernamental
      8. Argelia : febrero de 1989
      9. argentina : 1853. modificada en 1860,1866,1898y 1994
      10. Armenia: en 1993 entro en vigencia una nueva constitución
      11. Australia : 1 de enero de 1901
      12. Austria:1920 .enmendada en 1929
      13. Azerbaiján: se prepara una constitución dentro del sistema autoritario que impera en el es país islámico
      Bahamas : 10 de julio de 1973.
      14. Bahrein : 1973, bajo la monarquía absolutista
      15. Bangla Desh: es enmendada e 1973,74,75,77,79,81.88.89 y 91
      16. barbados : 30 de noviembre de 1966
      17. belarus: se redacta una nueva constitución
      18. Bélgica: 1831.enmendada varias veces y revisadas en 1949 y 1971
      19. Belice: 21 de septiembre de 1981
      20. Benín: el dictador Kereskou al abandonar el marxismo establece una constitución el 2 de diciembre de 1990 .propiciando el multipartidismo por primera vez
      21. bhutan : 1953
      22. Bolivia 1967
      23. bophuthatswana : se rige por la constitución de Sudáfrica
      24. Bosnia-Herzegovina: 1974.Modifica en 1989,90,91
      25. Botswana: 30 de septiembre de 1966.En una de las pocas democracias del África
      26. brasil: 5 de octubre de 1988.la primera constitución , en un gobierno civil en 24 años
      27. Brunei darussalam :1959. algunos preceptos fueron suspendidos en 1962 , por el reino absolutista mas rico del mundo
      28. Bulgaria :13 de junio de 1991 , ante la caída del viejo régimen marxista pro soviético y la instauración del pluripartidismo
      29. burkina faso: con el establecimiento del multipartidismo se consolida una nueva constitución el 11 de junio de 1991
      30. Burundi : 13 de marzo de 1992.suspendida por el golpe militar de 1993 que derroco al primer presidente civil .Melchior Ndadaye en plena vigencia
      31. cabo verde : 7 de septiembre de 1980 modificada en septiembre de 1990
      32. Camboya : 27 de junio de 1981. modificada por el régimen pro soviético de Samrin en 1989
      33. Camerún : aprobada en 1996
      34. canada : acta constitucional de 1982
      35. ciskei : suspendida por el nuevo régimen militar en 1990
      36. Colombia : 6 de julio de 1991
      37. congo: al establecerse e nuevo sistema multipartidista , se redacto una nueva constitución en 1992
      38. corea del norte : la constitución del 27 de diciembre de 1972
      39. corea del sur: 25 de febrero de 1988
      40. costa rica : 7 de noviembre 1949
      41. cote d” Ivoire: (antes costa de marfil ) 31 de octubre de 1960. modificada por el presidente vitalicio Houphoner
      43.Croacia: Diciembre de 1990
      44. Cuba: 1976
      45. Chad: Aprobada en 1996
      46. Chile: 1980, Enmendada en 1989
      47. Chipre Septentrional: 5 de mayo de 1985, aprobada por referéndum
      48. Chipre, 16 de Agosto de 1960
      49. Dinamarca, 5 de junio de 1953
      50. Djibouti, 1991 y 1984. Leyes constitucionales realizadas pro la dictadura de Aptidón.
      51. Dominica: 3 de noviembre de 1978
      52. Ecuador: 10 de Agosto de 1978
      53. Egipto: 11 de Septiembre de 1971
      54. El Salvador: 20 de Diciembre de 1983, modificada en 1991.
      55. Emiratos Árabes unidos: Siembre de 1971, en provisional establecido por la monarquía absolutista.
      56. Eritrea: El país más joven de la tierra esta redactando su primera constitución bajo el gobierno provisional de Osaías Afwerki, Ex líder de la guerrilla del Frente de Liberación popular de la Eritrea (FLPE).
      57. Eslovaquia: El país más joven de Europa se rige bajo la misma constitución de la Republica Checa creada el primero de enero de 1993, ambos estados pertenecían a la antigua Checoslovaquia
      58. Eslovenia, Diciembre de 1991
      59. España, 29 de diciembre de 1978
      60. Estado Vaticano, no hay constitución,(Ley fundamental) 2001
      61. Estados unidos, 1787, tiene 26 enmiendas
      62. Estonia, una nueva constitución fue sometida a referéndum el 28 de junio de 1992, el país Báltico fue uno de los primeros en independizarse y establecer el sistema multipartidista.
      63. Etiopía, promulgada en 1994
      64. Fiji: 25 de julio de 1990
      65. filipinas: El régimen democrática Corazón Aquino estableció una nueva constitución el 2 de febrero de 1987, que fue sometida a referéndum.
      66. Finlandia: 17 de Julio de 1979
      67. Francia: 6 de octubre de 1958
      68. Gabón: 21 de febrero de 1961, modificada por Omar Gongo, uno de los dictadores mas antiguos del mundo en 1967-1975-1981-1986-1990.
      69. Gambia: 24 de abril de 1990 , enmendada en 1982 por el régimen democrático de Dawda K. Jawara.
      70. Georgia: Aprobada en 1995
      71. Ghana: Marzo de 1992, el nuevo régimen democrático somete a referéndum la nueva constitución.
      72. Granada: 1974 fue suspendida por el golpe marxista de 1979 y reestablecida en 1984, luego de la invasión norteamericana.
      73. Grecia: Válida desde 1986
      74.Guatemala: 14 de enero de 1985
      75. Guinea Bissau: 16 de mayo de 1984, bajo la dictadura izquierdista de Luis Cabral y modificada en 1991 por su seguidor Joao Vieira.
      76. Guinea Ecuatorial: Obiang Nguema establece una nueva constitución en noviembre de 1991 y es sometida a consulta popular.
      77. Guinea: 23 de diciembre de 1991
      78. Guyana: El régimen izquierdista de Forbes Burham establece una nueva constitución el 6 de octubre de 1980 y modificada en 1988 por sucesor Desmond Hoyte
      79. Haiti. 1987
      80. Honduras: Noviembre de 1982,
      81. Hungría: 18 de Agosto de 1989. Modificada en 1972, 1983, 1989.
      82. India: 26 de Enero de 1950, Modificada en 1975, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1986, 1988, 1992 en la democracia más grande del mundo.
      83. Indonesia, agosto de 1945, modificada en 1969 por régimen autoritario más antiguo del mundo del dictador Suharto.
      84. Irak: 22 de septiembre de 1968, enmendada en 1969,1970, 1973, y 1974 de manera provisional.
      85. Iran: Creada por el gobierno fundamentalista islámico del desaparecido Ayatollah Khomeini en diciembre de 1979, enmendada en 1989.
      86. Irlanda del Sur: 29 de Diciembre de 1937
      87. Islandia: 17 de junio de 1944
      88. Islas Camoras: 7 de junio 1992
      89. Islas Marianas del norte: 1986
      90. Islas Marshall: 1 de mayo de 1979
      91. Islas Micronesia: 10 de mayo de 1979
      92. Islas Palau: 1 de enero de 1981
      93. Islas Salomón: 7 de julio de 1978
      94. Israel: No existe constitución política como tal sino un conjunto de leyes; desde 1950 se han incorporado durante un periodo no específico.
      95. Italia: 1 de enero de 1948
      96. Jamaica: 6 de Agosto de 1962, conjuntamente con la independencia nacional
      97. Japón: 3 de noviembre de 1946. En vigor en mayo de 1947.
      98. Jordania: 1 de enero de 1952, enmendada en 1974, 1976 y 1984.
      99. Katar: 2 de abril de 1970, creada por la monarquía Absolutista con carácter provisional.
      100. Kazajstán: Aprobada en 1995
      101. Kenya : 12 de diciembre de 1963, enmendada en 1982, 1986, 1991 durante los gobiernos autoritarios de Jommo Kenyata y Danieal Arap Moi.





      Las 10 Constituciones mas jóvenes del mundo

      1) Chad: 1996
      2) Camerún: 1996
      3) Sudáfrica: 1996
      4) Georgia: 1995
      5) Armenia: 1995
      6) Kazajstan:1995
      7) Malwi:1994
      8) Bielorusia:1994
      9) Lusemburgo: 1994
      10) Rusia: 1993








      No Existen constituciones en los siguientes países

      1) Israel
      2) Nueva Zelanda
      3) Reino Unido (Escocia, Inglaterra, Gales, Irlanda del Norte)
      4) San Marino
      5) Vaticano
      6) Bhutan
      7) Omán
      8) Somalia




      Se han suspendido las funciones de la Constitución en los siguientes países

      1) Afganistán: Tras el derrumbe del gobierno marxista en 1992.
      2) Togo: El régimen autoritario de Eyadema la suspendió en 1991, tras los disturbios políticos que reclaman mayor para el multipartidismo al igual que otros países africanos.
      3) Sudán: El nuevo régimen fundamentalista, que llegó vía golpe militar en 1989, suspendió la constitución de 1985 y ahora se rige a base de leyes coránicas.
      4) Venda: El nuevo régimen castrense de 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la constitución.
      5) Ciskei: Los golpistas militares que asumieron el gobierno en 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la Constitución.
      6) Myanmar: El régimen castrense que asumió el poder en 1998 prohibió la constitución de 1974.
      7) Burundi: Los golpistas que llegaron al poder a finales de 1993 y derrocaron la primera democracia del país, suspendieron la constitución de marzo de 1992
      8) Transkei: Los golpistas encabezados por el general Bantu Holomisa suspendieron la constitución de 1987.
                Tobacco Control Measures before Parliament Health Committee        

      The Vision for Alternative Development (VALD) and Coalition on the Tobacco Control Bill, have called on Parliament to enact a strong and formidable law on tobacco control measures to protect the lives of the people.

      They also appealed for the speedy passage of the Public Health Bill and avoid attempts of the tobacco industry in interfering in the making of public health policy, because it would not only affect the well-being of Ghana but was also a breach of article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC).

      Mr Issah Ali, Executive Director of VALD who made the call in a statement copied to the Ghana News Agency in Accra said Ghana had failed to meet its obligations on article 8, 13 and 5.2 of the FCTC, deadline for which fell on February 27, 2010.

      He said Ghana should have implemented a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, ban smoking in public places and pass comprehensive tobacco control legislation five years after ratifying the FCTC.

      Mr Ali said although Ghana was making headway in the process of enacting laws against tobacco, its urgency was unfortunately relegated.

      ‘Till it happens to a close relation or a friend, one might never realize how close and deadly the tobacco canker is to all of us. However, much as one might wish never to believe tobacco is dangerous especially to the secondhand smoker, the evidence is glaring and therefore must be curbed earnestly before it degenerates.”

      The Executive Director stressed that the FCTC did not recognize the tobacco industry in the discussion of public health polices and therefore their participation in Ghana’s Parliamentary Select Committee on Health’s public health hearings on the Bill was a violation of the Convention.

      He cautioned the legislature to be on the lookout for any attempt of the tobacco industry to interfere with public health policy.

      “We should be wary because unlike other national health threats such as cholera, malaria, maternal mortality, among others, this menace has multinational public relations firms well established promoters and lobbyists who may not leave anything to chance in interfering with public health policies,” he noted.

      Some countries have fallen prey to the tobacco industry interference in their public health policy, thereby making their tobacco control legislations weak and ineffective and this should be a wakeup call to Ghanaian policy makers, he urged.

      Mr Ali stated, “The Tobacco Control Measures of the Public Health Bill when passed will mandate the implementation of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packs to enable smokers and non-smokers with low level of formal education to understand the hazardous effect of tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke."

      He indicated that countries such as Mauritius, Egypt, and Djibouti, among others in Africa, have implemented a pictorial and text health warning covering on their tobacco pack.
                NGO holds forum on Tobacco Control Bill        
      NGO holds forum on Tobacco Control Bill
      http://news.peacefmonline.com/social/200911/32209.php
      Date: 20-Nov-2009
      Source: GNA


      Government would ensure that tobacco control is included in the country's developmental agenda to free Ghanaians from tobacco addiction, disabilities and death.

      Already the Ministry of Health has taken steps to ban smoking in health facilities and prohibited tobacco advertisement through various administrative directives.

      Dr Benjamin Kumbour, Minister of Health-designate announced this in an address read on his behalf at a public forum on Ghana's Tobacco Control Bill in Accra on Thursday.

      It was organised by Vision for Alternative Development, a non-governmental organisation (NGO) in collaboration with Coalition of NGOs in Tobacco Control and Media Alliance in Tobacco Control.

      It was aimed at offering the participants the opportunity to contribute meaningfully to the passage of the Tobacco Control Bill when presented to Parliament.

      Some of the provision of the bill included the ban of smoking at public places, advertisement on tobacco and sponsoring events and sales by children under 18 years.

      Dr Kumbour said the World Health Organisation (WHO) report indicated that close to five million people die annually as a result of tobacco use and exposure to the smoke.

      He said tobacco was projected to kill more than 10 million smokers and passive smokers by 2030 with 70 per cent in developing countries including Ghana.

      Dr Kumbour said Ghana played a key role during the negotiation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC).

      He said Ghana was among the first 40 parties to the Convention, adding that Ghana had since participated in all meetings and inter-governmental Negotiation Bodies.

      The FCTC is a global collective decision taken by more than 168 countries including Ghana and that the development of the convention was approved by the WHO Assembly and negotiated under the auspices of the WHO.

      He pledged the ministry's commitment to ensuring that children and the youth were not exposed to tobacco use and the use of hard drugs.

      "Dr Kumbour expressed the hope that the recommendations of the forum would be considered by the Ministry in ensuring a strong law to control tobacco in the country.

      Mr Issah Ali, Executive Director of Vision for Alternative Development, said the use of tobacco was the gateway to the use of hard drugs, which was causing harm to most Ghanaians.

      He therefore urged the government to protect its citizens against diseases by putting up measures to control the menace.

      Dr Promise Sefogah, Programmes Director of Doctors for Right To Health (DRH), an NGO said tobacco was the leading, cause of preventable disease death world wide and that it had serious negative effects on every single organ of the body

      He therefore urged the youth to desist from using tobacco which he said had negative effects on their mental and physical development.
                VALD selected to participate in global summit        
      VALD selected to participate in global summit
      By Naa Bettey Nelson
      Ghanaian Chronicle
      Mon, 24 Aug 2009
      (http://www.modernghana.com/news/234547/1/vald-selected-to-participate-in-global-summit.html)

      Vision for Alternative Development (VALD) has stated that Labram M. Musah the General Secretary, will represent the organisation at the premiere of the LIVESTRONG Global Cancer Summit in Dublin, Ireland, from August 24 – 26, this year.

      This is the first-ever event to bring together world leaders, advocates and corporations from more than 60 countries to address the global cancer burden.

      The VALD is a non-governmental organisation (NGO) established to promote alternative initiatives and development at all levels of society.

      It has the following as its working objectives: To engage in health promotion and information/tobacco control, to support community participation in decision making and to advocate for cultural diversity, peace and development.

      VALD is the leading NGO in Ghana advocating for the implementation of the Frame Work Convention on Tobacco Control to reduce cancer and heart diseases.

      The Summit is the landmark event of the LIVESTRONG Global Cancer Campaign, an effort of the Lance Armstrong Foundation (LAF).

      Labram Musah will represent the organization's commitment to fight cancer in Ghana and engage with world media, political leaders, representatives of non-governmental organizations and corporate leadership.

      Cancer is a worldwide public health problem. It accounts for 12.5% of all deaths, more than the percentage of deaths caused by HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria put together, is the second leading cause of death in developed countries, and is among the three leading causes of death for adults in developing countries.

      In 2002, there were 6.7 million cancer deaths worldwide with less than 5% of these in sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that by 2020, cancer could kill 10.3 million people worldwide, with a 50 to 75 percentage increase in cancer mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.

      As of now Ghana has no national statistical records of cancer cases, but a research conducted by the Korle-bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) revealed it.
                Tobacco Companies target Africa        
      Tobacco Companies target Africa
      Public Agenda
      Friday, June 12, 2009.
      By Basiru Adam

      Following increased pressure from Europeans countries, Tobacco companies are said to have found Africa a safe haven where control measures are loose in many co