E-KTP KAB. PASURUAN        


e-KTP atau KTP Elektronik adalah dokumen kependudukan yang memuat sistem keamanan / pengendalian baik dari sisi administrasi ataupun teknologi informasi dengan berbasis pada database kependudukan nasional.

Penduduk hanya diperbolehkan memiliki 1 (satu) KTP yang tercantum Nomor Induk Kependudukan (NIK). NIK merupakan identitas tunggal setiap penduduk dan berlaku seumur hidup

Nomor NIK yang ada di e-KTP nantinya akan dijadikan dasar dalam penerbitan Paspor, Surat Izin Mengemudi (SIM), Nomor Pokok Wajib Pajak (NPWP), Polis Asuransi, Sertifikat atas Hak Tanah dan penerbitan dokumen identitas lainnya (Pasal 13 UU No. 23 Tahun 2006 tentang Adminduk).
Tata Cara Penerbitan KTP Elektronik Bagi WNI Secara Massal. Semoga Bermanfaat:
Kepala Dinas Kependudukan dan Pencatatan Sipil Kabupaten/Kota membuat dan menyerahkan daftar Penduduk WNI wajib KTP kepada Camat atau nama lain
Camat atau nama lain menandatangani surat panggilan penduduk berdasarkan daftar penduduk WNI wajib KTP
Petugas di kecamatan atau nama lain melalui kepala desa/lurah atau nama lain menyampaikan surat panggilan kepada Penduduk WNI wajib KTP
Penduduk yang telah menerima surat panggilan, mendatangi tempat pelayanan KTP Elektronik dengan membawa surat panggilan, Fc. KK dan KTP lama bagi yang sudah memiliki KTP
Petugas di tempat pelayanan KTP Elektronik melakukan verifikasi data penduduk secara langsung di tempat pelayanan KTP Elektronik
Petugas operator melakukan pengambilan dan perekaman pas photo, tanda tangan, dan sidik jari penduduk
Petugas di tempat pelayanan KTP Elektronik membubuhkan tanda tangan dan stempel tempat pelayanan KTP Elektronik pada surat panggilan penduduk
Surat panggilan Penduduk dimaksud sebagai bukti telah dilakukan verifikasi, pengambilan dan perekaman pas photo, tanda tangan dan sidik jari penduduk
Petugas operator melakukan penyimpanan data dan biodata penduduk ke dalam database di tempat pelayanan KTP Elektronik
Data yang disimpan dalam database dikirim melalui jaringan komunikasi data ke server Automated Fingerprint Identification System di data center Kemendagri
Data penduduk disimpan dan dilakukan proses identifikasi ketunggalan jatidiri seseorang
Hasil identifikasi sidik jari sebagaimana dimaksud pada huruf k, apabila :
1. identitas tunggal, data dikembalikan ke tempat pelayanan KTP Elektronik
2. identitas ganda, dilakukan klarifikasi dengan tempat pelayanan KTP Elektronik
Kementerian Dalam Negeri melalui Direktorat Jenderal Kependudukan dan Pencatatan Sipil melakukan personalisasi data yang sudah diidentifikasi ke dalam blangko KTP Elektronik
Setelah dilakukan personalisasi, Kementerian Dalam Negeri melalui Direktorat Jenderal Kependudukan dan Pencatatan Sipil mendistribusikan KTP Elektronik ke Dinas Kependudukan dan Pencatatan Sipil Kabupaten/Kota untuk diteruskan ke tempat pelayanan KTP Elektronik
Petugas di tempat pelayanan KTP Elektronik, menerima KTP Elektronik dan melakukan verifikasi melalui pemadanan sidik jari penduduk 1 : 1
Hasil verifikasi sidik jari penduduk dapat terjadi :
1. Apabila data sidik jari penduduk sama maka KTP Elektronik diberikan kepada penduduk
2. Apabila data sidik jari penduduk tidak sama maka KTP Elektronik tidak dapat diberikan kepada penduduk, dan selanjutnya penduduk yang bersangkutan mengurus kembali ke Dinas Kependudukan dan Pencatatan Sipil Kab./ Kota .
KTP yang tidak sesuai dgn sidik jari penduduk tersebut, dikembalikan oleh Petugas di tempat pelayanan KTP Elektronik ke Kementerian Dalam Negeri dalam hal ini Direktorat Jenderal Kependudukan dan Pencatatan Sipil melalui Dinas Kependudukan dan Pencatatan Sipil Kabupaten/Kota untuk dimusnahkan
Penduduk dapat mengambil KTP Elektronik dgn membawa surat panggilan.
(sumber: dispencapil.pasuruankab.go.id)

          Three days in Berlin (or improving the pim user experience)        

KDE Project:

Last weekend I've met with some of our old timer KDEPIM developers and some of the newer ones who are interested in KDEPIM or related technologies in the KDAB offices in Berlin.
Being a KDAB employee for a few years already (wow, time is passing quickly), the place was familiar, the people looked familiar. The foosball table was slightly familiar, although some players changed their dresses in order to spread confusion inside the visitor's heads. That is the only reason we've lost against locals with 5-0, 5-0.
Suprisingly enough, the table wasn't used that much. Why? Because people were busy either working and talking. What they talked about I don't know too much, as I focused on some issues I planned to fix, but others can testify that Volker did not sit too much in front of his computers, but was dragged from one place to another for various discussions.
Most of us started on Friday around noon. I won't tell too much about what others did, that is mostly their problem. Especially if they were on the other side of the room and I didn't saw their screens, I can't tell if they worked at all or not. They looked like they did though. ;) I can share some things about what some sitting nearby did. See later.
As recently I became the de-facto maintainer and bugfixer for mail filters, I worked mostly on them. Unfortunately the first attempt to fix a bug failed: a bug that bothers me, although it is not the most reported one. It is about mails not being filtered for a while after a resume from hibernation. It is hard to reproduce, and although I run into it, I couldn't reproduce reliably enough and in a way I can debug it. After fighting with it and realising it won't work, I gave up. See you next time.
Meantime we had some excellent food in an Indian restaurant, then when finally everybody arrived (almost everybody to be honest, plus even some more from KDAB who didn't sign up, but show up there), we were ready to start with presenting the kdepim and Akonadi architecture. Old time pimsters Volker Krause, Kevin Krammer and Tobias Koenig helped me with it, and sometimes saved me, as my knowledge in some area proved to be superficial. We ended up with a pretty impressive drawing on the whiteboard:
Hopefully for those being on site it was understandable.

Time passed, so we went out for dinner to a Greek restaurant at the corner. Nice place, third time being there, good food (seems Berlin has only good eating places). We even saw how Germany won over Ireland. Too bad Steveire (Stephen Kelly) was not there... We continued with some more talks and hacking, then everybody went to their sleeping places.
Some left earlier, some later waiting for remote developers to show up and discuss the patches (he didn't show up).

Day 2
Next day started around 9 o'clock for some. Later for others. I continued with the filter debugging and fixing. I looked at the bugreports and tried to come up with some bugs that are both would help the users and myself. I'm selfish, I want to fix the bugs I run into. ;) One problem that bothered me for a long time is that email content from online IMAP is downloaded even if no filter for IMAP requires it (but a filter for e.g POP3 needs the full content). Now this is fixed and those who use online imap could notice a great speedup in mail syncing (depending on their filter setup). Another often reported issue was duplicating the mails, especially after spam filtering. You've ended up with a mail in the spam folder and a mail in the original place. This could be combined with a conflict dialog shown up as well for that mail. This problem actually revealed a not-well handled case down inside the Akonadi stack that was created by a reordering of filter commands in the filtering code. For those who want technical details: if there was a move action (like "move mail to spam folder") followed by a modify action (like "mark as read"), the filter reordered this to "mark as read" followed by a move. Unfortunately this exposed two problems, (mostly, but not only) IMAP specific: on IMAP you can't modify a mail, instead you create a new one and delete the old. What happened here is that a filter changed the mail (run through bogofilter/spamassasin), then the "mark as read" action was executed, which uploaded the changes, including the changed mail to the IMAP server. This caused a new ID for the item on the IMAP server. The mail with the old ID was deleted. Then the filter agent performed a move, but he had only the *old* ID, before the modifications. The move - if performed between two different resources, like IMAP and local maildir - is technically a copy followed by a delete. The copy worked fine, but the delete didn't. It tried to delete the old mail again (which was gone), not the modified version. That's how you ended up with a duplicate.
The current solution is to reorder the filtering pipeline, so the move is performed before the flag modifications. The extra benefit is that the filtered message is not uploaded again just to be deleted the next second. Speedup, less network traffic, better user experience. This doesn't fix the main problem with Akonadi, but it is an acceptable workaround. The reordering is so far only in the master branch (KDE 4.10), but the relevant code will be backported to the 4.9 branch, so it will be in 4.9.3.
And speaking of conflicts, that was the next hot topic, and one of the often reported bugs. It was mostly caused by conflicting flag changes (read/spam/important/etc), either caused by KMail itself plus the filtering or just KMail. After some discussion we agreed, that reporting conflicts on flag changes doesn't make sense, so we should not bother the user. It is not data loss, and in worst case some flag is reset. In normal case nothing wrong happens, as Akonadi is able to merge two changes in the flags (or so claims Volker).
I have to admit that this fix was not completed at the sprint, I finished it today, as I noticed more code in KDEPIM that didn't disable conflict check on flag changes.
While doing the changes, I did quite some refactoring, cleaning up the code as much as I could do for the parts I touched. The code was originally deep inside KMail (as most of other code), got extracted from it for 4.8.0, and now we are at the stage that we can make the extracted code more cleaner, we can remove some things that doesn't make sense anymore now that the filtering is not inside KMail.
While reading the bug reports, I also run into one indicating that mails arriving to an MBOX account (like /var/spool/mail/username) are not filtered automatically. Sounds like an easy bug to fix and so was it. Now they are filtered.
Finally another annoying issue was fixed: there was no indication that filtering is ongoing. Now when this happens, you can see in the KMail's progress bar.
The net result of the above: faster filtering, less annoying and useless error dialogs for the users. And according to bugzilla, 31 bugs less (some were duplicates though).

Nepomuk...one of the things that, well, so far I was always recommending for users to turn off. Slight detour here: what is Nepomuk and its relation to KMail? Nepomuk helps you to find data. It indexes all kind of data and with some queries you can find e.g every file where my name is mentioned, all email addresses from any file, etc. There is a process that goes through the akonadi data (emails, calendars, etc) and "feeds" to it for Nepomuk to be indexed. Then there are queries and code in KMail accessing Nepomuk: getting email addresses for composer's autocompletion, searching inside mail bodies, tagging your emails with custom tags, etc.
Unfortunately there are problems around it. One is that some queries ae processed quite slowly, that in turn slows down KMail, leading to poor user experience. E.g switching between mails, sending mails, etc. is slow. Or startup is slow or even blocked. I tried to fix the last part as I just run into it, but as this was my very first Nepomuk related patch, I'm not sure 100% succeeded. We found a problem with the Nepomuk API itself, and I informed Vishesh, the Nepomuk developer about it (even if I used non-blocking calls against Nepomuk, one call is blocking without question). He suggested something I might try later, although I'd be more happier if somebody with real Nepomuk knowledge could give a review of the pim Nepomuk usage.
Then there is the Akonadi feeder, that gives the data to Nepomuk. Something is not perfect there and the indexing causes a serious slowdown, where either itself or Nepomuk (actually its storage backend, virtuoso) starts to use the CPU *a lot*. This is the main reason I recommend to users to disable Nepomuk so far. We had Christian Mollekopf the author of the feeder in the sprint, and he worked on some optimizations. Hopefully this will improve the situation. Meantime we (and I) tried to convince Vishesh to use KMail, so he can see himself the problems our users face.

As a break we had another presentation, this time about KMail itself, what components make up KMail, how they are distributed. As far as I saw, this was less interesting to the audience, they rather looked at their computers and hacked on something. Luckily our KMail maintainer, Laurent Montel, is super active, but I wouldn't mind more contributors. Too bad he wasn't at the sprint.

We had a lunch at a nearby place, nothing extra, but the food was (again) good.

What did other do? Let's see what I can remember... Sune dreamed about crypto stuff and composite jobs. He worked on making some cryptographic code asynchronous and started to get faimiliar with kdepim code. I'd not say he picked up the easiest job.
Volker run around all the time, discussed various things like "spanish sync" with Alex Fiestas (see here), database backends with Martin, change recorder with David Faure (who remotely joined the meeting and got lost inside the change recorder code ... he has the solution now in his head, so be patient, we will end up with a better implementation for it that again speeds up Akonadi), job pipelines with me, and who knows what with others, as for a long time he just disappeared with a bunch of developers. They actually ended up in the lobby discussing "stuff". Milian Wolf, who is not (or not yet?) a KDEPIM developer, but mainly a KDevelop one, joined us and used massif to track down some ugly memory usage in KMail. And he did a good job in it. Previously KMail used more and more memory as you navigated between large folders (Alex mentioned some 2GB for him), while now it levels up at one point and doesn't increase. He might blog himself about, as he has also some nice graphs.
Then there were two guys from KDAB, who are old time pim developers (quiz: find their names in this blog), but they cooked something else, not related to KDEPIM, not related concretely to KDE, but to a lower level: to Qt. It is an amazingly cool stuff, but I don't want to give more details. Expect it to be presented a the Qt Developer Days, either in a talk or at the KDAB booth. Don't worry, I'm pretty sure it will be freely available what they did and KDE can enjoy it in the future.
I'm sorry that I don't remember what the rest did. In general I know that Martin Klapetek worked on the social network resources, Mark Gaiser, who recently started to work on KDEPIM stuff eagerly listened to our presentations and worked on a QML calendar application, Alex kept reporting bugs and discussed improvements with Volker, while John Layt, the "timezone KDE guy" worked on plasma calendar related issues.
As a KDE person Chani also joined us for a while, we quickly nominated her as the QML and Plasma person, so all questions related to them were immediately redirected to Chani. Jos Poortvilet was also supposed to join for some talks, but he could show up only on Sunday for personal reasons.
At the end of the day everybody was so busy, so instead of going out for eating, we just ordered some pizza. And most of us stood in the office well past midnight.

Day 3
Well, the above partially happened on Sunday. It was a shorter day for me, due to the late night standup before, and that I had to go to the airport after lunch. A lunch that wasn't exactly as planned. We went out for a Doner Kebab place that is supposed to be the best one in Berlin. It is just a small kiosk on the sidewalk in a street, but man, there was a big queue for it. On a Sunday! Locals says it is worse on weekdays. Even after almost an hour, we still had 10 persons in front of us, my departure time was approaching, so I gave up and instead bought some (quite good) chinese fast-food from a nearby place, then rushed to the airport.
A long journey awaited me with a 3 hour stopover in Munich, but luckily I had a power supply there and even some network (they offer 30 minutes/day/phone number), so I could continue on the work I started at the sprint. After flying and driving another 2.5 hours, I arrived late (or rather early) morning next day back home, and after sleept until around 10. Then I started to work again for KDAB, a work that is just as enjoyable as working for KDE. After all, the two communities has a serious overlap. ;)
That's from the sprint. If you'll be at the Qt Developer Days Europe, we might meet there. I'm looking forward for a good conference.


          Akonadi misconception #1: where is my data?        

KDE Project:

I regularly see the same misconception and fear popping up on the mailing lists, bug reports and IRC: if the Akonadi database gets corrupted, I will lose my data.

To make it clear from the beginning: the Akonadi database is NOT your MAIN data storage.
Even if it gets destroyed, removed, your data is still safe.

So what is the database?

1) It is an interface: the Akonadi server and the underlying database is a common interface to your (PIM-alike) data for different applications, so those applications do not have to deal with the data files directly.

2) But I see my email headers and even the body in the database and in $HOME/.local/share/akonadi/file_db_data. Why? Because the database is also a cache towards your data. Common, frequently accessed parts (like e-mail headers) are stored in the database. These are usually stored permanently and kept in sync with your original data source (IMAP folders, mails on the local disc).
Parts requested infrequently are either stored in the database or in the above folder. The actual place is decided upon the size of the data. These parts are from time to time cleaned up from the cache, if they were not used for a certain period of time. Technically it is possible to configure when the cache is cleaned or if it is cleaned at all, but the regular user should not have to deal with it.

3) Is there anything I might lose by deleting the database? Yes, there is, and that is the metadata added to your data. That can be anything extra information that cannot be stored in the format of your data, like Nepomuk tags or other custom information. In case of emails, you might think that read/forwarded/etc. can be lost. Luckily this is not the case (since KDE 4.7.2), as the email storage formats can store these informations natively.

The above explains why you will not lose any critical information by losing your akonadi database.

Good, but where is my data if not in the database? This depends on what kind of data we are talking about.

1) E-mail: in case of IMAP (online or disconnected) your data is on the IMAP server. With disconnected IMAP there are windows when your local cache contains data that is not yet syncronized to the server, deleting the local cache in this case indeed will make you lose the unsynchronized files. This is not Akonadi specific though, this is true for any disconnected IMAP client.
In case of POP3, the mails is stored immediately after download in a local maildir folder. The actual place of the folder depends on your configuration, it can be just as $HOME/Mail, as $HOME/kde./share/apps/kmail/ or $HOME/.local/share/.local-mail (for new installations).

2) Calendars and contact information: they can be either on a server (Kolab server, LDAP server) and only cached in Akonadi as explained, or they can be in local vcard or .ics file. The actual location of these files again depends on your setup. The new standard place for them is $HOME/.local/share/contacts.

Still there were reports of data losing, why? Unfortunately programmers are not perfect and introduce bugs in the codebase. One of the most severe bugs caused real data losing when copying mails from one folder to another. This is fixed with KDE 4.7.2+ and any recent Akonadi server. There are other bugs around, but none will cause losing your original data files.

Finally, what will happen if the database gets corrupted? Of course, it needs to be recreated. You can try by shutting down akonadi server (akonadictl stop), removing the $HOME/.local/share/akonadi and syncronize all your resources again (this will take some time). If the database is not recreated, you need to do a full cleanup by removing also the configuration files under $HOME/.config/akonadi.
Then you need to add back your resources (IMAP/POP3/contact files/etc) and syncrhonize them. In case of emails, you need to check your filters, they most probably try to move the mails into a wrong folder.
Yes, this is a lot of work and should be avoided as much as possible, but it should be done only in the rare case of real database corruption.

I hope this will clear some confusion about the data storage inside Akonadi.

And a few word about the database itself.
We use MySql. I don't know the original reason why it was picked up (ask Volker about that ;) ), but I know some people don't like it for whatever reason.
Most of them try to use SqLite. A friendly warning: don't. This is explained also in the akonadi wiki. All what is written there is true, and I experienced myself as well.
Unfortunately recently I learned that MySQL has some severe issues in certain cases: NFS mounted home directories and failed suspend/resume. In these cases the database gets corrupted (this is a MySQL bug!), and cannot be easily restored. I did not experience this corruption myself, but was reported from time to time.
What remains is trying another database server, namely PostgreSQL. Akonadi supports it, it is possible to change the database backend in the akonaditray or in the akonadiconsole application. Changing backends means importing all your data again to the database, like you'd start from scratch. PostgreSQL support is not that well tested, so expect some rough edges, but we would like to see people try it out and reporting their experience with it.
It is my personal opinion only, but if PostgreSQL proves to work fine, we might switch to that as the default backend, given the problems with MySQL.

What about other database backends? There were plans to use Virtuoso, to reduce the number of database severs needed for a KDE desktop, but the work was not completed. See the techbase aritcle.

UPDATE: Christophe Giboudeaux raised a point about PostgreSQL, that their database format changes between major releases in an incompatible way and there is no automated, easy way for upgrade (you need to dump it with the old version and import with the new one). Sad, that there is no perfect solution.


          KMail - making it more usable        

KDE Project:

KMail is one of the most important applications inside KDE, I think hardly can argue anybody about it. Everybody is using email, and even if some think that a webmail solution can be just as good, most of us still do what we did 10-15 years ago: download mail to our computer/phone/tablet and carry that around.
And for that we need a mail application.
It is not news that KMail got just too big and not flexible enough in the KDE 3.x days. Somehow it was ported to KDE 4, but this was a crude port, without much improvements in its design. A new generic PIM backend was growing up meantime, and with some corporate support from KDAB, a new generation of KMail, KOrganizer and other PIM application started to take shape.
From those I can tell about KMail, as I was more involved into it. As we wanted to have a mobile, touchscreen version as well, the work of porting KMail to Akonadi was done together with breaking KMail into smaller pieces, more or less standalone libraries to reuse as much code as possible. Time, manpower and other reasons limited what we could do, so this was a part success. We created and improves some generic usage libraries (KIMAP, KMime), some internal libraries that are nice, some that are not that nice, and in the end we had something that could have been a good foundation for KMail 2 series.
I started to use KMail2 at that time, and in the beginning it was a fustrating experience. I can't count how many times I deleted and created again the accounts, the Akonadi database. But after a while I realized that I don't have to do anymore. KMail2 was still not released to the public, but got better and better. Unfortunately only slowly, as even less people worked on it, and only in their free time. It had bugs, some more annoying, some less annoying, but was usable enough to not force me to go back to KMail1.
Then the PIM community took a deep breath - just like the KDE community did with KDE 4.0 - and finally released KMail2 officially.
Funny or not, around this time I started to have problems with it. A migration of my second computer failed horribly. A cleanup of the Akonadi database and changing from the mixed maildir to maildir format was also painful. I blamed the developers a lot (including myself :) ). Then things started to move on and KMail got a new maintainer, who is very active (hi Laurent!). And we organized a developer sprint to stabilize KMail.
The sprint took place last weekend in KDAB's Berlin office and was sponsored by the company. Everybody who knows the KDAB office, knows about the famous foosball table. Do I have to said that in the weekend we played only once? Yes, people were coding intensively, Volker had to raise the priority of the "FOOD" topic often.
Issues were listed on the whiteboard. And everybody picked up what he was interested to do. Work was done on the migrator, the mixed maildir agent, the maildir resource, on the akonadi server, performance bottlenecks were identified and a new filtering resource was created, fixing the most hated KDE bug (should be closed as soon as Tobias Koenig is happy with his work).
My choice in the sprint was mostly maildir related work, I tried to make it more reliable, more standard compliant and somewhat faster than before. And the biggest win is that I fixed most issues that bothered me with KMail's maildir handling. Yes, I was selfish.
The sprint did not end in Berlin, for me it continued on the flight back home (that thanks to the weather and Lufthansa was almost a day longer than expected). And somewhat still continues as of now, although daily work reduces the time I can allocate to KDE.
I can say that I'm happy again with KMail and Akonadi starts to gets less and less in the way of me and the users. The biggest success will be when users will not know that there is a nice server helping them, called Akonadi.
For those eager to try out the changes, unfortunately most of them are in the master branch only (the upcoming KDE 4.8). We will try to port as much as possible into the KDE 4.7 bugfix releases, but as some changes required library additions, this won't be always possible.


          The Secret Strategy Behind Instant Approval Credit Cards For Bad Credit        
Do you remember the days of Instant Approval Credit Cards For Bad Credit? Lenders were queueing up to authorize loans and credit cards for people and it didn't seem to matter how good...or bad your credit rating was!

Well times have changed. Now that the world economy is stuck in a deep and difficult financial recession, Instant Approval Credit Cards For Bad Credit seem to be a thing of the past.

This is not altogether true. There are a number of financial companies within the marketplace who are looking to help clients who are unable to borrow money elsewhere. The problem with many of these companies though, is they want to charge outrageous interest rates and levels of monthly repayment just for you to secure some credit. It's almost as though these companies are trying to hold you to ransom!

However, it now appears that many intermediary organizations are springing up to help you in your search. These companies usually charge a very small one-time fee and then allow you access to their database of lenders, as well as providing online and telephone support. They can place you with a lender who will provide Instant Approval Credit Cards For People with Bad Credit and at an affordable price.

The outcome for you is two-fold:-

1) you have finally managed to secure the credit card that you have been searching high and low for.

2) As long as you maintain your monthly repayments and pay them in full and on time, you are also repairing your credit history, thus meaning a wider range of lenders may be available to you in the future.

These companies are a god-send for you if you are struggling with your monthly bills. Sometimes you just need and want someone to listen to you - just being approved for a credit card or loan could improve your current financial situation no end and bring an end to those sleepless nights.

Do you urgently need to get Instant Approval Credit Cards For Bad Credit Now? Or perhaps you would like know how to secure Personal Unsecured Loans For Bad Credit.
          The Secret Behind How To Buy A House With Bad Credit        
Let me guess, the question "How To Buy A House With Bad Credit?" has been playing on your mind for a long time now.

It seems every one around you is getting on the mortgage ladder and leaving you behind. You know being able to put a deposit down and being able to afford the monthly mortgage repayments is well within your financial capabilities, but unfortunately no mortgage lender will even look twice at you because of your credit history.

Well actually lets face facts, that's not strictly true. You do have the occasional lender who contacts you and is more than willing to lend you the money that you need. However, let me guess, they want to charge you an extortionate rate of interest and the monthly repayments are unbelievable. So what do you do?

It now appears that there are many intermediary companies with mortgage lenders on their books who are willing to help you in your quest. These companies will normally charge you a very small one-time fee..and i mean small! Once you are on their books, they will provide you with online and telephone support and a huge database of mortgage lenders willing to help you in your plight and show you how to a buy a house with bad credit.

The great thing about this is the mortgage lenders will look to secure a home loan for you and it won't cost the earth. Once you have that all important mortgage in place and are committed to making your monthly repayments, this in turn will help to repair your credit rating, thus meaning a wider range of creditors will be available to you in the future.

How about if you need to Refinance Your Home With Bad Credit? Is that any different as you already own your own home?
          Can You Get Guaranteed Loans For Bad Credit?        
Is there such a thing as "Guaranteed Loans For Bad Credit"?

Have you ever found yourself in that situation? - Where your debts are continually mounting up, all of your creditors are phoning you every other day and you're unable to find a real solution to your problems!

That's when you find something financially challenging and unexpected comes along and gives you yet another huge problem and forces you into frantically looking for some immediate funds. However, you can't afford to pay for what you have now, you're in trouble with your creditors and no credible lender is going to look at you.

That's when you start to become inundated with calls and adverts for people who offer Guaranteed Loans For People with Bad Credit. The problem being they are going to charge you the most extortionate of interest rates and monthly repayments.

So where do you get that fast injection of cash?

There have been organizations created to actually make this search far easier for you. They usually provide you with a membership and then issue you with a substantial amount of information via a huge database of lenders willing to help and give you that all important loan.

Usually you will have to pay a small one-time fee..and i mean small, but this will not only give you access to this huge database of lenders, you should also be provided with online or telephone support and also many unknown government resources to help you obtain a loan.

Most of the lenders on the database will offer guaranteed loans for bad credit or even a bankruptcy. The lenders are willing to lend money for almost all purposes whether it be Auto Loan Financing, Personal Loans, Mortgages or Credit Cards.

If you absolutely have to get that loan today and you're still unsure how to get Guaranteed Loans For Bad Credit, then Click Here immediately to learn what other people are doing to get approved.
          Information Security/Information Assurance Analyst        
MD-Bethesda, TS/SCI w/CI poly Duties: · Provide expert information systems advice and serve as an information security subject matter expert to the IT enterprise management community stakeholders · Provide information systems security solutions to support the management of the community Databases Program by continuously monitoring, assessing, and analyzing database performance to assure data integrity and to s
          Machine Learning Model Tracks US Spy Planes        
Reporters-turned-data-scientists started by making calculations describing the flight characteristics of about 20,000 aircraft contained in a database ...
          What is xPath Injection? How to exploit with xPath? [Part 1]        
xPath Injection occurs when inputs supplied by the users are not properly sanitized and a malicious attacker is able to send and construct a malformed xPath query for XML data with the intention to extract sensitive information to which normal users don't have access to. It is similar to SQL Injection where attackers does the same, in SQL Injection, SQL queries are made and in xPath Injection, xPath queries are made for XML data/. Queries XML is done through xPath which is type of a simple descriptive statements that allows XML query to locate certain information.

To understand more clearly how a XML document looks like, have a look below. It is a simple XML document codes to authenticate a user based upon the combination of username and password they entered.


<users>
<user>
<name>Administrator</name>
<username>hackingsec</username>
<password>password123!</password>
<admin>1</admin>
</user>
<user>
<name>Admin</name>
<username>admin</username>
<password>reddit12</password>
<admin>0</admin>
</user>
</users>
















When the username 'admin' and password 'reddit12' are entered, the following xPath query is executed

/*[0]/user[username=”admin” and
password=”reddit12”]

Which would return the following

<user>
<name>Admin</name>
<username>admin</username>
<password>reddit12</password>
<admin>0</admin>

</user>


Exploiting xPath Injection : Authentication Bypass

An malicious user can bypass the authentication by sending specially crafted input query.

/*[0]/user[username=”admin” and password=”reddit12”]

If an attacker submits the following malicious input:

username: admin" or "1" ="1
password: anything

the XPATH query which will be executed will be the following:

/*[0]/user[username=”admin" or "1"="1” and
password=”anything”]

The XPath query will result in authentication bypass and an attacker will be able to login to the
application as user "admin". This is because the OR clause in the XPath query is a condition which is always true. Under XPath (similar to SQL) the AND clause has precedence over the OR clause, so the XPath query will be evaluated as shown by the following pseudo-code:

username ="admin" or [TRUE AND False]
which will result in:
username ="admin" or FALSE

As the username admin is valid, the attacker will be able to login as this user.


That was a basic introduction to tell you, what xPath actually is and to exploit it. I will be dividing this post into 3 separate parts. This was the 1st part, in 2nd part I will be explaining how to extract database information through xPath Injection. In 3rd part we will be talking about some automated tools for exploiting xPath Injection.

           New And Latest FUD Encrypted Shells Collection 2013        

 New And Latest FUD Encrypted Shells Collection



Interface Of Shells 

=====================================================================





















Download Link :- Link 1 


          Edna Buchanan, Henry Lee in new documentary about wood chipper case and the movie Fargo #theSHOCKINGTRUTH series        

UPDATES:

Via Calgary Herald
  • After shock: Alberta-shot true crime series Shocking Truth recreates gruesome scenes to find the truth behind iconic films


  • Coen Brothers and Fargo


  • NEW: Podcasts


  • Via Toronto Sun --
    The Shocking TruthDebut


    From serial killers to the paranormal, this explores some real-life events that inspired Hollywood thrillers. It kicks off with back-to-back episodes, featuring The Silence of the Lambs (including an interview with Anthony Hopkins) and The Amityville Horror (including an interview with Ryan Reynolds). Hold me tight.
    When: Monday, Feb. 6 on E!

  • E! Debuts New Original Series THE SHOCKING TRUTH, February 6


  • E! Online Canada


  • Series explores true stories that inspired popular movies



    Shocking Truth
    [Fargo - Crafts / wood chipper case]



    Post via Internet Movie Database:

  • Danish flight attendant Helle Crafts goes [mysteriously] missing


  • Aired March 20 in Canada ...
    Series set for REELZ in U.S. this summer













  • Cast













  • More updates here:



  • the Shocking Truth




  • REELZ




  • Pyramid Productions


  • Screen writer Jason Lewis



  •           Burn After Reading        

    Who’s Who
    What’s What

    In the World of CIA Fronts, Partners, Proprietaries & Contractors




    NEW BOOK:

    The Almost Classified Guide to CIA Front Companies, Proprietaries & Contractors
    By WAYNE MADSEN
    ISBN: 978-1-365-11196-9


    Cool Justice Editor's Note: Following are excerpts from author Madsen's introduction and the body of the work. Additional suggested reading: News story about Madsen's book via the Washington, D.C. based Justice Integrity Project [link at the bottom of this post].

    EXCERPTS:

    From the Introduction


    One of the most pervasive uses of companies as intelligence partners was under the CIA’s Operation MOCKINGBIRD. During the Cold War, the CIA, often with the approval of corporate executives, infiltrated their agents to work as journalists in newspapers, radio and television networks, wire services, and magazines. The following pages in this book are rife with examples of this penetration of the Fourth Estate – all too many in the opinion of this journalist. The CIA admitted to at least 400 journalists on the agency’s payroll at the height of MOCKINGBIRD. The CIA traditionally understates its capabilities, especially when its covert activities become publicly known. Moreover, the end of the Cold War did not stop the practice of the CIA in infiltrating the media and slant news reports to its wishes.

    *

    An insightful look behind the veils of secrecy into the CIA’s use of fronts, proprietaries, and partners calls into question the purpose of the CIA. Created by President Harry S Truman to serve as a central collector and repository of intelligence, the CIA became much more than that. A few weeks after the United States witnessed the assassination of President Kennedy in the middle of downtown Dallas, Truman penned an op-ed piece that appeared in several newspapers around the country. In it, Truman shared his regret for having created the CIA in 1947:

    “I think it has become necessary to take another look at the purpose and operations of our Central Intelligence Agency—CIA . . . For some time I have been disturbed by the way CIA has been diverted from its original assignment. It has become an operational and at times a policy-making arm of the Government. This has led to trouble and may have compounded our difficulties in several explosive areas.

    "I never had any thought that when I set up the CIA that it would be injected into peacetime cloak and dagger operations. Some of the complications and embarrassment I think we have experienced are in part attributable to the fact that this quiet intelligence arm of the President has been so removed from its intended role that it is being interpreted as a symbol of sinister and mysterious foreign intrigue.”

    *

    The 21st century’s CIA’s partners are more likely to be found among high-tech companies marketing the latest and greatest mobile applications and data mining programs than among banks, law offices, and advertising agencies. However, in the post-World War II era, the CIA’s top and middle echelons were normally found operating through cover as typewriter-pecking journalists, traveling Madison Avenue admen, corporate lawyers, and chain-smoking oilmen. In the 1970s and 80s, CIA contractors and partners began showing up in the high-tech field, with database, local area networking, and on-line information retrieval systems attracting the most interest by Langley.

    *

    As this book went to press, the smart phone game application Pokémon Go fad was sweeping the planet. Unbeknownst to many of the on-line game’s avid fan’s was the connection of the game’s developers to the CIA’s venture capital firm IN-Q-TEL. All users saw their geo-location and other smart phone data being swept up by a CIA partner firm.

    SELECTED ENTRIES

    Amazon, Inc. [CIA contractor]. Company provides cloud computing services for the CIA. Amazon’s CEO Jeff Bezos also owns The Washington Post.

    American Historical Society. [CIA partner]. Many society officials were OSS/CIA officers.

    American Press Institute. [CIA front]. Operating out of Columbia University, the institute’s director in the 1950s was a CIA officer.

    AmeriCares. [CIA partner]. A non-profit organization that is often the “first in” at refugee situations. Founded by tycoon J. Peter Grace, a board chairman of the CIA front, the American Institute for Free Labor Development (AIFLD) and a trustee of another CIA front, the American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism, AmeriCares was involved in funding the Nicaraguan contras. The group has also provided the CIA with recruiting opportunities at mass refugee sites, particularly in Latin America and Asia.

    Bechtel Corporation. [CIA contractor]. Bechtel is a large construction company that has included former CIA director Richard Helms, CIA pseudonym “Fletcher M. Knight,” among its executive ranks. Bechtel was active in providing corporate cover for the OSS in the Middle East during World War II. Bechtel has been a consummate service company for various CIA operations, including support for the CIA-inspired coup against the Syrian government in 1949, the Iranian government of Prime Minister Mohamed Mossadeq in 1953, and President Sukarno of Indonesia in 1965. From the 1960s to the 1970s, Bechtel provided cover for CIA agents in Libya under both the regime of King Idris and his successor, Muammar Qaddafi. Sometimes called a “secret arm” of the CIA, Bechtel’s executives included those who would join President Reagan’s Cabinet, including Secretary of State George Schultz and Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger.

    Before World War II, Steve Bechtel formed a military-industrial complex partnership with John McCone. McCone later became the chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission and later, director of the CIA. The CIA has used Bechtel to provide cover for non-official cover CIA operatives abroad.

    Blackstone Investment Group. [CIA front]. With offices in Washington, DC and Moscow, arranged for the purchase of KGB documents following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Among the documents sought by the front company were any related to illegal CIA activities during the Cold War, including the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

    Bourbon and Beefsteak Bar and Restaurant. [CIA front]. Opened in 1967 in King’s Cross in Sydney, Australia. Served as a rendezvous point for CIA, Australian Security Intelligence Organization (ASIO), and organized crime figures. Its proprietor was Bernie Houghton, a CIA operative with links to Nugan Hand Bank, CIA weapons smuggler Edwin Wilson, and CIA clandestine services officers Theodore Shackley, Rafael Quintero, and Thomas Clines.

    Center for Democracy. [CIA front]. Administered under the aegis of Boston University, the center maintained offices in Boston, Washington, DC, Guatemala City, and Strasbourg, France. Involved in CIA operations in eastern Europe, Central America, and Africa.

    Colt Patent Firearms Company. [CIA partner]. Based in Hartford, Connecticut, provided corporate cover for CIA officers operating abroad.

    Daddario & Burns. [CIA partner]. Headed by former OSS officer Emilio Daddario, a Democratic Representative from Connecticut, the Hartford-based law firm provided services to the CIA.

    DC Comics. [CIA partner]. Worked with the International Military Information Group (IMIG), a joint CIA/Pentagon unit at the State Department, to disseminate propaganda comic books, featuring Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman, in Serbo-Croatian and Albanian, to youth in the Balkans during the military conflicts in that region.

    Disney Corporation. [CIA partner]. CIA agents who were adept at creating front companies and shell corporations in Florida, worked closely with Disney in preparation for the construction of Disney World near Orlando, Florida. OSS veteran “Wild Bill” Donovan and CIA shell company expert Paul Helliwell helped create two fake Florida cities, Bay Lake and Lake Buena Vista, as well as a number of shell corporations, to keep secret the plans for Disney World. This kept land prices low because real estate speculators were unaware of the prospective value of the land in a desolate area of central Florida.

    Emory School of Medicine. [CIA partner]. Located in Atlanta, Georgia. Involved in the CIA’s MK-ULTRA behavioral modification project.

    Enron Corporation [CIA partner]. Houston-based firm that was used by the CIA to provide commercial cover for its agents around the world. There were at least 20 CIA employees on Enron’s payroll. Andre Le Gallo, a former official of the CIA’s Operations Directorate, went to work as a corporate intelligence officer for Enron.

    Fair Play for Cuba Committee (FPCC). [CIA front]. Officially established by American Trotskyists, the group was penetrated by CIA operatives. The FPCC New Orleans office was a CIA front that provided cover for the anti-Fidel Castro activities of Lee Harvey Oswald, Clay Shaw, and David Ferrie, among others. The New Orleans FPCC office was located at 544 Camp Street and shared the same building entrance with Guy Banister Associates, Inc., a private detective agency, the address for which was 531 Lafayette Street and around the corner from 544 Camp Street.

    In December 1963, after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, the FPCC ceased all U.S. operations.

    General Electric Company. [CIA partner]. Based in Fairfield, Connecticut, provided corporate cover for CIA officers operating abroad.

    General Foods Corporation. [CIA partner]. Advertising account at CIA’s Robert Mullen Company handled by an active CIA employee.

    Google, Inc. [CIA partner]. Developed as a result of a research grant by the CIA and Pentagon to Stanford University’s Department of Computer Science. The CIA referred to the research as the “google project.”

    Greenberg Traurig. [CIA partner]. Washington, DC “connected” law firm.

    Guy Banister Associates, Inc. [CIA partner]. New Orleans private detective agency headed by former FBI agent Guy Banister. The detective agency coordinated the activities of various anti-Castro Cuban groups in New Orleans, including Banister’s own Anti-Communist League of the Caribbean, as well as the Cuban Revolutionary Council, the Cuban Democratic Revolutionary Front, Friends of Democratic Cuba, and the Crusade to Free Cuba Committee.

    Banister and Associates shared office space with the CIA’s New Orleans front, the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, headed by Lee Harvey Oswald.

    Hale and Dorr. [CIA partner]. Boston-based law firm that provided cover for CIA’s Independence and Brown Foundations.

    Halliburton. [CIA contractor]. Based in Houston, it is the world’s largest oil service company. Recipient of a number of CIA sole-source contracts for services worldwide.

    Harper and Row, Inc. [CIA partner]. Manuscripts submitted to the New York publisher that dealt with intelligence matters, particularly CIA operations, were turned over to the CIA for censoring edits before publication.

    Hewlett Packard Corporation. [CIA partner]. Sold computers to Iraq for Saddam Hussein’s missile program with the knowledge and approval of the CIA.

    Hill & Knowlton. [CIA partner]. Public relations firm that teamed with the CIA on a number of operations. Hill & Knowlton’s numerous offices abroad provided cover for CIA agents. One known Hill & Knowlton office that was a CIA front operation was in Kuala Lumpur.

    Kerr-McGee. [CIA partner]. Provided corporate cover for CIA officers operating overseas.

    Kissinger Associates, Inc. [CIA partner]. New York-based international consulting firm founded by former Secretary of State and National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger. Former National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft is a co-owner. The firm provided support to the CIA-linked American Ditchley Foundation and the Bilderberg Group. Much of the 1982 seed money for Kissinger Associates was provided by Goldman Sachs.

    Knight Foundation. [CIA partner]. Also known as the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Based in Miami, the foundation provides funding for various CIA-connected media operations in the United States and around the world.

    Kroll Inc. [CIA partner]. Founded in 1972 by Jules Kroll, who had links to both U.S. and Israeli intelligence. Based in Manhattan. French domestic law enforcement believed Kroll’s Paris office was a CIA front. Kroll handled the security for the World Trade Center after the 1993 terrorist bombing and continued to be responsible for security up to, during, and after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack. Kroll employed former FBI assistant director for counter-terrorism John O’Neill, who died in the collapse of the World Trade Center.

    Lincoln Savings and Loan. [CIA partner]. Based in Irvine, California and headed by notorious swindler Charles Keating, Jr., involved in laundering funds for the Iran-contra scandal.

    Lone Star Cement Corporation. [CIA partner]. Based in Stamford, Connecticut and linked to the Bush family, provided corporate cover for CIA officers operating abroad. Involved in the Iran-contra scandal.

    Mary Carter Paint Company. [CIA front]. A money-laundering operation for the CIA. Involved in casinos in the Bahamas.

    Monsanto. [CIA partner]. The firm contracted with former CIA official Cofer Black’s Total Intelligence Solutions (TIS), a subsidiary of the CIA-connected Blackwater USA, later Xe Services, to monitor animal rights groups, anti-genetically modified (GM) food activists, and other groups opposed to Monsanto’s agri-business operations worldwide.

    National Enquirer. [CIA partner]. The tabloid’s founder, Generoso (Gene) Pope, Jr., worked for the CIA’s psychological warfare unit and the agency’s Italy branch in 1950. In 1952, Pope acquired The New York Enquirer broadsheet and transformed it into a tabloid, renaming it The National Enquirer. This transformation bore the imprimatur of the CIA’s Operation MOCKINGBIRD media influence program.

    Newsweek. [CIA partner]. Magazine reporters and stringers fed information to the CIA. Newsweek’s stringers in southeastern Europe and the Far East were CIA agents. When Newsweek was bought by The Washington Post Company in 1961, cooperation between the magazine and the CIA increased. It was a participant in the CIA’s Operation MOCKINGBIRD media influence program. Much of the staff of Newsweek was absorbed into a new online publication, The Daily Beast, which continues to disseminate CIA-influenced articles. See Washington Post.

    Nieman Foundation. [CIA partner]. Located at Harvard University, the foundation awarded Nieman Fellowships, some on behalf of the CIA, for foreign journalists to study at Harvard. The journalists were subjected to CIA recruitment efforts prior to their returning to their home countries.

    Pamela Martin & Associates. [CIA partner], Escort firm run by Deborah Jeane Palfrey, the so-called “DC Madam.” During her 2008 trial for mail fraud, Palfrey attempted to invoke the Classified Information Procedures Act in order to discuss her relationship with the CIA. The U.S. Court refused Palfrey’s request and she was convicted and later said to have committed suicide before her sentencing hearing in Washington, DC. One of her clients was Randall Tobias, the head of the CIA-connected USAID. Another was Louisiana Republican senator David Vitter.

    Paris Review. [CIA front]. Literary magazine edited by George Plimpton. Published works by Jack Kerouac and Samuel Beckett. The magazine’s co-founder, Peter Matthiessen, relied on his affiliation with the magazine as his CIA cover.

    Quaker Oats Company. [CIA partner]. Worked with the CIA and Atomic Energy Commission to place trace amounts of radiation in breakfast cereal served to boys at the Fernald School for the mentally retarded in Waltham, Massachusetts.

    Radio Corporation of America. [CIA partner]. Provided corporate cover for CIA officers operating abroad, particularly in Iran, Philippines, Japan, and West Germany. Provided technical assistance to CIA-financed clandestine and propaganda radio stations worldwide, including Radio Free Europe. RCA founder David Sarnoff was a major supporter of CIA operations, including propaganda dissemination around the world. RCA chairman and chief executive officer Thornton F. Bradshaw was active in the operations of the CIA-linked American Ditchley Foundation.

    Reily Coffee Company. [CIA partner]. Also known as William B. Reily Coffee Company and based in New Orleans, this company employed Lee Harvey Oswald and a number of other U.S. government employees, many of whom were suspected CIA officers.

    Robert M. Mullen Company. [CIA proprietary]. A Washington, DC public relations firm, it was used as a front for CIA activities. E. Howard Hunt, the CIA agent, worked for Robert Mullen when he was arrested in the break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate Hotel in Washington in 1972. The Senate Watergate Committee reported that “the Mullen and Company has maintained a relationship with the Central Intelligence Agency since its incorporation in 1959. It provided covers for agents in Europe (Stockholm), Latin America (Mexico City), and the Far East (Singapore) at the time of the Watergate break-in.”

    Rockefeller Foundation. [CIA partner]. Used by the CIA to direct scholarships and grants to the Third World and Eastern Europe. Rockefeller Foundation money was funneled to the American Committee for a United Europe (ACUE), created in 1948. The chairman of ACUE was OSS chief William J. Donovan and the vice chairman was Allen Dulles. One of ACUE’s board members was Walter Bedell Smith, the first CIA director.

    Summa Corporation. [CIA partner]. Owned by Howard Hughes, Summa is believed to have skimmed gambling profits from the Sands, Desert Inn, Frontier, Silver Slipper, Castaways, and Landmark casinos in Las Vegas and Harold’s Club in Reno for the CIA and the Mafia. Provided financial cover for the CIA’s Glomar Explorer project.

    Teneo Intelligence. [CIA partner]. Branch of Teneo Holdings, which is headquartered in New York. Teneo Holdings’s intelligence branch includes former CIA officials. Teneo is closely linked to former President Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton. Teneo Intelligence has offices in New York, London, Rome, Brussels, Dubai, Bogota, New Delhi, and Tokyo.

    Texas Commerce Bank (TCB). [CIA partner]. Houston-based bank founded by the family of James Baker III. Texas Commerce Bank was used to provide commercial cover for CIA agents. After serving as vice president for Texas Commerce Bank in Caracas from 1977 to 1979, Jeb Bush joined his father’s presidential campaign in 1980. Serving with Bush on the campaign was Robert Gambino, the CIA deputy director of security who gave Bush his orientation brief at Langley in 1977.

    Kenneth Lay, the chairman of Enron, which had its own links to the CIA, served on the board of Texas Commerce Bank. Texas Commerce Bank was acquired by Chemical Bank in 1987.

    The bank provided major loans to Howard Hughes’s Summa Corporation. See Summa Corporation.

    United Fruit Company [CIA partner]. Involved in 1954 CIA overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz government in Guatemala. Published the Latin America Report, a publication that was a CIA front used for clandestine activities. The CIA transferred weapons to United Fruit employees in Guatemala who were involved in undermining the Arbenz government. The joint CIA-United Fruit plan was code named OPERATION FORTUNE. Company provided an airfield in Guatemala for the CIA’s training of Cuban exiles for the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba.

    U.S. Rubber Company. [CIA partner]. Headquartered in Naugatuck, Connecticut and later called Uniroyal, provided corporate cover to CIA officers operating abroad. Included those operating under the cover of the Dominion Rubber Company of Canada, a subsidiary of U.S. Rubber Company.

    U.S. Youth Council (USYC). [CIA front]. Founded in 1945 and based in New York. Some 90 percent of its funds came from the CIA. USYC received funding from the Foundation for Youth and Student Affairs (FYSA), a CIA front. The USYC was composed of American Youth Hostels, Camp Fire Girls, 4-H, American Unitarian Youth, National Catholic Welfare Conference, National Students Assembly, YMCA and YWCA.

    Wackenhut. [CIA contractor]. Wackenhut, a Palm Beach Gardens, Florida-based security firm, stood accused of providing the CIA with specialized services around the world, including Chile, Greece, and El Salvador. Its Venezuelan branch, Wackenhut Venezolana, C.A., was accused in 2002 of involvement in the CIA’s coup against President Hugo Chavez. William Casey served as Wackenhut’s outside counsel before becoming CIA director in 1981.

    Wackenhut eventually merged into the global security firm G4S.

    Washington Post. [CIA partner]. The Washington Post was part of the CIA’s Operation MOCKINGBIRD, the agency’s media influence project. Post publisher Phil Graham was a close friend and associate of MOCKINGBIRD chief Frank Wisner, Sr. and CIA director Allen Dulles. Wisner assisted Graham in acquiring The Washington Times-Herald and WTOP radio, creating a sizable CIA-influenced media operation in the nation’s capital.

    W. R. Grace. [CIA partner]. Provided corporate cover to CIA officers operating abroad, particularly in Latin America. Provided donations to CIA front foundations.

  • News story about Madsen's book via The Justice Integrity Project



  •            Datalister 0.7b         
    updated on 22-04-2013 CDT - Good database directory of companies, useful for everyone.
              Why FamilySearch Is Ending Microfilm Rental & How to Get Genealogy Records Now        
    Guest blog post by Family Tree Magazine Contributing Editor Sunny Jane Morton



    For 80 years, the FamilySearch Family History Library (FHL) has made its enormous stash of microfilmed genealogy records available to researchers through an inexpensive rental service through local FamilySearch Centers.

    That's about to change: FamilySearch has announced that this service will end Aug. 31. Reasons include declining demand for film, dramatic increases in the costs of reproducing films, and the difficulty of supporting aging microfilm technology.

    It’s easy to be dismayed by the news, even when you acknowledge it was bound to happen. Many of us have solved family history mysteries with these microfilmed records. 

    Fortunately, most FamilySearch microfilm is already been digitized and posted on the free FamilySearch website or another genealogy site. That's more than 1.5 million rolls, including the most popular ones. “The remaining [eligible] microfilms should be digitized by the end of 2020," according to the announcement. "All new records from its ongoing global efforts are already using digital camera equipment."

    I've been a grateful user of the film rental program. And the millions of records FamilySearch makes available online for free more than offset offsets this inconvenience to my research.

    But after Aug. 31 and before 2020, what can we do about accessing records that aren't yet digitized? Try these seven ideas:

    1. Keep using the FamilySearch online catalog of the FHL's books and microfilmed records.
    You can order microfilm up through Aug. 31 (click here to see how); you'll get 90 days to view the film. When digitized films are posted at FamilySearch, the item's catalog entry links to the online collection. Even if you don’t find a borrowable item in the catalog, it's useful for identifying records you may be able to access elsewhere (see below). Here are our tips on searching the catalog.

    2. Check other libraries.
    If you find a noncirculating item described in the FamilySearch catalog, click the link to view the catalog record in WorldCat.



    It'll take you to this item's listing in WorldCat, a free catalog of holdings in libraries around the world. You'll see libraries that have the item, and link to their lending policies. You may discover records in other formats, such as digitized, in a book or original manuscript records.

    3. Search for digitized versions of the records.
    Search the web for the names and descriptions of records you've identified in the FamilySearch catalog. You may find digitized versions at free sites such as HathiTrust, Internet Archive, state library websites, and others. Also search the database catalogs on genealogy websites such as Ancestry.com, MyHeritage and Findmypast.

    4. Visit a genealogy library such as ...
    5. Use library lookup and photocopy services.
    Some libraries fill requests for lookups and photocopies for a fee. Check the website or call for instructions; usually, you must provide the book or microfilm title and specifics such as a name, date or page number. Firms offering research at the FHL include Genealogists.com.

    6. Hire a researcher.
    If you need someone to search through records—not just check an index or flip to the page you specify and copy it—consider hiring a researcher by the hour. Many libraries offer in-house research services, or they may supply a list of local researchers.

    7. Find original records.
    It might be easier to access original records, if they exist, than microfilmed versions. Start with the FamilySearch catalog listing. Look for the name of the repository that provided the original records (often under "Author"). Search that repository’s website to see if the records are still there. Another option is to search ArchiveGrid, a catalog of archival items in US repositories. Here's how to use ArchiveGrid.

    FamilySearch's renewed focus on digital efforts means its free online genealogy resources will grow even faster. Watch ShopFamilyTree.com for my Aug. 21 webinar on the free FamilySearch website, in which I'll share my search tricks for getting the most out of this website.

    Meanwhile, grab my must-have comparison of the "big three" commercial sites, Ancestry, Findmypast and MyHeritage. I'll help you decide which one's right for you.

    SaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSave
              Of Ivory Gulls and Parasites        
    BirdsIvory Gull by Nathan Goldberg

    Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea) photo by Nathan Goldberg.

    On the morning of January 7, I received a phone call from our former intern Nathan Goldberg, currently a student at Cornell University, who was birding in northeast Minnesota. "I just found a roadkill Spruce Grouse, do you guys want it?" That was an easy question: "Of course we do," I replied. Spruce Grouse is a bird of the North Woods, far from Chicago, so this was an excellent opportunity to get a fresh specimen of a species that rarely comes into the collection. Plus we have all of the necessary permits to receive specimens from Minnesota.

    That was just the beginning of the story. One of the main reasons Nathan was in that area, along with dozens of other birders, was to see the rare Ivory Gull that showed up a week earlier on the Duluth lakefront and was being seen daily.

    Not long after his phone call, I saw a distressing message on Facebook--an Ivory Gull had been found dead, mostly eaten by a mammal, just across the border in Wisconsin. Only the head and wings remained. Laura Erickson, a birder who lives in Duluth, went out and salvaged what was left of the specimen after learning of the bird's demise. As is the norm these days, all of this was known in real-time thanks to social media.  Nathan then contacted Laura to ask if, while he was at it, he could take the Ivory Gull remains to the Field Museum along with the Spruce Grouse that was already in his trunk. She agreed. In the meantime, a living, breathing Ivory Gull was seen again in Duluth! (I highly recommend reading Laura’s account of the remarkable situation). Late the following night, Nathan, knowing that his mother wouldn't approve of a big bag of dead birds in her freezer, stopped by my apartment on his way home from Minnesota to drop off the specimens.

    nathan_ruffling_img_4212.jpg

    Nathan Goldberg ruffling
    Nathan Goldberg and I examine the Ivory Gull specimen for ectoparasites. Photo by Lynne Remington.

    As an intern at the Museum, Nathan had worked with Jason Weckstein, a former staff scientist whose research focuses on birds and their associated parasites. Not wanting to miss an opportunity for further study, Nathan asked that we wait a week to prepare the specimens so he could come in to the museum and examine them himself for lice. That wasn't a problem, and we both knew Jason would be thrilled to receive anything that he found. 

    The following week Nathan came to the museum to do just this. We had pulled the birds out of one of the Bird Collection’s many freezers that morning, so they were thawed and ready to be "ruffled," the term for rummaging through a bird’s plumage to collect its ectoparasites: lice, mites, fleas, and ticks in particular. We find ectos, as we call them, on roughly 50% of the birds we check; today, however, the success rate was 100%. Nathan found lice on both the Ivory Gull and the Spruce Grouse as well as a mite on the gull. It's entirely possible that some of the parasites represent new species. We checked the “Bird Louse Bible,” and it turns out that several louse species have been found on Ivory Gulls—the first was described way back in 1780! Just one species is known from Spruce Grouse.

    ivgu_louse.jpg

    The Ivory Gull's louse, in the genus Quadraceps. Photo by Nathan Goldberg.

    Tom Gnoske, our Assistant Collections Manager, then prepared both birds as specimens. The Ivory Gull specimen consists of one wing, the head feathering, the skull, plus additional feathers. The Spruce Grouse was prepared as a study skin, with a partial skeleton saved as well. As we do for every specimen that comes through the prep lab, tissue samples were saved from both birds to preserve their DNA. A quick search of VertNet, the online database of museum bird collections, shows that the Ivory Gull tissue sample may be only the second one in a museum collection. 

    Ivory Gull is a rare bird, making this a unique opportunity to study its parasite fauna and collect a tissue sample that can be used for genetic studies in the future. It is classified as Near-threatened by BirdLife International because it “has declined rapidly in part of its range,” indeed by as much as 80% in Canada over the last thirty years. Part of the problem may be mercury poisoning, which increased in their systems by 45 times in 130 years. Whether or not this is related to birds showing up so far out of range is yet to be studied. But thanks to the quick work of birders and the wonders of social media, when it is studied there is no doubt that this specimen will be used.

    ivory_gull_specimen_img_2514.jpg

    Ivory Gull and Spruce Grouse specimens
    The prepared specimens: the Ivory Gull's wing and head feathers, along with the Spruce Grouse and a Least Bittern.

     


              how secured is spice works, can someone else collect my info.        

    Also with 4.5 you can begin using SSL. As Andy said, as secure as your network, if you have good passwords for your admins and secure the server your database resides on it is a very secure product.

    In terms of the community posts are searchable by Google, as with any forum don't post any information you are not comfortable sharing with the world.


              Team SchedulingTool        

    Plamen,

    It's been a while... Had a few things going on; thanks for the link. Is there any chance you could provide what's physically coming out of the database so I can replicate and customize on my side?

     

    Thanks!


              telerik:RadSearchBox connected to large dataset         

    I'm using the telerik:RadSearchBox and have it connected to a datasource/web service with autocomplete enabled.

    This datasource is connect to database table that has over 1 million records. On a page load or page preinit, the web page will timeout due to the large amount of data its trying to load.

    What is the best method for the telerik:RadSearchBox to connect to the datasource and populate the autocomplete feature with a large dataset?

    Thanks in advance.

    Kevin


              Side effects kill thousands but our data on them is flawed        
    As many as 40,000 people in the US die from drug side effects a year. The FDA’s database helps researchers understand why – but it has many problems
              How my brother found us...Part 2        
    The Ballad of Kathy Flynn - (2012) - Julian Littman

    Long ago, young Kathy Flynn took a train to London Town
    She fell in love with an Indian hero - he turned her heart around
    With a Vir Chakra into his jacket - how could she resist?
    He took  her to his hotel room and there they more than kissed
    He said;"Kathy, will you marry me?"
    Of course, she answered yes.
    She dreamed of life in far Madras - an Indian Princess.

    He telephoned long distance to his father in Madras
    And told him of his intention to wed the Irish lass
    The old man flew into a rage and said your future's been arranged
    Marry her and you'll die without a rupee to your name
    Without a word he slipped away leaving not a trace behind
    And left poor Kathy waiting -  out of sight and out of mind.

    Chorus: I'll sing a lullaby to the Irish girl and the dreams she could not keep
    I'll sing a lullaby to the Irish girl and sing that girl to sleep.

    She met a man of magic - the Great Marlo was his name
    They took a mind reading act out on the road and found some kind of fame
    Pretty soon she realised a child was on the way
    Her Indian hero had left her with more than a broken heart that day
    She cast her fate to the Mother Church who duly took her in
    She gave away the boy at birth and never saw him again.

    Chorus: I'll sing a lullaby to the Irish girl and the boy she could not keep
    I'll sing a lullaby to the Irish girl and sing that girl to sleep.

    The boy grew up in a happy home but when his folks had gone
    The boy was curious to know more about his mum
    He traced her to a little town and called her on the phone
    But she hung up when she heard his name - shaken to the bone.
    She wrote him a letter saying never a day goes by
     When I don't think about you, boy, but I must go on living a lie
    You see, I've a family of my own  - our secret's never been told
    The truth would tear this house apart and I'm too frail and too old.

    2nd chorus again
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Julian knew he was adopted from about the age of 8 or 9. He came home from school one day and asked his mum a question that he was constantly being asked at school. "Mum, why is it that I'm a different colour to J (Julian's adoptive parent's natural son) and you and Dad? His mum told him in a very matter of fact way that he was adopted and his biological parents were an Anglo Indian pilot in the Indian Air Force and his mum was an Irish actress.

    Julian's dad, Anthony Ignatius Kenneth Suares, was an Indian hero; he had been awarded the Vir Chakra in 1949 and you can read about it here. He died some time ago and Julian never managed to trace him. He still wants to explore that side of his family.

     My mum came to England from Ireland in 1948, aged 16, as a Nanny for a family in Edgeware. When she was 18 she was 'discovered' in Lyons Corner House in Marble Arch by the man I knew throughout my childhood as 'Uncle Marlo'. Marlo, or the 'Great Marlo' to give him his stage name; was a magician and mum was his assistant;  'Georgette'. They did a mind reading act together and travelled all over the UK. Mum had a tiny speaking part in a film about boxing in the 1950s, but we've never been able to discover the title. She would never have described herself as an actress but she always said she had been 'on the stage'. She and 'The Great Marlo' often did publicity stunts for their act; below is a still from British Pathe news item  - narrated by Eamonn Andrews - and available here on youtube; where mum was buried alive for one such stunt. It was a very cold day; everyone is wearing overcoats but mum appears dressed in a bra and skirt - some things never change when it comes to women...



    As children we loved Uncle Marlo - he used to make sixpences and shillings appear out of his ears or from up our sleeves! He lived just off Church Street market in London; and he and his wife were very good to my mum because she when she applied to St. Pelagia's to have Julian; she gave her address as their address; she must have been living with them throughout her pregnancy.

    What I have found out is Julian's birth was something that probably only one other family member; my Aunty Betty, knew about. Betty's name appears on the St.Pelagia documentation as mum's next of kin. In the latter stages of pregnancy mum could have told her four sisters; all of whom were living in London at the time, she was away touring with the Great Marlo. My dad never knew about Julian; in Julian's adoption paper's this is made clear as they state the adoption forms to be signed by mum must be sent in a plain brown envelope addressed solely to my mum.



    This is my mum's oldest sister, Aunty Peggy's, wedding in 1950 or 1951 in Paddington, London; mum would have been 18 or 19 at the time. Mum is on the far left in the plaid dress; next to Aunty Betty, (her confidante); behind Mum is Aunty Mary and next to her, Aunty Ita.

    Much of what Julian puts in the song above 'The Ballad of Kathy Flynn' is true but not all. We don't know how, when and where mum and Julian's dad met. We don't know if it was a one night stand or a relationship. We think the asking to marry bit is right because it's stated in the documentation Julian gathered together in his search for mum. I think it highly possible that getting married would have entailed mum moving to India and that she probably didn't want to leave England - but we'll never know.

    Julian went to drama school aged 16 and has spent the rest of his life performing, singing, playing and composing. You can see his bio here. It's very strange to think that when I was a student nurse in the early 1970s I used to watch 'Rainbow' - a children's programme on at midday - in the nurses lounge whilst eating my lunch. I must have seen Julian on TV dozens of times but never knew he was my brother!

    By 2005, Julian's adoptive parents had died. Julian knew a lot about his birth mother and her subsequent family, but he couldn't out find where she lived. One evening, after a gig two fans came back stage to see him; he found out they ran a business tracing adopted children's birth parents and or families. Within two weeks they had found mum living in Kettering; and as the song says a phone call was made and mum wrote Julian a letter, but didn't want to meet.

    I've read the letter she sent Julian and it is a beautiful letter. But, I still find it really difficult to understand (although I do, in many ways) why she didn't want to meet him. By 2005, mum knew she had COPD and that it would it kill her soon. As her children, we would have been delighted to meet Julian and would have welcomed him with open arms and would never have judged mum's actions. Mum must have known that about us as well as we were all very, very close. I'm just so sorry that they didn't get to meet because mum would have had almost four years left with Julian in her life.

    You must be curious to know how Julian did eventually find us and I'm now coming to that part...

    Julian discovered mum had died using 'Google' (God bless the internet - it's a marvellous invention but what a horrible way to find out about your mum's death). We had published a small notice of thanks in the local Kettering paper after the funeral in 2009. Julian waited for several years (I can only marvel at his restraint) and one day in 2013 he was on his way to the Derngate theatre in Northampton, with a group he was managing at the time. They knew his story and pointed out that Northampton was only 14 miles away from Kettering and as he knew my brother Mark still lived in the same house he and mum had moved to in 1999; he should, at least, drop a card through the door. So, he did!

    When I rang him that morning in February 2013 we spoke for two hours! We arranged for Julian to come to Bedford the following weekend and we would all go out for a meal and get to know each other. So, we did!

    4th March, 2013


     At my house looking at Julian's paperwork. Seated L to R:  Brother Julian, me, brother Mark and standing, brother Tony. Someone's cracked open the beers!
    Image may contain: 5 people, indoor
    After the meal we went to a local wine bar and had a few more beers and bottles of wine...that's my OH, Wesley on the far left.
    Image may contain: 4 people, indoor 
    Time to go home, lads!
      
    It has been a wonderful experience meeting our 'new' brother. I have to admire his magnanimity and his generosity of spirit; he holds no hard feelings about his circumstances. He is not bitter that my mum wouldn't meet him. (I think I would have been, had it been me given up for adoption). We share a mother and although Julian was raised in the Home Counties in a nice middle class home and we were raised in the inner city, children of poor, working class immigrants, we have nothing but love and affection for each other.

    We meet as often we can - Julian is always busy (thankfully, in his line of work). The one nice thing we were able to do for Julian was ask him to help us scatter mum's ashes (her ashes had been living in the sitting room for four years) later that same year; 2013. We videoed the ceremony - it was just laughter and jokes all the way.

    RIP Mum - I'm sorry you had to live in such unenlightened times but your four children are united in their love for you.


              Tag! You're It        

    Biologists catch and tag big sawfish in Florida waters

    Food for Thought

    Once a common top predator throughout coastal seas around the globe, sawfish have become remarkably rare. Indeed, today most populations are threatened with extinction. So spotting even one of these animals is reason to rejoice, notes Beau Yeiser of Mote Marine Laboratory in southern Florida. And this week, "we are nothing but giddy," he reports.

    He and colleague Tonya Wiley just returned from a 2-day sawfish-scouting expedition during which they tagged a 7-foot male on Oct. 16. At that size, the strapping youth may be 5 to 7 years old, Yeiser says. He cautions, however, that estimating age is challenging "as we try and piece together the life history of this species. We don't even know its size at maturity yet."

    These animals—essentially flattened sharks with wings—are members of the ray family. Only one species of this fish remains in U.S. waters, mostly off of Florida. Over the first half of the 20th century, this smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) was fished to the brink of extinction—largely by accident.

    Although many cultures eat sawfish—the animals' fins are especially prized in Asia as the featured ingredient in a pricey soup—most of the animals in U.S. waters were landed and destroyed as bycatch, that is, nuisance species hauled in by commercial fishing fleets. The dire status of sawfish globally won these animals protection, last month, under a treaty banning international trade in endangered species (see Hammered Saws).

    So far this year, Yeiser and Wiley have caught just 14 sawfish, most of them less than 4 feet long. Those would still be little kids, considering that these fish are almost a yard long at birth. Then again, the pair had expected only small ones because they've mainly been cruising coastal shallows this year in hopes of running into newborns and youngsters.

    The scientists attach a numbered identification tag to the dorsal fin of every sawfish they catch—and then release the animal.

    But last week's catch was so big that it qualified for a second identifier: a pop-up archival tag, or PAT. These recording devices are so heavy that they're reserved for large sawfish—at least 7-footers. To date, only some dozen of these animals have received PATs. Costing at least $4,000 each, these data-storage systems collect information every minute, for months, on the depth at which its host is swimming, the water temperature, and light levels. The latter information gets plugged into a computer program that roughly gauges the animal's geographic coordinates at any moment.

    Researchers program a PAT to pop off the fish on a particular date. Once it floats to the surface, it sends its stored information in spurts, twice a day, to a satellite. That orbiting relay station then shoots those data back to Earth and the scientists' email addresses.

    Last week's sawfish encounter took place in a southern Florida national wildlife refuge, in very shallow water. Investigated as a possible nursery, Yeiser says "I was expecting any sawfish that I might catch to be perhaps 4 to 5 feet in length." Instead, he found a much older juvenile. "But that's the beauty of this [sawfish] project; you never know what you are going to get when you're scouting a species that has not been studied much!"

    Yeiser named the youth that he tagged last week Raloff. Hmmm—I like the sound of that. Its tag is programmed to pop off on March 15. Stay tuned for an update on my namesake's travels.

    If all goes well, that is.

    A 7- and an 11-foot sawfish each received PATs in May. Although the satellite tags had been programmed to pop off 3 months later, they actually surfaced within just a couple weeks, Yeiser says—and were never recovered.

    So, each time biologists deploy the pricey devices, he says, "we just cross our fingers that they won't pop up early—or get lost in the middle of the Gulf."

    Don't try this yourself

    The sawfish is an endangered species, so federal law forbids its capture—except by researchers who have been granted a waiver. And even they need to release an animal after measuring and tagging it.

    It's against the law to even harass the animals. Still, anglers may inadvertently snag one of the toothy marvels. When that happens, this species "should be released by keeping the fish in the water and cutting the line as close to the hook as possible," according to guidelines issued late last year by the National Marine Fisheries Service in St. Petersburg, Fla. "If it can be done safely, untangle the line if it is wrapped around the saw. Do not handle the animal or attempt to remove any hooks on the saw, except for with a long-handled dehooker," NOAA says.

    Biologists request that any anglers who sight a sawfish report their encounter to the Mote lab. Its scientists are maintaining a database to help them identify important habitat for these endangered animals.

    As interesting as these piscine oddities are, biologists would prefer that the public give the fish a wide berth. The primary reason: Approaching the animals can stress them, chase them from what should be waters safe from predators, or even interfere with their reproduction.

    But there's another reason to steer clear, according to Captain Harvey Lee Hamilton, who charters a fishing boat out of Pineland, Fla. "I've caught plenty of sawfish in my life, and I'll tell you: They're dangerous. I'm still scared to death of them." Their saws—which he terms blades—are edged with dozens of razor-sharp "teeth." The muscular animals slash those saws from side to side to kill prey or defend themselves.

    Says Hamilton: "Those fish get big, with blades that can go to at least 5 foot." And they slash those blades "so fast," he says, "that they could slice your feet off." Indeed, he told Science News Online: "I'd rather fight a shark than a sawfish."


    If you would like to comment on this Food for Thought, please see the blog version.

    Citations

    Beau Yeiser and Tonya R. Wiley

    Center for Shark Research

    Mote Marine Laboratory

    1600 Ken Thompson Parkway

    Sarasota, FL 34236

    Smalltooth Sawfish Coordinator

    National Marine Fisheries Service

    Southeast Regional Office, Protected Resources Division

    263 13th Avenue South

    St. Petersburg, FL 33071
    Further Reading

    2006. Mote scientists to help eBay identify species in new sawfish ban. Mote Marine Laboratory news release. Jan. 25. Available at [Go to].

    Mote Marine Laboratory. How you can help save the U.S. smalltooth sawfish. Available at [Go to].

    Raloff. J. 2007. Hammered saws. Science News 172(Aug. 11):90-92. Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2002. Clipping the fin trade. Science News 162(Oct. 12):232-234. Available at [Go to].

    Sawfish in Peril: Sawfish Education Program. Available at [Go to].

              Kommentar zu Docs & Demo von Thomas        
    Even if I deactivate all pluins the same alert still remain. Here´s the complete alert (I´ve just replaced account and domain infos with "...": "Fatal error: Uncaught Error: Call to undefined function mysql_get_server_info() in /www/htdocs/...../wp-content/plugins/google-maps-gpx-viewer/php/gpx_database.php:191 Stack trace: #0 /www/htdocs/...../wp-content/plugins/google-maps-gpx-viewer/php/gpx_database.php(12): poi_db_install() #1 /www/htdocs/...../wp-content/plugins/google-maps-gpx-viewer/php/map_functions.php(17): require_once('/www/htdocs/w01...') #2 /www/htdocs/..../plugins/google-maps-gpx-viewer/google-maps-gpx-viewer.php(17): require('/www/htdocs/w01...') #3 /www/htdocs/....../includes/plugin.php(1882): include('/www/htdocs/w01...') #4 /www/htdocs/..../wp-admin/plugins.php(164): plugin_sandbox_scrape('google-maps-gpx...') #5 {main} thrown in /www/htdocs/....../wp-content/plugins/google-maps-gpx-viewer/php/gpx_database.php on line 191"
              Kommentar zu Docs & Demo von b.a.        
    In gpx_database.php search for: mysql_get_client_info and replace with: mysqli_get_client_info Save the change and then retry.
              Kommentar zu Docs & Demo von Jo Swan        
    Hi, I've downloaded the plugin but upon activation (activate plugin) i get the following error: Fatal error: Call to undefined function mysql_get_server_info() in D:\xampp\htdocs\Green\wp-content\plugins\google-maps-gpx-viewer\php\gpx_database.php on line 191 Can this be resolved? What am I to do next? Any suggestions? Wordpress is up to date... (WordPress 4.5.3) Thanks,
              Comment #2        
    Totally disagree that this would be an advantage. What it does is seek out the lower prize winners who aren't claiming their winnings. It's bad enough that players have to wait weeks to get their money after a big win and can't remain anonymous in most states. The only way a lottery prize can be deposited in a person's account is if he registers in a central database using his name, address and social security number. So the last thing we need is more government in our lives and this would jus... [ More ]
              Re: FluentMigrator getting started        

    I'm struggling to grok this. I have an existing database. I need to import my current schema and then I can use the fluent interface to write upgrade scripts. I then need to provide my ops team with a bunch of SQL scripts to deploy to our UAT and LIVE servers.

    The bits I don't get are importing current schema (and some data). Secondly, how do I compile a bunch of deployment SQL scripts for my ops team?


              Re: FluentMigrator getting started        

    As Sean says, FluentMigrator (FM) isn't concerned with what ORM you are using, but I thought I'd share how I'm using FM with the EntityFrameworl (EF) 4.1.

    Basically I've created a custom IDatabaseInitializer that creates a RunnerContext and then spins up a TaskExecutor to execute it. So when ever my web application starts up, it'll run any migration automatically.

    It works great for my little project!


              Evaluating the Effectiveness of First-Time Methadone Maintenance Therapy Across Northern, Rural, and Urban Regions of Ontario, Canada        
    imageObjectives: Our objective was to determine the impact that a patient's geographic status has on the efficacy of first-time methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) retention. Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study using administrative health care databases for patients who commenced methadone therapy between 2003 and 2012. Patients were stratified on the basis of their location of residence into 1 of 4 groups—Southern Urban, Southern Rural, Northern Urban, or Northern Rural. The primary outcome was continuous retention in treatment, defined as 1 year of uninterrupted therapy on the basis of prescription refill data. Mortality was measured as a secondary outcome. Results: We identified 17,211 patients initiating first-time MMT during this 10-year period. Nearly half of patients initiating therapy in northern regions completed 1 year of treatment (48.9%; N = 258 and 47.0%; N = 761 in Northern Rural and Urban regions, respectively), whereas lower rates of 40.6% (N = 410) and 39.3% (N = 5,518) occurred in Southern Rural and Urban regions, respectively. Patients residing in Northern Rural and Northern Urban regions were 31% (adjusted odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09%–1.58%] and 14% (adjusted odds ratio = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02%–1.27%] more likely to be retained in treatment compared with those residing in Southern Urban regions. There was no significant difference in treatment retention between those residing in Southern Rural and Southern Urban regions. A mortality rate of 3% was observed within 1 year of patients initiating treatment, with patients in the Southern Rural region having the highest rate (4.85%). Conclusions: Our study identified regional differences in retention rates and mortality of first-time MMT. These findings may relate to geographic isolation and limited methadone program availability experienced in northern regions. We interpret the data to suggest that patients who have reduced access to treatment experience higher retention rates when they are able to access therapy.
              Fuel Maps Database        

    [widgetkit id=54]

    Join the community to start viewing, uploading, and downloading fuel maps for your Bazzaz Z-Fi engine management systems

    The best tune for your motorcycle is a custom tune. Drawing on years of top factory-level racing experience, we've gone to great lengths to research and develop the first self mapping system, the Z-AFM. At Bazzaz, we encourage generating a custom fuel map that is specific to your bike.

    Should you decide to take your tuning to the next level, consider your local Bazzaz Tuning Lab or other dyno tuning center. A dynamometer can find your perfect Air/Fuel Ratio (AFR) to which you can set your Z-AFM to target.

    With this information in mind, we welcome enthusiasts to use this maps database to share and compare base maps while exploring tuning possibilities within the community.



              Spoiled, Not Stupid        
    BlogHer ’08 squees have faded and hundreds of powerful women bloggers are now back home with their families. Companies are furiously entering new email addresses into their databases and I am going through the three totebags filled with everything from gift cards for photo prints to thumb drives to toys for my children. I’m used […]
              SPAM yang merimaskan        
    Spam adalah satu kiriman email yang biasanya dihantar oleh pengirim kepada penerima tetapi kebiasaannya kiriman yang dihantar oleh pengirim adalah berbentuk iklan. Kebiasaannya si penerima tidak dapat mengenal siapakah pengirim ini dan kebiasaannya pengirim menghantar kiriman kepada sejumlah besar pengguna internet.

    Bagaimanakah pengirim Spam mendapat maklumat email penerima?, Ianya satu tugas yang biasanya mereka akan mengodam website yang mempunyai sistem daftar maklumat pengguna, melalui laman sosial dan pelbagai lagi.

    Apakah kesan keburukan Spam?, kesan yang biasanya diperolehi oleh pemilik akaun adalah, kebiasaannya "Database error", rasa macam nak tangan je komputer " stress", dan spam ni kadang-kadang ada banner automatik dan mengakibatkan komputer, Notebook dan sebagainya akan menjadi bercelaru.

    Apakah spam menghantar virus?, ya, spam dibolehkan menghantar virus jadi sila berhati-hati dengan spam ni.

    Buat masa kini ada pelbagai pencegah spam, jadi baik mencegah dari merawat.

    Cth spam:

    iklan Viagra,
    pengirim spam biasanya akan mengunakan HTML kod seperti dibawah
    <table border=”1″ width=”9%” height=”63″>
    <tr>
    <td width=”16%” height=”57″>v<br>I</td>
    <td width=”16%” height=”57″>i<br>K</td>
    <td width=”17%” height=”57″>a<br>L</td>
    <td width=”17%” height=”57″>g<br>A</td>
    <td width=”17%” height=”57″>r<br>N</td>
    <td width=”17%” height=”57″>a<br>.</td>
    </tr>
    </table>
    Hurup yang dibaca menegak seperti diatas adalah
    v I i K a L g A r N a .
              Al TBIZ tutte le tecnologie ICT a vantaggio delle aziende        
    Tecnologia VoIP, Unified Communication, Cloud computing, storage, database e tanto altro ancora. Al Technolgybiz 2017, il 13 e 14 settembre a Napoli, si parlerà e toccheranno con mano tutti i servizi ICT a vantaggio dell’azienda. Workshop e focus specifici per comprendere come poter risparmiare ed ottimizzare i propri servizi aziendali. Lo staff di VoipVoice presenterà […]

              SCSI support and a big surprise        
    Last week I added SCSI disk support for the CD-i 60x extension board to CD-i Emulator. It took somewhat longer then I expected, though. This was mostly because the DP5380 SCSI controller chip exposes most low-level details of the SCSI protocol to the driver which means that all of these details have to be emulated.

    The emulation ended up to be a more-or-less complete software implementation of the parallel SCSI-2 protocol, including most of the low-level signaling on the BSY, SEL, ATN, MSG, C/D-, I/O-, REQ and ACK lines. This is all implemented by the new CScsiBus class representing the SCSI bus that connects up to 16 instances of the CScsiPort class that each represent a single SCSI-2 bus interface. I was able to mostly avoid per-byte signaling of REQ and ACK if the target device implementation supports block transfers, a big performance win.

    The new CCdiScsiDevice class emulates the DP5380 controller chip, working in conjunction with the CCdiScsiRamDevice and CCdiScsiDmaDevice classes that emulate the 32 KB of local extension SRAM and the discrete DMA logic around it that are included on the CD-i 60x extension board.

    The CD-i 182 extension uses a compatible SCSI controller chip but a different DMA controller and has no local extension SRAM. I have not yet emulated these because I have almost no software to test it.

    The new CScsiDevice class implements a generic SCSI device emulating minimal versions of the four SCSI commands that are mandatory for all SCSI device types: TEST UNIT READY, REQUEST SENSE, INQUIRY and SEND DIAGNOSTIC. It implements most of the boiler-plate of low-level SCSI signaling for target devices and the full command and status phases of SCSI command processing, allowing subclasses to focus on implementing the content aspects of the data transfer phase.

    The CScsiFile class emulates a SCSI device backed by a file on the host PC; it includes facilities for managing the SCSI block size and the transfer of block-sized data to and from the backing file.

    The CScsiDisk and CScsiTape classes emulate a SCSI disk and tape device, respectively, currently supporting a block size of 512 bytes only. Instances of these classes are connected to the SCSI bus by using the new
    -s[csi]d[isk][0-7] FILE and -s[csi]t[ape][0-7] FILE options of CD-i Emulator.

    The CD-i 60x extension board normally uses SCSI id 5; the built-in ROM device descriptors for SCSI disks use SCSI ids starting at zero (/h0 /h1 /h2) while the built-in device descriptor for a SCSI tape uses SCSI id 4 (/mt0). This means that the useful options with the 60x are -scsidisk0, -scsidisk1, -scsidisk2 and -scsitape 4.

    I've added the new dsk subdirectory to contain disk images; tape images have no standard location as they are mostly intended for bulk-transfer purposes (see below).

    Inside the CD-i player this leads to the following response to the built-in inquire command:
    $ inquire -i=0
    vendor identification:"CDIFAN CDIEMU SCSIDISK "

    $ inquire -i=4
    vendor identification:"CDIFAN CDIEMU SCSITAPE "
    where the "CDIFAN " part is the vendor name and the "CDIEMU SCSIXXXX " part is the product name.

    In the previous post I described a 450 MB OS-9 hard disk image that I found on the Internet. After mounting it with
    -scsidisk0 mw.dsk I got the following output:
    $ free /h0
    "MediaWorkshop" created on: Feb 17, 1994
    Capacity: 1015812 sectors (512-byte sectors, 32-sector clusters)
    674144 free sectors, largest block 655552 sectors
    345161728 of 520095744 bytes (329.17 of 496.00 Mb) free on media (66%)
    335642624 bytes (320.09 Mb) in largest free block

    $ dir -d /h0

    Directory of /h0 23:49:36
    ASU/ AUDIO/ CDI_BASECASE/ CINERGY/ CMDS/
    COPY/ CURSORS/ DEFS/ DEMOS/ ENET/
    ETC/ FDRAW/ FONTS/ FontExample/ ISP/
    LIB/ MAUI/ MAUIDEMO/ MENU/ MWOS/
    NFS/ README_CIN README_MWS SCRIPT/ SHARE/
    SHIP/ SYS/ T2D_RUNTIME/ TEMP/ TEMPMARK/
    TEST/ USR/ VIDEO/ abstract.txt bibliographic.txt
    bkgd.c8 bkgd.d cdb cdb1 cdb2
    cdi_opt_install chris_test cin copyright.mws copyright.txt
    csd_605 custominits_cin delme dos/ file
    font8x8 get globs.mod go go.mkfont
    inetdb ipstat kick1a_f.c8 kick2a_f.c8 mtitle
    mws net new_shell new_shell.stb scratch
    screen startup_cin thelist
    You can see why thought it was a MediaWorkshop disc, but on closer inspection this turned out to something quite different. Some basic scrutiny lead to the hypothesis that this is probably a disk backup of someone from Microware working on early development of the DAVID (Digital Audio Video Interactive Decoder) platform. There are various surprises on the disk which I will describe below.

    Anyway, I wanted to transfer the contents to the PC as a tar archive, similar to the procedure I used for my CD-i floppy collection. After starting CD-i Emulator with a -scsitape4 mw.tar option this was simply a matter of typing the following into the terminal window:
    tar cb 1/h0
    This command runs the "tape archiver" program to create a tape with the contents of the /h0 directory, using a tape blocking size of 1 (necessary because my SCSI tape emulation doesn't yet support larger block sizes). The resulting mw.tar file on the PC is only 130 MB, not 450 MB which indicates that the disk is mostly empty. At some point I might use an OS-9 "undelete" program to find out if there are additional surprises.

    Extracting the mw.tar file was now a simple matter of running the PC command
    tar xvf mv.tar
    This produced an exact copy of the OS-9 directory structure and files on the PC.

    Many of the directories on the hard disk are clearly copies of various distribution media (e.g. CDI_BASECASE, CINERGY, CURSORS, ENET, FONTS, ISP, MWOS, NFS). The contents of the ENET, ISP and NFS directories at first appear to match some of my floppies, including version numbers, but on closer inspection the binaries are different. Running some of them produces "Illegal instruction" errors so I suspect that these are 68020 binaries.

    The SHIP directory contains some prerelease RTNFM software; the readme talks about PES which is a type of MPEG-2 stream (Packetized Elementary Stream). Various asset directories contain versions of a "DAVID" logo.

    The CMDS directory contains working versions of the Microware C compiler, identical to the ones I already had and also many other programs. It also contains some "cdb" files (configuration database?) that mention the 68340 processor.

    The contents of the CMDS/BOOTOBJS directory produced a first surprise: it contains a subdirectory JNMS containing among others files named "rb1793" and "scsijnms". Could this be floppy and SCSI drivers for the CD-i 182 extension, as it contains with a 1793 floppy drive controller (the CD-i 60x uses a different one) and the player has a "JNMS" serial number?

    Well, yes and no. Disassembly of the scsijnms file proved it to be compiled C code using an interface different from OS-9 2.4 drivers, so I suspect this is an OS-9 3.x driver. In any case, I cannot use it with the stock CD-i 180 player ROMs. Bummer...

    And now for the big surprise: deeply hidden in a directory structure inside the innocently named COPY directory is the complete assembly source for the VMPEG video driver module "fmvdrv". At first glance it looked very familiar from my disassembly exercises on the identically-named Gate Array 2 MPEG driver module "fmvdrv", which is as expected because I had already noticed the large similarity between these two hardware generations.

    The source calls the VMPEG hardware the "IC3" implementation, which matches CD-i digital video history as I know it. The Gate Array MPEG hardware would be "IC2" and the original prototype hardware would be "IC1". Furthermore, the sources contain three source files named fmvbugs1.a to fmvbugs3.a whose source file titles are "FMV first silicon bugs routines" to "FMV third silicon bugs routines". The supplied makefile currently uses only fmvbugs3.a as is to be expected for a VMPEG driver.

    The fmvbugs1.a source contains some of the picture buffer manipulation logic that I've so far carefully avoided triggering because I couldn't understand it from my disassemblies, and this is now perfectly understandable: they are workarounds for hardware bugs!

    As of two hours ago, I have verified that with a little tweaking and reconstruction of a single missing constants library file these sources produce the exact "fmvdrv" driver module contained in the vmpega.rom file directly obtained from my VMPEG cartridge.

    In general these sources are very heavily commented, including numerous change management comments. They also include a full set of hardware register and bit names, although no comments directly describing the hardware. This should be of great help in finally getting the digital video emulation completely working.

    All of the comments are English, although a few stray words and developer initials lead me to believe that the programmers were either Dutch or Belgian.

    Disassembly comparisons lead me to the conclusion that careful undoing of numerous changes should result in exact sources for the GMPEGA2 driver module "fmvdrv" as well. I might even do it at some point, although this is not high priority for me.

    The disk image containing all of these surprises is publicly available on the Internet since at least 2009, which is probably someone's mistake but one for which I'm very grateful at this point!
              Website updates, bugfixes, compatibility reports        
    Today I updated the CD-i Emulator website for the upcoming beta release and fixed some remaining bugs, mainly with input recording/playback.

    I updated the Release Notes section, put up the hopefully final version of the Full Release Notes, added more screenshots and YouTube embeds and did some miscellaneous text edits. I also updated the CD-i Types section and added a download for it.

    It was my intention to release tonight, but that didn't happen because the closed pre-beta testers aren't ready yet. I'll give it a few more days.

    My next project will be updating the Title Support section of the website; I want to replace the static table with a much more dynamic one that can be expanded and sorted in various ways, based on a database of actual compatibility reports for specific CD-i player ROMs and CD-i titles that could be entered online.

    I might even accept MESS CD-i compatibility reports to provide a basis for comparison. Users would also be able to "me too" on reports.

    I would also like to add a "Report Compatibility" option to CD-i Emulator; that would allow automatic filling in of most of the report fields so that entering a compatibility report becomes pretty much a question of clicking only a "compatibility class" button and possibly entering some notes (fields like Reporter could be remembered on the reporter's PC using cookies). It should be easy to add the CD-i Emulator part of this; I might even do it for the current beta if the testers take long enough :-)

    For crashes or decoding issues, it would also be useful to allow uploading of input recordings. Actually, uploading a "good recording" would be nice even for successful reports. I could even add an "autorecord" setting to CD-i Emulator to make recording easy; the performance hit should be minimal.

    This would also allow "batch" uploading of compatibility reports at some later time; input recordings contain all of the necessary information except for the compatibility class and notes and these could easily be added with input annotations, which I was planning to add anyway.

    Unfortunately, uploading a file cannot be automated easily from within CD-i Emulator: the user will have to manually browse for the file. Another way to handle this would be to automatically generate an e-mail compatibility report...
              Still feel unhappy with the Turnbull Government's policies on underground, land surface and marine waters? So you should        

    “Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the world's oceans and large lakes, caused by "excessive nutrient pollution from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in bottom and near-bottom water.” [US National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration]

    Every Northern Hemisphere Spring this dead zone occurs in the Gulf of Mexico and increases in size over time.



    It is only one of more than 400 hypoxic areas world-wide which were mapped in 2008.


    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), Andrew H. Altieri et al, 2017, Tropical dead zones and mass mortalities on coral reefs:

    Oxygen-starved coastal waters are rapidly increasing in prevalence worldwide. However, little is known about the impacts of these “dead zones” in tropical ecosystems or their potential threat to coral reefs. We document the deleterious effects of such an anoxic event on coral habitat and biodiversity, and show that the risk of dead-zone events to reefs worldwide likely has been seriously underestimated. Awareness of, and research on, reef hypoxia is needed to address the threat posed by dead zones to coral reefs.

    Degradation of coastal water quality in the form of low dissolved oxygen levels (hypoxia) can harm biodiversity, ecosystem function, and human wellbeing. Extreme hypoxic conditions along the coast, leading to what are often referred to as “dead zones,” are known primarily from temperate regions. However, little is known about the potential threat of hypoxia in the tropics, even though the known risk factors, including eutrophication and elevated temperatures, are common. Here we document an unprecedented hypoxic event on the Caribbean coast of Panama and assess the risk of dead zones to coral reefs worldwide. The event caused coral bleaching and massive mortality of corals and other reef-associated organisms, but observed shifts in community structure combined with laboratory experiments revealed that not all coral species are equally sensitive to hypoxia. Analyses of global databases showed that coral reefs are associated with more than half of the known tropical dead zones worldwide, with >10% of all coral reefs at elevated risk for hypoxia based on local and global risk factors. Hypoxic events in the tropics and associated mortality events have likely been underreported, perhaps by an order of magnitude, because of the lack of local scientific capacity for their detection. Monitoring and management plans for coral reef resilience should incorporate the growing threat of coastal hypoxia and include support for increased detection and research capacity.

    Anyone still in favour of allowing an expansion of coal mining in the Galilee Basin, Queensland?

    Anyone still comfortable with the amount of agricultural/industrial run-off into the Great Barrier Reef, marine protected areas and Australian coastal waters, which is allowed under state and federal policies?

    It’s not just our rivers and aquifers which are suffering from political inaction and vested interest greed.

    BACKGROUND

    The Australian Government’s OzCoasts website states:

    A reduction in dissolved oxygen concentrations is amongst the most important effects of eutrophication on aquatic organisms [4]. Hypoxia can cause direct mortality, reduced growth rates and altered behaviour and distributions of fish [4] and other organisms. In addition, bottom-water hypoxia can interact with elevated water temperatures at the surface to produce a "temperature-oxygen squeeze" effect, which can greatly reduce the amount of summer habitat available for some species [12]. Eggs and larvae of fish (and crustaceans) may be particularly susceptible to this effect because these life history stages are less able to avoid unfavourable conditions, and because they live in near shore areas, such as estuaries, where too-high water temperatures and too-low oxygen conditions often occur [5]. Changes in fish assemblages and crustaceans in response to hypoxia and & anoxia can render these organisms more susceptible to fishing pressure, and can increase the abundance of non-targeted species in by-catch [4].

    Dissolved oxygen status also influences the uptake or release of nutrients from sediment. When oxygen is depleted, the nitrification pathway is blocked, and efficiencies may be lowered. As a consequence, more nutrients (e.g. nitrogen and phosphorous) are released from the sediment in bio-available forms [7]. These nutrients help to sustain algal blooms, and therefore continue the supply organic matter to the sediments [7]. With organic matter (energy) diverted from invertebrate consumption to microbial decomposition, the natural pattern of energy flow is altered, and pelagic and opportunistic species are favoured [8]. Indeed, an increased ratio of planktivore:demersal fish biomass is an important effect of eutrophication [11]. Low bottom water oxygen concentrations are also conducive to the build-up of toxic compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and ammonia gas, which can also be harmful to benthic organisms and fish. Even short-lived anoxic events can cause the mass mortality of fish and benthic organisms [10].

    Overall, anoxic and hypoxic events can cause large reductions in the abundance, diversity and harvest of fish in affected waters [4], and can contribute to an overall loss of bio-diversity[9]. However, the extent to which bottom water anoxia causes declines in overall fish production depends on a balanced between the negative and positive and effects of eutrophication in the full spectrum of habitats within the system [4]……

    Major research institutions, universities and government (local and State) agencies gather oxygen data for specific research studies. Some information on anoxic and hypoxic events in Australian coastal waterways was compiled during the National Land & Water Resources Audit. In most cases, no data was available. However, localised or short-lived periods of hypoxia were reported in the Derwent and Huon estuaries (TAS) and in the Tuggerah Lakes (NSW). Prolonged and extensive anoxia is experienced in the Gippsland Lakes.

    Note:

    Anoxia is an extreme form of hypoxia.

              Database Migrated        
    This morning I migrated the database behind my blog from a shared server onto my VPS. If you notice any strangeness, let me know. I think I got everything right (although I made a couple of errors along the way so the blog was down for about fifteen minutes - I'm a dangerous sysadmin :)
              RELEASE: Microsoft Workplace Analytics for Office 365 Enterprise        
    Microsoft Workplace Analytics—a powerful new organizational analytics solution—is now generally available. Workplace Analytics uses a variety of techniques to learn about a workgroup’s productivity through *anonymous* examination of emails, calendars, & potentially information pulled from HR databases. Microsoft Workplace Analytics is available as an add-on to any Office 365 enterprise plan.  The add-on costs depend […]
              ESM's QuickLessons A DearMYRTLE Genealogy Study Group Lesson 21 and Writing Historical Biography        


    Hilary Gadsby

    QuickLesson 21: Citing DNA Evidence: Five Ground Rules    
    Elizabeth Shown Mills, “QuickLesson 21: Citing DNA Evidence: Five Ground Rules,” Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage (https://www.evidenceexplained.com/content/quicklesson-21-citing-dna-evidence-five-ground-rules : accessed 24 Sept 2016).     
    and
    Writing Historical Biography
    Elizabeth Shown Mills, “Writing Historical Biography," Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage (https://www.evidenceexplained.com/quicktips/writing-historical-biography : accessed 24 Sept 2016).


    Welcome to my final blogpost for this study group.

    I looked at these topics and thought how can I relate these to my own research. I have not done any genetic testing of either myself or any close relatives and I have not as yet attempted to write a historical biography.

    So I cannot write from experience but I can say what I understand and how I would approach this.

    ESM mentions "five basic ground rules"

    Evidence versus citation

    All we do when we write a citation is identify our source. In relation to DNA results these will have been analysed and presented in a particular format we cite how they have been presented to us (what we see). 

    DNA is evidence

    We take information we find in our source and use what it is telling us in building the evidence supporting or refuting our assertion. The same as any other source.

    Citation to support an assertion

    The information may need further analysis, to provide us with the evidence to support or refute an assertion that X is related to Y, but this is what we can add to our dicussion rather than a citation. Whatever the outcome of the discussion citing the source will not change.

    What are you citing?

    How has the result of the test been communicated to you. Have you been presented with a comparison to others held in a database?

    You may need to explain what you are citing

    Some citations are in need of explanation it may not simply be a case of including a name and date. We include sufficient information to clarify any specific item of interest.

    The only thing I will add here as I have no specific example is that when we are dealing with genetics we are using information from living or sometimes recently deceased individuals. Given that even if an individual is now deceased they may still have close living relations we need to ensure we follow the guidelines. Elizabeth Shown Mills has a number of publications available including one on genetic sources and there is information available on the website for International Society of Genetic Genealogy.



    Historical Biography

    Whilst I have not as yet written any biography be it my own or anyone in my family I have used some of the records suggested.
    If we wish to present an interesting picture of our family to others, be they family or friends, then we need to include more than a list of dry facts and possibly a few photographs. Technology may allow us to present things in a more interactive manner but first we need to find the information.
    Census information, certificates, church registers tell us who was related to whom and when births, marriages and deaths may have occurred but they tell us little about how our family lived and interacted with others in their community. It is likely that our own lives have changed considerably over our lifetime and the same is likely true for our ancestors.
    Whilst we may not have met someone we may still be able to build up some kind of picture of the life he may have lead.

    I will show you an example from the half brother of my great grandfather Rowland Curtis.
    We find his memorial at Find A Grave in Warminster.
    This is incomplete and tells little about who he was and the family he had and any struggles he may have faced. He is recorded in the Family Search Family Tree with the currently available documents.

    I have not included what I have found in the newspapers and books about Warminster.
    It appears that this family were mentioned in the newspapers on several occasions.
    The local newspaper is The Warminster and Westbury Journal and a search at Find My Past in the British Newspaper Archive returns several results.
    They even made a national paper known as Lloyds News. The local paper included a copy of the original but unfortunately without the photograph.





    "London Interviewer's Visit to Warminster," The Warminster and Westbury Journal, 28 March 1908, p. 6 col 3;digital images, Find My Past.co.uk (http://www.findmypast.co.uk : accessed 26 Sept 2016), British Newspaper Archive Collection.

    So what do I need to do with this information? 
    What else do I need to look for and how can I get this in to a format that the family will find interesting? 
    I have found a photograph of the family in a copyrighted book page 112. There are also photographs of another family member on pages 58 and 59 in the same book. Danny Howell. Yesterday's Warminster (Buckingham, England: Barracuda Books Limited, 1987)

    I am using Twile to collaborate with the family and I am going to add these to the website to help the family know more about who these people were and how they lived. I am always looking for more information and because it is a private website copyright issues may be less of an issue.  
    I can share more in a private invitation only area than on public trees and I hope that it will be able to connect to my blogs and other sites to avoid duplication. The timelines and maps along with historical information can really bring our own history in to context.
    There are plans for Twile to connect with Family Search but I will tackle any issues, I might have, if they become a problem. 

    Like many I have gathered the information to write more about my ancestors but have rarely pulled it together to create something more this is something I hope to do on my family blog, maybe I should start with Rowland Curtis, but hey I have already started.



              ESM's QuickLessons A DearMYRTLE Genealogy Study Group Lesson 20        

    Hilary Gadsby


    QuickLesson 20: Research Reports for Research Success
    Elizabeth Shown Mills, “QuickLesson 20: Research Reports for Research Success," Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage (https://www.evidenceexplained.com/content/quicklesson-20-research-reports-research-success  :  accessed 17 Sept 2016).

    This week we will be discussing the research process.

    How do we do our research?

    How should we do our research?

    Can we improve how we research?

    With the growth of the internet how many of us can find ourselves joining in with the quick click genealogy we frequently criticise.

    Why do we criticise this way of doing things?

    1. Insufficient preparation
    2. Poorly recorded
    3. Insufficient analysis
    So what should we be doing?
    Ask yourself these questions.
    1. What do I want to find?
    2. Where should I be doing my research?
    3. How am I going to do the research?
    4. How am I going to record what I find?
    5. How am I going to review what I find?
    We can use pen and paper or our computers to assist in these tasks.

    We know how to interrogate the databases online and how to enter our results in our software program. There is plenty of information to tell us how to do this either digital or paper.

    Do any programs tell us what we need to look for?

    Do any programs tell us whether what we find is relevant?

    Poor preparation and lack of analysis can lead to hours of wasted research.

    How can we know what we need to find if we have not analysed what we already know.

    Creating a research plan will be the best thing you do. It will keep you on track. 

    If we wish to move on from being just "information gatherers and processors" as ESM states in this lesson we must consider how we approach our work.

    This weekend I came across an individual who had been recorded by another researcher in the Wiki Tree website with the maiden name of ROSLING. However this was not the surname for the parents. The link to the 1911 census revealed that she was recorded as their adopted daughter. There was also a link to an army record showing her date of birth in keeping with the census record.
    I am researching the surname ROSLING and was interested in knowing where she fitted in the lineage I am constructing.
    If I just entered her name in a search would I find anything and how would I know if what I found was relevant.

    Experienced researchers will often know exactly where to research and which records may help them find what is available. This does not preclude them from the planning stages but it may reduce the time needed to formulate the plan. Even the experts find themselves stumped occasionally and have to consider alternative strategies. Researching in a new area be it geographical or an unfamiliar set of records may require a different skill set and a whole new learning experience. If we are to complete a thorough research we have to be aware of the resources available. 

    Even the best plans may need to be altered in the light of new information. Being prepared and analysing what has been found may alter our focus or the manner in which we carry out our research.
    The ability to plan and analyse helps us make better use of the research time.

    Complex questions may only be answered if we look at all the information we have and understand what it's telling us. 
    Some researchers have found that a program such as Evidentia can help them formulate a plan for these complex problems. By entering each piece of information deciding what it is saying and importantly how reliable that information may be we have a clearer understanding of what we already know. 
    The source of any information may be flawed. Awareness of the reliability and being able to resolve conflicting information are analysis skills that may only come threw experience and education. 
    Learning from others and sharing personal experience helps each of us become better researchers by improving the knowledge base.

    Do we read any accompanying information about a record group that we find online before we enter a name in the search box. If not, why not, surely we need to know if the record will be likely to provide us with the information we need before we search. Would you travel miles to an archive or cemetery without checking that they have what you are looking for first. The same should be true for online records. Finding information and blindly entering it into a database is as boring and pointless as writing lines was as a school punishment. If you want the reward of finding that elusive connection you need to spend time preparing and analysing, formulate a plan, familiarise yourself with what may be available, pinpoint the best way to approach the task and adapt the plan as and when more information is discovered. Not forgetting that negative results do not mean negative evidence, it may be that any record has just not survived.

    As we near the end of this study group, we need to pull together all that we have discussed.

    I am writing about my research mentioned above on my One Name Study blog. I have not included specific examples this week as I believe that this lesson is more about understanding the process and the importance of doing this well. 
    Only we as individuals know whether we have been disciplined in the past.
    Hopefully our discussions may have helped at least one of those watching to become researchers rather than gatherer/processors.

    Researching when few records or indexes were available online and internet access was expensive.  
    I was not aware of research plans so I would go armed with notes that I had made to guide my research. 
    Whilst looking for ancestors in the BMD indexes on microfiche I would have a name, range of years, and geographical area. When I found a possible candidate I would record and order a certificate. 
    The only way I could access the census was using indexes and then when I could get to the local archive I would have to scroll through the microfilm to find what I wanted. 
    The internet has made finding many records easier but has it also created a group of individuals who may believe the adverts that show families building trees using only the online website. 
    No website will ever contain all the records and whilst the records support our research they are not the researcher. 
    Who pieces together which record is relevant to each individual, who is related to who and how are all these individuals related, it is us as researchers who analyse the information and decide its relevance.

    The reporting suggested by Elizabeth Shown Mills may sound quite prescriptive and academic and unless you have an academic background you may switch off at the thought of report writing. However what she is saying is this. 

    1. Compile your findings complete with the information needed to find them again. 
    2. Collect them together in a manner that you are comfortable working with or that fits with your findings.
    3. Summarize what you have found.
    4. Decide whether you have answered your research question.
    5. Decide whether you need to do more research and create a new research plan.
    6. Make a conclusion and write a reasoned report to support this.
    Personally I would say that Evidentia will help you do all of these in a guided way.

    Finally here is a link to a Google Sheet I created called The Family History Research Process. It contains links to documents that others may find useful. Please add your comments if you think I may have missed something useful that could be added.

              ESM's QuickLessons A DearMYRTLE Genealogy Study Group Lesson 14        


    Hilary Gadsby

    QuickLesson 14: Petitions—What Can We Do with a List of Names?    
    Elizabeth Shown Mills, “QuickLesson 14: Petitions—What Can We Do with a List of Names?” Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage (https://www.evidenceexplained.com/content/quicklesson-14-petitions%E2%80%94what-can-we-do-list-names : accessed 3 July 2016).         
    and
    "Printed Primary Sources" & Naive Trust    
    Elizabeth Shown Mills, “ 'Printed Primary Sources' and Naive Trust," Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage (https://www.evidenceexplained.com/quicktips/printed-primary-sources-naive-trust : accessed 3 July 2016).

    Whilst there are many who do a great job in transcribing records for the rest of us to use, ESM in this QuickTip advises caution, in this post I discuss why we should do this.

    In England where I have been doing my research we have many original records in our archives and to protect these there are ongoing transcription projects and many are being scanned to make digital copies. There are also many available on microfiche which is sometimes used to create scanned images.
    Indexes for births, marriages and deaths were often written well after the original registration occurred if you find a typewritten index it is unlikely to have been created at the time and the handwritten indexes could be difficult to read. 




    The transcription of the christening of Thomas William Thirtle.
    "England Births and Christenings, 1538-1975," database, FamilySearch(https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:NX6M-ZP2 : 6 December 2014), Thomas William Thirtle, 16 Nov 1817; citing Norwich, Norfolk, England, reference item 26 p 43; FHL microfilm 1,517,748.

    Only tells us part of the story and it is only by going to the register itself that we find out more.
     "England, Norfolk, Parish Registers (County Record Office), 1510-1997," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-267-11683-119984-39?cc=1416598 : 25 June 2014), Norwich St James with Pockthorpe > Baptisms > 1813-1827 > image 3 of 107; Record Office, Norwich.

    Whether it is a transcription of an index or an original document the closer you can get to the original the greater the reliability.
    If you are fortunate you may also find more information than you expected and frequently transcribers will only transcribe part of the information as they are expected to follow a standard format.


              ESM's QuickLessons A DearMYRTLE Genealogy Study Group Lesson 7         

    Hilary Gadsby


    QuickLesson 7: Family Lore and Indian Princesses    
    Elizabeth Shown Mills, “QuickLesson 7: Family Lore and Indian Princesses,” Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage (https://www.evidenceexplained.com/content/quicklesson-7-family-lore-and-indian-princesses : accessed 4 May 2016).

    This lesson deals with the stories that pass down through the family.
    These can either be backed up by the evidence or totally refuted.
    Whatever we do we must be sure that the person we have found is the one we want and not just someone with a similar name.
    We must also ensure that we look at all credible sources for the time and place we are researching.
    If we miss that there is another person with a similar name, or don't consider them in our analysis, we will reduce the credibility of our research.

    Stories get passed from one generation to another and as each person passes the oral history it can change and even become a totally different tale.
    Oral history should not be dismissed as it can help us to deal with conflicts and changes from one record to another. 
    Within my own research I have been told why a living person uses a different name to that recorded on the birth certificate. 
    Sometimes social attitudes can be such that the truth is not recorded. During wartime many children were conceived whilst the husband was away and at least some of them will have been registered with the husband's surname. Children born to unmarried girls may have been brought up as a younger sibling by the grandparents.

    Many like to believe that they are descendants of nobility or that there is a connection to someone with money. But finding a document does not mean that it is one that relates to your family. Does the information fit with what you already know or are there inconsistencies. Don't wait for someone else to point out your conflicts resolve them, if you can't explain them, highlight them, and think about how you may find out more so that you can resolve them. 


    Only this last week I made contact with a third cousin who told me “ Joseph George Robbins was born on the 28th December 1887 in Warminster, Wiltshire. He left Warminster and went to London, became a window cleaner and then got a job as a waiter at The Strand Hotel in London.  He met Edith Fuller who later became his wife. Joseph travelled to New York and got a job as a waiter at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel.  At some point he sent for Edith and she obtained work in the hotel as a “hat check girl”.  They married in New Rachel, USA. Edith became pregnant and was sent back to stay with her mother in England. Violet Georgina Robbins was born on 5th June 1916.Grandfather also worked on ships as a chef and a waiter working for the Orient line and went to Australia on the Orantees and my aunts could remember he visited Fremantle, Adelaide and Brisbane. ”
    I am now in the process of confirming the details.

    Transcriptions can be easy to find but I always like to confirm things with originals or digital images.
    The marriage transcription is on Family Search and here is the citation
    New York, New York City Marriage Records, 1829-1940," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/2435-KDP : accessed 16 May 2016), Joseph Robbins and Edith Fuller, 21 Feb 1913; citing Marriage, Manhattan, New York, New York, United States, New York City Municipal Archives, New York; FHL microfilm 1,613,708

    I have also found possible passenger lists for both of them travelling to New York she left on 12 February 1913 and he on the 4 December 1912, however the occupations do not fit with those I have been told about, and the Joseph on another ship leaving Southampton on the 11 March 1914 could be him as he is listed as a waiter. She is possibly following in April 1914 on the Olympic.
    Did he go out in 1912 trying to find work and then end up doing something else?

    Why did they go back to England after their marriage and return on different ships?

    The information that is on the passenger lists is never enough to be certain that you have the correct person(s) particularly with common names.

    I have found a record card CR10 which shows his Merchant Navy service on the Orontes this has a photograph of him on the card. (see link to Wikipedia page for SS Orontes)
    Another researcher added some family photographs to their Ancestry tree in 2009 and the person on the CR10 matches the person in those photographs.

    I have found a website for the Waldorf Astoria and believe there may be records in the New York Archives but I will probably have to wait and see if they become available online. 
    I also need to check out the newspapers for any information.

    Since Joseph and Edith were both born, and also died, in England, I might never have thought to search elsewhere for their marriage. 
    Family stories can be useful but we need to be careful to follow up our hints with good documentation.



              ESM's QuickLessons A DearMYRTLE Genealogy Study Group Lesson 1        

    Hilary Gadsby

    QuickLesson 1: Analysis & Citation
    Elizabeth Shown Mills, “QuickLesson 1: Analysis and Citation,” Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage(https://www.evidenceexplained.com/content/quicklesson-1-analysis-citation :  accessed 14 March 2016).    



    Do you look at what you already know each time before you carry out a piece of research? 
    Or are you, like many of us today, seeing a new database available at your favourite website anxious to try it out.

    If you have not made a plan before you start to research you can easily fall in to the trap that many researchers discover that you take the first thing you find.

    Only yesterday, I decided to look for an aunt of my mother in the 1939 register at Find My Past.

    I entered her first and last names and year of birth and the town where I thought she was living. One result appeared which looked reasonable so I linked the record to my tree.

    However I did not leave it at that as there was another person in the household who appeared to be her son.

    As I continued my analysis of this record I knew it was not the person I was looking for, the year of birth for the son was 1923, my mother's uncle had died in 1918 whilst his wife was expecting their third child.

    So I went back and did another search and this time I found her using her first name and middle initial. To further confirm that I had the correct person she was still living at the same address I had written on a letter years earlier.

    How can any of us be sure we have found the correct source for our information if we do not analyse the information we find in the source.

    We cannot return to that source later if we do not create a citation. 
    By understanding each source we use and its importance in the inferences that we make we do not put undue preference onto one particular source.

    My analyse of the information I found in the 1939 register alongside information I had gathered from other sources helped me to determine which was the most credible information within the 1939 register as a source.

    My citation for what I have found will be to the second page, not the first one, the analysis of the information supporting its use as evidence of exact date of birth, residence in 1939, name in 1939 and occupation. I can also state who she was living with if they are not redacted. 
    Were I only to cite this as being found in the 1939 register without including full details of the page then anyone wishing to follow my research may erroneously find the other person. 
    So even if you do not get all the punctuation correct make sure you collect all the information so that anyone can find that record within the source again and decide whether they agree with your conclusion or "current thinking".

    So each time you go to research remember this picture.








              Ephenation evaluation report        

    Vision of Ephenation

    To have a game like World Of Warcraft, where players are able to add their own adventures. I think this is a probable future development. This type of games should be fully realized and generally available in something like 10 to 20 years.

    Goals

    Unlimited world

    The size of the world should not be limited. It is easier to implement a flat world than a spherical world, and a flat world can be unlimited. The nature will obviously have to be created automatically.

    Unlimited players

    This is not possible, of course, but the number of simultaneous players should be big. Limitation to 10 or 100 is much too small, as everyone would more or less know everyone and work on the same project. A minimum would be 1000 players, but preferably more than 10000. That will lead into a situation where you always meet new players you don't know, and the world is big enough so as to always find somewhere that you have not explored.

    Unlimited levels

    Most RPG type of games have a limited set of levels. But that will put a limit on the game play. After reaching the top level, the game is no longer the same. Not only that, but there is a kind of a race to reach this top level. Instead, there shall be no last top level. That will put an emphasis on constant exploration and progress.

    Allocate territory

    Players should be able to allocate a territory, where they can design their own adventures. This territory shall be protected from others, making sure no one else can interfere with the design.

    Social support

    The community and social interaction is very important. That is one reason for the requirement to support many players, as it will allow you to include all friends. There are a couple of ways to encourage community:
    1. Use of guilds. This would be a larger group of players, where you know the others.
    2. Temporary teams, used when exploring. It is more fun to explore with others.
    3. Use of common territories. It shall be possible to cooperate with friends to make territories that are related and possibly adjacent to each other.

    Mechanics

    It shall be possible to design interesting buildings, landscapes and adventures. The adventures shall be advanced enough so as to support triggered actions, with dynamic behavior that depends on player choices.

    Execution

    This is a description on how the project was executed. It was started end of 2010. Most of the programming was done by me (Lars Pensjö), but I got support with several sub modules.

    Server

    It was decided to use Go as the programming language for the server. Go has just the right support for this type of software:
    1. High performance (compiled language)
    2. Object oriented and static typing
    3. A concept of gorutines (light version of threads)
    4. A very high quotient for "it works when it compiles"
    5. Garbage collection
    The disadvantage of Go when the Ephenation project was started, was that Go was a new language, in transition, with uncertain future. This turned out to not be a problem, and the language has today a frozen specification (Go 1).

    To be able to manage the massive amount of players, quadtrees are used for both players and monsters.

    It is the server that has full control over all Model data. Player attributes, melee mechanisms, movements, etc.

    Client

    The client was initially designed in C, but I soon switched to C++. There are still some remains from C, which explains some not-so-good OO solutions. OpenGL was selected, instead of DirectX, partly as a random choice, but also because I wanted to do the development in Linux.

    It was decided to use OpenGL 3.3, instead of supporting older variants. There are some nice improvements in OpenGL that makes design easier, which was deemed more important than supporting old hardware.

    The world consists of blocks, voxels. This is difficult to draw in real time with high FPS, as the number of faces grow very quickly with viewing distance. Considerable effort was spent on transforming the list of cubes into a list of visible triangles. It is also difficult to make a level of detail (LOD) algorithm that gradually reduce details on long distances.

    Another technical difficult with a world based on cubes was to make it look nice, instead of blocky. Some algorithms were investigated that used a kind of filter. As the view distance is limited, there can be a conflict when being underground.

    The game engine can't know whether the far distance, which is not visible, should be replaced by a light background (from the sky) or from a dark background (typical to being underground). A compromise is used, where the color of the distance fog depends on the player being at a certain height.

    Protocol

    There are strict requirements on the protocol. If a server shall be able to handle 10000+ players, the communication can easily become a bottleneck. TCP/IP was selected in favor of UDP/IP, to make it easier to handle traffic control. The protocol itself is not based on any standard, and completely customized for Ephenation.

    Mechanics

    There are two major choices. Either use a scripting language to control the aspects of the world, or a graphical approach. A scripting language is more powerful, but on the other hand it is harder to learn. There is also the problem with supporting a massive amount of players, in which case time consuming scripts would make it unfeasible.

    The choice was to go for a limited set of blocks, with a special block type that can be used to initiate predefined actions. Inspiration was taken from the principles of Lego blocks. With a relatively small set of basic blocks, it is possible to construct the most amazing things.

    Evaluation

    Game engine

    The client side was designed from scratch, instead of using an existing game engine. This may have been a mistake, as the main development time was spent on graphical technology, instead of exploring the basic visions.

    Adventure design and mechanics

    The set of blocks and possible actions with "activator blocks" are currently limited. It is not enough to construct full adventures that are fun to explore and provides great entertainment.
    Early version of the game, where a player abused the monster spawner

    Game play

    The basic world is automatically generated. This usually make a game of limited interest, as game play is bound to become repetitive. Support from initial players enabled the creation of a world with many new buildings and creations. The more advanced features that support dynamic behavior was not added until later, which unfortunately lead to most part of the current world being too static.

    Graphics

    The graphics is working, but far from a production level. There are several glitches, e.g. camera falling inside the wall and lighting effects cut off. As the world is dynamic, the possibility to do offline precalculations are limited. That means most graphical effects has to be done live, which is a difficult requirement. For example, it is not known how many light sources that should be possible to manage. It was chosen to use a deferred shader, which improves the decoupling from geometry and shading.
    Early attempt to create automatic monsters. This was later replaced with fully animated models.

    Social

    The social side of the game play has been explored very limited. There are ways to send message to nearby players, and to communicate privately with any player. Although this is a very important aspect of the final vision, it is known technology and not difficult to implement.

    Performance tests

    The aggressive requirement to support 10,000 simultaneous players is hard to verify. A simple simulator was used, adding 1000 players at random position with a uniform density. These players simply walked around. If they were attacked, they attacked back again. If they were killed, they automatically used the command to revive again.

    On a Core I7 with 8 GBytes of RAM, the load from the server was approximately 10%. This is no proof that the server can actually manage 10,000 players, as there may be non linear dependencies. There are known bottlenecks, for example monster management that is currently handled by a single thread. That means at most one core can be used for this, but it should be possible to distribute this task into several smaller goroutines.

    The communication was measured at around 100 MB/s. With linear scaling, it would be 1GB/s for 10,000 players. The intention is that the scaling should be linear, as cross communication between players is designed to be of constant volume. Still, it remains to be proven.

    There is the obvious question whether the simulator is representative to real players. One way to improve that assessment would be to measure the actual behaviour of real players, and compare with the simulator.

    Another possible bottle neck is the communication with the player database (MongoDB). This depends on the number of login/logout and auto saves. It also depends on load generated from the web page. This has not been evaluated. Typically, an access takes about 1ms. The MongoDB is currently located on the same system as the game server, minimizing communication latency. The database will have to be managed by another computer system for a full production server.

    Equipment

    The objects that the player can wear and wield are simplified. As the game as a concept is unlimited, it is not possible to hand craft objects. Instead, there are 4 defined qualities for each object, per level.

    Communication

    TCP/IP has a higher overhead than UDP/IP. Some packages are big (the complete chunks), which would have required several UDP/IP packets and a complicated transmission control. It may be that UDP/IP should be used instead. However, this was not an issue for evaluation of the project.

    As the server is responsible for all object atributes, the clients need to be updated frequently. Player and monster positions are updated 10 times per second. This generates some data, so the update is limited to nearby players. Because of this, the client need to do interpolation to be able to show smooth movements, and the client need to be able to manage stale information about other players and monsters. The advantage of having the server manage all attributes is that it is not possible to cheat. The client source code is available, and it would have been easy to do changes.

    Conclusion

    Moore's law

    I believe the computers will continue to grow more powerful exponentially for many years still. However, the full power will probably not be accessible unless the game server can scale well with increasing number of cores. The performance test were done on hardware from 2011, and there are already much more powerful equipment available.

    Adventure design

    As a proof of concept, I think the project was successful. The thing I miss most, is a powerful enough mechanism that supports custom adventures. This is a key point of the game concept, but I believe, with more personnel involved, that new ideas would be available that would improve the possibilities considerably.

    Document update history

    2013-02-22 First published.
    2013-02-24 Added discussion about using voxels on the client side.
    2013-02-27 Information about entity attribute management and communication.
    2015-05-04 Pictures failed, and were replaced.

              Making Sense of MACRA        

    In January 2015, the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) established new goals for Medicare to improve value while controlling costs. The Medicare Access & CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) will help achieve these goals:

    • Goal 1: by the end of 2016, 30% of Medicare payments are tied to quality or value via alternative payment models (APMs), and 50% by the end of 2018.
    • Goal 2: by the end of 2016, 85% of Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) payments are tied to quality or value, and 90% by the end of 2018.

    Why must we change Medicare reimbursement? As shown in Chart 1, based on DHHS reports, Medicare costs rose sharply from its enactment in the mid-1960s to today, both as a percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and as a percent of all national health expenditures (NHE). Currently, Medicare is estimated to account for roughly 4% of the GDP, and for over one in five health care dollars. There is also a need to improve the quality of health care services and delivery. Changing Medicare reimbursement is a way to better manage costs while enhancing care quality.

    As discussed in the series of posts on bundled payments, traditional medical billing and payment is volume-based. In other words, the more hip replacements that surgeons perform, the more they can bill for. If the hip replacement procedures are more costly than necessary, the surgeons still get reimbursed. If the patient suffers complications following hip replacement surgery, the added days in the hospital and hospital readmissions are reimbursed. Providers are rewarded for doing more, but not for doing better.

    Increasingly, Medicare and other payers are moving to value-based reimbursement systems that reward providers for improving the quality of care while controlling costs. MACRA changes the incentives for patient care to encourage providers, largely physicians, to become part of this value-based movement. MACRA also ends the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) formula used since 1997 for Medicare reimbursement to healthcare providers.

    MIPS and APMs

    MACRA establishes the Quality Payment Program (QPP) with two paths that move providers to value-based reimbursement:

    • The Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS)
    • Advanced Alternative Payment Models (APMs).

    Healthcare practitioners eligible for Medicare Part B reimbursement will participate in MIPS. For the first two years of MACRA, MIPS eligible clinicians include physicians, dentists, physician assistants and advance practice nurses such as nurse practitioners and certified registered nurse anesthetists. In following years, eligibility may be expanded to other practitioners such as physical or occupational therapists, nurse midwives, clinical social workers and audiologists. Hospitals and other facilities, clinicians with low patient volume or in their first year of Medicare Part B participation, and some clinicians in APMs are excluded from MIPS.

    Under MIPs, the eligible clinician’s Medicare Part B reimbursement is adjusted based on a Composite Performance Score (CPS) that encompasses the categories of quality, resource use, clinical practice improvement activities and advancing care information. The scoring system is complex, and may also be adjusted for factors such as practices located in rural areas. The amount of the adjustment to Part B reimbursement may be positive or negative, beginning at ± 4% in 2019 and increasing to ± 9% by 2022. The adjustments are designed to be more reasonable and predictable than the earlier SGR annual adjustments. Exceptional performers may receive additional reimbursement in the adjustment. These payment adjustments and bonuses begin in 2019.

    APMs include new financing initiatives that increase incentives for high value care, including bundled payment models and Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs). Bundled payment models and ACOs compel providers across a health care episode to work together to deliver high quality care while controlling costs. Physicians, hospitals, rehabilitation centers, home health agencies and other healthcare providers share accountability for their budget as well as their patients, and are rewarded for high-value performance. QPP providers may not need to participate in MIPS if they are part of an advanced APM.

    Nurses in many healthcare settings will see changes to improve coordination and services as a response to MACRA and other value-based reimbursement strategies. My book helps nurses understand fundamental concepts of health care economics and financing, including innovations that tie quality to payment. It is essential that nurses, at the front lines of health care delivery, learn about healthcare finance and its impact on their work and their institutions.

    Susan J. Penner, RN, MN, MPA, DrPH, CNL . Author, Economics and Financial Management for Nurses and Nurse Leaders, 3rd  Edition, 2016, and adjunct faculty at the University of San Francisco School of Nursing and Health Professions.


              Dirsync Database keeps on Increasing…        
      Hi Have you noticed the Office 365 directory sync database just getting larger and larger… If so try the following to clear the sync runs 1. Open the MIISClient.exe and click the Operations tab. 2. From the Actions menu, select "Clear Runs" 3. On the Clear Runs dialog a. Uncheck the option "save runs...
              Database Maintenance in Exchange Server 2010        
    If there is one area of Exchange 2010 that was poorly documented and poorly understood it has to be database maintenance.  The problem stemmed from the significant changes that we made in the store for Exchange 2010 and a confusion of terms. This has led many people in the field to get confused about what...
              Recommended Windows Hotfix for Database Availability Groups running Windows Server 2008 R2        
    Scott just posted this article up on the team blog.. http://blogs.technet.com/b/exchange/archive/2011/11/20/recommended-windows-hotfix-for-database-availability-groups-running-windows-server-2008-r2.aspx A summary of the issue… “This hotfix is strongly recommended for all database availability groups that are stretched across multiple datacentres. For DAGs that are not stretched across multiple datacentres, this hotfix is good to have, as well. The article describes a race condition...
              Salted Password Hashing        
    CrackStation: Salted Password Hashing
    "The most important aspect of a user account system is how user passwords are protected. User account databases are hacked frequently, so you absolutely must do something to protect your users' passwords if your website is ever breached. The best way to protect passwords is to employ salted password hashing. This page will explain how to do it properly."
    Via @SGgrc
              Getting started with Postgres and MVC3        
    DataChomp: Getting started with Postgres and MVC3
    "It's true, I am a SQL Server DBA but even I have to admit that the Postgres team is doing some wildy exciting stuff. With that in mind, lets take a quick look at just how quickly we can replace SQL Server with a free/open full bore Enterprise database system like Postgres."

              Comment on Reasons of OST File Corruption and OST Recovery Method by mike        
    Easily remove OST file corruption issue and export OST database to PST with perfect OST to PST converter tool. This software is capable of saving recovered OST file in PST, EML, MSG, DBX, MBOX, HTML and more formats. It accurately recovers and convert emails properties, emails headers, task requests, journals, tasks, remainders and notes, etc. Know more : https://gallery.technet.microsoft.com/How-to-fix-Internal-Error-64d60a6b
              Konfigurace        

    Wp-config.php is the single most important file in your entire WordPress installation. This file can be used to configure database functionalities, enhance performance, and improve security on all WordPress powered websites and blogs.

    Debugging WordPress

    For developers, WordPress has this [...]


              Preserving Transactional Data        

    This paper is an adaptation of a longer report commissioned by the UK Data Service. The longer report contributes to on-going support for the Big Data Network – a programme funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). The longer report can be found at doi:10.7207/twr16-02.

    This paper discusses requirements for preserving transactional data and the accompanying challenges facing the companies and institutions who aim to re-use these data for analysis or research. It presents a range of use cases – examples of transactional data – in order to describe the characteristics and difficulties of these ‘big’ data for long-term access. Based on the overarching trends discerned in these use cases, the paper will define the challenges facing the preservation of these data early in the curation lifecycle. It will point to potential solutions within current legal and ethical frameworks, but will focus on positioning the problem of re-using these data from a preservation perspective.

    In some contexts, these data could be fiscal in nature, deriving from business ‘transactions’. This paper, however, considers transactional data more broadly, addressing any data generated through interactions with a database system. Administrative data, for instance, is one important form of transactional data collected primarily for operational purposes, not for research. Examples of administrative data include information collected by government departments and other organisations when delivering a service (e.g. tax, health, or education) and can entail significant legal and ethical challenges for re-use. Transactional data, whether created by interactions between government database systems and citizens or by automatic sensors or machines, hold potential for future developments in academic research and consumer analytics. Re-use of reliable transactional data in research has the power to improve services and investments by organisations in many different sectors. Ultimately, however, these data will only lead to new discoveries and insights if they are effectively curated and preserved to ensure appropriate reproducibility. This paper explores challenges to this undertaking and approaches to ensuring long-term access.

     


              Comment on SQL for SMS/ConfigMgr Tip – Distribute data evenly from 1 SQL file to multiple SQL files by Properly configure SQL Server ConfigMgr database | Steve Thompson [MVP]        
    […] is possible to migrate a single data file to multiple data files. Use this reference to get you started. It is an older article, the screen shots are missing, however the technique is […]
              Bangalore University Third Semester BCA Exams Question Papers        
    Bangalore University Third Semester BCA Exams Question Papers

    Question Papers Nov/Dec 2015

     III Sem Financial Accounting and Management (Y2K14 Scheme)
     III Sem English (Freshers) (2015-16 Onwards)
     III Sem Additional English (Freshers) (2015-16 Onwards)
     III Sem Hindi - III (2015-16 Onwards)
     III Sem Operating Systems (Y2K14 Scheme)
     III Sem Sanskrit (Freshers) (2015-16 Onwards)
     III Sem Tamil (Part-I) (Paper-III) (2015-16 Onwards)
     III Sem Kannada -III (Freshers) (2015-16 Onwards)
     III Sem Object Oriented Programming Using C++ (Y2K14 Scheme)

    Question Papers (2009-2013)

    3 BCA 4: Accounting and financial management - 2009
    3 BCA 4: Accounting and financial management - 2012
    BCA 301: Accounting and financial management - 2012
    Additional English Paper-III
    3 BCA 2: Object Oriented programming Using C++
    3 BCA 5: Computer Oriented Numerical Methods and Linear programming
    3 BCA 3: Computer Science
    BCA 305: Personality Development and Communication Skills
    BCA 304: database Management System
    3BCA-1: database Management System
    BCA 305: Data Structure Using C
    BCA 305: Data Structure Using C - 2012
    BCA 305: Data Structure Using C - 2009
    BCA 304: Data Structure Using C - 2009
    3BCA1 Data Structure Using C - 2009
    Discrete Mathematical Structures (BCA 303)
    Language English - III
    Language Hindi - III
    Language Hindi - III - 2012
    Indian Constitution
    Language kannada - III
    Language kannada - III - 2009
    Language kannada - III - 2012
    BCA 305: Numerical Analysis and Linear Programming
    BCA 305: Numerical Analysis and Linear Programming - 2012
    BCA 305: Numerical Analysis and Linear Programming - 2011
    BCA 304: Operating Systems
    BCA 304: Operating Systems - 2009
    BCA 304: Operating Systems - 2011
    3BCA3: Operating Systems - 2009
    3BCA-2: Object Oriented programming Using C++ - 2011
    Language Sanskrit - III - 2009
    Language Sanskrit - III - 2012
    3 BCA 4: Accounting and financial management - 2011
    3BCA - 3: Operating Systems - 2011
    Urdu Language - III


              Bangalore University Second Semester BCA Exams Question Papers        
    Bangalore University Second Semester BCA Exams Question Papers

    Question Papers 2015

    II Sem Language Sanskrit Paper-II
    II Sem Numerical & Statistical Methods
    II Sem Language Kannada-II
    II Sem Language English-II
    II Sem Database Management System
    II Sem Data Structures

    Question Papers (2014)

    II Sem Object Oriented Programming Using C++
    II Sem Database Management System
    II Sem English
    II Sem Kannada
    II Sem Mathematics

    Question Papers (2010-2013)

    Additional English Jun2010
    BCA 2nd sem 2009
    BCA II sem 2009
    Business communication Per devmt Dec09
    Computer Science(Mathematics) Jun 2010
    Computer Science(Num & Statistical ) Jun 2010
    Computer Science Database Mng Systs Jun 2010
    Data structure using C Dec 09
    DBMS 2011
    DBMS 2013
    English 2013
    English Jun 2010
    Hindi 2013
    Hindi Jun 2010
    Human Rights Environmental Studies 2013
    Kannada Jun 2010
    Kannada 2013
    Kannada May 2011 (Rep)
    Mathematics 2011 (O.S)
    Mathematics 2011
    Mathematics 2013
    Maths Dec 09
    Numerical & Statistical Methods 2011
    Numerical & Statistical Methods 2013
    Obj Orie Program II Jun 2010
    Sanskrit 2013
    Sanskrit Jun 2010
    System Analysis & Design 2013
    System Analysis Design 2011


              A Day to Remember, September 11, 2001        
    Today is the anniversary of September 11, 2001. Where were you that day? What were you doing? How did you feel about the events that transpired? What stories from that day and the people who were affected do you tell? Are they written in Sort Your Story or your genealogy database? Please share with us […]
              Presidential candidate doppelgangers: Any ideas?        
    As I met presidential candidate, Rep. Thaddeus McCotter (R-Michigan) last night, I couldn't help but think he looked like a certain celebrity. The only role I could remember the celebrity for was one of the executives, Frank Bascombe, in the 2007 version of Fun with Dick and Jane. With the help of Internet movie database, I found out the actor is Richard Jenkins, who actually has 95 titles on his resume. A coworker is convinced that a better doppelganger for McCotter is John Waters , who wrote...
              Volunteering: Slovenia - Morigenos Dolphin Project!!        

    Morigenos – marine mammal research and conservation society is seeking applications for:

    RESEARCH ASSISTANTS for season 2010

    WHAT

    Research assistants are required to assist with the ongoing long-term research and monitoring programme of the Slovenian Dolphin Project. The project focuses on the study, monitoring and conservation of the local population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Slovenian and adjacent waters in the north Adriatic Sea since 2002, collecting information on distribution, abundance, social structure, habitat use, fishery interactions and tourism impact.

    WHERE

    The research base is located in Portoroz, Slovenia (EU). The fieldwork is carried out in Slovenian and adjacent waters (north Adriatic Sea).

    WHEN

    20th June – 1st October 2010

    Candidates are expected to committ to the project for a minimum of 1 month, but can also apply for the whole period.

    DUTIES

    The research assistant will be responsible for assisting the project leaders in all aspects of research and associated tasks. Duties include, but are not limited to:

    · daily fieldwork (boat surveys on a 5.7 meter RIB, land-based watches with binoculars and theodolite tracking, photo-identification, behavioural sampling, data recording)

    · database entry, database management, data analysis

    · boat upkeep and maintenance

    · research base upkeep and maintenance

    · coordinating teams of participants in Morigenos research camps

    CONDITIONS

    This position is unpaid, but accommodation and food are provided. Successful applicants need to cover their own travel costs.

    IMPORTANT SKILLS / QUALIFICATIONS

    Essential:

    • A background in biology, veterinary medicine, geography or related sciences
    • Previous experience in cetacean research
    • Nautical licence and experience in handling RIBs
    • Good IT skills (Word, Excell and Access are a must)
    • Ability and willingness to work long hours outdoors, in often hot weather
    • Ability to work well in a small international team
    • Good verbal and written communication skills

    The following qualifications are not required, but one or more of the following will be considered an advantage:

    • Good knowledge of GIS
    • Previous experience and knowledge of photo-ID, distance sampling, habitat modelling, theodolite tracking or C-POD use
    • Experience in the use of software packages MARK, SOCPROG or R

    HOW TO APPLY

    Send a letter of interest and a CV, outlining why you are applying, your previous experience and qualifications, why you think you should be considered for the position and your availability in the given period. Include contact details of two references.

    Send your application to tilen.genov(at)gmail.com. Please specify 'MORIGENOS RESEARCH ASSISTANT' in your subject title. Deadline: 3rd April 2010.

    Applicants will be notified of the outcome by the 13th April 2010.

    Morigenos team will be at the ECS conference in Stralsund, where we would be happy to talk to you. When you send your application, please let us know whether you are attending the ECS and we can possibly arrange a meeting.


    Tilen Genov

    Morigenos - marine mammal research and conservation society

    Jarska cesta 36/a

    SI-1000 Ljubljana

    Slovenia (EU)

    www.morigenos.org


              Volunteer: California!        

    MARINE MAMMAL STRANDING RESPONSE INTERNSHIP - Spring & Summer 2010

    The California Wildlife Center in Malibu, California, seeks applicants for spring and summer internships working with stranded marine mammals. These are part time 8-week internship positions beginning March 15th (Spring session) and May 15th (Summer session). There is some flexibility of start dates. These internship positions are unpaid.

    Summary/Program Description:


    The California Wildlife Center is a non-profit organization dedicated to the rescue, rehabilitation and release of injured, orphaned and sick native wildlife. CWC fulfills this mission through marine mammal rescue, and treatment of avian and terrestrial wildlife in our rehabilitation hospital.


    This internship will provide an exciting and challenging educational
    experience in the marine mammal field, while also allowing for additional hands-on experience with other native California wildlife. The interns will be working closely with the Marine Mammal program staff in all aspects of stranding response, including logistics, assessment, capture/restraint,transport to the marine mammal rehabilitation facility, and public relations. In addition, interns will provide support to CWC Hospital staff in animal husbandry tasks for avian and terrestrial wildlife.

    Intern Responsibilities & Qualifications:


    - The internship is open to all applicants at least 18 years of age or older. Undergraduate students and non-students alike are encouraged to apply.

    - If the intern intends to receive academic credit, the intern will be responsible for making all arrangements with their educational institutions.


    - Spring internships are 3 days a week, minimum 24 hours per week for 8 weeks.
    - Summer internships are 4 days a week, minimum 32 hours per week for 8 weeks.


    - Due to the unpredictable nature of marine mammal stranding response, interns may sometimes be required to work beyond their normal scheduled hours.


    - Interns must be able and willing to work flexible hours including weekends and holidays.

    - Interns will be required to have good physical strength and the ability to lift/carry 50 lbs. Interns need to have the ability to
    multitask and work in a fast paced environment.

    - Animal care and/or marine mammal experience is a plus but not required. Applicant must demonstrate proof of negative TB test within the past year and a current tetanus vaccination.

    Under supervision of Marine Mammal staff, duties will include:


    - Answering and responding to all calls, pages and messages concerning
    marine mammals in a timely and courteous manner
    - Assessing stranded marine mammals
    - Coordinating and leading responder team in the capture and handling of stranded marine mammals needing medical attention
    - Coordinating transport of stranded marine mammals to the rehabilitation facility
    - Completion of NMFS Level A data sheets. Maintaining detailed database records of Malibu strandings, including reports of stranding, human interaction issues, etc.
    - Assist with marine mammal necropsy and sample collection
    - Ensuring marine mammal-designated equipment is kept in clean working order
    - Maintaining good rapport with representatives of various public agencies

    Housing/Transportation:


    Housing and transportation are the responsibility of the intern. Must have own transportation and current drivers license. Very limited on-sire housing is available (i.e., up to 2 individuals at a time). All individuals selected for on-site housing, regardless of Session, will be required to complete 40 hours/week.

    Application Process:


    Interested individuals must send the following:


    * Letter of intent
    * Resume
    * Two letters of reference

    Your letter of intent must state the Session you are applying for and detail interests, experience, housing accommodations and availability.

    Submit the above items via regular mail or email (preferred) to:

    California Wildlife Center
    Attn: Cynthia Reyes
    P.O. Box 2022
    Malibu, California 90265
    Email: Cynthia@californiawildlifecenter.org

    If you would like to find out more about our Organization, please visit our website at
    http://www.californiawildlifecenter.org


              WordPress Plan Room Plugin        

    314media has developed a custom solution for Construction companies and Architects to utilize a secure area on their WordPress powered websites to discuss projects (comments), upload plans and other documents (insert as media), all using a simple custom post type that takes advantage of the standard WordPress password protection functionality.  These vendors and subcontractors do not need accounts in WordPress, simply a password for each specific post – in order to access each of these password protected documents. This plugin also provides a shortcode that can be embedded on a single page (that includes a form with basic contact details) so that users will enter their company details and password, and a record is stored in the database along with the password used to track login attempts. This plugin has currently been developed as a custom solution for one of our clients, but we are happy to creaet a custom WordPress plan room plugin for your needs. Contact 314media for more information about our WordPress plan room plugin or to discuss your custom WordPress development project.  

    The post WordPress Plan Room Plugin appeared first on 314media.


              Comment on How To Hack WhatsApp And Telegram By Using SS7 Flaw: Ultimate Method by morgan clarkson        
    Do you want to access or penetrate a facebook account, instagram, tinder, gmail, yahoomail, school grade upgrading .remove links from website, youtube. .Retrieval of lost file/documents .Database hack. .Sales of Dump cards of all kinds. etc. Contact us; godseyes@hackermail.com, +12092641076
              Comment on How To Hack WhatsApp And Telegram By Using SS7 Flaw: Ultimate Method by Paul Sommers        
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              Comment on 15 Amazing Hidden Features Of Google Search You Probably Don’t Know by disqus_H65NwhJdV1        
    Kiddie stuff. You want to learn the power of Google: https://www.exploit-db.com/google-hacking-database/
              How to speed up your Directory website?        
    Note: You must take backup of your site and database before following this step. Better be safe then sorry. Here are some tips on how to speed... Read more »
              Hekaton – SQL Server’s in-memory database engine        

    Microsoft have just gone public at the PASS Summit in Seattle about a new SQL Server engine that they’re working on which is optimized for high-memory servers – an in-memory OLTP database engine which is built-in to SQL Server rather than a separate entity.  This means that you can move just the performance critical parts of your database to Hekaton.

    The new engine really pushes the performance boundaries by eliminating as many instructions as possible:

    • Main memory optimized tables which are decoupled from on-disk structures;
    • Everything is lock and latch free;
    • More work is pushed to compile time so your T-SQL code is compiled natively into low-level code.

    We’re already working with a customer on an early adoption program so expect to hear from us on what we learn about implementing it!

     

    Christian Bolton - MCA, MCM, MVP
    Technical Director
    http://coeo.com - SQL Server Consulting & Managed Services


              In5D FB Live w/ Gregg Prescott & Michelle Walling: Lion’s Gate Energies Ep. #6        

    In this episode of In5D Facebook Live, Gregg Prescott and Michelle Walling talk about the Lion’s Gate energies, an upcoming event (Weekend of Bliss, Rejuvenation, Meditations, And Harmonic Convergence), angels & guides, metaphysical abilities, The 4400, Ho’oponopono, and much more! In5D Facebook Live is an awesome opportunity to share your points of view with like-minded […]

    The post In5D FB Live w/ Gregg Prescott & Michelle Walling: Lion’s Gate Energies Ep. #6 appeared first on In5D Esoteric, Metaphysical, and Spiritual Database.


              Quantum Healing with Candace with Andrew Martin and Katya Turner        

    Connecting with Andrew Martin and Katya Turner – a fun 3 way conversation about the current energies, weird time events, being multidimensional and visiting each other in our DREAM state. Andrew and Katya are featured speakers at Michelle Walling and Candace Craw-Goldman’s Quantum Healing 5D and Beyond Conference in Sarasota Florida this October 6-7 2017. […]

    The post Quantum Healing with Candace with Andrew Martin and Katya Turner appeared first on In5D Esoteric, Metaphysical, and Spiritual Database.


              In5D Alternative News for August 10, 2017        

    Welcome to In5D News, your source for Alternative News related to POSITIVE change in our society. Alternative news is the REAL news that is not being reported on the main stream media (MSM). It also reveals the propaganda that IS being reported by the MSM. If you’ve noticed, the main stream media promotes violence, fear, […]

    The post In5D Alternative News for August 10, 2017 appeared first on In5D Esoteric, Metaphysical, and Spiritual Database.


              Energy Update – New Arcturian Guide Energies        

    by Anastacia, Australian Correspondent, In5D.com NEW ARCTURIAN CHANNEL/OPENING/GUIDES ARE HERE! A new ‘channel’ has opened up or a new opening has now come through with New Arcturian ‘protectors’! (I have many Arcturians with me and for some years now). 48 hours ago, I was advised that we have NEW GUIDES. It took another 24 hours […]

    The post Energy Update – New Arcturian Guide Energies appeared first on In5D Esoteric, Metaphysical, and Spiritual Database.


              How To Live Now In Your Preferred Timeline        

    by Jetson White, Guest writer, In5D.com Living your true purpose is why you chose to be on this planet right now, and it’s time to prioritize it above all else. There are as many ways to prioritize living your true purpose as there are individuals, and here’s one way I know works because it worked […]

    The post How To Live Now In Your Preferred Timeline appeared first on In5D Esoteric, Metaphysical, and Spiritual Database.


              What To Avoid When Timeline Jumping        

    by Michelle Walling, CHLC Guest Writer, In5D.com As we continue to accelerate towards a timeline split or bifurcation of timelines, we are steering the collective consciousness towards the highest and best outcome. The role as a timeline jumper is of utmost importance at this time, but there are pitfalls to avoid that one needs to […]

    The post What To Avoid When Timeline Jumping appeared first on In5D Esoteric, Metaphysical, and Spiritual Database.


              The Lion’s Gate: What To Expect        

    by Tamara Maat, Guest writer, In5D.com Let’s mark the date, ladies and gentlemen, for it this a time of change! The eternal Fire Flame of the Leo intensifies, the Sacred Lion’s Gate opens its mouth and providing to those in need. This is the epitome of the Sekhmet season: Deaths and rebirths for all. Fire […]

    The post The Lion’s Gate: What To Expect appeared first on In5D Esoteric, Metaphysical, and Spiritual Database.


              In5D Alternative News for August 9, 2017        

    Welcome to In5D News, your source for Alternative News related to POSITIVE change in our society. Alternative news is the REAL news that is not being reported on the main stream media (MSM). It also reveals the propaganda that IS being reported by the MSM. If you’ve noticed, the main stream media promotes violence, fear, […]

    The post In5D Alternative News for August 9, 2017 appeared first on In5D Esoteric, Metaphysical, and Spiritual Database.


              Energy Update – Now Really Is The Time To Come Home To Ourselves!        

    by Anastacia, Australian Correspondent, In5D.com Now Really is the Time to COME HOME TO OURSELVES! With the energies of the last few days, (refer previous BB posts) we are now at a NEW BALANCE. As we experience the extreme ‘high’ of the new energies coming through – and then the very very low low, which […]

    The post Energy Update – Now Really Is The Time To Come Home To Ourselves! appeared first on In5D Esoteric, Metaphysical, and Spiritual Database.


              New Earth – You Have Front Row Seats For The Greatest Show In The Universe!        

    by Deane Thomas, Guest writer, In5D.com The Old V’s New – No Compromise, No Refund, and No Return! These past few days have been an incredible eye opener, and perhaps for some a little too much. How many are ready to jump off the train into the abyss? How many are really prepared for what […]

    The post New Earth – You Have Front Row Seats For The Greatest Show In The Universe! appeared first on In5D Esoteric, Metaphysical, and Spiritual Database.


              Licensing Databases In a Virtualized Environment – Eradicate the Terrorists Of Your Datacenter        


    Licensing databases in your datacenter is a complex task. Remaining compliant with the licensing agreement is also complex. You need to figure out what is fact (and legally binding), vs what is FUD or fiction (of no consequence to your contractual obligations). When it comes to Oracle this is a topic I have covered a lot […]


              Comment on Script run against every running database, listing total oracle memory (sga+pga) by Pre 9202/9014: Advanced queuing runs away with server memory. « Andrew Fraser DBA        
    [...] the below memory listing script, I found two databases with large PGAs. That was strange since pga_aggregate_target was unset, [...]
              ç¶šGo言語に入門する        

    前回はこちら。書いてて楽しいので、地味に活動が続いている。

    OSS活動

    mackerel-client-go && mkr

    mackerel関連のgoのライブラリとツールです。グラフアノテーション機能がリリースされたので、それをmkrで操作できるようにしました。mackerelなので仕事に関連しているのですが、週末に趣味時間でやっていました(Goの練習をしたかったのじゃ!)。

    基本的にやることはWebAPIのラッパーなので難しいことはないんですが

    • goでのエラーハンドリング
    • コマンドライン引数周りの雰囲気
    • JSONの取り扱い
      • structを定義してjson decoderに投げればよい

    が分かってよかったです。

    自然言語処理

    もう少し複雑だったりメモリやCPUを使う処理もgoで書いて感覚を掴みたいなと思ったので、次のステップとして係り受け解析器をgoで書いてみることにしました。絶賛WIPです。

    Webアプリ

    goでのwebアプリも書きたいという気持ちはあるけど、こちらはまだ未着手。既存のものを見たり、どのライブラリがよさそうか見たりしている。

    みんなのGo言語【現場で使える実践テクニック】

    みんなのGo言語【現場で使える実践テクニック】

    プログラミング言語Go (ADDISON-WESLEY PROFESSIONAL COMPUTING SERIES)

    プログラミング言語Go (ADDISON-WESLEY PROFESSIONAL COMPUTING SERIES)


              Cant open Books PDFs by clickung PDF or Path        
    Calibre 2.85.1 Linux Opensuse 42.3 Usually I open a document by clicking the link in the right details panel "PDF" or "Path". This does not work and results in an error File or directory not found: Fehler beim Holen der Informationen für Datei »/home/zzz_servers/thot03/x_database/calibre/Marion%20Wendland/Kommunikation%20-%20Seminar%20(3586)«: Datei oder Verzeichnis nicht gefunden. However copying the underlying link to firefox or the file browser does the job... Have you forgotten the " ... " for the path? Anybody who experienced a similar behavior? I am grateful for tipps! Thanks
              Detailed Notes on Watch Minions Online Free         
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    Abbreviated and can be translated as "Movie Database on-line" is undoubtedly an online databases of globe cinema, on television, and video video games secondarily. IMDb renders a bundle of data relating to movies, actors, directors, screenwriters and every enterprise and folks intricate within the enlargement of a movie, a movie, a match movie or even a tv series.

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    Watch a movie with no down load is currently doable as a result of some Internet websites offer you to watch streaming movies and series.

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    This online video is not obtainable as the YouTube account associated with this movie is terminated.

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              OSPF. Как работают пакеты процесса        
    1. Типы пакетов OSPF

    1.1. Функции OSPF


    Для того, чтобы OSPF мог функционировать правильно, у него должны быть выполняться следующие процессы:
    - обнаружение соседей для формирования смежности
    - распространение информации о состоянии связей для построения LSDB
    - вычисление дерева SPF для нахождения наикратчайших путей ко всем сетям
    - заполнение таблицы маршрутизации лучшими маршрутами к известным сетям
    После того, как маршрутизатор первоначально заполнит таблицу маршрутизации, состояние связей в автономной системе может измениться. OSPF имеет возможность обнаружить эти изменения и отреагировать путем распространения этой информации в автономной системе, по крайней мере в зоне, где изменение обнаружено. Распространение новой информации необходимо для поддержания LSDB всех маршрутизаторов в актуальном состоянии.
    Для всех этих функций были разработаны несколько типов пакетов OSPF.

    1.2. Формат заголовка пакета OSPF


    Как показано на рисунке, все пять типов пакетов OSPF вставляются напрямую в IP пакет. OSPF пакет не использует TCP или UDP. OSPF требуется надежная схема доставки и, так как он не использует TCP, были определены подтверждения с использование пакета подтверждения (тип пакета 5).
    В заголовке IP пакета идентификатор протокола 89 определяет все типы пакетов. Каждый OSPF  пакет начинается с одинакового формата заголовка. Этот заголовок имеет следующие поля:
    - Version number - для OSPF версии 3
    - Type - определяет тип OSPF пакета
    - Packet length - длина OSPF пакета в байтах
    - Router ID - определяет маршрутизатор - источник пакета
    - Area ID - определяет зону, где пакет был сгенерирован
    - Checksum - используется для определения ошибок в пакете, которые произошли во время передачи
    - Authentication type - описывает метод аутентификации: без аутентификации, аутентификация открытыми паролями, MD5 аутентификация
    - Authentication - используется для реализации схемы аутентификации
    - Data - каждый из пяти пакетов включает разные данные
    - - Hello packets - содержит список известных соседей
    - - DBD packet - содержит суммарную LSDB, в которой включены: все известные Router ID, их последний номер последовательности
    - - LSR packet - содержит тип необходимого запроса LSU и Router ID, от которого необходимо обновление
    - - LSU packet - содержит всю строчку LSA. Несколько записей LSA могут помещаться в один пакет обновления OSPF.
    - - LSAck packet - пустой.

    1.3. Типы пакетов OSPF


    Для функционирования OSPF были разработаны пять типов пакетов, которые используют один заголовок.
    - Hello - ищет соседей и строит отношения смежности с ними
    - Database description (DBD) - проверяет синхронизацию LSDB между маршрутизаторами
    - Link-state request- запрашивает определенную запись LSA от другого маршрутизатора
    - Link-state update - отправляет запрошенную запись LSA
    - Link-state acknowledgement - подтверждение получения других типов пакетов

    2. Установление соседских отношений в OSPF

    2.1. Hello пакет


    Каждый интерфейс маршрутизатора, участвующий в процессе OSPF, периодически отправляет на мультикастный адрес 224.0.0.5 Hello пакет. Hello пакет содержит следующую информацию:
    - Router ID - 32-битный номер, который уникально идентифицирует маршрутизатор. По умолчанию выбирается наибольший IP адрес одного из активных интерфейсов, если на маршрутизаторе не настроен loopback интерфейс. Этот номер важен для установления соседских отношений и координации обмена LSU. Также он используется в процессе выбора DR и BDR, если значения приоритета у всех маршрутизаторов одинаковы.
    - и dead интервалы. - определяет время в секундах, которое означает частоту отправки Hello пакетов маршрутизатором (по умолчанию 10 секунд в многоточечных сетях). Dead - определяет время в секундах, через которое маршрутизатор в случае не получения Hello пакета будет считать, что сосед недоступен. По умолчанию равно четырем Hello Ð¸Ð½Ñ‚ервалам. Эти таймеры должны быть одинаковыми у соседей, иначе соседские отношения не установятся.
    - Neighbors - в этом поле перечисляются все маршрутизаторы, с которыми установлены двунаправленные соседские отношения. Двунаправленные отношения устанавливаются, когда маршрутизатор находит себя в Hello Ð¿Ð°ÐºÐµÑ‚е, полученном от соседа.
    - Area ID - чтобы иметь связь друг с другом, маршрутизаторы должны иметь общий сегмент сети, интерфейсы должны принадлежать одной OSPF зоне. Тогда эти маршрутизаторы будут иметь одинаковую информацию.
    - Router priority - 8-битный номер, который означает приоритет маршрутизатора. Этот приоритет используется при выборе DR и BDR Ð¼Ð°Ñ€ÑˆÑ€ÑƒÑ‚изаторов.
    - DR и BDR - IP адреса DR и BDR маршрутизаторов для определенной сети, если они известны.
    - Authentication password - если у маршрутизаторов включена опция аутентификации, все маршрутизаторы должны иметь одинаковый пароль.
    - Stub area flag - Тупиковая зона - это специальный тип зоны. Два маршрутизатора должны согласовать этот флаг. Определение тупиковой зоны позволяет уменьшить число обновлений маршрутизации путем замены большинства из них маршрутами по умолчанию.

    3. Обмен и синхронизация LSDB
    После того, как маршрутизаторы установили двунаправленные отношения, OSPF необходимо обменяться и синхронизировать их LSDB.



    Все обновления маршрутизации отправляются в IP пакетах (тип протокола 89), для которых OSPF не делает какой-либо фрагментации и пересборки в IP.
    Существует четыре типа пакетов обновлений, которые используются при обмене и синхронизации LSDB:
    - тип 2 - database description packet - используется для описания маршрутов каждого соседа
    - тип 3 - link-state request packet - после обмена пакетами описания маршрутов, маршрутизаторы производят запрос информации о маршрутах, которых нет у них в базе. Для этого используется этот тип пакета.
    - тип 4 - link-state update packet - вся отсутствующая у соседа информация отправляется с использованием этого пакета, который содержит различные LSA
    - тип 5 - link-state acknowledgment packet - каждый принятый пакет подтверждается для организации надежной доставки информации

    Типы пакетов 4 и 5 отправляются на мультикастные IP адреса, за исключением, когда идет повторная передача, когда передача осуществляется по виртуальному каналу и когда идет отправка на нешироковещательные сети. Все остальные пакеты отправляются на юникастовые IP адреса.

    Процесс синхронизации LSDB начинается с исследованием соседей. После того, как сосед был обнаружен, устанавливаются двунаправленные связи. Затем может выбираться DR, После этого маршрутизаторы принимают решения, сформированы отношения или нет. Если отношения сформированы, соседи должны синхронизировать свои базы состояния связей (LSDB). Для начала маршрутизаторы определяют информацию, которая отсутствует в локальной базе, а затем обмениваются ею.

    3.1. Уснановление двунаправленных связей



    Изначально при включении протокол OSPF маршрутизатора R1 находится в состоянии Down state, т.к. он не обменивается информацией ни с одним из маршрутизаторов. Он начинает отправлять Hello пакет через все интерфейсы, принимающие участие в OSPF, на адрес 224.0.0.5.
    Все маршрутизаторы, которые непосредственно имеют связь с маршрутизатором R1, получают его Hello пакет и добавляют его в список своих соседей. После добавления R1 в список соседей, все другие маршрутизаторы переходят в состояние INIT state.
    Каждый маршрутизатор, который получил Hello пакет от R1, отправляет ответный Hello пакет на юникастовый адрес R1. Поле Neighbor в пакете содержит все соседние маршрутизаторы и R1.
    После того, как R1 получает ответный Hello пакет, он видит, что его Router ID имеется в принятом пакете. Тогда он добавляет этот маршрутизатор в свою локальную базу соседей. После этого маршрутизатор переходит в состояние Two-way state. В этот момент все маршрутизаторы, имеющие друг друга в своих локальных таблицах соседей, устанавливают двунаправленные связи.
    Если тип связи - широковещательная сеть, после этого происходят выборы DR и BDR. DR формирует двунаправленные связи со всеми остальными маршрутизаторами сегмента. 

    3.2. Изучение маршрутов сети



    После выбора  (при подключении по LAN) маршрутизаторы находятся с состоянии Exstart state. Они готовы исследовать информацию о всей сети и создавать свою LSDB. Для этого используется протокол обмена, который проводит маршрутизаторы через состояние Exchange state к состоянию Full state. Когда соседние маршрутизаторы перейдут в состояние Full state, протокол обмена перестает работать до момента смены состояния. На рисунке показаны этапы работы протокола обмена.
    Шаг 1. В состоянии Exstart staet DR и BDR устанавливают отношения с каждым маршрутизатором в сети. Устанавливаются отношения главный-подчиненный. Маршрутизатор с большим Router ID становится главным. В нашем случае это R2. После этого маршрутизаторы переходят в состояние Exchange state и начинают обмениваться одним или несколькими DBD пакетами. DBD включает информацию о заголовках LSA записей о сети или соединении, находящихся в LSDB маршрутизатора. Каждый заголовок содержит информацию о типе состояния связи, адресе маршрутизатора, стоимости пути и номере последовательности. Маршрутизатор использует номер последовательности для определения самой новой записи о состоянии связи.



    Шаг 2. После получения DBD, маршрутизатор делает следующее:
    - отправляет подтверждение о приеме DBD
    - сравнивает полученную информацию со своей, хранящейся в LSDB. Если в полученном DBD есть более новая информация, он отправляет запрос LSR о необходимой ему информации. В этот момент переходит в состояние Loading state
    - другой маршрутизатор отвечает на запрос с использованием LSU. При получении LSU маршрутизатор также отправляет подтверждение о приеме LSAck.

    Шаг 3. Маршрутизатор добавляет новую запись LSA в свою LSDB.

    Когда все LSR запросы удовлетворены, маршрутизаторы считаются синхронизировÐ
              Giffy: A Postmortem        

    I’ve recently finished up a small side project that I started quite a while ago called Giffy. It wasn’t a particularly large or complex project but the motivation to continue working on it diminished shortly after starting. Now that the project is done, I wanted to write a post discussing some of the challenges I faced and thoughts I had.

    On Side Projects

    Working on a side project is a great way for any developer to learn about a new technology, further develop an existing skill or just get some creative juices flowing. However, I’ve found it much easier to start a project than to actually finish one. There can be many reasons why finishing a side project can be hard. For Giffy, those reasons were feature creep, scope and changing personal thoughts on images on the web. While side projects can be a great place to experiment, too much experimenting led to a feature list that was much too long. This can be mentally draining when done close to the beginning of a project. I wouldn’t recommend it. I’ve learned a lot about looking at a feature and breaking it down into smaller features. Working in smaller chunks makes it easier for me to focus on the current objective and to experience the thrill of seeing a feature come to life more frequently.

    What is Giffy?

    Giffy is simply an image hosting service for gifs. You can tag gifs that has been uploaded, and find similarly tagged gifs. If you don’t have any gifs to upload, you can create one in the browser using your webcam. Once you’ve created your gif, you have the option to upload it directly to Giffy.

    Some features, such as adding & deleting tags, require an account. One of the features I ended up cutting was a permissions system that would let the admin define roles and associated permitted & forbidden actions (eg: upload a gif, delete a tag). Bits and pieces of the permissions system exist in the code, but it was never finished.

    There were a bunch of social-networky features I cut from the feature list. I had to step back and remember what my goals were for this project:

    1. Learn more about Angular
    2. Learn how to upload images directly to an Amazon S3 bucket from the browser via CORS
    3. Learn how to create a gif from a webcam using WebRTC and upload that gif directly to S3

    Here on the other side of the project, I feel that I’ve completed these goals. Learning not only how to cut unnecessary fat from the feature list, but also how to divide my main tasks into smaller, more manageable sub tasks was important to keep me going towards the finish line. Focusing on the important features to cut can be hard in a project that exists solely for learning and experimenting, but for some people it may be necessary if that project is ever going to see the light of day.

    The Backend

    There is not a whole lot of magic happening on the backend. All it is really doing is serving HTTP requests and fetching data from the database. I’m using the Bookshelf ORM to handle all things database, backed by Postgres. It’s a pretty nice ORM that makes mapping models to database tables incredibly easy. While I found that it lacked some basic features such as limiting the amount of rows returned, it’s possible to use the underlying Knex.js library to perform raw SQL queries. Other libraries I use are bcrypt for password salting, shortid to generate a unique file name for gifs and Amazon’s AWS library for Node.js

    In terms of design, I make heavy use of promises instead of callbacks in my API code. Promises are very easy to use and, in my opinion, make ones code much more readable (goodbye, callback hell).

    One design choice I regret is choosing session-based authentication over token-based. The way I originally designed the application was a standalone API that would be able to handle requests by clients on any kind of device. I ended up with more of a Rails-type monolithic app so cookie-based sessions were pretty easy to implement. From my limited understanding, cookie-based authentication doesn’t work very well on mobile devices. A much simpler solution would be to include a token that identifies the user with each request. Ah well, lesson learned for my next side project!

    Angular

    It really bothers me that I need to use a plugin for a framework just to do something as simple as nested views. I feel like a framework that focuses on building single-page apps like Angular should have this built in. Perhaps I’m being nit-picky but it’s a design choice I find baffling. Also, the way Angular differentiates services, factories and providers is a little strange and seems arbitrary.

    Aside from those points, using Angular has been mostly painless and made developing the web app portion of Giffy easy. I don’t think I was pushing the limits of the framework or anything. Most of the challenges I faced came with getting sessions to work between Angular and Express, or routing static assets; nothing specific to Angular compared to other single-page app frameworks.

    In the end, I was mostly pleased with Angular, and would consider it in future projects.

    EDIT (2015-01-17): After some consideration, I’m not too sure if I would actually use Angular for another personal project. I’m not a huge fan of how Angular 2 is looking.

    Direct to S3 Upload

    One feature I really wanted in Giffy was the ability to upload a file directly to an Amazon S3 bucket directly from the browser. I wanted the API behind Giffy to solely handle requests and to fetch the appropriate data from the database. I found an article on Heroku’s dev centre on the subject, which makes use of Amazon’s AWS library for Node.js. The library is used to create the proper signature for the upload request, which contains information like where in the bucket to put the file, expected file size, and authentication to the bucket. Once the image is successfully uploaded, a call to the API is made to register the newly uploaded gif in the Giffy database.

    The Heroku article also included a link to a client-side S3 uploading script. I quickly ran into some limits with the script though, such as not getting as much metadata as I would have liked about the file with the upload completion callback, or not supporting the ability to upload a binary image blob to S3. I ended up forking the repo and made the necessary adjustments, which you can find here.

    While this solution is novel, I kind of regret designing it this way. This has to due with how I now feel about gifs in general. Gifs can cause unnecessary repaints in some browsers, which can greatly affect performance. For Giffy, where I could potentially have a page full of gifs, I was worried that performance on some older desktop and laptops or mobile devices would suffer.

    There have been some interesting ways of solving this problem. For instance, Twitter converts gifs to mp4 and shows users the video file instead. I thought this was a pretty neat solution. Not only will a mp4 file be much smaller than the average gif, but the user also gets control over the playback of the image. This is most likely the solution I would have chosen for Giffy as well. However, since Giffy uploads the image directly to S3, it wasn’t feasible for this iteration of the project. If I decide to return to the project, it would be the first thing I would change.

    Create gif from webcam

    The final feature I wanted to implement was the ability to use one’s own webcam to create a gif. When I was working as a contractor for Mozilla Webmaker last year, this was an idea the frontend team played around with for the Webmaker Profiles feature. I thought it was fun and decided to implement it into Giffy.

    My implementation is pretty simple. The creation of gifs is done by capturing frames via button click. I found a gif encoder written in JavaScript that I use to create the gifs. When one clicks the `Capture` button, the current frame displayed in the video tag is copied pixel by pixel to a canvas. The image data stored in the canvas is used by gif.js to create one frame of the gif. gif.js uses web workers to create the gif in the background, leaving the interface responsive.

    For one crazy second, I actually considered writing my own gif encoder in JavaScript. It would have been an interesting project, but way out of the scope for Giffy. Other things I would have liked to add would have been some tacky Instagramish filters and the ability to record a gif for N seconds, rather than having to add each frame manually.

    Final Thoughts

    Some other features that were cut from the list were allowing users to add gifs to a favourites list, unit tests, and allowing user comments. The ability to search by tag was another feature I cut. In retrospect, none of these features would be particularly difficult to implement at this point but you have to draw the line somewhere on some personal projects or they will never end. There are other potential projects that I am currently more interested in spending my time on.

    I learned quite a bit from working on Giffy. Aside from the numerous technical and design lessons I learned, the lessons about scope and feature creep are what really hit me: breaking big features up into smaller ones and setting attainable milestones that end with some feature that can be demonstrated in at least a small fashion. Working on Giffy one huge feature at a time made it feel like a chore, but now that it’s finally over, the satisfaction of putting the ‘Complete’ label on a project makes it all feel worth it. Kinda weird how that happens.

    Feel free to check out the source code on my GitHub repo. A demo of Giffy is also available. I’ll be writing a cron script to clean out the database & S3 bucket every few days. Please don’t abuse the demo site! Feel free to fork, open pull requests, or leave feedback!


              re: Performance impact: What is the optimal payload for SqlBulkCopy.WriteToServer()?        

    When dealing with large data payload transfer, it merits taking a look at the network packet size configuration. There are two questions that need to be answered:

    1) Does SqlBulkCopy packet size defaults to SqlClient's 8000 packet size or database default size of 4096? http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2008195

    2) Does your network MTU window size forces packet fragmentation on the way to the server. Try the following command on the client: ping <server> -l 4096 –f . If the packets are getting fragmented on the way to the server, this command will fail with “Packet needs to be fragmented but DF set.” error


              Handling concurrency conflicts in LINQ to SQL        

    Apologies for the delay in getting this post out, been busy and been playing around with too many good things lately. Virtual machines, Unit Testing etc, recording some radio from the net etc. Anyways, I have been planning to write about my experiences with Conflict handling in Linq2Sql, what happens when two users want to update the infamous Product table in Northwind.

    When I started playing around with it I also discovered that I needed to investigate a bit more about DataContexts, so I went reading around the web to gather info, did some experiments in my machine etc and interestingly enough I had a very related question at work where a colleague asked about the what are best practises when instantiating them. He had a static DataContext to be shared amongst his data access for a particular entity. My opinion on this is that DataContexts are cheap and light to create and that creating them for a single unit of work I do say in my GetProductByID function should be good enough. I'll say that persisiting DataContexts would create a bit of an overhead when I think that it has to keep all the mappings and ObjectTracking etc ( mind due, you can turn off ObjectTracking if you are going to do read only..). Also DCxt are not thread safe so that's another big reason not to do that. But when I started Linqing2Sql I did entertain the idea of sharing my DataContext through a singleton. Hrmm.

    public voidTurnOffObjectTracking()
    {
       var dal = newProductDataContext();
       // If you don't want to update stuff, don't track them.
     
    dal.ObjectTrackingEnabled = true;           
       Productprod = dal.Products.SingleOrDefault(a => a.ProductID == Guid.NewGuid());
       Assert.IsNull(prod);
    }

    Let me not get sidetracked, it's 10:30pm and I want to go to sleep, back to our interleaving..

    First of all, let's recreate the case where <  1 users are updating a record and our sys throws up a smelly. But before I do that, let's keep in mind that DataContexts are neat, I mean sometimes too neat since some stuff happens behind the scenes kind of magic, but that maybe just me :-(

    For example, note how in the example below two products are obtained from the db and one of them is upated, and then without committing this change to storage, I get another instance of the same product, then I commit the original change and then compare the Products....

    [TestMethod]
    public void Test_DataContext_Product_Independence()
    {
        using (System.Transactions.TransactionScope scope = new System.Transactions.TransactionScope())
        {
            var linq = new ProductDataContext();
            linq.Log = Console.Out;
    
            Guid productID = new Guid("50BD6DEB52C14D65BEC268957601EF25");
            
            // Get a Product with the ID as above
            Product product_1 = linq.Products.Single(p => p.ProductID == productID);
            
            // check that the Prod Name is as expected..
            Assert.AreEqual("Tourtière", product_1.ProductName);
            // Update the Prod Name
            product_1.ProductName = "Côte de Tourtière";
            // Let's retrieve the product again, note that the update above has not been committed to the database
            Product product_2 = linq.Products.Single(p => p.ProductID == productID);
            
            // Now commit!
            linq.SubmitChanges();
    
            // Note that the new name of Product2...obtained from DataContext Memory, before I committed the change! neat!
            Assert.AreEqual("Côte de Tourtière", product_2.ProductName);               
        }
    }

    firstTestPassed

    OK, so to simulate interleaving, we'll simulate the two users trying to update a record in the db. The record look like below

    ProductID / ProductName / UnitPrice

     455984DB-92DD-4BA4-87D7-91E4E2E5E00D    Camomile Tea    10.00    ....

    Now our two unsuspecting users are going to try to update the Product Name for this product

    [TestMethod]
    public void RecreateInterleavingCondition()
    {
        var user1DAL = new ProductDataContext();
        var user2DAL = new ProductDataContext();
    
        Guid pID = new Guid("455984db-92dd-4ba4-87d7-91e4e2e5e00d");
        Product user1Product = user1DAL.Products.Single(p => p.ProductID == pID);
        user1Product.ProductName = "Royal Camomile Tea";
        Console.WriteLine(user1Product.ProductName);
    
        Product user2Product = user2DAL.Products.Single(p => p.ProductID == pID);
        user2Product.ProductName = "Royal Camomile Tigris Tea";
        Console.WriteLine(user1Product.ProductName);
    
        user1DAL.SubmitChanges();
        Console.WriteLine(user2Product.ProductName);
        user2DAL.SubmitChanges();
    }

    Run the above results in: Conflict Exception!

    interleavingException

    User1 retrieves our Product and changes the name to "Royal Camomile Tea", not Submitting the changes, now User2 gets in there, retrieves the record changes to "Royal Camomile Tigris Tea", but User1 submits his changes and then User2 submits her changes. End result Conflict!

    Now...How does LINQ to SQL handles it?

    L2SQL uses what is called Optimistic concurrency is based on the un-healthy assumption that db transactions won't conflict with other transactions, that basically the chances of two users at exactly the same time wont happen that often. The alternative is pessimistic concurrency, this is where users will retrieve a record from the database and hold a lock on that record/table to prevent other pesky users to change that, problem is that is not scalable at all, systems grew larger and records where locked for ages before the sys will release the handle on it, also the emergence of the Web, the demands of stateles apps made it totally unfeasible for the pessimistic model.

    LINQ to SQL uses Optimistic concurrency, what it does is that when updating a record, it checks the previous values of that record, it the values where unchanged, then is all good, otherwise it will complain and it will throw an exception and then you can handle it and choose how to handle the conflict.

    In effect, if you turn Log on when Updating a record, and see the query passed onto the db you'll see that all values will be passed in the WHERE clause to compare against the columns in your table, not only the ID for the record. See below for the updates we tried to do above. MSDN has a good article on LINQ to SQL and Optimistic conc here

    Royal
    UPDATE [dbo].[Product]
    SET [ProductName] = @p5
    WHERE ([ProductID] = @p0) AND ([ProductName] = @p1) AND ([UnitPrice] = @p2) AND ([CategoryID] = @p3) AND ([CreatedDate] = @p4)
    -- @p0: Input UniqueIdentifier (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [455984db-92dd-4ba4-87d7-91e4e2e5e00d]
    -- @p1: Input VarChar (Size = 12; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [Camomile Tea]
    -- @p2: Input Money (Size = 0; Prec = 19; Scale = 4) [10.0000]
    -- @p3: Input UniqueIdentifier (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [c9735b53-9c82-4f11-891a-8a53dc89565d]
    -- @p4: Input DateTime (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [17/04/2242 11:07:05 PM]
    -- @p5: Input VarChar (Size = 5; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [Royal]

    Royal Tigris
    UPDATE [dbo].[Product]
    SET [ProductName] = @p5
    WHERE ([ProductID] = @p0) AND ([ProductName] = @p1) AND ([UnitPrice] = @p2) AND ([CategoryID] = @p3) AND ([CreatedDate] = @p4)
    -- @p0: Input UniqueIdentifier (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [455984db-92dd-4ba4-87d7-91e4e2e5e00d]
    -- @p1: Input VarChar (Size = 12; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [Camomile Tea]
    -- @p2: Input Money (Size = 0; Prec = 19; Scale = 4) [10.0000]
    -- @p3: Input UniqueIdentifier (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [c9735b53-9c82-4f11-891a-8a53dc89565d]
    -- @p4: Input DateTime (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [17/04/2242 11:07:05 PM]
    -- @p5: Input VarChar (Size = 12; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [Royal Tigris]

    DataContext implements Optimistic by default, but you can turn it off, imagine that it passed lots of parameters, this will certainly cause performance dramas or you simply could streamline it. You can fix your mappings with the UpdateCheck attribute. More info check MSDN article here and here

    Ok, so the above will throw an exception when the Update query cannot find a match, it will interpret this as "oh, someone else got in first and changed something before I did! :-_(  , I'll throw a ChangeConflictException then..."

    The art of handling conflicts

    First of all, wrap your potentially conflict-causing code in a try/catch block and look out for a ChangeConflictException as below..

    try
    {
        linq_2.SubmitChanges();
        // Here the values change!
        var result = new ProductDataContext();
        Product product13 = result.Products.Single(i => i.ProductID == pID);
        linq.SubmitChanges();    
    }
    catch (ChangeConflictException ex)
    { ....

    Once you catch the exception, you have choices of how to handle the conflict by basically examining the guilty entities and members and choosing which values to keep, be it Database, overwriting database  values  or merging changes with the database. Let's have a look first at how to retrieve the conflicting data.

    DataContext objects have a property called ChangeConflicts thats gives you a ChangeConflictCollection of ObjectChangeConflict objects that eventually you can enumerate and then drill down and get at the values that are in conflict.

    catch (ChangeConflictException ex)
    {
        foreach (ObjectChangeConflict occ in linq.ChangeConflicts)
        {
        ...........................................
        ...........................................
    Each ObjectChangeConflict object represents the conflicted instance, in plain english it encapsulates the update attempt that caused the conflict. 
    We can then iterate over the entities that "participated" in that conflict and get specific information about them. You do this by accessing the MemberConflicts collection of ObjectChangeConflict.
    catch (ChangeConflictException ex)
    {
        foreach (ObjectChangeConflict occ in linq.ChangeConflicts)
        {
            foreach (MemberChangeConflict mcc in occ.MemberConflicts)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("Original: " + mcc.OriginalValue);
                Console.WriteLine("Database value: " + mcc.DatabaseValue);
                Console.WriteLine("CurrentValue: " + mcc.CurrentValue);
            }

    Here is where it starts to get juicy. See how above we can get the different values for a particular entity through the "stages" of the conflict. This information could be very useful, you might want to present this details to the user and let her make a decision of what to submit to the database in  a grid or something...right?

    But of course, you can explicitly resolve the conflicts by once the error is detected, choosing to keep current values, database values or merge. Let's have a look at it.

    Overwriting Database values

    First up we are going to solve the conflict by merging the database values with User1 only since User1 got in there last, he is the last committer (is there such a work in english?), User2 won't see anything since her changes when in and the Optimistic handling didn't detect any changes. So the conflict is a conflict from the context of User1, he created the conflict, he is the last in so he has to tell the database what to do with the changes..The database if it talked, it could ask the question.."oh..you are last in...what do you we do with your changes...", That's the way I see it. :-)  Shut up and show me code please ... thanks.

    [TestMethod]
    public void CheckProductNamesWithTwoDataContexts()
    {           
        var linq = new ProductDataContext();
        var linq_2 = new ProductDataContext();
        Guid pID  = new Guid("455984db-92dd-4ba4-87d7-91e4e2e5e00d");
    
        Product p1 = linq.Products.Single(p => p.ProductID == pID );
        p1.ProductName = "Red Tea";
        p1.CategoryID = new Guid("00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000");
        
        Product p2 = linq_2.Products.Single(p => p.ProductID == pID);
        p2.ProductName = "Green Tea";
        p2.CategoryID = new Guid("90000000-1111-1111-1111-000000000000");
        p2.UnitPrice = 10.0M;
        
        try
        {
            linq_2.SubmitChanges();
            var result = new ProductDataContext();
            linq.SubmitChanges(ConflictMode.ContinueOnConflict);  
        }
        catch (ChangeConflictException ex)
        {
            foreach (ObjectChangeConflict occ in linq.ChangeConflicts)
            {
                foreach (MemberChangeConflict mcc in occ.MemberConflicts)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("Original: " + mcc.OriginalValue);
                    Console.WriteLine("Database value: " + mcc.DatabaseValue);
                    Console.WriteLine("CurrentValue: " + mcc.CurrentValue);
                }  
                linq.ChangeConflicts.ResolveAll(RefreshMode.KeepCurrentValues);
            }
            linq.SubmitChanges(); 
        }
    }

    Quite a lengthy function yeah, but let's see what happens. User1 retrieved the Product, changed the name and the CategoryID, User2 changed the name, CategoryID and UnitPrice. Now note that I called ResolveAll of the ChangeConflict fame from our DataContext, in this case I called it linq. ( You can also call ObjectChangeConflict's Resolve function) This function takes an enum that could be KeepCurrentValues, KeepChanges and OverwriteCurrentValues. In this case we use KeepCurrentChanges, which means we'll keep our changes for the data that clashed with User2, anything else that User2 changed will be ignored and the database defaults will be reinstated. I suppose the way to interpret it is KeepCurrentValues keeps the current values in the DataContext, in this case User1. Note: Make sure once you handle the exception any way you see fit, make sure you SubmitChanges() again for that DataContext otherwise nothing will happen! :-)

    Also note that you can choose also when to handle the exceptions. Say you have a lot of changes that the user made and it will be too cumbersome for them to re-enter all those values again. Since SubmitChanges accumulates all conflicts in a batch, the number of changes could be huge.. Good news is that SubmitChanges() can be overloaded to take a ConflictMode enum that will either tell the instance of DataContext to either throw the ConflictException as soon as it detects it (thus minimising the potential hassles for users) called FailOnFirstConflict, or to keep accumulating and attempting to update data and then report the whole lot (ContinueOnConflict).

      ProductName CategoryID UnitPrice
    Database row (originally) Camomile Tea E1422E86-.... 0.00
    User 1 Red Tea  Guid.Empty  
    User 2 Green Trea Guid.NewGuid 10

    Result is:

      ProductName CategoryID UnitPrice
    database RedTea Guid.Empty 0.00

    Note that User1 values went it , User2 data was thrown out and even though in UnitPrice there wasn't a clash between the users, the database value was the chosen one!

    Retaining Database values

    This is in fact the opposite as our previous example, User2 values are merged with the database and User1's values are chucked out of the window. Basically User1 says, "I'll let the other guy's values go through..I'll comeback to it again and see where my data fits with hers..". The term OverwriteCurrentValues, the way I interpret it that is read from the point of view of User1, "Overwrite my current values, therefore since User2 has committed and are in the db, keep them..".  This is achieved by using:

    linq.ChangeConflicts.ResolveAll(RefreshMode.OverwriteCurrentValues);

    Table please...

      ProductName CategoryID UnitPrice
    Database Camomile E1422E86 0.00
    User1 Red Tea Guid.Empty  
    User2 Green Tea NewGuid 10.0
      ProductName CategoryID UnitPrice
      Green Tea NewID 10.0

    Merging Conflicts with Database values

    Using ResolveAll(RefreshMode.KeepChanges) means keeps all the changes in the DataContext and merge them with the database, overwritting the row values if necessary.

      ProductName CategoryID UnitPrice
    Database Camomile E1422E86 0.00
    User1 Red Tea    
    User2 Green Tea NewGuid 10.0

    The results are as expected, User1 keeps his Red Tea, and User2 keep hers NewGuid and UnitPrice, in effect the merging has been "between" the users only.

      ProductName CategoryID UnitPrice
      Red Tea NewID 10.0

     

    Apologies for the delay in getting this one out, I have been busy and I was writing this up when we noted our beautiful and very lively ( and vicious) pet parrot passed away last Thursday night.  Very sad and it all was all of a sudden. I hope the poor fella didn't suffer and I certainly miss his singing in the mornings. Lesson learned though, birds should be free and while they are very entertaining I don't think is fair to keep them [birds] inside for our selfish gratification.

    I certainly enjoyed writing this post and playing around with the DataContext, generating errors etc. There is ton of info on this in MSDN, I certainly think the guys have done a great job in documenting Conflict resolution in LINQ to SQL.

    Place for you to start would be:

    http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb399389.aspx


              Playing around with LINQ to SQL: Using DataLoadOptions. Immediate loading and filtering of related data        

    Linq2Sql use deferred execution of queries, lazy loading to get data from the database. The data is only retrieved from the source when we are ready to use it, say when we iterate through it and do something to it. The are advantages to it, say when we have hierarchical data like Orders->OrderDetails, iterating through the Order will not get you all the child objects ( the OrderDetails) by default. This is a good thing of course, it returns you what you want but it can also lead to unexpected results and unnecessary round trips to the database if not careful.

    order_order_details_Products

     

    [TestMethod]
    public void Lazy_Load_Them()
    {
        var context = new NorthwindDataContext();
        context.Log = Console.Out;
    
        var mydata = from order in context.Orders
                     select order;
    
        foreach (Order o in mydata)
        {
              Console.WriteLine(o.OrderID);
        }
    }

     

    The only query generated is below:

    SELECT [t0].[OrderID], [t0].[CustomerID], [t0].[EmployeeID], [t0].[OrderDate], [t0].[RequiredDate], [t0].[ShippedDate], [t0].[ShipVia], [t0].[Freight], [t0].[ShipName], [t0].[ShipAddress], [t0].[ShipCity], [t0].[ShipRegion], [t0].[ShipPostalCode], [t0].[ShipCountry]
    FROM [dbo].[Orders] AS [t0]

    In the above case it all very simple, all we wanted was the Order(s) entities, network bandwidth was minimised, memory consumption minimised etc.  But what if inside the foreach we also want to output the OrderDetails children of Orders and their corresponding Products? All the child records will be requested when we want, in the below case when we output them...

    [TestMethod]
    public void Lazy_Load_Them()
    {
        var context = new NorthwindDataContext();
        context.Log = Console.Out;
        var mydata = from order in context.Orders
                     select order;
    
        foreach (Order o in mydata)
        {
             Order_Detail od = o.Order_Details.First();//Just the first record for brevity
             Console.WriteLine(od.ProductID + ", " + od.Product.ProductName);
         }
    }

    Well, the results are gory, as we request details and the Product for each Order, a separate query will be created and this will mean a new round trip to the database for every Order. The queries are below and trust me, the are like that for every row of the Order table.

    SELECT [t0].[OrderID], [t0].[CustomerID], [t0].[EmployeeID], [t0].[OrderDate], [t0].[RequiredDate], [t0].[ShippedDate], [t0].[ShipVia], [t0].[Freight], [t0].[ShipName], [t0].[ShipAddress], [t0].[ShipCity], [t0].[ShipRegion], [t0].[ShipPostalCode], [t0].[ShipCountry]
    FROM [dbo].[Orders] AS [t0]
    -- Context: SqlProvider(Sql2005) Model: AttributedMetaModel Build: 3.5.21022.8

    SELECT [t0].[OrderID], [t0].[ProductID], [t0].[UnitPrice], [t0].[Quantity], [t0].[Discount]
    FROM [dbo].[Order Details] AS [t0]
    WHERE [t0].[OrderID] = @p0
    -- @p0: Input Int (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [10248]
    -- Context: SqlProvider(Sql2005) Model: AttributedMetaModel Build: 3.5.21022.8

    SELECT [t0].[ProductID], [t0].[ProductName], [t0].[SupplierID], [t0].[CategoryID], [t0].[QuantityPerUnit], [t0].[UnitPrice], [t0].[UnitsInStock], [t0].[UnitsOnOrder], [t0].[ReorderLevel], [t0].[Discontinued]
    FROM [dbo].[Products] AS [t0]
    WHERE [t0].[ProductID] = @p0
    -- @p0: Input Int (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [11]
    -- Context: SqlProvider(Sql2005) Model: AttributedMetaModel Build: 3.5.21022.8

    11, Queso Cabrales
    SELECT [t0].[OrderID], [t0].[ProductID], [t0].[UnitPrice], [t0].[Quantity], [t0].[Discount]
    FROM [dbo].[Order Details] AS [t0]
    WHERE [t0].[OrderID] = @p0
    -- @p0: Input Int (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [10249]
    -- Context: SqlProvider(Sql2005) Model: AttributedMetaModel Build: 3.5.21022.8

    SELECT [t0].[ProductID], [t0].[ProductName], [t0].[SupplierID], [t0].[CategoryID], [t0].[QuantityPerUnit], [t0].[UnitPrice], [t0].[UnitsInStock], [t0].[UnitsOnOrder], [t0].[ReorderLevel], [t0].[Discontinued]
    FROM [dbo].[Products] AS [t0]
    WHERE [t0].[ProductID] = @p0
    -- @p0: Input Int (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [14]
    -- Context: SqlProvider(Sql2005) Model: AttributedMetaModel Build: 3.5.21022.8

    14, Tofu
    SELECT [t0].[OrderID], [t0].[ProductID], [t0].[UnitPrice], [t0].[Quantity], [t0].[Discount]
    FROM [dbo].[Order Details] AS [t0]
    WHERE [t0].[OrderID] = @p0
    -- @p0: Input Int (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [10250]
    -- Context: SqlProvider(Sql2005) Model: AttributedMetaModel Build: 3.5.21022.8

    As you can see we have queries for the OrderDetails and another query for the Product data..Three queries for for that! For evey single Order? Hrmm

    I have made a total stuff-up, a good thing 'lazy loading' turned into a monster. I have been careless in this case, but how can we improve it? How can minimize the round trips?

    DataLoadOptions: LoadWith(LambdaExpression)

    LinqToSql provides a method for immediate loading of data related to the main Entity we are working through the DataLoadOptions class. This class provides two methods to get immediate loading of related data, The LoadWith method and AssociateWith method that allow for filtering of related objects.

    All you have to do is specify which data that is related to your main target and should be retrieved at the same time with a Lambda expression, for example in our case above our main Entity is the Order, and we would like to get the Order_Details for each Order. This will result in only one trip to the database for all that information, we eliminate all the subqueries that we needed because of the lazy loading. This will improve things significantly for our applications and our users.

    In the exaple below I want to get all the Order_Details related to my main interest, Order.

    public void Get_Deferred_Data_With_Loading_Options()
    {
        var dataContext = newNorthwindDataContext();
        DataLoadOptionsdataLoadOptions = newDataLoadOptions();           
        dataLoadOptions.LoadWith<Order>(order => order.Order_Details);
        dataContext.LoadOptions = dataLoadOptions;
         
        var orders = from order indataContext.Orders
                           select order;

        foreach (Order order in orders)
        {
          List<Order_Detail> ods = order.Order_Details.ToList();
          ods.ForEach(od => Console.WriteLine( order.CustomerID+ " "+ od.OrderID + " , ProdID: "+ od.ProductID + " : "+ od.UnitPrice));
        }          
    }

    SELECT [t0].[OrderID], [t0].[CustomerID], [t0].[EmployeeID], [t0].[OrderDate], [t0].[RequiredDate], [t0].[ShippedDate], [t0].[ShipVia], [t0].[Freight], [t0].[ShipName], [t0].[ShipAddress], [t0].[ShipCity], [t0].[ShipRegion], [t0].[ShipPostalCode], [t0].[ShipCountry], [t1].[OrderID] AS [OrderID2], [t1].[ProductID], [t1].[UnitPrice], [t1].[Quantity], [t1].[Discount], (
        SELECT COUNT(*)
        FROM [dbo].[Order Details] AS [t2]
        WHERE [t2].[OrderID] = [t0].[OrderID]
        ) AS [value]
    FROM [dbo].[Orders] AS [t0]
    LEFT OUTER JOIN [dbo].[Order Details] AS [t1] ON [t1].[OrderID] = [t0].[OrderID]
    ORDER BY [t0].[OrderID], [t1].[ProductID]
    -- Context: SqlProvider(Sql2005) Model: AttributedMetaModel Build: 3.5.21022.8

    VINET 10248 , ProdID: 11 : 14.0000
    VINET 10248 , ProdID: 42 : 9.8000
    VINET 10248 , ProdID: 72 : 34.8000
    TOMSP 10249 , ProdID: 14 : 18.6000
    TOMSP 10249 , ProdID: 51 : 42.4000
    HANAR 10250 , ProdID: 41 : 7.7000
    HANAR 10250 , ProdID: 51 : 42.4000

     

    And we can also further load more child records as below.. by adding the LoadWith to get Product associated records from the Order Details entity

     

    public void Get_Deferred_Data_With_Loading_Options()
    {
          var dataContext = new NorthwindDataContext();
    
          DataLoadOptions dataLoadOptions = new DataLoadOptions();
          dataLoadOptions.LoadWith<Order>(order => order.Order_Details);
          dataLoadOptions.LoadWith<Order_Detail>(od => od.Product);
            
          dataContext.LoadOptions = dataLoadOptions;
          dataContext.Log = Console.Out;
          
           var orders = from order in dataContext.Orders
                        select order;
    
           foreach (Order order in orders)
           {
               List<Order_Detail> ods = order.Order_Details.ToList();
               ods.ForEach(od => Console.WriteLine( od.Product.ProductName + ", " + order.CustomerID+ " " + od.OrderID + " , ProdID: " + od.ProductID + " : " + od.UnitPrice ));
           }           
    }
     

    SELECT [t0].[OrderID], [t0].[CustomerID], [t0].[EmployeeID], [t0].[OrderDate], [t0].[RequiredDate], [t0].[ShippedDate], [t0].[ShipVia], [t0].[Freight], [t0].[ShipName], [t0].[ShipAddress], [t0].[ShipCity], [t0].[ShipRegion], [t0].[ShipPostalCode], [t0].[ShipCountry], [t1].[OrderID] AS [OrderID2], [t1].[ProductID], [t1].[UnitPrice], [t1].[Quantity], [t1].[Discount], [t2].[ProductID] AS [ProductID2], [t2].[ProductName], [t2].[SupplierID], [t2].[CategoryID], [t2].[QuantityPerUnit], [t2].[UnitPrice] AS [UnitPrice2], [t2].[UnitsInStock], [t2].[UnitsOnOrder], [t2].[ReorderLevel], [t2].[Discontinued], (
        SELECT COUNT(*)
        FROM [dbo].[Order Details] AS [t3]
        INNER JOIN [dbo].[Products] AS [t4] ON [t4].[ProductID] = [t3].[ProductID]
        WHERE [t3].[OrderID] = [t0].[OrderID]
        ) AS [value]
    FROM [dbo].[Orders] AS [t0]
    LEFT OUTER JOIN ([dbo].[Order Details] AS [t1]
        INNER JOIN [dbo].[Products] AS [t2] ON [t2].[ProductID] = [t1].[ProductID]) ON [t1].[OrderID] = [t0].[OrderID]
    ORDER BY [t0].[OrderID], [t1].[ProductID]
    -- Context: SqlProvider(Sql2005) Model: AttributedMetaModel Build: 3.5.21022.8

    Queso Cabrales, VINET 10248 , ProdID: 11 : 14.0000
    Singaporean Hokkien Fried Mee, VINET 10248 , ProdID: 42 : 9.8000
    Mozzarella di Giovanni, VINET 10248 , ProdID: 72 : 34.8000

    Query is a bit more complex, but thats all! No more round trips to our database. Cool eh?

     

    AssociateWith: Filtering at the DataContext Level

    This is used to specify in advance, sub-queries to limit the amount of data retrieved for any query against that particular context. Your DataContext instance will filter the data given by the Lambda you specified with AssociateWith all the time.

    For example, I want to only process orders where the QuantiyInOrder is less than 10 because of shipping difficulties or special offers.

    public void Get_Deferred_Data_With_Loading_Options()
    {
          var dataContext = new NorthwindDataContext();
    
          DataLoadOptions dataLoadOptions = new DataLoadOptions();
          dataLoadOptions.LoadWith<Order>(order => order.Order_Details);
          dataLoadOptions.AssociateWith<Order>(order => order.Order_Details.Where(p => p.Quantity < 10));            

     

    SELECT [t0].[OrderID], [t0].[CustomerID], [t0].[EmployeeID], [t0].[OrderDate], [t0].[RequiredDate], [t0].[ShippedDate], [t0].[ShipVia], [t0].[Freight], [t0].[ShipName], [t0].[ShipAddress], [t0].[ShipCity], [t0].[ShipRegion], [t0].[ShipPostalCode], [t0].[ShipCountry], [t1].[OrderID] AS [OrderID2], [t1].[ProductID], [t1].[UnitPrice], [t1].[Quantity], [t1].[Discount], (
        SELECT COUNT(*)
        FROM [dbo].[Order Details] AS [t2]
        WHERE ([t2].[Quantity] < @p0) AND ([t2].[OrderID] = [t0].[OrderID])
        ) AS [value]
    FROM [dbo].[Orders] AS [t0]
    LEFT OUTER JOIN [dbo].[Order Details] AS [t1] ON ([t1].[Quantity] < @p0) AND ([t1].[OrderID] = [t0].[OrderID])
    ORDER BY [t0].[OrderID], [t1].[ProductID]
    -- @p0: Input Int (Size = 0; Prec = 0; Scale = 0) [10]
    -- Context: SqlProvider(Sql2005) Model: AttributedMetaModel Build: 3.5.21022.8

    VINET 10248 , ProdID: 72 : 5
    TOMSP 10249 , ProdID: 14 : 9
    VICTE 10251 , ProdID: 22 : 6
    HILAA 10257 , ProdID: 39 : 6
    ERNSH 10258 , ProdID: 32 : 6
    CENTC 10259 , ProdID: 37 : 1
    RATTC 10262 , ProdID: 56 : 2

    All our queries within the scope of this DataContext will be filtered in advance rather than you having to specify a Where clause.

     

    DataLoadOptions in MSDN can be found below

    http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.data.linq.dataloadoptions.aspx


              Localisation and Profiles: Programmatically changing the user's preferred culture.        

    A while ago I wrote a post on how to use Localisation in ASP.NET using resource files etc. We'll since then I been asked about how to change the user's culture programmatically by clicking a button or similar.

    In that previous article I described how culture selection is based on browser preferences and HTTP language headers. While this is pretty good, there are many scenarios where this could be improved. Say you are travelling overseas and are accessing your appl remotely from someone's elses machine, if the culture of that browser is set to Japanese, then your application might not be readable to you. You might not be able to change your language preferences either because that might not be available in a controlled environment.

    What options do we have?

    In general, to get manage the user's preferences we have:

    • Use the browser settings ( not that great as described above but good enough for 80% of the time)
    • When a user registers of first uses your application, they can choose language of choice and then save this in the database for later retrieval
    • Persist the above choice in Session state or Cookies.
    • Use ASP.NET Profiles.
    • Let the users choose this in the application. ( buttons. ddls etc ) 

    In ASP.NET is very straightforward to select the preferred culture based on the user's browser settings, you can do it at page level like I did in in my prev post but you can also set it up for all your pages in the web.config file saving you the pain of adding the attribute to all your pages throughout your application.

    <system.web>
            <globalization culture="auto" uiCulture="auto" fileEncoding="utf-8" requestEncoding="utf-8" 
                responseEncoding="utf-8" />
     ....
    What if I want to save the user settings after they register/access the app for the first time?

    Think about the options you have to persist the preferred culture: Session: Session is not the best for many reasons, most importantly Session is not there forever, for example by default ASP.NET assumes that the user left the site after no requests have been made for 20 mins ,  your user might get up to get a cup of tea and his Session might expire, therefore when she gets back she might not have the application in her culture of choice. Also, you might not be able to access the Session object when you want to access the user's preferences. So I wouldn't use Session myself.

    What about Cookies?

    Cookies are more favourable if all you want is to persist a simple user' preference like the culture or their favourite colour I think, it will get hard pretty quickly if you where storing more than just their colour and horoscope preferences.

    For example in Global.asax you could implement the Application_BeginRequest event and read the cookie there and setup your CurrentThread to the value stored in the cookie that you created after the user made the choice etc.

    void Application_BeginRequest(Object sender, EventArgs args)
    {
        HttpCookie myPreferencesCookie = (HttpCookie)Request.Cookies["Culture"];
        // check for null etc etc
        string culture = myPreferencesCookie.Value;
        System.Threading.Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentUICulture = 
             new System.Globalization.CultureInfo(culture);
        System.Threading.Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentCulture = 
             System.Globalization.CultureInfo.CreateSpecificCulture(culture);
    }

    But I think it will get complicated very quickly and I don't think is the best way. Much better I think is ASP.NET's Profile

    The Profile objects is strongly typed and persisted, and you can even implement your own ProfileProvider!

    The easiest way to create a Profile is by creating some properties in the your root web.config. Just like the Resource files, ASP.NET compiles the Profile's propertied dynamically and then you have this strongly typed profile assets.

    <profile>
       <properties>
          <add name="MyFavouriteNumber" allowAnonymous="true"/>
          <group name="Preferences">
            <add name="Culture" allowAnonymous="true" />
            <add name="Color" allowAnonymous="true"  />
           </group>
       </properties>
     </profile>

    Note the attributes, name is very simple, but note alllowAnonymous: This allows anonymous users to read/write properties, you have to set it explicitly because by default, this is set to false. ASP.NET cannot know which user has which profile unless the user is authenticated. So to use this anonymous feauture you have to enable anonymous indentification in your web.config too. More details in MSDN here.

    All I did what this...

    <anonymousIdentification  enabled="true" />

    You can also set defaultvalues, type, readonly attributes to your profile entries too.

    Also I defined what is called 'Profile Groups', that lets you organise the properties better and into more logical groups. Then in your app the intellisense will pick it up beautifully! ( Profile.Preferences.Culture )

    So far so good, we can store it in the Profile Object but using Profile is a bit of a problem in the same league as the Sesssion Object: Can we access Profile in Global.asax BeginRequest()? Nop, we can't, the only way is to write some code to access the data store where you are persisting the user's preferences. The reason this is the case is that just like Session, Profile is not initialised until Session is ready to roll.

    Getting started with a solution to the problem

    So far we know we don't want to use Session, we don't want to use Cookies and that Profile is good but we can't really use it straight out of the box.

    Question I had was, how can I localise pages based on the choices the user made? and what if the user wants to change back and forth this setting for say language preferences. Anyway, I started easy, lets give them a UI so they can change languages for example.

    I created a MasterPage and added some big, impossible to miss flags that can be associated to languages and cultures as shown below. The plan is that by clicking on the flag, the culture associated with the flags will be the Thread.Culture that the page will be running under.

    Flags

    Simple code too..just a few asp:Images..

    <asp:ImageButton CommandName="es-UY" OnCommand="Flag_ClickedCommand" AlternateText="Spanish"
           CssClass="Flag" ImageUrl="~/Profile/FlagsImages/uy.gif" ID="imgUruguay" runat="server"
           />
    <asp:ImageButton CommandName="zh-CN" OnCommand="Flag_ClickedCommand" AlternateText="Chinese"
           CssClass="Flag" ImageUrl="~/Profile/FlagsImages/cn.gif" ID="ImageButton2" runat="server"
            />
    <asp:ImageButton CommandName="en-AU" OnCommand="Flag_ClickedCommand" AlternateText="English"
           CssClass="Flag" ImageUrl="~/Profile/FlagsImages/au.gif" ID="ImageButton1" runat="server"
            />

    OK, note that I have setup an EventHandler for the OnCommand event, when this fires, Flag_ClickedCommand will be called and then culture that that particular flag represents will be passed on as CommandName.

    protected void Flag_ClickedCommand(Object sender, CommandEventArgs args)
    {
          if (!args.CommandName.IsValidCulture()) return;        
           Profile.Preferences.Culture = args.CommandName;
           Response.Redirect(Request.Path);        
    }

    Note what I set the Profile.Preferences.Culture to the command name passed on from the ImageButton, but this could well be a simple button or a dropdownlist value etc. I redirect the page to itself since if the user clicks on a flag, they'll expect the changes to take change immendiately! ( I would!)

    I created an extension method for strings to check if the culture passed along was valid too. Not relevant to this post but since they are very neat I'll copy it here too. :-)

    public static bool IsValidCulture(this string cult)
    {
         if (Constants.ChineseCulture == cult
                  || Constants.EnglishCulture == cult
                  || Constants.SpanishCulture == cult)
         {
             return true;
         }
         return false;    
    }

    Setting the Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentCulture to your preferred culture

    What we now want to do is for a page to load and pick the user's preferred culture.

    I noted that you can override the InitializeCulture() method solely to intialise the page's culture. This function gets called very early in the page life cycle, well before and controls are created, meaning that if you want to get some values from controls, you must get them directly from the request using Form!

    protected override void InitializeCulture()
    {       
        string culture = Profile.Preferences.Culture;
        if (!culture.IsEmpty())
        {
            Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentUICulture = new CultureInfo(culture);
            Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentCulture = CultureInfo.CreateSpecificCulture(culture);
        }
    }

    Unfortunately you have to override this function for every page, not very practical if you have a zillion pages. Next best is to provide a base common class and then inherit from this class so all your webforms can benefit and you don't have to implement the above in every form. This works fine!

    Note that the Thread culture is only set for the current page and will not affect your "other" pages, initially I thought that the CurrentThread's culture will be set to the new values and we'll all happy. But then I also thought what If a user has a different entry point to the application, so the need for all your pages to be able to read and set the user's fav culture.

    public partial class LocalisationBase : System.Web.UI.Page
    {
        protected override void InitializeCulture()
        {
            ProfileCommon common = HttpContext.Current.Profile as ProfileCommon;
            string culture = common.Preferences.Culture;
    
            if (!culture.IsEmpty())
            {
                Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentUICulture = new CultureInfo(culture);
                Thread.CurrentThread.CurrentCulture = CultureInfo.CreateSpecificCulture(culture);
            }
        }    
    }
    So base class it was and all my other pages inherited from this..
    public partial class Profile_Default : LocalisationBase
    {
        protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
        {
        }
    ...........

    Now lets have a look at my initial UI that I wanted to localise and see if this works.

     englishUI

    Just a simple form with some dates, numbers and a calendar what we hope we can localise and so the right names and formatting appear for the right culture setting. For the form labels I used resource files just like in my previous post. I have three resource files, one for english, one for spanish and one for mandarin.

    The currency is interesting. All I have is a number where I call ToString("c")

    private void FillPersonalisedMoney()
    {
        lblMoney.Text = (500.23D).ToString("c");
    }

    Now when the user click on the Chinese flag...then the Chinese version of the page will render, dates will be rendered accordingly and the calendar will be in Chinese too..

    chinaUI

    And in Spanish too...

    spanishUI

    Clicking on Employee Details will take you to a page that also inherits from LocalisationBase and where Employees from ubiquitous Northwind will be displayed with to their likely annoyance, their date of birth, nicely formatted according to the culture of choice!

    EmployeesDetails

    EmployeesChineseDetails

    And there you have it.

    In conclusion I used the native Profile ASP.NET objects, you can implement your own Provider or you can use SQLProfileProvider that ASP.NET offers, either way I honestly think that these guys offer you much more flexibility and power when you want to customize your apps according to user's preferences.

    Au revoir!

    Resources:

    #Must read for any localisation entrepreneurs

    http://quickstarts.asp.net/QuickStartv20/aspnet/doc/localization/default.aspx

    # ASP.NET 2.0 Localization (MSDN Article)

    http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms379546.aspx

    #Profiles

    http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/at64shx3(VS.80).aspx


              Caching Awareness Day: Part 1        

    There are probably zillions of posts, tutorials etc around on how to do caching in ASP.NET. However a zillion+1 will not hurt. This post is more for sel-reference more than anything. I admit that sometimes I need to go over features I haven't used in a while (or ever?) to refresh my mind, this is one of those days.

    In my current job we have an application that was suffering from a performance hangover when retrieving some records from WebServices and the db. I thought for a while how caching can improve the user experience of some of guilty pages.

    After a few months in the thinking room waiting for the go ahead from the bosses, we got right into it. The idea was simple: when a particular record was requested from the services it was first stored in the Cache object and any subsequent request for that data will first check in the Application Cache to see if it's there, if there retrieve it, else go to the WebServices, get it, store it in the Cache etc etc. Needless to say the results where fantastic, the users are happy and they love their 'new' app. We are happy, but I kicked myself in the guts why didn't I do it in the first place!

    Anyway, enough yarns. I plan to post a series on Caching and the different techniques that can be used to put some Caching love into your apps.

    What is Caching?

    Caching is all about storing data, objects, pages, part of pages etc in memory immediately after is requested from the original source. These objects are usually stored for example on the Web server, proxy servers or even the client browser. Think of the benefits, much faster to retrieve data from a proxy server 'nearby'  for example, where this data has been previously requested and stored,  than retrieving the data from probably a data source thousands of miles away and likely to be some data that was computationally expensive to generate and retrieve.

    ASP.NET provides two types of caching:

    1. Output Caching, where you can store page and controls responses from the original server to the requesting browser.
    2. Data Caching, where you can programmatically store objects to the server's memory so that the application can fetch them from there rather than recreating them.

    Caching ASP.NET Pages: Output Caching

    Page output caching allows for subsequent requests for a given page to be provided from the cache so that the code that initially created the page does not execute. This is good for pages that are static and that you are confident are very frequently accessed pages. However if you have content on your page that is generated dynamically or has some dependency on a parameter or even a random image, then the same item will be displayed for the duration of the caching! beware! :-)

    To enable OutputCaching, you add a <%@ OutputCache directive to a page. For example, in the page below I have cached this page for 10 seconds.

    <%@ OutputCache VaryByParam="none" Duration="10" %>

    The contents of your page will not be regenerated each time a user requests the page, also the class behind the page will not be executed during that time. This is the most basic kind of OutputCaching you can set up for a page, although very limited and only useful for very static pages.

    Moving on, let's see all the properties that can be set for the OutputCache directive.

    ouputIntellisense

    Note that there is a property called 'VaryByParam". This one is very useful. For example, typical Master/Detail scenario, say you have a page where you show all Categories of Products in the Northwind database.

    categories

    ..and then you wanted to display the Products for each category in  a different page, passing the CategoryID in the query string.

    Capture2

    Capture3 

    Now if you did the above setup for your details page, then all your users will see whatever was cached first.

    Enter VaryByParam. This helps you by making ASP.NET cache a new instance of the page when a different value for the CategoryID query string parameter is passed to the Products page.

    <%@ OutputCache Duration="100" VaryByParam="CategoryID" %>

    You can also vary the output cache by multiple parameters by separating the list of params by semicolon in the VaryByParam attribute ..

    <%@ OutputCache Duration="100" VaryByParam="CategoryID;ProductID" %>

    Also you can generate a new version of the page when any of the params change by assigning a  * to the attribute.

    <%@ OutputCache Duration="100" VaryByParam="*" %>

    More information in caching by param can be found in MSDN 

    OutputCaching by browser Header

    It is possible to also use the VaryByHeader attribute to create different versions of a page according to the browser header. For example, my Firefox browser sends the below set of headers with information.

    Connection: keep-alive
    Keep-Alive: 300
    Accept: text/xml,application/xml,application/xhtml+xml,text/html;q=0.9,text/plain;q=0.8,image/png,*/*;q=0.5
    Accept-Charset: ISO-8859-1,utf-8;q=0.7,*;q=0.7
    Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate
    Accept-Language: en-gb,en;q=0.5
    Host: localhost
    User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 6.0; en-GB; rv:1.8.1.13) Gecko/20080311 Firefox/2.0.0.13

    My IE7 sends:

    Connection: Keep-Alive
    Accept: image/gif, image/x-xbitmap, image/jpeg, image/pjpeg, application/x-ms-application, application/vnd.ms-xpsdocument, application/xaml+xml, application/x-ms-xbap, application/x-silverlight, application/x-shockwave-flash, application/x-silverlight-2-b1, */*
    Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
    Accept-Language: en-AU,es-UY;q=0.7,zh-CN;q=0.3
    Host: localhost
    User-Agent: Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 6.0; SV1; SLCC1; .NET CLR 2.0.50727; Media Center PC 5.0; .NET CLR 3.0.04506; .NET CLR 3.5.21022)
    UA-CPU: x86

    You can check what your browser is sneaking out here or here ( as an aside, I heard that in the in 2001 a browser had some customer headers that were used to sneak information about that particular user...read it and see). In .Net I did the above by calling and then iterating the collection.

    NameValueCollection headerCollection = Request.Headers;


    So......
    <%@ OutputCache Duration="1000" VaryByParam="none" VaryByHeader="Accept-Language" %>

    That will cache a different page version according to the language used by the user.Right?

    ...Cache by Browser, getting introduced to the very handy VaryByCustom :-)

    You can also cache by the user's browser by using VaryByCustom attribute and using the 'special' browser attribute. By using this attribute, the page will be cached for each mayor browser, its   name and version, eg IE7 and IE8 will result in two different cached versions.

    <%@ OutputCache Duration="1000" VaryByParam="none" VaryByCustom="browser" %>

    VaryByCustom is very handy. Basically what you can do is write a function in Global.asax or write an HttpModule to handle caching for pages in any way you want.

    In Global.asax you do it by overriding the GetVaryCustomString() function.

    public override string GetVaryByCustomString(HttpContext context, string custom)
    {
         return base.GetVaryByCustomString(context, custom);
    }
    The function takes two parameters, the HttpContext for the request and a string which is the value you can set in VaryByCustom="[custom_string]", this string can be also be a nunber of string passed along separated by semicolon and you can then split it in GetVaryByCustomString() The context gives you access to everything you expect from HttpContext, session, Request etc etc, 
    Example: Say you want to cache pages according to the bosses's mood. 
    <%@ OutputCache Duration="1000" VaryByParam="none" VaryByCustom="BossHappinessLevel" %>
    Then your custom function could look like..
      
    public override string GetVaryByCustomString(HttpContext context, string custom)
    {
        if (custom == "BossHappinessLevel")
        {
            MyAjaxEnabledService a = new MyAjaxEnabledService();
            return a.BossHappinessLevel().ToString();       
        }
        return "default";        
    }

    Based on the string passed, the logic will just return a string that can uniquely identify a request and thus cache a different version of the page according to the current mood! ( The above example doesn't make any sense if your boss is agro all the time, meaning that the "angry" page will be cached most of the time. Of course for this to make more sense, your page will return different content according to the mood too..if he/she is angry or happy or just indifferent. Please drop me an email if you don't get it, I need a drink now! LOL

    Caching profiles in Web.Config

    Instead of setting the cache policy for each page individually, you can configure page caching in the web.config and then apply your killer settings to lots of pages...

    <system.web>
       <caching>
           <outputCacheSettings>
             <outputCacheProfiles>
                   <add duration="1000" name="ByBossHappiness" varyByParam="none" varyByCustom="BossHappinessLevel" />
                   <add duration="1000" name="ByBrowser" varyByCustom="browser" varyByParam="none" />
             </outputCacheProfiles>
           </outputCacheSettings>
       </caching>
    </system.web>

    Then your pages can recall any of the cacheprofiles by using the CacheProfile attribute of OutputCache

    <%@ OutputCache CacheProfile="ByBossHappiness" %>

    Next post:

    In my next post I'd like to investigate how to do the above programmatically and also expire pages in code due to some event for example, if someone in the Northwind database adds a new Product by using the Reponse.RemoveOutputCacheItem() function.

    Other things left to do include:
    • Partial Page caching.
    • UserControl caching.
    • Data caching
    • Caching by dependencies
    • SQL caching policies by using dependencies!

              WCF Services - Part 2        

    In the last post I tried to show how to use HTTP GET to get data back from my Services. Now I want to put my thoughts in order and show how I created new Employees and updated them using programmatic POST using the ubiquitous Northwind database.

    My first attempts where at trying to update a record using values embedded in the querystring... easier said than done, it was quite an effort.. At then end it worked, it just required a shift in the way I was tackling the problem. I ended up having my contract accept a Stream parameter and then had to read the stream and get the values back.

     

    My contract was:

    //STREAM EXAMPLE
    [OperationContract]
    [WebInvoke(UriTemplate = "*", Method = "POST")]
    void UpdateEmployeeName(Stream id);

    My uri template was "*" since I wanted to have the querystring collection of values straight after the 'root' of my Service.svc

    My implementation was very simple...

    public void UpdateEmployeeName(Stream id)
     {
         StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(id);
         String res = reader.ReadToEnd();
         NameValueCollection coll = HttpUtility.ParseQueryString(res);
         
         int employeeID = Int32.Parse(coll["elid"]);
         String newName = coll["newName"];
    
         // Bless LinqToSql
         NorthwindDataContext cts = new NorthwindDataContext(ConnectionManager.GetHomeLocalConnectionString);
         Employee e = cts.Employees.Where(a => a.EmployeeID == employeeID ).Single();
         e.FirstName = newName;
         cts.SubmitChanges();
     }

    Now, how the heck do I make a programmatic POST to my contract?

    I just created a WebRequest and set the content type to form-urlencoded and set the request length to the length of my queryString collection.

    //set the data
    ASCIIEncoding enc = new ASCIIEncoding();
    string datatext = "elid=" + elEmployeeID.Text;
    datatext += "&newName=" + elEmployeeNewName.Text;
    
    byte[] data = enc.GetBytes(datatext);
    
    //HTTP POST query
    WebRequest request = HttpWebRequest.Create("http://localhost/DemoWCF/Service.svc");
    request.Method = "POST";
    request.ContentType = "application/x-www-form-urlencoded";
    request.ContentLength = data.Length;
    
    Stream datasteam = request.GetRequestStream();
    datasteam.Write(data, 0, data.Length);
    datasteam.Close();
    WebResponse response = request.GetResponse();
     

    To test it I threw a few textfields together and magic....

    part2_1

     

    And checking the db....

     

    part2_2

     

    I also wanted to create a new Employee using Javascript using a programmatic post as above but this time using Javascript Object Notation (JSON ) http://www.json.org/

     

    My contract..

    [OperationContract]
    [WebInvoke(BodyStyle = WebMessageBodyStyle.Wrapped,
    RequestFormat = WebMessageFormat.Json,
    ResponseFormat = WebMessageFormat.Json,
    UriTemplate = "/CreateEmployee")]
    void CreateEmployee(string FirstName, string LastName);
    Implementation:
    public void CreateEmployee(string FirstName, string LastName)
    {
          NorthwindDataContext cts = new NorthwindDataContext();
          Employee e = new Employee();      
          e.LastName = LastName;
          e.FirstName = FirstName;
          cts.Employees.InsertOnSubmit(e);
          cts.SubmitChanges();           
    }

     

    To generate an HTTP POST call with JavaScript, I created a XMLHTTPRequest and then I just constructed the url, set the header content type to json and was careful to format my JSON pair's payload..

    <asp:Button  ID="btnJSONCreateEmployee" runat="server" OnClientClick="doEmployeeCreate()"
    function doEmployeeCreate()
    {            
           var newFirstName = document.getElementById('TextBox1').value;            
           var newLastName = document.getElementById('TextBox2').value;
                
           var xmlHttp = new XMLHttpRequest();            
              
           // Create result handler 
           xmlHttp.onreadystatechange=function()
           {
              if(xmlHttp.readyState == 4)
              {
                 document.getElementById("result").value = xmlHttp.responseText;
               }
           }
                
           var url = "Service.svc/CreateEmployee";
           var body = '{"FirstName": '+ '"' + newFirstName + '"';
           body += ', "LastName": ' + '"'+newLastName + '"' + '}';
                
           //Send the Http Request
           xmlHttp.open("POST", url, true);
           xmlHttp.setRequestHeader("Content-type", "application/json");
           xmlHttp.send(body); 
    }

     

    To create a JSON payload in C# is very simple, just format a string carefully, escaping the " and you'll be fine..

    protected void btnCallService_Clicked(object sender, EventArgs args)
    {
       ASCIIEncoding enc = new ASCIIEncoding();
       string employeeID = txtJsonEmpID.Text;
       string firstName = txtJsonFirstName.Text;
       string lastName = txtJsonLastName.Text;           
       string datatext = "{\"EmployeeID\":{0}, \"FirstName\":\"{1}\"  , \"LastName\":\"{2}\" }";
            
       datatext = datatext.Replace("{0}", employeeID)
                          .Replace("{1}",firstName)
                          .Replace("{2}", lastName);
                   
       byte[] data = enc.GetBytes(datatext);
    
       WebRequest request = HttpWebRequest.Create("http://localhost/DemoWCF/Service.svc/CallJason");
       request.Method = "POST";
       request.ContentType = "application/json";
       request.ContentLength = data.Length;
       
       Stream datasteam = request.GetRequestStream();
       datasteam.Write(data, 0, data.Length);
       datasteam.Close();
       WebResponse response = request.GetResponse();
    }

     

    Ok, now unfortunately one of the new Employees didn't leave good comments in SVN and el# got a bit upset when he had a look at the logs. So let's fire the guy, tough choice yes, but then also we need to demo a programmatic HTTP DELETE.

    part2_3 

    Simple contract...I just specify the request format, the response format and the method that my client will be using..

     
    [OperationContract]
    [WebInvoke(BodyStyle = WebMessageBodyStyle.Wrapped,
        RequestFormat = WebMessageFormat.Json,
        ResponseFormat = WebMessageFormat.Json,
        UriTemplate = "/FireEmployee",
        Method="DELETE" )]
    void FireEmployee(int EmployeeID);

    Implementation is dead simple...this has got nothing to do with WCF, but I just post it here for completeness.

    public void FireEmployee(int EmployeeID)
    {
        NorthwindDataContext ctx = new NorthwindDataContext();
        Employee emp = ctx.Employees.Where(e => e.EmployeeID == EmployeeID).Single();
        ctx.Employees.DeleteOnSubmit(emp);
        ctx.SubmitChanges();  
    }  

    Calling using JavaScript is v. simple too..

    function fireTheGuy()
    {
        var employeeID  =  document.getElementById('txtToDeleteEmployeeID').value;
        var xmlHttp = new XMLHttpRequest();            
              
        // Create result handler 
        xmlHttp.onreadystatechange=function()
        {
            if(xmlHttp.readyState == 4)
            {
              document.getElementById("result").value = xmlHttp.responseText;
            }
        }
                
        // void CreateEmployee(string FirstName, string LastName);
        var url = "Service.svc/FireEmployee";
        var body = ' { "EmployeeID": ' +  employeeID + ' }';
                
        //Send the Http Request
        xmlHttp.open("DELETE", url, true);
        xmlHttp.setRequestHeader("Content-type", "application/json");
        xmlHttp.send(body);       
    }
     

    And trust me, it works like a charm.

    Next post I would like to return complex types back to the client, as in Employee's objects etc..

     

              REST with WCF        

    At the MS Heroes day, a few thursdays ago, our first session was on WCF and is fair to say a few of us were very impressed by what I saw and I just couldn't wait to recreate those presentations on my desk..

    What is WCF?

    From MSDN,

    Is a set of .net Technologies for building and running connected systems. It is a new breed of communications infrastructure built around the Web services architecture. Advanced Web services support in Windows Communication Foundation provides secure, reliable, and transacted messaging along with interoperability. The service-oriented programming model of Windows Communication Foundation is built on the Microsoft .NET Framework and simplifies development of connected systems

     

    What is REST ?

    REST is a architectural model ( it is not a standard ) for distributed computing that defines how resources are distributed and addressed.

    The acronym means Representational State Transfer, translated to mere mortals language it means that each unique URL is a representation of some data. It was term invented by Roy Fielding one of the principal authors of the HTTP protocol.

    I will post resources and links later in the post. However Google for REST and you'll get heaps of results if you are curious. Definitions are boring! I like doing things. But you need to know a bit of the theory.

    eg:

    http://localhost/myWebService/Employee/2

    http://localhost/myWebService/Employee

    http://localhost/myWebService/Product/89

    REST WebServices: An alternative to SOAP

    All the above urls will return you different data ( a representation of the resource requested ) according to (of course) on how you map this URL to your contracts.  First link might be mapped to return you the Employee with ID =2 and so on, or the Product with ID = 89

    Basic principles

    1. Identify the entities you want to expose a representation eg Employee, Product
    2. Create URL for each resource/entity. Resources should be nouns.
    3. Categorise resources according to whether clients can just get a representation of your data or whether they can modify the data. For resources that you just want to make available to clients, make them accessible using HTTP GET, for resources that you want to give the client the possibility to modify data, make them accessible using HTTP POST, PUT or DELETE
    4. Resources accessible via GET should be 'side effect' free. This means the web service call should not modify the data in the back end.

    Yahoo and Flickr amongst others use REST web services. Example of Flickr REST web service can be seen here

    Main advantages of using REST

    • Easy to work with, and easy to read for 'humans'.
    • Easy to consume ( not always, I hear Amazon services can be a pain to parse )
    • Improved server response times.

     

    I started working with this on the weekend after Microsoft Heroes in Sydney. At the time I challenged myself not to Google for answers and get the examples working only with the help of MSDN for WCF.

    It was not easy at first, MSDN is huge and it throws so much information at you, if you are not careful you start losing track of what link you open where and soon you lose track of what you are reading, at least I do!

    Needless to say it wasn't that easy. I find it interesting to see how much developers including myself sometimes google problems searching for tailor-made answers. Imagine a world without Google? Is mindblowing to think how older programmers looked for answers 20 years ago, maybe things where simpler those days. Hrmm..

    Ok, so lets get started, first of all I went NewSite -> WCF Service. Visual Studio will create a simple solution with an IService and a Service class and also a Service.svc file.

    First of all lets look at the IService interface is provided by default.

    [ServiceContract]
    public interface IService
    {
    
        [OperationContract]
        string GetData(int value);
    
        [OperationContract]
        CompositeType GetDataUsingDataContract(CompositeType composite);
    
        // TODO: Add your service operations here
    }

    FIrst thing you do is define a contract. You do this by adding the [ServiceContract]  attribute to your interface.  This contract will define what operations your webservice will ultimately support. Think of an operation as a method call that your service will expose. Each method in the interface that you want to expose, must then have the [OperationContract]  attribute defined / applied to it. If a method does not have this attribute, it won't be exposed therefore it wont be accessible by the service's clients.

    We then have to implement this interface and implement each method that we defined in our ServiceContract.

    I want to expose a method by a REST WebService to return an Employee Name representation when the URL is "GetEmployeeName/{id}".

    Remember that if we just want a representation of our data without any side effect by the REST principles we have to use the HTTP GET verb. WCF Web model allows you to do this by using the WebGet method attribute for Get operations. All you have to do is adorn your method with WebGet.

    For that to happen I have to define  my operation contract in the interface as follows:

    [OperationContract]
    [WebGet(UriTemplate= "GetEmployeeName/{id}", ResponseFormat = WebMessageFormat.Xml)]
    stringGetEmployeeName(Stringid);

    In the WebGet attribute we can also describe the layout of the URL that our WebService will respond to. For example I want the method above to be called upon to answer the GetEmployeeFirstName call when the URL is MyService.svc/GetEmployeeName/2

    We do this by adding a UriTemplate property to our WebGet attribute. This templates allow you to match an incoming URL to an operation in the service. The ResponseFormat attribute is self explanatory, you can choose XML or JSON.

    Now we have to implement our GetEmployeeeFirstName method in our class.

    public class Service : IService
    {
    
        public string GetEmployeeName(string id)
        {
            NorthwindDataContext ct = new NorthwindDataContext();
            return ct.Employees.Where(a => a.EmployeeID == Int32.Parse(id)).Select(a => a.FirstName + " " + a.LastName).Single();
        }
    }

    I'm using LinqToSql again to retrieve employees from the Northwind database.

    We are almost ready to go now. I had my biggest struggle with the web.config and configuring behaviours and endpoints. I wasn't the only one that struggled, for what I can gather around blogs etc and the poor MSDN documentation this wasn't that straightforward.

    I settled for the config settings below...

    <system.serviceModel>
            <bindings>
                <webHttpBinding>
                    <binding name="ServiceBehavior"></binding>                
                </webHttpBinding>        
            </bindings>
            <services>
                <service name="Service" behaviorConfiguration="ServiceBehavior">
                    <!-- Service Endpoints -->
                    <endpoint address=""  binding="webHttpBinding" behaviorConfiguration="ServiceBehavior" contract="IService"></endpoint>
                    <endpoint contract="IService" address="mex" binding="mexHttpBinding"></endpoint>                
                </service>            
            </services>
            <behaviors>
                <endpointBehaviors>
                    <behavior  name="ServiceBehavior">
                        <webHttp />                     
                    </behavior>                
                </endpointBehaviors>
                <serviceBehaviors>
                    <behavior name="ServiceBehavior">
                         To avoid disclosing metadata information, set the value below to false and remove the metadata endpoint above before deployment 
                        <serviceMetadata httpGetEnabled="true" />
                                         To receive exception details in faults for debugging purposes, set the value below to true.  Set to false before deployment to avoid disclosing exception information 
                        <serviceDebug includeExceptionDetailInFaults="true"/>
                    </behavior>  
                </serviceBehaviors>
           </behaviors>
    </system.serviceModel>

    Since I'm using the WCF web model and all my requests are through HTTP and not SOAP I have to use webHttpBinding .

    From MSDN..

    The WCF Web Programming Model allows developers to expose WCF Web services through HTTP requests that use "plain old XML" (POX) style messaging instead of SOAP-based messaging. For clients to communicate with a service using HTTP requests, an endpoint of the service must be configured with the WebHttpBinding that has the WebHttpBehavior attached to it. The WCF Web Programming Model also requires that the individual service operations are annotated with the WebGetAttribute or WebInvokeAttribute attributes. This defines a mapping from a URI and HTTP method to the service operation, as well as the format of the messages used to call the operation and return the results. Support in WCF for syndication and ASP.AJAX integration are both built on top of the WCF Web Programming Model.

    SO far so good, Now if we run our WCF app and we invoke the URL with GetEmployeeName/2 the employee name should be returned...

    http://localhost/DemoWCF/Service.svc/GetEmployeeName/2

    Capture

    http://localhost/DemoWCF/Service.svc/GetEmployeeName/3

    Capture2

    (BTW Vista Snipping Tool kicks bum big time!!!) ( David, I got to talk you into Vista for blogging Windows Live Writer Full, is awesome)

    Lets say I know want to get all the Employees Names by going to an url like this

    http://localhost/DemoWCF/Service.svc/Employees

    [OperationContract]
    [WebGet(UriTemplate = "Employees", ResponseFormat = WebMessageFormat.Xml)]
    List<String> GetEmployeesNames();

    My implementation of the operation would be something along the lines of..

    public List<String> GetEmployeesNames()
    {
        NorthwindDataContext ct = new NorthwindDataContext();
        Enumerable<String> ab = from emps in ct.Employees
                                select emps.FirstName + " " + emps.LastName;
        return ab.ToList();
    }

    And the result would be..

    Capture3 

    Now if I wanted the Response to be of

    WebMessageFormat.Json

    I would then have to change my OperationContract to note my intention as follows

    [OperationContract]
    [WebGet(UriTemplate = "Employees", ResponseFormat = WebMessageFormat.Json)]
    List<String> GetEmployeesNames();

    When I then go to the URI, you will then get prompted to save the response as a file...

    image 

    that upon opening with trusty Notepad you can see the JSON string...

    Capture5 

    In this post I just wanted to show how I got my REST services to work and I then plan to post about how to use PUT, POST and DELETE , how to return complex types, DataContracts and also how to pass querystring values to your OperationContract as a Stream, that in fact was the first thing that I got working. ( Quick preview below). I would also like to post all the source code of my working examples.

    [OperationContract]
    [WebInvoke(UriTemplate = "*", Method = "POST")]
    void UpdateEmployeeName(Stream id);
    Implementation
    public void UpdateEmployeeName(Stream id)
    {
       StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(id);
       String res = reader.ReadToEnd();
       NameValueCollection coll = HttpUtility.ParseQueryString(res);
       int employeeID = Int32.Parse(coll["elid"]);
       String newName = coll["newName"];
       NorthwindDataContext cts = new NorthwindDataContext();
       Employee e = cts.Employees.Where(a => a.EmployeeID == employeeID ).Single();
       e.LastName = newName;
       cts.SubmitChanges();
    }
    See you then.........

              Playing around with Silverlight 2.0 Beta 1        

    Since Silverlight Beta was released a few days, I wanted to have a look around and see what can you do with it.

    After I did all the admins stuff like downloaded the beta, installed etc I started following ScottGu's tutorials on his blog to get an idea.

    I thought, hell what I'm going to do! I've got no idea and certainly no skills as a designer, so I thought ok, lets simulate the AjaxAutoComplete extender and see where it takes us.

    First of all I created a Silverlight application...

    image

    Then Visual Studio told me that in order to run a SL app, I need to host in a web page.

    image

    In project type above you can either choose, WebSite or WebAppliucation type..hrmm.

    Upon clicking ok you are presented with an empty xaml page called Page.xaml

    Now, the Silverlight control, because that is what we are creating, "lives" inside an html/aspx page. Note that the ctrl Source property is pointing to SuperApp.xap...

    image

    What the heck is this .xap file? I hear you ask..

    Nothing too exciting, it is the compiled Silverlight application in zip format. This file contains the dlls it needs to run like System.Windows.Controls.dll and System.Windows.Controls.Extended.dll and the dll of your app in our case SuperApp.dll.

    Dealing with the Xaml..

    First of all I need to build the GUI for the TextBox and ultimately my dodgy AutoCompleteExtender.

    What do we need?

    • Need a TexBox
    • Need some sort of DropDownList that is displayed as the user types in..
    • Need a button to submit the selected name eventually.

     

    I choose <Canvas> as my layout, there is Grid and StackPanel. I used Grid too and it looked very easy to use, it was like creating an html table and then referencing to the x,y cells..very cool.

    This is the Xaml for my text box. Note the Canvas.Top and Canvas.Left, no prize for guessing that it references the parent container of my textbox and it tells it to position it 100 pixels from the left and 20 from the top

    <TextBox x:Name="TextBox_EmployeeName" Canvas.Left="100" Canvas.Top="20" Width="200" BorderBrush="CornflowerBlue" BorderThickness="1" Height="30" />

    The button is very simple:

    <Button Click="Save_Click" Content="Save" Canvas.Left="310" Canvas.Top="20" x:Name="Save"Width="60" >

    I also added an event listener for the Click event.

    Now for the ComboBox-look a like. There is no ComboBox in Silverlight Beta, so the closest thing is a ListBox.

    Lets aligned right under the bottom of the TextBox and see what happens. At this stage of the game I was very hopeful that this will be able to be done.

    <ListBox  KeyDown="EmployeeNames_KeyDown"  
            MouseLeftButtonDown="EmployeeNames_MouseLeftButtonDown"  
            Visibility="Collapsed" x:Name="EmployeeNames" 
            Width="200" Canvas.Left="100" Canvas.Top="46" />

    Ok, so far so good, note I added two events to my ListBox, KeyDown and MouseLeftButtonDown. Basically these two events will 'listen' for when the user presses a key while this control has focus and also while the Mouse left button is pressed also while focus is on. ( I was thinking hrmm, this reminds me of SWING development back at uni in Java..)

    Resulting page is: ( beautiful )

    basic_Silver_Gui

    Next question I had was. Ok I have to get some data from my Northwind database. I want text to resolve back to an EmployeeName. How am I going to do this? WebServices with WCF..

    Note: This WebService has to be configured as BasicHttpBinding.

    You cannot add a WebService to the Silverlight application, you have to do it somewhere else. In this case I added it you my WebSite. AddNewItem --> WCF Service.

    I defined my [ServiceContract] Interface and my OperationContracts

    and then my DataContract, because I wanted to return a MyEmployee object from my WCF webService.

    [ServiceContract]
    public interface IMyService
    {
        [OperationContract]
        int CountEmployees();
    
        [OperationContract]
        MyEmployee GetEmployee(int id);
    
        [OperationContract]
        List<MyEmployee> GetAllEmployees();
    
        [OperationContract]
        String[] GetAjaxyEmployeeNames(String prefixText);
    }
    
    [DataContract]
    public class MyEmployee
    {   
        [DataMember]
        public string Name { get; set; }
    
        [DataMember]
        public int GetEmployeeID { get; set;}
    
        [DataMember]
        public String Address { get; set; }
    
        [DataMember]
        public String Title { get; set; }  
    }

    Then I had my MyService class that implemented my IService interface.

    The function of interest is the GetAjaxyEmployeeNames, since it returns a String[] with the names that start with the prefixText passed on. Also note that you cannot add LinqToSql to Silverlight 2.0 Beta app, it is not supported at this stage, it does support LinqToXml though and one of ScottGu's tuts shows this. Since I added the Service to the WebSite, I just added a dbml file and drag-and-dropped the Employee table. Piece of cake.

    public string[] GetAjaxyEmployeeNames(String prefixText)
    {
           NorthwindDataContext ctx = new NorthwindDataContext();
           var emps = from e in ctx.Employees
                      where e.LastName.StartsWith(prefixText)
                      orderby e.LastName descending
                      select e.LastName + ", " + e.FirstName;
           return emps.ToArray<String>();        
    }

    Now we have the webService sorted out. We need to add a reference to our Silverlight app about this. The way to do it is very easy. Just right click on the project file Add Service Reference and you will be shown the dialog below..then discover and hopefully it will find the web service we just created.

    image

    Back to the Xaml now.

    We have to add an Even listener to our TextBox, so when the text changes in the txtBox, the webservice will be called. This is easy, we just add a TextChanged event handler.

    <TextBox TextChanged="TextBox_TextChanged"
            Canvas.Left="100" Canvas.Top="20" Width="200" Text=""
            x:Name="TextBox_EmployeeName"
            BorderBrush="CornflowerBlue" BorderThickness="1"
            Height="30">

    I love the way VS does this for xaml pages, as soon as you type KeyDown the intellisense will ask you if you want to create a new listener, and if you press enter, VS will create a function in the codefile with some real cool naming by default.. wish we had this for normal asp.net! ( ScottGu said this is coming soon!)

    I also added a KeyDown handler, so when the textbox has focus and the user presses the down arrow key, the behaviour of the real AutoCompleteExtender is simulated and the focus and control moves on to the ListBox.

    event_intellegince

    We have the handlers now, next we have to create a proxy to our WebService so they methods it exposes can be called. 

    1. Add two using statements to System.ServiceModel and System.ServiceModel.Channels.
    2. Create a binding element in the scope of the class ( so we can use it everywhere!). Binding binding = new BasicHttpBinding(); Bindings specify the details for a client to communicate with the Service. The only binding supported at this stage is BasicHttpBinding.
    3. Next we have to create an EndPointAddress. This gives the address of the Service to be called upon. So we just use the address where this service is being hosted.
    4. EndpointAddress address = new EndpointAddress("http://localhost:50740/SilverlightApplicationFirstEver_Web/Services/MyService.svc")
       

    We now have everything we need to create our proxy and call the Service. Remember we have a listener for when the user enters text in our TextBox and so the TextChanged event fires.

    To create the proxy to our service, the proxy's constructor takes in the binding and endpointAddress.

    To now call the methods in our service we have to realise that all calls in Silverlight are asynchronous. In this case I'm using the event driven pattern where the proxy contains two members for each potential call to the Service, these are an async method and a completed event that is raised once the async call returns. This results on the following members:

    resultingmethods 

    The complete function looks like this:

    completed_function

    And the proxy_AjaxyEmployeeCompleted function that handles the returned data from the WebService is:

    proxy_completed_call 

    Note that the ListBox is hidden unless there is a result to display.

    Now as soon as you type something in, the service will be displayed and the ListBox ItemsSource property ( think of it as a DataSource in Asp.net ) is bound to args.Result, which is a String[]

    extenderinaction 
     

    Thats basically it, I have more functions to simulate the real AutoCompleteExtender, like for example when the user clicks with the mouse on say "King, Robert" that Employee name will be selected and will be copied into the TextBox.

    Also I have a listener on the ListBox that listens for any down arrow key pressed and mouse left button events that copy the SelectedItem text to the TextBox again.

    mousedown

    And to finish up, when the TextBox has focus and the user presses the down arrow key, this means that she will like to go on an navigate through the employee names in the ListBox. To to this we added a KeyDown listener on the TextBox.

    keydowned_textarea 
     

    Out of interest I then opened the solution file in Expression Blend 2.5 March edition and got to play with colours etc etc. Very cool but well outside my domain all this designer stuff..

    image 

    Well, is all good, I learned heaps about Xaml etc. VEry powerful, but also learned that things can get very complicated very quickly. There are some sample apps that come with Blend that are plain scary.

    image 

    A photo book where you can "grab" the pages from the lower right corner..

    image 

    impressive this paint look-alike..

    image 
     
     
     
     
     

     

       

              AjaxControl Toolkit AutoCompleteExtender with WCF        

    Went to Heroes yesterday and one of the things that really impressed was the session on Windows Communication Foundation.

    From MSDN, "Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) is Microsoft's unified programming model for building service oriented applications".

    First thing to do of course, is add a new Ajax enabled WCF Service to your solution.

    AddAjaxEnabledWCFService

    What I wanted to do is have the ubiquitous textbox with an autocompleteextender. The code is very simple.

    autocompleteExtenderTag

    Then I went into MyAjaxEnabledService class and added to get my books names once the user entered the book names.

    When creating a WCF service, you have to define the contract for the services that are going to be called by the consumers and describe how to interact with your service.

    You do this by creating an interface that defines the input and output types which apply to the ServiceContract Attribute to the interface and the OperationContract Attribute to the methods that you want to expose.

    In this case I have set the ServiceAttribute with a namespace value of elJuan.org :-)

    And then created the methods that I want to reach from my aspx pages and  expose as part of the public contract and adorned them with the OperationContract Attribute.

    servicecodefile

    Last thing to do, on our ScriptManager we add a reference to our new service and the path to it.

    servicecodefile

     

    Ok, now we are all set, note that I have for the purposes of this simple post an array with "books" and by pure coincidence, three of them start with 'Coo'.

    Run the project and entering Coo.. our service will be called and the books which name start with Coo will be returned to us.

    servicecodefile 

    Also not that I have another public contract called GetBookByID(int):String

    What I want to do is get a book by it's ID,when we click the "show me" button,  for this simple example I'm just indexing the array, but it can be easily expanded to get data from a database etc.

    servicecodefile

    First we created a number of JavaScript functions that I'm going to use for this calls.

    I have wired up the showMe button onclick event to my InvokeWCF() Javascript function.

    Note that as I type the name of my WCF service, VS's intellisense will show me the available public contracts, in this case GetBookByID()

    servicecodefile

    Now note how the intellisense again picked up that GetBookByID takes an integer as parameter too, very cool.

    servicecodefile

    You have to define an onSuccess function, and optionally an onFailed and an userContext.

    I defined an Success and OnWCFError function for this first time ever WCF service as show below...

    servicecodefile

     

    And the end result...voila!

    servicecodefile

    This is the first ever time I played with WCF and it's pretty simple. In my next post I'll generate REST and SOAP protocol enabled services.

    Thanks,


              [news] "2004 State of Application Development"        
    Friday, August 13, 2004
    Dateline: China
     
    Special issues of journals and magazines are often quite good -- if you're into the subject matter.  But the current issue of VARBusiness is absolutely SUPERB!!  EVERY SYSTEMS INTEGRATOR SHOULD READ IT ASAP -- STOP WHAT YOU'RE DOING AND READ THIS ISSUE!!  (Or, at the very least, read the excerpts which follow.)  See http://tinyurl.com/6smzu .  They even have the survey results to 36 questions ranging from change in project scope to preferred verticals.  In this posting, I'm going to comment on excerpts from this issue.  My comments are in blue.  Bolded excerpted items are MY emphasis.
     
    The lead article and cover story is titled, "The App-Dev Revolution."  "Of the solution providers we surveyed, 72 percent say they currently develop custom applications or tailor packaged software for their customers. Nearly half (45 percent) of their 2003 revenues came from these app-dev projects, and nearly two-thirds of them expect the app-dev portion of total revenue to increase during the next 12 months."  I view this as good news for China's SIs; from what I've observed, many SIs in China would be a good fit for SIs in the U.S. looking for partners to help lower their development costs.  "By necessity, today's solution providers are becoming nimbler in the software work they do, designing and developing targeted projects like those that solve regulatory compliance demands, such as HIPAA, or crafting wireless applications that let doctors and nurses stay connected while they roam hospital halls."  Have a niche; don't try to be everything to everyone.  "Nine in 10 of survey respondents said their average app-dev projects are completed in less than a year now, with the smallest companies (those with less than $1 million in revenue) finishing up in the quickest time, three months, on average."  Need for speed.  "The need to get the job done faster for quick ROI might explain the growing popularity of Microsoft's .Net framework and tools.  In our survey, 53 percent of VARs said they had developed a .Net application in the past 12 months, and 66 percent of them expect to do so in the coming 12 months."  My Microsoft build-to-their-stack strategy.  "Some of the hottest project areas they report this year include application integration, which 69 percent of VARs with between $10 million or more in revenue pinned as their busiest area.  Other top development projects center around e-commerce applications, CRM, business-intelligence solutions, enterprisewide portals and ERP, ..."  How many times have I said this?    "At the same time, VARs in significant numbers are tapping open-source tools and exploiting Web services and XML to help cut down on expensive software-integration work; in effect, acknowledging that application development needs to be more cost-conscious and, thus, take advantage of open standards and reusable components.  Our survey found that 32 percent of VARs had developed applications on Linux in the past six months, while 46 percent of them said they plan to do so in the next six months.  The other open-source technologies they are using today run the gamut from databases and development tools to application servers."  I guess there's really an open source strategy.  I come down hard on open source for one simple reason:  I believe that SIs in China could get more sub-contracting business from a build-to-a-stack strategy.  And building to the open source stack isn't building to a stack at all!!  "As a business, it has many points of entry and areas of specialization.  Our survey participants first arrived in the world of app dev in a variety of ways, from bidding on app-dev projects (45 percent) to partnering with more experienced developers and VARs (28 percent) to hiring more development personnel (31 percent)."  For SIs in China, simply responding to end-user RFQs is kind of silly.  Better to partner on a sub-contracting basis.  "According to our State of Application Development survey, health care (36 percent), retail (31 percent) and manufacturing (30 percent) ranked as the most popular vertical industries for which respondents are building custom applications.  Broken down further, among VARs with less than $1 million in total sales, retail scored highest, while health care topped the list of midrange to large solution providers."  Because of regulatory issues, I'm not so keen on health care.  I'd go with manufacturing followed by retail.  My $ .02.  "When it comes to partnering with the major platform vendors, Microsoft comes out the hands-on winner among ISVs and other development shops.  A whopping 76 percent of developers in our survey favored the Microsoft camp.  Their level of devotion was evenly divided among small, midsize and large VARs who partner with Microsoft to develop and deliver their application solutions.  By contrast, the next closest vendor is IBM, with whom one in four VARs said they partner.  Perhaps unsurprisingly, the IBM percentages were higher among the large VAR category (those with sales of $10 million or more), with 42 percent of their partners coming from that corporate demographic.  Only 16 percent of smaller VARs partner with IBM, according to the survey.  The same goes for Oracle: One-quarter of survey respondents reported partnering with the Redwood Shores, Calif.-based company, with 47 percent of them falling in the large VAR category.  On the deployment side, half of the developers surveyed picked Windows Server 2003/.Net as the primary platform to deliver their applications, while IBM's WebSphere application server was the choice for 7 percent of respondents.  BEA's WebLogic grabbed 4 percent, and Oracle's 9i application server 3 percent of those VARs who said they use these app servers as their primary deployment vehicle."  Microsoft, Microsoft, Microsoft.  Need I say more?  See http://tinyurl.com/45z94 .
     
    The next article is on open source.  "Want a world-class database with all the bells and whistles for a fraction of what IBM or Oracle want?  There's MySQL.  How about a compelling alternative to WebSphere or WebLogic?  Think JBoss.  These are, obviously, the best-known examples of the second generation of open-source software companies following in the footsteps of Apache, Linux and other software initiatives, but there are far more alternatives than these.  Consider Zope, a content-management system downloaded tens of thousands of times per month free of charge, according to Zope CEO Rob Page.  Some believe Zope and applications built with Zope are better than the commercial alternative they threaten to put out of business, Documentum.  Zope is also often used to help build additional open-source applications.  One such example is Plone, an open-source information-management system.  What began as a fledgling movement at the end of the past decade and later became known as building around the "LAMP stack" (LAMP is an acronym that stands for Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP or Perl) has exploded to virtually all categories of software.  That includes security, where SpamAssassin is battling spam and Symantec, too.  Popular?  Well, it has now become an Apache Software Foundation official project.  The use of open source is so widespread that the percentage of solution providers who say they partner with MySQL nearly equals the percentage who say they partner with Oracle"23 percent to 25 percent, respectively.There are plenty of choices for those SIs willing to play the open source game.  See http://tinyurl.com/4e3c7 .
     
    "It's all about integration" follows.  "There are many reasons for the surge in application-development projects (the recent slowdown in software spending notwithstanding).  For one, many projects that were put on hold when the downturn hit a few years ago are now back in play.  That includes enterprise-portal projects, supply-chain automation efforts, various e-commerce endeavors and the integration of disparate business systems."  Choose carefully, however.  Balance this data with other data.  Right now, I see a lot more play with portals and EAI.  "Indeed, the need for quality and timely information is a key driver of investments in application-integration initiatives and the implementation of database and business-intelligence software and portals.  A healthy majority of solution providers say application integration is a key component of the IT solutions they are deploying for customers.  According to our application-development survey, 60 percent say their projects involved integrating disparate applications and systems during the past 12 months."  "Some customers are moving beyond enterprise-application integration to more standards-based services-oriented architectures (SOAs).  SOAs are a key building block that CIOs are looking to build across their enterprises."  Anyone who regularly reads any one of my three IT-related blogs knows that I'm gung-ho on SOAs.  "Even if your customers are not looking for an SOA, integrating different systems is clearly the order of the day.  To wit, even those partners that say enterprise portals or e-business applications account for the bulk of their business note that the integration component is key."  Yes, integration, integration, integration.  I'll be saying this next year, too.  And the year after ...  "Another way to stay on top of the competition is to participate in beta programs."  Absolutely true -- and a good strategy, too.  See http://tinyurl.com/6x2gg .
     
    The next article is on utility computing versus packaged softwareAgain, if you read what I write, you know that I'm also gung-ho on utility computing.  "According to VARBusiness' survey of application developers, more than 66 percent of the applications created currently reside with the customer, while 22 percent of applications deployed are hosted by the VAR.  And a little more than 12 percent of applications developed are being hosted by a third party.   Where services have made their biggest inroads as an alternative to software is in applications that help companies manage their customer and sales information.The article goes on to state that apps that are not mission-critical have the best chance in the utility computing space.  Time will tell.  Take note, however, that these are often the apps that will most likely be outsourced to partners in China.  "Simply creating services from scratch and then shopping them around isn't the only way to break into this area.  NewView Consulting is expanding its services business by starting with the client and working backward.  The Porter, Ind.-based security consultant takes whatever technology clients have and develops services for them based on need."   And focus on services businesses and .NET, too.  "Most application developers agree that services revenue will continue to climb for the next year or two before they plateau, resulting in a 50-50 or 60-40 services-to-software mix for the typical developer.  The reason for this is that while applications such as CRM are ideally suited to services-based delivery, there are still plenty of other applications that companies would prefer to keep in-house and that are often dependent on the whims of a particular company."  Still, such a split shows a phenomenal rise in the importance of utility computing offerings.  See http://tinyurl.com/54blv .
     
    Next up:  Microsoft wants you!!  (Replace the image of Uncle Sam with the image of Bill Gates!!)  Actually, the article isn't specifically about Microsoft.  "Microsoft is rounding up as many partners as it can and is bolstering them with support to increase software sales.  The attitude is: Here's our platform; go write and prosper.  IBM's strategy, meanwhile, is strikingly different.  While it, too, has created relationships with tens of thousands of ISVs over recent years,  IBM prefers to handpick a relatively select group, numbering approximately 1,000, and develop a hand-holding sales and marketing approach with them in a follow-through, go-to-market strategy."  Both are viable strategies, but NOT both at the same time!!  "To be sure, the results of VARBusiness' 2004 State of Application Development survey indicates that Microsoft's strategy makes it the No. 1 go-to platform vendor among the 472 application developers participating in the survey.  In fact, more than seven out of 10 (76 percent) said they were partnering with Microsoft to deliver custom applications for their clients.  That number is nearly three times the percentage of application developers (26 percent) who said they were working with IBM ..."  Percentages as follows:  Microsoft, 76%; IBM, 26%; Oracle, 25%; MySQL, 23%; Red Hat, 17%; Sun, 16%; Novell, 11%; BEA, 9%.  I said BOTH, NOT ALL.  Think Microsoft and IBM.  However, a Java strategy could be BOTH a Sun AND IBM strategy (and even a BEA strategy).  See http://tinyurl.com/68grf .
     
    There was another article I liked called, "How to Team With A Vendor," although it's not part of the app-dev special section per se.  This posting is too long, so I'll either save it for later or now note that it has been urled.  See http://www.furl.net/item.jsp?id=680282 .  Also a kind of funny article on turning an Xbox into a Linux PC.  See http://tinyurl.com/4mhn6 .  See also http://www.xbox-linux.org .
     
    Quick note:  I'll be in SH and HZ most of next week, so I may not publish again until the week of the 23rd.
     
    Cheers,
     
    David Scott Lewis
    President & Principal Analyst
    IT E-Strategies, Inc.
    Menlo Park, CA & Qingdao, China
     
    http://www.itestrategies.com (current blog postings optimized for MSIE6.x)
    http://tinyurl.com/2r3pa (access to blog content archives in China)
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    http://tinyurl.com/2hg2e (AvantGo channel)
     
     
    To automatically subscribe click on http://tinyurl.com/388yf .
     

              [emerging tech] "Web Engineering: The Evolution of New Technologies" & the Ultimate Killer App        
    Friday, July 23, 2004
    Dateline: China
     
    Reviews of papers from the current (July/August 2004) issue of Computing in Science & Engineering, special issue on "Web Engineering: The Evolution of New Technologies."  To order articles from this issue, first click on http://tinyurl.com/5ktaw .
     
    Earlier this week I posted excerpts from the lead article in the current issue of CiSE.  The article was titled, "Managing XML Data: An Abridged Overview," which is a good, accurate title.  The excerpts contain useful links, too. 
     
    I am going to take a variety of approaches for handling four other papers in this special issue.  However, I first want to provide a link to the introduction to this special issue, i.e., http://tinyurl.com/6sbjx .  The intro itself provides a few useful references and links.
     
    The second article is titled, "Information Retrieval Techniques for Peer-to-Peer Networks."  Fortunately, a full-text PDF copy of this paper can be accessed at either http://dblab.cs.ucr.edu/ or http://tinyurl.com/6v2ru, although the URL for the former looks a little bit too generic and might change at a moment's notice (also, the two papers are slightly different).  I have 19 bookmarks on my smartphone for this paper, but I guess I can summarize by saying that IR for P2P networks is hard and very different from "traditional" searchThe last statement actually says a lot -- read between the lines.  This paper covers all the usual suspects and also includes Skype. This paper is based upon the lead author's Master's thesis which can be accessed from http://tinyurl.com/696ml .  Other papers by the lead author can be accessed at http://tinyurl.com/43kkh .  This is an important issue which needs to be resolved, especially as collaborative grid computing (CGC) comes to life.
     
    Two figures; 20 references (28 references in the preprint).
     
    Less luck with the paper titled, "Web Searching and Information Retrieval," i.e., I couldn't find a free copy on the Web.  The author's site is woefully outdated, too.  The author does speak favorably of a particular approach to decentralized P2P web crawling called "Apoidea."   A copy of a paper describing Apoidea can be accessed at http://tinyurl.com/4m2v5 ; accompanying slides can be accessed at http://tinyurl.com/4b4sh .  As described in the CiSE paper, "Apoidea is both self-managing and uses the resource's geographical proximity to its peers for a better and faster crawl."
     
    Two figures; 21 references.
     
    To request a copy of this article click on: http://tinyurl.com/7yyl2 or http://tinyurl.com/6m6ff (I'm not sure which address works; I already have a copy of this article so I don't need to contact the author!).
     
    "Web Mining: Research and Practice" is not available, either, but a lot of excellent info on the senior author's projects related to this paper is available.  First, take a look at the eBiquity research areas at http://tinyurl.com/52p9n .  Next, you may want to take a look at the abstracts for papers published as part of the eBiquity Group at http://tinyurl.com/5om58 (current through December 2004 -- it doesn't get more current!!).  Move on to their "Semantic Web" page at http://tinyurl.com/4a8fr .  I then downloaded a PDF copy of their paper titled, "Mining Domain Specific Texts and Glossaries to Evaluate and Enrich Domain Ontologies" (see http://tinyurl.com/3lg2m ).  It looks like a relatively recent paper, newer than the CiSE paper (different authors and different subject matter, though).  The PDF is part of their Semantic Web research, whereas the CiSE paper is more "generic."  Anyway, the "Web Mining" paper is another call for distributed mining techniques, and covers fuzzy clustering as well as content-based recommender systems -- but doesn't forget good 'ol HITS (Hyperlink-Induced Topic Search), the basis for IBM's Clever and Google (to a certain extent).
     
    No figures; 31 references.
     
    To request a copy of this article click on: http://tinyurl.com/5xv3p .
     
    Finally, "Intelligent Agents on the Web: A Review" was very disappointing.  The lead author has impeccable credentials, but his paper is based on yesterday's news:  Old, outdated, buried stuff (like Firefly).  Matter of fact, the only live link I can recall finding was Recursion Software's "Voyager" home page (see http://tinyurl.com/3wpem ), which states that the "Voyager applications development platform provides the software layer which handles communications across the network for distributed JAVA applications."  (Looks interesting.)
     
    I did a little more digging and surfed over to two stand-by sites (both referenced directly or indirectly in the "Intelligent Agents" paper), namely the MIT Media Lab Software Agents page and Oren Etzioni's (oops, I mean the University of Washington, Department of Computer Science) page.  At the MIT projects page (see http://tinyurl.com/4ocss ) is a listing of several "commonsense" projects, e.g., "Using Commonsense Reasoning to Enable the Semantic Web" (see http://tinyurl.com/4deq7 ).  A draft White Paper on this is available at http://tinyurl.com/4e4bv , as is a presentation at http://tinyurl.com/4le2n along with a couple of video demos.  I also downloaded a paper on GOOSE (GOal-Oriented Search Engine) at http://tinyurl.com/4fyeu .  At UWash I went to their XML data management page (see http://tinyurl.com/5x98a ) and then grabbed two papers:  One on "Probabilistic Methods For Querying Global Information Systems" dated 14 July 2004 (see http://tinyurl.com/45uz7 ) and another titled, "Learning Text Patterns for Web Information Extraction and Assessment" dated May 2004 (see http://tinyurl.com/6k5fz ).  (To download other unrestricted reports, go to http://tinyurl.com/5z2x7 .)  Frankly, I need a bit of time to digest the two recently published UWash papers.
     
    As the chair of the Internet and Web applications session of the First International Conference on Autonomous Agents (1996), I have a soft spot for agent-oriented everything (especially Web apps).  I remember an old saying from IJCAI (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence) in the mid-70's:  Artificial intelligence is better than none.  (I probably still have a button with this saying somewhere.)  I'm keeping the faith, sans the hype and more toward the realities of software agents.  BTW, this CiSE paper isn't bad if you don't have any background in this space.  It covers the basics, such as ACLs, but with an "updated" perspective.
     
    No figures; 27 references.
     
    To request a copy of this article click on: http://tinyurl.com/6zzqs .
     
     
    The Ultimate Killer App
     
    BTW, the "Ultimate Killer App" is attached and in some browsers it will automatically download.  (See the bottom of this message.)  You have to admit, this really is the ultimate killer app!!
     
    I've never sent an attachment this way simultaneously to both my e-newsletter and blogs (and blog variants).  Just in case the attachment isn't included, I've uploaded it to the "Photos" section of the e-newsletter (see http://tinyurl.com/2r3pa .)
     
    >> Note to AlwaysOn readers: You'll need to go to the e-newsletter ( http://tinyurl.com/2r3pa ) in order to see the "Ultimate Killer App."  You can try the blogs, but no guarantees.
     
     
    Tidbits on Enterprise Software
     
    .NET wins converts.  For the VARBusiness story see http://tinyurl.com/3omd2 .  Evans Data reports that .NET usage showed a sharp YoY increase in adoption with 52% saying they use .NET and 68% saying they plan to deploy .NET apps by 2005.  In May, Forrester reported that 56% of developers consider .NET their primary development environment contrasted with 44% for J2EE.  (It must have been a binary choice!)  VARBusiness found in a May survey that 53% have already deployed a .NET app and 66% plan to do so within the next 12 months.  In the VARBusiness survey, the most important reasons for going with .NET were ease of use and quicker time to market.  A developer goes on to state that .NET development time is to Java what Java is to C++.  (Wow, what a claim!)
     
    Python and Perl beat Java?  (See http://tinyurl.com/44m5t for the PDF file.)  Actually, an indirect "attack" against all "mainstream" programming languages, notably Java, C and C++.  The idea is that the "mainstream" languages are ill-suited for many distributed computing and integration apps.  Gives a "thumbs up" to Python, Perl and PHP, with a peek at PEAK -- the Python Enterprise Application Kit.  (Sorry for the pun.)  PEAK's developers claim future superiority over J2EE.  They also knock Java for not being suited to rapid application development.  PEAK's developers believe a Python-based approach to component-based apps will result in systems that are simpler, faster and easier to install, manage and maintain than variants in J2EE.  PEAK, however, is still immature.
     
    Grid computing takes off.  Another survey from Evans Data (see http://tinyurl.com/4l2qb ).  37% of database developers are implementing or planning to implement a grid computing architecture.  In related data, 34% of companies are focusing their database development work on BI (business intelligence) platforms.  See also Oracle's spin on this at http://tinyurl.com/4n2kf .
     
    The spoils of ROI.  From IDC's Group VP, Solutions Research, there are several issues which must be addressed in order to maximize IT ROI.  (See http://tinyurl.com/228kv .)  Four of the key issues are:
    • Should the IT agenda include investment in outsourcing technologies or services?
    • Does the future of the business include operations in, or electronic trade with, additional countries - China, for example?
    • Are the services of an outside provider being considered to help in managing proliferating applications or complex "interenterprise" business relationships?
    • What role will utility computing play in the future of IT?
    (All items in bold are my emphasis.)  The article goes on to discuss various ways of evaluating ROI, including one of my favorite ways, ROA (real options analysis). 
     
    TTFN.  Have a GREAT weekend!
     
    Cheers,
     
    David Scott Lewis
    President & Principal Analyst
    IT E-Strategies, Inc.
    Menlo Park, CA & Qingdao, China
    WARNING:  To avoid spam (well, to avoid getting at least some spam), I'm using a Gmail account with a special address.  However, I have NOT been able to access the messages in my Gmail account for the past FOUR days!!  Not sure how long this will last.  In the interim, also use:
    DavidScottLewis.2520656@bloglines.com -- but also Cc: the above address.  Of course, if you already know me, feel free to send messages to my primary and secondary e-mail accounts.  (If you know me, you already know what they are.  The primary account is working fine.)
     
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              [emerging tech] "Managing XML Data" (Web Engineering: The Evolution of New Technologies)        
    Monday, July 19, 2004
    Dateline: China
     
    Excerpts from the current issue of Computing in Science & Engineering, special issue on "Web Engineering: The Evolution of New Technologies."  To order this article, click on http://tinyurl.com/6v3cc .  (Note: Formatting has been changed from the original article; however, ordering is consistent.)
     
    XML's flexibility makes it a natural format for both exchanging and integrating data from diverse data sources.  In this survey, the authors give an overview of issues in managing XML data, discuss existing solutions, and outline the current technology's open problems and limitations.

    A diverse set of factors has fueled the explosion of interest in XML ( http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml ): XML's self-describing nature makes it more amenable for use in loosely coupled data-exchange systems, and the flexible semistructured data model behind it makes it natural as a format for integrating data from various sources.

    But much of its success stems from the existence of standard languages for each aspect of XML processing and the rapid emergence of tools for manipulating XML.  Popular tools include parsers such as Xerces ( http://xml.apache.org/xerces-j ), query processors such as Galax ( http://db.bell-labs.com/galax ), and transformation tools such as Xalan ( http://xml.apache.org/xalan-j ).  The development of this standards framework has made XML dialects powerful vehicles for standardization in communities that exchange data.

    In this article, we discuss the main problems involved in managing XML data.  Our objective is to clarify potential issues that must be considered when building XML-based applications---in particular, XML solutions' benefits as well as possible pitfalls.  Our intent is not to give an exhaustive review of XML data-management (XDM) literature, XML standards, or a detailed study of commercial products.  Instead, we aim to provide an overview of a representative subset to illustrate how some XDM problems are addressed. 

    Because data typically is stored in non-XML database systems, applications must publish data in XML for exchange purposes.  When a target application receives XML data, it can remap and store it in internal data structures or a target database system.  Applications can also access an XML document either through APIs such as the Document Object Model (DOM; http://www.w3.org/DOM ) or query languages.  The applications can directly access the document in native format or, with conversion, from a network stream or non-XML database format.

    In contrast with relational database management systems (RDBMSs) that had a clear initial motivation in supporting online transaction processing (OLTP) scenarios, XML applications' requirements vary widely.  Applications must deal with several different kinds of queries (structured and keyword-based) in different scenarios (with or without transaction support, over stored or streaming data), as well as data with varying characteristics (ordered and unordered, with or without a schema).

    Commercial database vendors have also shown significant interest in XDM---support for XML data is present in most RDBMSs.  Examples include IBM's DB2 XML Extender ( http://www4.ibm.com/software/data/db2/extenders/xmlext.html ), Microsoft's support for XML ( http://msdn.microsoft.com/sqlxml/ ), and Oracle's XML DB ( http://otn.oracle.com/tech/xml/xmldb/ ).

    In XML, common querying tasks include filtering and selecting values, merging and integrating values from multiple documents, and transforming XML documents.  While XML has enabled the creation of standard data formats within industries and communities, adoption of these standards has led to an enormous and immediate problem of exporting data available in legacy formats to meet newly created standard schemata.  Several publishing languages have been proposed to specify XML views over the legacy data---that is, how to map legacy data (such as tables) into a predefined XML format.

    In this section, we discuss limitations of existing solutions as well as some open problems.  Our discussion is biased toward problems we have encountered in trying to create effective and scalable XDM solutions; it is by no means exhaustive.

    Parsing and validating a document against an XML Schema or DTD are CPU-intensive tasks that can be a major bottleneck in XML management.  A recent study of XML parsing and validation performance indicates that response times and transaction rates over XML data cannot be achieved without significant improvements in XML parsing technology.  It suggests enhancements such as using parallel processing techniques and preparsed binary XML formats as well as better support for incremental parsing and validation.

    By using XML-specific compression techniques, tools such as XMill compare favorably against several generic compressors.  Compression techniques have also been proposed that support direct querying over the compressed data, which besides saving space, also improve query processing times.

    The ability to support updates is becoming increasingly important as XML evolves into a universal data representation format.  Although proposals for defining and implementing updates have emerged, a standard has yet to be defined for an update language.

    Three figures & sample code; 23 references.

    To request a copy of this article click on: http://tinyurl.com/6kcqw .

     
    Cheers,
     
    David Scott Lewis
    President & Principal Analyst
    IT E-Strategies, Inc.
    Menlo Park, CA & Qingdao, China
     
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              [news] A Special Report on Business Intelligence        
    Thursday, July 8, 2004
    Dateline: China
     
    One of my favorite industry trades, Computerworld, recently published a special report on business intelligence (BI).  (See http://tinyurl.com/2w8j2 .)  As regular readers of this blog know, I'm hot, hot and hotter on BI.  Not only are BI apps booming in their own right, but BI also provides an open door into other structured data apps (e.g., ERP and SCM).  Also, there is a burgeoning number of apps requiring both BI and knowledge management (KM) solutions, providing a host of new opportunities.  (For now, think of BI for structured data and KM for unstructured data.  But the lines between KM and BI are blurring.)
     
    The Computerworld report includes an introduction to BI titled, "BI for the Masses," an introduction to Web harvesting, and a superb article on text mining; there are several online exclusives as well.  In this post, I'm going to focus on an article titled, "Predictions for BI's Future," by providing excerpts with commentary.  As usual, items in bold are MY emphasis; items in red are MY commentary.
     
    Embedded BI.  "Over the next four to six years, BI systems will become embedded in small, mobile devices, such as manufacturing sensors and PDAs in the field, which in turn will be linked to more centralized systems." -- Erik Thomsen, distinguished scientist, Hyperion Solutions Corp., Sunnyvale, Calif.
     
    PB DM (petabyte data mining).  "Within three years, companies and governmental agencies will be able to successfully run analytics within a centralized data warehouse containing 1 petabyte or more of data -- without performance limitations." -- Dave Schrader, technology futurist, Teradata, a division of NCR Corp., El Segundo, Calif.
     
    HPC to the rescue!  "Within the next two to three years, high-performance computing technology used by scientific and engineering communities and national R&D labs will make its way into mainstream business for high-performance business analytics. This transition will be driven by the growing volume of complex data and the pressing need for companies to use forecasting and predictive analytics to minimize risk and maximize profit-generating opportunities." -- Phil Fraher, chief operating officer, Visual Numerics Inc., San Ramon, Calif.
     
    BI meets AI.  "In the near future, business leaders will manage by exception, and automated systems will handle significant loads of routine tasks." -- Mike Covert, chief operating officer, Infinis Inc., Columbus, Ohio
     
    Visualization.  "Over the next two to three years, BI systems will automatically suggest appropriate visualizations, which in turn will dramatically increase the use of visualization and our understanding of complex relationships." -- Erik Thomsen, distinguished scientist, Hyperion Solutions
     
    BI + BPM + BAM.  "Businesses need more than a rearview mirror to drive their business forward into the next era. A new category of intelligence tools will emerge over the next two to three years that combines business process management, business activity monitoring (BAM) and business intelligence to enable the "actively managed enterprise." This will combine the scorecards and rearview-analysis capabilities of BI with the real-time, event-driven analysis of BAM and feed that information into automated business processes for on-the-fly steering of the business towards scorecard goals. This will exponentially elevate the speed at which businesses are able to operate, adapt and make critical decisions." -- Tim Wolters, chief architect of business activity monitoring solutions, webMethods Inc., Fairfax, Va.
     
    Bottom line:  Go to a BI-related ACM or IEEE CS conference and you'll hear a lot of presentations on all of the apps described above.  It's where the rubber meets the road:  This stuff is real!!  However, it's important to differentiate "real" BI with much more simplistic reporting software (like a good "chunk" of the so-called BI solutions provided by Business Objects, Cognos and even Microsoft -- via their recent acquisition of ActiveViews).
     
    A BI Site to Review
     
    Last week I came across a paper published in the current issue of the Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems.  In this paper the project called "Data Mining and Decision Support for Business Competitiveness: A European Virtual Enterprise" (SolEuNet) is used as a case study and "the source of lessons learned."  The paper provides a link to the SolEuNet Web site (see http://tinyurl.com/3x5vo ); at the SolEuNet site I found a wealth of case studies with supporting technical documents on leading-edge BI apps (see, for example, Workpackage 7 on "Combining Data Mining and Decision Support with Information Systems" at http://tinyurl.com/yqkqm ).  Remember, strategy consulting isn't merely about comparing product specs (regardless what the IT advisory services may say).
     
    The Gartner Conference on BI
     
    I got my hands on three i-banking analyst reviews of the Gartner BI conference.  The Morgan Stanley report (dated 27 April) noted that customer activity levels appeared to be strong and "many seem to be taking a more strategic approach to BI, resulting in the emergence of larger transactions."  (My emphasis.)  Corporate performance management (CPM) is driving some of the larger deals, with Cognos and Hyperion taking the lead.  Evidently, systems integrators (SIs) are getting religion and developing collaterals around CPM messaging.  RBC Dominion Securities produced a more in-depth report (dated 29 April) and noted the following:
    • Gartner expects the market to accelerate in 2004.
    • The ETL (extraction, transformation, and load) market will flatten (finally).
    • CPM is hot.  "Hyperion, Cognos, and SAS appeared to be the best positioned non-ERP vendors to capitalize on the CPM market opportunity."  However, "(they) believe that SAP is the best-positioned large enterprise software vendor to execute in both the BI and CPM market ..."
    • Finally, the Gartner BI conference itself was hot, with 973 attendees, an increase in attendance of 70% over last year.
    UBS chimed in with their own report (dated 30 April), which in some ways was a bit more technical than the other two reports cited above.  UBS noted that heterogeneous environments require independent tools (e.g., it is very difficult to get heterogeneous data into an ERP data warehouse <DW>).  Gartner's rule of thumb is that an ERP-derived BI/DW solution should be on the short-list only if more than 60% of an organization's BI data resides within that single app vendorUBS also noted that the importance of BI is leading to the formation of BI competency centers.  They also believe that SAP and Microsoft remain significant long-term threats to the independent software vendors such as Cognos and Business Objects.  BTW, all three reports seemed a bit down on Business Objects.
     
    Another Computerworld feature on BI
     
    Sometimes advertorials can be a good thing.  A case in point is the 26 April issue of Computerworld which provides a link to a new, six page Computerworld White Paper on BI.  The paper is titled, "Charting the Course: A Guide to Evaluating Business Intelligence Products"; it's a good, practical read.  Tactical, product spec advice and guidelines, but still a good read.  The PDF can be found at http://tinyurl.com/2gt3d .
     
    Recent Tidbits on BI
     
    The New Straits Times (Malaysia) via Asia Africa Intelligence Wire reported on 24 June that SAS "expects the BI market in Asia to register double-digit growth for the next five years.  (Don Cooper Williams, director of marketing and alliances for SAS Asia-Pacific) cites a recent report from research house International Data Corp, which predicts that BI software market in the region (excluding Japan) to grow by 12 per cent this year, up from 7.5 per cent in 2003."  Note to SIs in China:  BI isn't just hot in the States; leverage your skills for serving the U.S. market and the domestic market.
     
    From the channel, India Business Insight (also via Asia Africa Intelligence Wire) on 31 May announced that "Business Objects has entered into a long-standing systems integrator agreement with Wipro Infotech (WI) to provide business intelligence (BI) solutions to customers."  Note to SIs in China:  Don't be left without a dance partner.
     
    Additional Articles for Review
     
    I did a quick scan of trade lit and found a few articles worth reading.  First, the March-April issue of Financial Executive talks about CPM -- Corporate Performance Management -- as it relates to BI.  The May issue of Insurance & Technology takes a vertical look at BI (rather basic apps), as does the April issue of Business Credit.  Always think verticals.
     
    A Final Wrap (or Should I Say, "Rap"?)
     
    Back to Computerworld.  More specifically, see the 29 March issue of Computerworld.  According to a survey conducted by IBM Business Consulting Services, BI is a high priority on the plate of C-level execs.  In a Computerworld poll, 39% of IT executives listed business intelligence projects as their most critical IT projects.  By 2005, market research firm IDC projects that the worldwide market for business intelligence software will total about $6 billion -- up from $2.5 billion in 2003 -- signaling a major increase in business intelligence projects.  IT executives say the skills they need on business intelligence projects include systems integration, data modeling, database administration, data standardization and project management.
     
    Cheers,
     
    David Scott Lewis
    President & Principal Analyst
    IT E-Strategies, Inc.
    Menlo Park, CA & Qingdao, China
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              [news] IT Spending Trends        
    Tuesday, July 6, 2004
    Dateline: China
     
    A quick recap on IT spending trends from three recently published Smith Barney surveys.  The three reports are the May and June editions of their CIO Vendor Preference Survey and the 6 June issue of softwareWEEK.  Tom Berquist, my favorite i-banking analyst, was the lead for all three reports.  I have a backlog of blogs to write, so I'll use as many quotes as possible and add context where necessary.  (I'm mostly extracting from my smartphone bookmarks for these reports.  Warning:  I may have coded the May and June issues incorrectly, but the quotes are correct.)  NOTE:  Highlighted items (e.g., items in bold, like this sentence) are MY emphasis.  Items in red are my commentary.
     
    Starting with the Survey editions, "(t)he strongest areas of spending appear to be software (apps, security, storage, and database) and network equipment/apps (Gigabit Ethernet, WLAN, VPNs)" and regarding software, "larger and more well known vendors continue to dominate the list in each category with vendors such as Microsoft, SAP, IBM, Veritas, Symantec and Computer Associates getting significantly more mentions in each of their groups than the remaining vendors did."  However, the report admits that their sample group might be biased.  Yes, vendors matter -- and so do vendor partnering strategies.  However, I'm a bit skeptical about CA and I don't particular care very much for Veritas or Symantec.  Not my part of the universe.
     
    "Applications again stand out as a clear area of strength."  "Within applications, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Supply Chain Management (SCM), Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Business Intelligence (BI) all showed extremely well ..."  Well, this is the first sign that a recovery may be in the making for SCM.  However, I'd emphasize BI and ERP, followed by CRM; don't count on a lot happening in the SCM space just yet.  Some other key surveys do NOT validate that SCM is in recovery.  "In terms of specific vendors, Microsoft, Symantec, Veritas, SAP, and Adobe were the top beneficiaries of CIOs intentions to increase spending."  The report continues that only SAP showed statistically significant results, both in ERP and SCM.  "Results were more mixed for best-of-breed vendors in this area, suggesting that horizontal applications vendors are having a tough time competing with the large ERP vendors even as vertically-focused vendors continue to have some measure of success on this front."  For the more adventurous SIs in China, SAP presents a lot of opportunities.  Tread carefully, though.  And "Adobe's enterprise strategy appears to be gaining momentum.  Adobe was a clear standout in content management ..."  "Survey results were also positive (though somewhat less so) for other leading content management players, notably Microsoft and IBM."  Another "win" for Microsoft.  Funny that none of the traditionally leading content management players were mentioned.  A take on Linux:  "Linux continues to garner mind share, but large enterprises remain the main adopter.  Interestingly, nearly 83% of our respondents stated that they were not currently moving any applications to Linux.  Of the 17% that said they were moving applications to Linux, only one company under $1.0 billion in revenue was making the transition to Linux confirming our views that Linux is primarily being used by large companies to shift Unix applications to Linux on Intel."
     
    "Among CIOs who indicated a higher level of consulting spend, IBM was the clear winner, followed by Accenture as a distant second.  Unisys was also mentioned as a vendor being considered, but it was a distant third.  However, we note that Unisys being mentioned ahead of a pure-play consultant like BearingPoint (a low number of mentions, which included mentions of decreased spending) or EDS is positive, given that Unisys chooses to focus in 2 specific verticals, including one-public sector-that was not in the survey."  "Over two-thirds of CIOs indicated that they do not use IT outsourcers.  Most of the rest said they were unlikely to change the level of outsourcing spend.  IBM, ACS and CSC were the only vendors explicitly mentioned as likely to get more outsourcing business."  The "two-thirds" figure will likely change in favor of outsourcing.  This trend is fairly clear.  See a BCG report at http://tinyurl.com/2muy8 , although the report takes a relatively broad perspective.
     
    From softwareWEEK, "(t)he CIOs were also very focused on rapid 'time to market' with purchases.  None were interested in starting projects that would take greater than 2 quarters to complete."  "This requirement was not a 'payback' requirement, but rather an implementation time frame requirement.  The CIOs did recognize that payback times could be longer, though the payback times on IT utility spending were much shorter than on applications or emerging area spending."
     
    "In terms of spending, the CIOs all used a similar methodology for making decisions that essentially divides their IT spending into one of three categories: 1) sustained spending on their 'IT utility' (i.e., infrastructure such as network equipment, servers, storage, databases, etc.); 2) new project spending on applications (business intelligence, portals, CRM, etc.); and 3) investment spending on select emerging areas (grid/utility computing, identity management, collaboration, etc.)  It was pretty obvious that the CIOs recognized that business unit managers were more interested in spending on new applications/emerging areas than on the IT utility ..."  "(S)ome of the CIOs were experimenting with grid/utility computing initiatives to try to increase their utilization of storage/servers and reduce the amount of new equipment to be purchased.  In one example, a CIO showed their storage/server utilization around the world and many regions were in the 50% or worse bucket for average utilization.  Their goal was to use grid computing architectures and storage area networks (along with faster communication links) to better share the pool of resources."  Yes, this is it!!  Take this to heart!!  If you think grid and utility computing are Star Trek stuff, think again.
     
    "In terms of new projects, the CIOs mentioned they were spending on business intelligence, portal/self-service applications, CRM, and collaboration.  Collaboration was a heated discussion, with all CIOs commenting that this was a big problem for them and there was no clear solution on the market.  While it wasn't completely clear to the audience what the CIOs were looking for in a collaboration solution, the elements that were described included: more intelligent email, corporate instant messaging, web conferencing, integrated voice over IP with instant messaging (so that a conversation could quickly shift from typing to talking), and collaborative document editing (spreadsheets, presentations, publications, etc.).  Within the business intelligence arena, business activity monitoring was discussed as was building of enterprise data warehouses/data marts.  The portal/self-service applications being built or deployed were primarily for customer and employee self-service (remote access to email, applications, and files was a big deal for all of the companies).  On the CRM front, the discussion from one CIO was around their need to increase revenues and manage channel conflict better."  [I'll be posting to this blog a bit more about collaboration opportunities over the next week.]
     
    "While vendors were not discussed in any detail during the panel, the CIOs did say that they remain open to working with smaller vendors (public and private) as long as they have plenty of relevant references (in their industry, particularly with close competitors) and they offer a compelling value proposition versus larger vendors.  One CIO stated that they get called by 20 startups a week to sell products to them, but most of them cannot articulate the value proposition of their product.  Nonetheless, the CIO does take 5 meetings a month from startups because some of them are working on things that are interesting to the business."
     
    Whew ...  Lots of good materials.  To reiterate, all highlighted items are my emphasis.  Bottom line:  The market is heating up.  Get your ISV relationships in place.  Pick your verticals (see the "Tidbit on Microsoft" which follows).  Pick your apps -- and the apps I like the best are content management and BI, although ERP is looking good, too.  Collaboration can be a major source of revenue if the SI can provide a truly effective solution.
     
    Tidbits on Microsoft
     
    A quick update on some happenings in the Redmond universe.  (See http://tinyurl.com/36xgu ; the article is titled, "Microsoft focuses on its enterprise-applications business".)  First, app areas that are of particular interest to MS include those for manufacturing and life sciences.  So, how about a MS build-to-their-stack strategy focused on either of these two verticals?  Second, MS is moving beyond purely horizontal offerings to very specific functionality.  Their Encore acquisition is an example of MS moving in this direction.  Finally, new releases of all four of Microsoft's ERP product lines are due for this year.  Not surprisingly, MBS marketing is up 20% from FY04.  Hmmm ... ERP spending intentions are strong and MS is a key player in this space -- with several updated offerings scheduled for release this year.  Another opportunity?
     
    Tidbits on Infosys
     
    Infosys formally enters the IT strategy consulting biz.  (See http://tinyurl.com/2xxlo .)  Yes, it was inevitable.  In April Infosys Consulting, Inc. was formed and, "(i)t's no secret that the winning model will be high-end business consulting combined with high-quality, low-cost technology delivery done offshore," according to Stephen Pratt, the head of Infosys' consulting unit.  The Infosys Consulting unit now has 150 employees in the States and plans to expand to 500 within three years.  Note to SIs in China:  You need more -- a lot more -- IT strategy types  And you need people in the States (at least on an "as needed" basis) in order to capture -- and serve -- new accounts.
     
    Cheers,
     
    David Scott Lewis
    President & Principal Analyst
    IT E-Strategies, Inc.
    Menlo Park, CA & Qingdao, China
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              The KINGMAKER'S Umpire Biographical Blogs: Terms and Conditions :)        

    My original use of the term "King Maker" comes from a baseball handicapping system that I developed a few years ago. The King Maker System was an extremely popular subject at Pregame and it exploded with the help of my partner (The Game/JD). With his help, we gathered as many as 2,200-3,000 page views during a period when Pregame had a much smaller membership base. In the end, I can thank the King Maker System for my job at Pregame, so I thought I'd re-introduce certain segments to the archives.

     

    Here's a clip from an article in 2008:

    "Formerly known as Three2Won, The King Maker shifted gears to professional sports betting after retiring from a career in stock trading. On Pregame’s active forum community, The King Maker made a name for himself by developing a one-of-a-kind winning "Kingmaker system for betting Major League Baseball”, and was one of Pregame’s best baseball handicappers during the 2007 season.

    By taking a 360-degree approach to utilizing information, The King Maker has created a system not only for baseball, but for basketball as well, hitting 70% of his plays during the month of February 2008, boosting him into March Madness."

    It's clearly time to get back to the basics with my baseball experiments, so I'm diving back in......

     

    The Umpire IS "The King Maker"

    The form of capping that I use in baseball comes from the assumption that two players handle the ball on nearly every possession. If we keep this in mind, then we can leverage a ton of focus on the two men that affect almost every pitch (Pitcher/Catcher). The pitcher and catcher don't work in a vaccuum, so we have to look at the immediate secondary indicators (batter, fielders, Umpire).

    Every secondary indicator has equal merit, and we have to weigh the batter and the fielders with a little more weight than an Umpire, but the hidden fact is that certain Umpires actually determine how a batter bats; how a pitcher pitches; and how a catcher calls a game. And this is why I call the "radical" Umpire a "King Maker". The King Maker determines whether an ACE will stink and he also has the power to transform a crappy pitcher into a god. In the days before computer-tracking, you could bank on the renegade umpires. Today is a little different, but I think it's important for you to know the tendencies of certain Umpires. BAIP, OPS, Range, and all of the other statistical models are VERY relevant, so please take all Umpire information as a small part of your capping package, ok?

    What can we do with an Umpire database?

    1. Find and record OVER and UNDER Umpires.

    2. Locate great pitchers that struggle with certain Umpires.

    3. Find the lousy pitchers that will get a boost from a King Maker.

    4. Locate Homer Umps.

    5. Locate potentially biased Umpires.

     

     

    Odd-ball terms that Kevin Uses: (If I jot down terms that are not used in normal conversation, I'll post them here)

    The Box: The StrikeZone

    Hot Box Umpire: Usually a 12/6 K/BB Umpire that has a low home run rate and a massive grounder rate. This kind of "box" is usually built for contact.

    "Shoe Box": Derryl Cousins' nickname. His strike zone shrinks to the size of a shoe box as the game progresses.

    (more to come)

    K/BB Ratio: Strikeout-to-walk ratio; calculated as:strikeouts divided by bases on balls.

    Strike Rate: The percentage that an Umpire calls his strikes (60% is low and OVER/64% is high and UNDER)

     

     

    This Blog will be tweaked and it will evovle over the next few years.......


              State of the Industry: Looking ahead to 2014        
    Expanding access to FBI database, school security loom large for 2014
    12/18/2013
    Leif Kothe

    IRVING, Texas—The past year on Capitol Hill will be remembered for legislative inaction and partisan rifts so deep they culminated in a 16-day government shutdown. Time will tell if the inertia and division will persist in 2014, but the fact that it’s an election year promises to make things a little hectic for the security industry, John Chwat, director of government relations for ESA, told Security Systems News. 

    So what’s on the agenda in the face of the midterm turbulence? Chwat says the ESA will focus on four main priorities in 2014. 

    FBI Database Access

    It’s no secret that, from a legal standpoint, alarm companies enjoy the fact that a properly written contract produced by a qualified attorney generally ensures they end up on the right side of a court decision. Those in the industry are increasingly becoming aware that it’s in their best interest to avail themselves of an alarm attorney who knows the ins and outs of limiting liability and writing enforceable exculpatory clauses.

    It’s precisely the industry’s wariness of being exposed to litigation that underpins the ESA’s top priority in 2014, which is to get the Senate Judiciary Committee and House Judiciary Committee to pass a bill that would permit security companies in every state to access the FBI federal database. This, Chwat said, helps companies get a criminal background check on prospective employees, thereby limiting the legal risk they might absorb when, unbeknownst to them, they hire a convicted felon. 

    Passage of the bill, Chwat says, will “allow us to begin negotiation with the Justice Department to develop regulations to permit us access.”

    Right now, companies in about half the states do not have access to these federal records. The bill’s provisions were previously intertwined with the far more polarizing issue of gun control legislation, which gained traction after the shootings at the Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Conn. in Dec. 2012. The industry’s concerns are “distinct” from the gun control measures, Chwat says, and it is his hope that the bill will be passed once the industry’s specific requests for open access are unencumbered by the political baggage of gun control.

    At the ground level, the bill could have a substantial impact for companies in states that currently don’t have access to the database, Chwat says. “Then we can say members have vetted and done due diligence on all employees,” he said. 

    School Security

    Protecting schools is a topic that’s intensified at both the state and federal levels since the Newtown shootings in Dec. 2012. ESA is engaged with SIA in a joint effort to “secure federal support for school districts, through either a grant program or through funding directly,” Chwat said, to help them acquire certain types of security systems for elementary and secondary schools, including “monitoring, panic bars, door hardware, electronic security systems and CCTV.”

    Chwat conceded that limited funds might impede the progress of the initiative, but added that school security is going to remain a charged topic in 2014, and the joint effort with SIA could bear fruit. “We think we’ll be able to achieve something there,” he said. 

    Surveillance and Elder Abuse

    In 2014, Congress is set to vote on a 1,000-page bill, called the Older Americans Act Reauthorization bill. One major provision of that bill, Chwat said, pertains to elder abuse—an issue on which ESA has been on the forefront, and which Chwat himself has sought to amend. The amended provision would give relatives of nursing home patients the option to have CCTV systems installed in rooms. 

    “Surveillance is used in preventing child abuse and crime, so preventing elder abuse and nursing home abuse has become a hot topic,” Chwat said. 

    There’s a fair amount of momentum developing with the issue. In 2013, Oklahoma and Virginia passed laws similar to what ESA is proposing on a national level, Chwat said. Texas, New Mexico, New Jersey and New York all have pending legislation on the matter as well, he added.  

    Fire Legislation

    A pair of more “esoteric” bills concerning sprinkler installation is slated to be introduced in the coming year, Chwat said. Both pieces of tax-based legislation that could impact installers, the bills have garnered the attention of the ESA. 

    The first bill would provide tax expensing for the installation of sprinklers, while the second would offer a tax credit of up to $50,000 for the installation of sprinkler systems in historic landmarks. Chwat said the ESA has been in close interaction with the House tax writing committee, endorsing the organization’s longstanding belief that some semblance of balance between detection and suppression installation should be maintained. “We’ve made our positions known to the tax writing committee that we’re not in favor of these bills unless they have a balanced approach,” Chwat said.

     

              Version 8 Suggestions - POST THEM HERE!! : acctually, i was thinking.........        
    Author: Scotty32
    Subject: 13859
    Posted: 07 March 2006 at 3:13pm

    acctually, i was thinking...

    ... if theres still features you (borg) want to add, plan it out, do the database changes and then wait till after v8 has been released before you code the features.

    just a suggestion, could make V8 come out quicker, and still have the advanced features your keen to add

              Version 8 Suggestions - POST THEM HERE!! : i suggest that you dont add any...        
    Author: Scotty32
    Subject: 13859
    Posted: 07 March 2006 at 1:37pm

    i suggest that you dont add any more features to Version 8

    but wait till v8 is out then add non database changing features to make up v8.1

              Thing #16: Wikis        

    A wiki is a collaborative website and authoring tool that allows users to easily add, remove and edit content. Wikipedia, the online open-community encyclopedia, is the largest and perhaps the most well known of these knowledge sharing tools, but with benefits that wikis provide the use and popularity of these tools is exploding.

    Some of the benefits that make the use of wikis so attractive are:
    · Anyone (registered or unregistered if unrestricted) can add, edit or delete content.
    · Tracking tools within wikis allow you to easily keep up on what been changed and by whom.
    · Earlier versions of a page can be rolled back and viewed when needed.
    · Users do not need to know HTML in order to apply styles to text or add and edit content.

    As the use of wikis has grown over the last few years, Libraries all over the country have begun to use them to collaborate and share knowledge. Among their applications are pathfinder or subject guide wikis, book review wikis, ALA conference wikis and even Library best practices wikis.

    Watch this CommonCraft video. It illustrates a wiki "in Plain English" very well.




    If the embedded YouTube version does not show, you can view it directly from the Common Craft site.


    Take a look at some Library wikis. Here are a few examples to get you started:

    For more Wikis including ones used by teachers see Blogroll at this blog: http://alibraryisalibrary.blogspot.com/


    Use these resources to learn more about wikis:

    Atomic Learning has some helpful video clips for Wikis. In the "Our Tutorials" tab chose "PBwiki - Wiki Workshop" or type "wiki" in the search box. (SBISD employees only...password protected)
    · Wiki, wiki, wiki - from the Core Competency blog of the Public Library of Charlotte-Mecklenburg County.
    · Wikis: A Beginner’s Look – an excellent short slide presentation that offers a short introduction and examples.
    · What is a Wiki? – Library Success wiki presentation.
    · Using Wikis to Create Online Communities – a good overview of what a wiki is and how it can be used in Libraries.

    Curriculum Connections:
    Wikis can be made for any classroom:

    · Idea #1: Collaborative note-taking. Everyone pitches in and adds a fact or two about a topic. Teachers can encourage students to include opinions, challenges, and appropriate criticism. Students would then write essays using only these notes. Make sure that each addition includes a citation to website, book, or database, including page numbers so that it can be checked.

    · Idea #2: History. Students can compile a wiki of famous artists, architects, writers, and other key historical figures from a city, state, or country.

    · Idea #3: Create a "top 10" lists and supporting material. This could include scientists and their discoveries, top writers and their books, ... you get the idea.

    · Idea #4: Mission trading cards (see Week 3), once completed, could be added to a class wiki.

    A sandbox is a term that wikis often use to describe the area of the website that should be used for pure play so for this discovery and exploration exercise, go to the sandbox portion of the Spring Branch Library Future wiki -- go ahead and play! The username is "sbisd" and the password is "sbisdlib."

    Discovery Exercise 1. Visit the sandbox portion of the Spring Branch Library Future wiki and add something about your 23 Things learning experience to this point. Remember the username is "sbisd" and the password is "sbisdlib."

    You may want to add a link. Click on Sign-in in upper right corner Fill in username and password as listed above. Click on the edit button. Add you comment (just like you would type a post box on your blog) Be sure and click on Save--either at the top in the editor bar or at the bottom way on the right!

    Discovery Exercise 2. Create a post in your blog about the experience.

    How might you use wikis?

    Discovery Resources:

    · PB Wiki Tour - Find out how this collaborative tool can be used (YouTube-won't show in district)

    · PBWiki Video Gallery - Short videos of PBwiki features

    · PB Wiki Tips

    Curriculum Connection:

    Idea #1: Select one of your favorite curriculum ideas from your own blog. "Copy and paste" it to the sandbox portion of the Spring Branch Library Future wiki wiki. The username is "sbisd" and the password is "sbisdlib." What did you find interesting? What types of applications within Libraries and schools might work well with a wiki?

    By the way: Have you made some comments in any other Players' blogs?


              Black Boys and Gorillas: The Cincinnati Zoo Incident and Alice Walker’s “Entertaining God”        
    Earlier this summer, a three-year-old boy entered a gorilla exhibit at the Cincinnati Zoo and was violently and repeatedly dragged through a moat by a 450-pound gorilla before zoo officials killed the gorilla and rescued the boy, who sustained no serious injuries. News of the encounter between boy and gorilla, only ten minutes in total, and the subsequent killing of a western lowland silverback gorilla, one of a critically endangered species, spurred a lot of response on the web. Outraged by the gorilla’s death, news stories and independent commenters questioned the zoo officials’ haste in killing the gorilla without trying other methods of rescuing the boy first, the boy’s mother’s childrearing abilities, and even the jail record of the boy’s father (not present at the time of the incident). These kinds of responses might seem ridiculous at first glance. Yes, it is tragic that a gorilla was killed, but the incident is not incomprehensible. Haven’t most of us momentarily looked away from a child under our care only to turn back and find him or her doing something dangerous? And, in any case when a child is the grasp of a wild animal, wouldn’t most of us agree that he or she should be saved in the timeliest way possible? As others have since pointed out, race is the underlying issue in many of the comments that people have made regarding this little boy and his parents, all of whom are black. The disparaging—and cruel—remarks that people have made regarding these three are ultimately unsurprising, given the predominant understanding in the US of black fathers as absent, black mothers as negligent, and black boys as delinquent.

    In interesting ways, the Cincinnati Zoo incident echoes the plot of Alice Walker’s short story “Entertaining God” (1973). “Entertaining God” contains three sections that seem to connect only loosely. In the first section, a black teenager, named John, leads a gorilla away from the Bronx Zoo, performs ritual sacrifice to the gorilla, and is killed by the animal; in the second one, John’s father dies in a tornado; and, in the third, John’s mother attempts, only somewhat successfully, to connect to her dead son by performing poetry readings for college students. Stereotypes of black men, women, and boys are in play in this story as well, as John’s father has left his son to pursue a relationship with another woman, John’s mother is distant and clearly unaware of her son’s plans for the gorilla, and John himself succeeds in stealing an animal from the zoo.

    In preparation for teaching “Entertaining God” next semester, I poked around in the MLA Bibliography database to get a sense of the critical conversation surrounding Walker’s work. It turns out that there isn’t much written about her short stories at all, and some of what I found isn’t flattering. In “Alice Walker: The Achievement of the Short Fiction,” for instance, Alice Hall Petry discusses Walker’s “capacity to produce stories that are sometimes extraordinarily good, sometimes startlingly weak” (12). Petry seems to place “Entertaining God,” included in Walker’s first collection, In Love & Trouble, in the second category, claiming that “the story comes across as a disjointed, fragmentary, aborted novella” (21). According to Petry, the story “would make no sense to a reader unfamiliar with Flannery O’Connor’s Wise Blood” (21), a novel that also includes a series of episodes with a teenaged boy—in this case white—and a gorilla. Although I agree with Petry that Walker’s stories are hit or miss, I see “Entertaining God” as a better one. I think that the story coheres thematically, despite the fact that each section takes on a new main character and setting, and that it provides the details needed to comprehend its meaning. And, although familiarity with Wise Blood might enhance a reader’s appreciation for the inclusion of a gorilla, the Cincinnati Zoo incident provides a new context for the story, placing it in conversation with those who have questioned the parenting abilities of the mother and father in Cincinnati and the value of their son’s life in comparison to that of a zoo animal as well as in historical relationship to the shooting of a gorilla to save a black boy’s life. I would argue that the three vignettes presented in the story portray the struggle for and difficulty (impossibility?) of survival for black men, women, and children in a white supremacist culture, both of which are still at issue in the rhetoric surrounding the recent Cincinnati Zoo incident.

    As the title indicates, “Entertaining God” is particularly interested in religion in a way that the commenters on the Cincinnati Zoo shooting have not been. The subheading for the first part of the story, “John, the son. Loving the God given him” (99), suggests that what follows will depict an act of worship. And, indeed, John’s two days with the gorilla, at first “drowsy from the medicine the zoo keepers had given him” (99) and later “powerful and large and twitching with impatience” (105), are depicted as a journey toward the spiritual ecstasy that inhabits John’s final act of sacrifice to the idolized gorilla. To begin, John and the gorilla hike to the top of a hill near the zoo, a vantage point from which John is able to observe the activities of everyday human life below, perceiving the “cars whiz[ing] to and fro” as insect-like nuisances, “wasps or big flies,” to be “swatted” away in order to focus on his higher purpose with the gorilla (100). When the gorilla passes out as an effect of the drugs he received before John led him away from the zoo, John prepares a loaf of bread and bottle of red wine, traditionally used to symbolize the sacrifice of Christ’s body and blood in the Christian sacrament of communion, for giving the gorilla “the homage he deserved from him” the next day (101). When he wakes up the next morning, John is “exhilarated” (102) and begins to build a fire “with slow ritualistic movements” (103). He positions the still-groggy gorilla above him, on “a shallow rise overlooking the fire,” and proceeds to burn several pieces of bread and repeatedly “[bow] all the way down to the ground in front of the gorilla” (104). Finally, John pours the contents of the wine bottle into the fire and lays “the burnt offering at the feet of his savage idol” (105). By this time, the gorilla has reclaimed full consciousness and is frustrated by John’s destruction of each item of food before him. Predictably, even to John, who anticipates with some relish that, after the ritual, “everything [will] be over” (101), the gorilla quickly dispatches with the boy and eats the burnt bread.

    In its depiction of John’s experiences with the gorilla, the story reveals that the boy is simply “embrac[ing] the God that others—his mother—had chosen for him” (100). Here, John’s mother is singled out as having significantly contributed to the designation of the gorilla as John’s God. After learning more about the mother’s character in the course of the story, however, it becomes clear that she would never literally encourage the worship of a gorilla. She is, however, at least before John’s death, fervently devoted to assimilation to the dominant white culture, taking great pains to approximate whiteness in both her appearance and behavior. In the last minutes of his life, John’s father reflects on the changes that she underwent in the first years of their relationship. He was initially attracted to her because she was “loose and fun and because she had long red hair” (106). After they were married, though, she stopped dying her hair and started wearing gray suits. Because he was a hairdresser, she had him “conquer the kinks” to create an “unimaginative” hairstyle, and he found that “the duller he could make [her] look the more respectable [she] felt” (106-107). She acted as if she would have liked to change her husband’s appearance as well, having their wedding pictures “touched up so that he did not resemble himself,” replacing his “black and stubbly and rough” skin in the photographs with “olive brown and smooth” skin (106). When John was born, his parents discovered that the child possessed “all of the physical characteristics that in the Western world are scorned,” that “[h]is nose was flat, his mouth too wide” (108). John’s father recalls that “John’s mother was always fussing over John but hated him because he looked like his father instead of her. She blamed her husband for what he had ‘done to’ John” (108). In this passage, it is unclear whether John’s mother “hated” her husband or her son because of either of their characteristically African American features, but, either way, her son ultimately internalizes her antipathy toward blackness, learning to view his father “with an expression faintly contemptuous” (108) and destroying his own black person through self-sacrifice to the gorilla. Fittingly, as she is the one who chose John’s God, “[o]nly his mother had been able to piece together the details of his death” (110). In response to her son’s death, John’s mother seeks to “vindicate herself from former ways of error” (109) and, thus, begins writing poetry lamenting her previous attempts at “incipient whiteness” (110). Although John’s mother didn’t tell her son to worship the gorilla that he takes from the zoo, she clearly feels responsible for his misguided act of self-sacrifice and atones for her mistakes by reversing her position on assimilation. Through John’s mother’s attitudes toward race before her son’s death and her drastic reversal of these attitudes after his death, the story makes the symbology of the gorilla very clear. It represents that which is most predominantly worshipped in the story’s setting of the US in the 1960s and 70s—whiteness.

    John’s father had rejected this worship of whiteness after he left John and his mother, marrying “a sister in the Nation” and then endeavoring with her “to preach the Word to those of their people who had formerly floundered without it” (107). Instead of assimilating, as John’s mother did, John’s father had followed the custom of many in the Nation of Islam of taking the last name of X (107), a practice intended as a reminder that the ancestors of many black individuals in the US were stripped of their surnames and renamed by slaveholders. Unlike John’s mother, John’s father’s new wife “wore his color and the construction of his features like a badge” (108). Still, in the moments before his death, John’s father recalls that he had chosen “a new religion more dangerous than the old” (108). The danger of his new beliefs is perhaps most fully manifested in the tornado that takes his life. In the world of this story, it seems that neither acceptance nor rejection of white supremacy can ensure a black person’s survival.

    Besides John’s mother, there are two others who do likely survive in “Entertaining God,” however. When they realize that they are destined for the belly of a tornado, John’s father and “the plain black girl who was his second wife . . . . r[u]n toward the refrigerator, frantically pulling out the meager dishes of food, flinging a half-empty carton of milk across the room, and making a place where the vegetables and fruits should have been for the[ir] two children to crouch” (105). John’s father imagines that the children will be rescued after the storm and will mostly forget “in twenty years the plain black girl and the man who was their father” (106). The implication is that the children will live—knowing nothing of the gorilla that killed their brother and remembering little of the tornado that took their parents. At the end of the action relayed by the story, readers are then left with three characters: a “black radical [poet]” (109) who inspires “new proud blackness and identification with their beauty” among the students—about the same age as her son would have been had he lived—who attend her readings (111) and two children who will grow to adulthood among the rhetoric of “the Black revolution” (109) espoused by the activists and poets of John’s mother’s elk. Instead of fulfilling the stereotypes of black men and women that they seem to fit upon first glance, the three adults in “Entertaining God” actively work to protect their children and to create a changed world for future generations. The story leaves open the possibility that the students who John’s mother inspires with her poetry and the two children who John’s father and stepmother shelter from the tornado will live fulfilling lives in a world changed by the difficult social projects undertaken by those of the older generation introduced in the story.

    This hope for the future, which is partially concealed within the sad story of John’s death at the hand of a gorilla, is perhaps realized in its contemporary corollary, the incident at the Cincinnati Zoo. Like “Entertaining God,” the incident in Cincinnati began with a black boy’s violent encounter with a gorilla. Unlike in the story, though, the Cincinnati Zoo incident ended with the rescue of the boy. That the boy’s rescue has been challenged and his mother and father’s willingness and ability to parent questioned does not change the fact that the zoo officials very quickly chose the survival of a black boy over the life of a gorilla. Read in tandem with “Entertaining God,” the Cincinnati Zoo incident perhaps indicates some amount of social progress. In the case of the Cincinnati Zoo, black life was protected, at least initially. It did not succumb to the white supremacy that destroys it in Walker’s story. The public backlash against the boy in Cincinnati and his parents are of a piece with other movements in the contemporary US through which radical social conservatives are voicing their desperation in opposing the unstoppable train of social progress that has transported us from the revolutionary poetry and Black Nationalists of the 1960s and 70s to the Black Lives Matter movement in the present and that must—and will—continue to move us, despite the protests of white supremacists, toward a future of racial equality.

    Works Cited

    Petry, Alice Hall. “Alice Walker: The Achievement of the Short Fiction.” Modern Language Studies19.1 (1989): 12-27.


    Walker, Alice. “Entertaining God.” In Love & Trouble: Stories of Black Women. Orlando: Harcourt, 1995. 

              The winter wind is blowing here in Michigan....        
    .... and I am dreaming of going to cemeteries in the summer....




    I know that no one really reads my blog entries... but I love doing them. I started a new hobby... sorta. I am couponing!! I have saved so much money, my husband bought for himself a new motorcyle and I got a tattoo! It hurt like crazy, but I want another one!! :) Going with butterflies I think.


    I don't know how some people do all that they do... being a full time mom of 2 kids & all their activities, going to class at church once a week, Bible study, couponing, and all the books I want to read... plus general housework that needs to get done... genealogy & scrapbooking have kinda got pushed down to low priority. :(


    My laptop crashed, and I've been slowly rebuilding my genealogy database back up. I am really focusing on sourcing my information. I found a website that helps figure out how to source, http://www.genealogywise.com/group/sourcingyourgenealogy.


    I think one of the ways to get everything done that I want done is to pick a one day a month and do genealogy. :)


    Oh also to the Chaugham family who may look at this check out Coni's website... http://conidubois.wordpress.com/ she has extensive research on the Barkhamsted Lighthouse tribe in CT :)


    Happy Hunting!

    Sherry

              (re)Découvrez le Lepidothyris Riopa fernandi        

    Le Scinque à flancs rouges, le plus beau des sauriens

    Beaucoup considèrent le Lepidothyris Riopa fernandi comme l’un des plus beaux lézards d’Afrique. Effectivement, le scinque à flancs rouges est unique en son genre grâce à son habit vermillon.

    Description du Riopa fernandi

    Le saurien possède un corps allongé monté sur de petites pattes. Malgré leur taille, ces dernières ne sont pas moins solides et puissantes. L’impression de puissance est renforcée par la morphologie particulière de la tête qui sert d’extrémité à un cou assez trapu. La figure est large, mais pas très longue. Elle est aussi caractérisée par un museau arrondi et d’énormes yeux ronds très sombres. Les organes oculaires sont protégés par des paupières mobiles. La partie inférieure de cette dernière est écailleuse et transparente. La langue du lézard se veut fourchue, épaisse et sombre.

    Le Riopa fernandi adulte peut atteindre au maximum les 35 cm. Sa queue est assez singulière. L’animal est robuste et possède une forte musculature. Mais son appendice ne possède pas cette résistance. Large à la base et mince au bout, il se brise facilement lorsque l’animal est manipulé sans précaution.

    A quoi ressemble ce plus beau des sauriens ?

    L’apparence du Riopa fernandi est caractérisée par une forte teneur en rouge. On retrouve la couleur essentiellement sur les flancs. On observe aussi la présence de pigmentations blanches, jaunes et orange sur les côtés. Le dos affiche une teinte entre le marron et le rouge ; parfois, on voit une nuance jaunâtre. Le scinque a un abdomen tout blanc parsemé par de petites tâches grises. Propres à la famille des scinques, les écailles du Riopa fernandi sont carénées, lisses et très brillantes.

    Riopa fernandi savannah

    Où vit le Scinque à flancs rouges en milieu naturel ?

    Le reptile est caractéristique de la partie Ouest du continent africain. Il occupe tout le périmètre du Golfe de Guinée, de la Sierra Leone au Gabon. Il est possible de le retrouver en Afrique orientale, au Kenya plus précisément. Et il déserte complètement la partie centrale du territoire africain.

     Quel habitat est fait pour lui ?

    Quand il ne vit pas en captivité, le scinque vit dans les forêts tropicales. Il apprécie surtout les endroits humides riches en végétation. Le reptile est normalement très actif pendant la journée. Mais il lui arrive de sortir la nuit quand il y a une hausse importante de température. Le Riopa fernandi captif adopte parfois des habitudes étranges. Il peut attendre jusqu’au crépuscule pour sortir de sa cachette et partir en chasse.

    Notre conseil : en terrarium, le scinque à flancs rouges a besoin d’espace. Il doit être placé dans un milieu dont la longueur fait plus du double de sa taille. Ainsi, pour un couple, le minimum est 70cm par 35cm avec une hauteur de 30cm.

    Comment se comporte le lézard ?

    En captivité, le Riopa fernandi est très farouche au début. Avec de la patience, il s’habitue vite à la présence humaine et devient docile. Surtout s’il parvient à associer celle-ci au nourrissage. En parlant de nourriture, le scinque à flanc rouge est assez vorace. Il mange aussi bien les insectes que les vers. Mais sa préférence va pour les limaces, les escargots et les lombrics. Ils doivent constamment boire pour prévenir de la déshydratation.

    En ce qui concerne la reproduction, les Riopa fernandi n’ont pas vraiment de période. Quand il y a abondance de nourriture, ils sont enclins à l’accouplement.

    Nous espérons que notre sujet d’aujourd’hui vous aidera à connaitre ce lézard. Si vous avez des questions, c’est avec plaisir que nous y répondrons.

    Rendez-vous la semaine prochaine pour un nouvel article sur le monde des reptiles. Vous pouvez nous suivre sur notre page Facebook et sur notre Twitter.

    Bien reptilement à vous tous,

    La team Savannah

    http://savannah.fr/

    Autres sources :

    http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Lepidothyris&species=fernandi

    http://www.breeders-expo.de/species/Scincidae/Lepidothyris-fernandi.html

     


              Civil War Search        
    Civil War Soldiers and Sailors (Search Database)

    Hope ya'll like this database. :)

    Also I found John & Charity Vincent's gravestones.



              51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best? A. A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits. B. Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time. C. Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan. D. A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.         

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
    C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
    D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
               
    23) Which of the following is not correct?
    A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
    B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
    D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
               
    24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
    A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
    C.   government financial account.
    D.   current account.
    25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
    A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
    C.   the time inconsistency of policy
    D.   inflation targeting
    26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
    A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
    27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
    A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
    B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
    C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
    D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

    28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
    A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
    C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
    29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
    A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
    C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
               
    30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
    A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
    C.   Leading D.   Controlling
    E.   Planning
    31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
    A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
    E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
    32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
    A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
    C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
    33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
    A.   Planning B.   Supervising
    C.   Controlling
    D.   Organizing E.   Leading
    34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
    A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
    D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
    E.   ISO 9000
    35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
    A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
    D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
    36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
    A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
    E.   Diagnostic skills
    37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
    A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
    D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
    38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
    A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
    C.   Self-managed teams
    D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
               
    39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
    A.   Goal Coordination
    B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
    40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
    A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
    B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
    C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
    D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
               
    41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
    C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
    42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, the median is _____.
    A.   3 B.   3.5
    C.   2.5
    D.   2
    43) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(S | W) is approximately _____.
    A.   .40
    B.   .30
    C.   .12
    D.   .58
               
    44) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(M  A) is approximately _____.
    A.   .50 B.   .625
    C.   .125
    D.   .25
    45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
    In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
    A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
    46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
    Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
    Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
    X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
    A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
    C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
    47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
    A.   Midrange
    B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
               
    48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
    A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
    C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
    49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
    Max P = $20X + $30Y
    and constraints of:
    3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
    5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
    You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
    B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
    D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
               
    50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
    A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
    B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
    51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
    A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
    B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
    C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
    D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
               
    52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
    A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
    C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
    D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

    53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
    A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
    C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
    E.   digital, physical
    54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
    A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
    E.   Hyperlink data
    55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
    A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
               
    56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
    A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
    C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
    57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
    A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
    E.   Ethical, legal
    58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
    A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
    B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
    59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
    A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
    C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
    60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
    A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
    C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
    61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
    A.   Operational control
    B.   Expertise C.   Management control
    D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
    62) Geocoding is __________.
    A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
    C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
    63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
    A.   48 months
    B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
    64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
    A.   Cash flow statement
    B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
               
    65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
    A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
               
    66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
    A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
    C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
    67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
    A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
    C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
    68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
    A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
    D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
               
    69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
    A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
    C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
    70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
    A.   at equilibrium.
    B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
    71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
    Cost of debt     8%
    Cost of preferred stock           12%
    Cost of common stock            16%
    Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
    A.   $1,568
    B.   $871 C.   $1,241
    D.   $463
    72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
    A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
    D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
               
    73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
    A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
    B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
    74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
    A.   eliminate different financial risks.
    B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
    75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
    A.   Income from discontinued operations
    B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
    76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
    A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
    C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
               
    77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
    A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
    C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
    78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
    A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
    D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
    E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
    79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
    A.   Promotion.
    B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
    80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
    A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
    C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
    E.   Market segmentation
    81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
    A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
    B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
    D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
    82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
    A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
    C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
    83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
    A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
    B.   most consu
              52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that: A. you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B. the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80. C. you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours. D.         

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
    C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
    D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
               
    23) Which of the following is not correct?
    A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
    B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
    D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
               
    24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
    A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
    C.   government financial account.
    D.   current account.
    25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
    A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
    C.   the time inconsistency of policy
    D.   inflation targeting
    26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
    A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
    27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
    A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
    B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
    C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
    D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

    28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
    A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
    C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
    29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
    A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
    C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
               
    30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
    A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
    C.   Leading D.   Controlling
    E.   Planning
    31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
    A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
    E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
    32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
    A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
    C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
    33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
    A.   Planning B.   Supervising
    C.   Controlling
    D.   Organizing E.   Leading
    34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
    A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
    D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
    E.   ISO 9000
    35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
    A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
    D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
    36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
    A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
    E.   Diagnostic skills
    37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
    A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
    D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
    38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
    A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
    C.   Self-managed teams
    D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
               
    39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
    A.   Goal Coordination
    B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
    40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
    A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
    B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
    C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
    D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
               
    41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
    C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
    42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, the median is _____.
    A.   3 B.   3.5
    C.   2.5
    D.   2
    43) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(S | W) is approximately _____.
    A.   .40
    B.   .30
    C.   .12
    D.   .58
               
    44) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(M  A) is approximately _____.
    A.   .50 B.   .625
    C.   .125
    D.   .25
    45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
    In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
    A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
    46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
    Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
    Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
    X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
    A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
    C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
    47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
    A.   Midrange
    B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
               
    48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
    A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
    C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
    49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
    Max P = $20X + $30Y
    and constraints of:
    3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
    5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
    You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
    B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
    D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
               
    50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
    A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
    B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
    51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
    A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
    B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
    C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
    D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
               
    52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
    A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
    C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
    D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

    53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
    A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
    C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
    E.   digital, physical
    54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
    A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
    E.   Hyperlink data
    55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
    A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
               
    56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
    A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
    C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
    57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
    A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
    E.   Ethical, legal
    58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
    A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
    B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
    59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
    A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
    C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
    60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
    A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
    C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
    61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
    A.   Operational control
    B.   Expertise C.   Management control
    D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
    62) Geocoding is __________.
    A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
    C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
    63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
    A.   48 months
    B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
    64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
    A.   Cash flow statement
    B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
               
    65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
    A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
               
    66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
    A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
    C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
    67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
    A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
    C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
    68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
    A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
    D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
               
    69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
    A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
    C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
    70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
    A.   at equilibrium.
    B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
    71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
    Cost of debt     8%
    Cost of preferred stock           12%
    Cost of common stock            16%
    Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
    A.   $1,568
    B.   $871 C.   $1,241
    D.   $463
    72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
    A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
    D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
               
    73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
    A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
    B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
    74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
    A.   eliminate different financial risks.
    B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
    75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
    A.   Income from discontinued operations
    B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
    76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
    A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
    C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
               
    77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
    A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
    C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
    78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
    A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
    D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
    E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
    79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
    A.   Promotion.
    B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
    80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
    A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
    C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
    E.   Market segmentation
    81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
    A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
    B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
    D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
    82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
    A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
    C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
    83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
    A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
    B.   most consu
              53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel. A. physical, digital B. e-commerce, digital C. physical, financial D. digital, e-commerce E. digital, physical        

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
    C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
    D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
               
    23) Which of the following is not correct?
    A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
    B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
    D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
               
    24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
    A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
    C.   government financial account.
    D.   current account.
    25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
    A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
    C.   the time inconsistency of policy
    D.   inflation targeting
    26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
    A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
    27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
    A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
    B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
    C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
    D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

    28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
    A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
    C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
    29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
    A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
    C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
               
    30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
    A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
    C.   Leading D.   Controlling
    E.   Planning
    31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
    A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
    E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
    32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
    A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
    C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
    33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
    A.   Planning B.   Supervising
    C.   Controlling
    D.   Organizing E.   Leading
    34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
    A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
    D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
    E.   ISO 9000
    35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
    A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
    D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
    36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
    A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
    E.   Diagnostic skills
    37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
    A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
    D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
    38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
    A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
    C.   Self-managed teams
    D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
               
    39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
    A.   Goal Coordination
    B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
    40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
    A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
    B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
    C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
    D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
               
    41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
    C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
    42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, the median is _____.
    A.   3 B.   3.5
    C.   2.5
    D.   2
    43) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(S | W) is approximately _____.
    A.   .40
    B.   .30
    C.   .12
    D.   .58
               
    44) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(M  A) is approximately _____.
    A.   .50 B.   .625
    C.   .125
    D.   .25
    45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
    In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
    A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
    46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
    Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
    Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
    X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
    A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
    C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
    47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
    A.   Midrange
    B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
               
    48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
    A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
    C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
    49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
    Max P = $20X + $30Y
    and constraints of:
    3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
    5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
    You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
    B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
    D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
               
    50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
    A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
    B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
    51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
    A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
    B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
    C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
    D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
               
    52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
    A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
    C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
    D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

    53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
    A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
    C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
    E.   digital, physical
    54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
    A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
    E.   Hyperlink data
    55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
    A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
               
    56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
    A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
    C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
    57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
    A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
    E.   Ethical, legal
    58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
    A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
    B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
    59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
    A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
    C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
    60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
    A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
    C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
    61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
    A.   Operational control
    B.   Expertise C.   Management control
    D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
    62) Geocoding is __________.
    A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
    C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
    63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
    A.   48 months
    B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
    64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
    A.   Cash flow statement
    B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
               
    65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
    A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
               
    66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
    A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
    C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
    67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
    A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
    C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
    68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
    A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
    D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
               
    69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
    A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
    C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
    70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
    A.   at equilibrium.
    B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
    71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
    Cost of debt     8%
    Cost of preferred stock           12%
    Cost of common stock            16%
    Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
    A.   $1,568
    B.   $871 C.   $1,241
    D.   $463
    72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
    A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
    D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
               
    73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
    A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
    B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
    74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
    A.   eliminate different financial risks.
    B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
    75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
    A.   Income from discontinued operations
    B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
    76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
    A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
    C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
               
    77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
    A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
    C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
    78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
    A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
    D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
    E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
    79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
    A.   Promotion.
    B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
    80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
    A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
    C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
    E.   Market segmentation
    81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
    A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
    B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
    D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
    82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
    A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
    C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
    83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
    A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
    B.   most consu
              54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________. A. Tracking cookies B. Web data C. Information D. Clickstream data E. Hyperlink data        

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
    C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
    D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
               
    23) Which of the following is not correct?
    A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
    B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
    D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
               
    24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
    A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
    C.   government financial account.
    D.   current account.
    25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
    A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
    C.   the time inconsistency of policy
    D.   inflation targeting
    26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
    A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
    27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
    A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
    B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
    C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
    D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

    28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
    A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
    C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
    29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
    A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
    C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
               
    30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
    A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
    C.   Leading D.   Controlling
    E.   Planning
    31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
    A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
    E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
    32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
    A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
    C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
    33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
    A.   Planning B.   Supervising
    C.   Controlling
    D.   Organizing E.   Leading
    34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
    A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
    D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
    E.   ISO 9000
    35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
    A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
    D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
    36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
    A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
    E.   Diagnostic skills
    37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
    A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
    D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
    38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
    A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
    C.   Self-managed teams
    D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
               
    39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
    A.   Goal Coordination
    B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
    40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
    A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
    B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
    C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
    D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
               
    41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
    C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
    42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, the median is _____.
    A.   3 B.   3.5
    C.   2.5
    D.   2
    43) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(S | W) is approximately _____.
    A.   .40
    B.   .30
    C.   .12
    D.   .58
               
    44) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(M  A) is approximately _____.
    A.   .50 B.   .625
    C.   .125
    D.   .25
    45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
    In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
    A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
    46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
    Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
    Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
    X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
    A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
    C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
    47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
    A.   Midrange
    B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
               
    48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
    A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
    C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
    49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
    Max P = $20X + $30Y
    and constraints of:
    3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
    5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
    You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
    B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
    D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
               
    50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
    A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
    B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
    51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
    A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
    B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
    C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
    D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
               
    52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
    A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
    C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
    D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

    53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
    A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
    C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
    E.   digital, physical
    54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
    A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
    E.   Hyperlink data
    55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
    A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
               
    56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
    A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
    C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
    57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
    A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
    E.   Ethical, legal
    58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
    A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
    B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
    59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
    A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
    C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
    60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
    A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
    C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
    61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
    A.   Operational control
    B.   Expertise C.   Management control
    D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
    62) Geocoding is __________.
    A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
    C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
    63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
    A.   48 months
    B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
    64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
    A.   Cash flow statement
    B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
               
    65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
    A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
               
    66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
    A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
    C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
    67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
    A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
    C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
    68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
    A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
    D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
               
    69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
    A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
    C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
    70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
    A.   at equilibrium.
    B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
    71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
    Cost of debt     8%
    Cost of preferred stock           12%
    Cost of common stock            16%
    Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
    A.   $1,568
    B.   $871 C.   $1,241
    D.   $463
    72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
    A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
    D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
               
    73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
    A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
    B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
    74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
    A.   eliminate different financial risks.
    B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
    75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
    A.   Income from discontinued operations
    B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
    76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
    A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
    C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
               
    77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
    A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
    C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
    78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
    A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
    D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
    E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
    79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
    A.   Promotion.
    B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
    80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
    A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
    C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
    E.   Market segmentation
    81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
    A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
    B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
    D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
    82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
    A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
    C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
    83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
    A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
    B.   most consu
              55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information. A. regionalization B. globalization C. nationalization D. business environment         

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
    C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
    D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
               
    23) Which of the following is not correct?
    A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
    B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
    D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
               
    24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
    A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
    C.   government financial account.
    D.   current account.
    25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
    A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
    C.   the time inconsistency of policy
    D.   inflation targeting
    26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
    A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
    27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
    A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
    B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
    C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
    D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

    28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
    A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
    C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
    29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
    A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
    C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
               
    30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
    A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
    C.   Leading D.   Controlling
    E.   Planning
    31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
    A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
    E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
    32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
    A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
    C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
    33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
    A.   Planning B.   Supervising
    C.   Controlling
    D.   Organizing E.   Leading
    34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
    A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
    D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
    E.   ISO 9000
    35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
    A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
    D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
    36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
    A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
    E.   Diagnostic skills
    37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
    A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
    D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
    38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
    A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
    C.   Self-managed teams
    D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
               
    39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
    A.   Goal Coordination
    B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
    40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
    A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
    B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
    C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
    D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
               
    41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
    C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
    42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, the median is _____.
    A.   3 B.   3.5
    C.   2.5
    D.   2
    43) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(S | W) is approximately _____.
    A.   .40
    B.   .30
    C.   .12
    D.   .58
               
    44) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(M  A) is approximately _____.
    A.   .50 B.   .625
    C.   .125
    D.   .25
    45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
    In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
    A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
    46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
    Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
    Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
    X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
    A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
    C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
    47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
    A.   Midrange
    B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
               
    48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
    A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
    C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
    49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
    Max P = $20X + $30Y
    and constraints of:
    3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
    5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
    You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
    B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
    D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
               
    50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
    A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
    B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
    51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
    A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
    B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
    C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
    D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
               
    52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
    A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
    C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
    D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

    53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
    A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
    C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
    E.   digital, physical
    54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
    A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
    E.   Hyperlink data
    55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
    A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
               
    56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
    A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
    C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
    57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
    A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
    E.   Ethical, legal
    58) _____ provides users with a view of wh