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          READING COMPREHENSION        

1.HATES CRIMES

            The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.

            Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes

            The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.

  1. How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
  2. How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
  3. Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
  4. How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
  5. How many hate groups are there nationwide?
  6. What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
  7. How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
  8. Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
  9. What was the increase in hate groups last year?
  10. Who is Hillary Shelton?         

2.PILOT  ACCUSED

            Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .

            Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"

            Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.

            Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"

  1. When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
  2. How long has he been held in jail?
  3. Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
  4. What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
  5. What did he hide in 1993?
  6. Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
  7. What are the conditions of his bail?
  8. What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
  9. Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?

3.BOSNIA INJURIES

            On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .

            NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.

            In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"

             And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".

  1. How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
  2. Where were the two American soldiers inured?
  3. Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
  4. Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
  5. How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
  6. Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
  7. What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
  8. Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
  9. Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
  10. Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4. CLONE SYSTEM

            Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?

            Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid . as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .

            After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.

            A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.

  1. What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
  2. What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
  3. What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
  4. Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
  5. What is the main problem of cloning system?
  6. What does Australian scientist claim?
  7. What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
  8. For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
  9. What is the specific with mitochondria??
  10. Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?


5. ARSON IN THE VILLAGE


            On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.

            The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 

            The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.

            The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.

            The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.

            The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.

1.      When did the car stolen?
2.      What was the lost property?
3.      What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.      What was the demand of political party?
5.      What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.      What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.      How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.      En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.      What was the monitor action on the scene?
  10. what action did the local police take ?

6. Authoritarian regime


            President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.

            "We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.

            It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 

            The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.

            The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.

            The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.

             Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

  1. Which countries are called golden triangle country?
  2. Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
  3. What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
  4. Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
  5. What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
  6. Where is the international court of Justice located?
  7. why were the thousands of people jailed ?
  8. What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
  9. How many political prisoners were jailed?
     10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?

7.  GAMBLE

            November 27, 2001 Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.

            Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports. And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.

             Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.  The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.

            The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved.

1.      How may gang members arrested?
2.      What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.      Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.      How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.      How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.      What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.      What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.      What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.      What were weapons confiscated.
          10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?

8.  EBOLA

            Sunday, December 9, 2001 An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in  France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.      What did government request to Media?
2.      Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.      Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.      When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.      What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.      What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.      How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.      What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.      Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    


9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

            US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .

            There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country

            It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.  Who is Taras?


10. THE UNITED NATION

            The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states. After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs
1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat
                                        1. International court of justice.

            The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

            America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

            Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.


1.HATES CRIMES

            The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.

            Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes

            The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.


  1. How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
  2. How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
  3. Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
  4. How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
  5. How many hate groups are there nationwide?
  6. What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
  7. How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
  8. Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
  9. What was the increase in hate groups last year?
  10. Who is Hillary Shelton?         

2.PILOT  ACCUSED

            Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .

            Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"

            Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.

            Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"

  1. When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
  2. How long has he been held in jail?
  3. Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
  4. What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
  5. What did he hide in 1993?
  6. Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
  7. What are the conditions of his bail?
  8. What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
  9. Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?

3.BOSNIA INJURIES

            On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .

            NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.

            In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"

             And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".

  1. How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
  2. Where were the two American soldiers inured?
  3. Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
  4. Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
  5. How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
  6. Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
  7. What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
  8. Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
  9. Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
  10. Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4. CLONE SYSTEM

            Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?

            Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid . as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .

            After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.

            A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.

  1. What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
  2. What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
  3. What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
  4. Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
  5. What is the main problem of cloning system?
  6. What does Australian scientist claim?
  7. What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
  8. For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
  9. What is the specific with mitochondria??
  10. Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?


5. ARSON IN THE VILLAGE

            On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.

            The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 

            The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.

            The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.

            The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.

            The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.

1.      When did the car stolen?
2.      What was the lost property?
3.      What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.      What was the demand of political party?
5.      What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.      What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.      How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.      En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.      What was the monitor action on the scene?
  10. what action did the local police take ?
6. Authoritarian regime

            President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.

            "We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.

            It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 

            The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.

            The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.

            The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.

             Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

  1. Which countries are called golden triangle country?
  2. Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
  3. What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
  4. Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
  5. What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
  6. Where is the international court of Justice located?
  7. why were the thousands of people jailed ?
  8. What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
  9. How many political prisoners were jailed?
     10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?
7.  GAMBLE

            November 27, 2001 Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.

            Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports. And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.

             Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.  The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.

            The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved.

1.      How may gang members arrested?
2.      What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.      Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.      How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.      How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.      What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.      What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.      What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.      What were weapons confiscated.
          10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?

8.  EBOLA

            Sunday, December 9, 2001 An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in  France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.      What did government request to Media?
2.      Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.      Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.      When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.      What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.      What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.      How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.      What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.      Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    


9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

            US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .

            There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country

            It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.  Who is Taras?
  
10. THE UNITED NATION

            The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states. After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs
1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat
        
              1. International court of justice.

            The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

            America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

            Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.




    Day = s/m/t/we/th/f/sa
    Date= 8/7/9
    Month = jan/feb/mar/apr/mar/jun/jul
    Year = 99/98/00/01
    National Police
    K.P.S.=KOSOVO Police Station
    L.P.= Local Police
    P.S.N- 4 = police station n 4
    K.P.S.n 2= KOSOVO Police station n 2
    L.N.P.S.= Liberian National Police station
    P.P.S. =Pristina Police Station
    E.T.P.S= East Timor Police service/Station
    H.N.P.S.= Haitian National Police service/Station
    S.P.S = Sudan Police Station
    SNPS= Sudan National Police Station/service
    TLNOC= Timor leste Netional Operation center
    PNTL= Timor Leste National Police
    F-FDTL= Timor Liste Defense Force
    Inter National Police
    UNP.S.N.4 = UNPOL Station n 4
    CIV.S.N.  2 = CIVPOL Station n 2
    UNL.S.N.5 = UNMIL Station  n 5
    I PS.= International police Service
    IPTF= International Police Task Force
    UNMISS = United Nation Mission in south Sudan
    PKF= Peace Keeping Force
    Kfor-  Kosovo force
    UNMISET = United National Mission of support in     East Timor
    UNMIK= United National Mission in Kosovo
    UNAMID = United National African Mission in     Darfur
    Wit- witness
    Vic - victim
    Mal - male
    Fem – female
    Ano-Caller- Anonymous Caller (अज्ञात कलर)
    Rec - received
    Dis- dispatched
    Inf- inforemed
    Arr - arrived
    St- street
    GR -
    GN -
    GC -
    Color
    Bla/whi/gra/tan/gre/yel/mar/blu
d.o. – duty officer
s.c. – station commander
i.o – investigation officer
p.t – patrol team
t.l. team leader
p.u. – patrol unit
c. pol. – chief of police
f.b. – fire brigade
b.u. – back up unit
r.c. – regional commander
u.a.  un advisor
r.t. – rescue team
p.v. – patrol vehicle
p.c. – patrol car
c. s. – call sign
c.t. – cordon team
re.t. –reserve team
se. c. - section commander
d.c.p – deputy chief of police
q.r.t. – quick response team
imm - immediately
sud - suddenly
hrs - hours
amb - ambulance
veh - vehicle
pol . c – police commissioner
res – responded
Att – attended
B d t – bomb disposal team


          Report Writing        

 Daylight Robbery

    An East Timorese woman, aged 32, was robbed by two Militia men in their 20's CIVPOL monitors have been called in to assess the situation and conduct an interview.
    On the 27th June 1999 an East Timorese woman aged 32, was robbed in 3road daylight, midday. The Two robbers jumped out of the bushes on her way home for lunch, armed with a gun and machete. One was in front and one behind. They demanded her purse, watch and jewelry. First she refused to hand over anything, so the man in front pushed her then punched her in the stomach. She then gave her valuables, but the men didn't believe that she had given everything. The one behind her pinned her arms behind her while the other one punched her repeatedly in the stomac

h. She passed out and when she woke up, the men had gone. She was hurt quite badly so she had to spend a day in hospital. She was threatened by the men; they said that they would kill her if she informed the police. They were probably Militia as they asked her if she had voted in the independence election and became angry when she said yes. She had never seen the men before.
reasons for incident and description of assailants
    Both the men were in their early 20's and were about 5'6-5'8 inches tall wearing red bandannas. One dressed in camouflage fatigues and the other in faded denims and a white t-shirt, the taller one had a scar down the right cheek.
    The woman was probably robbed as the two men knew, or had heard, that she had voted in the independence election, and wanted to confirm it and hit back at her for doing so.
conclusion \Summary
CIVPOL will pass this information to the local police and said that she should contact them should the men return and threaten her again. CIVPOL  assured the woman that they would patrol her streets more closely.
 
Hijacking
    A plane has been hijacked on route from Kuala Lumpur International Airport to Rome, Italy on 20 July 2001
    Flight IA 504 is hijacked by five armed men twenty minutes into the flight. It is on its way to Rome, Italy from Kuala Lumpur International. The hijackers divert the plane to Bangkok and demand the release of their 6 friends in an East Timorese jail. They threaten to blow up the plane if their demands are not met. The bomb is apparently in the luggage compartment. After 3 hours, the plane lands in Singapore and the hijackers ask for food and water. The plane is then surrounded by Army Special Forces and food and water is given in exchange for female hostages. Negotiations take place between hijackers and local authorities, why say they need 5 hours to arrange the release of their 6 friends. After 5 hours, the authorities refuse to release 6 but agree to 3. 15 hours of negotiations go on and finally the men surrender to the authorities.
Reasons for incident/Description
    The hijackers have hijacked the plane to force the release of their friends in an East Timorese jail. There are five armed men on the plane armed with pistols and possibly a hand grenade. They say there is a bomb in the luggage compartment.
Conclusion/Summary
    After 15 hours of negotiations, there is no breakthrough and the hijackers surrender without any of their demands being met. All hostages are released unharmed.
Hit and Run
    On the main, highway running to Madrid,, northwest of the city of Barcelona, at 10:30PM, on Friday the 2nd February/there has been a hit and run case. Eyewitnesses say it was a 1996, opal grey, Austin Minor car with caravan. The car was heading towards Madrid when a cyclist on the same road was hit. It was raining and visibility was very bad. The cyclist for some reason moved onto the road from the cycling lane and was hit. His cycle was completely crushed, and has left leg and arm were broken, he received minor injuries to his head, even though he was wearing helmet. The victim was wearing cycling gear but did not have any protection from the rain. He was about 18 years old, slim and 5'10" tall. The cyclist was coming from Madrid. The victim was taken to Barcelona hospital and is said to be out of danger. The car was said to have some scratches from the cycle on the left-hand side as well. Due to the poor visibility, the witnesses at the scene of the crime could not read the number plate.
    A search is taking place for the car in Madrid, as it as heading in that direction. The eyewitness said that there were four people in the car and didn't know if there were more in the caravan. By the brief close look he got and poor visibility, the witness thinks they were all men.
Trapped in an Earthquake
    It was 1:00 AM on Friday the 16th December 1990. Almost all the residents of Cyber town were asleep. It was raining very lightly and it was very dark. All of a sudden at 1:02 AM there was a tremor of more than 6.7 on the Richter scale. It lasted for about 3 minutes. All the houses collapsed pulling down telephone and electrical poles. Fires started, as the main gas supply the houses was broken and gas was leaking everywhere. The people, who managed to wake up and run out of their houses, were running around trying to find a safe place. The ones who were injured or trapped were crying out for help. The whole place was in chaos. Police and army personnel (the ones that had survived the earthquake) were called in to help, and take charge of the situation.Out of the total 50 houses in the town at least 40 of the houses were completely destroyed. Those that were not destroyed were damaged very badly. Ambulances from the near by towns were called in to help with the situation, as they were not as badly effected, as they did not fall directly in the earthquake line.

    The army set up temporary tents in order to accommodate the injured and lost, and a mobile unit was put up for immediate relief. Nearby towns and cities sent out relief workers to help with the situation. Food and medicine vas quickly requested for. By 4:00 AM people were either looking for the missing people or burying the dead. There was a slight haze in the sky from all the dust that had been floating around from the crumbling buildings. t would take the people of Cyber town at least 3-6 months to bring things lack to normal for themselves.
Selling  Alcohol
    At dusk on Saturday 29 September 2001, Mr. Abdul Hamid a young man who is 28 years old, the owner of a small restaurant, in downtown Abu Dhabi. His shop was next to the tall building of the central Bank. Even 'though it was a Saturday, and a holiday, he decided to open his small shop, because his business had not been very good and he needed all the extra money to support his large family. He had only five or six customers during the whole day but he was looking forward to the evening when men would come to have drink. Although, being a Muslim country it was permitted to sell the locally brewed Stella beer, from which he could make quite a bit of profit.
    Then around 9:OOPM two men casually dressed came into his shop and asked him for some beer and things to eat. As soon as he had brought their order, they both stood up and caught him and held his hands behind his back. They said that they were from the Religious police, and that it was forbidden by the Sharia law to sell any sort of alcohol on a holiday. They said that ithere had been a new law passed saying that this was the new rule for all public holidays. The penalty for abusing this law was death, or 100 lashes. Abdul Hamid apologized to the policemen saying that he was not aware that this new law had been imposed, he begged the two policemen to forgive him as it was his first offence and begged them for mercy. Both the officers looked at each other and gave the situation a lot of thought, after some time they released him with a very stem warning.


ALLEGED WITCH HACKED TO DEATH
    A 46-years-old woman accused of being a witch was hacked to death in a remote village in the northeastern Indian state of Tripura, the Press Trust of India reported Thursday. The news agency said the woman was known as a I "spinster in the  village because she had remained unmarried. The woman.KuntiDebbarma, lived on her own and was always fairly quiet, reserved and  considered odd to the villagers. She was forcibly removed from her hut in Tuiching village in western Tripura at approximately 4:40pm witnesses said. She was dragged into the middle of the village by 7 of her neighbors who then proceeded to hack her to death using machetes and axes. She had been accused of allegedly practicing sorcery in her village and putting a spell on a newborn baby that had recently died. Police have launched an operation in the remote tribal area to catch Debbarma's neighbors who are now hissing. Witnesses stated that there were 3 women and 4 men in her death. However, villagers have stated that they were unaware of the whereabouts of the missing people. One man stated that the missing neighbors were reportedly in Jhasi, while another male stated he saw them in the next village over. A female informant stated that after the attacks, two men and one of the woman headed southeast on foot, while the other women and one man headed north by bus, she didn't know the whereabouts of the other man involved. Police have been receiving conflicting reports and will continue their search for the attackers. Every year, several women are killed in India at the hands of villagers after being accused of sorcery. Last year there were 213 reported murdered of "accused' witches in India alone.
RAINSTORMS KILL 3, HURT 50

    Early Monday morning at approximately 3:30am, tropical storms blew away over 6,469 mud and thatch houses and knocked down approximately  396 trees in northern Bangladesh, killing three people and leaving nearly 5,332 people homeless, police reported early Tuesday
Morning. The storms were unexpected for many of the villagers and almost all of the people involved had been asleep when the storms hit. one woman and her baby girl were crushed to death when their tin-roofed house collapsed during the storms. The woman and child were apparently alive after the storm ended, but villagers were unable to rescue them before their deaths. One man was killed by lightning while trying to savetwo young manwho were also trapped in the thatch house next to his. Fifty people were injured during the rainstorms in Netrokona, Sylhet and Moulvibazardistricts  according to police reports in Ittefaq and Janakantha. It is unknown how many injured people are being hospitalized at the moment. The storms not only leveled mud and thatch houses, but tin roof houses as well in the farming region 132 kilometers (80 miles) northeast of Dhaka, the national capital. Police officers are Trying to organize search parties to help remove bodies from the rubble in hopes of knowing an exact number of deaths. At this moment the death toil is three, but police fear that once the house rubble has been cleared, the death toll will dramatically increase.

Jail Break
    There were 350 I nmates in Alcatraz Jail, and 60 staff. It was classified as a maximum security jail and escape was considered to be next to impossible.It is situated on an island and is surrounded by water, which is infested with Sharks. The security staff are shuttled to and from the island by ferry twice a day, which a is the only way in and out.However on the night of 3 April 1992, there was a jail break. Twenty of the inmates managed to escape.What happened was, when the evening ferry came to shuttle the day stuff back to the mainland at 5:00 PM, a fire was started in the dining hall by some of the inmates, in the central building. Most staff on duty rushed to the scene and tries to put out the fire. In the meantime, while all the staff were busy with the fire, the twenty who escaped managed to overpower the guards at the main gate and boarded the ferry which was only manned by two guards. they took the ferry to an isolated spot and abandoned it there. Although the local police were informed, and a search was conducted, they managed to escape. A description of each has been given to the central police headquarters and also to all sub-offices.It has been a week since the incident, and there are no clues as the where they are now. Their friends who are still in the jail are not willing to talk or help authorities on this matter.
ARSON- -NARRA TIVE
    At 2100 hours on Friday 15th September 2000 an Albanian male called Mentor. Who lives in pristina, at Grid reference 136 247.heard a knock at the front door of his house. when he opened it. he saw three masked men standing there. One of hese men grabbed hold of him, held a hunting knife to his throat, and told Mentor. inAbanian no to move or he would be killed. The other two men then entered his house and started to destroy the living -room furniture with a large hammer. which they had with them. The taller of the two men was dressed in green combat clothing and a red ski mask, and the shorter man was wearing blue trousers, a white jacked and a blue ski mask, all three were speaking Serbian to each other. when the two men had finished breaking the living-room furniture, they went upstairs and continued to destroy the furniture there. Later the shorter man in the white jacket came down the stairs and ran outside, returning shortly afterwards  carrying a red plastic container. He poured petrol from the container over the broken living-room furniture and the tall man then set the furniture alight. The  three man started to laugh and the one holding Mentor told him. in Albanian, that it was time the Albanians knew what it was like to have their homes destroyed.  mentor tried to break free, but was pushed to the ground and kicked in the stomach a number of times. The house was starting to fill with smoke, the tall man told him not to report the incident or they would cut his throat. The three men then ran from the house laughing. Mentor was able to crawl from the house into the street, where he saw, abut one hundred meters down the street. The three men standing under a streetlight talking to another male person, who was giving them money.Thethree  men then got into a white Alfa Romeo driving off in the direction of the hospital and the other person walked away towards the town center. The Fire services arrived about five minutes later, by which time the house was well on fire, with flames leaping through the roof. The only items of property, which were saved from the house, were a clock and a satellite dish. Two UNMIK police patrols attended the scene and assisted in keeping people away from the fire. A Danish police officer took  Mentor to the hospital in Pristina, for treatment to his left hand, which he had burnt saving the clock from die house. Mentor was requested to attend police station number one, Pristina, at 1200 hours the following day, to be interviewed.
SUICIDE  - NARRATIVE

    At 1230 hours on Tuesday 3 October 2000, an Albanian male called Besnik went to the UNMIK Police Station Number 4, in Pristina. He stated that his uncle's neighbour had telephoned him and said that he had heard a gunshot from the uncle's house.
An INMIK Police unit was sent to the address, at Grid reference 129326. arriving at the scene at 1240 hours, where they found an elderly male person lying on the kitchen floor. The emergency medical services were called to the scene and Doctor Agim KRASNIQI pronounced the male dead at 1315 hours, the man had died from one gunshot wound to his head. The dead man was an Albanian about 45 years old, wearing a pair of blue jeans and a gray jersey. Next to the body were an Astra automatic pistol, and one empty 7.65 bullet case. A neighbor informed the Police Officers that he had heard a gunshot from next door. at 1200 hours that day and then telephoned Besnik. Both he and the nephew identified the body as Raji HARB. The neighbour also stated that he had been living next door to Raji for 20 years, and that Raji had been suffering from tuberculosis. This disease had caused him a lot of pain over the last year and he had attempted to commit suicide twice before. Also found at the scene, near the body, were a suicide note written on a newspaper and a wedding ring.
    The last person to see Raji alive was his nephew. It was at 0730 hours .morning when he saw his uncle cleaning his car. The body was taken to (mortuary in Pristina hospital. Besnik was requested to attend the Police lion at 1300 hours the following day for interview.

ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT- NARRATIVE

    At 1125 hours on Tuesday 2 May 2000 a Traffic Accident occurred at the main roundabout in south Pristina, grid reference 129217, the vehicles .involved were a British Army Landrover and a black Nissan jeep. The circumstances to the accident were as follows: the Landover drove onto the roundabout from the Northern entrance and the black Nissan jeep, which was already driving around the roundabout, failed to give way to the Landrover, so a collision occurred between the two vehicles. After the collision the Nissan jeep drove away from the scene, towards Pristina Hospital. A witness it the scene was able to give a description of the driver of the jeep as a young dark haired female, approximately 20 years of age, wearing a white blouse, who was alone in the car. The witness also recorded the car's registration number 044 KS 141, on an envelope she was carrying. A joint UNMIK and KPS police patrol arrived at the scene fifteen minutes later, the UNMIK police officer was from Zimbabwe. It was raining at the time of the accident, visibility was poor and the traffic on the roundabout was heavy. the police took measurements of the road and retained broken headlight ass and traces of black paint, found at the scene of the accident. The military driver and his front seat passenger were not wearing their seat belts the time of the accident and both received bruising to the head chest. they were taken to the British Military Hospital to receive medical treatment. The damage to the military vehicle was a badly dented front left side wing; the vehicle was towed to the British Barracks in Pristina. The fitness identified herself as an UN civilian employee, working as a finance officer, in room 12, United Nations Headquarters, Pristina.
 


ROBBERY - NARRATIVE
    At 2010 hours on Monday 18 October 1999, in Pristina, a Serbian female stopped an UNMIK Police Patrol. She was very upset, reporting that her house had been robbed. The patrol took her back home, which was at grid reference 125 227.
At the address the police officers spoke to the woman's husband, a Serbian, who owns a Jewelry shop. which is located in the same building. He stated that at 1930 hours he and his wife were eating in their kitchen when there was a knock at the shop door. When he opened the door he was faced by three men. He described these persons as all being about 25 years old. dressed in green military type jacket and trousers, with their faces covered by dark masks. The leader of the group held an AK 47 in his right hand, the other two were armed with a revolver and a large knife. He also noticed a white Volkswagen car with a female in the driver's seat, parked in front of the shop. the car's engine was running. The leader of the group shouted at the owner in Albanian, forced him back into the kitchen and demanded money from the shop safe. When the victim refused, the man with the revolver hit him across the face knocking him down to the ground. It was then that the power went off and the house was thrown into darkness. The victim started to struggle with the suspects and he managed to take the revolver from one of the men. The suspects then ran from the house through the' rear door. The victim chased them out of the building and saw the two with the rifle and the knife getting into the white Volkswagen, which then drove off towards the city centre. The third suspect disappeared into the woods at the back of the house. Later the police searched the woods and the jacket of the third suspect was found. In the jacket was a driving license and a photograph of a young girl. The revolver, jacket and the other items were seized by the police for further examination. As a result of his struggle with the three suspects the victim received a swollen right eye and a cut to the head, which were later treated at Pristina hospital. It was also revealed that the suspects had taken two gold rings and three silver bracelets, with a total value of 1300 German Marks. The police advised the victim that they would make a report and investigate the incident.                                                   
 

ARMED ROBBERY-NARRATIVE

    Monday 1 of May 2000 about 0140 hours an Albanian male went to the Local UNMIK Police Station and reported that an Armed Robbery had taken ice at the Mini Market near the Stadium. When the Police Patrol arrived at the Mini Market, they found the Security Guard in an office, his hands were handcuffed behind his back and his mouth had been covered with tape. hen they released the guard, he gave them the following information. He stated that he had been employed as a Security Guard at the Mini Market since November 1999 and he was responsible for the security of the building when it closed. On Sunday 30 April he started work at 2100 hours, he checked the building and found the doors and windows secure. After he had finished checking the building he went to his office to complete some paperwork. He was listening to the radio, when at 0015 hours he heard a noise in the Mini Market. Before he could react, the office door opened and four males rushed in. They were all about 20 years old and all wearing a red baseball hat. The one with the hat an automatic pistol of some kind, which he held in his right hand and one of the others, had a baseball bat, which he held in his left hand. The man with the gun pointed it at the guard and shouted at  him. in Serbian, to sit still or he would be killed. Two of the males then gagged and bound him, the one with the baseball bat stayed with him. The hers went out of the office and he heard them taking things out through the side door. About half an hour later the man with the gun re-entered the office warning him again to be quiet, then all four left the Mini Market through theside door. He believed the persons were Serbian as they talked to each otherand him only in Serbian. He waited for sometime before trying to raise the alarm he was eventually heard by the guard of the store next door, who reported the incident to the UNMIK police. This person also stated that at 0045 hours that night he saw a dark colored Mercedes leaving the Mini market car park, towards the Airport. The Police and the guard carried out a check of the building; they found a rear window had been forced open. The Victim stated that 28 cases of Whiskey and 53 boxes of cigarettes had been taken, however all the money was still in safe.
 

ARMED ROBBERY-NARRATIVE (Bank Robbery)

    At 0848 hours on Wednesday the 23rd of September 2000, UNMIK Police Officers from Pristina police station number 1 and units from KFOR responded to a coded alarm for a Bank Robbery in progress at the First Union Bank. Pristina.On arrival at the Bank UNMIK.Police found a Bank employee and two cash securtity guard inside the building, 'hey interviewed the employee, who stated that he was the Head Cashier of the First Union Bank and that he had started work early, about 0630 hours, because there was to be a delivery of a large sum of money. At 0645 hours he saw the Armoured Cash Truck, stop outside the bank and the security guards form the truck were opening the rear doors. A large black BMW stopped immediately behind the armoured truck and two armed men limped from the BMW and pointed their weapons at the guards. On seeing this the cashier attempted to call the police by telephone, but the lines were busy. He was armed with a Glock 17 automatic pistol, so he went to assist the guards. On leaving the bank he was confronted by a third man who had a revolver. The cashier was shouted at. in Albanian. to put his pistol down or he would be killed, so he dropped his pistol. Then he and the two guards were taken into the bank. Where the cashier was forced to open one of the offices. The armed men then tied the three together with rope and covered their mouths with yellow sticky tape, warning them not to try and escape. The armed men then  left the office locking it behind them. At 0845 hours the bank staff came into work and found the cashier and guards locked in an office, so the manager activated the alarm. The cashier was able to describe the suspects as three young men. One was muscular. approximately 1.90 meters tall, the second man was well built about 1.75 meter tall and the third was quite thin about 1.60 meters tall. They all wore green military coveralls and  had covered their faces with black ski masks. The two tall suspects were carrying shotguns and the third suspect was carrying a black revolver. A total of four million five hundred thousand German Marks, in various denominations, was taken from the Cash truck. This large sum of cash was being delivered to pay United Nations Personnel.
 


"EXTORTION"
    On Friday 9 May 2003, at 20.00 hours, an incident was reported to Police Station #5o of a person being severely beaten. The caller witness stated that a beating incident had just occurred at the food store "Best Price", which was located at Main Street -25, grid reference 193-168. Immediately, a police patrol was dispatched to the scene of the incident. On arrival at the scene of the incident at 20.15 hours the officers observed, that the 42-year-old male food storeowner, had been very badly beaten on his face. Due to the very serous condition of the storeowners injuries the officers decided to immediately transport the victim by ambulate to the local hospital for treatment.the 37-year-old female witness to the incident said she and the storeowner lad been friends for the last 3 years. At 19.50 hours, while she was six meters away from the incident hiding behind a bread display, she observed the owner of the store and the offender, a male that was about thirty years of age, 175 cm tall, very heavy build, with long black hair and beard, brown leather coat, white shirt and black pants arguing loudly.
    The witness advised that she over heard the offender say to the storeowner that he was late in paying the 900 euros which were due to be paid at the beginning of each month, and that if the money was not paid he would destroy the store by fire.
the witness advised that the storeowner said to the offender that he refused" to pay any more extortion money to him. The witness then stated that she observed the offender remove a small black club from his coat pocket with his right hand and strike the store owner five times in the face with the club while holding him by the neck with his left hand, and then put the club back in his coat pocket.

    Further interview of the witness revealed that she was employed as a teacher the local school, and resided at Airport Street-49, grid reference 836-742, the witness stated that she had never seen the offender in the store before incident happened. The witness further stated to the officers that the
 


JOURNALIST

On 14 May 2003 at 09.30 hrs a fair haired 180 cm tall, about 35 years old male, with glasses, dressed in blue jeans, brown shoes and black shirt walked into to the police station #3. A young female police officer met him at the duty room and asked him about the reason of his visit. The visitor said. that he was a journalist and needed to speak to the station commander of this police station. The duty officer noticed, that the man looked very upset. She enquired about the reason and the man said, that his photo camera was missing since yesterday evening. He also added, that he was not upset because of the loss of the camera, but mostly because of the loss of the film in this photo camera. The station commander of the police station was not available. He was attending a meeting in the Main Headquarters and the visitor had to wait for 30 minutes, sitting in the waiting room. While he was waiting for the Station Commander, the duty officer gave him a cup of tea. hen the journalist said, that he would not wait longer and left his telephone number as 507-631 asking to call him as soon as the Station Commander would return from the meeting. Then he the Police Station left at 10.00 hrs.
the Station Commander returned from the meeting at 10.15 hrs. The duty officer advised the Station Commander about the journalist. The Station Commander called for the investigation officer and ordered him to call the journalist and to look into the matter.
The investigation officer rang the journalist and they agreed to meet at the reception area of the hotel named "21st Century" at 11.00 hrs. As they met, they walked outside the hotel and sat on the bench in the park. The journalist said, that he was working for a magazine called "Towns and People". He arrived in the town of llth May 2003 to take pictures about customs and tradition of the population, living in this town. The job was over and he took 2 pictures. On 13 May at 19.30 hrs he took a taxi from the old bridge over the river to the city center. He thought, that he had forgotten the bag with the photo camera and films in the taxi. The investigation officer asked him to describe the taxi and the taxi driver. The taxi was a yellow 4-door sedan car.
 

fight in bar (sample report)

    According to the eyewitness, who was present at the scene, it was the evening and approximately 40 people were having drinks in the bar with their friends. A part form this. there were 10-15 army personnel also having a drink there. They had completed their duty and were about to return home. There was a discussion between the barman and the army men concerning the number of drinks that had been consumed. The barman had added extra drinks on their bill bringing to the total for their bill to S200. However, the army men had actually only drunk $100 worth of drinks. The army man who went to the bar to pay the bill a disagreed withthe barman's total, which was more than double, and was accused by the barman oftrying to pay less. There was a heated exchange between the two, ending in the barman punching the army man in the face and telling the army men to get out of the bar. When the fight started the witness was at the bar, having a beer, and was.at happened. After being punched, the army man called his friends and they started smashing all the tables and chairs and fighting with the locals who were supporting the barman. During the fighting, the witness was hit on the head with a beer bottle that had been thrown by somebody. After that.he hid under the table.

    According to the eyewitness account, the trouble started because the barman tried to overcharge the army men for drinks, which they had not consumed. The two sdes became very heated and it then erupted into fights between the army and local people.

    The CIVPOL monitor assured the witness that he/she would report the incident to the local police and thanked the witness for co-operation.

 

“UNMIL RADIO”

People around the world like to listen to the radio. People listen to the radio at home, at work, in the car and in the streets. People listen to the news, weather forecast and like to listen to the music. Liberians are no exception to this common tradition. The Civil war in Liberia was over in 2003. People’s lives and hopes turned to good. More Liberians began walking with a radio in their hands listening to the news and music. There are three main radio stations in Monrovia operating on FM frequency: Music radio on frequency 90, 2. Official radio of the United Nations Mission in Liberia on frequency 91, 5; and World news radio station on frequency 103. The transmission of these radio stations is also well heard in neighboring countries like Sierra Leone, Guinea and Ivory Coast.

A young Liberian man called John was listening to the UNMIL radio. He heard that the nationwide campaign on Disarmament was launched on 3-d of December 2003. He also heard that the campaign was coordinated by the UNMIL radio with intention to inform combatants and communities in Liberia about this program.

           John is a 28 year old Liberian citizen; he has been married for 10 years and has three kids: two sons and a daughter. The daughter is 9 years old, the oldest son is 7 and the youngest is 5.  John and his family still currently live at his father’s house in Monrovia. John finished high school in May 1993 and received his certificate upon completion. During the war he was unemployed and now he is still looking for a job. Like many Liberians he usually played football on weekends and was listening to the radio. His favorite radio station is the Music radio.
On 21st of December 2004, John went to the center of Monrovia to look for a job as a security officer at the shop. He walked into a supermarket which was trading electronic goods. While he was waiting for a manager of the supermarket to ask him if he would hire him, John heard an announcement on the UNMIL radio about recruitment of police officers for the Liberian National Police Service. John left the supermarket without even having a response from the manager. John decided to become a police officer. Walking home John saw a poster on the wall of the Police station located in the center of Monrovia and read that applicants, who successfully meet basic criteria in fitness, writing, psychological and medical tests would be invited for interview at the Police HQ.   

           When John came home he spoke with his father about his intention to become a police officer. His father said that he would be proud if John was a police officer. John successfully passed all necessary tests and on Monday, 17th of January 2005 he was invited to come to the police Headquarters for interview.    

The following conversation is the dialogue between a police officer and John.
 
 â€œPolice medal”

    On 14 January 2005, a journalist from the Police magazine called “To Serve and protect” went to see the magazine Director and proposed writing an article about the history of police medals awarded to citizens for their assistance to the Police. The presumed name of the article was “Police Medal”.

    On 16 January 2005, the journalist went to the Police museum located at Main street number74 to conduct research for the article. While in the museum, he was pleased to see pictures, letters of appreciation, and medals given to young citizens, for their assistance to the Police during investigation of crimes.

    In the records section of the museum, the journalist read that on May 7, 1947 the Chief of Police reported the kidnapping of an 8 year old girl, when she was walking home from school. He said that this crime might have gone unresolved if there had been no cooperation between the citizens and the police. Two youths, 11 and 15 years old, witnessed the girl being abducted and took down the registration plate number, PK 5386, of the vehicle used to commit the crime. This led to the immediate arrest of the criminals. The girl was freed and returned to her parents.

    The common practice of the 20th century was to send letters of thanks to the citizens, but the Police Commission decided thate wanted something special to recognize young people who helped the Police department. It was decided that a "Board of Police Commission Medal" should be formed to plan for the presentation in such cases. Medal designers were instructed to enquire as to the design and costs.

The following resolution was presented and passed unanimously. The medal was to be made of bronze with the words "Police Commission Award" on the front side of the medal and the reverse side was to specify the name of the recipient as well as the date of the service rendered and the words "For praiseworthy service in law enforcement". The estimated cost of production of this medal was 250 dollars.

The medal presentation was always made in the office of the Mayor, who also served as  Chairman of the Police Commission. The first ceremony took place on 26th of November, 1947. The medals were awarded to two boys 11 and 15 years old, who reported the abduction of a girl along with vital clues that led to the immediate arrest of the suspects.

    The next award was presented in 1948 on April 15th to a 17 year old male, who had witnessed an armed robbery attempt at a jewelry shop.  The young male began following the gunman. He saw two Police officers and informed them of the circumstances and they were able to arrest the gunman without incident.

    Before publishing the article, the director of the Police magazine asked the journalist to come to his office to brief him about the article. The following conversation is the dialogue between the director of the Police magazine and the journalist.

''WAR CRIMINAL”

On Friday, 28 January 2005 at 07.00 hrs a mobile police patrol started their day shift. Two police officers drove police vehicle Jeep # 864. The first route was from Police Head Quarters towards the fish market.

    At 07.45 hrs the officers saw a crowd of about 20 people on the Main Street of Monrovia, Grid coordinates LG 305-681. The people at the scene were shouting. The Police officers observed that there were two men fighting. Some of the people from the crowd were hitting one of them  whom they believed was guilty. He was bleeding from the head. Police officers decided to stop the car. It was very obvious, that if the police patrol would not stop, the perceived offender’s life would have been in danger.  It was well known from police sources that 95 mob justice cases had been registered during the past 6 months. Many of these cases had fatal results. The fighters and the crowd were acting aggressively and were very excited. Any step made by the police towards the crowd was very dangerous. 

The team leader of the police patrol, using the loud-speaker system warned the mob to stop fighting. It had diverted the attention of the crowd for a moment. There was no time for hesitation. Police officers rushed into the crowd and took the fighters into a police car. Then they drove to the nearest Police station, located at the airport grid reference LG 307-692. On their way, the team leader of the police patrol gave first aid to the victim and bandaged his head. The driver of the patrol car sent a radio message to the Airport Police Station, reporting the fighting case, adding, that they would be arriving at the Police Station in 10 minutes.

When the police patrol arrived to the Police Station the fighters were taken by the duty officer to the interrogation room. The team leader of the patrol car was asked by the commander of the Airport police to proceed to the police station in order to give details as to what had happened.  During interrogation the two men involved in the case were asked why they were fighting. The man with the injured head said, that he was 35 years old, lived on Green Street number 81. He was the employee of the telephone company called “Lone star”. He also stated that he had never seen the offender before. He then said that he left the house at 07.30hrs for work, but was attacked by the offender. He stated that the offender accused him of being a war criminal and then hit him on the head with an iron pipe. Immediately people from neighboring houses rushed to the scene. Then the police arrived to the scene. The Airport police commander asked the patrol team leader to send the driver of the patrol team to the location of the incident and to find the iron pipe for evidence. The driver of the patrol team returned to the scene and found the iron pipe with blood stains, lying on the grass. The Police patrol continued the shift and drove to the forensic laboratory to deliver this exhibit for forensic examination.
 After the shift was over at 19.00 hrs., the team leader of the patrol team and the driver came to their office to write a report about the results of the shift. 

The following conversation is the dialogue between the Team leader of the Police patrol team and the driver of the Police car preparing to write a report.
“SHOOTING INCIDENT”.

    On Monday, 14th of March 2005 two police officers were conducting a mobile patrol between the stadium and the water tower. They drove Police vehicle jeep # 472, red and white in color.  At 12:45 hrs, the Police heard gun shots at grid coordinates LG 315-692. The driver of the police car drove in the direction of the gun fire. On the radiothe team leader requested for a back up. At 13.10 hrs the Police patrol arrived at house # 59 on Stadium Street. The Police saw the barrel of a rifle sticking out from the window of this house, directed towards the street. The officers were not able to see who was holding the rifle because of the window curtain. The back up police unit arrived at 13.20 hrs and surrounded the house. The team leader of the patrol unit loudly gave the verbal command to whoever was in the house to throw the rifle out of the window and walk slowly out of the house with his hands up in the air. No sound or movement came from the house and the rifle remained in the same position.  The team-leader warned the gunman, that if he did not follow the previously given verbal command, the police would open fire. Again, there was no response from inside of the house.

    At 13.30 hours the back-up unit began an assault on the house. As they entered the house, they observed that nobody was there. The rifle was resting on the window with the barrel pointing towards the street and the butt of the rifle was held on the back-rest of a chair. The police made a quick search of the house and discovered that nobody was there.  They found only the rifle, two empty bullet cases on the floor near the window and blood stains on the chair.

    The police did not take anything from the scene, as the forensic group had not arrived.
The team leader and the driver of the patrol car knocked on the door of the neighboring house. After approximately 10 minutes a 60 year old woman opened the door. She was wearing a green dress and a black scarf on her head. She said that she did not want to open the door because she was afraid of the gunfire near the area of her house. She stated that when the shooting started, she counted a total of 7 gunshots. The woman also saw three masked men of a muscular build shooting in the direction of her neighbor’s house. When the gunfire ended, she stated that she saw that masked men took her neighbor from the house and placed him into a gray colored minibus. The witness was sure that they drove towards the airport. She also noticed that her neighbor was wounded and that his right shoulder was bleeding.
The patrol team remained at the scene to secure the evidence while waiting for the arrival of the forensic group.

    The forensic group arrived at the scene at 14.00 hrs. They made a search of the area and found more 5 empty bullet cases near the fence of the house. The forensic team took the rifle, all empty bullet cases and samples of the blood stains removed from the chair into custody for further examinations.
Later in the shift, the patrol unit heard on the radio, that the suspected minibus was stopped at a check point near the Airport. The suspects were arrested and charged for unlawful possession of weapons and kidnapping. The kidnapped man was taken by the airport police to the hospital.

    The following conversation is the dialogue between the chief of police and the team leader of the Police patrol.


“STRANGE VISITOR”.

    Newly appointed Regional Police Chief was expected to report for duty on Monday 28 of March 2005 at 08.00 hrs. Before showing up for duty officially he conceived a plan to check how duty officers in different Police stations perform their duties in an unusual situation.

    On rainy Friday evening at 18.30 hrs on March 25, 2005 he put on civilian clothes and went to the Police station # 5 at grid reference MG 497 – 551. He introduced himself as the director of the “Atlantic pictures” photo studio. The visitor was dressed in brown shoes, gray pants, white shirt and black cloak. At a sight he was about 40 years old, slim built, 175 cm. tall.
He asked the duty officer that he wished to receive a complaint form for the purpose of reporting a citizen’s complaint against a Police officer.

    The male duty officer replied that he could not file a complaint, but he could call and ask investigation officer of the Police station to come and speak regarding the incident. The visitor said that he did not wish to speak with the investigation officer, but would like to receive a complaint form, with which he could document his complaint in writing and forward it to the appropriate agencies. Then he removed a digital voice recorder from his right pocket and asked the duty officer if he could document via audio recorder his refusal to allow him to receive a complaint form.

    This made the duty officer very angry and he told the visitor to leave or he would be arrested. The visitor promptly left the Police Department without revealing the nature of the complaint. He entered his car a white sedan license # MK 5337 and drove towards the regional police headquarters. As the visitor left, the duty officer called the investigation officer at the regional Police HQ on telephone and reported about this strange visitor. At approx. 19.45 hrs of the same evening the complainant stopped his car at the regional Police headquarters, located at Flower Street # 62. He approached the main desk in the duty room and informed the female duty officer that he would like to receive a complaint form for the purpose of reporting a citizen’s complaint against a police officer.

    The duty officer said that this form was not available to visitors, as the Police department policy was that he must first speak to the investigation officer and describe the incident. The Officer would then decide if the complaint was worthy of a report. She called the investigation officer on telephone and after 5 minutes the visitor was invited to his office.
In the investigation room the visitor displayed his documents and revealed that he was the new regional Police Chief.

    The following conversation is the dialogue between the regional Police Chief and the investigation officer.
Handkerchief


“WITNESS”

On Tuesday 1st of June 2005 at 10.00 hours, an incident of mob justice was reported on telephone to the Liberian Central Police Station.  The caller used the emergency 911 telephone number to call, and stated that the incident was still happening on the side of the road next to the supermarket “Green land” situated on UN road number 73. The caller further stated that approximately 50 people were beating a young man with sticks and throwing rocks at him. Immediately, a police patrol unit was dispatched to the scene.

On arrival at the scene at 10.15 hours, the Police patrol officers observed a large crowd of people. Upon arrival of the police, the crowd quickly dispersed. The police saw a man who was still sitting on the ground. This man was holding his hands over head trying to protect the head from receiving new injures. His head and shoulders were bleeding. His pants and shirt were dirty and torn into pieces, so the color of the clothes was barely recognizable. He was about 18 years of age, slim build, approximately 175 centimeters tall with shaved head. The officers immediately notified an ambulance to respond to the location to transport him to the hospital. 

A male approached the Police patrol unit and said that it was him, who called the police about the mob justice case. He said that his name was David; he was 35 years old and resides at Mango Street number 12. He said that the man sitting on the ground was a thief who had stolen a Nokia mobile phone from the mobile telephone shop in which he, the witness, has been working as a technician for the last two years. The witness then pointed to three men all about 25 years old standing at the side of the road. Two men were unarmed and one was armed with a wooden stick. The witness said that he saw that the victim was hit with a wooden stick a number of times by the third suspect.

He stated that these men were the first who caught the thief and beat him with hands and  wooden stick. Immediately people from the street rushed to the scene to punish the thief. Upon seeing the police officers look in their direction, two of the suspects fled in the direction of the shore of the Atlantic Ocean which was not far away. The third suspect dropped the wooden stick and tried to escape in the crowd. He was a black male, approximately 180 centimeters tall, dressed in blue jeans, green shirt and red cap. The bright colors of his clothes and cap made him visible to the police. The Police patrol officers gave a chase and caught the suspect. They also recovered the wooden stick with fresh blood stains.  The other two suspects escaped by running into a motor boat and sped in the Ocean.  The Police patrol officers handcuffed the captured suspect and charged him for assault and causing serious injuries to the victim.
At 10.30hrs, an ambulance arrived and attended to the victim. The doctor said that the he had suffered massive trauma to his head and shoulders caused by rocks and wooden stick.  The injured male was taken to the Central hospital for medical treatment.  The Police patrol unit reported to the Police headquarters with the captured suspect. The witness was requested to come to the police station for interview the same day at 14.30 hrs.
   

          READING COMPREHENSION        



1.HATES CRIMES

The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.
Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes
The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.





1.    How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
2.    How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
3.    Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
4.    How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
5.    How many hate groups are there nationwide?
6.    What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
7.    How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
8.    Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
9.    What was the increase in hate groups last year?
10.    Who is Hillary Shelton?   


2.PILOT  ACCUSED

Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .
 Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"
Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.
Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"
1.    When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
2.    How long has he been held in jail?
3.    Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
4.    What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
5.    What did he hide in 1993?
6.    Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
7.    What are the conditions of his bail?
8.    What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
9.    Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?



3.BOSNIA INJURIES

On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .
NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.
In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"
 And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".


1.    How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
2.    Where were the two American soldiers inured?
3.    Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
4.    Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
5.    How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
6.    Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
7.    What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
8.    Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
9.    Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
10.    Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4.CLONE SYSTEM

Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?
Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid .
as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .
After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.
A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.


1.    What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
2.    What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
3.    What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
4.    Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
5.    What is the main problem of cloning system?
6.    What does Australian scientist claim?
7.    What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
8.    For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
9.    What is the specific with mitochondria??
10.    Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?
5.    ARSON IN THE VILLAGE

On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.
The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 
 The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.
The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.
The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.
 The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.
1.    When did the car stolen?
2.    What was the lost property?
3.    What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.    What was the demand of political party?
5.    What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.    What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.    How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.    En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.    What was the monitor action on the scene?
10. what action did the local police take ?

    

6.    Authoritarian regime

President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.
"We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.
It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 
The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.
The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.
    The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.
      Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

1.    Which countries are called golden triangle country?
2.    Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
3.    What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
4.    Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
5.    What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
6.    Where is the international court of Justice located?
7.    why were the thousands of people jailed ?
8.    What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
9.    How many political prisoners were jailed?
 10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?


7.  GAMBLE

November 27, 2001
Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.
Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested  one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports . And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.
 Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.
 The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.
The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved. 
1.    How may gang members arrested?
2.    What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.    Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.    How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.    How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.    What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.    What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.    What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.    What were weapons confiscated.
        10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?


8.  EBOLA

Sunday, December 9, 2001
An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in
France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.    What did government request to Media?
2.    Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.    Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.    When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.    What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.    What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.    How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.    What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.    Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    

9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

    US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .
    There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country .
    It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.    Who is Taras?

10. THE UNITED NATION

The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states.
    After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs

1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat

                                        1. International court of justice.

    The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

    America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

    Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.


11.  UN FAILURE IN BOSNIA

    A long -awaited report into the failure of a Dutch UN peacekeeping force to prevent the murder of thousands of Muslims in the Bosnian town of Brebrenica will be published on Wednesday. The Netherlands is bracing itself for the results of the inquiry in to the worst massacre in Europe since world War second. The
    BBC's Europe correspondent says Dutch troops are likely to be criticized for their part in event leading up to the 1995 slaughter. In July 1995, Srebrenica was being protected by 110 Dutch troops who were supposed to ensure the safety of the town's mainly Muslim population against surrounding Bosnian Serb forces. The United Nations had declared it a safe area but when it  was attacked, the town fill with out the Dutch UN troops firings shot . Up to 8000 Muslim men and boys were then murdered.

Five years of research

                  While the Dutch troops are likely to be criticized for letting the town fall without a fight , fault is also set to be found with the over all UN commander for failing to order air strikes to protect the enclave. The report is also understood to criticize the Dutch government for showing lack of political will. The 7000-pages report by the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation is the official Dutch history of events in Srebrenica. It has taken more than five years to produce. In a 1999 report, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan blamed the international community for its failure to protect the enclave but insisted that it was impossible " to say whether a more decisive action by the Dutch would have saved lives" .A report two weeks ago by the Interchurch Peace Council ( IKV) in the Netherlands condemned Dutch troops, generals and politicians for failing to evacuate and protect the Muslims.

Scenes from hell

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague has ruled that the massacre was genocide. Last August it sentenced Bosnian Serb General Radisav Krstic, considered a key commander in the episode, to 46 years in prison. The judge in the case said the massacre was characterized by " scenes from hell, written on the darkest pages of human history" Survivors' reports, aerial photography and grisly evidence exhumed from mass graves indicate the most victims in the massacre were summarily executed ,Dutch MPs may now call for a public inquiry. Seven military commanders of Royal Dutch army have been sentenced to seven years jail . Ten army personnel have been fired from the service and 20 have been restricted from the promotion as per the report of the criminal tribunal.   The BBC's correspondent Mr. Havel Eastward has been facilitated by the Dutch Government as a friends of mankind . After the massacre in the Srebrenica the Dutch government begs pardon with the Bosnian people and saying that her troops could not do any thing to save the life of the people and she is responsible to the accident.


1. How many Dutch troops were protecting Srebrenica?
2. What ethnic group were the people of Srebrenica?
3. Why the Dutch government begs pardon with the people of Bosnia ?
4. How many people were killed in Srebrenica?
5. How many army personnel were punished?
6. Who is criticized in the report?
7. Where is the International Criminal Tribunal based?
8. Would more positive action by the Dutch troops have saved lives?
9    What sentence was General Krstic given?
10    Who was facilitated by the Dutch government and why?


12.  SWARM ATTACK

    Six people were hospitalized after they were attacked by a swarm of bees in Singapore, a news report said on Tuesday. The bees attacked contractors who were trying to remove a beehive in the tropical city-state .Two police officers who were on the scene to keep back the public, were among those attacked and hospitalized. Police public affairs officers could not immediately be contacted to confirm the report. The incident occurred at approximately 12:30PM on Tuesday afternoon. Two of the people who were injured in the attack were still in the hospital on Tuesday night at 10:00 PM; however they were in good condition. Such incidents are rare in heavily urbanized Singapore. But two years ago , a 51 years old taxi driver died after he was stung by a swarm bees .The driver was changing his back left tire and he removed the deflated tire , a beehive was in the wheel well . Witnesses said that the swarm covered the man's face and hands and repeatedly sting him as he cried out in pain .He died later that night while being hospitalized. Singapore is a very small country covered by the see in the east of Asia and known as a well industrialized country.
    The big industry installations have many nooks and corners where the swarm bees get shelters. firstly people do not care about it because it seems harmless and small in the beginning but after  a year it  appeared in large scale and bees become escort free so they undermine their stung so they try to destroy their hives and got stung and the result  become very adverse. The same accident happened in The US in 1990 when a farmer had gone to his farmhouse to clean the room , he saw that there is a bee hive in the ceiling of the room he thought it was full of honey , unfortunately it was poisonous  swarm bee's hive.  He collected his two sons and a black servant to take the honey . In the mean time when they lit a fire to fly the bees , the swarm bees started stung them . The younger son who was in the door side escaped from the room after having a look at the victims and called the police . The house got in to the gutter by the fire and three injured had been hospitalize in the city centre . The house owner Mr. Kally died during the medical treatment and two had been discharged after 2 weeks with swollen face and bruises for the whole life.  The same accident happened in Nepal too on 23 September 2002. The Raute , who are famous for honey hunter ,had tried to collect honey from the very steep hill near Manang District. they made rope ladder to climb the hill and with the aid of fire they started collecting the honey .
    It was a documentary program filmed by Scottish Director visualized to broadcast in Britain  by BBC. Al together there were 15 men. When the honey hunter was climbing down from the steep hill after the successful visualization of the film. Unfortunately, one of the hunters touched the bees hive. Due to the finished job, they did not prepare for next attack and they all were on very thin cloths and without cloves . Three among five hunters fall down from the cliff and died. Two were severely bitten by the bees were died on the way to hospital and ten crew members of the visualization  were admitted in the hospital and discharged after 2 weeks .  It is said that the bees seems so calm if they are not hurt and if anyone hurt their queen , they become so terrifying and take revenge from the hunter . The queen is the most powerful among the bees. if the queen of the bees  safely removed from the hive it will be so easy to get the honey from the hive   which is considered as medicine  in eastern countries . The working bees always follow the queen bee , if she abandon the hive silently , all the bees left the hive with out revenge. so if you want to get honey remove the queen tactically and calmly.
         
1.    How many people had been killed according to the passage.?
2.    How many people had been injured according to the passage?
3.    Where was the bees's hive in the taxi?
4.    Who was the authentic person to provide informations about injured police officers according to the passage.
5.    What had happened to the two Americans who escaped from the death?
6.    What is the ideal idea to get honey?
7.    What did the team doing in Manning District?
8.    How did the taxi driver killed?
9.    Where was the bees's hive in the room?
10.    Who is the most powerful in the hive?

13.  ARAFAT POLITICS
    Arafat is not the point. As Israelis and Palestinians use ever more lethal means against each other's civilians, the question being asked in Israel and the US is not how to end the occupation, but whether or not to end the career, or even the life, of Arafat. At the time of writing this coverage trend in early February 2002, in a further escalation Israeli tanks have confined Arafat in an area of 200m square in Ram Allah. And have destroyed the remainder of his helicopter fleet that it began to destroy on the attack of his compound on 3 December 2001.
    If Israel killed Arafat or sent in to exile, nothing would change. It seems almost absurd to have to point out that forcing millions of people to live for decades under hostile military rule with no end on sight inevitably produces violent resistance. Only a mind -set that steadfastly refuses to recognize this can become captivated by a lone figure who's real and imagined failings became a smoke screen that obscures the machinery that actually drives the conflict.
    If Israel truly seeks the moral high ground it invokes in the international arena, it should stop seeking a relative high ground whose only elevation stems from the weakness and failing of its historical enemies. Rather Israel should address the most obvious things it dies to perpetuate the conflict.
    The bottom line is that the single most identifiable factor that perpetuates the Israeli- Palestinian conflict in all its forms, both legitimate, is the Israeli military occupation that exists to protect the continuing Israeli colonization of the Gaza Strip and West Bank, including Jerusalem.
    Comparisons of Arafat with Bin Laden serve to legitimize Israel's continuing repression of the Palestinians and bear no reality to the dynamics that this particular conflicts, dynamics that Israel has played no small part in creating.
    Israel's killing of civilians is a form of terrorism. The United States  tacit support of Israel's so called retaliation in US support of terrorism .Although Israeli officials are occasionally note don record " apologizing" for the latest " accidental" death of a child , there comes a point -- after a year in which one quarter of the 800 Palestinians killed were children and 50 percent of these children were killed for away from clashes- that it becomes imperative to note that Israel could always simply stop killing children , instead of merely apologizing for it.
    Israel's nightly shelling of Palestinian neighborhoods has accounted for one quarter of the 800 Palestinians killed during the first year of the Second Intifada .  Israel's regular killing of innocent civilians including children as a "by product " of its ironically titled" targeted killings " of Palestinian activists most commonly with rockets fired from combat helicopters at these leader's vehicles while in cit streets offer more examples of the indiscriminate violence that characterizes 'terrorism' as most people understand the word.
    Following a series of suicide bomb attacks in February / March 1996, then Israeli President Weizmann bluntly described Israel's practice of using closure to turn Palestinian towns in to prisons for the entire population: "Sometimes, when you are searching for a needle in a haystack, you have to burn the haystack".
    Israel has been encouraged to carry out similar "retaliation" as in the case of the December 2001bombing, by the knowledge that the United States would not condemn it. America must refrain from "understanding" Israel's violence. This can only have the effect of encouraging the continued Israeli killing of innocent Palestinian civilians.

1.    How many Palestinian children have been killed this year?
2.    How many Palestinians have been killed during nightly shelling?
3.    Are children targeted by the Israelis?
4.    Who is Arafat compared to and why?
5.    Where is Arafat confined, and what size of area?
6.    How many people live under hostile military rule in Palestine?
7.    What is the question being asked in Israel and the US?
8.    Why is Israel not afraid to carry out retaliation attacks on Palestinians?
9.    What happened in 1996?
10.    What dies Israel do when it is faced with suicide bomb attacks?








14.  BUS LOOTED
    A bus, which started off in Kathmandu , at 5:30 PM , traveling to Biratnagar , was looted by some Indian dacoits, which had crossed the boarder in order to escape the authorities there. They had been in Nepal for at least a month and had been regularly stopping night buses and robbing the passengers of all their belongings as well as money.
    When the bus number Ba Ga 3987, first started off from Gongabu Bus Park there was a total of 30 passengers. Just near Thankot 3 more passengers got on. The journey was uneventful until they reached Muggling, where they stopped for dinner. Here, the bus conductor managed to find 4 more people wanting to travel to Biratnagar . After about half an hour stop for dinner, they set off again. At Bharatpur 2 of the passengers got off as they had only booked up to this point. The bus had to wait for about one hour as the engine had trouble and the driver had to fix it .After this they started  of again and had a short tea break at Hetauda where another 2 people got off and one got on.
    At about 2:00 PM in the morning, when most of the passengers were asleep, the driver suddenly stopped as there was a tree across the main road. The passengers all wake up as the bus had come to a sudden stop, and were all looking out of the windows. Two Indian men dressed in black were behind the fallen tree with country made rifles; at the same time 2 also came from the back and two on each side of the bus. At once they told all the passengers to come out of the bus and line up in front of the bus, even though it as a moonlight night, no body could make out the faces of the dacoits, and could tell only by the way they spoke that they were from India. Everybody was told to remove their watches, jewelries and to empty out their pockets and moneybags. One of the men colleted all this while the others told all the passengers to lie down with their faces facing down. During this time the dacoits all disappeared, as nobody wanted to follow them as they might get shot

1.    How many passengers were on the bus when it was robbed?

2.    How many dacoits were there in total?

3.    How long did they stop for dinner?

4.    Why did they stop a second time before the robbery?

5.    How did the passengers know that the dacoits were not Nepali?

5.    Where did the bus start first?

6.    How many got in the Baratpur?

7.    Why did the bus have to stop suddenly?

8.    How many we on the bus at Muggling?

9.    Although it was night time how could the passengers make out how many dacoits there were?  
15.    KOSOVO POLICE

    On Monday 17 March 2003 , at 0745 hours , two Kosovo Police Officers were on patrol duty in a police vehicle when they observed a white van type vehicle , license 496KS858 driving very fast. The officers stopped the white van type vehicle for questioning using their blue flash lights. When the driver stopped, the patrol team stopped five meters behind his vehicle, however the van did not turn off its engine. As the officers exited their vehicle, the drivers of the white van type vehicle sped away very quickly. The officers ran back to their vehicle and chased the white vehicle .They were driving on the road to the airport. The police vehicle was driving at almost 120 km/hour but was unable to catch up to the van. Suddenly, the van turned north on to an unpaved roadway. The officers continued the pursuit. The van drove for approximately a hundred meters more. There was a big hole by the side of the road which the van fell into as the driver had lost control of the van, then it rolled upside down into a deep ditch on the south side of the roadway at grid reference 184-846. The officers stopped their vehicle on the opposite side of the roadway and proceeded cautiously toward the offender's vehicle. When they were approximately two meters away form the white van type vehicle they could see that the offender was still in his vehicle but was not moving. There were no sign of blood or injury  to the offender .As the officers got closer they could see three bundles, approximately 35 cm by 20cm by 25cm in the rare cargo area of the vehicle . One of the bundles was ripped open and a dark green plant material was showing, the officers assumed that it was marijuana. The first officer proceeded to the front of the vehicle to check the physical condition to the driver. The offender was breathing but didn't respond to any of the officer's verbal commands.  The officer radioed for an ambulance and the offender was taken to the local hospital. The second officer searched the offender's vehicle and found another bundle under the front seat with a knife. The Knife was 20 cm long with old blood stains. There were no papers or registration found in the vehicle. All material were seized as evidence and taken to police station.

1.    What were the 2 officers doing at 0745 Hrs?
2.    Why did they ask the van to stop?
3.    What was their reason for stopping the van?
4.    At what distance behind did the police stop?
5.    How many bundles were seen?
6.    Approximately what speed was the van traveling when in pursuit?
7.    What did the officers assume it to be?
8.    Was the knife found before or after the suspect was taken to hospital?
9.    What distance did the van travel on the dirt road?
10.    How did the man crash the vehicle?
16.    GERMANY SOOTING

Germany was in shock yesterday after 19 years old, masked gunman shot 17 people, including two female students, before killing himself in a school massacre in the eastern city of Erfurt.
The black -clad gunman a recently - expelled student of the Gutenberg secondary school, burst into a classroom during an exam yesterday morning around 11 AM and started shooting with a pump action rifle mounted on his back. "He passed us in the corridor with out paying any attention and walked straight into the secretary's office and started shooting." He said. Witnesses said the gunman walked through the building, opening classroom doors and targeting staff, killing nine male teachers, four female teachers, a secretary and two female students all within minutes. Caretakers heard the shots and notified the local police. Two officers arrived on the scene and discovered two dead bodies in the entrance hall. Moments later the gunman appeared and opened fire, shooting dead one of the policemen. A special commando unit immediately surrounded the school, which has nearly 700 students. As the shooting continued, around 180 students were still trapped in the building. Commandos stormed the building shortly before noon and came upon what was described as terrible scenes. 'Bodies lay in the halls, in bathrooms and classrooms' said Mr.Rainer Grube, a police spokesman. The gunman, who had barricaded himself into a room, shot himself as officers approached. 'The gunman killed himself when he saw that there was no way out for him' said Mr., Grube.
    For the students trapped inside the building, their ordeals ended nearly three hours later when they were led, pale and shaking, out of the school to worried parents at the gate. They were all receiving counseling yesterday evening, while four people injured in the attack were brought to hospital. Police were last night still investigating students reports that there was a second gunman. They had no motive for the shootings yesterday evening. Friends of the as yet unidentified gunman described him as an intelligent student who was ' full of life' and often spoke of his wish to become famous. The massacre is one of the most violent attacks in German post -war history, and ranks alongside the 1996 school shooting in Dunblane and the 1999 massacre in Columbine , Arkansas. Yesterday evening Erfurt residents were in shock and German politicians speechless .
'We are stunned at this horrific crime. No explanation we could give would go far enough right now ' said the Chancellor, Mr. Gerhard Schroeder, expressing his sympathy for the families of the victims and the students who witnessed the attack. He ordered the German flag on the Reichstag in Berlin to flown to be flown at half mast. 'We are all in one room .One teacher is dead, we are crying.



1.    Which two other massacres are mentioned?
2.    How many people were injured in the attack?
3.    What time did the shooting start?
4.    What weapons were used?
5.    How many teachers were killed?
6.    Did the gunman target students?
7.     Who notified the police about the shooting?
8.    Who stormed the building and when?
9.    How many police men entered the building initially?
10.    How long it take to gunman to kill the people and was there only one gunman?



17.  DEAD BODY FOUND

Mr. John Edwards lives alone in his cottage in the southern part of Cambridge, UK. He was a retired officer who previously worked for the finance office which was based in London. He had been retired for 5 years now and spent most of his time in Cambridge. He had worked for 34 years and during that time lived in London. By the sides of his cottage, there was a husband and wife living who used to work for Mr. Edwards. The woman would cook his meals and the man would attend to the garden. Mr. Edwards had no close family or friends who would come to visit him regularly .On December 15 , 2002 ,Mr. Edwards was found dead in his study at 0700 hrs. His body was fund by the woman who did his cooking. She had informed the police when she had seen him lying on his desk at 0700hrs. All the doors were closed from the inside so the woman thought in quite suspicious so she looked through the window. This is when she saw Mr. Edwards at his desk. When the police arrived at 0730 hrs. They broke open the door and checked the body. Mr. Edwards was confirmed dead and his body sent for post mortem. By the side of the table there was a bottle and a letter which said that he was taking his life as he was fed up and didn't see any future in continuing. All these materials were sent to the police lab for the necessary testing. The reports all confirmed that Mr. Edwards did take the poison, traces of which were found in his blood and on his lips. On the latter, apart from Mr. Edward's finger prints, there were other prints found as well. When the police checked up they found that it belonged to the husband the woman who cooked for Mr. Edwards. The police found this very suspicious as the husband had said that he never came into the study at any time. The police brought the man in for questioning and under interrogation he at first denied that he had gone to the house ant any time. After 2 hours, he changed his story and said that he
          Elemental XML and XML Models        

[2008 note: I've left this here for historical purposes, but for me JSON has most of the modeling virtues of this idea, so I've mostly switched my own practices to that. -glenn]


[There is also a one-page introduction to this topic, prepared for a lightning talk at BarCampBoston, 3 June 06.]


Elemental XML defines a syntactically reduced subset of XML that is reasonably expressive, but mainly trivial to explain, write and parse. It is demonstrably rich enough for use in at least one real-world application (mine), and probably others by extension, but it is not designed to embody arbitrary complexity, and there are probably applications for which the aspects of XML that Elemental XML omits are, in fact, beneficial or necessary.

XML Modeling is an alternate, and again simplified, approach to defining the structure of an Elemental XML document without the use of an XML DTD or XML Schema (either of which is technically allowed, but discouraged on principle). XML Models are intended to represent the data-structure with sufficient rigor to allow useful computed validity, but sufficient clarity for human authors to easily assess a simple document's validity according to its model, and to easily produce a model from an example document and vice versa.


Elemental XML

Here is a very short Elemental XML document:


<?xml version="1.0"?>
<BlogEntry>
<ID>156</ID>
<Date>Tue, 30 Aug 2005 11:15:00 EDT</Date>
<Title>Cool idea for using a simplified subset of XML...</Title>
<Body>Check out <a href="http://www.furia.com?type=code&id=ElementalXML">this</a>.</Body>
</BlogEntry>


The document begins with an XML declaration, and thereafter consists simply of tag pairs that define elements. For those unfamiliar with XML/HTML/SGML markup, the first tag of each pair looks like <ElementName>, with a less-than symbol at the beginning, then the element name, then a greater-than symbol. The second tag of each pair is the same, but with a slash after the less-than symbol, like </ElementName>. An Elemental XML element name can use letters, numbers and the underscore (_), and case doesn't matter, so <ZipCode>, <Address_Line_1> and <Address_Line_2> are all fine tags, and <ZipCode> is the same as <zipcode>. Whatever comes between the two tags in the pair is considered to be the content of the element. An element's content may either be data (as with the elements ID, Date, Title and Body here), or other elements (as with BlogEntry here). If an element contains subelements, it makes no difference what order they appear in, so in a BlogEntry the ID can come first, or last, or between the Date and the Body, etc. The only special rules for the content of an element is that it can't contain any of the document's tags themselves.

To explain it the other way around, for people already familiar with XML: Elemental XML uses elements and subelements for everything, so there are no attributes and no empty tags. It requires that each element contain text or subelements, never both, but it parses only declared elements, and has no entity declarations, so text can include arbitrary tag-looking syntax intended for post-parser processing stages (most obviously HTML intended for browser display, but also nested XML or other tag-variants) without any special escaping or preparation mandated by the Elemental XML container. Empty tags and missing tags are equivalent, there is no special null value.

Text representation of defined tags themselves must still be escaped in some way to prevent ambiguity; Elemental XML doesn't stipulate a method, but the standard XML entity-escaping of < and > as &lt; and &gt; is an effective one. Note that due to full XML's more-complex rules for namespaces, entities and escaping, Elemental XML correctness does not guarantee, require or preclude XML well-formedness.


XML Models

An XML Model defines the structure in which an Elemental XML document represents a certain kind of information. For the most part, an XML Model is an Elemental XML document with all the data removed. The XML Model for the blog entry above would look like this:



<?xml version="1.0"?>
<BlogEntry>.
<ID>.</ID>
<Date>.</Date>
<Title>?</Title>
<Body>?</Body>
</BlogEntry>



In place of actual data, the first character inside each tag-pair is always one of the four symbols [ . ? + * ], which specify:
 

.   there must be exactly one of this element
?   there may be zero or one of this element
+   there must be one or more of this element
*   there may be zero or more of this element
 

In the case of container elements, the symbol on the parent tag defines the rules for the whole set of contained elements, and the symbols on the subelements define the rules for their subappearance within each appearance of the parent container element.

The XML Model for the blog entry, then, declares that there must be one and only one <BlogEntry> element, which in turn must contain one and only one <ID> and one and only one <Date>, and may optionally contain a <Title> and/or a <Body>, but no more than one of each.

The XML Model must not contain anything except its tags, those four symbols, and any amount of space/tab/return whitespace (which is all semantically meaningless).

In the other direction, an XML Model is inherently a document template: copy it and plug in real text in place of the .?+* symbols.

Although the relative order of different elements is not significant, where multiples of a particular element are allowed, their order is assumed to be meaningful, and must be preserved by parsing applications.

An Elemental XML document does not explicitly specify an XML Model, and since Elemental XML ignores undeclared structure, an Elemental XML document's validity might be tested against multiple XML Models of varying specificity or scope. For example, the above blog entry could also be validated against this uselessly over-simplified XML Model:



<?xml version="1.0"?>
<BlogEntry>.</BlogEntry>



This leaves the ID, Date, Title and Body elements to be treated (for validation purposes) as text, or perhaps to be validated separately by individual XML Models.


FuriaDocument (example)

Here, with some content elided for sanity, is the actual Elemental XML document for issue 245 of The War Against Silence:


<?xml version="1.0"?>

<FuriaDocument>

<Metadata>
<Metatitle>Sloan, astrid, Anchormen, Promise Ring</Metatitle>
<Number>245</Number>
<Title>How September Came for Sinatra</Title>
<Date>7 October 99</Date>
</Metadata>

<Section>
<Type>entry</Type>
<Heading>Sloan: <i>Between the Bridges</i></Heading>

<Text>There are many valid reasons for being unhappy... A large fraction of the human population 
pursues existences that are vulnerable to severe disruption by forces either entirely or partially 
out of the victims' control, depending on how much how much allowance you're inclined to make for 
human nature and emotional inertia. "The news", most of the time, is a monotonous exercise in 
cataloguing the sources of justified human misery: earthquakes, train wrecks, itinerant plagues, 
esoteric tribal vendettas and general imminent apocalypse. Happiness is <i>possible</i> in the 
face of anything, but the level of Zen required for the serene appreciation of complete 
catastrophe is pretty advanced, and the difficulty of getting through to Amazon.com to order 
<i>Self-Esteem for Dummies</i> is probably not high on the current list of East Timor refugee 
complaints. For me personally, though, and probably also for you, given that you're sitting in 
front of a functioning computer reading music reviews, happiness cowers behind far-less-tangible 
barricades. Nothing ghastly and inexplicable has happened to anybody I love in weeks. I've never 
had a helicopter-deposited President shake my hand and assure me that the nation's thoughts are 
with me and the Red Cross will be here for as long as necessary. I've never been hungry, really. 
But our conceptions of happiness adjust themselves to our environments. Solipsism is depressing, 
and anything short of it exposes you to loss, so we are all indefensible. Distress adapts.</Text>

<Text>We are unhappy, then, however much of the time...</Text>

<Text>And this is why, I think, I reserve such intense joy...</Text>

<Text>Buoyant pop comes in many forms...</Text>
</Section>

<Section>
<Type>entry</Type>
<Heading>astrid: <i>Strange Weather Lately</i></Heading>

<Text>One of the perils of mail-ordering from web sites...</Text>

<Text>This isn't the first band I've discovered by mistake...</Text>
</Section>

<Section>
<Type>entry</Type>
<Heading>The Anchormen: <i>The Boy Who Cried Love</i></Heading>

<Text>Even astrid seem comparatively somber, though, in the company of <i>The Boy Who Cried 
Love</i>, the thirteen-song, twenty-two minute debut by...</Text>
</Section>

<Section>
<Type>entry</Type>
<Heading>The Promise Ring: <i>Very Emergency</i></Heading>

<Text>I haven't heard the first two records by...</Text>
</Section>

</FuriaDocument>


Note that since elements cannot contain mixtures of text and subelements, the <i> tags here are self-evidently not part of the Elemental XML structure, and thus do not need to be escaped.

Here is the corresponding XML Model, which defines some additional optional structure that this one document itself doesn't use:



<?xml version="1.0"?>

<FuriaDocument>.

<Metadata>.
<Metatitle>?</Metatitle>
<Number>?</Number>
<Title>?</Title>
<Date>?</Date>
<DatePub>?</DatePub>
<Width>?</Width>
<Tag>*</Tag>
</Metadata>

<Section>*
<Type>?</Type>
<Number>?</Number>
<Heading>*</Heading>
<CSVTable>?
  <CSV>.</CSV>
  <CGI>?</CGI>
  <SortField>?</SortField>
  <DisplayFlag>?</DisplayFlag>
  <FieldType>*</FieldType>
  <Filter>*</Filter>
</CSVTable>
<Text>*</Text>
</Section>

</FuriaDocument>



The model, then, declares a mandatory FuriaDocument root element. Within this is a mandatory Metadata element with several optional child elements, of which one (Tag) may appear in multiples. The bulk of the content then appears in any number (including zero) of Sections, which in turn contain zero or one Type, Number and CSVTable, and any number of Headings and Texts. CSVTable, in turn, requires a CSV and allows various other things. Any element that doesn't contain other elements contains text (by definition).


Caveats and Recommendations

Elemental XML is best, obviously, for simple structures. It has no mechanism for independent declaration and reuse of complex subelements, for example, so an Elemental XML representation of something as free-form as HTML would be unwieldy. With the element/attribute space flattened into only elements, it's best to use unique tag-names to avoid ambiguity, rather than counting on the structure to distinguish between them.

Technically, however, the reuse of non-container elements is allowed. Reuse of container elements can thus be achieved by defining a reused container as a text element for the purposes of the top-level XML Model, and then re-validating the document against a separate XML Model of just the reused container and its substructure.

That is basically all. There are more things on Earth that you might want to do, but these are the ones Elemental XML understands and models. It is not a programming language, a fine-grained constraint filter, a formatting engine or a source of run-time default values. But for simple information, it doesn't need to be.


Demonstration Validator

A simple command-line validator, xmvalidate.pl, is available for use or as the basis for other validators. It is a perl script, written and tested on Mac OS X 10.4.2 but possibly functional on other perl-enabled systems. Download it, unzip it, and run it without parameters for instructions.


Version Notes


Renaming and minor revisions, 6 September 2005

I can't believe I didn't think of the obvious name for this the first time around. Renamed from the awkward "XML Simple" to the doubly descriptive "Elemental XML". Several minor edits to the text for clarity, and a new version of the validator to add support for multiple root elements in the documents to be validated.


Added the sample validator, 31 August 2005

I thought it was going to be harder.


Unreviewed draft 0.1, 30 August 2005

It is not clear that anybody other than me wants this, but I'm using it, so it seemed like a good idea to write the rules down before I forget them. And since I came to this out of my own irritation at the convolutions of the regular XML rules, conceivably there are other people similarly annoyed, and if those people exist, it is possible that some of them would benefit from a simplification and haven't devised their own, or would be happier with a random external endorsement of one.

Feedback of any sort is very welcome, and in the unlikely event that there is more interest than I'm anticipating, I will be happy to answer and revise and advise.

In particular, anybody who is the right combination of anal and bored is cheerfully encouraged to write a demonstration parser for applying an XML Model to an Elemental XML document. I'm hoping to resist the temptation to do this myself.

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          What’s in a name? For the Timorese, quite a lot        

How to refer to our young neighbour to the north? Is it East Timor, Timor Lorosa'e or Timor-Leste? Gordon Peake and Piers Kelly investigate.

The post What’s in a name? For the Timorese, quite a lot appeared first on Fully (sic).


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          Honorary Members: Heads of State        
George Abela Former President of Malta Valdas Adamkus Former President of the Republic of Lithuania János Áder President of the Republic of Hungary Askar Akayev Former President of the Kyrgyz Republic Jacques-Édouard Alexis Former Prime Minister of the Republic of Haiti Mari Bim Amude Alkatiri Secretary-General of the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor […]
          The East Timor Diaries – Pre Departure        
Soon, I will be heading into the Pacific to East Timor with a small bunch of students to spend a couple of weeks examining the “Development-Peace-Security Nexus” in post-conflict societies. I am expecting my ideals to be challenged, my worldview … Continue reading
          Unwanted Shoes        
Why I am collecting shoes in order to take them with me to East Timor in 2 weeks: My lecturer had an old pair of runners that he passed on to a farmer in Timor-Leste. I believe the convo went … Continue reading
          ETimor PM visits wounded president in Australia        
DARWIN, Australia (AFP) - East Timor's Prime Minister Xanana Gusmao visited the country's wounded president in an Australian hospital Monday for the first time since both were attacked by rebels, an official said.
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President Jose Ramos-Horta and Gusmao "embraced in a very friendly and warm manner and spent about an hour together," Royal Darwin Hospital general manager Len Notaras told AFP.

Ramos-Horta, shot by rebel soldiers outside his home in Dili on February 11, was out of bed and in a chair when visited by Gusmao, who was uninjured in an ambush on the same day.

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          12 Must-Know Facts about Asia        
Asia is the world's largest continent in world covering 60 percent of Earth's total land area.

1.Asia is the most populous continent in the world with world's populous countries,China and India.It is the land of diversity.


2.Asia can be divided into 6 subcontinents :



  1. Central Asia – Kazakhstan Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.
  2. East Asia – China, Japan, Mongolia, Taiwan, North and South Korea.
  3. North Asia – Russia.
  4. India Subcontinent – India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.
  5. Southeast Asia – Brunei, Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar [Burma], Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
  6. Southwest Asia – The Middle East including Turkey, Iran, Cyprus, Israel, and Lebanon.

3.Top Ten Tallest Mountains in Asia :

Mount Everest is the highest point on Earth and it is located in Asia.

Mount Everest with group of people
Mount Everest



  1. Everest -Nepal,Tibet
  2. K2 - Pakistan,China
  3. Kangchenjunga - Nepal,Sikkim, India
  4. Lhotse - Nepal,Tibet, China
  5. Makalu - Nepal,Tibet, China
  6. Cho Oyu - Nepal,Tibet, China
  7. Dhaulagiri - Nepal
  8. Manaslu- Nepal
  9. Nanga Parbat-Pakistan
  10. Annapurna- Nepal
4.Top Ten longest rivers in Asia :

  1. Yangtze 
  2. Yellow River 
  3. Lena River 
  4. Mekong River 
  5. Irtysh River 
  6. Yenisei River 
  7. Ob River 
  8. Nizhnyaya Tunguska River 
  9. Indus River
  10. Brahmaputra River
5.Asia is located to the east of the Suez Canal, the Ural river, and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains (or the Kuma-Manych Depression) and the Caspian and Black Seas.It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean and on the north by the Arctic Ocean.

6.Asia’s most dominant financial centers are Tokyo, Hong Kong and Singapore.

7.Asia is only continent joined by two other continents,Africa and Europe.


9.China is the world's biggest nation and it is located in Asia.

10.Asia is the only continent where tigers are found in the wild.

11.Caspian Sea is the Largest Salt Lake in Asia.

12.The Dead Sea or The Salt Sea is the lowest place on earth is situated in Asia.


          Codes for making International Calls        

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      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauAustralia(Oceania) is the smallest continent in the world and the sixth largest country in the world,comprising of 17 countries.Here is the list of 17 countries in Australia and their capitals.



 Australia
S.no.
Countries
Capitals
1.
Australia
Canberra
2.
East Timor
Dili
3.
Fiji
Suva
4.
Indonesia
Jakarta
5.
Kiribati
South Tarawa
6.
The Marshall Islands
Majuro
7.
Micronesia
Palikir
8.
Nauru
Yaren
9.
New Zealand
Wellington
10.
Palau
Melekeok
11.
Papua New Guinea
Port Moresby
12.
Samoa
Apia
13.
The Solomon Islands
Honiara
14.
Tonga
Nuku'alofa
16.
Tuvalu
Funafuti
17.
Vanuatu
Port Vila

          Countries in Asia        
 Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent in the world with 50 Countries.Here is the list of 50 countries in  Asia and their capitals. 
Asia





S.no
Countries
Capitals
1.
Afghanistan
Kabul
2.
Armenia
Yerevan
3.
Azerbaijan
Baku
4.
Bahrain
Manama
5.
Bangladesh
Dhaka
6.
Bhutan
Thimphu
7.
Brunei
Bandar Seri Begawan
8.
Cambodia
Phnom Penh
9.
Cyprus
Nicosia
10.
East Timor
Dili
11.
Egypt
Cairo
12.
Georgia
Tbilisi
13.
India
New Delhi
14.
Indonesia
Jakarta
16.
Iran
Tehran
17.
Iraq
Baghdad
18.
Israel
Jerusalem
19.
Japan
Tokyo
20.
Jordan
Amman
21.

Kazakhstan
Astana
22.
Kuwait
Kuwait City
23.
Kyrgyzstan
Bishkek
24.
Laos
Vientiane
25.
Lebanon
Beirut
26.
Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur
27.
Maldives
Malé
28.
Mongolia
Ulaanbaatar
29.
Myanmar
Naypyidaw
30.
Nepal
Kathmandu
31.
North Korea
Pyongyang (P'yŏngyang)
32.
Oman
Muscat
33.
Pakistan
Islamabad
34.
The People's Republic of China
Beijing
35.
The Philippines
Manila
36.
Qatar
Doha
37.
The Republic of China
Taipei
38.
Russia
Moscow
39.
Saudi Arabia
Riyadh
40.
Singapore
Singapore
41.
South Korea
Seoul
42.
Syria
Damascus
43.
Tajikistan
Dushanbe
44.
Thailand
Bangkok
45.
Turkey
Ankara
46.
Turkmenistan
Ashgabat
47.
The United Arab Emirates
Abu Dhabi
48.
Uzbekistan
Tashkent
49.
Vietnam
Hanoi
50.
Yemen
Sanaá

          FR. JACK SOULSBY S.M        
Spiritual Renewal

 Fr Jack has been working full time in spiritual renewal and evangelisation in both Catholic and Ecumenical circles since 1980 and has ministered in 98 nations in the Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. 






In the footsteps of St.Paul

He has toured PNG with a Pentecostal pastor,
- preached at open air crusades in Nigeria and Ghana, 
- taken groups of Australians to large ecumenical renewal conferences in USA, 
- led pilgrimages to Europe , the Holy Land,
- embarked on an " Aids safari " in Uganda, 
- held healing services for lepers in Sudan, 



ministered to 
- Mozambican refugees in Malawi, 
- Liberian refugees in Sierra Leone, 
- Sudanese war victims in Kenya, 
- genocide victims in Rwanda, 



trained evangelists in a number of nations, 
- introduced and encouraged renewal in nations as Namibia, Botswana, Ethiopia, Uganda, Marshall Islands, the Philippines, Malaysia, Pakistan, Belarus, and East Timor





 

 Several Groups
- have been initiated in Australia to conduct praise and worship, 
- run Life in the Spirit Seminars, 
- help Ugandan orphans, 
- redeem Sudanese slaves and much more



Ministries available from Fr.Jack include
-RETREATS,

-CONFERENCE INPUT
-LIFE IN THE SPIRIT SEMINARS
-GIFT CLINICS
-SCHOOL OF EVANGELISATION & CRUSADES




Fr Jack is a native of Cornwall U.K. who resides in Brisbane, Australia . He is a former Civil Engineer , and is a member of the society of Mary.


          Is Provoking a Nuclear War With North Korea Grounds for Impeachment?        

 People watch North Korea's KRT television show as a presenter announces North Korea has test-launched its first intercontinental ballistic missile at the Seoul Railway Station on July 4, 2017 in Seoul, South Korea.  (Photo: Chung Sung-Jun / Getty Images) People watch North Korea's KRT television show as a presenter announces North Korea has test-launched its first intercontinental ballistic missile at the Seoul Railway Station on July 4, 2017, in Seoul, South Korea. (Photo: Chung Sung-Jun / Getty Images)

Tension between the US and North Korea escalated sharply Tuesday after President Trump suggested he was prepared to start a nuclear war, threatening to unleash "fire and fury" against North Korea. Hours later, North Korea threatened to strike the US territory of Guam in the western Pacific. Guam is home to 163,000 people as well as major US military bases. For more, we speak with longtime investigative journalist Allan Nairn.

TRANSCRIPT

AMY GOODMAN: We begin today's show looking at North Korea. Tension between the US and North Korea escalated sharply Tuesday, after President Trump suggested he's preparing to start a nuclear war, threatening to unleash "fire and fury" against North Korea.

PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP: North Korea best not make any more threats to the United States. They will be met with fire and fury like the world has never seen. He has been very threatening, beyond a normal statement. And as I said, they will be met with fire, fury and, frankly, power, the likes of which this world has never seen before. Thank you.

AMY GOODMAN: President Trump was speaking from his golf resort in Bedminster, New Jersey, where he's on vacation for 17 days.

Hours after he spoke, North Korea threatened to strike the US territory of Guam in the western Pacific. Guam is home to 163,000 people as well as several major US military bases.

Tension has been rising over North Korea in recent weeks. The U.N. Security Council recently imposed a new round of sanctions against North Korea over its test launches of two intercontinental ballistic missiles last month. The sanctions ban North Korean exports of coal, iron, lead and seafood, which could slash up to one-third of the country's export revenue. Then, on Tuesday, The Washington Post reported US intelligence officials have concluded in a confidential assessment that North Korea has successfully produced a miniaturized nuclear warhead that can fit inside its missiles.

In response to the rising tension, China has called on all sides to de-escalate their rhetoric. Concern is growing that the North Korea crisis might result in a new arms race in Asia. Some conservative politicians in South Korea are now calling for the US to deploy tactical nuclear weapons in the country. In Japan, some senior officials are pushing for the country to acquire long-range cruise missiles and air-to-ground missiles.

We're joined now by longtime, award-winning investigative journalist Allan Nairn, who spends a good deal of time in Asia.

Welcome to Democracy Now!, Allan.

ALLAN NAIRN: Thanks. Good to be with you.

AMY GOODMAN: Your response to "fire and fury," the words of President Trump at his Bedminster golf resort, against North Korea?

ALLAN NAIRN: Well, the US nuclear system was already dangerous, irresponsible, insane, because it's on, most -- many of the US weapons are on hair-trigger alert. The missiles in the silos, the missiles on the submarines, they can be fired within minutes, which could easily lead to a mistaken firing. And now there's a president who's on hair trigger.

For years, there was a consensus, a complete consensus, within the US establishment and military, that military action against North Korea was unthinkable, because, just with conventional artillery, North Korea could immediately devastate Seoul, killing more than 100,000, perhaps. But recently, the political culture and discussion around military action against North Korea has shifted. Colonel Guy Roberts, who's a longtime Pentagon and NATO official, last year wrote an article calling for the US to adopt a first-strike nuclear policy, to be willing to use nuclear weapons against a country -- and he specifically mentioned North Korea as one -- in the event they use conventional weapons. He wrote that last year. This year, Trump nominated him to be the assistant secretary of defense for nuclear policy. John Bolton recently wrote in The Wall Street Journal that the US should consider a ground invasion of North Korea. Lindsey Graham recently quoted Trump as saying that the US should be ready to destroy --

AMY GOODMAN: Let me go to that quote.

ALLAN NAIRN:  -- North Korea itself.

AMY GOODMAN: Let me go to that quote of Lindsey Graham, the Republican senator from South Carolina, being questioned last week on the Today show by Matt Lauer.

MATT LAUER: Every military expert says there is no good military option.

SEN. LINDSEY GRAHAM: Well, they're wrong. There is a military option.

MATT LAUER: What's a good one?

SEN. LINDSEY GRAHAM: To destroy North Korea's program and North Korea itself. He is not going to allow -- President Trump -- the ability of this madman to have a missile to hit America. If there's going to be a war to stop him, it will be over there. If thousands die, they're going to die over there. They're not going to die here. And he's told me that to my face.

AMY GOODMAN: "He's told me that to my face," he said. President Trump told him, Lindsey Graham. Allan Nairn?

ALLAN NAIRN: Yeah, well, given Trump's comments yesterday, it sounds like Graham was quoting Trump accurately. You know, recently, even Mother Jones ran a column asking, "Well, why shouldn't the US do multiple nuclear strikes on North Korea?" During the campaign, Trump talked about nuclear weapons for South Korea and Japan and said, "Well, if there's a North Korea-Japan war, go for it. Have at it."

And also, this is not something that Trump just stumbled upon. There are really only three substantive issues that Trump has been engaged with throughout his career. One is trade. One is racism. He's for it. He campaigned for the execution of the Central Park Five, who were innocent. But also nuclear weapons. During the Reagan administration, Trump tried to get appointed as a US special envoy to negotiate a nuclear weapons deal with the Soviet Union. He's been thinking about this for decades.

AMY GOODMAN: I wanted to turn to recent comments by the commander of the US Pacific Fleet, Admiral Scott Swift. He recently spoke at a security conference in Australia and took questions from the audience.

AUDIENCE MEMBER: If, when you return to your command next week, you were to receive an order from the commander-in-chief, the president of the United States, to make a nuclear attack on China. Would you do it?

ADM. SCOTT SWIFT: These -- so far, these are yes-or-no answers. The answer would be yes. So, every member of the US military has sworn an oath to defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic, and to obey the officers and the president of the United States, as the commander-in-chief appointed over us.

AMY GOODMAN: Commander of the US Pacific Fleet, Admiral Scott Swift. The significance of what he's saying, Allan?

ALLAN NAIRN: You know, I had read that quote, but I hadn't seen the tape before. The laughter is interesting, because the establishment is a -- it's an organism. It has this clubby ethos. And they discuss nuclear Armageddon very easily, very casually.

What he's talking about is just following the normal authoritarian chain of command that exists within the US executive branch. And he and other officers do indeed swear an oath to carry out orders like that from the top.

In more rational times, what Trump said yesterday would be an article of impeachment. There's been a lot of talk of impeachment from some people up to now, for things like Trump's crimes, like racism, injustice, stupidity, regarding the threat of climate change, all sorts of things. But, in a sense, all of those things fit within the normal parameters of the US presidency. Lots of US presidents, at one time or another, have engaged in talk and activities like that, although none so intensively as Trump. But with what he's doing now, provoking North Korea, risking actual destruction of part of the US, he is violating the system's rules on its own terms. He's committing an actual threat against US national security. And you would think that in just pragmatic political terms in Washington, that is the kind of thing that could be grounds for impeachment. But as long as he sits in that chair, it's true, the commanders are obligated to obey his order.

AMY GOODMAN: I wanted to turn to Dan Coats, the director of national intelligence. He was speaking at the Aspen Security Forum about the North Korean president, Kim Jong-un.

DAN COATS: Well, he's a very unusual type of person. He's not crazy. And there is some rationale backing his actions, which are survival -- survival for his regime, survival for his country. And he has watched, I think, what has happened around the world relative to nations that possess nuclear capabilities and the leverage they have, and seen that having the nuclear card in your pocket results in a lot of deterrence capability. The lessons that we learned out of Libya giving up its nukes and Ukraine giving up its nukes is, unfortunately, if you have nukes, never give them up.

AMY GOODMAN: That's Dan Coats, the director of national intelligence.

ALLAN NAIRN: Yeah, he's got a point. In many ways, Kim Jong-un is -- comports himself like a crazy person, as does Trump, but there is an underlying rational incentive for the North Korean regime to get nuclear weapons, as Coats just acknowledged. You know, they always say there are no good options regarding North Korea. Well, there are no good military options. But as part of their goal of regime survival, one thing that the North Korean regime has always said is that they have two principal goals. One is to stop the US-South Korean military exercises, which are provocative. And, two, end the Korean War. There's an armistice now, but the Korean War is not formally over. That's the kind of thing that, if the US were serious, it could sit down on the table and -- at the table and negotiate.

AMY GOODMAN: You know, I just was listening to Rex Tillerson, who made a surprise trip today. He went from Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, a place you have been a good deal, to Guam, where you've also spent time. Both of us returning to and from East Timor covering the Indonesian occupation there, we would go through Guam, a site of several major military installations. And on the plane, he said this was a very good week for the US and the international community. He said this today.

ALLAN NAIRN: Yeah. Well, maybe he's referring to what used to be called the nuclear doctrine, the madman theory, which was something -- an idea promoted by Kissinger and Nixon, which was that you had to persuade the potential adversary that you're actually crazy enough to launch the nuclear weapons. And during the -- his presidential campaign, Trump said he was ready to use nuclear weapons. And reportedly, in briefings, he would ask, "Well, what's the point of having nukes if you don't use them?" So, maybe by some theory, it's good for Trump's agenda, but it's obviously very, very dangerous for the world.

And this idea that the generals around Trump -- Generals Kelly, Mattis and McMaster -- will somehow stop him, it doesn't make sense, because that is not their responsibility. Their responsibility is to carry out his orders.

And politically, I think that Trump is just one quick war away from curing most of his political ills. The establishment press has been very critical of Trump. They've given him a lot of heat. But I think part of this is because they want to worship the US presidency. They always do. They want to stand up and salute. But they're very frustrated that Trump doesn't let them because of his comportment, because he acts in a way that undermines the mystique of the US presidency and also the mystique of US power.

AMY GOODMAN: And he attacks them. He attacks the press.

ALLAN NAIRN: Oh, and he attacks the press, as well. And their main critique of Trump has been not the substance and the Republican agenda, but rather the claim that he has failed to efficiently implement it. And they praise General Kelly now, because, they say, "Oh, maybe he'll make it efficient." Well, I certainly hope not.

AMY GOODMAN: As the new chief of staff.

ALLAN NAIRN: Yeah. I certainly hope not, because this is a rightist revolution that is underway. They have -- most governments, most new administrations that come in, follow the judicial principle of stare decisis. You accept precedent. You accept what's already -- most of what's already in place. Not this group, not Trump and the Republicans, who now control all branches of US government. They are a rollback administration. Their agenda is to roll back essentially all popular achievements that happened not just during the Obama years, but also back to Franklin Roosevelt and even Teddy Roosevelt. And on the racial justice and civil rights front, what they're looking at is a rollback dating back to pre-Reconstruction, because, in principle -- and you look at the statements of someone like Sessions over the years, someone like Bannon -- they are looking to eliminate anything in law or regulations that specifically acknowledges rights for African Americans. So they're out to do a massive project of dismantling. It's a revolutionary movement. It hasn't gotten nearly as far as it could, because of Trump's incompetence. But if Kelly succeeds in making it efficient, God help us all.

AMY GOODMAN: Well, you just mentioned history, and before we go to those other issues you raised, I wanted to go back to the words of President Harry Truman. Today marks the 72nd anniversary of the US atomic bombing of the Japanese city of Nagasaki that killed 74,000 people. That came just three days after the US dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, killing over 140 [sic] people. This is President Harry Truman -- 140,000 people. This is President Harry Truman speaking on August 6, 1945, hours after he bombed Hiroshima.

PRESIDENT HARRY TRUMAN: If they do not now accept our terms, they may expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this Earth.

AMY GOODMAN: And you compare that to "fire and fury," the words of President Trump, Allan Nairn.

ALLAN NAIRN: Yeah. Well, for one thing, Truman was speaking -- even though it was an act of mass murder that he did to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, he was in the midst of a brutal, vicious war against the mass-killing Japanese and Nazi regimes, so it was a different context from now.

But in a sense, it goes back to the point that this is a rollback administration we have. Since Truman spoke, in the years since then, due to pressure from peace and human rights activists, some US standards in foreign policy have changed a little bit. There have some -- been some constraints placed on the military, the CIA. Trump is seeking to eliminate those. Since he's been in, civilian casualties as a result of US airstrikes in Syria and Iraq have multiplied fourfold. He's basically told the commanders, "Do what you will." He's rolling back -- trying to roll back US foreign policy to -- regarding violence, to where it stood many decades before, even back to the years of Teddy Roosevelt. When Teddy Roosevelt used to speak about the glory of war, the glory of violence and killing, and how that was essential to both the national character and personal character, that's the kind of thing Trump is evoking today.

AMY GOODMAN: We're going to continue this discussion after break. We're speaking with George Polk Award-winning, award-winning, longtime investigative journalist Allan Nairn. Stay with us.

[break]

AMY GOODMAN: "Wichita Lineman" by Glen Campbell. Glen Campbell passed away Tuesday at the age of 81. He suffered from Alzheimer's.


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          UN takes a small step toward justice in East Timor         

A United Nations prosecutor in East Timor indicted 11 men Monday for crimes against humanity in what promises to be a first step on a long and contentious road to justice.

Among the accused is Lt. Sayful Anwar, a deputy commander of Indonesia's feared Special Forces Command (Kopassus) - the first Indonesian soldier ever to face international prosecution for war crimes.

The UN said it would seek Lieutenant Anwar's extradition from Indonesia to face trial in East Timor. The UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) is administering the newly independent territory until elections, which are tentatively scheduled for next year.

The 10 others were members of Team Alpha, a Kopassus-trained militia group based in the northern town of Los Palos. Nine of them are already in custody.

Mohamed Chande Othman, the UN's chief prosecutor in East Timor, said the indictments would send a message to Indonesia's military that there would be no impunity for the rampage that followed East Timor's independence vote in August 1999. More than 100 people were killed and 250,000 driven from their homes in a week of violence orchestrated by pro-Indonesian militias that were trained and organized by the Indonesian Army.

But the feeling in Jakarta was that Mr. Othman, a Tanzanian who was formerly chief prosecutor at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, was putting the best face on an increasingly grim situation. The Indonesian military has said time and again it will not cooperate with Othman's efforts.

And human rights experts say it's now unlikely that the Indonesian government will be either willing or able to force the military to cooperate.

"The pressure has decreased so much compared to early this year," says Asmara Nababan, the secretary-general of Indonesia's National Commission on Human Rights. "There's been this increasing ultranationalist flavor in our parliament, which has created sympathy for officers and for those who actually committed the crimes."

Mr. Nababan also says that "the willingness to pressure Indonesia is no longer there."

The military has effectively stonewalled the efforts of UN prosecutors to question five military and police officers in Jakarta this week, despite the full cooperation of Indonesian Attorney General Marzuki Darusman.

"No &amp;#8230; officer is to be investigated or questioned by UNTAET," Armed Forces Chief Admiral Widodo Adisucipto told journalists yesterday after meeting with President Abdurrahman Wahid. "The government rejects any intervention or meddling by foreign parties."

Against that backdrop, it's unlikely that an extradition will be allowed. While there was some sentiment for an international tribunal last year, UN support for one - particularly among the Security Council members who would control the process - has evaporated.

With the threat of an international tribunal removed, the chance for credible Indonesian prosecutions now appears "slim and none" says an official familiar with the UN's prosecution in East Timor. Mr. Darusman has promised to begin trials of 22 suspects accused of human rights abuses by the end of January.

The Team Alpha members were charged with massacring nine people on Sept. 25, 1999, near Los Palos. The victims were nuns, priests, aid workers, an Indonesian journalist and a 14-year old bystander. They have also been charged with forcing the entire population of Leuro village into Battalion 745's base in Los Palos.

Anwar, deputy commander of Kopassus in Los Palos, was charged with the mutilation, torture, and murder of Averisto Lopes on April 21, 1999, at the Team Alpha base.

Though Anwar's charged with a different crime, the move against him is part of an effort by Othman to tie Team Alpha more closely to Battalion 745, and particularly to Kopassus, members of which were seeded throughout the battalion.

UN investigators in East Timor say that 745's commanders are responsible for the murder of former Monitor contributor Sander Thoenes last September, and an extensive investigation by the Monitor early this year found that Team Alpha worked hand in glove with Battalion 745.

Othman made the strongest charge by a UN official to date in early December, saying "[Mr. Thoenes] murder is, we think, linked to the whole conduct of Battalion 745." He also added that further investigations "will definitely implicate Battalion 745" in Thoenes' murder.

Though Mr. Darusman has described the murder of Thoenes as one of his "priority cases" for prosecution, none of the battalion's officers is on his list of 22 suspects.

(c) Copyright 2000. The Christian Science Publishing Society

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          African Union-International Criminal Court-Stand-Off: Justice and Peace Paradigms        
A Speech by Dr Gorden Moyo made at the Bulawayo Agenda Dialogue Series-23 June 2015

The current stand-off between the African Union (AU) and the International Criminal Court (ICC) requires us to reflect on a number of epistemic questions from the side of subalterns and victims of impunity in Africa whose voices have been silenced and invisibilized by their own leaders in the name of juridical sovereignty, jaundiced nationalism, and African solidarity. Over the last few years, AU has been accusing the ICC for bias, skewed, and selective prosecution of African leaders. Thus, the crucial question before us today is whether or not the ICC is indeed a neocolonial court or the accusation is a guise deployed by some African leaders to evade the wrath of the law? Or it’s the Imperial East versus Imperial West but both abusing the AU and ICC? These questions are screaming for answers. To be sure, this presentation seeks to expose the hypocrisies and posturings of some disfiguring African leaders who are responsible for genocide and mass atrocities against their own people and yet cry foul against the ICC.

Dr. Gorden Moyo revealed what might read as 'the real reason'
 behind  agitation for AU pull out of ICC.
To begin with, both AU and ICC were political products of the post cold war politics of the 1990s. Of course, each had its own complex gestation period. For instance, the ICC’s biography is traceable to the Nuremberg trials of the end of World War II in 1945 while the AU’s zygote is connected to the end of Apartheidism in South Africa in 1994 though its predecessor, the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) was conceived in 1963.

In many ways the 1990s was a lost decade in Africa. Its ugliest historical markers include among others; the internecine conflicts in Sudan, Somalia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, DRC, Rwanda and Uganda which collectively claimed millions of innocent lives, civilians, women and children. Most of these conflicts are still lingering on to this day. Clearly, the OAU was at the time inadequate to protect the victims of violence, arson and murder perpetrated by both state actors and non-state actors. No wonder why the signing of the AU Constitutive Act in Lome (2000) which transformed the OAU to AU was greeted with celebrations across Africa. The transformation was celebrated because it promised the end of an era of impunity in Africa. The provisions on promotion and protection of human and peoples’ rights, and the right of AU to intervene in member states in respect of grave circumstances of gross violation of human rights gave hope to the long suffering victims of impunity.

Like the OAU, the United Nations Security Council failed , at critical times in history, to act decisively to protect the vulnerable against human rights and violent abuses not just in Africa but also in countries across the globe such as East Timor, Chechnya, Yugoslavia, Poland, Serbia, Sri Lanka, Kosovo, Lebanon, Bosnia and Israel/Palestine. It was within this backdrop that the ICC was established at the tail end of the 1990s to address the issues of impunity at international level. Thus, the ICC came into force in July 2002 four years after the signing of the Rome Statute in 1998. Currently 123 countries are State Parties to the Rome Statute. Out of them 34 are African States, 19 are Asia-Pacific States, 18 are from Eastern Europe, 27 are from Latin American and Caribbean States, and 25 are from Western European and other States. These figures demonstrate the popularity of the ICC in African, Latin American and Caribbean States a region which constitutes the bulk of the Global South.

 The key objective of the ICC is very specific. It is to prosecute executive leadership comprising of presidents, prime ministers, senior military officials, senior government officials and other top ranking officials charged for gross violation of human rights. Specifically, in terms of the Rome Statute, Article 5, ICC has jurisdiction over crimes against humanity, war crimes, genocide and aggression. The Rome statute article 26 reserves no immunity even for the seating Heads of States and Governments. Prior to ICC, these serious crimes were prosecuted through ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals such as the International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR). ICC was not therefore meant to substitute the then existing international criminal justice system but to compliment it. To date, ICC has managed to prosecute, try and sentence two former heads of states that is, Liberia’s Charles Taylor and the late Serbia’s Slobodan Milosevic.

Currently, there are 32 cases before the ICC, all from eight African countries that is, DRC, Uganda, Cote d’voire, Sudan, Kenya, Libya, Central Africa Republic and Mali. This scenario has given reason to some members of the AU to claim that ICC is a neocolonial court or an ‘imperial master exercising imperial power over African subjects’. Subsequently, AU has passed a raft of resolutions from March 2009 to date which call upon all member states not to cooperate with the ICC regarding the arrest of the President of Sudan, Omar al Bashir who is accused of genocide and mass atrocities against his own people in the Darfur region.

 Furthermore, AU has in the past also called for the suspension of the ICC proceedings against the President of Kenya, Uhuru Kenyatta and his Deputy William Ruto who, along with five others were charged for crimes against humanity including murder, forceful removal of populations, mass rape and other sexual crimes in the aftermath of the 2007 general elections in Kenya. Besides calling for non-cooperation with ICC, AU has stopped the setting up of the ICC Liaison Office in Addis Ababa. Moreover, some leaders like the current chairman of the AU Mugabe and the African National Congress (ANC) leadership are now calling for the complete pull-out of all African States Parties (ASP) from Rome Statute. It should be noted that along with countries such as Sudan and Libya, Zimbabwe is not a State Part of the ICC.

There is no doubt that the ICC should concern itself with the gross violation of human rights in countries such as Israel/Palestine, Syria, Ukraine, and Iraq and others where there are gross violations of human rights. We argue that it is crucially important that all cases of impunity are stopped, be it in Africa, Asia or Europe. In that context, ICC should always remind itself that it was founded with the conviction that there should be no impunity for anybody anywhere in the world. We also believe that the fight against impunity and concern for well-being of the most vulnerable are values central to humanity irrespective of geography, history, race and position in global hierarchies of power. The failure to deal with cases outside Africa has given the blood thirsty African despots scapegoat to rationalise and justify their vampirical desires and negative escapades against their own people.

It cannot be doubted that ICC has many shortcomings but its characterisation as unfairly targeting Africans is not backed by facts. For instance, of the eight cases before ICC four were referred by Africa itself i.e. DRC, Uganda, Central Africa Republic and Mali. On the other hand, Sudan and Libya were referred by the United Nations Security Council in terms of the United Nations Charter, Chapter VII read together with Rome Statute, Article 16, while Kenya and Cote d’voire were referred in terms of the Rome Statute, Article 15 which stipulate that the prosecutor may initiate investigations proprio motu on the basis of information on crimes within the jurisdiction of the ICC.
Discussant, Irene Petras of Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human
Rights raised the need for Civil Society to push for people
centred regional bodies
Not surprisingly, only those governments which stood to benefit from referring their cases to ICC did so. In fact  they referred their political opponents for prosecution by ICC. On the other hand, where the seating government was the perpetrator no cases have been referred to ICC to date. It would be unrealistic to expect the perpetrating government to refer cases of impunity to ICC. In this regard, if the ICC was to rely on government referrals, then the ICC would degenerate into the justice of the powerful, hence the justification of referrals by the Security Council and the chief prosecutor’s own initiative.  For the record, the current ICC chief prosecutor is a Gambian woman Fatou Bensouda who took over from Luis Moreno Ocampo from Agentina -both from the Global South and not from the imperial West.

While the ICC has not prosecuted cases in the Global North, it is clear that those that have been charged in Africa have a case to answer. Therefore the accusation that ICC is a selective, skewed, biased and even condescending court does not pass the evidence test. The truth of the matter is that some African presidents who are in the forefront of vilifying the ICC are themselves guilty of impunity, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide and they are looking for political and ideological sanctuaries to hide, prevent and escape justice. Oddly enough, in all the resolutions and decisions of the AU Assembly on ICC since the al Bashir indictment in 2009 there has not been a single mention of the rights of victims of impunity.

 Instead, all the decisions of the AU Assembly are couched around the issue of immunity of the seating Heads of States and Governments. In fact, the AU decisions are inscripted in what Enrique Dussell terms the ‘nationality of power’ wedded with ‘coloniality of power’ a situation where the ordinary masses are subalternised and peripherised into zones of non-being.  In the eyes of some leaders such as Sudan’s al Bashir, Gambia’s Yaya Jameh, Eritrea’s Afwerki and Zimbabwe’s Mugabe, killability and dispensability of human life are part of pan-Africanism. This abysmal thinking suggests that the rights of the victims of impunity must be silenced and disciplined in the name of faked stability and negative peace. Hence the people who complain about bias of the ICC are African dictators-the perpetrators and not the victims, who are relieved that at least ‘somebody in the ICC is paying attention to their plight’.

Evidently, the AU pull-out campaign headed by Mugabe seeks to disable the ICC from indicting more fraudsters running the African states. It is also meant to completely relegate the epistemic and ontological wounds inflicted on African people by their leaders to archival dustbins. More cynically, the perpetrators expect to be deified and iconised as heroes and victors against neocolonialism and neoimperialism. Mugabe is actually experienced in this art of political deception. After presiding over the Gukurahundi mass killings of approximately 20 000 innocent civilians of Ndebele ethnic group in Matabeleland and Midlands Provinces in the 1980s, Mugabe preached unity and peace as substitutes for justice and thought he had got away with it.

However, three decades after the scourge of Gukurahundi together with Murambatsvina crimes against humanity, the stubborn facts about Mugabe’s impunity continue to haunt him and his lieutenants up to this day. No wonder why Mugabe gets livid about the idea of arresting seating presidents by the ICC. Chinua Achebe was right when he remarked that ‘an old woman is always uneasy when dry bones are mentioned in a proverb’. To avoid the possibilities if not reality of his own indictment, Mugabe has had to specifically assign one of his deputies Mr Report Phelekezela Mphoko to traverse the breadth and width of the country denying the truth of Gukurahundi. Sadly, Report Mphoko is not doing a very good job for Mugabe. Instead, he has angered the victims, survivors and the communities where mass atrocities actually took place. He has actually rekindled the memories of the torture survivors who are now exploring various ways of redress. Report Mphoko is better advised to read the recently declassified South African Foreign Affairs documents which reveal how some ‘high ranking’ ZANU PF officials negotiated with Apartheid South African Defence Forces in 1983 to cooperate in their efforts to keep ZAPU from supporting the African National Congress (ANC) operatives in Zimbabwe. Never mind Mugabe’s pretentions of pan-Africanism, he was an Apartheidist in nationalist aprons.

While the AU’s idea that cases of gross violation of human rights in Africa should be prosecuted, tried and sentenced in Africa by either national criminal justice system or by the African Court of Justice (ACJ) in conjunction with the African Human and Peoples’ Rights Court (AHPRC) may sound plausible, logical and pan-African, as mentioned earlier, it should never escape our minds that the perpetrators of these crimes are  almost invariably the seating Heads of States and Governments who enjoy immunity in their countries and have a tendency of long distance rulership. For this reason, it is near impossible that the victims will ever see justice if all serious cases were to be referred to internal or regional justice systems.

 Moreover, issues of solidarity between and among African governments also impede on justice. The case of the former president of Chad, Hissene Habre who is accused of the killings and torture of approximately 40 000 innocent citizens of that country is a classical one. To be sure, the victims of Habre’s brutal killings have been fighting for more than two decades to bring him to justice but the Senegalese government which gave Habre asylum in 1990 protected him from internal criminal justice and from extradition. Until the new president of Senegal, Macky Sall elected in 2012 arrested Habre, the man was living a largely untroubled life in Dakar until then.

 Similarly, the former president of Ethiopia, Mengistu Haile Marrime who is in asylum in Zimbabwe for over two decades now is accused of Operation ‘Red Terror’ which left thousands of people dead in his country. His victims are unlikely to find justice as the perpetrator is well protected by his comrade in blood. We should therefore excuse those who view the AU as a ‘Dictators Club’ that is interested in protecting its own interests as opposed to protecting the interests of the vulnerable, the victims and the subalterns.

While the imperial claims by AU may invoke pan-African spirit and liberation struggle memories in Africa, it should be noted that the Security Council which referred both Libya and Sudan to the ICC consists of five permanent members that is, UK, France (signatories of the Rome Statute), Russia, China and USA (are not). Each of these countries has veto powers on all issues brought to the attention of the Security Council. In the African liberation lexicon and paradigm both China and Russia are not imperialists since they supported the liberation movements to decolonise Africa from the Western imperialists. Assuming China and Russia are anti-imperialists as Mugabe and company suggest, then this claim begs the question why either of the two countries did not veto the Security Council Resolution 1593 which compelled Sudan to cooperate with the ICC?

We submit here that both Russia and China are new economic imperialists. For instance, China like all imperialist powers imports cheap raw materials from Africa; exports finished products to Africa; exploits its own and other countries cheap labour; it invests and seeks to control infrastructure in Africa such as highways, airports, ports, and telecommunications; it is a creditor; and it uses its political clout to bribe political leaders to protect its economic interests. Just like the Western imperialists which pampered the Mobutus, Idi Aminis and Bokassas of this world, China has a weird reputation of protecting despots and perpetrators of gross violation of human rights. In Zimbabwe they have constructed a personal residence for Mugabe, a military defence college and a conference centre for the ruining party ZANU PF. Moreover, the Chinese have also invested heavily in the First Family businesses such as the Gushungo Dairy Estate and the Mazowe Business Hub but nothing for the ordinary citizens except the looting of their natural resources, destruction of the their textile and clothing industry leaving them unemployed and impoverished.

While the Chinese did not oppose the Security Council resolution, they have been working behind the scenes with some African leaders to undermine and defy the resolution to arrest al Bashir. For record, at the time of al Bashir’s formal indictment by ICC in March 2009, Sudan was the third largest recipient of Chinese investment behind Angola and South Africa. China’s business interests in Sudan include among others: dam construction (Merowe Dam where China’s Exim- Bank is providing USD$530 million); power generation (El Galil Power Station); Railways (Railway connecting Port Sudan to Khartoum); and petroleum industry. Moreover, Sudan was one of the few countries to be visited by the then Chinese President Hu Jintau in February 2007. All this indicates the strategic value that Sudan is to China. While there is nothing inherently wrong with the above investments, it is worth noting that they are the very reasons why China is protecting al Bashir from ICC.  A good number of African Heads of States and Governments have been bribed to support the Sudanese president. In this context, the lives of the Darfurans do not matter as long as al Bashir continues to be the conveyor belt of African resources to feed the over a billion Chinese.

To this extent, the Mugabe-led faction of the AU should be thoroughly analysed and its pretentions and guises exposed. It is this component of the AU which is screaming about the neocolonial exigencies of the West while shielding the new imperialists from the East with impunity. The new economic imperialists of the East dine and wine with dictators to protect their excesses, and as a quid pro quo the imperialists loot African resources with impunity. They are no less worse than their Western counterparts.

In this regard, the 25thAU Summit in South Africa in June 2015 will be remembered in the annals of history as full of contradictions, ambiguities, dichotomies, and frictions. South Africa which for years was on the frontline fighting Apartheidism will have to extricate itself before the bar of history, the bar of public opinion and the bar of its own conscience how it found itself in defence of despotism and impunity if it hopes to regain its confidence from the victims of impunity; regain its former venerated place on matters of moral leadership; and African conscience inaugurated by its founding icon the late Mandela. That evil triumphed in the AU when a South African national was the chairperson of the AU Commission in a Summit hosted by South Africa flies on the face of South Africa’s proud history against impunity. It should be known that the only benefactors of South Africa’s inaction regarding the arrest of al Bashir when he was present on its territory is al Bashir himself along with all other African despots who have albatrosses of crimes hanging on their necks. Sadly, justice once again lost on the altar of impunity masquerading as peace project.

In concluding, we would like to call upon all peoples of conscience in Zimbabwe, Africa and Diaspora to denounce the Mugabe-led pull out campaign.  We also call upon all progressive African leaders to distance themselves from Mugabe-AU’s paradigms of violence; neo-populism guised as pan-Africanism; and despotism disguised as Afro-radicalism. There is no need for countries and leaders without skeletons in their cupboards to be banded together with dictatorships by default. It is in this context, that we applaud Malawi, Botswana and others for resisting the posturings of dictatorships who ganged up against the victims of impunity by embracing the non-cooperation axiom of the Mugabe faction of the AU. Africa and the World should listen to the clarion call of the victims of gross violation of human rights who want both peace and justice in equal measures.

I thank you


          Ending Mass Atrocities: An Empirical Reinterpretation of ‘Successful’ International Military Intervention in East Timor        

Claire Smith, a political scientist at York University and one of our collaborators on the how mass atrocities end project, has a new article out. In it, she examines the role of military intervention in Indonesia, placing it in context of other factors that helped produce an ending in East Timor. Below is the [...]

          ANALYSIS OF EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE AND INFLATION OF IMPORTED GOODS        
 
 
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


1.1 BACKGROUND
At first, our ancestors had to trade or sale, if any at that time only limited by barter or exchange of goods with the goods in the local market or market area alone, the market or the trade that occurs between people who live near or know each other so that the nature of their markets only regional.
Ancient times our ancestors beleum familiar coin so they make a deal with the exchange of goods with the goods. However, over time people started finding gold and silver as payment in doing transaksi.pada as the use of gold and silver they began to implement trade between regions, and even trade internasional.mereka set for a share something good by using a certain weight of gold and silver were equal value or approved by them.
Later developments overseas trade remained elevated itself ie international trade which includes exports and imports of goods and services began to increase so that people start to carry out international trade.
Nowadays people do trade both within the country and with other countries so that the payment using money as a means of payment for goods and services both payments both exports and imports both payment payments people always use money as a tool pembayaran.disamping it in payments between countries there is a specificity that is not in payment traffic in this negeri.hal deisebabkan because every country menpunyai own currency and the currency is valid as legal tender within specific geographical boundaries and regions also power itself will tetapitidak accepted by other countries as a means of payment unless there is an agreement and economic cooperation between the two countries.
Generally people a share exchange or foreign exchange would be accepted by the international community, generally obtained from Timor Leste expor.namun menpunyai not export high for a share of foreign exchange used to import menbayar results.
In the international balance of payments of Timor Leste in this regard Shop Store Timor pay for imports of goods both alcoholic beer is stellar and beer cans and other merchandise using the $ U.S. currency to pay for all transactions both exports and imports both payment payment of goods and services a country lainnya.karena different currencies and the exchange rate were to fluctuate from time to time will result in the number of imported goods dropped an penimpor currency decline.
In economic terms stated that if the value of the country's currency exchange rate strengthened against the other then it will be a lot negar import in other countries such as Timor menpunyai apabilaTimor $ exchange rate high on exchange rates of other countries as Timor Leste menggunaka U.S. $ U.S. currency, the Timor Leste to import more goods and services from other countries and vice versa U.S. $ exchange rate weakened against other countries then Timor Leste to import goods and services from other countries in small amounts.
Changes in international trade problems always happen sometimes cheap and sometimes expensive price this is caused by the exchange rate as an importer or exporter to use tool pembayaran.harga-price rise as a result of printing new money with the easiest, soaring wages at -when high unemployment pushing up prices of goods and services in the country steadily increased the impact on the overall economy.
Since the rise, the country experienced a slump in the country's economy is difficult to organize the import of goods and services from the country's very high because of all the expensive costs caused everyone not import so that the country's exports decreases causing deficits occur even in inflation-description as the description berkepanjangan.Dari above, the authors draw TITLE "PENGARUGH ANALYSIS AND INFLATION RATE OF GOODS"

1.2. FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM.

In writing this paper the following problems can be formulated as follows:
1) Is the exchange rate and inflation affect the import of goods from abroad?
(Case studies on BPA Office and Shop Store Timor)

1.3. PURPOSE and OBJECTIVES

1.3.2 1.3.1 The purpose of the study is:


The purpose of writing this paper is to implementing the theories learned from all the courses like: Monetary Economics, Micro & Macro Economics, Economic Planning, Public Economics and economic development into the reality of life the people of East Timor.

1.3.3 The purpose of the study is:

Want to know the effect of the exchange rate and inflation on imported goods from abroad.
Want to know how much percentage rate and inflation menpengaruhi import goods from abroad.
To find out what the advantages of doing trade with foreign countries.

1.4 Usability
The usefulness of the research by the author in the preparation of this paper are:
1.4.1 Uses for science as a comparison of the knowledge gained in college banku with practice in the field.
1.4.2 Usefulness for decision-making.
ü The basis for making decisions on trade, exchange rate and inflation in the future.
ü As a means of controlling the implementation of the.
ü As a basis for the evaluation of government decision-making in times to come.
1.4.3 Usability Researcher
ü To understand an increase or decrease in the Timor-Leste economy is influenced by the exchange rate, inflation and imports.
ü As a tool to analyze the events that mengyangkut rising inflation and the exchange rate and the exchange rate and inflation reduction menpunyai economic impact on East Timor.

1.5 Scope of Writing Papers.
In writing this paper the author outlines hal2 causing an increase in the exchange rate and inflation on economic growth in Timor Leste and the effect of exchange rates and international trade in particular inflation on imported goods from abroad.
Obyak the authors focus in the study is the rate of inflation as well as imported goods and beverages.
1.6 Systematic Writing.
INTRODUCTION BAB.I
1.1 Background
1.2 Problem Formulation
1.3 Purpose and Objectives
1.4 Usability
1.5 Scope
1.6 Systematic Writing
BAB.II TINJAUN REFERENCES
2.1 Basis Toeri

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY BAB.III
3.1 Research Sites
3.2 Object of Research
3.3 Type of Research
3.4 Types of Data
3.5 Sources of Data
3.6 Method of Data Collection
3.7 Data in Need
3.8 Research Variables
3.9 Operational Definition
3.10 Research
3:11 Model
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION BAB.IV
4.1 Results
4.2 Discussion
CLOSING BAB.V
5.1 conclusions
5.2 Suggestions

Bibliography


CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL
Theory of International Trade (IMPORT)
Theory Heekseher - Ohlin trade patterns using the abundant factor intensively and import goods that use factors of production steps (Peter H.Lindert, 32; 1995)
According to Ricardo Reveals about the comparative advantages that each country has a comparative advantage in something and a share of benefits and menperdagangkannya lain.dari goods in exchange for the above theory can menimpulkan that every country in the world in international trade will export any goods produced at relatively prosperity will importing goods produced its own is too expensive (Peter H.Lindert, 23; 1995)
According to Adam Smith expressed toeri excellence muklat (Absolute Advantage) is a country gains from the conduct spealisasi.kegiatan production carried out on the goods in the country that efficiency is higher than in other countries.
Theory of Foreign Exchange Rates or foreign currency is the currency type used by countries lain.nilai foreign currency is a value that indicates domestic currency needed to get one unit of currency asing.suatu foreign currency and other factors factors that result in changes in the value of the exchange period panjang.pada There are basically three ways to determine the level of foreign exchange rate is free, stabilized the exchange rate.
free rate (floating exchange rate) foreign exchange rates are determined in a free market depends on the demand and supply of foreign currency.
Factors menpengaruhi to change.
ü Changes in public taste
ü Changes in export prices
ü The increase in general prices (inflation)
ü Changes in interest rates and investment returns

B.Kurs fixed (fixed exchange rate) is usually a fixed exchange rate is set by the government
And usually called official rate
C.Kurs in stabilizing (Managed floating rate) rate is usually held by international bodies in charge of the IMF's finances in order menperlancar international payment traffic at the exchange rate stabilized.

The theory of purchasing power perity (PPP)
According Gustava Bassel "Power perity Parchasing theory" says that the ratio of the value of one currency to another currency is determined by the purchasing power of money for goods and services. (Nopirin Ph.D.183: 1995)

Theory of Inflation
Inflation is the rise in the prices of goods generally constant within panjang.kenaikan goods are intended harga.Beberapa index measured using the price index used to measure inflation.
consumer price index is a parameter to measure the costs or expenditure required to purchase a number of items purchased by households living purposes.
wholesale trade price index focuses on major trade goods.
GNP deflator is a type of index that caps a the types of goods are different from both sebelumnya.GNP deflator index includes the amount of goods and services included in the calculation of GNP.
Inflation is a general rise in prices continuously and persistan of an economy (Hera Susanti, Moh.Ikhsan Widyanti 42: 1995)
Macroeconomic indicators of the 2nd agency issuing UI economics faculty.
According to the quantity theory of inflation is the main reason arises: excess demand caused by changes in the money supply (Nopirin, 177:2000)
Inflation may lead to a change in the pattern of distribution of income and wealth masyarakat.inflasi as if it were a tax man and a subsidy for others (Nopirin, 128:2000)
Inflation is nothing but a tax on cash balances held by the public as money increasingly worthless. (Boediono, 168: 1985)
According to a 1978 Ackley cited by Iswardono stated that inflation is an increase in constant prices of goods and services in general.
According Iswardono relative price change process is seen as a major factor causing inflasi.pendekatan is supported by three groups who call themselves fiscal and micksel group focused on things that are "non-objects" while this group puts money in penyebabnya.kelompok fiscal behavior of states that generally the result of government spending, tax structures and tax payers as well as the model budget deficits and fiscal kebijakn lainnya.kelompok micksel some explanation on antisioasi producer focused on profits.
According to Paul A.Samelson define inflation occurs when the price level and general expenses naik.dalam above understanding we can draw the conclusion during the time of the price and cost inflation increased in the same proportion and rarely the same rate of increase in the inflation rate. (296 : 1997)
Phillips curve is "choice theory" or the trade-off theory of inflation "in the view or theory of a state or nation can achieve lower unemployment if willing to sacrifice whatever inflation tinggi.selain it this bad choices (trade-off) can survive in the short and long term. (Paul A.Samelson and Wilhiam D.Norhhus, 327: 1997)


CHAPTER III
METHODS

3.1 Research Sites.
In writing this paper was the study site Banking Off Payment Authority (BPA) and Shop Store Timor.

3.2 Object of Research

In writing this paper the object of the research is:
The exchange rate of USD against imported goods from abroad.
Inflation on imports.

3.3 Type of Research.
This research is a secondary data processing or data already available in the CPA and Shop Store Timor.

3.4 Data Types.
The data used in this study is that quantitative data is data in the form of the numbers can be calculated, which in this calculation to calculate the entire exchange and inflation that caused imports decreased or increased
3.5 Sources of Data.
The data used in this study is a secondary data or data that has been collected by others, namely Banking Off Payment Authority (BPA) and the Data Store Store Timor.

3.6 Data in Need.
In this study, the data required are: all data exchange and data on the impact of inflation on the merchant menpunyai small merchant market revenues (particularly imports from abroad)
3.7 Research Variables.
The variables in this study are:
1. The independent variables in this study are: the exchange rate
2. The independent variables in this study are: Inflation
3.8 Operational Definition.
Operational definitions here with a view to explaining the meaning of the title of the writing of this paper.
1. exchange rate is the value of a country's currency either high or low on the purchasing power of goods or services in transactions both transactions between local and international transactions.
2. Inflation is a situation where the price of general goods and services rose continuously impacting on the economy of a country.
3. Imports are one aspect of international trade is done between a country.
3.9


CHAPTER IV
CLOSING

5.1 Conclusions
In writing this paper as for the conclusions that we take is as follows:
In discussing or writing of this paper the effect of inflation on imports is stronger than the effect of exchange rate on imports of alcoholic goods as the dependent variable.

5.1 Suggestion

In writing this paper as for suggestions that will be reported are as follows:
a) recommend to the government through bank BPA (Banking Off Payment Authority) to control the money supply so that ultimately menpengaruhi in a stable trade.
b) Judging from the results of the calculation of the influence of both the effects of inflation are equally menpengaruhi import so our hopes on the government to look at the future and menperbaiki barriers in import and export between the countries can work well.

          Comment on What’s in a name? For the Timorese, quite a lot by Scott McDonald        
If I may, I would like to correct a few things. Timor is Tetum for east, so the Australian way of saying East Timor literally translates, in origin languages, to East East. The same is true of Timor Leste. It literally means East (Tetum - Timor) and East (Portuguese-Leste) I prefer the Timorese name. Timor L'Orosae ( East where the Sun rises ) _ Timor is Tetum for "East" and L'Orosae is Tetum for " Where the Sun rises" .
          The Pinay First Lady of East Timor        

She was called Jackie S. in the Inquirer report, which made me chuckle for the name clearly refers to Jackie O., as in Jacqueline Onassis, who, as Jackie Kennedy was one of the most glamorous First Ladies in United States history.

Of course, in the eyes of most politicians and other members of the Philippine elite, there was nothing glamorous about what Jacqueline Siapno did. What on earth was Siapno, the first lady of neighboring East Timor, thinking taking a public bus and then a tricycle from Manila to Pangasinan?

The Inquirer was right to contrast Siapno with the rich and powerful in the Philippines for whom political power means extensive protocol and traveling with an army of servants and assistants. But the attention Jackie Siapno attracted for her low-key homecoming should also extend to her own standing as one of the most accomplished Filipina intellectuals in the world, and an expert on a part of the world that Filipinos and the Philippines should really be paying more attention to.

I got to know her in the early 1990s when we were students at University of California Berkeley, where she eventually got a PhD in Political Science and we both got involved in a conference on the Philippines. She had moved to the US as a teenager and eventually pursued a career in academe, earning degrees from prestigious Wellesley College and the University of London before going to Berkeley. She speaks, writes, or reads eight languages: Pangasinan, Tagalog, English, Indonesian, Portuguese, and Acehnese.

And she has written a book on Aceh, “Gender, Islam, Nationalism, and the State in Aceh: The Paradox of Power, Co-optation and Resistance.”

These credentials may make Jackie sound like a highly-intelligent but boring egghead. But Jackie Siapno is anything but boring. The attention she attracted with the unusual bus rise to Pangasinan proves that. And one thing I’ll always remember from our days in Berkeley was her passion whenever she tackled a subject she felt strongly about, whether it’s the plight of the Timorese people, Indonesian culture, Philippine politics, or women’s issues.

During the Berkeley conference, she told the Malay folk tale of Putri Babi, the Pig Princess, who married a rajah who fell madly in love with her despite her being different. But the rajah wanted to change Putri Babi so he burned her skin and called a healer to turn her into his ideal wife. “In burning her skin,” Jackie relates, “she is transformed into a princess, identified with the aristocratic ruling class and hence no longer able to represent the Bangsa which she was supposedly to continue. In becoming identified with the aristocratic class, the representation of their own Bangsa is foreclosed.”

She continued, “The rajah saw an imperfection in her body, a sign that marks her difference and he wants to burn it to make her body more normal and to make it conform. The treatment of Putri Babi is symbolic control, symbolic of male control of a female body which he does not understand, so he kills her.”

I remembered her telling this story when I heard about the stir Jackie caused in taking a bus from the airport to Pangasinan. She’s had an unusual journey—from young Pinay from Pangasinan to US immigrant to academic to activist to Indonesia expert to first lady of East Timor. But while we haven’t talked in years, I have a strong feeling that her own transformations did not involve any skin burning. I suspect Jackie took on, absorbed, and incorporated the knowledge and cultures of the places where she has traveled and lived, and eventually built on all these without having to shed her past as a Filipino woman from Pangasinan.

Before telling the story of Pig Princess, she explained that “Bangsa” in Malay could mean race, sex, class, or group, but is now commonly means as nation. Jackie pointed out how the story was originally told in a language similar to Maranao. “Any of you who speak Maranao or Tausug, Indonesian or Malay will probably understand it,” she told the audience.

I can’t help but think of how much someone with her background and passion can contribute at a time when the Philippines is still wrestling with unrest in the southern part of the archipelago involving Muslims who have suffered for generations under Christian rule from Manila.

We last communicated via email a few years ago and by then we were both parents. Jackie spoke fondly for her son Hadomi. Hadomi, Jackie explained to me, means “love” in the East Timorese language of Tetum.


          Bali prison escape re-enacted by captured Kerobokan prisoners        
Two men who were recaptured in East Timor after tunnelling out of Bali's infamous Kerobokan prison re-enact their escape, as police hunt two inmates, including an Australian, who are still on the run.
          Young Social Entrepreneurs - OpEd, The Chronicle        

Young Social Entrepreneurs

The Chronicle, 1 August 2017

One of the most inspiring things that I do as a local MP is host breakfast for young social entrepreneurs.

Sunny Forsyth, Neha Pathak and Tristan Skinner work with Abundant Water, which distributes water filters in developing nations such as East Timor. Through Raize the Roof, Lincoln and Danielle Dal Cortivo are supporting seriously ill children in the ACT and orphaned children in Botswana.

Hannah Wandel leads Country to Canberra, providing mentoring support to young women in rural Australia. Francesca Maclean started Fifty50 to promote gender equity in science and engineering. Maddeline Mooney is exploring the need for a new body that looks at mental wellbeing in the deaf community. 


          Missionaries' vital role in helping tsunami victims        
Peter Westmore

While media reports have concentrated on government and NGO fund-raising campaigns to help the victims of the Indonesian tsunami, in which up to 200,000 people are believed to have died in countries bordering the Indian Ocean, and even more are destitute and homeless, Christian missionaries on the ground are playing a key role in providing food and shelter to the victims, and will play a crucial role in re-establishing businesses and communities, long after the overseas agencies and governments have left.

Some of these have close connections with Australia, including the Salesian Missions, well known to readers for their work in East Timor, and Sister Stella Edattu, a member of the all-Indian religious order, the Daughters of Mary, which is supported by the Assisi Aid Projects.

There are Salesian missions in most of the affected countries, including south India, Sri Lanka and Thailand, with over 300 priests, brothers and sisters in the seriously affected area of Chennai (south India) alone. In Thailand, the bishop in the area which includes the tourist centres of Phuket and the island of Phi Phi, Bishop Joseph Prathan, is a Salesian.

The Salesians even have a school on the South Andaman Islands, which were devastated. All are heavily involved in assisting the victims.

Salesian appeal

Brother Michael Lynch, head of the Salesian Mission Office in Australia, launched an immediate appeal for assistance, pointing out that up to 1000 local Salesians are heavily involved on the ground in rescue and relief work.

In appealing for funds for food, clothing and emergency shelter to support this work, Br Lynch said: "In India the southern states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala have suffered considerable damage." Salesian schools have been set up as emergency centres in each of these states, caring for many hundreds of the homeless.

Brother Lynch added that in Sri Lanka, a major concern is for the children who have lost their parents, and parents who have lost their children.

A Sri Lankan Salesian, Fr Pinto, outlined the role of his Order: "We know lots of people are offering immediate needs with food and clothing. But we need to plan something on a long-term basis, such as building houses, and looking after orphan children. The national Child Protection Authority has asked us to take the children who are orphaned.

"We Salesians are working toward shelter for at least 12 per cent of these children who are orphaned by the tsunami in the Western and Southern Region and also 10 per cent from the Tamil-speaking area of North and East.

"We are also working towards building at least 350 houses for the homeless and resettling them in life.

"In Negombo [a coastal village in Sri Lanka], we have already begun making soil blocks to make 350,000 bricks, to build houses in our immediate surrounding. Our main problem is looking for land, We cannot put them back on the beach and the land away from the sea is very costly. In other places where people are affected they more or less get food and clothing."

In Thailand the worst affected area is in the Diocese of Surathani headed by Salesian Bishop Joseph Prathan who has set up a Relief Centre. The Centre, staffed by young Salesians and the Sisters, is working closely with government and other private agencies. Bishop Joseph said that he is also helping villages, ravaged by the tidal wave, that other agencies have been unable to assist.

In southern India, the tsunami has also devastated the area where Sister Stella Edattu works.

Since 1975, she has transformed the lives of many rural women by means of community development programs initiated by the Assisi farm she founded in Tamil Nadu, with assistance from many Australians. Serving as a people's learning centre where poor farmers are introduced to sustainable and ecologically sound practices in agriculture, the training centre caters for girls from very poor families. At the end of the training, each girl is given a cow, or any other animal worth $250, and is expected to pass the acquired knowledge to at least ten other women.

Sister Stella has also pioneered a financial co-operative to free families from rapacious money-lenders.

Her development model involves training women, selected by their local communities, with the skills needed to establish and operate Self Help Groups (SHGs), credit co-ops and small-scale income generating initiatives.

She trains community development workers to establish Self Help Groups, typically involving poor women, supporting credit co-ops and income-generating initiatives through training and professional assistance.

The non-government organisation she manages supports over 1000 Women's Self Help Groups with 19,638 members, 95 Men's Groups with 1561 members, and 105 Children's Self Help Groups with 2066 members

Revolving loans operating within SHG credit co-ops last year had a value of over nine million Rupees (approx $300,000).

In addition, the Self Help Groups have secured low interest bank loans to the value of about eight million Rupees (approx $256,000).

Sister Stella was a keynote speaker at the Women in Agriculture held in Melbourne in 1994, and the recipient in 1998 of a Women's World Summit Foundation award for her work with the poor in India.


          Cunning girls who may         
Business traverse to insecure countries provides an risky venture of a period of time and incalculable opportunities to cut short and sweet your go.As a inclusive talker and pastor who has been to over 50 countries and 6 continents, the figure of my move has been to third-world and destroyed countries. My female parent calls them "the hell-holes" on loam. Nevertheless here are any amazing citizens at hand who are unbelievably kind, hospitable, and smart. Plus you can get more than a few terrible deals and discover whatever grand monetary step up opportunities if you are proficient cross-culturally.Beyond in a job at Ground Zero in NYC the freshman period of 9/11, overseas I have comfortable genocide victims in Rwanda & Burundi; ministered in East Timor in the in-between of a war (before the UN gave them new body politic prestige); been to Pakistan twice over since 9/11; worked at the tidal wave epicentre in Indonesia; been so wide within the "bush" of Africa I saw relations who had never seen a albescent man and freaked out in my attendance. These are merely a few of numberless experiences I have had.Post ads:Mountain Hardwear Men's Momentum Running Gloves / UN92 Men Flex-Fighter MMA Fight Shorts - Black / Mens Plaid Floral Print Skate Surf Board Short / Swim / Haggar Men's Shadow Stripe Plain Front Suit Separate Pant / Luciano Natazzi Crew Neck Premium Cotton Sweater with a / KR3W - Mens Protect Your Neck T-Shirt in Black / Armani Exchange Deboss BB Hat / RVCA Men's Big Short Sleeve Tee / TopTie Unisex New Fashion Black and Red Plaid Skinny 2" / Lucky Brand Men's Woven Sleep Pant / Helly Hansen Men's Legend Ski Pants / Walls Men's Insulated Duck Jacket Coat / Stearns Eco - Dry Rain Suit Navy / Famous Stars and Straps Men's Family Fade Tee / Costa Del Mar Ballast Polarized Sunglasses / Concitor Men's Dress Pants Slacks Flat Front Trousers Red / Stetson Bozeman Wool Hat / Harriton Long Sleeve Oxford w/Stain Release. M600My proposal to firm travelers impermanent such as countries no entity what your purpose:
          Our land is girt by oil-rich sea … that we steal from East Timor        
Tuesday, 2 September 2014
Our land is girt by oil-rich sea … that we steal from East Timor

Clinton Fernandes

Asia-Pacific

Australia has been flouting international law since 2002, taking billions of dollars in oil revenue that should rightfully belong to East Timor. No wonder we’re being so cagey about the East Timor spying allegations.

In the Senate yesterday, independent Senator Nick Xenophon asked Attorney-General George Brandis about reports in the Fairfax press that a former spy and his lawyer might be charged with disclosing classified information about Australian espionage against East Timor.

East Timor is alleging before a three-person arbitration panel in The Hague that Australia breached international law by bugging East Timor’s cabinet rooms during the 2004 bilateral negotiations over the Timor Sea Treaty. A key witness for East Timor is a former spy who is said to be the director of all technical operations for the Australian Secret Intelligence Service, which allegedly conducted the bugging operation using the Australian aid program as a cover. On December 3, 2013, the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation raided his house and the office and home of Bernard Collaery, a former attorney-general of the Australian Capital Territory who is providing legal advice to the government of East Timor. ASIO seized documents and data containing correspondence between East Timor’s government and its legal advisers.



The former spy, known as Witness K, is due to testify at The Hague on September 27.

“It is quite distasteful to see Australia’s intelligence services being used to deprive the people of East Timor of their principal economic asset.”

Xenophon wanted to know whether the government would permit Witness K to travel to The Hague unimpeded (provided, of course, that the identities of current and former ASIS officers were not disclosed). After all, if he were prevented from giving evidence, that would impede a fair hearing. Brandis gave the standard defensive formulation: the matter is “currently before an international arbitral tribunal” and “it is the longstanding practice of Australian governments not to comment on matters currently before international arbitration”.

East Timor is a fragile, new state, barely more than a decade old. It would like to draw a maritime border halfway between the Australian and East Timor coasts, as it is entitled to do under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. However, in March 2002, just two months before East Timor became independent, Alexander Downer, then Australia’s foreign minister, announced that henceforth Australia would exclude all disputes relating to the delimitation of maritime zones from the compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice and the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea. This meant that East Timor has the law on its side but can derive no benefit from that fact.

In 2004, Australia agreed to a median line boundary — with New Zealand, when we established a maritime boundary to resolve overlapping claims off the coast of Norfolk Island.

If international law were to apply, East Timor would be entitled to 100% of the oil and gas on its side of the median line in the Timor Sea. This includes the single most crucial resource, namely the Greater Sunrise field, the bulk of which lies just outside the lateral boundary of the Gap.

It is quite distasteful to see Australia’s intelligence services being used to deprive the people of East Timor of their principal economic asset. Since 1999, Australia has taken more than $4 billion in oil revenue that should rightfully belong to East Timor. Having taken a large portion of the wealth of one of the poorest countries in Asia, the Australian government has given back about $0.4 billion in bilateral and multilateral assistance, and about $0.5 billion in military assistance. This means that East Timor, believe it or not, is Australia’s largest international donor. This is not a typo.

http://www.crikey.com.au/2014/09/02/our-land-is-girt-by-oil-rich-sea-that-we-steal-from-east-timor/?wpmp_switcher=mobile
          Biografia da Ordem dos Condecorados 30 Agosto 2014        
Foto PR FB
BIOGRAFIA DOS MEMBROS DA SOLIDARIEDADE A SER CONDECORADOS NO DIA 30 DE AGOSTO DE 2014, PARA LER DURANTE A CEREMÓNIA.

Grupo Categorias Colar da Ordem de Timor-Leste:

1. DENIS FRENEY

Denis Freney, de nacionalidade australiana, é condecorado hoje, por SEXA o Presidente da Republica de Timor-Leste, a título póstumo, com o Colar da Ordem de Timor Leste. Está aqui representado pela sua irmã, Margaret Freney.

Na altura em que começou a envolver-se na campanha, a nivel nacional, em prol da independência de Timor-Leste, Dennis Frenney já era uma figura proemiente do Partido Comunista da Austrália e já tinha vários anos de experiência de trabalho no jornal do partido “Tribune”, como jornalista.

Em Julho de 1974, Dennis Freney foi contactado por José Ramos Horta, dirigente da ASDT, quando este visitou Austrália, pela primeira vez,com o propósito de sensibilizar os australianos sobre o ideal de independência, defendido, na altura, pela então ASDT- o gérmen da FRETILIN. 

A convite de José Ramos Horta, Denis Freney decidiu visitar Timor-Leste, em Outubro de 1974. Durante uma estada de cerca de duas semanas, visitou Dili, Baucau e Maubisse e teve oportunidade de conviver com outros líderes da FRETILIN, dentre os quais, Nicolau Lobato, Ma ‘Huno Bulerek Karataiano, Vicente Sa’he dos Reis e Alarico Fernandes. 

Denis Freney foi, Guy's Icd

em dúvida, o pioneiro do primeiro movimento de solidariedade australiana para com Timor-Leste. Timor-Leste passou a ocupar uma boa parte da agenda de trabalhos do Dennis. Com paciência e perseverança, ajudou a estabelecer vários ramos da CIET – Campanha para a Independência de Timor-Leste, em toda a Austrália. Coordenou as emissões públicas da rádio assim como as ligações clandestinas da equipa de rádio, sediada em Darwin, com a rádio Maubere. Trabalhou incansávelmente na produção de um boletim quinzenal – East Timor News– que foi vendido por ele próprio nas ruas de Sydney, distribuído em toda a Austrália e enviado a vários países. Com o seu trabalho persistente de envio de informações para os restantes grupos de solidariedade, partidos e instituições nacionais e internacionais, no período de isolamento de Timor-Leste ou seja , no período mais crítico da nossa Resistência, Denis contribuiu para que o mundo soubesse que a resistencia à ocupação indonésia continuava forte e ajudou assim a travar a campanha indonésia junto da Comunidade Internacional. Durante este período, Dennis Freney foi alvo de perseguição dos agentes dos Servicos de Inteligencia australiana mas não se deixou intimidar por isso.

No nosso Timor-Leste, livre e independente, reconhecemos hoje o trabalho árduo de todos os nossos amigos que, incondicionalmente, complementaram o trabalho da Resistência Timorense no exterior do país, dentre os quais, se destacou Denis Freney. 

Infelizmente Denis Freney não viveu até ao dia do alcance do ideal pelo qual tanto lutou e doou os melhores anos da sua vida. Dennis, foi um incansavel activista da Nação Timorense, morreu, em Sydney, em 1995, vítima de uma doença incurável.

2. Brian Manning 

Brian Manning, de nacionalidade australiana, é condecorado hoje, por SEXA o Presidente da Republica Democrática de Timor-Leste, a título póstumo, com o colar da Ordem de Timor-Leste. Está aqui representado pelos filhos Louisa e Brian Manning.

A pedido do Dennis Freney, um camarada seu do Partido Comunista da Austrália, Brian visitou Timor-Leste, pela primeira vez, em Setembro de 1974, tendo ficado imediatamente entusiasmado com a perspectiva da independência para Timor-Leste, defendida pela FRETILIN.

Absorveu os ideais constatados no terreno e quando regressou a Darwin, decidiu fazer da Causa Timorense, uma causa sua.
Dentre os seus incontáveis trabalhos de campanha na Austrália em prol da luta do povo de Timor-Leste pela independência, destacamos os seguintes:

1) Em Novembro de 1975, Brian e outros apoiantes australianos, conseguiram fazer chegar a Dili, por via marítima, seis transmissores de rádio com o simples intuito de criar um meio de comunicação entre a FRETILIN e o exterior. Este equipamento acabou por constituir o único meio de comunicação da Direcção da FRETILIN no interior da pátria com a Delegação Externa da FRETILIN e o mundo, até Dezembro de 1978. Brian foi o homem chave, em Darwin, que garantiu o fluxo de informações da Resistência Timorense para o mundo e vice-versa, durante o período de isolamento de Timor-Leste, imposto pelas forças ocupantes.

2) O segundo envolvimento mais importante do Brian Manning foi a mobilização dos estivadores para o boicote ao carregamento e descarregamento de navios indonésios logo após a invasão. 

Enquanto teve forças para lutar pela causa Timorense, Brian Manning deu o melhor de si, utilizando inclusivamente os seus parcos recursos pessoais,para influenciar a opinião pública australiana e internacional. Após anos de esforços continuos, Darwin passou a ser uma base de apoio importante à nossa luta de libertação nacional.

Brian voltou a Timor-Leste em 2000 e teve o prazer de saborear vitória de todos nós. Infelizmente, o nosso amigo Brian Manning, faleceu a 2 de Novembro de 2013, vitima de uma doença incurável.

3. Greg Shackleton

Greg Shackleton de nacionalidade australiana, é condecorado hoje, or SEXA o Presidente da Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste, a título póstumo, com o Colar da Ordem de Timor-Leste. Está aqui representado pela sua viúva, a sra Shirley Shackleton.

Greg era um jovem e excelente reporter da TV Melboune no canal 7. Começou a interessar-se por Timor-Leste devido as noticias em destaque de ataques regulares na fronteira entre a Indonésia e Timor Ocidental e sobre a guerra civil em Timor-Leste. Em Agosto de 1975, John Maher, Director de Noticias TV Melboune no canal 7, convidou-o a visitar Timor-Leste. Greg aceitou sem reservas. Ele estava habituado a trabalhar em missões perigosas: incêndios, acidentes no mar, etc. Veio para descobrir a proveniencia dos ataques que os timorenses eram vítimas. 

Foi assim que veio a Timor-Leste em 1975 integrado numa equipa de cinco repórteres, do canal nove da Austrália, com a missão de fazer cobertura dos acontecimentos em Timor-Leste durante o período de administração “de facto” de Timor-Leste, pela FRETILIN. Os cinco sabiam que os militares indonésios planeavam um ataque à Balibó mas não se deixaram intimidar, estavam portanto dispostos a ficar para reportar o ataque indonésio a Balibó. Greg Shackleton decidiu identificar a casa onde estavam alojados pintando a bandeira da Austrália e junto a ela, a palavra Austrália, numa das paredes da referida casa. Foi uma tentativa fracassada. A 16 de Outubro de 1975, os cinco foram bruatalmente massacrados e, até a data, ainda não sabe onde estão os seus restos mortais.

4. Roger East

Roger East, de nacionalidade australiana, é condecorado hoje, por SEXA o Presidente da Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste, a título póstumo com o colar da Ordem de Timor-Leste. Está aqui representado pelo sobrinho Robert Hallan.

Roger East, jornalista free lancer, veio a Timor-Leste durante o período de administração “de facto” de Timor-Leste pela FRETILIN, aconvite de José Ramos Horta, Secretario de Relacoes Internacionais de Timor-Leste com a missão de investigar a fundo e reportar sobre as circunstâncias de morte dos cinco jornalistas do canal nove da Austrália, durante uma incursão indonésia em Balibó, a 16 de Outubro de 1975. .Acedeu ao pedido do Ramos-Horta mesmo sabendo que estava a pôr em risco a sua própria vida.

A invasão indonésia a Timor-Leste era eminente nas vésperas da proclamação unilateral da independência de Timor-Leste pelo Comité Central da FRETILIN mas Roger ficou para cobrir o evento. Na véspera da invasão indonésia, só três jornalistas estrangeiros estavam em Timor-Leste. No dia da invasão indonésia, estava apenas o Roger East. Teve oportunidade de escapar mas preferiu ficar com a sua máquina de escrever convencido que iria dar asas à sua profissão de jornalista numa situação perigosa.

Roger pretendia subir as montanhas de Timor-Leste com os nossos destemidos combatentes e de lá, reportar para o mundo sobre as atrocidades indonésias e a resistência inabalável do povo Timorense.Foi impedido de o fazer. Consta que Roger East foi levado para o cais de Díli e abatido a tiro no dia 8 de Dezembro de 1975 e que o seu cadáver foi atirado ao mar juntamente com outros tantos timoreses que tiveram a mesma sorte. 

O povo de Timor-Leste perdeu, no dia 8 de Dezembro de 1875, um grande irmão, no período mais crítico da sua história de luta de libertação nacional. 

5. Robert Wesley Smith

Robert Wesley-Smith, de nacionalidade australiana, presente nesta cerimónia, distinguiu-se como um dos principais activistas de Timor-Leste, em Darwin, desde os primórdios da nossa luta de libertação nacional.

Começou a actuar pela causa de Timor-Leste após o encontro com José Ramos Horta em 1974 quando este se deslocou a Austrália para pedir apoio dos sindicatos e activistas políticos da Austrália.
Dentre os seus inúmeros trabalhos, destacamos:

- a tentativa de trazer, por barco, para Timor-Leste: comida, medicamentos e equipamento de rádio em Setembro de 1976. Robert e mais três activistas, Cliff Morris, James Zanilis e Manolis foram presos e submetidos a um julgamento que durou dez dias, sob acusação de terem cometido actividades ilegais. Porque o barco foi capturado e a equipa foi julgada, este evento chamou a atenção do público para o drama timorense.

- o seu apoio ao único meio de ligação da Resistência Timorense com o mundo, via rádio estabelecida em Darwin, entre 1976-1978;

- Em Julho de 1978, em protesto contra o fornecimento dos aviões Bronco OV10 e da bombas napalm pelo governo americano à Indonésia, Rober Wesley Smith anunciou que ia queimar um cão num sítio público de Darwin. A polícia ameaçou-o que o prenderia se levasse avante esta acção. Estavam no local activistas, media, polícia e bombeiros. Robert retirou por baixo da camisa um cão brinquedo. Nenhum cão foi queimado. Robert aproveitou a ocasião para chamar a atenção dos presentes que, enquanto eles estavam preocupados que um cão ia ser queimado, centenas de pessoas de um país vizinho, estavam a ser queimadas pela bomba napalm.

- Após o massacre de 12 de Novembro, Robert organizou a primeira manifestação de protesto em Darwin e redobrou os seus actos de solidariedade e a sua total dedicação à nossa causa custou-lhe o emprego no funcionalismo público em Junho de 1992. Sem o emprego que lhe consumia uma boa parte do seu tempo, Robert dispôs de muito mais tempo para organizar eventos e manifestações, para enviar materiais para a Resistência, através da Maria do Céu Lopes, incluindo medicamentos e dinheiro e um laptop para Prsidente do CNRM Xanana Gusmão. 

Robert esforçou-se para trabalhar em cordenação com outros activistas e grupos de solidariedade assim como com a comunidade Timorense em Darwin. Em 1994, juntamente com os seus dois irmáos, conseguiu entrar nas Filipinas para participar na conferência da Asia-Pacífico em solidariedade com Timor-Leste. Muitos convidados, incluindo líderes Timorenses foram impedidos de participar devido à pressão do governo indonésio sobre o governo das Filipinas.

O seu trabalho de apoio aos direitos humanos em Timor Leste é conhecido mundialmente, e em 1998, ele foi premiado com o prémio “Denis Freney Memorial Award “ em reconhecimento pelo seu trabalho de excelente solidariedade e persistente com o povo de Timor Leste”, na presença do prémio Nobel da paz, José Ramos Horta.

Finalmente Robert entrou em Timor-Leste em Outubro 1999 para deparar com um país destruído na generalidade. Aqui trabalhou cerca de um ano para a reconstrução e desenvolvimento de Timor-Leste. Asistiu ao primeiro concerto público no Timor-Leste livre, em 07 de Dezembro e continua interessado em apoiar o nosso país de várias formas, incluindo, o projecto de cidades irmãs geminadas Dili-Darwin e de parcerias de amizade entre as comunidade de Kangaroo Valley -Remexio e as de Bega-Natarbora.

Robert e os seus dois irmãos gêmeos, Martin e Peter, constituíram um trio de irmãos incansáveis durante a nossa luta pela libertação da Pátria e é com muito prazer que constatamos hoje, que, no nosso Timor-Leste livre e independente, continuamos a ser acarinhados pelos irmãos Wesley-Smith.

Categorias do Grupo de Medalhas :

1. Ken Fry 

Ken Fry cidadao Australiano, é condecorado, a titulo póstimo, com a Medalha da Ordem de Timor-Leste. Está aqui representado pela sua viúva, a Sra Audrey Fry e filha Kerry Fry.

O saudoso Ken Fry, de nacionalidade australiana, foi membro do parlamento federal da Austrália, de1974 a 1984. Visitou Timor-Leste 2 vezes como deputado e fez parte do grupo “Deputados por Timor-Leste” que apoiu a causa timorense em Canberra desafiando a política do governo australiano.

Em Fevereiro de 1975, Ken Fry respondeu aos apelos da FRETILIN e organizou uma delegação parlamentar, que incluiu o seu amigo do NPartido Trabalhista, o senador Arthur Gietzelt. 

Ken falou no Conselho de Segurança da ONU em Abril de 1976, ajudando a obter uma votação contra a invasão de Timor-Leste pela Indonésia. 

Em Maio de 1977, Ken Fry concordou em participar numa transmissão de rádio tecnicamente ilegal, de Darwin para Timor-Leste, para conversar com os líderes da FRETILIN. 

Foi orador em três instâncias internacionais sobre a questão de Timor-Leste, designadamente, no Conselho de Segurança da ONU em Abril de 1976, na Conferência internacional sobre o Timor Leste em Lisboa, em Maio de 1979 e Tribunal Permanente dos Povos, realizada em Lisboa, em 1981. Manteve a sua posição em ajudar a garantir que o assunto sobre Timor-Leste não fosse removido da agenda das Nações Unidas e nunca desistiu de falar sobre o assunto. 

Infelizmente, Ken Fry faleceu em Outubro de 2007. 

2. Mary MacKillop Institute

Mary MacKillop Institute, sediada na austrália, é aqui representado pelas Madres, Josephine e Susan aqui presentes é condecorado com a Medalha da Ordem de Timor-Leste. em reconhecimento pelos inúmeros actos de solidariedade das irmãs da Congregação de São José e de religiosas de outras ordens assim como das colegas que tiveram o previlégio de trabalhar e orar juntos, pela liberdade e justiça em Timor-Leste.

Em conjunto, organizaram missas, vigilias e orações por Timor-Leste;

Intervieram em manifestações públicas; Estabeleceram contactos com políticos e pessoas de influência;

Ajudaram a fazer campanha de Timor-Leste via rádio, televisão e jornais;

Prestaram ajudas incontáveis a vários refugiados timorenses pressionando o governo australiano a conceder-lhes asilo político; e 
Deram assistência no sentido de manter e promover a cultura timorense.

3. Andrew Haydon Alcock

Andrew Haydon Alcock, de nacionalidade australiana, aqui presente é condecorado hoje com a medalha da Ordem de Tmor-Leste.
Andrew foi incansável no apoio à causa Timorense, actuando especialmente como membro da CIET em Adelaide, de 1975 a 2002. 

Era o responsável da Informação e serviu a causa Timorense escrevendo comunicados de imprensa e artigos, concedendo entrevistas e fazendo intervenções públicas em várias ocasiões. Contribuiu para a ligação rádio Darwin-Timor-Leste comprando com dinheiro do seu próprio bolso, dois aparelhos de rádio. Em 1979, organizou uma conferência internacional na Universidade de Adelaide que versou sobre Timor-Leste, Austrália e a Região. 

Em 1992,fez parte da delegação “ Missão Paz em Timor”que usou o barco Lusitanio Expresso como meio de protestar contra o Massacre de Santa Cruz em 1991 e de mobilizar a opinião pública para apoiar os direitos do povo de Timor-Leste.

Participou na Conferência de Asia Pacifico sobre Timor-Leste em Kuala Lumpur, Malasia, em 1996. Todos os participantes nessa Conferência foram detidos e deportados , incluindo 3 bispos e dois Timorenses, designadamente, Abel Guterres e Joaquim Fonseca.

Em 2002, ajudou a fundar a Associação Australiana de Amizade com Timor-Leste, um grupo que tem estado a apoiar projectos no nosso Timor-Leste livre e independente.

4. Robert Peter Domm

Robert Peter Domm, de nacionalidade Australiana, é condecorado com a Medalha da Ordem de Timor-Leste.

Visitou Timor -Leste pela primeira vez, no início do 1970. Após a invasão de Timor-Leste, Robert envolveu-se em várias trabalhos em prol dos direitos do povo de Timor-Leste. 

Em 1989, ele foi um dos primeiros estrangeiros a visitar Timor-Leste como turista, após 14 anos de isolamento do país, imposto pelo regime de Suharto. 

Em Setembro de 1990, Robert viajou para as montanhas de Timor Leste com o apoio ativo da resistência clandestina e conseguiu entrevistar o líder do Conselho Nacional da Resistência Timorense, Xanana Gusmão, para a Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Foi uma entrevista exclusiva que trouxe ao mundo informações que reforçaram a campanha na frente externa, incluindo o lobbying nos fora do mundo diplomático.

Robert passou a escrever e a falar amplamente sobre a continuação da resistência armada contra a ocupação indonésia, o crescimento e a força da resistência clandestina, especialmente no seio da geração jovem.

Em 1992, Robert,em co-autoria com Mark Aarons, escreveu o livro "Timor Leste: A Western Tragedy", (“Timor-Leste, uma tragédia do Ocidente”) que contribuiu para aumentar a atenção sobre a luta isolada do povo de Timor- Leste pela libertação da pátria. Mais tarde, juntamente com alguns timorenses e australianos, ajudou a fundar a ETRA , East Timor Relief Association, para a recolha de apoios, de carácter humanitário, para o povo de Timor Leste. 

5. Helen Hill

Dra. Helen Hill, de nacionalidade Autraliana, visitou Timor-Leste, pela primeira vez, em 1975, para trabalhos de pesquisa para o seu curso de mestrado. Após a invasão de Timor-Leste, ajudou a fundar a AETA - Associaçãode Timor-Leste e Austrália. No início de 1976, escreveu o livro intitulado, "Timor Story” para explicar aos australianos a situação de Timor-Leste. 

Foi a Nova York para ajudar o José Ramos Horta representante permanente da FRETILIN junto da Nações Unidas, para ajudar no estabelecimento da Representação. da Frente Diplomática. Em 1984, organizou um evento no “Nacional Press Club” em Canberra, onde Ramos Horta discursou pela primeira vez após a invasão indonésia. Em 1997, fez parte da equipa da Universidade de Victoria, Melbourne que organizou a conferência sobre "Planeamento Estratégico de Desenvolvimento de Timor Leste a pedido do CNRT. A sua tese foi traduzida em 2000 por Adérito de Jesus Soares, Nuno Rodrigues e Nug Katjasungkana e publicada como Gerakan Pembebasan Nasional Timor-Leste e em 2002 como "Sinais do nacionalismo em Timor Leste: FRETILIN 1974-1978”. 

Manteve-se sempre ligada a Timor-Leste, realizando actividades na Austrália em solidariedade com o Povo timorense. Tem trabalhado em vários projetos, incluindo em programas de desenvolvimento comunitário na Universidade Nacional de Timor-Leste (UNTL). 

Organizou duas visitas de estudo à Universidade de Victoria, em Melbourne, para os acadêmicos de Timor-Leste e gestores do ensino superior. 

6. Muchtar Pakpahan

Muchtar Pakpahan, cidadão Indonésio, líder do sindicato de trabalhadores, é condecorado com a Medalha da Ordem de Timor-Leste. Após o massacre de Santa Cruz, ficou bastante sensibilizado com situação de Timor-Leste e, a partir desse período, solidariezou-se à luta do Povo Timorense. Foi preso várias vezes por ser adversário de várias políticas pertencentes ao regime Soeharto. 

De Agosto de 1994 até Maio de 1995, quando esteve preso, esceveu um livro intitulado “O RETRATO DO ESTADO INDONÉSIO”. Este livro relata também sobre a situação de Timor-Leste, tendo sido apresentado na conferência internacional em Lisboa em 1995 para chamar atenção da comunidade internacional.

De 1996-1998 esteve preso na mesma prisão que Xanana Gusmão. O conteúdo do referido livro sobre a questão de Timor-Leste foi também a razão desta prisão. Neste livro, defendeu a realização de um referendum para o povo timorense e exigiu também uma reforma no sistema consitucional da Indonésia. Durante a prisão, conviveu com varios prisioneiros timorenses o que reforçou mais ainda o seu espirito de apoio ao Povo Timorense, mantendo ligação com grupos de estudantes timorenses na Indonésia. 

Categorias Gurpo de Insígnia: 

1. Andrew McNaughtan

Andrew McNaughtan de nacionalidade australiana, é condecorado, a título póstumo por SEXA o Presidente da Republica de Timor-Leste, com a insígnia da Ordem de Timor-Leste , é aqui representado por seu primo Nigel.

O saudoso Andrew McNaughtan, começou a apoiar a luta de libertação do povo de Timor-Leste a partir de 1992/3.

Aproveitou todas as oportunidades para prestar solidariedade à luta do Povo Timorense, tendo decidiu interromper a sua carreira em medicina para dedicar-se exclusivamene à causa do Povo Timorense. Foi um do principais mobilizadores de cerca de 30.000 pessoas,que se manifestaram nas ruas de Sydney, a 11 de setembro de 1999, para pressionar o governo australiano no sentido de enviar um contingente militar a Timor-Leste para contrapor as barbaridades cometidas pelas forças ocupacionistas indonésias.

Após o referendo de 1999, voluntariou-se para trabalhar como médico no interior de Timor-Leste para ajudar as populações.
Infelizmente deixou-nos muito cedo.

2. Aboerprijadi Santoso

Aboepriyadi Santoso, de nacionalidade indonésia, residente na Holanda, aqui presente é condecorado com a insígnia da Ordem de Timor-Leste. 

Em 1978 Aboepriyadi Santoso ouviu falar das actividades dos timorenses na diáspora. Nesse ano, reuniu-se com Abílio Araújo em Paris (França) e ambos debruçaram sobre o problema de Timor-Leste.

Em 1982, começou a trabalhar na Rádio Netherland e através desta via, conseguiu divulgar a questão de Timor-Leste realizando entrevistas com líderes timorenses em exílio e em Timor-Leste.

A partir de 1986, Aboepriyadi Santoso começou a ter dificuldade em visitar a Indonésia porque as suas actividades tiveram como foco a causa sagrada do povo timorense. Só conseguia entrar através de portos ou aeroportos pequenos que, na altura , não tinham controlos eletrónicos, como Batam e Padang. 

Aboepriyadi Santoso visitou Timor-Leste, pela primeira vez, Agosto de 1993 veio novamente em Setembro de 1999. 

3. Gilbert Frederick Scrine

Gil Scrine, de nacionalidade australiana, presente é condecorado com a insígnia da Ordem de Timor-Leste. 

produziu um filme intitulado “BURIED ALIVE: The Story of East Timor”,“ “Enterrado vivo: A história de Timor-Leste”, divulgado em 1989, com a participação de José Ramos-Horta, dirigente do CNRT,. Ambos divulgaram o filme em vários locais, respondendo a perguntas, recolocando assim o caso timorense nos meios de comunicação social numa altura, em que a questão Timor-Leste estava a esmorecer no seio da comunidade internacional.

Gil ajudou a organizar a“ Australia East Timor Association (AETA), em Sydney.

A pedido de Ramos-Horta, deslocou-se até Dili para estabelecer uma escola de produção de filmes com o objectivo de formar pessoas para a produção de documentários e filmes sobre Timor-Leste mas, essa idéia foi abandonada por falta de fundos. 

4. Martin Wesley-Smith

Martin Wesley-Smith, compositor de profissão, de nacionalidade australiana, presente é condecorado com a insígnia da Ordem de Timor-Leste. 

Na companhia dos dois irmãos activistas de Timor-Leste, Robert e Peter, apoiou a causa timorense, a partir de Sydney, de 1976 a 2000, através de vários actos de solidariedade, de entre os quais, o envio de cartas aos meios de comunicação e aos políticos, participação em manifestações de apoio mas, sobretudo, na produção apresentação de peças musicais sobre Timor-Leste, em vários países.

Em 1977 Martin compôs uma peça audio- visual intitulada “Kdadalak” (dedicada às crianças de Timor-Leste) com fotografias tiradas antes da invasão pela fotógrafa inglesa Penny Tweedie.Em 1978, ele e seu grupo apresentaram esta peça num grande festival de música no Japão. Em 1979, nos Estados Unidos da América. 

Em 1981, na Bélgica e na Holanda e, em 1983, na França. Todas estas actuações, além de muitas outras que se realizaram na Austrália, ajudaram a sensibilizar a comunidade internacional sobre a tragédia em Timor-Leste.

Em 1984, Martin compôs a peça “Venceremos” em resposta à recusa do governo de Bob Hawke em apoiar o povo de Timor Leste. Para além de apresentações públicas, esta peça foi gravada em CD . Em 1986, produziu uma outra peça intitulada “Silêncio”, em sinal de protesto contra o silêncio dos governos, em particular, o da Austrália, perante o apelo do povo de Timor Leste.Em 1988, produziu uma canção dedicada aos cinco jornalistas mortos em Balibó e, em 1991, “Timor e Tremor” e, em 1992, a peça “Balibó” tendo ainda colaborado para um CD de canções de luta, produzido pela banda Australiana, Midnight Oil.

A lista de trabalhos musicais de Martin sobre Timor-Leste, com a colaboração estreita do seu irmão gêmeo, Peter, o escritor, é interminável.

O povo de Timor-Leste tem a sorte de ter a seu lado um trio de irmãos activistas incansáveis até hoje.

5. Peter Wesley Smith,

Peter Wesley-Smith, de nacionalidade australiana, é condecorado com a Insignia da Ordem de TImor-Leste, esta aqui presente nesta cerimónia, solidarizou-se com o povo de Timor-Leste,a partir do início da década de 1980 e de Hong Kong, onde viveu muitos anos. 

Em 1983, escreveu um documento de análise, intitulado "Timor Leste e o Direito Internacional" e apresentou-o em seminários realizados em Macau e na Índia, onde foi amplamente divulgado.Outros documentos da sua autoria sobre Timor-Leste, contam-se ainda “ A Lei do Mar e o Timpr Gap” escrito e divulvado em Macau e um outro que debruçou sobre a diversidade cultural e lei em Timor-Leste, que foi apresentado num colóquio, realizado em Bruxelas.Em Hong Kong, onde esteve a leccionar na Faculdade de Direito até 1999, na qualidade de representante da Amnistia Internacional, projectou a questão deTimor-Leste em seminários organizados pela Amnistia Internacional e numa manifestação pública no Centro de Hong Kong, apresentou a peça "Quito, A Luta Continua", uma peça de ópera que ele e o irmão Martin, escreveram em 1994, com base na história dramática de um jovem timorense, Francisco Pires. Em 1994, a peça foi produzida pela Companhia de Ópera de Sydney. Em 1997, Martin transformou-a numa peça radiofónica que foi gravada em CD e que viria a merecer dois prémios, sendo um deles de grande pretígio na Austrália, na área da composição musical.

Apesar de o governo filipino ter incluído na lista de dez elementos a serem deportados, Peter conseguiu participar na Conferência de Ásia-Pacífico sobre Timor Leste, em Manila, em 1995, como representante da Aministia Internacional.

Em 1999, ajudou a fundar a Parceria Kangaroo Valley-Remexio destinada a apoiar a população de Remexio. A sua primeira actividade em benefício desta parceria foi a organização de um concerto pelo coro Anin Murak em 2000. Tem estado a colaborar com o irmão músico, Martin Wesley Smith, na apresentação de vários concertos para a angariação de fundos para esta parceria.

Fonte PR FB

          East Timor’s media law unconstitutional – Court of Appeal        
This is a guest post by Ted McDonnell, originally posted at his personal bog here.
Jose Belo: “The Courts today have upheld our constitution, which we fought so hard for. This is a victory for the East Timorese people. The government is trying to stop freedom of the media and freedom of expression … It would now seem our politicians need help from the lawmakers to understand what the constitution means.”

EAST Timor’s controversial media law has been declared unconstitutional by the country’s Court of Appeal.

The fledgling nation’s President Taur Matan Ruak refused to promulgate the restrictive laws last month and sent the media bill to the Court of Appeal questioning whether they were unconstitutional.


The Court of Appeal yesterday found that a number of articles within the media law were contrary to East Timor’s Constitution. The law will now return to the National Parliament to be revised or abandoned.

East Timor’s leading investigative journalist Jose Belo applauded the Courts decision.

    “The Courts today have upheld our constitution, which we fought so hard for. This is a victory for the East Timorese people,” an elated Belo said today. “The government is trying to stop freedom of the media and freedom of expression.”

Belo said that the decision by the Court of Appeal is no surprise.

    “From day one we said the media laws were unconstitutional. It would now seem our politicians need help from the lawmakers to understand what the constitution means,” he added.

    “It will now go back to the National Parliament, so we have won the battle but we are still to win the war.”

Belo has no doubt the media law was created to restrict local and foreign journalist reporting on East Timor’s plague of corruption, nepotism and financial mismanagement. The law would also restrict who could be called a journalist in East Timor and potentially prevent foreign journalists reporting within East Timor.

East Timor, an island 600 kilometres of the northern tip of Australia, gained its freedom from 24 years of Indonesian rule in 1999 and its full independence in 2002. The country suffers from high unemployment, poverty and malnutrition.

One leading East Timor lawyer said the President could still promulgate the law, if the necessary changes were made by the Parliament.

Prime Minister Xanana Gusmao, who has been a key promoter of the media bill, is believed to be furious that the law has not been approved by the Courts.

Photo of Jose Belo and words used with kind permission of Ted McDonnell – to see more of his work on Timor Leste and elsewhere see his website here.

You can see an earlier report on Timor Leste’s media law at this post at The Northern Myth from June this year.

Aug 21, 2014
Source: http://blogs.crikey.com.au/northern/2014/08/21/east-timors-media-law-unconstitutional-court-of-appeal/
          For East Timorese, first the basics, then real jobs         

In the shadow of the newly refurbished UN headquarters, Cipriano de Deus is unemployed but trying to survive, selling cigarettes and soft drinks to UN employees.

For 23 years Mr. de Deus worked in a nearby hotel. He fled to the hills last September after militias and elements of the Indonesian military torched Dili and massacred hundreds of civilians throughout East Timor. By the time Mr. de Deus had returned, there was an entirely new workforce at the hotel where he worked. "I make very little money now," says de Deus.

The United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) faces a difficult challenge to rebuild this devastated territory. After the Timorese voted 4 to 1 for independence from Indonesia last August, a campaign of terror and destruction forced an estimated 250,000 people to flee their homes. UNTAET was formed after the Indonesian withdrawal in order to facilitate the transition to Timorese independence in two to three years. While generally thankful for the international presence, many Timorese strongly criticize the UN for failing to alleviate urban unemployment estimated at 80 percent.

Sergio Vieira de Mello, UNTAET's chief administrator, says last year's destruction was horrific, and the UN has spent the past eight months just restoring electricity, water, port facilities, and other basic services. International agencies have cut red tape in order to speed reconstruction and provide some jobs for Timorese. "Never has the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the IMF, [or] the UN worked as fast as it has here," says Mr. Vieira de Mello. "Unfortunately, it is still too slow."

UNTAET and other international agencies are now funding a crash program to repair schools in time for classes to begin in October. The effort comes on the heels of a US Agency for International Development-sponsored Transitional Employment Program (TEP) in rural areas, designed to keep Timorese from flooding into the cities.

The $5.5 million budget for TEP has helped employ 12,000 Timorese for two weeks at a time, according to Cecilio Adorna, director of UNTAET's Department of Social Services. "The program has been a great success," he says.

But in the field, TEP looks less than stellar, according to local administrators and residents. Deflated basketballs sit in a box on the district administrator's porch in Alieu, a town 50 miles south of Dili. Timorese prefer soccer, so local TEP administrator Rainer Frauenfeld canceled plans to refurbish a basketball court. Similarly, rebuilding the town's open-air market would have drained most of the TEP funds allocated for the district, so he canceled that as well.

Mr. Frauenfeld says Dili administrators often don't adequately communicate with people in the field. "Consultation, that's the key thing, as opposed to receiving orders, which are not always intelligent," he says. But he emphasizes that desperately needed money has been pumped into the local economy, and even two weeks' wages

'Consultation, that's the key thing.'

- An aid worker in the field on the need for better communication between local workers and administrators

for some families is helpful.

While grateful for the international aid, Timorese now want to see more than make-work programs. "We'd like UNTAET to spend money on education and not just on clearing roadsides," says farmer Evaristo da Silva. "We're already very good at that."

International agencies are discussing plans for longer- term economic development and job creation so that East Timor can take its place in the emerging global economy. For the next three to four years, UNTAET and eventually the new Timorese government must help "the private sector recapitalize," says Sarah Cliff, the World Bank's chief in East Timor.

Such subsidies could help develop exports in coffee and seafood. In addition, UNTAET and Timorese leaders are negotiating with Australia to receive revenue from an existing oil and gas project in the Timor Gap, an arrangement previously set up between Indonesia and Australia.

Prospects for major foreign investment inside East Timor remain slim, however, until the country becomes independent and shows political stability. Timorese critics say many foreign entrepreneurs these days are just making quick profits providing services to international staff. Dili currently boasts 53 restaurants and even a catamaran cruise, affordable only to the international community.

Cipriano de Deus says he sees little benefit so far from the influx of foreign businesspeople. Noting the huge number of Timorese who are out of work, he says, "They should really try to employ more of the local people."

(c) Copyright 2000. The Christian Science Publishing Society

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          Ita Nudar Ema - East Timorese Poetry by Osme Gonsalves        

Poetry by Osme Gonsalves
Filmed & Edited by Chris Phillips thingsbychris.com
Translation by Annie Sloman
Music Tony Anderson
Additional Footage by Thomas Henning

Footage filmed at Arte Publiku, East Timor's first public art festival
Festival Executive Directors: Lizzie Adams, Alex Ben-Mayor

Cast: Chris Phillips

Tags: East Timor, Timor-Leste, Poetry and Arte Publiku


          Community Event        
Name * What would you like to invite the community to? (Ballet performance, rugby game, chess tournament, piano recital, etc...) * Wanna give some more details? Date/Time * Where will it be held? * AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBhutanBoliviaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBrazilBruneiBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaColombiComorosCongo (Brazzaville)CongoCosta RicaCote d'IvoireCroatiaCubaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEast Timor (Timor Timur)EcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFijiFinlandFranceGabonGambia, TheGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGreeceGrenadaGuatemalaGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHondurasHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIranIraqIrelandIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, NorthKorea, SouthKuwaitKyrgyzstanLaosLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacedoniaMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMarshall IslandsMauritaniaMauritiusMexicoMicronesiaMoldovaMonacoMongoliaMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepaNetherlandsNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNorwayOmanPakistanPalauPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPolandPortugalQatarRomaniaRussiaRwandaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint VincentSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbia and MontenegroSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyriaTaiwanTajikistanTanzaniaThailandTogoTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVatican CityVenezuelaVietnamYemenZambiaZimbabwe Website Upload Flyer or Photo (optional) Prev Next Submit
          Encuentra personas mdiante su telefono y el GPS        
A continuacion les presentamos esta innovacion para localizar gente mediante la señal del celular y un GPS. Gracias a www.trackapartner.com

Debes poner el pais y el numero de telefono con el codigo de la ciudad...


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          Anatomy of an occupation: West Papua and the need for international solidarity        
Written by Mali Siloko One might think of Armenia, Namibia or North Korea as some of the forgotten genocides of the 20th and 21st centuries.  It is likely that we have all heard of events that occurred in Rwanda, Bosnia and East Timor. Yet, it is unlikely that people are aware of the ongoing occupation characterised […]
          Follow the Lady        
Just the place for a Snark! I have said it twice:
That alone should encourage the crew.
Just the place for a Snark! I have said it thrice:
What I tell you three times is true.
- Lewis Carroll, "The Hunting of the Snark"

Inconsistency is the only thing in which men are consistent.
- Horace Smith

Look! Elephant!
- Arnold Schwarzenegger in "Last Action Hero"


It's everywhere you look these days. In shopping malls, school cafeterias, playgrounds and youth detention centers. You can find kids doing it on every street corner and down every cul-de-sac in Anytown, USA. Torture. It's here. It's out of the closet. And it's taking the country by storm.

It's nothing new, of course. Fort Benning, in the great progressive and cosmopolitan southern state of Georgia, is named after a general who fought for the most prominent slave state in modern history, so it's a perfectly appropriate home for what was once known as the School of the Americas. (It used to be based in the Panama Canal Zone, an even more appropriate locale that symbolizes the love and respect we feel for our brown brothers south of the Rio Grande.) The SOA is a Spanish-language training course whose purpose was to "provide professional education and training" while "promoting democratic values, respect for human rights, and knowledge and understanding of United States customs and traditions." No snickering until we're through, please. The SOA hosted maybe 1000 or so "students" each year during its existence, many alumni returning for more advanced instruction in democracy and human rights. Like Harvard or Princeton, the SOA is proud as all get out of their illustrious graduates. Here's a select few of them along with their later accomplishments:

- Vladimiro Lenin Montesinos Torres (boy, with a name like that, you'd think classes on respecting human rights would be redundant!): SOA Class of 1965. Born in Arequipa, Peru, 1945. Lifelong embarrassment over his commie name drove him to embrace right-wing politics with a particular zeal and fervor. Attended the SOA while a military cadet. His career has included a stint spying on his country for the CIA while Peru had a leftist government, which led to some jail time; a lawyer for the Medellín drug cartel's Peruvian interests; a spy for Ecuador, selling classified defense documents to the Ecuadorian Army; and then personal lawyer and chief of intelligence for Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori, supervising death squads that went after Fujimori's political opponents as well as enemies of the aforementioned drug baron patrons. Currently in jail in Peru awaiting trial for 63 criminal charges including drug trafficking and murder.
- Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri Castelli: Career Argentinian army officer. A good career to be in, too, after the Argentinian Armed Forces overthrew the civilian government in 1976 and proclaimed an indefinite Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, the first stage of which was the so-called "Dirty War." The Dirty War was the euphemism for a brutal purge of labor activists, political reformers, and anyone the army didn't like. It's estimated that about 30,000 Argentinians became desaparecidos during this purge. Galtieri rose to become army commander-in-chief by 1980, and was embraced with open arms by the Reagan Administration during his state visit to Washington in 1981. When faced with a tumbling economy he decided to win back popular support by invading the Falkland Islands in 1982, a group of guano-encrusted flyspecks in the South Atlantic that remained British possessions largely because nobody remembered where they were. The ensuing three month Falklands War saw another thousand British and Argentinian lives thrown away for absolutely no reason whatsoever. This led to his downfall - murdering 30 thousand socialists and hippies is okay, but lose a war and they never let you hear the end of it. Galtieri died of a heart attack in 2003 while under house arrest awaiting more trials.
- José Efraín Ríos Montt: SOA Class of 1950. In 1954 took part in the CIA-orchestrated coup on behalf of the United Fruit Company against democratically elected President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán of Guatemala. (Arbenz was nationalizing UFC-owned lands to distribute them to the poor to farm, and UFC asked United States Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, who had invested a large portion of his savings in UFC, to intervene to preserve democracy or something.) Rose through the ranks of successive military regimes in Guatemala. In 1978 he converted to the evangelical Pentacostal right-wing denomination the Church of the Word. In 1982 he seized power in another military coup and launched a truly odious spate of oppressions and massacres. Some of his more memorable quotes during his reign include: "The true Christian carries a Bible in one hand and a machine gun in the other," and the classic, "If you support us, we will feed you. If you don't, we will shoot you." During his brief time in power (1982-1983) he managed to step up the genocide of the indigenous Mayan population, killing at least 10,000 in one three-month period alone, and perhaps three times that number overall, and displacing at least a million of them from their homes. Ríos Montt was himself displaced from power in 1983 but remains a fixture in Guatemalan politics, running unsuccessfully for the presidency in 2003.

I could go on all day about this. Manuel Noriega, the drug running CIA agent and dictator of Panama, until we ousted him in 1989 because he stopped taking our orders. Roberto D'Aubuisson Arrieta, whose ARENA party ran El Salvador during the 1980s and whose Green Beret-trained death squads gunned down thousands, including the Roman Catholic Archbishop of San Salvador, Óscar Romero, in 1980. Guy Philippe, one of the leaders of the bloody Haitian coup in 2004 that ended when American Marines apparently "encouraged" Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide to resign and leave the country with them (some say at gunpoint); Philippe was a former police chief with a penchant for shooting protestors. Luis Posada Carriles and Orlando Bosch, two anti-Castro Cuban terrorists and sometime CIA agents, who blew up a Cuban civilian airliner in 1976 (killing 73 people, the worst airline terrorist act in the Western Hemisphere until 9/11), and who currently live freely inside the United States. And on, and on, and on. Detractors started calling the SOA the "School of Assassins." This isn't just a few bad apples, to use one of the right's favorite euphemisms for occasions when America is caught doing bad things. This rot is cancerous and systemic; the tree is rotten, the whole orchard is rotten, and by design rather than misfortune. America has never, ever cared about spreading democracy and respect for human rights, even when loudly trumpeting that it was doing so. This isn't a right-left thing either; President Jimmy Carter himself, Mr. Human Rights, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate for 2002, dedicated his presidency to promoting human rights around the world, and yet he continued American arms sales to and military training for the regimes of Somoza of Nicaragua, Suharto of Indonesia, and the Shah of Iran, all of whom were engaged in brutal military repressions or invasions. Maybe he personally loathed these men and their governments; maybe he longed to overthrow them with every fiber of his being. But he kept sending them checks regardless. (There's some dispute as to whether or not he cut off aid to Somoza at a key point during the Nicaraguan Civil War and whether or not this led to Somoza's downfall, but there's no question about his support for the Shah during the Islamic Revolution of 1979, or the genocide of East Timorese that Indonesia carried out during the 1970s.) The American system didn't just encourage military strongmen and unelected presidents in Latin America, Asia, Africa; it required them. Such despots responded to graft and military support like a fat tabbycat to a saucer of cream, and the concessions they granted to American-based industrial concerns allowed corporations to accrue enough profit from cheap labor and cheap or free land to bankroll the congressmen and presidents who kept supporting the Third World dictators, who kept the system going. This is, at its purest, capitalism. This is the American Way.

Senator John McCain introduced the McCain Detainee Amendment to the Department of Defense Authorization bill for FY 2006 on October 2, 2005, and it was passed by the Senate by a vote of 90-9. The amendment has a particular resonance for McCain; in 1967 he was a naval aviator serving aboard the USS Forrestal, when his A-4 Skyhawk was shot down over North Vietnam. McCain spent over five years in the Hanoi Hilton. You did not want to spend five minutes in the Hanoi Hilton, let alone five years. So he knows a bit about torture. McCain's amendments calls for all American personnel, military and civilian, to restrict their interrogations of enemy combatants and prisoners of war (if that term ever applies again...) to the guidelines spelled out in the Army's Interrogation Field Manual. Beyond the fact that torture produces skewed and untrustworthy intelligence, McCain has said that torture "corrupts our soldiers." One would think this glaringly fucking obvious, even without the 2004 Abu Ghraib scandal. Anyone who's dealt with a small-town cop who pulled them over for no reason at all knows this. Lord Acton's famous quote that power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely works backwards as well. Corruption empowers, and absolute corruption empowers absolutely. You give someone a gun and tell them not only that they can humiliate and beat their prisoners while questioning, but that they should do so, and you wind up with Abu Ghraib, Camp Delta, a string of secret CIA prisons across Eastern Europe. Unarmed men chained in fetal positions and left in their own shit for days, legs and arms broken during questioning sessions, bodies kept on ice for months in order to obscure the results of autopsies. 90 United States Senators think that these are all bad ideas, and that if we're going to claim that we're fighting a war against terrorism, we oughtn't use terror.

If Jonathan Swift, Voltaire, Joseph Heller, and Kurt Vonnegut were united by time machine and asked to write a story about the Iraq War, they still might not be able to top this next bit. Vice President Dick "Go fuck yourself" Cheney apparently began lobbying for the CIA to be excluded from this amendment. At the same time, the BushCo White House began a full court press bleating loudly and insistently that We Do Not Torture. I imagine the agitprop backdrop within which they like to ensconce Dubya - you know, subtle slogans like "Saving Social Security" (from existing, I imagine), "Stimulating Job Growth Through Outsourcing," "Ignorance is Strength," etc., that adorn every available square inch of his podium and stage, as if to keep him on topic no matter which way he turns his head in annoyance at the occasional probing question - probably read something like "I Didn't See Anything," or "America Loves the Brown People Who Follow the Rules," or "This Way to the Bald Eagle Petting Zoo," or something else equally desperate sounding. I felt a bit squeamish watching their rhetorical yoga; we don't torture, per se, but America is at war and we have to do what we have to do to protect the American people, so we need to exempt the CIA from this amendment which prohibits torture, which we're not doing. Apparently, their unspoken concept is that some easily duped and misinformed Americans might mistake "doing what has to be done" for actual "torture." But really, nothing could be further from the truth. And to illustrate this point, I'd like to direct your attention to this gold watch I'm holding here. Watch it swing back and forth. Slowly. Inexorably. Your eyelids are getting so heavy you can hardly keep them open, can you?

They're either so miserably contemptuous of all of us, or else so appallingly incompetent, that they fail to see the disconnect here.
-We don't torture, fuck no!
-We just want permission to, if we have to.
-Not that we would.
-Not that it's any of your goddamned business.
-Don't you trust us?
-Why do you hate our troops?
This is what passes for a progression of thought among the right-wing today. Bush said in a recent We Do Not Torture torture support rally that, "Any activity we conduct is within the law. We do not torture." Now...how did he mean this, exactly? It might read that Bush is saying, We only conduct legal activities, and torture is excluded. Or, a more cynically-minded type might read it as saying, Anything we do is allowed by definition, and if it's done by us then it can't be called torture. Or to quote that great Republican statesman of the 20th century, "When the President does it, it is not a crime."

Treason doth never prosper; what's the reason? Why, if it prosper, then none dare call it treason. It's a fact that Americans do not torture, because we're the Good Guys. If we're doing it, then it can hardly be torture, now can it? We're not terrorists; we're fighting terrorists. I only mention that in case some of you, understandably, are having trouble distinguishing one side from the other these days. Like I am.

[Epilogue: Oh, and the School of the Americas? After a decade of concerted monitoring and protest spearheaded by a group called SOA Watch, the School was formally closed in January 2001. The Defense Department then transferred the entire SOA staff to its newly-established Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation, which taught the exact same curriculum as the SOA. For its part, the Pentagon insists that, well, the SOA's bad name was due to "a few bad apples," and that anyway the abuses have all been corrected, and that now the WHISC doesn't teach torture, and you should definitely take our word for it this time. By the way, I don't see any yellow ribbons on your car. Why do you hate our soldiers so much? You ought be more careful with what you say, especially these days. The War on Terror is going swimmingly, and that's why we all have to be even more careful and loyal, because the more victories we win the more we have to be on guard for the next enemy. We're fighting a perpetual war to preserve our perpetual peace. And that's all you need to know.]
          Martha Towner Author Story Time & Book Signing        
When: Wednesday, August 30, 2017 - 6:00 PM - 7:00 PM
Where: Great River Regional Library - Sauk Centre

Join local Sauk Centre Author Martha (Billman) Towner as she reads from her book “A Whisper in the Night: An Island Adventure” which documents her adventures growing up as part of a missionary family in Portuguese East Timor. Martha and her husband Jim also served overseas in Spanish speaking countries for 27 years. Martha will talk about her time overseas, writing and illustrating as a self published author/artist. We will have some coloring time with copies from her companion coloring book. Books will be available for sale. All ages are welcome to attend.
          The Trip of a Lifetime….        

So here we are, several weeks back into normal life and reflecting back on what the past 7 months have been about for our family. For many years I fantasised about a trip where we just jumped in the car and took off, leaving our cares behind us and only the road and great beaches ahead. Was it all worth it, would we do it again? You bet we would, in a heart beat! As a father, whilst I have probably spent more time than most with my kids and Bec I still hadn't had that 24/7 opportunity to just be there for an extended period of time. This was the highlight for me. Every morning just waking up with my family, no real plans for the day, starting with cuppas on the beach, watching Gus run free along the water's edge, exploring with the girls, having quality time all together. It really doesn't get any better than that. Truth be told we could have been anywhere but the scenery just added to the magic of it all. We have always been a close family, gee for years we all slept in the same room, single mattresses on the floor next to our bed, but this trip somehow brought us even closer together. You get an opportunity to see your kids differently when you have that much time together, you get to know them better, understand the intricacies of their personality and build even stronger relationships. For Bec and I we have had some challenging times that we have lived through in the past so for us to have this time, with no real hassles, just an opportunity to be with our kids, creating a loving environment for us all to share it was pretty special.

Favourite memories, every day really, how do you pick. It wasn't so much the big days like seeing the great barrier reef or doing the sky train in Cairns, it was probably more the quiet days, exploring depot beach, exploring Pambula river mouth, walking along one mile beach at sunrise, nights in the camper watching episodes of seachange, cooking our favourite prawn and fresh pea risotto with a glass of shaw & smith sav blanc, while the kids ran around the park. This being like groundhog day for us and was just so satisfying and ofcourse incredibly enjoyable. This after the challenges of East Timor, the cultural journey in Thailand and the life changing experience of our second home in India. There are days when I have to pinch myself that we have actually done all of this.

For me having had an incredibly busy 10 years, well 20 years really, to have this time with really not much to occupy my mind was very stimulating. There were so many ideas, reflections, dreams and possibilities that came flooding in and out of my thoughts. For many weeks I let them come and go and despite feeling a little pressure to record them I just sat with them for a time. Toward the end of the trip I found the motivation to sit down and write. I wrote about what I felt I had done with my life to date and what I still want to achieve. I wrote about what I stand for, which for me is a big thing because I have spent the past several years just trying to escape the conflict we had been experiencing and now finding that spirit to want to stand up again and fight for what I believe in, was incredibly liberating. I was able to capture a vision for what would make my life ideal, listen to Bec's thoughts about the same for her and see how our vision for the future was now so well aligned.

On a practical level I was able to finalise a draft strategic plan for my business which has provided me with a sense of purpose about my work. Interestingly I have been without business cards for about 5 years, not sure if this was my own passive aggressive resistence to my work or what it was but I return with new cards and a new plan and the energy to put it into place. Whilst in many ways I have been very successful at what I do, there has always been a sense of a lack of confidence, or a lack of belief in my ability to meet the constant needs of the people I was working with and due to my energy being very low I just couldn't chart a course out of the mire I had entered. It has been a bit of a Tom Cruise Mission Statement moment, about less clients and more attention, less work and more learning, less quantity and higher quality.

I read in a book that Bec had purchased about the power of meditating on your death. Sounds dark, but not really. It encouraged me to think about dying and what it was that was important, what I had done, what was it that really mattered and what was it that would matter in that moment of death. For so long I have been terrified of the thought of dying, of a life that never quite reached its potential and the decisions I had regretted and the time wasted and not well spent. It was so compelling for me to be able to put myself in that space and feel like I had in recent times made some really big and important decisions, felt really comfortable with where our lives were at, comforted by the time I have spent with Bec and my kids and knowing they are well on their way to growing up to be happy and confident and feel like we have been able to leave a legacy that will live on well beyond our time. For the first time in my life I felt completely at ease in who I am and where my life has come. Now don't for a minute think this means I am going anywhere because now that life has purpose, pleasure and is incredibly enjoyable I just want to revel in being happy. It is so great to feel genuinely happy. To be so in love with my wife, to be so connected with my three beautiful kids and to feel a real sense of meaning in our lives. My relationship with important people like my mum and my sister are very close and becoming closer and to feel so comfortable with these relationships is like a chapter in my life that is very important to me and is now giving me so much pleasure.

Today I went to India's assembly at school. She was invited to give a talk to the whole junior school on her trip overseas. There she was our little moochie, up the front microphone in hand, confidently sharing her experiences of India, the orphanage and what we were doing to help. You know when I was 11 I never would have been in a position to do what Indy did today, she was amazing. Since we have been back we have had a number of people come up and tell us how great our kids are, how easy they are to talk to and how knowledgeable they are and it just makes Bec and I feel great to see our kids so happy and confident in who they are and what they have experienced. The other day I put our photos on a revolving slideshow on my laptop and it was amazing to just watch photo after photo come up and reveal another page in our life story and the experiences we have shared together. There is no doubt that over the past couple of years we have truly committed to the spirit of adventure and whilst it has had its moments of worry it has created a wonderful environment of learning and experience for our family. To do this together has been priceless. I am incredibly proud of my family, my wonderful wife, Bec, my deep thinking oldest girl Indy, my special fun middle one Maggie and our little man of the house, Gus.

It seems like only yesterday Bec and I watched Julie and Julia and got inspired to start our blog just days before we headed off overseas. I think this has provided a great way to keep in touch with friends and family but also will provide an incredible keepsake for our family to look back on for years to come. I have enjoyed the challenges of putting my deepest thoughts and feelings on a page and whilst in some regard it is quite indulgent and perhaps even narcissistic, it has been very therapeutic and liberating. For those of you who have shared this journey with us, thankyou for listening, thankyou for your very kind words of encouragement that enabled me to be very honest and feel safe to write from the heart.

Our spirit of adventure trip may have ended but in many ways our life has entered the next chapter, what it has in store for us only time will tell but whatever it is we will face it together and seek to enjoy every minute.

Nick.


          Cobra Gunship Pilot        
American Heroes Radio features a conversation with former United States Marine Corps Major Dan Sheehan, the author of After Action: The True Story of a Cobra Pilot’s Journey. Major Dan Sheehan, USMC, “served as a Marine Officer from 1996 to 2007.  He is an AH-1W pilot by trade and deployed aboard the 13th MEU (SOC) in 2000 and the 11th MEU (SOC) in 2002. During those deployments he participated in operations in East Timor, Yemen, and in various countries in the Middle East.  In 2003, he flew close air support missions during the invasion of Iraq & in 2004 served in Baghdad as a Forward Air Controller with USMC Special Operations Command.  When he left active duty as a Major in 2007, he had accrued more than 2000 flight hours and over 30 free-fall and static line parachute jumps.”  Major Sheehan is the author of After Action: The True Story of a Cobra Pilot's Journey. According to the book description of After Action: The True Story of a Cobra Pilot's Journey, “as a 3rd generation military flyer, he was eager to test his skills as a Cobra gunship pilot in the theatre of combat & then he got his chance, first, in East Timor, then during 2 tours of duty in Iraq. The scenes in this, Dan’s military memoir, crackle with angst and excitement as we follow his path into battle. Bullets pierce the unarmoured Cobras as Dan and his buddies struggle to separate enemy fighters from civilians. Through the smoke of battle and chaos of firefights at night, Dan puts us in right in the front seat of the Cobra - where we white-knuckle our way through barrages of enemy fire - and into his head as he makes split-second decisions that determine life or death."
          OPERASI SEROJA (1975 – 1979)        



OPERASI SEROJA (1975 – 1979)
Dading Kalbuadi, Chief Commander Flamboyan Operation
Hanya sekitar tujuh jam, Minggu 7 Desember 1975, Kota Dili dikuasai lewat operasi lintas udara (Linud) terbesar dalam sejarah ABRI. Grup-1 Kopassandha dan Brigade-18/Linud Kostrad yang sebagian besar dari Batalion-502/Raiders Jawa Timur itu, diterjunkan dari sembilan pesawat angkut C-130B Hercules TNI AU.
Menjelang jam 05.00 WITA, BTP-5 (Batalion Tim Pendarat)/Infanteri Marinir, mengendap-endap di pantai Kampung Alor. Dengan dukungan tembakan kanon kapal perang TNI AL, BTP-5 mengawali rencana besar operasi perebutan Kota Dili, 7 Desember 1975. Operasi ini merupakan kelanjutan “Operasi Komodo” yang digelar Bakin awal 1975, untuk mengantisipasi makin keruhnya peta politik di Timor Loro Sae (Timor Negeri Matahari Terbit).
Indonesian Marines reached the beach near Dili
Euphoria politik yang berkepanjangan ini, memaksa Indonesia meningkatkan operasi menjadi operasi Sandhi Yudha (combat inteligence) terbatas dengan sandi “Operasi Flamboyan”. Operasi yang dipimpin Kolonel Dading Kalbuadi dengan inti pasukan pemukul operasi Grup-1 Para Komando/Kopassandha yang menempatkan Detasemen Tempur-2 (Denpur) di perbatasan sejak Oktober 1975 inilah, yang kemudian berubah ujud menjadi “Operasi Seroja”.
M. Jusuf, The High Commander of Indonesian Army burning the spirit of Indonesian Soldiers
Perebutan Dili yang didahului operasi ampibi ini, diputuskan Menhankam/Pangab Jenderal TNI M Panggabean, 4 Desember di Kupang. Operasinya sendiri dilakukan melalui pertimbangan dan analisa lapangan setelah melihat pergerakan pasukan Fretilin. Bukan sepihak, ketegasan sikap Indonesia juga didasari keinginan rakyat Timor Portugal berintegrasi dengan Indonesia. Sikap yang diwakili empat partai Apodeti (Associacao Popular Democratica de Timor), UDT (Uniao Democratica de Timorense), KOTA (Klibur Oan Timor Aswain), dan Trabalista itu dikenal dengan Deklarasi Balibo, 30 Nopember 1975. Sikap yang sekaligus menandingi deklarasi berdirinya Republik Demokrasi Timor Timur secara sepihak oleh partai Fretilin (Fronte Revolucionaria de Timor Leste Independente), dua hari sebelumnya.
East Timor Partisans who joined UDT & Apodeti
Sebelum perebutan Dili, Fretilin sudah terlibat baku tembak dengan pasukan ABRI dalam perebutan Benteng Batugade (7 Oktober). Alasan berikutnya, meningkatnya pelanggaran perbatasan diselingi perampokkan ternak oleh Fretilin di Kabupaten Belu, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Pelanggaran yang meningkat sejak Juni 1975 itu, sering tertangkap basah oleh ABRI hingga menimbulkan tembak-menembak. Korban mulai berjatuhan.
Indonesian Raiders (Batalyon 502 Raiders East Java)
Lebih seru lagi, sejak 1 Oktober, Komando Tugas Gabungan (Kogasgab) Operasi Seroja mendeteksi keberadaan dua kapal perang kelas frigat AL Portugal di sekitar Timor. Celakanya, 7 Desember pagi, kedua kapal tersebut justru merapat di lepas pantai Dili. “Mereka buang jangkar lebih dekat ke pulau Atauro, karena di sana bercokol pemerintahan pelarian Portugal dari Timor,” kata Hendro Subroto, wartawan TVRI yang meliput saat itu. Entah kebetulan, di selat yang memisahkan pulau Atauro dan pulau Alor ini, tiga formasi arrow Hercules satu formasi tiga pesawat akan membuat manuver abeam (posisi pesawat 90 derajat terhadap suatu check point di sisi kiri atau kanan pesawat).
Gunship
Menjelang berakhirnya tanggal 6 Desember 1975, di Lanud Iswahyudi, Madiun, Jawa Timur, di luar kebiasaan, ratusan pasukan berperalatan lengkap berseliweran. Sebagian menyandang parasut T-10 buatan Amerika, separuh lagi senapan serbu AK-47 buatan Soviet. Di apron, sembilan pesawat angkut berat C-130B Hercules Skadron 31, siap terbang. Beberapa air crew menyempatkan melakukan pemeriksaan akhir sebelum mengudara.
Kesembilan pesawat ini tiba di Iswahyudi siang itu. Letkol Pnb. Suakadirul menuturkan, perintah berangkat ke Iswahyudi diterimanya Jumat, 5 Desember, dari Kol. Pnb. Susetyo, Komandan Satuan Tugas Udara Operasi Seroja. Isi perintah: usai shalat Jumat, seluruh anggota Skadron 31 kembali ke tempat masing-masing. Tidak seorangpun dibenarkan pulang. “Saya belum tahu kemana arah perintah itu. Tapi saya bisa menduga dengan melihat perkembangan situasi di lapangan,” ingat Marsda (Pur) Suakadirul.
Dalam perintah rahasianya, Komandan Skadron 31 diminta menyiapkan 12 pesawat untuk mengangkut satu batalion paratroops. “Jadi saya harus menyiapkan 12 set crew. Pilot, co-pilot, navigator, engineer, radio telegrafis, load master dan pembantunya. Jumlahnya sekitar 120 orang,” katanya. Kebetulan dua pesawatnya dalam perawatan, hanya 10 pesawat bisa disiapkan. Dalam jajaran penerbangnya, Suakadirul sengaja menempatkan dua penerbang senior Letkol Pnb. Siboen dan Kol.Pnb. Suhardjo. “Sebagai panutan, lah.”
Maka, esok harinya, sembilan Hercules bertolak dari Halim Perdanakusuma menuju Iswahyudi. Tiga diantaranya mengangkut Kopassandha. Baru di Madiun lah, sorenya, Suakadirul mendapat kejelasan bahwa akan dilakukan operasi pen-drop-an pasukan di Dili. Untuk itu, armadanya akan mengangkut satu batalion pasukan payung. “Satu pesawat memuat 100 orang,” jelas Hendro, wartawan yang meliput. Pada hari yang sama di Timor, Batalion-403/Raiders Kostrad tiba di lepas pantai Tailaco dengan LST KRI Teluk Bone. Sorenya, disusul BTP-5/Infantri Brigade-1/Pasrat Marinir masuk LST untuk persiapan pendaratan ampibi di Dili jam 05.00 esok harinya.
Tanggal 6 Desember, jam 23.50, flight leader Letkol Pnb. Suakadirul, memulai operasi dengan menerbangkan Hercules T-1308. Berturut-turut, dipekatnya malam, kedelapan pesawat meninggalkan landasan pacu Lanud Iswahyudi. Pesawat bergerak ke arah Ponorogo, terus heading ke timur sambil menyusun formasi. Dalam penerbangan antara Ponorogo dan Denpasar, sembilan pesawat mulai membentuk formasi arrow dengan panduan exhaust dan lampu take off pesawat.
Sifat operasi pendadakan. Formasi sembilan Hercules ini diberi sandi Rajawali Flight. Untuk menjaga kerahasiaan, selama penerbangan diterapkan radio silence. Komunikasi antar penerbang dilakukan menggunakan morse. Pesawat terus naik hingga mencapai ketinggian 22.000 kaki dengan kecepatan 280 knot. Di utara Denpasar, leader mengirim morse ke Air Traffic Control (ATC) Bandara Ngurah Rai: Rajawali abeam Denpasar. Lewat Denpasar, Suakadirul kontak Lanud Penfui, Kupang, untuk menginformasikan posisi Rajawali flight pada beberapa check point ke Markas Komando Operasi Seroja di kapal tender kapal selam KRI Ratulangi.
T-1308 yang paling lambat terbangnya, dipilih sebagai flight leader agar pesawat lain sebagai wingman mudah menyesuaikan dalam terbang formasi. Bertindak sebagai wingman, Letkol Pnb. Sudjiharsono (kiri) dan Kol.Pnb.Suhardjo (kanan). Formasi arrow kedua, dua mil dibelakangnya, diterbangkan Letkol Pnb.Siboen (leader), Letkol Pnb.O H Wello (kiri), dan Letkol Pnb.Sukandar (kanan). Arrow ketiga dipimpin Letkol Pnb.Masulili dan Mayor Pnb.Achlid Muchlas/Mayor Pnb.Sudiyarso (kiri) serta Mayor Pnb.Murdowo (kanan).
Suakadirul menggambarkan, suasana begitu senyap di pesawat. Desah nafas mereka mengeras, maklum, operasi Linud pertama di Dili dan terbesar bagi Hercules sepanjang sejarah ABRI. Menunggu tentu membosankan. Apalagi tujuan medan perang. Perhitungannya, penerbangan ke Dili memakan waktu 4 jam 50 menit. Sementara tiap pesawat membawa 42.000 pound avtur JP-4, yang cukup untuk penerbangan 10 jam 30 menit.
Garis besarnya, operasi penerjunan untuk merebut Kota Dili dari Fretilin dilakukan dalam tiga sortie. Sortie pertama dengan sasaran Dili, akan diterjunkan Grup-1 Kopassandha dipimpin Letkol (Inf) Soegito dan Batalion Infantri Linud 501 di bawah komando Letkol (Inf) Matrodji. Sortie kedua, dari Lanud Penfui, Kupang, menyusul Batalion 502 di bawah Mayor (Inf) Warsito dengan target Komoro. Khusus Baret Merah, dalam operasi ini dipelopori Denpur-1, disebut juga Nanggala-5, di bawah komandan Mayor (Inf) Atang Sutisna. Sortie ketiga, direncanakan juga dari Kupang.
Letkol Soegito membagi Nanggala-5 ke dalam tiga tim. Tim-A dipimpin Mayor Atang Sutisna, melaksanakan perebutan kantor gubernur. Tim-B dipimpin Lettu Atang Sanjaya, merebut pelabuhan Dili. Sedang Tim-C dipimpin Lettu Luhut Panjaitan, merebut lapangan terbang Dili. Ketiga tim disebar ke dalam empat Hercules terdepan, dengan perhitungan jika salah satu pesawat mengalami gangguan atau tertembak, tim bisa berharap pada pesawat berikutnya. Artinya, operasi harus tetap jalan.
Pasukan sortie kedua dan ketiga yang akan diberangkatkan dari Kupang, berasal dari Jakarta dan Jawa Timur. Karena terbatasnya kemampuan TNI AU dalam mendukung angkutan udara, pengiriman pasukan ke Kupang diputuskan menggunakan pesawat Garuda Indonesian Airways. Garuda menjembatani pengiriman pasukan dari Halim Perdanakusuma dan Iswahyudi menggunakan 17 F-28 dan empat F-27 Friendship. Operasi jembatan udara ini dipimpin langsung direktur utamanya Wiweko Supono.
Untuk mempertahankan pendadakan, tentu tidak sekadar mengandalkan pemahaman topografi. Serangan udara juga berperan. Perebutan Irian Barat memperoleh keunggulan di udara, karena didukung pesawat tempur. Pesawat pembom dan angkutnya, juga mendapat close air support. Sebaliknya, untuk Dili, bantuan tembakan udara (BTU) justru masalah. Ini disebabkan seluruh pesawat P-51 Mustang Skadron 3/Tempur Taktis dinyatakan grounded, setelah kecelakaan beruntun menewaskan, diantaranya, Mayor Pnb Sriyono. Sedangkan pesawat latih lanjut T-33 T-Bird (versi militernya Shooting Star) dan F-86 Sabre bantuan Australia, belum dipersenjatai. Dari tujuh bomber B-26 Invader Skadron 2/Pembom Taktis, hanya dua yang serviceable. Penerbang pesawat peninggalan PD II inipun, hanya dua orang yang masih berkualifikasi. Yaitu Letkol Pnb Danendra (Danlanud Penfui) dan Mayor Pnb Soemarsono, yang ditarik kembali dari Pelita Air Service.
Pentingnya BTU sangat disadari Amerika ketika di palagan Vietnam. Tidak heran kemudian, Jenderal USAF John P McConnel mengusulkan modifikasi C-47 menjadi gunship untuk mendukung bantuan tembakan udara. Dakota itu kemudian populer dengan sebutan Gooney Bird. Sebutannya pun diganti menjadi AC-47 mulanya FC-47. Pesawat yang dilengkapi tiga senapan mesin kaliber 7,62 mm di sisi, selama perang Vietnam digunakan USAF sebanyak 20 pesawat di samping AC-130 Spectre Gunship.
Terinspirasi oleh kepopuleran gunship ini, dua pesawat C-47 Dakota Skadron 2/Angkut Ringan TNI AU, dibedah menjadi AC-47 gunship. Mekanik dan teknisi Depopesbang 10 Bandung, menjejali dengan tiga senapan mesin kaliber 0,50 mm. Untuk mengenal medan, ujicoba penembakan dilakukan di sepanjang perbatasan Timor Portugal bulan September 1975. Jadilah dua B-26 dan dua AC-47, direncanakan memberikan BTU dalam mendukung operasi Linud 7 Desember.
Go!
Pesawat terus bergerak dalam kesunyian. Sesekali, bunyi morse memecah keheningan. Di timur Flores, Rajawali flight perlahan-lahan turun ke 5.000 kaki sambil menyusun formasi penerjunan. Persis di atas pulau Alor pada ketinggian 7.000 kaki, lampu merah dekat pintu menyala dan bel berdering pendek tiga kali sebagai tanda pasukan mulai berdiri untuk persiapan.
Waktu penerjunan menjelang lampu hijau tinggal 10 menit lagi. Anggota Kopassandha dan Brigade-18/Linud Kostrad, mencantolkan pengait pada ujung strop di kabel baja yang merentang di kabin. Dengan sigap, posisi ransel, senjata, dan perlengkapan perorangan lainnya dibenahi. Hampir tidak ada suara. Semua membisu dalam kesibukkan masing-masing.
Abeam Atauro, pesawat sudah di 5.000 kaki. Karena radar pesawat digunakan untuk cuaca, Suakadirul dibuat kaget ketika melongokkan kepalanya melihat dua kapal frigat Portugis Joao Roby dan Alfonso de Albuquerque lego jangkar di lepas pantai Atauro. “Tidak ada informasi dua kapal frigat dilengkapi radar dan sonar, buang sauh di Atauro,” protes Suakadirul. Aneh. Padahal, KRI Ratulangi sudah berpapasan dengan Joao Roby di perairan Timor, 23 Oktober. Hebat lagi, sejak 1 Oktober keberadaan kapal yang memiliki 3 kanon 100 mm ini sebenarnya sudah diketahui. “Saya tidak mengerti soal itu,” jawab Suakadirul.
Pintu kiri-kanan pesawat mulai dibuka. Kecepatan dikurangi hingga 110 knot. “Saya bilang kita 5.000 kaki. Lampu kuning menyala, terus depressurized,” cerita Suakadirul. Waktu tersisa menuju dropping zone (DZ) tinggal empat menit. Perlahan, jarak horizontal antar pesawat di perpendek hingga 300 kaki (sekitar 100 meter). Demikian pula jarak vertikal antar pesawat, hanya selisih 50 kaki. “Saya berada pada ketinggian 900 kaki,” ucap Suakadirul. Jadi kalau dihitung hingga pesawat terakhir, ketinggiannya 1.250 kaki.
Mendekati pantai Dili, dengan referensi Tanjung Fatukama, Rajawali flight belok kanan langsung menuju jantung kota Dili. Agar pesawat mampu terbang pada kecepatan 110 knot, menurut Suakadirul, flap diturunkan sebesar 50 persen. Bagi Suakadirul, Dili bukan hal baru. Tahun 1970, lulusan Chekoslowakia ini telah mondar-mandir dengan Dakota milik Zamrud rute Denpasar, Rembiga, Sumbawa, Kupang dan Dili untuk RON (remain over night). Sementara, navigator buka suara, “2 menit ahead.”
Sembilan pesawat muncul dari balik perbukitan tanpa lindungan (escort) B-26 dan AC-47. Bel berdering panjang sekitar lima detik setelah Hercules T-1308 terbang melintas di atas sisi barat perkampungan nelayan. Jam di tangan Suakadirul menunjukkan pukul 05.45, bertepatan perubahan lampu kuning menjadi lampu hijau. “Kerongkongan saya mendadak kering,” ujar Suakadirul.
Hanya dalam hitungan detik menjelang jam 05.45, jumping master berteriak. “Penerjun siap?” Dilanjutkannya dengan perintah, “Sedia di pintu!” Sekian detik kemudian, jumping master berteriak lebih keras. “Go!”
Mengambil arah 260 derajat atau hampir ke barat pada garis sejajar dengan jalan Dr. Antonio de Carvalho di tengah Kota Dili, anggota pertama melompat dari Hercules T-1308. Ratusan kemudian, berbaur dari Kopassandha dan Kostrad, melompat dari tiap pesawat. Dalam empat hitungan, parasut T-10 berwarna hijau zaitun terkembang dikeremangan pagi di atas Dili. Karena komunikasi segitiga Fretilin, Dili-Atauro-kapal frigat sudah terjalin rapi, penerjunan sortie pertama kehilangan faktor pendadakan. Pasukan diberondong secara sporadis dari bawah. Peluru api (tracer) yang dilepas Fretilin, bagai kunang-kunang memenuhi langit.
Pasukan Linud yang masih mengambang, balik menembak. Maka, pagi itu, terjadilah pertempuran sengit antara pasukan Linud dan gerombolan Fretilin. Entah digunakan pada saat D-day, beberapa bulan sebelumnya menurut Hendro, 15.000 pucuk senjata peninggalan Portugal dibagi-bagikan Fretilin untuk mempersenjatai rakyat. Sesungguhnya juga, Fretilin telah siaga begitu listrik dipadamkan jam 03.00 bertepatan pendaratan marinir disertai tembakan kanon dari kapal TNI AL. Dan radar Plessey dua kapal frigat Portugal pun, tentu tidak tidur.
Dapat dibayangkan perjuangan hidup-mati pasukan Linud. Tidak semua mendarat dengan selamat. Ada yang kandas di atap rumah, tersangkut di pohon atau di pagar. Yang mendarat di lapangan terbuka di tengah kota, “terpaksa” menjadi sasaran empuk. Belum sempat berbenah, mereka langsung terlibat baku tembak dengan Baret Coklat mantan Tropaz, serdadu Portugal. Sama sekali tidak ada waktu untuk konsolidasi. Tiga tim yang ditunjuk, berusaha keras menyebar memulai operasi pembebasan kantor gubernur, pelabuhan, dan lapangan terbang. Tembak-menembak bergemuruh di mana-mana. Walaupun sudah mengetahui kedatangan pasukan Indonesia, Fretilin tetap kocar-kacir. Jika mau bersabar, tentu Indonesia bisa mengambil keuntungan dengan perencanaan matang karena Fretilin tidak pernah memprediksi Indonesia akan menyerbu dari udara. Perkiraannya serbuan dari perbatasan.
Karena saat penerjunan pesawat dihujani tembakkan ditambah obstacle bukit setinggi 1.500 kaki di ujung runway Dili, Rajawali flight harus belok ke kanan arah pantai untuk terbang ke Kupang. Karena juga DZ cukup pendek dan interval penerjunan terlalu lama waktunya cuma satu menit 79 orang dari 720 pasukan para batal terjun, termasuk komandan Tim-C Lettu Luhut Panjaitan.
Tidak hanya mengenai pasukan, tembakkan dari bawah juga menghantam empat Hercules. Bahkan, load master T-1312 yang diterbangkan Letkol Wello, Pelda Wardjijo, tewas diterjang peluru yang menembus badan pesawat. Pesawat Suakadirul juga tak luput. Peluru merusak navigation compass dan auxiliary hydraulic pump. Peluru juga menembus kaca kokpit di sisi kiri Suakadirul. Secangkir kopi yang ditaruhnya, terlontar ke depan kokpit dan membasahi dahi sang captain. Crew sempat menduga captain-nya tertembak. Apalagi setelah melihat cairan kental meleleh di kepalanya. “Ternyata cuma kopi.”
Dua pesawat Hercules lainnya yang diterbangi Letkol Pnb. Sudji Harsono dan Kol.Pnb. Sukandar, turut tertembak. Kesembilan pesawat plus 79 anggota yang batal terjun, meneruskan penerbangan ke Kupang selama 48 menit. Dari Kupang, setelah memeriksa kondisi pesawat yang tertembak, sortie kedua dilanjutkan menggunakan lima Hercules. Komoro ditentukan sebagai DZ. Karena empat pesawat tidak laik terbang, setengah kekuatan Batalion 502, tidak terangkut. Jam 07.45, sortie kedua diterjunkan di Komoro dengan aman karena Fretilin telah dipukul mundur ke perbukitan di selatan Dili. Suakadirul mengganti pesawatnya dengan T-1305.
Salah tembak
Sortie kedua berhamburan ke luar pesawat. Entah siapa yang memerintahkan, saat melayang di udara, 400 lebih Baret Hijau menghujani dengan tembakan dan granat iring-iringan pasukan yang sedang bergerak menuju lapangan terbang Dili. Seperti sortie pertama, tembak-menembak kembali terulang. Saling membidik terus berlangsung tanpa kedua pihak menyadari, mereka adalah teman. Di bawah Marinir yang habis memukul mundur Fretilin di sepanjang garis pantai, yang melayang, Kostrad. Untunglah Marinir cepat berinisiatif mengakhiri tembak-menembak (friendly fire), dengan mengibarkan “Merah Putih”. Untung lagi, tidak ada korban.
Suakadirul mengetahui kesalahpahaman itu beberapa saat kemudian. Setibanya di Penfui, Rajawali flight mempersiapkan sortie ketiga penerjunan pasukan Kostrad yang masih tersisa ke pinggiran barat Kota Dili. Takut kejadian tragis sortie kedua terulang kembali, Mako Operasi Seroja memutuskan membatalkan sortie ketiga.
Setelah berjuang dari jam 06.00 hingga tengah hari, Dili akhirnya dibebaskan. Fretilin mundur ke perbukitan selatan kota Dili. Pemimpinnya melarikan diri ke Aileu. Lobato dan Ramos Horta hengkang ke Australia. Hanya mantan Tropaz yang berani bertahan. Petangnya, 7 Desember, pemerintah mengeluarkan pernyataan bahwa hari itu, pukul 12.30, Dili telah dibebaskan oleh perlawanan rakyat yang dipelopori Apodeti, UDT, KOTA dan Trabalista dibantu para sukarelawan Indonesia.
Besoknya dalam evaluasi, korban dihitung. 35 orang Baret Hijau yang hampir seluruhnya dari Batalion-502/Raiders, termasuk dua mayor dan dua kapten, tewas. Dari Baret Merah, 16 orang tewas tertembak. Tiga lagi tenggelam di laut. Tiga orang yang semula hilang, mayatnya ditemukan beberapa bulan kemudian. Komandan Tim-B, Lettu Atang Sanjaya, terkena pecahan munisi AK-47-nya yang tertembak. Malang bagi rekannya, Mayor Atang Sutisna, tewas tertembak. “Ditembak sniper,” ungkap Hendro. Di pihak Fretilin, korban lebih banyak lagi. Hendro Subroto mencatat dalam tulisannya yang dimuat majalah Airforces, edisi Januari 1999 di bawah judul “Drop Zone Dili”, 122 tewas dan 365 orang tertawan. Operasi terus bergulir. Tiga hari kemudian, giliran Baucau dibebaskan.


          Timor Justice Minister considers appeal        
11 June 2012
ABC Radio Australia

Connect Asia Timor Justice Minister considers appeal - East Timor's former Justice Minister has two weeks to decide whether she will appeal against a conviction for misadministration of funds, or else face jail.

On Friday, Lucia Lobato was sentenced to five years prison, but was found not guilty of three other charges including corruption, the abuse of power and falsification of documents.

Ms Lobato's lawyer says the prosecution presented no evidence to support the charge and he will encourage her to appeal within the 15 days period allowed for lodging a challenge.

Correspondent: Karon Snowdon

Speaker: Cancio Xavier, lawyer for East Timor's former Justice Minister Lucia Lobato

SNOWDON: In the months leading up to East Timor's presidential election a scandal erupted that shocked this small island state.

It was used by critics to accuse the government of Prime Minister Xanana Gusmao of gross corruption.

Justice Minister Lucia Lobato was suspended by the parliament because she was facing serious charges.

Thirty-six of the 65 members of Parliament voted to suspend her.

Now she faces the prospect of five years in jail, the mid point between a possible two to eight year sentence.

The court found her guilty of one of the four charges against her -- the misappropriation of Ministry funds.

Lawyer Cancio Xavier says the sentence which includes a hefty fine is a heavy one, and was arrived at he says, without evidence.

XAVIER: No corruption and no power abuse, and then no falsified documents. But during the court process, we never got to any evidence.

SNOWDON: Lucia Lobato was implicated in a case of collusion involving government tenders for contracts worth one million dollars. Ms Lobato was elected to East Timor's first Parliament in 2001 and appointed Finance Minister in 2007. She is a member of the Social Democratic Party and was the sole female candidate in East Timor's 2007 Presidential election.

Cancio Xavier says Ms Lobato is traumatised by the case and doesn't want to appeal. Her lawyer hopes to convince her to change her mind within the 15 day limit to avoid jail.

XAVIER: Today, maybe she's traumatised regarding this conviction, so she said to us, she doesn't want to make an appeal. But we have advised her after today, because when we make appeal fifteen days later, when we appeal against this decision. Automatically after the fifteen days, she'll go to jail.

SNOWDON: And would you be confident of winning the appeal?

XAVIER: Yes, of course, of course!

SNOWDON: Cancio Xavier, Lawyer for East Timor's Justice Minister Lucia Lobato,

Another five government ministers have been investigated by East Timor's Anti-Corruption Commission.

                  

War on Syria?  Really?

    I am in shock right now (and apparently my computer is too -- it just crashed).  Americans believed the WMD lies about Vietnam, Korea, Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Libya, Iraq, East Timor and God only knows where all else.  And now they are falling for this "war on Syria" crap too?  I am totally disgusted.   And heart-broken for the brave Syrian people who have suffered so much -- and now this load of crap?  Really?

PS:  ISIS attacked Palmyra right after the US airstrike (working together as usual?)


























      And they lied about Yemen and Palestine, Afghanistan and Vietnam, Iran and Russia and Ukraine too.  But you won't believe it until your country's next. 
          Big Export for Britain Clashes With New Ethic         

What happens when admirable, populist politics threaten to bottleneck a well-worn path to profit? Consider that the country with the world's second-largest arms-export industry is now being run by a government that hopes to make human rights the centerpiece of its foreign policy.

Britain's Labour government has lost little time in pledging to pursue what Foreign Secretary Robin Cook calls "an ethical foreign policy with human rights at its heart." But after 100 days it is already learning that commercial imperatives can skew the best of moral intentions.

A week after delivering a speech promising that Britain would not sell weapons to governments likely to use them for internal oppression or international aggression, Mr. Cook gave the go-ahead July 28 for a sale to Indonesia of 16 British-built Hawk jet fighters, as well as water cannons and 50 Scorpion armored cars.

His decision was attacked by human rights campaigners, who days earlier had praised his much-publicized commitment to an ethical foreign policy, but who now complained that the Jakarta government had conducted an oppressive policy in East Timor for several years.

Cook pointed out that the contracts were legally binding and must be honored, but undertook to ensure that all future arms sales would be examined "in the light of human rights and the position in East Timor at the time."

His comments drew an immediate warning from Indonesian Foreign Minister Ali Alatas, who said that if they meant curtailing future arms sales to Jakarta, his country would "go somewhere else." Mr. Alatas said the Hawk jets would be used solely for national defense.

Currently, Indonesia buys 60 percent of its arms imports from Britain. Other European exporters are known to be eager to expand their military sales in Asia.

The Labour government's promise to follow an ethical foreign policy while giving what Cook calls "robust support" to Britain's arms-export industry is likely to produce more dilemmas in the future, analysts say.

Defense writer Michael Evans notes that close to half of Britain's 5 billion ($8.3 billion) in annual arms exports last year went to Saudi Arabia, whose government is often criticized for human rights infringements. Also, according to arms-industry statistics, some 90,000 British jobs are dependent on military exports. With more than 2 million British workers still unemployed, Prime Minister Tony Blair is unlikely to want to see sales of military equipment significantly curtailed.

But although economic calculations appear to set limits on what can be achieved with a foreign policy based on respect for human rights, political factors seem likely to push Cook and other Labour ministers in an ethical direction. In its last five years, former Prime Minister John Major's government came under heavy fire for breaking its own guidelines on the sales of arms to Iraq.

Labour took full advantage of Mr. Major's embarrassment, and when an official inquiry confirmed that arms-sales rules had been broken, the party included a commitment to an ethical foreign policy in its platform.

Cook can point to several concrete moves - including the banning of land-mine exports - to support his contention that Britain's foreign policy already has a discernible ethical content.

A British Foreign Office source says the next phase of Cook's bid to put a moral dimension into foreign policy is likely to be a concerted effort to persuade Britain's allies in Europe to coordinate their policies on arms sales.

The case of France, however, is likely to pose great difficulty, the source says. French arms exporters are under only limited pressure from their government to adhere to ethical weapons-sales guidelines.

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          Gold Mining and Exploration in Indonesia        

By Dave Brown exclusive to Gold Investing News

Indonesia consists of more than 17,500 islands and the vast polyglot nation hosts a population of around 238 million. The country boasts a rich endowment of natural resources, including considerable deposits of crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper, coal and gold. Indonesia’s prolific petrochemical production rates it within the top 10, currently at number 7 for natural gas exports in the world. Indonesia shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Regional neighboring countries include Australia, Singapore and the Philippines.

The United States Geologic Survey indicates that Indonesia’s total estimated gold reserves are approximately equivalent with those of the United States; however, last year, Indonesia produced less than half the total of gold compared with the United States. For investors with a more risk tolerant profile, this divergence might suggest a potential for undervalued regional gold opportunities.

Current Economic Situation

Indonesia has survived the global financial crisis relatively smoothly, as the result of its strong reliance on domestic consumption as a catalyst for economic growth. It is currently the largest economy in Southeast Asia and maintains membership within the G-20 major economies.

Although the economy slowed significantly from growth rates over 6 percent recorded in 2007 and 2008, it still expanded at 4 percent in the first half of 2009. Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth during the crisis.

In recent years, Indonesia’s debt-to-GDP ratio has significantly been reduced because of increasingly robust GDP growth and sound fiscal stewardship. On July 13, the Japanese Credit Rating Agency upgraded Indonesia’s investment grade from BB+ to BBB.

The government used fiscal stimulus measures and monetary policy to counter the effects of the crisis and offered cash transfers to poor families; in addition, campaign spending in advance of legislative and presidential elections in April and July helped sustain consumption. The government made economic advances under the first administration of President Yudhoyono, introducing significant reforms in the financial sector, including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market development and supervision.

Indonesia struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The 2009 reelection can be seen as an affirmation of public support for the president and his vice president, highly regarded economist Boediono, dubbed “Indonesia’s financial rudder” and listed as one of the Wharton School’s 125 Influential People and Ideas in 2007. The election success could also suggest broad continuity of current economic policy, although, the start of their term has been marred by corruption scandals.

Investment Climate and Risk

The government expectations suggest weaker production from natural resources in 2011, partially due to new domestic processing requirements, that require mined ore and minerals to be refined locally after a five-year transition period. This will require significant capital expenditures, which will reduce some corporate non-tax liabilities, reducing the government’s revenue growth. There is considerable uncertainty around the extent of impact on revenue estimates and how successful the government will be at enforcing this requirement by 2014. The government is currently reconciling the challenge of attracting international investment and improving Indonesia’s insufficient infrastructure to remove impediments to economic growth, while addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation needs, particularly with concern of forest and peatland conservation.

Opportunities

International mixed metal producer Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold (NYSE:FCX) mines, processes and explores for ore containing copper, gold and silver with operations in the remote highlands in the province of Papua. The Grasberg mining complex is a relatively large producer of both copper and gold, and contains significant recoverable reserves of copper as well as gold. Open-pit mining of the Grasberg ore body began in 1990 and is expected to continue until mid-2015, at which time the Grasberg underground mining operations are scheduled to begin. Grasberg is at the heart of a highly prospective minerals district, where ongoing exploration may further expand the recoverable resources. As of December 31, 2009, the company reported consolidated recoverable proven and probable reserves estimated at 104.2 billion pounds of copper, 37.2 million ounces of gold, 2.59 billion pounds of molybdenum, 270.4 million ounces of silver and 0.78 billion pounds of cobalt.

Top tier global gold producer Newmont Mining Corporation (TSE:NMC) (NYSE:NEM) is involved in poly-metallic mining joint venture on the island of Sumbawa along with the PT Newmont Nusa Tenggara (PTNNT) at the Batu Hijau mine facility. The open pit mine has primarily been producing copper concentrate with a gold byproduct since 2000. At the current production rate, the company expects to be operating for the next two decades. PT Newmont Nusa Tenggara (PTNNT) is an Indonesian joint venture company partially owned by Nusa Tenggara Partnership and by PT Pukuafu Indah.

East Asia Minerals Corporation (CVE:EAS) is a mineral exploration company with gold and copper exploration properties in Indonesia, as well as uranium exploration properties in Mongolia. In Indonesia the company has a 70-85 percent interest in six advanced gold and gold-copper properties. Also of potential interest for investors is that East Asia Minerals owns eight uranium properties, including the advanced Ingiin-Nars, Ulaan Nuur and Enger uranium projects, and two phosphate properties in Mongolia.

November 1st’s Gainers: Top 5 Best Performing Gold Stocks of the Day

Company Symbol Price Currency Growth
Silvercorp Metals Inc. TSE:SVM 9.89 CAD 3.67%
NovaGold Resources Inc. NYSE:NG 11.62 USD 3.57%
Greystar Resources Ltd. TSE:GSL 4.46 CAD 3.48%
Eldorado Gold Corp. TSE:ELD 17.83 CAD 3.24%
New Gold Inc. TSE:NGD 7.72 CAD 2.25%

          Can the UN perform?         

The photograph is striking: it shows 180 world leaders massed together during the United Nations' recent Millennium Summit. The leaders had all signed a statement favoring peace, democracy, and the welfare of children. Do we think, therefore, that we now have an effective model for dealing with hot spots on our often turbulent globe?

Unfortunately, no, as the facts bear out. The UN peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone is still being torn apart by internal disagreements and recriminations. A specialist who recently resigned from the UN mission in East Timor published a scathing critique of the mission's high-handed, antidemocratic approach there. And have you visited the home page of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees recently? At www.unhcr.ch, you can always see what is happening - despite UN presence - to many of the world's most marginalized and vulnerable peoples.

There are many reasons for the distressing performance of many UN missions. The lack of true commitment to the UN's goals by the world's "sole superpower" here in America is part of that story. But there are other reasons, too, as evidenced in the analysis of the UN's Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET), published recently by former UNTAET official, Jarat Chopra.

The UN has not adapted itself well to the post-cold-war era. Back in the old days, the UN would only send peacekeepers into places where there was an existing peace to keep, as committed to by the responsible political authorities on both sides. But over the past decade, UN peacekeepers have increasingly been sent into places where there is little peace to keep. Such "fuzzy" operations cry out for a high degree of political smarts by the missions' leaders.

That much has been crystal clear since the debacles in Somalia in the early 1990s. But inside the relevant UN bodies, there is still a disturbing rift between people of military background (who accuse most diplomats of being lousy administrators) and political specialists (who accuse generals of being deaf to political considerations).

According to Mr. Chopra, writing in the London journal Survival, that rift continues inside the UN mission in East Timor. East Timor is the only place in the world where the UN now operates as the sole and sovereign power. As such, it has huge responsibilities to the country's people. And UNTAET's mandate makes clear that it is supposed to view itself only as a "transitional administration" while paving the way for the local people to exercise their own sovereignty.

So you think that UNTAET has been busy preparing the East Timorese for self-rule? Think again. According to Chopra, a respected political-affairs specialist who resigned from UNTAET in March, UNTAET head Sergio de Mello has taken the following steps: He has severely limited the participation of East Timorese in his administration, bitterly opposed a broad World Bank-funded project aimed at empowering local communities, and rebuffed attempts by the UN's Electoral Assistance Division to help the East Timorese prepare for future elections.

Chopra's conclusion is that, just as the UN has showed itself ill-suited to leading high-intensity military operations, so too, it may be ill-suited to effective civilian governance. "As with the use of force, perhaps coalition missions led by single countries may be more effective for temporary government," he suggests.

With respect to the mission of promoting East Timor's independence, Chopra's prescription may well be correct. But that will not help the UN get out of the political imbroglios it finds itself in elsewhere - in places where there are other (often contending) local sovereign powers. In all cases, those in the Security Council who dispatch UN peace forces need to keep in mind the essential truth that any such mission needs to have effective and unambiguous leadership from the political echelon.

Can the Security Council, as presently constituted, supply that? If it can't, then perhaps it should not be putting any peacekeepers' lives at risk.

*Helena Cobban is author of 'The Moral Architecture of World Peace' (University Press of Virginia).

(c) Copyright 2000. The Christian Science Publishing Society

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          Headhunting with JFK and the Killer Clown Fish        
Sometimes in this life you need to recognize that no matter how long you stare at the little blinking cursor, you are not going to improve upon what has come before you.  Therefore I will humbly give way to Wikipedia to introduce the Gizo Islands – where I was for a work / diving adventure last week.  With no further ado : “This area of the Solomon Islands has had a history of headhunting. According to local stories the Gizo tribe were notorious in this activity. As a consequence the surrounding local tribes took the unusual step of joining together to obliterate the Gizo tribe. The stories further relate that the only survivors were a Gizo woman and her son. This event led to Gizo Island being declared as a property of the state, rather than the usual customary ownership prevalent in much of the rest of the Solomons. As a secondary consequence becoming an administrative and business center because of the relative ease with which registered land titles could be obtained.”  Which basically means that this is where the whities have opened their resorts because there were comparatively fewer people to pay off.





The trip starts with the weigh in at Honiara airport.  As in many other airports, they weigh your bags.  Then, slightly more uncommonly, they also weigh you.  (These are really small planes.)  Then off you go to hop across the islands.  The most exciting stop is in the town of Munda.  It was a Japanese air base in WWII and we bombed the holy bejeezus out of it.  The New Zealanders are currently paying for an expansion of the runway (partly for humanitarian reasons and partly because having an alternative 737 landing zone would dramatically reduce the amount of emergency fuel their planes are required to carry), and have been unearthing 500 lb unexploded ordnance.  The villagers have asked that they detonate no more than one bomb a day because of the earthquake it causes. 



But luckily, I was bound for Gizo Island, and to a little resort with a great view of the volcano.  It was actually right across the water from Kennedy Island, which was where JFK washed up when he lost his PT boat during the war.  (And bizarrely Gizo loves Kennedy even more than Boston does.)  My friend actually swam over to it just to say that he did – I was too busy diving.  The Solomons are spectacular for diving because in addition to some of the healthiest and most populated reef life that I have ever seen, the Americans and Japanese were nice enough to provide the resident fish with a number of artificial reefs while they were fighting over the island of Guadacanal.  I am going to focus on the reef photos this week and post my wreck photos next week.  Notice the large number of pictures of clown fish.  This is because most fish absolutely refuse to hold f’ing still when I am trying to get a picture of them.  Clown fish, however, are highly territorial and aggressive.  So if you come too close to their anemone nest, they will fight you.  (Seriously – I got bitten by one diving on night in East Timor.)   So these guys are all just sizing me up for the kill.



I am going to assume that only a few true dive dorks want to hear about the diving – which I believe that I have already mentioned was awesome – like diving in an aquarium with sunken battleships – and truly no one wants to hear about work – so I will leave this one off here.  I can think of a way to make my departure story sound amusing on paper (even though it actually was in real life) but the cliff notes are that I discovered the airport was actually on a different island from the one that I was one about 30 minutes before the plane was supposed to take off, and the hotel’s boat wouldn’t start, so some crusty Australian with a motorboat taking his kids to school was hijacked to drop me off.  It was also the only time I have ever flown where there was no security screening of any kind. 


So that’s it for reefs.  I will tell you a more compelling story about wrecks next week.


          Reforming Europe in a Changing World [Audio]        
Speaker(s): José Manuel Barroso | José Manuel Barroso is president of the European Commission, a position he has held since 2004. He was born in Lisbon and after graduating in law from the University of Lisbon, he moved to Geneva where he completed a Diploma in European Studies at the European University Institute, University of Geneva, and a Master's degree in Political Science from the Department of Political Science, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Geneva, earning an honours in both. He embarked on an academic career, working successively as a teaching assistant at the Law Faculty of the University of Lisbon, in the Department of Political Science, University of Geneva, and as a visiting professor at the Department of Government and School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University (Washington, D.C.). In 1995, he became head of the International Relations Department of Lusíada University, Lisbon. In 1979, he founded the University Association for European Studies. His political career began in 1980 when he joined the Social Democratic Party (PSD). He was named president of the party in 1999 and re-elected three times. During the same period, he served as vice president of the European People's Party. As state secretary for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation he played a key role as mediator in the signing of the peace accords for Angola in Bicesse in 1991, and as minister for foreign affairs he was a driving force in the self-determination process in East Timor between 1992 and 1995. Under his leadership, the PSD won the general election in 2002 and he was appointed prime minister of Portugal in April of that year. He remained in office until July 2004 when he was nominated by the European Council and elected by the European Parliament to the post of president of the European Commission. In June 2009 the European Council unanimously nominated him for a second term as president of the European Commission, and he was re-elected to the post by an absolute majority in the European Parliament in September 2009.
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          Kapa Haka         
NZBATT6 New Zealand Peacekeeping Kapa Haka group, Zumalai, Cova Lima, East Timor 2002.
          KunstlerCast 276 "Christopher Cornelius"        

“Christopher Cornelius” is the nom de guerre of a black American international humanitarian aid worker who has put years of service in some of the world’s most dangerous places: Pakistan, Afghanistan, West Africa, Kenya, the Balkens, Cambodia, Sudan,and others. We have that “conversation about race” that the US race commentary pundits have been promising for years — but never actually ventured to have. We could have covered even more territory, but as it is, this is a long interview for this podcast. Christopher Cornelius continues to work in dangerous lands overseas and is concealing his identity to protect himself and his wife. We spoke over Skype from his current perch in East Timor.


          The Universal Lesson of East Timor        
Filming undercover in East Timor in 1993 I followed a landscape of crosses: great black crosses etched against the sky, crosses on peaks, crosses marching down the hillsides, crosses beside the road. They littered the earth and crowded the eye. The inscriptions on the crosses revealed the extinction of whole families, wiped out in the […]
          Zero carbon world        
Zero carbon worldCan I have some truth with my news please? It's an honour to have John Pilger back in the pages of the New Internationalist. An unflinching seeker after truth and justice, he has had quite an influence on me over the years. I remember vividly, as a student, watching his documentary about the brutal Indonesian occupation of East Timor, and the sense of disbelief and outrage at the revelation that my government was providing the Hawk jets responsible for the massacre of thousands. More than anyone else, it was John Pilger who brought home to me the extent to which the corporate media was presenting me with a distorted picture, and led me to seek out alternative, independent sources of news and analysis. His work is no doubt one of the reasons why I am now at the New Internationalist and not News International... This month, he releases a new film, taking aim at journalists and the news industry, and the way they support and perpetuate war. We talk to him about it on page 29. December also sees the Cancún climate summit, for which no-one, it seems, has high hopes. So to counteract the doom and gloom, we tackle the following questions: is a zero carbon world possible? (Answer: yes.) What would it look like? And how can we get there? Elsewhere in the magazine, we debate the emotive subject of whether there should be any controls at all on immigration, highlight the growing rebellion in West Papua, and take a peek inside the mind of legendary civil rights activist Jesse Jackson. All this, and (if you’re a subscriber) the magazine now arrives through your letterbox in 100 per cent compostable bags!
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  • pete
    04-09 11:51 AM
    As is true with everything else it cannot be all gain.
    If we are to have CIR based GC advantage there will need to be H1B regulation. Thousands of h1Bs get filled in matter of hours. Many for consultants. How can that be right. Tough choices will need to be made and so be it.




    pete,

    i am a physician and in the same boat as you. my employer searched high and dry before i came along. but you are missing something here. except universities that can hire the "best candidate", every other employer has to employ a citizen/gc applicant with the "minimum qualifications for the job". please revisit the rules if you do not understand this. your talent and extra skills count for nothing. employers cannot take the best applicant...if an LCA is needed. this is a very significant problem if applied to H1B renewals. Any tom dick and harry can displace you every 3 years. think about it please, not just your own situation. i am strongly in favor of H1B reform. i believe that this if linked with a bill like strive dramatically increase support for retrogression relief. however the reform needs to be thought through carefully. a 6 mnth LCA process for each renewal would kill us. let's not throw the baby out with the bathwater...




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  • nojoke
    04-14 11:57 AM
    Most of the posts here are not relevant to the original topic of the thread � buying a home when 485 is pending.

    You basically buy a home not to sell it off, but to live in it. Circumstances may lead one to sell a home, but no one can predict if that will happen for sure or when it may happen.

    For selling a home � just like stocks � it does not matter if the real estate market is doing well today or not. It only matters how the seller market is when it is time to sell. And again, no one can predict that in advance. Given this simple logic, it is totally useless to speculate resale values of homes which you may never even sell!

    I see people are so obsessed about resale value that they almost have never gone out to see homes, look at floor plans and see what they want, what the other family members want in a home or any of that. They instead prefer to calculate resale value based on current market conditions.

    Stop seeing a home as an investment and start seeing it as a place where you will live and where your kids will grow up. Obsessing too much about the monetary aspects just takes all the fun away.

    No body can predict how much it is going down exactly. But you can predict it is going down considerably.
    No body can predict what the dollar value is going to be. So just spend all the money in the bank and enjoy your life while you can. No body can predict death for that matter. :confused: Just eat all you can and don't worry about your health. You need to have fun in life after all. Now what is wrong with my logic?
    My point is that the house price is out of whack with income. I don't see the logic in why it would not go down. The whole mess is started because people started looking at houses as investment. Buying now and seeing the housing value drop won't be fun.
    Whether you sell your house or not, it matters when you buy. You don't buy at the top of the bubble.




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  • qasleuth
    03-31 07:35 PM
    I am not convinced with the whole systematic preadjudication logic at all. I think it has to do with the mistakenly released memo by USCIS and the criteria which is listed in it. Companies meeting the criteria listed in that memo's H1s/I140s are being looked at and I485 app in the same file. There is no trend in the posts on this site by people who received RFEs to suggest systematic preadjudication, they are all over the place. EB2, EB3 - priority date-years ranging from 2001 to 2006, received RFEs.

    USCIS seems to be making a coordinated attempt to preadjudicate in order to avoid future backlogs (to achieve their metrics on processing times). See thread on Processing Time Targets they have set for themselves: http://immigrationvoice.org/forum/showthread.php?t=24747




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  • engineer
    01-03 12:31 AM
    Writer, Shuja Nawaz
    http://www.shujanawaz.com/index.php?mod=about


    Brinksmanship in South Asia: A Dangerous Scenario
    December 26, 2008 10:32 | PERMALINK (http://www.shujanawaz.com/blog/brinksmanship-in-south-asia-a-dangerous-scenario)
    Reports of military movement to the India-Pakistan border must raise alarums in Washington DC. The last thing that the incoming Obama administration wants is a firestorm in South Asia. There cannot be a limited war in the subcontinent, given the imbalance of forces between India and Pakistan. Any Indian attack across the border into Pakistan will likely be met with a full scale response from Pakistan. Yet, the rhetoric that seemed to have cooled down after the immediate aftermath of the Mumbai attacks is rising again. It was exactly this kind of aggressive posturing and public statements that led to the 1971 conflict between these two neighbors. Pakistan has relied in the past on international intervention to prevent war. It worked, except in 1971 when the US and other powers let India invade East Pakistan and lead to the birth of Bangladesh. What makes the current situation especially dangerous is that both are now nuclear weapon states with anywhere up to150 nuclear bombs in their arsenal. If India and Pakistan go to war, the world will lose. Big time. By putting conventional military pressure on Pakistan, is India calling what it perceives to be Pakistan�s bluff under the belief that the United Sates will force nuclear restraint on Pakistan?
    The early evidence after the Mumbai terrorist attack pointed to the absence of the Pakistan government�s involvement in the attack. Indeed, the government of Pakistan seemed to bend over backwards to accommodate and understand Indian anger at the tragedy. But, in the weeks since then, as domestic political pressure mounted on the Indian government to do more, talk has turned to the use of surgical strikes or other means to teach Pakistan a lesson. It was in India�s own interest to strengthen the ability of the fledgling civilian government of Pakistan to move against the militancy within the country. But it seems to have opted for threats to attack Pakistan, threats that, if followed up by actions, may well derail the process of civilianization and democratization in that country. India must recognize the constraints under which Pakistan operates. It cannot fight on two fronts. And it lacks the geographic depth to take the risk of leaving its eastern borders undefended at a time when India has been practicing its emerging Cold Start strategy in the border opposite Kasur. Under this strategy, up to four Integrated Battle Groups could move rapidly across the border and occupy a strategic chunk of Pakistani territory up to the outskirts of Lahore in a �limited war�.
    For Pakistan, there is no concept of �limited war�. Any war with India is seen as a total war, for survival. It risks losing everything the moment India crosses its border, and will likely react by attacking India in force at a point of its own choosing under its own Offensive-Defensive strategy. (That is probably why it is moving some of its Strike Force infantry divisions back from the Afghan border to the Indian one.) As the battles escalate, Indian�s numerical and weapon superiority will become critical. If no external intervention takes place quickly, Pakistan will then be left with the �poison pill� defence of its nuclear weapons.
    The consequences of such action are unimaginable for both countries and the world...
    The NRDC (Natural Resources Defense Council) conducted an analysis of the consequences of nuclear war in South Asia a year before the last stand-off in 2002. Under two scenarios, one (with a Princeton University team) studied the results of five air bursts over each country�s major cities and the other (done by the NRDC alone) with 24 ground explosions. The results were horrifying to say the least: 2.8 million dead, 1.5 million seriously injured, and 3.4 million slightly injured in the first case. Under the second scenario involving an Indian nuclear attack on eight major Pakistani cities and Pakistan�s attack on seven major Indian cities:
    NRDC calculated that 22.1 million people in India and Pakistan would be exposed to lethal radiation doses of 600 rem or more in the first two days after the attack. Another 8 million people would receive a radiation dose of 100 to 600 rem, causing severe radiation sickness and potentially death, especially for the very young, old or infirm. NRDC calculates that as many as 30 million people would be threatened by the fallout from the attack, roughly divided between the two countries.
    Besides fallout, blast and fire would cause substantial destruction within roughly a mile-and-a-half of the bomb craters. NRDC estimates that 8.1 million people live within this radius of destruction.
    Studies by Richard Turco, Alan Robock, and Brian Toon in 2006 and 2008 on the climate change impact of a regional nuclear war between these two South Asian rivals, were based on the use of 100 Hiroshima-sized nuclear devices of 15 kiloton each. The ensuing nuclear explosions would set 15 major cities in the subcontinent on fire and hurl five million tonnes of soot 80 kilometers into the air. This would deplete ozone levels in the atmosphere up to 40 per cent in the mid-latitudes that �could have huge effects on human health and on terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems.� More important, the smoke and sot would cool the northern hemisphere by several degrees, disrupting the climate (shortening growing seasons, etc.) and creating massive agricultural failure for several years. The whole world would suffer the consequences.
    An Indo-Pakistan war will not cure the cancer of religious militancy that afflicts both countries today. Rather, India and Pakistan risk jeopardizing not only their own economic futures but also that of the world by talking themselves into a conflict. The world cannot afford to let that happen. The Indian and Pakistani governments can step back from the brink by withdrawing their forces from their common border and going back to quiet diplomacy to resolve their differences. The United States and other friends of both countries can act as honest brokers by publicly urging both to do just that before this simmering feud starts to boil over.
    This piece appeared in The Huffington Post, 26 December 2008 (http://www.shujanawaz.com//)



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  • dixie
    07-15 12:49 PM
    Let us be honest. A lot of us who came through body shops had to pay lawyer fee or had to take a cut in pay. Many of us had to sit in the bench for a long time with out pay. At the end of the day, not all of us are the best and the brightest but we are ready to work harder than the average Joe. With or without us this country will go forward. We are here to get a greencard and to become part of the melting pot. Please admit it my friends. I fully understands why many Americans are against us. We simply take their job. Then we insult them. Then we say, if we go back the American economy will go to hell. The companies are here for cheap labor. The congressmen who support them are the biggest receivers of their contribution. That is the reality. Let us not forget that. :D

    When did we ever insult americans ? that is purely a figment of your own imagination. If we did we wouldnt have the face to ask for reforms to the GC process the way we are doing now. We never claimed america would collapse if we departed .. but make no mistake we DO make a HUGE contribution to this country, disproportionate to our relative numbers. Low wage bodyshops are the bad apples; that is hardly representative of the EB-H1B community at large. And it is highly cynical of you to believe congressmen initiate reforms solely for contributions; while that is a factor, it can never be the sole one. The american electorate is there to give them the boot next time they ask for their votes. You still have a lot to learn about how the world works my friend.




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  • Macaca
    12-27 08:16 PM
    How Republicans prevailed on the Hill (http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/014/531oekhp.asp) By Whitney Blake | The Weekly Standard, 12/27/2007

    THE HOUSE AND SENATE squeezed through last-minute bills in a marathon session last week akin to the final exams period some members' college-aged children just muddled through. A bleary-eyed, sleep deprived House and Senate finally emerged with the passage of some key pieces of legislation on energy, the Iraq war, the alternative minimum tax, children's health insurance, and a massive omnibus spending bill. In the end, Republicans proved to be the more astute bunch, pushing through Bush's lame duck agenda despite their minority status.

    With Democrats emerging victorious just a year ago in the 2006 midterm elections claiming a mandate to drive the country in a new direction, one would have hardly predicted headlines like "Bush, GOP prevail in host of Hill issues" in the Associated Press, "Dems cave on spending" in the Hill, and the Politico's "Liberals lose bigtime in budget battle."

    Leading mainstream publications agreed that Democrats had surrendered to Republican demands, and the left's base was utterly furious at the outcomes. In reaction to the $70 billion Iraq and Afghanistan troop funding vote, comments such as, "You are kidding yourself if you think the Democratic party stands for anything--clearly they do not--This is an outrage," were posted on Daily Kos. Huffington Post entries included, "Democrats lose evey [sic] time becuase [sic] they are a pack of spineless cowards".

    Even Republicans were surprised with the outcome. Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell remarked, "If we had been having this press conference last January and I had suggested that a Republican minority in Congress would be able to meet the president's top line, you all would have laughed at me."

    "We couldn't have scripted this to work out better for Republicans they conceded almost every issue," said Rep. Paul Ryan, (R-WI).

    Not only did Democrats eventually meet Bush's required $933 billion appropriations spending level, they also capitulated on unconditional funding for the troops, an energy plan without corporate taxes, a one-year patch to the alternative minimum tax without additional taxes (a $50 billion violation of Democrats' pay-as-you-go principles), and a straight extension of SCHIP without a large expansion.

    At first, the record is baffling, but the explanation for Republican success is simple. Not only was superior "strategery" involved on the part of the minority, to borrow a word from Bush's lexicon, but equally important was Democrats' miscalculations.

    Republicans decided early on to stick together on issues such as taxes and Iraq, said one senior Republican aide. Democrats were much more fractured. One Washington Post headline declared, "Democrats Blaming Each Other for Failures." The article cited House Democrats accusing their Senate counterparts of selling out and folding. In December 2006, Reid said in an interview, "legislation is the art of compromise and consensus building and I'm going to compromise." House Democrats didn't embrace this theme.

    They either failed to realize or didn't want to realize that anything they proposed still had to meet approval in the Senate, where compromise and coalition building are unavoidable, with 60 votes required to move any legislation through. "It took some people 11 months to figure this out," said one senior Republican aide.

    From the beginning, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi set up a structure that didn't emphasize debate and hearings, said Republican California Rep. Kevin McCarthy. The controversial spots were never worked out in the far-left appeasing bills that passed through the House.

    Even after the Senate voted a resounding 88 to 5 in favor of an AMT patch without offsets in the beginning of December, the House passed another version, attached more taxes to make up for the lost revenue, and sent it back to the Senate. The Senate had to vote three times just to show the House Democrats that it did not have the required 60 votes to pass a patch with offsets.

    Democrats were not only divided, they also misjudged the public's perception. The "general aversion to tax hikes" worked to the Republicans' advantage, and the overall success of the war in Iraq also played a key factor, said the senior Republican aide.

    Sen. Majority Leader Harry Reid commented right before the recess, "I share the frustration of the American people who want to see real change." But Republicans argue Reid's idea of change is not in line with that of most Americans.

    They "got the wrong message from the election," which wasn't one of a "repudiation of conservative values," said Ryan. It was a call for "clean and transparent government."

    They "overreached" after the honeymoon period and "frittered away" high expectations "by taking a sharp turn to the left," he added.

    A CNN/USA Today poll taken back in May and June revealed that 57% of Americans favored making permanent the Bush tax cuts, while 37 percent wanted to repeal the temporary cuts. On the broader fiscal topics of taxes, government spending, and regulations for businesses, 41 percent of Americans consider themselves "conservative," 43 percent "moderate," and just 12 percent "liberal," according to a Rasmussen Reports study released about a month ago.

    Some Republicans admit Democrats could have gotten more of what they wanted had they played their cards right. Democrats had a "missed opportunity," said McCarthy, who has experience in a closely divided legislature as a former Republican floor leader in the California State Assembly.

    The majority could have still put forth very partisan bills at the outset, but "come back to where common ground was," said McCarthy. Democrats would have "enjoyed much more success" in the center, said Ryan.

    Some Republicans were reportedly amenable to partial offsets to the AMT. Perhaps if Democrats had not held onto appropriations spending $23 billion above Bush's request for so long, there would have been more time left to avoid axing the entire difference. Or if taxes were not as high as $22 billion for energy companies in the Democrats' version of the energy bill, some taxes may have been part of the compromise.

    But Democrats "were more interested in making a point than making law," said Don Stewart, communications director for Sen. Minority Leader Mitch McConnell. It didn't get them very far: They essentially handed Republicans their agenda on a platter at the eleventh hour to prevent a government shutdown.

    In the end, Democrats were "driven by the clock and not by the product of what's created," McCarthy added. Serious negotiations could have occurred much earlier in the year, instead of holding out stubbornly until the end of the session when all eyes were on several major unresolved bills. Sensible bipartisan compromises in piecemeal over the year look much more authoritative, organized, and productive than the harried disarray that unfolded in the past month.

    Incidentally, according to McConnell, the only truly bipartisan piece of legislation where genuine compromise was part of the equation was ethics reform, signed into law in September. But even Democrats, who heralded the landmark reforms, took advantages of the loopholes in the bill to insert about 300 air dropped earmarks which had not been taken up by either the House or Senate on the floor or as part of a vote.

    Now, with the Democrats' base up in arms, the Democrats' infighting publicly aired, and the minority declaring victory, backed up by the mainstream media no less, the bills don't even appear bipartisan. Democrats came out with the short end of the stick, even though the odds were clearly in their favor after the midterm elections.

    While Hillary is busy wrapping up universal health care, and "bring troops home" presents for potential voters, Democrats won't be able to deliver these or any other promised initiatives this Christmas season.



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  • abcdgc
    12-27 01:17 AM
    You are right about the lack of governance in Pakistan. And that there are more personalities and less institutions.
    But I think you are wrong about Kayani. I haven't seen any reports about any intelligence agencies pointing fingers at Kayani. So, I am curious if you could provide any links. It sounds like a conspiracy theory otherwise.

    Let me give you a proof about Kayani, not that you will agree with it, but I will give it a shot anyways.

    Pakistan PM agreed to send ISI DG to India when he spoke with Indian PM. Later Zardari also publicly agreed to send ISI DG. Next day the three i.e. Gilani, Zardari and Kaayani had a meeting. After the meeting Pakistan announced that Pakistan will not send ISI DG to India. Now, if Gilani and Zardari agreed to send ISI DG, why the conclusion of the meeting was with the decision that ISI DG will not go to India. It was the starting point of escalation. Who triggered it? Kaayani. This is a well covered report. The point is, if sending ISI DG could deescalate the situation, and if India is asking to send ISI DG, why would Pakistan not send ISI DG even after PM and President agreed sending Pasha to India? Kaayani was himself ISI chief when Musharraf was President/Army Chief. The point is Hamid Gul, Kaayni and Pasha are all same group of cheats.




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  • file485
    07-08 07:52 PM
    this is so so jittery...

    this is a post where they r actually checking the from and to date of the dependant's i94 out-of-status

    http://boards.immigrationportal.com/showthread.php?t=190778

    guys..who just posted before me...pls read the whole thread, her husband had already filed once for AOS and then they had asked for his W2's for which he dint have..they abandoned that AOS and now trying AOS thru the wife..so basically he is still in the records of INS..maybe he dint reply his RFE or god knows what database INS maintains..



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  • vghc
    01-07 02:54 PM
    I didn't know Narendra Modi is a muslim. I didn't know those are committing genocide in Palestine are muslims. I didn't know those who attacked Iraq and commited war-crime under the pretex of WMD are muslims. I didn't know that these people are muslims.

    May be Narendra Modi was born to a Moghul Emperor. Others are born to ottaman emperors. What about you vghc? Are you a product of muslim?

    Me? Naaa....i just dislike any organized religion. They are the cause of a lot of problem in this world.




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  • nojoke
    09-26 07:17 PM
    though its very tempting to support obama with all his elequent talk, I think action speaks louder than words. he has absolutely no history of doing anything in the senate, and has not worked in a bi-partisan way with the republicans to pass any thing. do you think all of a sudden as prez he's going to get things done. further his stance on matters changes as the wind blows. meanwhile mccain has a history of making things happen, even sometimes going against his party. Dem will be more interested in helping the illegals become permanent, and not the legals 'coz their sights are on the vote banks. reps in general are more pro-business, and will favor the legal as opposed to illegals. of course there are some who are against.
    someone pointed out the days were better in the 90's...i do agree that was a period of boom in the us economy with the rise of the dot com companies. but towards the end of the 90's, the dot com going bust, the us economy was heading in recession. and adding to that the rise of other economic powers like china, india, russia, the competition grew intense, and started to hurt the US economy much. However to the credit of the repub prez the SU economy came out from the inital recession, and the overall unemployment % was only ~5.4%, the lower in several decades incl the 90's. I think it was only through the right economic and pro-business policies of this admin that helped in this. of course the wars and the housing bubble has brought us to this new economic situations. It would require the next admin to frame policies that would keep US out of next recession.
    but with dems policies of higher taxes on business (of course higher taxes on you and me), and more govt spending using mine and your tax dollars (of course our ss which we might never see) to hand it out to the lazy, and good for nothing people, you'll def see the US economy going into deeper recession. on top of that the universal health care would see us going the way of CA and europe with health care rationing, and long lines.
    I could go on adding the benefits e.g. favorable deals with india the repubs would bring, but I thinks this is good for now.
    so I would suggest stop going with the age old mentality and blindly believing that the dems are best. Start to think rationally.

    How is giving tax break to the business helping us in the time of recession? If your company is not selling products, it will hire more to do what? The tax cut will simply go to executives and there will be layoffs. Trickle down economy is a scam.
    Did you compare Obama's tax plan with McCain's. Go to CNN and you will that you will get more from Obama than from McCain's tax cut. How is universal health care bad? There are 50million without healthcare here. Soon your company will say that it cannot pay your healthcare plans because it is getting costly. The middle men(insurance companies) maybe eating more of your money than the actual health care costs. The long lines are due to less available doctors, not because of universal healthcare.
    "A Commonwealth Fund study of six highly industrialized countries, the U.S., and five nations with national health systems, Britain, Germany, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada, found waiting times were worse in the U.S. than in all the other countries except Canada. And, most of the Canadian data so widely reported by the U.S. media is out of date, and misleading, according to PNHP and CNA/NNOC."



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  • file485
    07-07 09:41 PM
    Hi Manu..

    it must be living hell for you with this mess, we all pray for you to get some route out of this hell.

    When did INS ask for your husband's pay stubs for 2000-2001? although he was filed as a derivative when did they ask you for this..?

    pls post..

    waiting for your response.




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  • chanduv23
    03-23 03:50 PM
    well..you hit nail..yes..I initially worked with that company that started with S**..but I changed them after 1 year after coming to US

    So, keep cool. Talk to an Attorney. use a good Attorney for everything from now. You can forward the email request to the Attorney and go from there.



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  • gg_ny
    02-21 09:07 PM
    I am no fan of Dobbs and haven't watched his show longer than 15 min. in total. I didn't want to eloborate on something in that posting but would rather do now: by fanning of the mass hysteria, you do get attention- let it be Dobbs or Tancredo. Last year, because of the media and the politicians, many normally centric Americans listened to anti immigration propaganda, in particular, Dobbsian ones. No/not much American tears were shed when CIR was stalled in the Congress last year. The reason: people would tune to anyone-sentinent or nonsense persons- if those creatures speak what those people want to hear at that time. Now the Congress seems to be centric or stuck at the center due to gridlock but how long this will last?
    I believe that the average American civic sense is moving towards what is seen in European countries - discourage immigration in any form. Dobbs may not be an agent but definitely an instrument that keeps this feeling alive. It sells CNN and also keeps the base happy. How else would you explain a plain propaganda being catered via a network like CNN which claims to be different from - for example right-oriented Fox. Dobbs does it, there would be more louder Dobbsians in the future if anti immigration gets established inteh general psyche of Americans as it has already in many, many, many european nations.

    He is not questioned, ridiculed or targeted because he is a nobody. His viewership is not in millions but in hundred thousands. 762,000 to be precise. With such viewership numbers nobody targets him because its not worth it. Even "SpongeBob SquarePants" a carton show on Nickelodeon manages to get higher viewership than Lou Dobbs even though "SpongeBob SquarePants" is targeted at children.

    we are targeting him because he is saying things which are inaccurate if not ludicrous regarding immigration. He is similar to tancredo. Did anybody know there was a xenophobe called tancredo before he started riling against CIR. Lou Dobbs and Tancredo realized they have stuck gold with there diatribe against immigration and they are riding this xenophobic wave for it full worth.




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  • Macaca
    12-28 06:29 PM
    China's Sudan Predicament (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/joe-lauria/chinas-sudan-predicament_b_801655.html) By Joe Lauria | Huffington Post

    The age of ideology in China may soon be ending. Caught between its longstanding opposition to independence movements worldwide and its expanding economic interests, Beijing finds itself remarkably choosing to court a separatist government in south Sudan.

    The south is scheduled to vote on January 9 on independence from Khartoum after 43 years of civil war that left more than 2 million people dead. The referendum is still uncertain amid fears of a new war. But if the vote goes ahead, the south is overwhelmingly expected to break the continent's biggest nation in two.

    China has long had substantial investments in all of Sudan, the most of any foreign country. It has a 40% stake in the oil industry and 60% of Sudan's oil is exported to China. To protect those interests Beijing has supported Khartoum in the U.N. Security Council over separatist movements in Darfur and, until recently, in the south.

    That was consistent with China's opposition at the U.N. to separatist movements elsewhere in the world, such as in Kosovo and East Timor. The aim has been to give no encouragement to Taiwan and its own restive minorities in Tibet and Xinjiang. Those independence movements are watching what China does abroad. Taiwan, notably, was among the first countries to recognize Kosovo.

    Until early this year, China steadfastly opposed southern independence in Sudan too. But China saw the writing on the wall in Juba and was faced with a choice: either risk emboldening its domestic independence movements or its oil investments in the south, where 80% of the country's petroleum is found.

    "Khartoum had insisted that they alone were the interlocutor on oil for a long time and the Chinese respected that," said Fabienne Hara, an Africa specialist at the Brussels-based International Crisis Group. Khartoum awarded China's four oil concessions. But by 2007 the south Sudanese realized they needed China if they were to become independent and the Chinese realized they might soon need an independent south Sudan too, if the oil went with it. "It is pragmatism. I don't think anyone believes that the referendum process can be stopped," Hara said.

    China opened a consulate in Juba, the south's capital, a normally unusual move for Beijing in a place that wants to break away. Chinese Communist Party officials routinely visit the south. Southern leader Salva Kiir has twice visited China.

    But Beijing must walk a fine line between courting the south and not alienating the north. It still has major business there, including arms sales and infrastructure projects. Li Baodong, China's U.N. ambassador, told me that Beijing is clearly trying to stay on good terms with both sides.

    "We respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of this country, any argument amongst themselves, that's their internal affairs and we are not getting into it," Li said. "Whatever the choice the people make, we will respect that."

    Oil revenue is currently shared 50-50 between north and south under the 2005 peace deal that set up the referendum. It is pumped from the south through the north in a 1,000-mile Chinese-financed pipeline to a Chinese-built refinery in Port Sudan on the Red Sea, where it is shipped.

    How to share this oil in an independent south Sudan is still one of the trickiest questions the two sides, under the mediation of Thabo Mbeki, are trying to work out. Other issues under discussion are the border, sharing water and what to do with Abeyi. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir warned of war if these issues aren't worked out by Jan. 9.

    The south would likely enrage Khartoum if it were to find a way to get the oil out bypassing the north altogether. With Chinese help, this may one day happen.

    Kenyan officials have been studying a pipeline and refinery project from south Sudan to the port of Lamu on the Indian Ocean coast. The Kenyan Transport Ministry has sought bids for the project. According to China Daily, Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki and Chinese President Hu Jintao discussed China's commitment to build the $16 billion project last May in Shanghai. China is conducting a feasibility study, according to Kenyan media.

    I asked Ali Karti, the Sudanese foreign minister, about how his government would react to such a project. "We have our own oil," he said, adding, "That project will never be built."

    Adopting a Western business mentality, in which profit and economic growth are often the only tenets, has launched China into a head-on collision with some of its traditional policies, said Dru Gladney, an expert on Chinese minorities at Pomona College in California.

    China has always portrayed itself as a leader of developing countries, but its own rapid development has changed its relationship with the developing world, he said. "Encouraging a so-called separatist movement is one that is going to complicate that position very much," he said.

    "It is a delicate issue for China. It is a very important development that China is seriously considering going against its 50-year long policy of non-intervention," Gladney told me.

    China has apparently calculated that it can suppress its own separatists while courting separatists in Sudan, he said. "Chinese separatists are going to recognize that China first and foremost is very pragmatic, that its development and national self-interest is clearly taking precedence over ideology in China today."

    "They may take some encouragement from it, but I don't think they really will take it that China is changing its position on separatism, especially within China," Gladney said.

    He expects Beijing to crack down on separatists at home while making deals with them abroad. "It's whichever cat catches mice and in this case the cat that supports a separatist, Christian group will catch more mice for China," Gladney said.



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  • senthil1
    05-16 11:40 AM
    My view is not based on my personal gain or loss. My view is even if they ban consulting H1b numbers will not be reduced so much and cap will be reached. Number of permanent jobs will increase and they will hire H1b only when there is real shortage. Why do you think IEEE-USA members are undeserving and lazy just because they are interesting to put restrictions in H1b? Infact they are interested in more green cards. We are appreciating. Just because they are pointing out some problems in the program we cannot brand them as anti immigrants or lazy people. We ourself know that there are some issues in the program. While we were studying in the college it was big achivement if our research article comes into IEEE. So IEEE is considered as one of world best academic association.

    It is not TCS,Infy,Wipro is causing delay to GC. Infact I worked one of those companies and still they are one of best in India. Still I may work those companies if I go to India.

    If there is real shortage of skilled people then we will pass all the tests which are given in Durbin proposal and we can get H1b. What is the problem in accepting? Infact I am not supporting Ban of H1b on consulting but other than that everything can be fine and easily passed by most of H1b persons. Anyhow it is my personal view and IV view is different. As a pro immigrant organization we cannot support any anti immigrant bill.

    oh really!!! Your argument is exactly the same arguments used by lazy and undeserving members of IEEE-USA who simply want to eliminate their competition from the younger and more dynamic engineers from the other parts of the world. They also think that if H-1B folks will not come they will get all the jobs and their rate will go from $100/hr to $200/hr. You seem to think that Durbin-Grassley bill will create more permanent jobs for you. Why is there such a strange similarity between yours and IEEE-USA's thinking?

    Companies will survive and they are good with that. Let’s worry about our survival rather than the survival of TCS, Infy etc.



    Again, strangely enough, your views are identical to the views of IEEE-USA. The fact is, "more money" will be there for very small time. And then jobs will be outsourced to the person who would have come here to do the same job. In the final analysis, Durbin-Grassley bill only delays the demand and supply meeting each other for couple of months. But in the new setup, Durbin-Grassley bill is making sure that the job is outsourced for ever. True, before the job is outsourced, there will be "more money" and "more jobs" for small window of time. But then, it will be NO job till eternity. Its like, you can either be satisfied with the golden egg each week or you could choose to kill the hen that gives you the golden egg.


    You will then join a permanent job and whine about someone laughing at you when you pass though the hall-way or not looking at you in the meetings when you are talking. So the bottom line is, there will then be different kind of abuse and exploitation. What will you do then? Maybe you could go to Durbin-Grassley again after a year and ask them to pass another bill to protect us from the "abusive" way someone laughs when you walk though the hall-way. I am sure IEEE-USA will help to promote a bill to protect ALL of us from such an "abuse".




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  • Refugee_New
    01-06 02:17 PM
    Unfortunately Hamas has been using this school as human shield launching missiles against Israel military. You need to consider all acts before accusing Israel of killing innocents.

    Hamas must stop their methodology of using innocent civilian homes/schools as launch pads for bombings and they must drop their quest of eliminating a Jewish state. Similarly Israel should recognize Palestine as a separate independent country.

    If its true, why media is not showing how Hamas is hiding behind schools and mosques? Its a big lie and this is what they say in order to justify the killing. Also what rockets you are talking about? Those 7000 rockets that killed 4 people? I agree Hamas must stop their mindless and useless rocket attack.



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  • whattodo
    07-11 01:58 PM
    Her employer was not willing for her to start before SSN, so we had to wait. I hope that this will not be a problem.

    That should not cause any problems.

    On another note, one can start working as long as he/she has applied for SSN. One does NOT need ssn at hand to start working.


    _______________________
    Not a legal advice.




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  • nojoke
    01-03 03:36 AM
    Screw Dawood Ibrahim. He is the past.

    What is important right now is to get hold of the masterminds of Bombay in a transparent and credible manner. That would be in the long term self-interest of Pakistan (and India, and the world).

    Tomorrow the Bombay attack is old too. You are delusional and good making up reasons.:D:D:D:D:D
    How about an apology for what your country men did as a first step? Then we will consider your advice about what we should do. You are so good at giving advice to people who suffered at your country men's(like don't start war etc) hands and yet you don't own any responsibility.




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  • snathan
    01-06 05:15 PM
    Didn't Narendra Modi followed the footstep of Isreali counterparts by killing innocents in Gujarat?

    Its upto Indians to decide which type of leaders we need. Like Gandhi or Modi.

    Modi is the need of the hour andnot Gandhi....Grow up man.




    CreatedToday
    01-07 03:13 PM
    What are they? :D

    http://justifythis.blogspot.com/2006/05/pervert-prophet_12.html

    Warning : Watching this video may lead some into a state of denial, or even rage. If you are easily offended by creative depictions, then don't watch. For everyone else, enjoy :

    I didn't know Narendra Modi is a muslim. I didn't know those are committing genocide in Palestine are muslims. I didn't know those who attacked Iraq and commited war-crime under the pretex of WMD are muslims. I didn't know that these people are muslims.

    May be Narendra Modi was born to a Moghul Emperor. Others are born to ottaman emperors. What about you vghc? Are you a product of muslim?




    indio0617
    09-26 11:17 AM
    though its very tempting to support obama with all his elequent talk, I think action speaks louder than words. he has absolutely no history of doing anything in the senate, and has not worked in a bi-partisan way with the republicans to pass any thing. do you think all of a sudden as prez he's going to get things done. further his stance on matters changes as the wind blows. meanwhile mccain has a history of making things happen, even sometimes going against his party. Dem will be more interested in helping the illegals become permanent, and not the legals 'coz their sights are on the vote banks. reps in general are more pro-business, and will favor the legal as opposed to illegals. of course there are some who are against.
    someone pointed out the days were better in the 90's...i do agree that was a period of boom in the us economy with the rise of the dot com companies. but towards the end of the 90's, the dot com going bust, the us economy was heading in recession. and adding to that the rise of other economic powers like china, india, russia, the competition grew intense, and started to hurt the US economy much. However to the credit of the repub prez the SU economy came out from the inital recession, and the overall unemployment % was only ~5.4%, the lower in several decades incl the 90's. I think it was only through the right economic and pro-business policies of this admin that helped in this. of course the wars and the housing bubble has brought us to this new economic situations. It would require the next admin to frame policies that would keep US out of next recession.
    but with dems policies of higher taxes on business (of course higher taxes on you and me), and more govt spending using mine and your tax dollars (of course our ss which we might never see) to hand it out to the lazy, and good for nothing people, you'll def see the US economy going into deeper recession. on top of that the universal health care would see us going the way of CA and europe with health care rationing, and long lines.
    I could go on adding the benefits e.g. favorable deals with india the repubs would bring, but I thinks this is good for now.
    so I would suggest stop going with the age old mentality and blindly believing that the dems are best. Start to think rationally.


    You hit it right on the nail ! Very precisely put. Read between the lines and do not get carried away by 'eloquent' speeches. Deeds are stronger than words. Look at how the democratic agenda is framed. It has never been in favor of business, enterprise or innovation. Putting things into respective Obama & co will suffocate us with all the socialist agenda and stagnating policies.




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  • obviously
    04-10 12:41 PM
    Fighting between EB categories shows how shallow our debates can turn out to be! Rhimzim & all, do the illegals differentiate between meat packers, seamstresses, window cleaners etc.? Why waste time and energy?




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  • vactorboy29
    10-01 04:18 PM
    I do support Obama reason for that he got good plans to rescue this economy .He also understand how it feels when you treated differently .Another thought I have is, his father was came to this country for higher study and he understands What is American dream.
    That is how i feel he will do better on our cause than his opponent.




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  • texcan
    08-06 04:42 PM
    The Seven Dwarfs are on a vacation in Europe and receive an audience with the Pope.
    As the oldest, Dopey serves as spokesman for his mates.
    Standing before the Pope, Dopey asks, "Your excellency, are there any dwarf
    nuns in Vatican City?"
    The Pope thinks for a moment and says, "No, Dopey, there are no dwarf nuns
    in Vatican City."
    This makes the other six dwarfs snicker.

    Dopey then asks, "Mr. Pope, are there any dwarf nuns in Europe?"
    "No," the Pope responds. "There are no dwarf nuns in Europe."
    Hearing this, the other six dwarfs fall to the floor, laughing and howling.

    Dopey looks at the Pope and says, "Sir, are there any dwarf nuns in the
    world?"
    "No, my son," the Pope says. "There are no dwarf nuns anywhere in the
    world."
    With this, the other six dwarfs began chanting, "Dopey made love to a
    penguin! Dopey made love to a penguin!"




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  • sanju
    04-07 01:54 PM
    I am talking about using a different standard for defining R&D. A standard similar to the one used for determining the R&D tax credit. A whole lot of companies other than pure research institutes are eligible for R&D tax credits. And there appears to be broad support for such a definition of R&D.

    http://www.nam.org/s_nam/sec.asp?CID=514&DID=512
    http://www.ieeeusa.org/policy/positions/researchcredit.html

    Let me guess, you work at a R&D facility, right? May be, looking for the best way to fit in your individual situation. No offense meant, however, I would request IV and its membership to have a bigger perspective in dealing whit this bill. Otherwise, 500,000 people will be systematically purged from US. And that includes most people waiting for their green cards.



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  • unseenguy
    06-12 12:50 AM
    I am in SF Bay area.
    I would say WAIT and prices will become affordable here as well.

    People who bought these 700K+ houses were not necessarily richer than you and me.
    ARMs with low or zero down payments did the trick.

    Save for the down payment and wait. You will get a good house at affordable price in 1-2 years.

    California is going to be bankrupt soon. It is no longer a good place to live




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  • nogc_noproblem
    08-07 01:05 PM
    If you can figure out what these words have in common...

    ...., you are a lot smarter than I am. And no, it isn't 6 letters in each word; you need a little more moxey than that.

    Banana
    Dresser
    Grammar
    Potato
    Revive
    Uneven
    Assess

    Are you peeking or have you already given up? Give it another try.... You'll kick yourself when you discover the answer.


    Go back and look at them again; think hard. OK... Here you go. Hope you didn't cheat.



    Answer: In all of the words listed, if you take the first letter, place it at the end of the word, and then spell the word backwards, it will be the same word.



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  • file485
    07-08 07:52 PM
    this is so so jittery...

    this is a post where they r actually checking the from and to date of the dependant's i94 out-of-status

    http://boards.immigrationportal.com/showthread.php?t=190778

    guys..who just posted before me...pls read the whole thread, her husband had already filed once for AOS and then they had asked for his W2's for which he dint have..they abandoned that AOS and now trying AOS thru the wife..so basically he is still in the records of INS..maybe he dint reply his RFE or god knows what database INS maintains..




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  • Refugee_New
    01-06 02:41 PM
    Yes, they definitely have...Hamas should stop using school kids as human shield before complaining. Heres link for you - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=elyXQ6g-TJs

    You just go and see this video. Sent by some tamil media.

    http://kalaiy.blogspot.com/2009/01/you-tube.html



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  • iwantmygreen
    04-15 01:50 PM
    NoJoke you are a genius. I think NKR & Kaiserose intentions are to just hurt others emotions.




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  • Macaca
    05-01 05:40 PM
    Why China�s Crackdown is Selective (http://the-diplomat.com/2011/04/28/why-china%E2%80%99s-crackdown-is-selective/) By Minxin Pei | The Diplomat

    For a one-party state that tolerates practically no open defiance of its authority, Beijing�s gentle handling of hundreds of striking truckers in Shanghai who had paralyzed operations at one of China�s largest container ports seems an anomaly. Instead of sending in riot police to break up the blockade last week, the authorities in Shanghai agreed to reduce fees levied on the truckers, who were angry over the charges and rising fuel prices.

    The outcome of this incident couldn�t be more different from another recent event: the arrest of Ai Weiwei, one of China�s most prominent political activists. Ai has repeatedly defied the ruling Communist Party and, despite his international stature, Beijing decided to put him behind bars, ignoring widespread international condemnation.

    The contrast between these two incidents raises an intriguing question: why does Beijing tolerate certain forms of protest, but represses others?

    One obvious reason is that it depends on the nature of the protest. As a rule, a frontal challenge to the authority of the Chinese Communist Party, as Ai�s activities embodied, practically guarantees a harsh response from the government. But protest inspired by specific economic grievances, such as truckers� ire over excessive fees, seems to fare better. In the eyes of the ruling party, the former constitutes an existential threat and so no concessions are seen as able to appease political activists rejecting the very legitimacy of the regime.

    In contrast, the discontent generated by well-defined economic grievances can be treated with specific concessions. One quote, allegedly from a sitting senior Politburo member, says it all: �What are the contradictions among the people?� the Politburo member supposedly asked. �(These contradictions) can all be solved by using renminbi.�

    But things are a little more complicated than this. The reality is that even when dealing with protests or riots fuelled by specific socioeconomic grievances, the behavior of the Chinese authorities isn�t always consistent. Sometimes, government officials pacify protesters through the use of the renminbi, while other times they mercilessly crush such protest.

    So how do we make sense of such apparent inconsistencies?

    It seems that the type of response to social protest�harsh or soft�depends on a complex mix of factors such as who the protesters are, the resources and organizational capacity at their disposal, the economic sectors in which they are located, and the social repercussions of their protest. Generally speaking, highly organized protesters (such as truck drivers, discharged soldiers and officers of the People�s Liberation Army, and taxi drivers) tend to fare better. They also possess resources that can be easily and effectively deployed. Taxi and truck drivers, for example, can use their vehicles to paralyze traffic and produce instantaneous and widespread social and economic disruptions.

    Former PLA servicemen, meanwhile, have a strong institutional identity and are well-connected with each other through ties forged during their military service. Research conducted by Chinese scholars shows that protests organized by former PLA servicemen tend to get the most attention�and the softest treatment�from the government. In contrast, protests by peasants are handled more harshly as they are less organized, possess few strategic assets, and have little impact beyond their villages.

    Another important factor is the political calculations of local officials. Despite the popular image of the Chinese state as a hierarchical, top-down system, there�s no uniform national manual for handling protests. This leaves a great deal of discretion at the hands of local officials, but it also places them in a political quandary. Whenever a mass protest erupts, local officials have to think and react fast, but deploying riot police and using force against protesters isn�t necessarily the preferred modus operandi since this could prompt an escalation in violence. Local officials who mishandle mass protests risk demotion or even dismissal, so they must calculate how to end such demonstrations peacefully and quickly, while ensuring that their actions won�t also encourage future protests. It�s a difficult balancing act.

    So what influences the political calculations of local officials?

    As I�ve said, it�s in large part the nature of the protest, the strength of the protesters, and the likely effects of the protest�all are critical variables. Local officials usually avoid using violence against protests inspired by economic discontent and organized by workers in strategic sectors (transportation and energy, for example). Another factor at play is simply the amount of renminbi available to local officials for buying off the protesters. In the case of striking truckers, the Shanghai municipal government, the wealthiest local jurisdiction in China, has plenty of money. But in poorer areas, the renminbi option just doesn�t exist.

    Another factor is media glare�the more media coverage (particularly international media coverage), the more constraints on local officials� use of force. Last, the location of the protest is key. When such protests happen in remote villages or towns, they are quickly and ruthlessly crushed. But when they occur in urban centres, the government (usually) responds more cautiously and gently.

    All this means that the happy ending for the striking truckers in Shanghai shouldn�t be taken as an encouraging precedent for workers in other sectors who might think the government will back down in the face of economic demands�however justifiable they might be.

    Minxin Pei is a professor of government at Claremont McKenna College



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  • Macaca
    12-28 07:12 PM
    Blending the Rules as We Go Along (http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/28/world/asia/28iht-currents28.html) By ANAND GIRIDHARADAS | New York Times

    I wanted it to be right after breakfast when I asked Priya to marry me. The other elements were still forming, but that one felt important: a proposal to know together a thousand moments as simple and whole as this moment on a quiet Sunday morning.

    I gave a prologue, then asked. She cried, then answered. A ring was worn. And, in less time than it takes to mow a lawn, we had rewritten our fates � our fate � forever. Done deal.

    Or so we thought.

    In the coming days, we were reminded of what it means to belong to a tribe of people that straddles multiple cultures and multiple degrees of technological involvement � and, as a consequence, holds a rich variety of opinions about an engagement. We received an education in the nuances of doing a very old thing in these new globalized, digitized times.

    The first hint of engagement Babel came in a phone call to Priya�s grandparents in New Delhi, minutes after the proposal. Joy filled their voices when they heard our news; blessings poured forth, punctuated by the colonial remnant �all the best, all the best.�

    Her Nana, though, could not let the conversation end without asking a question:

    �But, Priya, how exactly does one get engaged?�

    The bride-to-be said something about a question being asked and a ring being given, and that was that. What we didn�t appreciate then was that, in India, it doesn�t count as an engagement when two impressionable young people make a decision all by themselves.

    Calling India to say that you have gotten engaged, but without any family present, without any rites having occurred, is like claiming to have clapped with one hand.

    Thanksgiving time soon came, and the two of us went to Washington, where our six parents live. Two celebrations of our engagement were planned: a dinner at Priya�s mother and stepfather�s home, the other a tea at my parents� place.

    Our new family traces its roots to cow worshipers in Benares and cow slaughterers in South Dakota, to Chennai in south India, to a piece of the Punjab that is now in Pakistan, to Iowa, to New Jersey and to a hamlet called Blaxall in Britain. We count among us those who worship the multitudinous Hindu deities, the lone Christian one and no divinity at all. We are speakers of English, Hindi, Punjabi, Tamil, French and Spanish. Many of us bear the passport of a country in which we were not born.

    All of which is wonderful until you have to choose an engagement ritual.

    After some debate and soul-searching, we decided to invent our own rites. We lit candles. We held hands. We told stories. We traded gifts. We laughed. We ate.

    But, back in India, there was still some confusion. Priya�s grandparents, 10 and a half time zones ahead of us, were aching to hear our voices on the night of that first Washington celebration. My grandparents phoned several times during the tea at my parents� home four days later. The way they saw it, this was the engagement � this coming together of families at the home of a certified adult. The earlier thing, as they saw it, was more like a sweet gesture.

    So, two weeks after we got engaged by our own definition, my grandparents congratulated me for getting engaged. Priya�s Indian cousins BlackBerry-messaged her they were delighted to be able, at long last, to congratulate her � now that it was �official.� Other relatives wrote seeking pictures of our �engagement ceremony.� We tried to explain that we hadn�t had one. But in this definitional spat, we were clearly outnumbered.

    When, today, is an engagement valid in the eyes of the world? Is it, according to the Western contractual idea, when two people declare their commitment to each other in private? Or when love mingles with economics in the giving of a ring, the first step in a gradual entangling of fortunes? Is it when two families gather and drink and toast? Or when a certain traditional ritual is done � or, in our case, a new ritual?

    Or is it when you change your Facebook relationship status?

    We had been so consumed with family, and with the intricacies of the Indian and American rules of engagement, that we ignored our virtual tribe. We had called some friends on the phone immediately after it happened, and e-mailed some others. But then the celebrations of the nonvirtual world took off, and we were absorbed into that love and tumult, and our engagement went unrecorded by the digital sphere.

    Just when we thought we had satisfied every possible definition of engagement, marking it in ways suitable to ourselves, our parents and our extended clans, Priya�s stepsister brought up Facebook. Why hadn�t we updated our relationship status to proclaim the engagement? It was peculiar, this omission: The absence of a Facebook update could be read as the presence of something amiss. What were we trying to hide?

    Relationship statuses, like ideas, have derived their authority from different sources over the millenniums: A relationship could be valid if properly certified by the ancient rituals; or valid if faithful to the words of the holy texts; or valid if codified in a contract recognized by the correct governmental agency; and now, in 2010, valid if etched into one�s �Info� tab on Facebook.

    We promptly made things right. As it turns out, we were Facebook-engaged around the time that the site�s creator, Mark Zuckerberg, was named Time magazine�s Person of the Year. We made it �official� for the third time, our union ordained by this new minister of the universe.

    At last, the engagement is properly established before our American, Indian and virtual tribes � and, now, before the readers of this newspaper. The wedding looms, and with it another inevitable contest of definitions.

    I can already hear the question forming: �But how exactly does one get married?�




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  • Macaca
    12-28 06:29 PM
    China's Sudan Predicament (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/joe-lauria/chinas-sudan-predicament_b_801655.html) By Joe Lauria | Huffington Post

    The age of ideology in China may soon be ending. Caught between its longstanding opposition to independence movements worldwide and its expanding economic interests, Beijing finds itself remarkably choosing to court a separatist government in south Sudan.

    The south is scheduled to vote on January 9 on independence from Khartoum after 43 years of civil war that left more than 2 million people dead. The referendum is still uncertain amid fears of a new war. But if the vote goes ahead, the south is overwhelmingly expected to break the continent's biggest nation in two.

    China has long had substantial investments in all of Sudan, the most of any foreign country. It has a 40% stake in the oil industry and 60% of Sudan's oil is exported to China. To protect those interests Beijing has supported Khartoum in the U.N. Security Council over separatist movements in Darfur and, until recently, in the south.

    That was consistent with China's opposition at the U.N. to separatist movements elsewhere in the world, such as in Kosovo and East Timor. The aim has been to give no encouragement to Taiwan and its own restive minorities in Tibet and Xinjiang. Those independence movements are watching what China does abroad. Taiwan, notably, was among the first countries to recognize Kosovo.

    Until early this year, China steadfastly opposed southern independence in Sudan too. But China saw the writing on the wall in Juba and was faced with a choice: either risk emboldening its domestic independence movements or its oil investments in the south, where 80% of the country's petroleum is found.

    "Khartoum had insisted that they alone were the interlocutor on oil for a long time and the Chinese respected that," said Fabienne Hara, an Africa specialist at the Brussels-based International Crisis Group. Khartoum awarded China's four oil concessions. But by 2007 the south Sudanese realized they needed China if they were to become independent and the Chinese realized they might soon need an independent south Sudan too, if the oil went with it. "It is pragmatism. I don't think anyone believes that the referendum process can be stopped," Hara said.

    China opened a consulate in Juba, the south's capital, a normally unusual move for Beijing in a place that wants to break away. Chinese Communist Party officials routinely visit the south. Southern leader Salva Kiir has twice visited China.

    But Beijing must walk a fine line between courting the south and not alienating the north. It still has major business there, including arms sales and infrastructure projects. Li Baodong, China's U.N. ambassador, told me that Beijing is clearly trying to stay on good terms with both sides.

    "We respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of this country, any argument amongst themselves, that's their internal affairs and we are not getting into it," Li said. "Whatever the choice the people make, we will respect that."

    Oil revenue is currently shared 50-50 between north and south under the 2005 peace deal that set up the referendum. It is pumped from the south through the north in a 1,000-mile Chinese-financed pipeline to a Chinese-built refinery in Port Sudan on the Red Sea, where it is shipped.

    How to share this oil in an independent south Sudan is still one of the trickiest questions the two sides, under the mediation of Thabo Mbeki, are trying to work out. Other issues under discussion are the border, sharing water and what to do with Abeyi. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir warned of war if these issues aren't worked out by Jan. 9.

    The south would likely enrage Khartoum if it were to find a way to get the oil out bypassing the north altogether. With Chinese help, this may one day happen.

    Kenyan officials have been studying a pipeline and refinery project from south Sudan to the port of Lamu on the Indian Ocean coast. The Kenyan Transport Ministry has sought bids for the project. According to China Daily, Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki and Chinese President Hu Jintao discussed China's commitment to build the $16 billion project last May in Shanghai. China is conducting a feasibility study, according to Kenyan media.

    I asked Ali Karti, the Sudanese foreign minister, about how his government would react to such a project. "We have our own oil," he said, adding, "That project will never be built."

    Adopting a Western business mentality, in which profit and economic growth are often the only tenets, has launched China into a head-on collision with some of its traditional policies, said Dru Gladney, an expert on Chinese minorities at Pomona College in California.

    China has always portrayed itself as a leader of developing countries, but its own rapid development has changed its relationship with the developing world, he said. "Encouraging a so-called separatist movement is one that is going to complicate that position very much," he said.

    "It is a delicate issue for China. It is a very important development that China is seriously considering going against its 50-year long policy of non-intervention," Gladney told me.

    China has apparently calculated that it can suppress its own separatists while courting separatists in Sudan, he said. "Chinese separatists are going to recognize that China first and foremost is very pragmatic, that its development and national self-interest is clearly taking precedence over ideology in China today."

    "They may take some encouragement from it, but I don't think they really will take it that China is changing its position on separatism, especially within China," Gladney said.

    He expects Beijing to crack down on separatists at home while making deals with them abroad. "It's whichever cat catches mice and in this case the cat that supports a separatist, Christian group will catch more mice for China," Gladney said.



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  • pani_6
    07-13 01:17 PM
    Guys I am getting the impression that EB-3- I did not act on IV action items..that's not true we have been actively involved in IV action items and have been contributing...




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  • sk2006
    06-05 12:27 PM
    Buying a house would be a BIG Mistake right now..

    Sub-Prime losses we have been hearing in main stream media is just the begining.
    Wait until 2010 when Alt-A and ARMs taken in 2005/6 start resetting.
    It will be a big mess.


    and

    NEVER LISTEN TO REAL ESTATE AGENT'S ADVICE!



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  • imvoice1234
    01-08 12:36 PM
    Muslims are cowerds. They never come out in open and attack. They take the means of Jihad etc....
    No matter how highly educated they are. Their basic nature remains the same. Every Muslim country u name it has a problem with either their neighbouts. They do not belive in harmony an co existance. surprisingly they also fight among themselves.
    Read the link below on how mean they are.
    http://www.rense.com/general29/FAHD.HTM

    Now this article states the Israel - Palestine conflict clearly.
    God bless Israel. God has always been with Israel.




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  • jayleno
    10-01 07:58 PM
    I'm a great fan of Obama for what he has achieved so far and in all probability he will win in Nov. I hope the new CIR will not be similar to CIR 2007 as far legal immigration is concerned. After 8 years of paying taxes I would definitely feel greatly disappointed if we get a raw deal for being legal



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  • suavesandeep
    06-05 11:53 AM
    Good analysis there dude!
    While no one can predict future, the least we could do is prepare ourselves for good and bad times.
    IMO people should look at purchasing only if these conditions apply:

    1) Current rent payment is more than mortgage+prop tax+other monthly fees for new home
    2) Homes in relatively stable areas (where unemployment is not too high, diversity of job opportunities)
    3) Homes whose prices have not risen significantly in the past 5yrs (anything > 40% since 2001..please stay away)
    4) Planning to stay in the house for a MIN 2yrs

    One would argue why buy now if it might go lower...
    if above conditions are met..it would be a relatively safe buy and above all...people remember... time does not wait for anyone...we grow older everyday..make a decision regarding what we need for us and our family within the reasonable limits...go for it and enjoy it..
    an old friend of mine always says...live life..love life...be life
    and i believe she is right..
    I think we are in unprecedented times...Who would have thought real estate would ever crash ?. At least i never saw this coming and i guess most of those smart investors/economists did not see this coming.

    My friend in bay area bought his house 3 years back in a decent school district and he is more than 150K under water. He is going to be stuck in the house now till his house appreciates to the original principal. If he wants to move out of the house he will have to pay the 150k difference from his pocket.

    This is what scares the shit of me. I really don't care too much if the house i buy after doing all the valid calculations as described above does not appreciate for a long time. Also I am not buying the house for investment reasons. But i dont want to be in a situation where 5 years down the line after i bought the house i have lost money on the house and would need to shell out money from my pocket to move out like my friend is today. I am sure 2 years from now which will be 5 years for my friend he will still be under water.

    Like most Americans i would like to buy a smaller home which i can afford now since we are a small family and may be 5 years from now may want to move to a bigger home in a better location.

    But how things look currently it looks like i may be stuck in the house for a long long time and the standard advise of "buy a home if you plan to stay at least in the house for 5 years" may not apply. Imagine in the worst case being stuck in the same house for 30 years. May not be a big deal but just puts more pressure on you to buy that perfect house which you are sure you will be happy to live there for the next 30 years if needed.

    This is what spooks me the most of the current housing market. Again this concern is due to unprecedented times we are in, I am sure 5 years back this would not concern me.

    Any thoughts?




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  • yrspassby
    08-07 04:38 PM
    My wife and I were happy for twenty years. Then we met.

    When a man brings his wife flowers for no reason, there's a reason.

    Always get married early in the morning. That way, if it doesn't work out, you haven't wasted a whole day.

    In olden times, sacrifices were made at the altar, a practice that still continues.

    Getting married is very much like going to a restaurant with friends. You order what you want, then when you see what the other fellow has, you wish you had ordered that.

    I think men who have a pierced ear are better prepared for marriage. They've experienced pain and bought jewelry.




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  • nogc_noproblem
    08-25 04:43 PM
    What men say and what they actually mean . . .

    � "I'M GOING FISHING" Means: "I'm going to drink myself dangerously stupid, and stand by a stream with a stick in my hand, while the fish swim by in complete safety."
    � "YES, DEAR..." Means: Absolutely nothing. It's a conditioned response.
    � "IT WOULD TAKE TOO LONG TO EXPLAIN" Means: "I have no idea how it works."
    � "TAKE A BREAK HONEY, YOU'RE WORKING TOO HARD". Means: "I can't hear the game over the vacuum cleaner."
    � "THAT'S INTERESTING, DEAR." Means: "Are you still talking?"
    � "I WAS JUST THINKING ABOUT YOU, AND GOT YOU THESE ROSES". Means: "The girl selling them on the corner was a real babe."
    � "WHAT DID I DO THIS TIME?" Means: "What did you catch me at?"
    � "I HEARD YOU." Means: "I haven't the foggiest clue what you just said, and am hoping desperately that I can fake it well enough so that you don't spend the next 3 days yelling at me."
    � "YOU KNOW I COULD NEVER LOVE ANYONE ELSE." Means: "I am used to the way you yell at me, and realize it could be worse."
    � "YOU LOOK TERRIFIC." Means: "Please don't try on one more outfit, I'm starving."
    � "WE SHARE THE HOUSEWORK." Means: "I make the messes, she cleans them up."




    diptam
    08-05 04:37 PM
    I was eligible for both EB2 and EB3 when my GC labor was filed - my employer filed it in EB3 because the queue is longer and i remain with them for longer duration. I had about 390 days of H clock left so arguing with that employer and finding another one was also not an option because for getting H extension beyond 6 yrs needs the GC labor to be more than 365 days old.

    Instead of getting emotional if we look at the point Rolling_Flood is trying to make, it makes perfect sense.

    I don't see why there are so many angered arguments...

    1. EB2/EB3 is decided by Job Profile - correct. Its always option to say NO if your employer is filing it in EB3. My previous company wanted to file my labor in EB3, I said NO and left them. Filed in EB2 with new employer.

    Its easy to be sympathetic with people whose employer filed them in EB3, but remember they always had option to say NO.

    2. If someone have EB3 priority date before other guy who filed EB2 from beginning, the porting EB3 to EB2 and getting ahead of EB2 guy is grossly incorrect. I can't believe USCIS lets this happen.

    If someones job profile was eligible for EB3 only when they filed and now fits in EB2, they should file fresh application based on EB2 job profile.



    Looking at previous trashing of thread opener, I am expecting lots of reds - so go ahead but that not going to change the truth.




    Macaca
    02-15 10:37 AM
    First 2 paras from Justice Official Bought Vacation Home With Oil Lobbyist (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/02/14/AR2007021401913.html), By Susan Schmidt and James V. Grimaldi, Washington Post Staff Writers, Thursday, February 15, 2007

    A senior Justice Department official who recently resigned her post bought a nearly $1 million vacation home with a lobbyist for ConocoPhillips months before approving consent decrees that would give the oil company more time to pay millions of dollars in fines and meet pollution-cleanup rules at some of its refineries.

    Sue Ellen Wooldridge, former assistant attorney general in charge of environment and natural resources, bought a $980,000 home on Kiawah Island, S.C., last March with ConocoPhillips lobbyist Don R. Duncan. A third owner of the house is J. Steven Griles, a former deputy interior secretary, who has been informed he is a target in the federal investigation of Jack Abramoff's lobbying activities.




              Cecília        


    -Brian Mendonça

    Once again the Lusophone Society of Goa has brought a veritable feast of cultural events to Goa. A wide range of activities covering film,  song, music  and exhibition is here. Arching across a month, from February 17 to March 18, 2017 the 3rd Lusofonia festival, Goa attempts to bring together 10 Portuguese-speaking nations to offer a peep into their culture.

    To curate such a festival might have been mind-boggling but as the schedule shows, it has been accomplished with élan. This year’s fare includes nature walks – the Portuguese experience and the Goan way; contemporary Brazilian cinema; a photography exhibition of the cultural heritage of Macao; a photography exhibition of the land and the people of East Timor (13-15 March), and even a photography exhibition of a documentary on the Makonde tribe of northern Mozambique. The festival culminates in a ‘Feijoada and Samba’ fest – an alchemy of food, music and dance from Lusophone countries on 18 March.

    What I found fascinating was the exhibition of newspapers published during the visit of the Brazilian poet Cecília Meireles (1901-64) to Goa in 1953. For a poet to have the savoir faire to hobnob with the political echelon in India was a lesson in social graces. But it is her poetry written in Brazilian Portuguese which humbles the reader. In a collection of poems written in India she sees India as a vast canvas in which to paint her poetry.

    In ‘Bazaar’ she is riveted to the ‘olhos negros’ the black eyes, which lurk behind the sandals, sweets, toys and grain. ‘Estudantes’ describes the students as they ‘scatter around the square.’ She ends with a query ‘Que mundo construirão?’ /What world will they construct? ‘Marinha’/Seascape took us to the Goan beaches. In this poem she contrasts the blue colour with the black: ‘Black are the voices of the fishermen / words cast over the blue.’ Ever on the road  in ‘Poeira’/ Dust she philosophizes, ‘However much I shake my hair / however much I shake my clothes / the dust of the roads lies on me.’*

    Lusophone countries include Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, East Timor, Guiné-Bissau, the region of Macau, Mozambique, Portugal, and São-Tomé and Príncipe. Of special mention on the website are ‘the Indian State of Goa, the Union Territory of Daman and Diu in India.’ The brainchild of Aurobindo Xavier, the website lusophonegoa.org  has events listed from 2013.

    Goa with its rich Portuguese legacy is called to preserve its traditions. More importantly it is the young who need to feel at home in the language. Nuggets of poetry from the Portuguese poet Sofia de Mello Breyner Andresen have shaped my nostalgia for Goa when I was away:

    INSCRIÇÃO

    Quando eu morrer voltarei para buscar
    Os instantes que não vivi junto do mar 
    [When I die, I will return to search
    For those moments which I could not live beside the sea]
     ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Published in Gomantak Times, Weekender, St. Inez, Goa on Sunday, 9 April, 2017. Pix of Nizia Moniz Barbosa do Carmo Lobo reading the poems of Cecilia Meireles in Portuguese to students on the sidelines of the Meireles exhibition at State Central Library, Patto, Panjim, Goa on 3 March 2017. Jovito Lopes looks on. Pix. courtesy Brian Mendonca.

    *Cecília Meireles, Travelling and Meditating: Poems Written in India and Other Poems. Translated by Rita Sanyal and Dilip Loundo. Embassy of Brazil, New Delhi 2003. 


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              History is written by the victors        
    An example of how subjective human history is. Two men are shown on this clipart: ? one is Joseph Stalin, who led the USSR between 1924 and 1953: he is accountable for the death of up to a million of political opponents during the Stalinist purges, between 1936 and 1938, and millions more during famines; ? the other one is the Indonesian general Muhammad Soeharto, who ruled Indonesia between 1967 and 1998, and led purges in 1965: he is accountable for the death of anywhere between 500 000 and 3 million political opponents during the purges, that aimed all of his opponents, namely communists, democrats, poor peasants, etc., as well as a genocide in East Timor, that killed 200 000 people. Both of those men have committed crimes of similar extents, but the first one is much more widely known than the second one; and this only because he claimed to be "communist". If a communist has to assume the full extent of the crimes of Stalin, why doesn't a capitalist have to assume those of Soeharto? History is written by the victors, in that case, capitalists: and they are the very last people who can be counted on, when it comes to telling facts objectively. They always try to criminalize those who think otherwise.
              artikel        

    Dalam bayangan orang gunung sering dianggap memiliki hutan yang lebat dan dihuni oleh berbagai satwa liar. Namun dalam kenyataannya tidak semua gunung memiliki hutan, terutama gunung-gunung di Jawa Tengah, puncaknya sudah gundul dan di lerengnya sering terjadi kebakaran hutan. Hutan-hutan di kaki gunung sudah berubah menjadi ladang sayuran atau perkebunan
    Monyet yang dahulu banyak dijumpai di daerah pedesaan yang masih berhutan sehingga dianggap sebagai hama tanaman, kini bahkan sudah jarang sekali dapat ditemukan di hutan-hutan di gunung.
    Burung-burung yang dulu suka menyerbu persawahan penduduk, sehingga mudah di temukan di pedesaan bahkan di perkotaan, kini juga sangat langka bisa dijumpai di hutan-hutan di gunung.
    Babi hutan yang sering mengganggu tanaman penduduk di pedesaan sudah jarang bisa ditemukan. Yang lebih mengherankan lagi ternyata kita tidak menemukan satwa-satwa ketika mendaki gunung. Kemana gerangan hilangnya satwa-satwa yang seharusnya mudah ditemukan karena dahulu populasinya sangat banyak sehingga menjadi hama tanaman penduduk. Mungkinkah suatu saat nanti binatang yang dahulu dianggap hama, bisa menjadi satwa langka?
    Bagaimana dengan nasib satwa-satwa yang lain seperti rusa yang semakin langka bisa dijumpai di hutan di gunung. Burung Merak dan Ayam hutan juga sudah langka bisa ditemukan di hutan. Macan tutul pun sudah hampir punah mengikuti saudaranya yakni harimau jawa dan harimau bali yang sudah punah terlebih dahulu.

    Indonesia is the sleeping giant of Southeast Asia. With 18,110 islands, 6,000 of them inhabited, it is the largest archipelago in the world. With well over 230 million people, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world — after China, India and the USA — and by far the largest in Southeast Asia. Indonesia also has the largest Muslim population in the world.
    Indonesia markets itself as the ultimate in diversity, and the slogan is quite true, although not necessarily always in good ways. Indonesia's tropical forests are the second-largest in the world after Brazil, and are being logged and cut down at the same alarming speed. While the rich shop and party in Jakarta and Bali, after decades of economic mismanagement, 53% of the population earns less than US$2/day. Infrastructure in much of the country remains rudimentary, and travelers off the beaten track (pretty much anywhere outside Bali) will need some patience and flexibility.

    The cost of flying to Indonesia from within the Southeast Asia and Pacific region has gone down a lot with the advent of low cost carriers or LCC. A similar and important development has been the offering of reasonably priced one-way fares departing Indonesia and the development of online booking and payment systems. The acceptance of non-Indonesian issued credit cards by the online booking systems of Garuda and Lion air only occurred as recently as the beginning of 2011. Among the LCC carriers providing services to Indonesia are AirAsia, which has excellent coverage of Indonesia from its hubs in Kuala Lumpur and Jakarta (Indonesia Air Asia), as well as Singaporean competitors Tiger Airways, Jetstar Asia/Valuair and SilkAir. SilkAir is actually a full-service, full-fare regional airline, but they often have very good promotions if you book in advance.
    Indonesian carrier LionAir provides a link between Singapore and Jakarta, and is often the cheapest option (cheaper than AirAsia and others) if you need to travel really soon or even on the same day. Australia and New Zealand are also serviced by LCC airlines including Jetstar sharing the Jetstar Asia network, Virgin Blue, Indonesia AIr Asia and a new low cost but full service entrant Strategic airlines, based in Australia.
    Limited regional international services are also provided by other Indonesian LCC domestic carriers Merpati Airlines and Batavia airlines. Batavia is steadily growing a limited regional international route system and Merpati services routes to Kuala Lumpur and Dili in East Timor. It is worthy of note that Lion Air has engaged in a massive fleet upgrade program buying a large number of Boeing 739-900ER series and ATR72-500 series turbo props. The steady replacement of their previously rather clunky old fleet of very well used Boeing and MD aircraft is revitalising Indonesia's 2nd largest carrier. Lion air currently operate 45 new 737-900ERs with 134 more on order.

              Competitions: IIDA Best of Asia Pacific Design Awards        
    Registration Deadline: Sep 7, 2017; Submission Deadline Sep 7, 2017

    The 5th annual Best of Asia Pacific Design Awards seek to recognize and honor the highest level of creativity and design excellence in Interior Design/ Interior Architecture projects in the following countries:

    American Samoa, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, East Timor, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kiribati, Laos, Macau, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis and Futuna.

    Winning entries will be published in an issue of Contract magazine, on the IIDA website, and in the official Winners Brochure. An awards reception will be held at the Four Seasons Hotel Hong Kong on December 12, 2017. The Best of Competition winner will be the subject of the IIDA Designer Dialogue video series.

    For more competition info: http://iida.skipsolabs.com/en/challenge/2017-iida-best-of-asia-pacific-design-awards

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              Ending Mass Atrocities: An Empirical Reinterpretation of ‘Successful’ International Military Intervention in East Timor        

    Claire Smith, a political scientist at York University and one of our collaborators on the how mass atrocities end project, has a new article out. In it, she examines the role of military intervention in Indonesia, placing it in context of other factors that helped produce an ending in East Timor. Below is the [...]

              S. AFRICAN CLERIC TO SPEAK AT GTRC REPORT RELEASE CEREMONY MAY 25        
    A GTRC news release:

    GREENSBORO, N.C. – Dr. Peter Storey, former prison chaplain to Nelson Mandela, will speak during the May 25 ceremony at which the Greensboro Truth and Reconciliation Commission (GTRC) will release its final report, completing its mandate and setting a new milestone in the city’s historic effort to examine and reconcile with its past.

    Free copies of the executive summary will be given to all who attend the ceremony at 6 p.m. Thursday, May 25, in the Annie Merner Pfeiffer Chapel at Bennett College for Women, 900 E. Washington St. The event also will include music, prayers, and verbal and video presentations of the report’s conclusions and recommendations.

    Representatives of local and national groups that have signed on as GTRC Report Receivers – agreeing in the interest of continuing community reconciliation to read and discuss at least the executive summary – will formally accept the report at the ceremony, as will Dr. Johnnetta B. Cole, president of Bennett College, which will house the archives of this process.

    The report itself will be released to the public and posted online (at http://www.greensborotrc.org/) the evening of May 25, without the customary early release to media outlets. Instead of relying on others’ interpretations, the public will be able to read and process for themselves the GTRC’s findings and conclusions on the context, causes, sequence and consequence of Greensboro’s tragedy of Nov. 3, 1979.

    On that day, Klan and Nazi members killed five labor organizers and wounded ten others at a “Death to the Klan” rally organized in a public housing community by the Communist Workers Party. Klan and Nazi defendants were acquitted of murder and civil rights violations in state and federal criminal trials. However, a civil trial found that Klansmen, Nazis and two members of the Greensboro Police Department were jointly liable for one wrongful death.

    The GTRC’s report, the full text of which is more than 300 well-documented pages, will clarify the widespread confusion, rumors and misinformation that have swirled in the aftermath of the tragedy, providing important context and specific findings in topical areas with continuing implications including

    · details of events, issues and preparations for the planned Nov. 3, 1979, march and conference;
    · police performance and police/community relations;
    · relevant history of Greensboro and involved organizations including the Klan, the Communist Workers Party and federal law-enforcement agencies;
    · history of black power and multicultural organizing efforts in Greensboro;
    · labor and labor organizing history;
    · justice system issues;
    · related topics including provocative language, First Amendment rights, firearms and racism;

    The report also includes recommendations in areas including community acknowledgment and institutional reform.

    The ceremony will be the culmination of nearly two years of work by the seven volunteer Commissioners and the Commission’s paid staff – the “Commission phase” of the grassroots, democratic process begun several years ago by the Greensboro Truth and Community Reconciliation Project (GTRCP). Storey, former president of the South African Council of Churches and chair of the selection panel for the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, played a key advisory role in the beginning of this process.

    As co-chair of the GTCRP’s National Advisory Committee, Storey shared the belief that examining this event could help bring healing to community divisions highlighted by the tragedy. He was instrumental in formulating the following language in the GTRC’s Mandate:

    “The passage of time alone cannot bring closure, nor resolve feelings of guilt and lingering trauma, for those impacted by the events of November 3, 1979. Nor can there be any genuine healing for the city of Greensboro unless the truth surrounding these events is honestly confronted, the suffering fully acknowledged, accountability established, and forgiveness and reconciliation facilitated.”

    After the ceremony, the GTRC will cease to exist. The work of continuing community reconciliation based on the collective truth offered in the report, and of implementing the GTRC’s recommendations, will become the responsibility of Report Receivers – which include a variety of religious, civic and other community groups – and the GTCRP, in keeping with that organization’s 2003 Declaration of Intent, which called for six to 12 months of discussions following the report’s release.

    In addition to availability online, copies of the report will be available in all branches of the Greensboro Public Library and at other public places. The GTRCP, Report Receivers and other organizations are expected to plan discussions in various settings around town.

    Other communities in the South and elsewhere have followed the GTRC’s work, which has included gathering statements and documentary evidence, and holding public hearings and a community dialogue. Success in Greensboro offers promise that the truth-seeking model previously used in South Africa, Peru and elsewhere can be effective in U.S. communities.

    Representatives of other communities, students and journalists interested in continuing study will be able to access information about the GTRC’s work through the Bennett College archives (http://www.bennett.edu/), and through contact information and other details that will be available at the GTRC’s web site, which will be preserved through a partnership linking Bennett and the Greensboro Public Library (http://www.greensborolibrary.org/).

    The International Center for Transitional Justice (www.ictj.org), an organization founded by one of the architects of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, is serving as a consultant for the GTRC, as it has for similar efforts in nations including Ghana, Sierra Leone and Timor-Leste (East Timor).
    # # # # #
              Life As Art - Full Graphic Novel by Michael Fikaris        

    ‘Art as Life’ by M P Fikaris
    “This comic book is a story comparing Arte Moris in East Timor to my own art community in Australia.
    Arte Moris is a free art school in Dili, Timor Leste set up to help the people re-build after 25 years of war and conflict.”

    READ the entire comic online at: http://artaslifecomic.tumblr.com/

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              By: lagado        
    The one thing we fail to learn is that silence doesn't work. In the case of Indonesia, the Australian government turned a blind eye while Indonesian forces exterminated one third of the East Timorese population.
              A CONVERSATION ON POSTCOLONIAL STUDIES Interview        

    A Conversation with E. San Juan Jr.

    Michael Pozo, St. Johns University

    POLITICAL DISCOURSE: THEORIES OF COLONIALISM AND POSTCOLONIALISM

    Introduction

    Michael Pozo has generously shared the following material with readers of the  Postcolonial Web. It previously appeared in the SJU Humanities Review, an online journal based at St. Johns University (New York), which he edits with Paul Devlin.
    E. San Juan Jr. is one of this country's most notable cultural theorists. Born in Manila, Philippines, he has taught at the University of Connecticut, Tamkang University in Taiwan and Washington State University among others. He received his PhD from Harvard University. San Juan has written extensively on race, gender, ethnicity, Marxism, Post-Colonial theory, literature and on his native Philippines. He was a Fellow of the Center for the Humanities, Wesleyan University, and director of the Philippines Cultural Studies Center. This Spring he will be a Fulbright Lecture in American Studies at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.
    MP: Can you describe what Post Colonial Theory means to you? Can you describe how you use a Marxist perspective to critique it?
    SJ: Based on the orthodox tenets laid out by Edward SaidHomi Bhabha and Gayatri Spivak --the "founding fathers" of this discursive territory, postcolonial theory seeks to explain the ambivalent and hybrid nature of subjects, their thinking and behavior, in the former colonies of the Western imperial powers, mainly the British Commonwealth societies. It seeks to prove that the colonial enterprise was not just a one-way affair of oppression and exploitation, but a reciprocal or mutual co- or inter-determination of both metropolitan master and "third world" subaltern. Whatever the subtle differences among mainstream postcolonial critics, they all agree that colonialism, for all its terror and barbarism, presents a rhetorical and philosophical anomaly: the postcolonial subject as identical and different from the history textbook's portrayal of the submissive and silent victim of imperial conquest. It claims to be more sophisticated or "profound" than the usual left or even liberal explanation of colonialism. Obviously this is a riposte to the conventional view that imperialism produced the dehumanization, if not decimation, of colonized peoples. Not just Marxists, but liberals and enlightened people generally subscribe to this view. First of all, one should reject the "Cold War" view of Marxism as equivalent to economistic determinism, Stalinist tyranny, and the like. Marxism cannot be reduced to such inanities. Synoptically, the Marxist critique is multi-leveled: first, post colonialists obscure or erase historical determination in favor of rhetorical and linguistic idealization of the colonial experience; second, the post colonialist mind refuses to be self-critical and assumes a self-righteous dogmatism that it is infallible and cannot be refuted; and third, the practical effect of post colonialist prejudice is the unwitting justification of, if not apology for, the continued neo-colonialist--"globalizing" is the trendy epithet -- depredation of non-Western peoples, in particular indigenous groups, women, and urban poor in Latin America, Asia and Africa.
    In sum, post colonialism rejects the historical-materialist critique of imperialism in favor of a highly suspicious and even demagogic claim to rescue the postcolonial subject from its own abject past. Have they succeeded? I doubt it. I find this kind of postcolonial theory an alibi for intellectual acquiescence to current hegemonic pieties.
    MP: Is Post Structuralism/Post Colonial Theory, in fact, ineffective for "third world" or "minority" critics of what you today call, neo-colonialism? If so, why? 
    SJ: This question is an excellent posing of the strategic value of any theory purporting to advance the interests of those marginalized or subordinated by the global status quo. It can only be answered in terms of specific situations and protagonists. Let me try a general answer. I should emphasize that my focus is on the orthodox brand of postcolonial theory that is safely marketed in the classrooms and scholarly conferences. Now, the postcolonial approach of Edward Said is to be distinguished from the scholastic verbal magic of Bhabha and Spivak for its clarity of historical reference and political thrust. Its resonance is clear: its critique of U.S. imperialist hegemony, esp. in the Middle East, cannot be doubted (although it is silent about "internal colonialism" in the U.S. itself). It has provided weapons for oppositional "minority" intellectuals. It has been useful in "conscienticizing" (Paulo Freire's term) a larger audience than those addressed by Derrida or Foucault. But, to my mind, it is less post-structural or postcolonial idealization that drives Said's discourse; rather, it is his sensitive and informed understanding of neocolonialism as a political regime and behavioral pattern (or "habitus", to use Pierre Bourdieu's term) of continued dominance of nominally independent nation-states through neoliberal, transnational disguises, as mediated through the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization.
    MP: What exactly is meant by Neo-Colonialism? 
    SJ: I understand neocolonialism as the domination of peoples and societies by capital (primarily Western, but including Japan) through the liberal market and other ideological means, not through direct political rule. It is the practice of exploitation and oppression of the majority of the world's laboring masses under the guise of democratic access to markets, the free flow of commodities, technology, ideas, bodies, and so on. We need to translate the abstraction "neocolonialism" into concrete empirical situations. We have to specify various neocolonialist practices in every region or place where the ascendancy of corporate transnational capital generates effects of misery, violations of human rights, rape, malnutrition, genocide, and so on. There are probably as many neocolonialisms as postcolonialisms. Contradictions produce opposites, the exploiter and his gravedigger, as the dialectic works its way remorselessly, through our own collective and individual actions.
    MP: In your book Beyond Post Colonial Theory, you describe a possible alternative to this theory. By re-examining writers/revolutionaries in the "post colonial" world, do you find validity in Nationalist movements unlike say Edward Said and his role as a disaporic intellectual?
    SJ: In arguing with orthodox postcolonialism, one has to operate on the same discursive terrain, unfortunately, just as Milton had to use the same Christian framework in trying to upset and subvert it from within. This is not a novel insight. It is, one might say, a law of dialectics. My method is open to conflicting interpretations. Of course, my attempt to reaffirm the moment of national-liberation struggles within the postcolonial period can be grasped either as a repudiation of postcolonialism entirely, or a re-articulation of its original vision. In any case, I am not alone in doing this; my colleagues Benita Parry, Neil Lazarus, Neil Larsen and many others have accomplished this move brilliantly. I refer your readers to the recent volume edited by Crystal Bartolovich and Neil Lazarus entitled Marxism, Modernity and Postcolonial Studies.
    Although I have criticized his inadequate views on Marxism, I consider Edward Said's commitment on behalf of Palestinian self-determination--a "nationalism" different from Arafat and the bourgeois elements--as a progressive one that should be supported in the face of Israeli state terrorism. (Said's situation, of course, is very complex and cannot be discussed here in depth.) In this context, Said's status as a diasporic intellectual is very much defined by his actual political and ethical activities.
    As for the nationalist thematic: One needs to be reminded again that the nationalist struggles of Puerto Ricans or Filipinos against U.S. imperialism is not the same as the nationalism of the PATRIOT ACT, of George W. Bush and the streamlined chauvinism underlying American Studies scholarship.
    MP: Can you then further describe the differences/similarities between U.S. nationalism and that of "third world" nationalism?
    SJ: I already responded to this earlier. But this bears repeating: the most important criterion is whether the sense of national unity benefits the majority of laboring citizens, or this sense is utilized by the ruling class, a small minority of rich folks who control the business world, to promote their own profit-making interests. There will always be group solidarity; it's a fact of sociality. But the question is: for what? What's the meaning of this togetherness and belonging? As I said, the nationalism (if you can call the sovereignty struggle nationalist) of native Hawaiians, for example, cannot be equated with the nationalism of the white and/or Japanese elite in Hawaii. Nor can the nationalism of the Moral Majority, of Pat Buchanan and Cheney, be similar to the nationalism of the East Timorese, or for that matter to the nationalism of the Zapatistas, the guerillas in Colombia, the New People's Army in the Philippines (the last one recently declared "terrorist" by Colin Powell).
    All nationalisms are similar in that they try to arouse the sense of ethnic togetherness and solidarity. But the difference is: for whose benefit? What is at stake? Who are victimized? What goals of human liberation are promoted or damaged by nationalist activities? Again, we need to be historically concrete and specific, as we should be when answering questions about theory, literature, and so on.
    MP: Recently, you have described U.S. nationalism as the "opium of the masses", Could you elaborate on this?
    SJ: The allusion here is of course to Marx's famous ambiguous quote on religion. U.S. nationalism--that the United States is superior to any society or that Western Civilization as embodied in the institutions of the U.S. has privileged position over others--has operated as the means of exacting consent from the majority of citizens. Of course, it operates subtly. It does not proclaim itself as such. When anyone speaks of how U.S. representative democracy should be the pattern in other countries, there you have an example of the "opium" working.
    In general, as many have noted, U.S. movies do it all the time, especially as the chief agency of propaganda--education, if you feel that's too harsh a comment--that exercises enormous influence on the consumers in the dependencies and peripheries. Now, just as Marx called religion "the opium of the masses," it has another side: it offers consolation, strength, and hope of renewal in the interstices of civil society. Unfortunately, like drugs, the feeling of consolation doesn't last. Now, the postnationalist Americanists argue that this nationalism no longer exists. I wonder what they would say about the PATRIOT ACT and state measures after September 11? Are we postnationalist yet?
    MP: Furthermore, in your most recent book Racism and Cultural Studies, you speak about the "forced diaspora of migrant workers" and the "import of uneven and combined development globally" as further evidence of the futility or inability of Post Colonial Theory. Can you say more about this?
    SJ: In so far as mainstream postcolonial theory cannot explain, say, the phenomenon of 10 million Filipinos working abroad as "overseas contract workers," poorly paid, maltreated, raped and killed--this observation also applies to Sri Lankans, Bangladeshi, Mexicans, and millions of African and Latin Americans--then it is useless for any emancipatory politics. It will simply be an academic exercise to advance careers, and of course to reinforce ongoing plans for a war on Iraq, North Korea, and other societies deemed accomplices or accessories to the "axis of evil," in the words of the current "helmsman" of the only remaining superpower. Please correct me if I am wrong: I don't see Bhabha or his numerous epigones and acolytes being too much disturbed by the current outrageous racist violence against Arab Americans, or anyone suspected of being linked to Osama bin Laden. In this moment of emergency, with "friendly fascism" rearing its head behind neoliberal slogans, there is a great opportunity for post colonialists to demonstrate that they care, that they have historical efficacy and ethical conscience (which they celebrate at every chance they get).
    But what I see, instead, is a call to return to aesthetics, to form, to the tired and empty clichés about humanism, which one would think has been laid to rest by the three decades of deconstruction, poststructuralist innovations, etc. Signs of the contradictory milieu we live in. Unfortunately we've returned to the time of the terrible metanarrratives, this time the metanarrative of United States triumphalism.
    MP: Much of your work has dealt with Cultural Studies (CS), however, you're originally from a Literature background. Given the shortcomings of Post Colonial theory, how would you conceive of a manner to study Literature from the perspectives of "third world" and "minority" readers, students and scholars?
    SJ: I think this is being done gradually--one can cite Paul Lauter's heroic attempt to diversify or democratize the U.S. literary canon, though it is by mechanical addition, less a thoroughgoing decentering of a monolithic and hegemonic exceptionalism. The numerous projects of transnationalization of American Studies, the fashionable conferences on postnationalism and cosmopolitanism, the continuing debates on multiculturalism -- these are all symptoms of the crisis of the old "common culture" dispensation. Everyone participating in the intellectual conversation on the transformation of the humanities is aware that there is no going back, that we need to be answerable and responsible. However, the neoconservatives have temporarily won under the regime of the war on terrorism, don't you think? But they have not eliminated the contradictions, esp. the contradiction between labor and capital.
    I believe literary study and scholarship can be reinvigorated through a comparative and interdisciplinary approach--nothing radical, to be sure. Unfortunately, comparativist and interdisciplinary scholars still cling to a belief that their "civilization," in short, the liberal democracy based on private ownership and the exploitation of surplus value--the liberalism of the market--is the necessary foundation of all these revisions and changes in the academy. You can detect this in many oppositional critiques of current scholarship and intellectual fashions. As long as one clings to this belief in private property and the right to exploit others--the sacred rules of the free market--any reform in literary or cultural studies will suffer from what Georg Lukacs has called "reification." In short, it is not just using a "third world" or minority perspective that is necessary or essential. For such "third world" mentality might just be mimicking consumerist values and habits, as they often do (I just visited the Philippines where "malling" is the prime occupation of millions, thanks to globalizing corporate blessings.) First things first. What is needed is the overthrow of the "free market" rooted in inequality, private property, and hierarchy. That is the pre-requisite to any genuine and creative transformation of the human sciences dedicated to the liberation of the spiritual and material energies of every individual on this endangered planet. I hope this is not to sound too prophetic or evangelical in the pejorative sense.
    MP: Lastly, what are some of the questions/issues students and professors interested in CS should ask concerning the notion of "multiculturalism" which for many in this country may sound like a good thing?
    SJ: This question deserves a long substantial answer. Here I can only begin with a preliminary remark: I agree with Manning Marable that we should fight for a multicultural democracy. In contrast to the belief current in the Fifties and earlier that the U.S. is a homogenous society founded on Anglo-Saxon culture and Western civilization (Christianity, the Great Books of the Western World, etc.); the idea of multiculturalism is a refreshing and potentially liberating one. U.S. society cannot be subsumed by one ethnic group or culture. That is historically false, completely unwarranted, besides mortgaging the future to the destructive tribal idols. Unfortunately, the ideal of multiculturalism has been hijacked by sweet-talking neo-liberals. As I have argued in my earlier book, Hegemony and Strategies of Transgression (SUNY Press), multiculturalism has been appropriated to vindicate neo-liberal policies and instrumentalities. In short, the U.S. ruling class takes pride in the world hegemony of the United States because it is multicultural, diverse, open, sensitive to differences--difference as a guarantee of uniformity and democratic oneness. This multiculturalism is an alibi for predatory globalization, which is the euphemism for the further extension of corporate exploitation everywhere. If this is multiculturalism, then we can all stop reading Foucault and Lacan and instead go shopping and marvel at the infinite variety of multicultural goods--not just food but ideas, fashions, styles, images, simulacra, etc. Baudrillard may still be right about the terrorism of the marketplace.
    However, if multiculturalism signifies a sensitivity and openness to the Other so that the notion of identity is itself problematized--I am thinking here of Alain Badiou's critique of identity politics and alterity--I have no quarrel with such a program of genuine, creative multiculturalism.
    Finally, I would like to reiterate that in all my works I try to apply a historical-materialist approach that considers human labor (both mental and physical) as the key to the critical transformation of society. It is a point of departure, not the answer to every question. In this I join other socialists and radicals working within the intellectual tradition of Benedict de Spinoza, Georg Lukacs, Antonio Gramsci, Rosa Luxemburg, Walter Benjamin, C. L. R. James, and others in advancing the cause of all those through out the world who continue to be victimized by the "free market". Is there any other feasible alternative?

    Related Materials


    [Postcolonial Web Overview] [Postcolonial Discourse Overview]
    Last Modified: 19 May 2004


              Comment on Anti-war essays, poems, short stories and literary excerpts by Colin smith        
    I'm stunned. Do you have any idea how many lives have been taken as a result of continuous warfare, sometimes on as many as 9 fronts, by the US military and it's Cold War proxies since WW2? If l tell you that it has been conservatively calculated as between 25 and 30 million, would you be shocked? You should be, because it's true. During the Cold War proxy wars were fought on behalf off the US in, variously, the entire Latin America(death squads-several million)Indonesia and East Timor(a million), Cambodia(3 million), Laos (a million), of course Vietnam (3 million), lately attributed to the US: Rwanda (a million), Congo(5 million), now Iraq, Libya, Syria, Afghanistan (3 million)', German pow's deliberstely allowed to starve in open fields, (one million), and that's only a taste. Many academics and authors are aware of these figures, and many more, too many for me to recall or carry around in my memory. And you quibble about a few hundred air strikes. The US media has kept the US population in a self-imposed bubble. No wonder it is prudent to treat them like children. I had one American say to me "He's my President, he must be telling the truth". I was gobsmacked! Nixon? Clinton? Truthful? Only a child could look at another human being with such naïveté. I had another American friend declare, while the US was killing a million plus in Iraq for no rational purpose "we've got to stop helping these people........" Wake up America. You're trashing the world. Bombing 9 different countries right now, your Special Forces active in 130 countries, with 800 to 1000 foreign bases, costing you 51 cents in every dollar. I can't believe you don't know all this.
              EXHAUSTING DOMESTIC REMEDIES?        
    Dina Savaluna, SH

    Lebih dari dua tahun lumpur Lapindo menggenangi puluhan desa di Sidoarjo.
    Kerugian yang diakibatkan oleh semburanpun secara nominal mencapai belasan digit. Berbagai upaya telah ditempuh melalui kerja-kerja advokasi, baik kampanye maupun jalur hukum di tingkat nasional. Tujuannya adalah untuk meminta pertanggungjawaban negara terhadap para korban serta menjerat siapapun yang bertanggung jawab atas peristiwa ini di hadapan hukum. Namun hingga kini segala upaya tersebut mengalami kebuntuan, kalah melawan Bakrie yang adikuasa. Kedua gugatan legal standing yang diajukan memenangkan Lapindo meskipun dengan argumen yang saling bertentangan satu dengan yang lain.

    Tentakel Bakrie di tanah air menyapu bersih segala upaya di tingkat nasional yang telah ditempuh oleh pihak-pihak yang mengupayakan penegakan keadilan bagi korban. Fakta ini menimbulkan tanda tanya besar terhadap keadilan dan keberpihakan hukum kepada pihak yang lemah yang dalam konteks ini adalah korban lumpur Lapindo. Nasib korban sampai detik ini masih terkatung-katung. Harapan akan ganti rugi yang layakpun semakin pudar.

    Posisi Bakrie sebagai orang terkaya dan juga seorang menteri yang kemudian dia sangat berpengaruh di Indonesia, mengakibatkan upaya advokasi di tingkat nasional hampir menemui jalan buntu. Sebuah fenomena yang sangat ironis, di mana seorang pejabat publik yang secara hakikat jabatan seharusnya menjadi pelayan kepentingan umum, justru menjadi bencana dan pelanggar utama terhadap hak-hak asasi rakyatnya.

    Semakin buntunya upaya yang dapat ditempuh di tingkat nasional untuk memberikan keadilan kepada korban, menimbulkan sebuah kebutuhan yang mendesak akan sebuah terobosan advokasi menuju tingkat internasional. Upaya ini diharapkan dapat menjadi sebuah upaya efektif untuk dapat mendesak pemerintah menanggulangi lumpur ini dengan sungguh-sungguh.

    Efektivitas tekanan internasional dapat kita lihat di dalam beberapa contoh kasus seperti Timor Lorosae[1], Aceh[2], dan Burma.[3] Keempat contoh kasus tersebut menujukkan bahwa Kampanye Internasional bukanlah usaha yang sia-sia. Di tengah kebuntuan kampanye lokal, dan ketidakberpihakan pemerintah pada kemanusiaan, tekanan internasional diharapkan mampu membawa angin segar pada penanggulangan luapan Lumpur ini. Dalam hal ini Persatuan Bangsa-bangsa (PBB) menyediakan suatu mekanisme monitoring yang dapat ditempuh oleh pegiat advokasi lumpur Lapindo; mekanisme ini dikenal dengan Special Procedure (prosedur khusus)

    Special Procedure adalah salah satu bentuk dari mekanisme pemantauan Dewan HAM PBB terhadap penegakan HAM di Negara-negara anggotanya. Special Procedure dibentuk oleh Commission of Human Rights atau yang saat ini digantikan oleh Human Rights Council untuk menanggapi kondisi negara tertentu dan isu tematik tertentu. Dalam konteks kasus Lapindo, isu tematik yang dapat digunakan adalah isu Human Rights dan Transnasional Corporations of other business enterprises. Di mana untuk isu ini sekretaris Jenderal PBB menunjuk John Ruggie sebagai Perwakilan khususnya yang akan memberikan laporan langsung kepada Sekretaris Jenderal PBB (Special Representative of the Secretary General).

    Berdasarkan Resolusi Nomor 2005/69, Special Representative of the Secretary General diberikan mandat, antara lain:

    1. Mengidentifikasi dan mengklarifikasi standar tanggung jawab dan tanggung gugat perusahaan terhadap HAM untuk perusahaan transnasional dan entitas niaga lainnya.
    2. Mengelaborasi peran negara dalam mengatur secara efektif dan menilai peran dari perusahaan transnasional dan entitas niaga lainnya terhadap HAM, termasuk melalui kerjasama internasional.
    3. Meneliti dan mengklarifikasi akibat dari perusahaan transnasional dan entitas niaga lainnya dalam konsep seperti konspirasi dan wilayah dominasi.
    4. Mengembangkan bahan dan metodologi untuk menyelenggarakan penilaian terhadap aktifitas perusahaan transnasional dan entitas niaga lainnya yang berdampak pada HAM.
    5. Memadukan informasi-informasi spesifik tentang praktik terbaik dari Negara dan Perusahaan transnasional dan Entitas Niaga lainnya.

    Melalui pertimbangan tersebut di atas, bukanlah sebuah ide yang buruk untuk mengundang Special Representative of Business and Human Rights tersebut untuk melakukan peninjauan terhadap kasus Lapindo. Berdasarkan mandatnya tersebut, diharapkan Special Representative dapat memberikan assessment-nya terhadap kondisi di Sidoarjo terkait semburan lumpur dan melaporkannya ke Sekretaris Jendral PBB untuk kemudian ke dalam agenda Sidang Umum PBB, di mana pemerintah Indonesia dapat dimintai keterangan akan kasus Lapindo ini dimuka sidang umum dan dipertanyakan kembali komitmennya terhadap penegakan HAM yang sudah merupakan kewajiban pemerinah sebagai anggota PBB dan sebagai negara peserta di dalam berbagai instrumen penegakan HAM internasional.

    Independensi dari Mr. John Ruggie ini tidak perlu diragukan akan terkontaminasi oleh adidaya Bakrie, sehingga laporannya pun pasti akan independen dan berperspektif korban. Dengan dibicarakan di Sidang Umum PBB diharapkan dunia akan menyoroti tentang tragedi ini dan terus mendesak pemerintah untuk mengambil langkah-langkah kongkret penanggulangannya. Dan, bukan tidak mungkin dunia internasional akan memberikan bantuan kemanusiaan kepada para korban mengingat korban memerlukan bantuan mendesak untuk bertahan hidup.

    Mengingat bahwa pemulihan kembali hak-hak ekososbud yang dilanggar merupakan kewajiban negara yang harus dipenuhi secara segera dan mendesak sesuai dengan klausul immediately effects, klausul progressive realization tidak bisa dipergunakan di kasus ini. Oleh karena itu, pemulihan hak para korban harus dilakukan dengan segera, dengan menggunakan seluruh sumber daya yang tersedia (maximum available resources). Namun, sudah dua tahun pasca semburan pertama, kewajiban negara tersebut diabaikan karena desakan politik dari berbagai pihak. Upaya menempuh keadilan lewat jalur hukum yang kandas baik perdata, pidana, maupun konstitusional, merupakan sebuah kegagalan pemerintah memberikan judicial remedies bagi para korban. Atas dasar Exhaustion of Local Remedies itulah Indonesia dapat mengajukan mekanisme internasional dengan menggunakan kaidah-kaidah internasional yang merupakan international customary law.

    Dengan digunakannya mekanisme internasional ini, tidak berarti pemerintah dan Lapindo lepas dari tanggung jawab atas restitutio in integrum (mengembalikan keadaan sampai sesaat sebelum pelanggaran terjadi). Pemerintah dan Lapindo tetap harus menanggung atas seluruh pemulihannya. Namun, apabila menunggu niat baik dari Lapindo sebagai entitas niaga yang profit oriented dan pemerintah yang di bawah tentakel lapindo, nasib puluhan ribu korban yang terkatung-katung dipertaruhkan. Penggunaan mekanisme internasional ini diharapkan dapat membawa angin segar pada usaha penanggulangan lumpur dan menghadirkan secercah harapan di cakrawala Sidoarjo. (*)



    [1] Di mana untuk pertama kalinya, rakyat East Timor memiliki hak untuk menentukan nasibnya sendiri.

    [2] Desakan Internasional membawa perjanjian damai Helsinski antara GAM dan Pemerintah RI. Jangan dilupakan juga bantuan untuk korban tsunami di Aceh atas nama Human Rights Solidarity

    [3] Desakan internasional berhasil membuat junta membuka diri untuk bantuan kemanusiaan bagi korban Badai Nargis.


              Illegal Indonesian, Timorese fisherman return to Australian waters driven by failings at home        
    Illegal fishing in Indonesian and East Timorese waters is driving a rise in the practise in northern Australia, according to an Australian academic.
              ACTivist issue scans        

              East Timor - National Anthem        

              The "War on Terror" is harming America, say experts        
    We've won the war on terror, according to an article by James Fallows in the current issue of The Atlantic Monthly, based on interviews with sixty terrorism experts. They told Fallows that basically we've broken al-Qaeda as an effective terrorist organization. But by continuing to engage in a "Global War on Terror," we are actually hurting only ourselves, while strengthening what remains of al-Qaeda and encouraging start-up wannbe groups around the world. We must stop now and dramatically change how we characterize and react to these groups. The biggest danger now in perpetuating this "War" is to ourselves.


    The article is very long and only available online with a paid subscription, so I'll do my best to summarize Fallows' analysis below without quoting too much. I have posted a .pdf of the entire article here if you want to read the whole thing -- all 15 pages, and I strongly encourage everyone to do so. After reading this article, I can begin to see how the entire national conversation about Bush's "War on Terror" can be turned against him. My summary with extensive quotes and a few of my own thoughts below.

    Fallows interviewed sixty experts ranging from the military and intelligence communities, as well as academics, members of think tanks and businesspeople, both American and foreign. They all told him basically the same thing.


    In his overview, Fallows quotes David Kilcullen, an Australian military officer who commanded the counterinsurgency efforts in East Timor, and is now a senior counter terrorism advisor at the State Department. Kilcullen says that  al-Qaeda today is actually a lot like


    European anarchists in the nineteenth century. "If you add up everyone they personally killed, it came to maybe 2,000 people, which is not an existential threat." But one of their number assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. The act itself took the lives of two people. The unthinking response of European governments in effect started World War I. "So because of the reaction they provoked, they were able to kill millions of people and destroy a civilization.


    "It is not the people al-Qaeda might kill that is the threat," he concluded. "Our reaction is what can cause the damage. It's al-Qaeda plus our response that creates the existential danger."


    Since 9/11, this equation has worked in al-Qaeda's favor. That can be reversed.


    The experts, both here and abroad, agree that al-Qaeda has essentially been neutered.


    "Their command structure is gone, their Afghan sanctuary is gone, their ability to move around and hold meetings is gone, their financial and communications networks have been hit hard," says Seth Stodder, a former official in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).


    Kilcullen says, "The al-Qaeda that existed in 2001 simply no longer exists. In 2001 it was a relatively centralized organization, with a planning hub, a propaganda hub, a leadership team, all within a narrow geographic area. All that is gone, because we destroyed it."


    My own take on this: Yes we did that by going into Afganistan, a move that vritually everyone thought was the right move, including the first anti-war candidate, Howard Dean. The problem is that we left before the job was done to focus on Iraq. Many of Fallows experts say the same thing. Back to Fallows.


    Although bin Laden has apparently been elevated to "Che Guevara-like symbolic status," he has become "a philosophy rather than an organization", according to Caleb Carr, author of the The Lessons of Terror. "It's like the difference between Marxism and Leninism, and they're back to just being Marx."


    This is demonstrated by the shift to "self-starter groups," such as the ones responsible for the bombings in Madrid, Bali, London, and probably the latest group arrested in Britain. Many of the experts that Fallows interviewed said that

    the shift to these successor groups has made it significantly harder for terrorists of any provenance to achieve what all of them would like: a "second 9/11," a large-scale attack on the U.S. mainland that would kill hundreds or thousands of people and terrorize hundreds of millions.


    So we are all still in danger from these groups, but they are closer to Tim McVeigh than to bin Laden's al-Qaeda.


    How much of this can the Department of Homeland Security take credit for. Not much as it turns out. According to Fallows,


    The DHS now spends $42 billion a year on its vast range of activities, which include FEMA and other disaster-relief efforts, the Coast Guard, immigration, and border and customs operations. Of this, about $5 billion goes toward screening passengers at airports. The widely held view among security experts is that this airport spending is largely for show. Strengthened cockpit doors and a flying public that knows what happened on 9/11 mean that commercial airliners are highly unlikely to be used again as targeted flying bombs. "The inspection process is mostly security theater, to make people feel safe about flying,"says John Mueller, a political scientist at Ohio State and the author of a forthcoming book about the security-industrial complex.


    In order for continuing terrorism to be effective, each attack must be bigger and more terrifying than the last. Otherwise the public will become desensitized. But nothing short of a nuclear attack will top 9/11. Obviously, then we would all be much safer if the major thrust of our efforts was on countering and controlling nuclear threats. One of the biggest mistakes, however, that Islamic terrorists have been making is thinking like terrorists, strange as this seems.


    What they have done is to follow the terrorist's logic of steadily escalating the degree of carnage and violence--which has meant violating the guerrilla warrior's logic of bringing the civilian population to your side. This trade-off has not been so visible to Americans, because most of the carnage is in Iraq. There, insurgents have slaughtered civilians daily, before and after the death this spring of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq. But since American troops are also assumed to be killing civilians, the anti-insurgent backlash is muddied.


    My thoughts again: A damn good reason to bring our troops home as soon as we can. Fallows gives examples of this principle in action. The bombing in Jordan of three hotels killed sixty civilians -- Muslims, including 38 at a wedding. The result was to turn the Jordanian population and government against al-Qaeda and al-Zarqawi. Polls in Muslim countries show that while the majority are anti-American, there is little support for "al-Qaeda's advocacy of a puritanical Islamic state."


    The greatest threat from terrorists now is the damage that they can cause us to inflict upon ourselves. Fallows says


    most people I spoke with said that three kinds of American reaction--the war in Iraq, the economic consequences of willy-nilly spending on security, and the erosion of America's moral authority--were responsible for such strength as al-Qaeda now maintained.


    Me again. In other words, the ongoing "War on Terror" is far more damaging to the United States than al-Qaeda could ever be. Our military is bogged down in an unending/unendable war. Vast amounts of money have been squandered, wasted, and outright stolen by companies with no-bid contracts to rebuild Iraq (which they haven't done), as well as by the Dept. of Homeland Security which is incapable of doing anything in an emergency (Katrina) except hold press conferences. In fact Fallows says that, "nearly all (experts) emphasized the haphazard, wasteful, and sometimes self-defeating nature of the DHS's approach." But the worst is that we have lost our moral authority in the world.

    The United States is so powerful militarily that by its very nature it represents a threat to every other nation on earth. The only country that could theoretically destroy every single other country is the United States. The only way we can say that the U.S. is not a threat is by looking at intent, and that depends on moral authority. If you're not sure the United States is going to do the right thing, you can't trust it with that power, so you begin thinking, How can I balance it off and find other alliances to protect myself?


    Every time we overreact, we strengthen the terrorists. Although the article was written before the latest arrests in Britain, our government's reaction is exactly what bin Laden hopes for. Mindless and meaningless increases in airport security costing more money and further undermining our ability to move freely and easily.


    Four analysts--Mueller, of Ohio State; Lustick, of the University of Pennsylvania; plus Veronique de Rugy, of the American Enterprise Institute; and Benjamin Friedman, of MIT--have written extensively about the mindlessness and perverse effects of much homeland-security spending. In most cases, they argue, money dabbed out for a security fence here and a screening machine there would be far better spent on robust emergency-response systems. No matter how much they spend, state and federal authorities cannot possibly protect every place from every threat. But they could come close to ensuring that if things were to go wrong, relief and repair would be there fast.


    Fallows talks about the effects of the perpetuation of a constant state of war to create a constant level of fear. Mueller writes that "the creation of insecurity, fear, anxiety, hysteria, and overreaction is central for terrorists."


    We will probably always be the target of attacks, attacks on the scale of Oklahoma City, the Unabomer, the Tylenol poisonings, the D.C. area snipers, the anthrax mailing, school shootings, and so on. But we need to stop looking at attacks by Islamic al-Qaeda wannabes as part of a "global war" and start dealing with them like we dealt with the above. When we link every attack or attempted attack or plotted attack as stemming from al-Qaeda, we only strengthen bin Laden's reputation.


    Every parent knows that sometimes the best way to deal with misbehavior is to ignore it. Fallows suggests something similar. Not that we should ignore the al-Qaeda wannabes, but neither should we overreact. Overreacting just gives the terrorists what they want.


    Instead we should declare victory in the War on Terror, and start implementing strategies that will actually make us all safer. Such as focusing on the threat of loose nukes. Such as resuming our search for bin Laden. Such as focusing more resources on securing Afghanistan. Such as doing what we can to improve our image in the Muslim world.


    After American troops brought ships, cargo planes, and helicopters loaded with supplies for tsunami victims, the overall Indonesian attitude toward the United States was still negative, but some 79 percent of Indonesians said that their opinion of America had improved because of the relief effort. There was a similar turnaround in Pakistan after U.S. troops helped feed and rescue villagers affected by a major earthquake. But in most of the Muslim world, the image of American troops is that of soldiers or marines manning counterinsurgency patrols, not delivering food and water. "The diplomatic component of the war on terror has been neglected so long, it's practically vestigial," a Marine officer told me. "It needs to be regrown."


    Mostly, however, Fallows believes that we need a leader who will "keep the dangers in perspective." Unlike the ones we have now, who use every incident really or manufactured, as an excuse to spend more money, increase the level of fear, and undermine our basic rights and freedoms.


    And my final thoughts: Of course they use every incident to try to increase the level of fear, since that is how they hope to stay in power. We must find a simple way to explain all this and to make it clear that Bush's "War on Terror" is not only being used as political manipulation, but it is actually increasing our danger from terrorists. Or so it seems to me.

              The Censoring of Burn!        
    by
    DeeDee Halleck
    2003-07-30

    The function of the university is to seek and to transmit knowledge and to train students in the processes whereby truth is to be made known.
    Statement on Academic Freedom, Academic Personnel Manual.
       -Robert G Sproul, President, University of California, August 27, 1934

    In 1993, before the Internet was a category on The Hollywood Squares, a group of students at the University of California, San Diego, set up one of the first websites. Wanting to take advantage of the university broadband, but also wanting a degree of autonomy, they built their own server, begged a few donations from local computer stores and repair shops and, with permission of the Department of Communication set up a server machine which they hoped would be a resource and an archive of political activism: it was called Burn!.

    For 17 years I taught at UCSD in the Department of Communication, which was founded by the late Herbert I. Schiller in the early seventies. Reflecting its origins, the department had a reputation for critical studies and support of free speech. The courses utilize texts such as Paolo Freire and Robert McChesney which emphasize the need for community empowerment and access to communications resources. Those very issues were to come home in late spring of 2000, as the department became embroiled in a struggle around freedom of speech that put to the test some of the theoretical concepts regularly featured in the midterm exams of undergrads and dissertation drafts of the graduate students. This struggle was over the Burn! website. Some say the name was derived from the film Burn! by Pontecorvo, starring Marlon Brando, about a slave revolt in the Caribbean, though others say the students just liked the in-your-face juxtaposition of the word “burn” with UCSD.

    The UCSD campus had been built over the remains of a military base on the desert cliffs of La Jolla in the totally administered style characteristic of the University of California. There was, however, an enclave of negativity in an abandoned Navy shed on one side of the campus that had housed the shower stalls for military recruits. This had been commandeered by students in the early 1970’s who turned it into a kind of free space, named after the hero of the Cuban revolution, Ché Guevara. The Ché’s vegetarian communal kitchen and cafe style gathering room served as the center of campus activism during the Vietnam War. With the post-war waning of activism, spurred by the death of UCSD’s leftist mentor Herbert Marcuse, and the cleansing of radicals from the UC campuses by Governor Reagan, the Ché lost much of its initial impetus, until only the beret-topped face of the martyred guerrilla, painted on the exterior walls of the cafe, remained of the militant days of the past.

    There were those of us who worried that the lack of activity at the Ché would spell its doom and the administration would finally be able to remove this pimple from its corporate face. In a move to rekindle interest in the resource, I decided to hold my classes there. This was also a way for me to escape the increasingly sterile atmosphere of the official classrooms. Concurrently, several students with a similar aversion to the university computer labs decided to set up a resource called Germinal, which would be a cozy Internet connection as an adjunct to the café: a place with terminals, ‘zines, Paper Tiger videos and militant posters, modeled after the “info-shops” in Europe. The idea was to give students an option beyond the cold industrial atmosphere of the official computer labs, and a place where they could collaborate and create and get in touch with activists from around the country. The server was to be the center of this resource, with access to the fast and wide band width of the university Net. With the growth of computer activity on campus, the university set about to upgrade its network trunk lines. The students were assured that the Ché would likewise be upgraded, but the lines bypassed the Ché so the Internet activity at the cafe was limited. The university was unwilling to do anything that would encourage students to use the Ché, as they saw it mainly as an “undeveloped” piece of real estate that would make way for the future expansion of research labs.

    It was in this context that the Burn! website arose in April, 1993, through the organization, Germinal. Initially a text-only connection, the site developed and its visitors grew in number. People from around the world found their way to one of the first non-corporate websites. In order to be connected to the faster main Net of the university for the bandwidth needed to expand to graphics and to accommodate the growing community of users, the server, with the tacit approval of the Communication Department, was moved to the office of the Communication Department computer technician and hooked into what was by then a quite broad Internet connection.

    The actual server machine was still owned and maintained by what became the Burn! collective, and supported by a few members of the Communication faculty. As I was the official advisor to Germinal, the department hookup for their computer was within my “research needs,” in order to allow the students to use the extensive capacity of the university Net.

    Over time extra memory was added, software was tweaked and serviced and the site (burn.ucsd.edu) became a sort of underground wildfire: picking up anarchists, rebels and a wide variety of international activists. The rapidity with which this site grew, and the numbers of hits it garnered, is similar to the response to the recent Seattle-founded site, indymedia.org. The server also had the capacity to host mailing lists, and be a service provider for groups who might not have such services available in their own countries or squats. It became known for its wealth of alternative political information, and was visited by activists and Internet mavens from all over the world.

    This was conveyed in the Burn! collective’s manifesto:

    BURN! Is…
    *A freely-available collection of texts
       - by groups excluded by the present global political order
       -which have been censored or are unavailable elsewhere
    *A laboratory for studying distributed (post-geographic?) social and political organization, publication, new forms of journalism and other cool stuff
    *An experiment in cross-cultural communication and social organization
    *A friendly place to experiment, learn, create and publish with computer communication technologies
    *A group of activists working to prevent the enclosure of cyberspace and the domination of its inhabitants

    As one of the Burn! collective members put it:

    We provide access to censored news and political viewpoints. Lots of people in places like Peru, Colombia, and Turkey can read things on our server that you could get tortured or killed for publishing in those countries, or that are simply unavailable elsewhere.

    Among the special features of its archive were perhaps the most comprehensive online collection of graphics and texts from May 68 in Paris. These graphics were used by Paper Tiger in the design of some refrigerator magnets. (See www.papertiger.org) One of the graphics was updated to address Guilliani’s New York City). There were also drawings from Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, and a large collection of Spanish Civil War graphics. The site never flinched from radical political issues, and has maintained a steadfast non-sectarianism. It has posted anarchist archives, Marxist-Leninist manifestos, Situationist texts, and has been a uniquely open site for a wide range of political perspectives.

    For many people around the world, Burn! has been a model of alternative communication. Most mainstream discussions of new technology center on business uses, for example, on e-commerce and initiatives by for-profit companies. Among the small but growing list of Internet researchers who study the uses of new technology by activists and community groups the Burn! website is seen as an important mode of Internet use. It is well known as pioneering a unique form of interactive posting and transparent discourse. Burn! was one of the inspirations for the tao site, based in Toronto. Another progeny of Burn! is the indymedia.org site, initiated in Seattle Some of the technicians who set up indymedia had been members of the Burn! collective. during the WTO protests, which has had several million visitors while serving as a discussion board for environmentalists, union members and activists. Indymedia now hosts 44 location specific sites, including Prague, Chiapas and Melbourne.

    Burn! has provided an important outlet for breaking news (during various crises in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, Bosnia, East Timor etc), for political art (the archive of posters from the Spanish Civil War), for environmental information, and for community exchange. Perhaps the key resource of the site has been the original materials, first hand communiqués from various insurgent movements: Mexico’s Zapatistas, ERPI, PKK, FARC, MRTA, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam; organizer training manuals published by Brazil’s MST; writings of antifascist groups in North America and Europe. In addition to posting space for Web pages, organizations were also allowed to use the server for mailing lists. CHIAPAS-L on Burn! is one of the oldest mailing list on the Zapatista revolt in Chiapas, replacing the site from UNAM, which was taken offline. COL-INFO was for many years the only Colombia-specific mailing list in the world, and ATS-L provides difficult-to-find recent news on antifascist and insurgent movements to a worldwide subscriber base of about 500 people and news organizations. The archives of CHIAPAS-L and ATS-L represent some of the highest-quality resources available anywhere for people researching the last five years’ history of these movements.

    Most of the UCSD Communication faculty had no idea that this was taking place literally under their noses. One professor told me that he only heard about it when Der Speigel called from Germany, wanting to interview him about the site. But they all found out about it when some of the university administrators pressured the department to get rid of it.

    There were several flurries of activity that drew the attention of administrators (and the national security officials who probably alerted them) to Burn!. One happened when the Spanish government organized an e-mail bomb campaign against the website after closing down Egin, the Basque nationalist newspaper, and the Egin Irratia (their radio station) in July 1998. In an unusual move for a government agency, a campaign of mail blitzes was initiated against the site, which caused a bit of consternation in the university network operations office. Literally hundreds of thousands of e-mails were suddenly sent to the site, almost bringing down the entire university mail system, and catching the attention of the network operators in the university computer office.

    A similar thing happened with Turkey. Burn! hosted a Kurdish site, which was attacked by a huge volume of e-mails, emanating from Turkish government servers, although signed by “hackers”:

    Hi UCSD.EDU Administrator; We are Turkish Hackers Association (THA). We send this e-mail to you because of http://burn.ucsd.edu…We want (you to) remove this sites (http://burn.ucsd.edu/~ats is important for us) because these sites contain terrorism [sic] purposes material. If you don`t remove this sites from your Web server in 10 day, we will attempt to your servers with our 145 hacker member. Yours Sincerely; Turkish Hackers Associations Sezgin Aynalibezgin tha.2000@turkey.com

    Again the net ops people were alarmed and contacted the department about the problems of jammed lines. However, the response was not to close the site or question the use of the university net, but a more technocratic response: to ask for filter mechanisms which could limit the ability of people to jam it.

    For two other incidents there was pressure from fairly high up in the university structure to demand that the site be closed. What is notable about the two campaigns to close the site is the timing: they followed two events directly involving U.S. foreign policy.

    The first coincided in 1997, with the storming of the Japanese Embassy in Lima by the MRTA faction. Arm the Spirit, a Canadian autonomist/anti-imperialist information collective, posted MRTA communiqués on the Burn! website. The Burn! collective and Arm the Spirit took the position that this was a form of presenting primary source documents on events and organizations which were key historical participants. Indeed, the Burn! website also had had documents for several years on the MRTA, but the aggression of the action in taking hostages brought the attention of the world to the Peruvian situation, and Burn! had hourly communiqués from inside the embattled Embassy. In the global press scramble for background information on these groups and the situation in Lima, the spotlight turned to the Burn! website during the tense standoff.

    Since the Zapatista uprising in 1994, many pundits and “net terrorism” experts had been busy churning out theses about the dangers of Internet guerrillas. The Rand Corporation’s “The Zapatista Social Netwar in Mexico” sees this sort of communication as something that needs to be contained in the name of “global security”. The U.S. State Department website, www.state.gov/www/global/terrorism sees any use of the Internet by revolutionary groups as terrorism.

    Sharp-eyed journalists in Europe realized that the MRTA communiqués were primary source messages and worked quotations from them into their stories, including the Burn! URL. Just as the 1994 communiqués from the Zapatistas had enabled the rebels to speak directly to the press, the government and the public, the rebels in Peru were able to speak in the first person to the world. The net was becoming a formidable public sphere. Dr. Michael Dartnell of the Centre for International and Security Studies (CISS) and Department of Political Science, York University, has recently written, “A critical element in the formation of this public sphere is the ability to independently produce images and text to autonomously represent values, interests, and needs. Rather than simple propaganda, the focus then is the broader social, cultural and political context of electronic security. Insurgency online will be used to more accurately describe phenomena and assess risks.”

    The URL of Burn! included the letters “ucsd.” Predictably, professors and administrators at UCSD were questioned by journalists and researchers about the University’s support for “terrorist” groups. This in turn was brought to the attention of the UCSD administration, some of whom were called and questioned as why a “terrorist” organization would be part of the august address, ucsd.edu. An article by Elizabeth Franz in Time said,

    In the give-‘em-an-inch-they’ll-take-a-mile school of thought, the students who run the Solidarity Page and go by the name the Burn! Collective also provide links to a lot of other fringe political groups and radical organizations, including Radikal, the German resistance magazine banned in Germany; Arm the Spirit, the Toronto-based anti-imperialist collective; and the Zapatistas, who launched an uprising in Chiapas, Mexico. “The Real Revolution: Net Guerrillas”, Time Magazine, July 21, 1997.

    Time drew a comparison between Burn! at UCSD and the State University of New York at Binghamton, which shut down a student site that had been posting material from the FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionario Colombiano). “ ‘It [the FARC site] was in clear violation of university policy,’ said Anita Doll, director of communications at Binghamton.” This was contrasted with the stated position of UCSD’s Communication Professor, Dan Hallin, whom they quote: “We’re proud that our students are part of that communications network. We don’t see any reason to get rid of it because it’s controversial.”

    Time goes on to quote Jim Phillips, “terrorism” specialist at the Heritage Foundation: “It is outrageous that groups who have attacked Americans repeatedly in the past were allowed to worm their way into a situation where American taxpayers subsidized their propaganda on the Internet.”

    In a San Francisco Chronicle article, “Terrorists Get Web Sites Courtesy Of U.S. Universities” (May 9, 1997), Robert Collier states, “As the U.S. government fights against international terrorism, some rebel groups have found a safe niche at American taxpayer expense in state university websites. In California and New York, South American guerrilla groups have used sympathetic students to get free space on university Web servers - prompting complaints from critics that public funds are being misused.” The Rand Corporation commissioned a study of “netwar”: David Ronfeldt, John Arquilla et al, “The Zapatista Social Netwar in Mexico”, Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1998. See also Eliot A. Cohen, “A Revolution in Warfare”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 75, No. 2, pp. 37-54.

    There have been other cases of university Web censorship, often centering around visual arts websites. Many of these instances involve visual arts students posting nude or sadistic photos, usually in the context of a final project for a one-time class, and their removal does not constitute any sort of communication disruption. What was unique about the Burn! case was that here was a Web site/server which had over five years of service to a wide community of users. The disruption of that service cased a hardship for the many people and organizations around the world that depended on the server for their e-mail.

    The “Threat”

    The Vice Chancellor of the University received the following e-mail in May:

    Date: Sat, 20 May 2000 11:09:35 -0500
    Dear Mr Chancellor.
    I am a common citizen of Colombia. A country that has been submerged in a bloody war initiated by terrorists of the worst kind, drug lords and corrupt politicians. Probably the most demoralizing aspect of my country’s life is led by the so called leftist guerrillas. These are groups of narco-terrorists dedicated to kidnapping, murdering, extortion, drug dealing and general destabilization of a weak democracy. I do not have to explain to you the nature of such terrible organizations that, just last week, in order to extort the sum of 3.500 dollars out of a humble woman they placed around her neck a collar-bomb that exploded some moments later in front of her family killing, not only this poor woman but the anti-explosives agent that was trying to disarm the contraption and seriously wounding another soldier.

    The organization that committed such a heinous crime has found a safe heaven just under your nose, Mr. Chancellor. The main Web page of the FARC is originated from the USCD page. No one in its right mind can understand how can any organization like yours, in the name of freedom of speech provide a means to spread it’s horrible poison to an organization like the FARC, the so called ” Fuerzas Amradas Revolucionarias de Colombia “, and be able to sleep peacefully.

    In the name of humanity, Mr. Chancellor, please shut up these monsters, and very probably save a few lives. Yours truly Rodrigo Bueno

    The courses in the Communication Department might discuss empowerment through communication, but here was a case of Internet use by third-world peoples that was actually effecting events in the real world. This was too much for the university to tolerate.

    The timing seemed especially significant as the US Congress was voting on military aid to Colombia. The Burn! collective responded:

    It just infuriates the Colombian military and right-wing elites that people are allowed to be exposed to the FARC’s point of view. It seems to have particularly irked them that the Web pages gave the FARC the ability to reply to their attempt to blame the FARC for the murder of Elvia Cortes. That was intended to be their “Gulf of Tonkin Incident” just before the vote in the Senate on the Clinton/McCaffrey military aid package. So when the vote failed, they demanded our heads, and that’s what the Chair gave them. By the way, we don’t think this whole piece of theater was cooked up entirely by the Colombian right. We strongly suspect that the U.S government is also involved.

    Pulling the Plug on the Server

    June 1, 2000
    From the Chair of the Department of Communication
    To the Communication Department:
    Last week and through this week, we have had an unusual barrage of complaints about the Burn! Page. We’ve had them for some time, often as frequently as once a week, and as they came in, I would try to deal with them, or direct them to someone who could. But last week some individuals started sending e-mail messages complaining in particular about the FARC page to a list of UCSD administrators, naming one vice-chancellor as the individual who was “responsible for Burn!.” The complaint was also directed to Gray Davis and a list of other people, probably drawn from the university’s home page. Very quickly, I started getting calls and e-mail asking that there be a response to the political content of the site…and I got a specific call from certain top university officials to either respond or disconnect the site. I have chosen to disconnect it.

    As someone who has no individual participation in any aspect of Burn!, I am in no position to respond to the content of Burn!. Because the site is largely anonymous, there is no named individual who can be contacted by those who are complaining about the site, as a result, complaints are scattered across campus, directed at different people, and different university administrators. As often as I try to explain the goals of the site, the complaints find even more targets, and this week, they found targets who were very offended at being wrongly associated with Burn!. As a chair dealing with an anonymous site, with little connection to individuals who actually run the site and who decide its content, I have lost the ability to stand in front of it.

    The server is now in my office, and I will await the instructions of the Burn! collective as to where they want to move the server. The content is still there - it has not been removed. The requirement is that Burn! needs to find a new network address as the burn.ucsd.edu address is no longer available to them.

    June 1 2000
    Dear Faculty and Graduates,
    As the faculty member who has been most directly concerned with the Burn! website, I am disturbed that the site was closed without first contacting me. I was not informed about the notices which were sent to and from various UC administrators. This is a site which was initiated by students who were working with me and has been continued by students with whom I have been working for several years…On June 17, I will be presenting a paper at a public media conference at the University of Maine about this sort of Web activism. The Burn! site is an integral part of this research.

    I realize that this sort of access to a variety of political views and news will often provoke reaction and dissension, but I hope that in the interest of supporting open communication, our department can speak up for open dialogue and free speech. The website has been an important source of global dialogue. It is also a key aspect to my intellectual research.

    I am requesting that the server be immediately reinstalled.
    DeeDee Halleck

    The Chair responded:

    June 1, 2000
    The pressure about the Burn! site has been continuing for some time, and I’ve been dealing with it as the complaints come…Last week a new set of complaints came through. Like many before them, they were about the FARC page, but this time they claimed to be Colombians, and the messages were in Spanish. There were no threats in them, otherwise if there were, we would have called the authorities, but the tone frightened one of the recipients of the messages - a vice-chancellor who demanded that some response be made to the complainants, and he demanded that it be made clear he was not responsible for the Burn! page although he had been named as “responsible for Burn!.” We waited it out to see if the messages would cease, but they didn’t, they escalated and were sent throughout the system, including to the governor’s office. At this time, I started getting calls from the administrators demanding that there be a person or a collection of individuals who would step up and name themselves as responsible for the site. I wasn’t prepared to name anyone, and I decided that given the extreme pressure, and the uncertainty of how to protect the Burn! site, I would temporarily disconnect it and locate the server in my office.

    It is ready for the Burn! collective to move it to another address. You can take it yourself, or perhaps you can recommend one of the other links as a site for the page. It is obvious, as you say, that the page serves an important link to others, and it should be set back up again soon… at an address less vulnerable than this one to this kind of overwhelming pressure.

    A response to the closing came in Spanish and English signed by the FARC-EP:

    Since the beginning of this month, the chair of the communications department of the university of the state of California at San Diego, with an intolerant and disrespectful attitude towards the rights of information, expression and of opinion, disconnected the Burn! server…The presence, on said server, of the homepage of the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia-Ejercito del Pueblo (FARC-EP) was supposedly rejected via telephone calls by a few people who claimed to be students, and via e-mails from a few people who claimed to be Colombians. Let’s assume that these claims are true. Do these people represent anything among the millions of Colombians who are suffering the rigors of the war that the State has imposed? This action not only silenced said guerrilla organization; many other organizations and people were left without the opportunity to submit their opinions, and information to the cyberspace community. The rights of these people are being flagrantly violated by a functionary who exercises her power in a dictatorial spirit. Her decisions are implemented without the participation of the community that she is supposed to serve. Independently of whether or not one agrees or disagrees with the just and necessary struggle of the Colombian rebels, what is above discussion is their right to inform, and the right of the community to inform itself with their version of the Colombian reality so that with at least the two versions the community can build its own criteria and opinions.

    In view of the preceding, we request that you express your inconformity with this situation by sending this message to the people and addresses that follow.

    We denounce:

    [a list followed of the e-mail addresses of the Chair, the Assistant to the Chair, the Vice Chancellor, the Chancellor and the President of the UC Regents.]

    For their attack on freedom of expression, of opinion, and of information of the community. We demand the immediate and unconditional reconnection of the Burn! server.

    Reaction to the Closing of Burn! From the Burn Collective

    After seven years online, the UCSD Communication department chair…has censored the project hosted at burn.ucsd.edu. (The Chair) has made the decision against the wishes of the majority of department faculty and graduate students and without consulting or even informing any of the department faculty or students involved with the project, reported under pressures from the UC president Richard Atkinson. No explanation or justification for the shutdown was given, nor was any opportunity for a hearing or reconsideration of the decision. Host records were simultaneously removed from campus DNS servers, rendering burn.ucsd.edu nonexistent. Only a few hours advance warning was given to BURN! project representatives, leaving them no way to even contact most system users to inform them of what had happened or to arrange for moving to another address. When students retrieved the server hardware from the department chair’s office, the CPU board no longer functioned and the Master Boot Record on the primary hard drive had been damaged. After ordering the machine offline, the department chair left on a trip to (Europe) for two weeks. The other faculty and graduate students have spent the last week debating what to do.

    From informal communication with people in the department, and from statements by UCSD’s campus spin doctors, we know that the University had received some complaints about burn.ucsd.edu from right-wing elements in Colombia, who objected to BURN!’s publication of information on the FARC-EP (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia-Ejército del Pueblo), and found in this an excuse for censorship. The university also claims that they didn’t know who was responsible for the server, and therefore had no place to direct these complaints. This is patently false. More than ten BURN! members attended a department course-group meeting late last year, where they formally designated one student to be their official liason with the department. Last fall, a memo was also sent to remind the current department chair about this designated representative, and providing contact information. Both paper and e-mail copies of this memo were also given to each department faculty member. Also, the BURN! main homepage had a large disclaimer explaining that BURN! is a student project and that the university and communication department are not responsible for its contents. E-mail addresses to contact the BURN! project appeared prominently in several places, as well as hyperlinks to a Web-based “corkboard” for public comments. In addition, the standard e-mail addresses postmaster@burn.ucsd.edu and webmaster@burn.ucsd.edu have always functioned and were monitored. By making these claims, university administrators are trying to obscure their eager complicity with right-wing Colombian elites in censoring the views of the FARC-EP and denying everyone access to the many other unique and hard-to-find resources published on BURN!

    Because The Groundwork Collective opposes censorship, we have decided to publish on the Groundwork website the materials formerly hosted on burn.ucsd.edu when it had its home in the UCSD communication department.

    Statement (of the Groundwork Collective): The Groundwork Collective does this for two reasons: first and foremost, we are opposed to censorship of any kind and it is dangerous to allow anyone get away with it for any reason; second, the Groundwork Collective has been a registered student organization at UCSD for over 25 years and has a binding legal contract with the university. As such, the university cannot possibly claim that it does not have a place of contact to direct complaints against the site. There should now be no reason for censorship of any kind as the Groundwork Collective has formally responded to all official concerns supposedly created by the previous publication of the site. If they now try to censor the Groundwork Collective, it will be interesting to see how the university’s excuses change.
    Yours in struggle,
    Burn! collective

    A graduate student posted a series of questions about the issue to the Burn! collective. One of the questions was why Burn! couldn’t use a commercial server. This was the collective’s response:

    The UCSD communications department was probably one of the most secure places to host our materials, and will not easily be replaced. Before we hosted them, The FARC-related materials had already been forced out of at least 2 commercial ISP’s and 2 universities in the US and Mexico by these same intimidation tactics. And every time somebody caves in it makes it even harder for the next site, as the attackers gain experience and feel more certain of their eventual success. No commercial ISP would tolerate these kinds of attacks for very long.

    Another question was about the history of other attempts at closing Burn!

    We’ve had lots of fights with fascists from all over the world. Turkish fascists howl about Kurdish materials we host. Peruvian and Venezuelan fascists complain about our publication of communiqués from the MRTA. Spanish nationalists mail bombed us for making Basque materials available. We’ve gotten death threats from Omega 7 and Alpha 66 because of Cuban stuff posted here. KKK types from the US send us hate-mail and post anti-black, anti-Jewish and anti-Mexican stuff on our public corkboard. Macho men write to remind us that we’re all fags. This latest stuff from the Colombian Right is nothing new. What IS new is the precision and timing of their attack, and the University’s somewhat unusual eagerness to acquiesce. That’s one reason we think this is coming at least partially from the US federal government.

    In one communiqué, the Burn! collective, appealing to the self-interest of faculty, alluded to the growing rift between the progressive faculty in the department and the increasing moves to privatize the university with corporate funding:

    Imagine a new organization of radical faculty, dedicated to opposing this creeping privatization of the university. Next, imagine that such organization had its Web pages, e-mail lists, accounts, etc. on Burn!. Wouldn’t it then be quite a bit harder for anybody to mess with Burn?

    Reaction to the Closing of Burn! from Users

    For the many users of Burn! the unplugging of the server meant that when they attempted to use their e-mail account or access a Web page, they would only receive a notice of termination. The Department of Communication shut the server without providing any forwarding site or notice as to the reason for the termination. The Burn! collective and others posted many notices that sped through other e-mail lists to inform the users of the situation:

    June 11, 2000
    Dear Friend of BURN!,
    The UCSD Communication Department, which hosted the BURN! project at burn.ucsd.edu since it came online in April 1993 until we were censored for political reasons last May 31, is having a meeting on Wednesday, June 14 at noon local time (20:00 GMT). The outcome of this meeting will probably determine whether or not BURN! can continue to exist, and may also have fairly far-reaching effects on a variety of other radical projects in other places.

    So we are asking for you (and all of your friends!) to send letters supporting BURN! to certain UCSD administrators on Monday and Tuesday. There are lots of other people here who support us, and we need to strengthen their position as much as possible in advance of the meeting on Wednesday.

    The addresses of the chair and many members of the faculty were included and many passionate appeals came in. Several members of the faculty assumed that I was the one orchestrating those protests. One faculty member posted this to me:

    DeeDee– The use of comm-talk to clog faculty mailboxes is almost certainly going to have a harmful effect at this stage in the process. The faculty have done what is do-able. I see absolutely no good coming out of an organized effort to hurt the faculty.

    As is clear from the following excerpts from the messages which were sent to the department, many of which were posted on June 1 and 2, the day after the server was pulled, the response was not one which I or even Burn! needed to “organize”. Nor were any of these posts intended to “hurt” the faculty.

    From Spain:

    My first e-mail address was through Burn!. The recent (closure) greatly saddens me. If there is anything that those not associated with the university can do to ensure the survival of Burn! and similar forums for independent voice keep me in mind.

    From Mexico:

    As the director of the Mexico Solidarity Network… As the director of the Mexico Solidarity Network, a national coalition of 85 organizations, I write to express my deep concern over your censorship of the BURN! collective at UCSD. The BURN! listserves have been important sources of information for people all over the US. By closing BURN!’s listserves, you are silencing this important source of information.

    From England:

    I’m an academic and lecturer in an English college, probably akin to your community colleges. I am extremely disturbed by the threat to the BURN! project. Aside from the censorship issues, their site has been an invaluable resource to me and is one that I have recommended to other history, social science and politics colleagues of all political persuasions. It has proved invaluable. I urge reconsideration.

    From the American Library Association:

    As a Councilor of the American Library Association, a group dedicated to the protection of open access to information, intellectual freedom and free speech, I deplore the action, taken in response to political pressure, to shut down the BURN! website.

    I have had many occasions to visit the site and have, as a librarian and social activist, referred many people to it. In my considered opinion there can be no legitimate reason for shutting down this outlet for information not found elsewhere.

    It will be seen by many in the academic community as a rash and unprincipled move which reflects badly on both the Department of Communications and UCSD. The decision should be reversed immediately.

    From the University of Warwick, UK:

    As a Ph. D. student the BURN! site has provided me with invaluable material on the conflict in Colombia on which I am basing my research. In my humble opinion, universities should promote and maintain freedom of speech and here we are encountering again a new case of net censorship motivated by unclear political means.

    From Free Speech TV, Boulder, Colorado:

    [Burn!] has provided information censored from the corporate media in the United States… The University’s action seems one more proof that there is diminishing space within the institutions of the United States for voices that do not toe the party line. The absence of those voices from corporate media underscores the reality that the “market place” is as efficient a censor as the Soviet Ministery of Propaganda ever was. The overt censorship demonstrated by the disconnect of “Burn!” indicates that the censors are willing to use force when the normal means of censoring opposition voices proves inadequate.

    From the Seattle Public Library:

    I am a librarian. I use Web-based information for our library patrons extensively…We encourage our patrons, especially students, to use primary sources when available. The BURN! website provided such information about FARC. Shutting down the site looks like nothing else but censorship. The information found at the site cannot be found anywhere else.

    From South Africa:

    Burn! collective (and the website) is invaluable. People from all over the world are able to remain “in touch” with events happening elsewhere. (and we don’t all watch CNN’s spin on world affairs.) Having lived under a repressive regime of apartheid, where censorship was commonplace and information was suppressed and distorted, it is distressing to note that in the “world’s leading democracy”, any institution should apply such restrictive measures. Certainly in South Africa, restrictions on the access of information (which were adhered to by most of the academic institutions and the press) were followed by partial and total bannings of individuals, organizations, newspapers, etc. The unwillingness and/or inability of media sources and academic institutions to resist the oppressive regime created a silence that allowed inhuman conditions to develop in this country. and after almost seven years of democracy, we’re still trying to untangle attitudes and ideas developed under the ignorance of censorship.

    The closure of this website causes one to think back… to voluntary censorship, official censorship, bannings, detention, torture, murder… an ugly path, to trample on human freedom.

    I would hope that you act quickly to put the Burn! server back on-line, and restore some part of the spirit of freedom of information, and some belief in our common humanity.

    Harry Cleaver, from the University of Texas at Austin, who has tracked the evolution of the Zapatista use of the Web wrote to the Department:

    According to those reports you, or others in the UCSD administration, ordered the closing of Burn! because of protests letters from Colombia from those opposed to the existence of a FARC Web page! I have read several of those letters. None of them threatened anyone; they were just the normal sort of protest letters one expects from those who don’t want the other side’s story to be told. This is common in cyberspace and it is what makes it a freer media than any other….For the UCSD to shut down a student Internet operation just because someone objects to the content is a clear violation of academic freedom. If there is more to the story than that, if there are any mitigating circumstances, any good reasons why this decision should not be reversed, please let me know.

    My interest in this is both academic and personal. On the one hand I publish on the role of the Internet vis a vis public policy making, and on the other I “own” a list that might be the next target of what appears to be politically motivated intervention into university affairs. See: Harry Cleaver, “The Zapatista Effect: The Internet and the Rise of an Alternative Political Fabric”, Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 51, No. 2, Spring 1998, pp. 621-640.

    A student at CUNY emphasized the loss for Latin American students:

    I want to convey to you the practical implications of your decision. Hunter College has a large population of Colombian students…concerned about the civil war that is taking place in their country. Their concern has been intensified by the discussion in Congress of a $1.6 billion dollar aid package to the Colombian government consisting largely of military equipment and training to carry out an offensive against the guerrillas of the FARC. Opinions among the Colombian students here are divided about both