Black Desert Online – Dark Knight rises in Western server next month        
[Free 7-day trial] Step into the night and feel your life force flicker: The Dark Knight draws near in Black Desert Online! Kakao Games announced the new class is arriving this March! In battle, the Dark Knight uses a combination of melee attacks and long-range magic. Wielding a two-handed sword flaring with dark energy, she [&hellip
          New sky survey shows that dark energy may one day tear us apart        
The best cosmic map yet of the universe’s make-up finds 24 per cent less dark matter than we thought and could call for a rewrite of physics
          Dark Energy        
What is dark energy? How is it an example of fine-tuning? Does the presence of dark energy and dark matter support theistic design?
          The 4 Percent Universe: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Race to Discover the Rest of Reality        
The 4 Percent Universe: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Race to Discover the Rest of Reality
author: Richard Panek
name: Kim
average rating: 3.86
book published: 2010
rating: 0
read at:
date added: 2017/07/02
shelves: to-read
review:


          Dark Energy        
Dark Energy
author: Robison Wells
name: Lorraine
average rating: 3.60
book published: 2016
rating: 3
read at:
date added: 2017/02/05
shelves:
review:


          Books Releasing This Week 7/18/2017        

This is not a list of all books releasing this week, but rather a list of books
 releasing this week that I am excited about getting in my hands.

**All purchase links are provided as a courtesy to the blog followers.  I receive a small compensation for purchases made through these links.  These links may not lead to the best price and you can always shop around for a better one.**
Stop the Magician.
Steal the book.
Save the future.

In modern day New York, magic is all but extinct. The remaining few who have an affinity for magic—the Mageus—live in the shadows, hiding who they are. Any Mageus who enters Manhattan becomes trapped by the Brink, a dark energy barrier that confines them to the island. Crossing it means losing their power—and often their lives.

Esta is a talented thief, and she's been raised to steal magical artifacts from the sinister Order that created the Brink. With her innate ability to manipulate time, Esta can pilfer from the past, collecting these artifacts before the Order even realizes she’s there. And all of Esta's training has been for one final job: traveling back to 1902 to steal an ancient book containing the secrets of the Order—and the Brink—before the Magician can destroy it and doom the Mageus to a hopeless future.

But Old New York is a dangerous world ruled by ruthless gangs and secret societies, a world where the very air crackles with magic. Nothing is as it seems, including the Magician himself. And for Esta to save her future, she may have to betray everyone in the past.



A romantic coming-of-age fantasy tale steeped in Indian folklore, perfect for fans of The Star-Touched Queen and The Wrath and the Dawn

No one is entirely certain what brings the Emperor Sikander to Shalingar. Until now, the idyllic kingdom has been immune to his many violent conquests. To keep the visit friendly, Princess Amrita has offered herself as his bride, sacrificing everything—family, her childhood love, and her freedom—to save her people. But her offer isn't enough.

The unthinkable happens, and Amrita finds herself a fugitive, utterly alone but for an oracle named Thala, who was kept by Sikander as a slave and managed to escape amid the chaos of a palace under siege. With nothing and no one else to turn to, Amrita and Thala are forced to rely on each other. But while Amrita feels responsible for her kingdom and sets out to warn her people, the newly free Thala has no such ties. She encourages Amrita to go on a quest to find the fabled Library of All Things, where it is possible for each of them to reverse their fates. To go back to before Sikander took everything from them.

Stripped of all that she loves, caught between her rosy past and an unknown future, will Amrita be able to restore what was lost, or does another life—and another love—await?



The Circle is hers.

But Avery West has lost everything else: her mother, the family she’d just found, and the one boy she trusted. In their place are unfathomable power, a staged relationship that makes her question every real feeling she’s ever had, and a mission to find the cure to the virus that’s made her own blood a weapon.

Then disaster strikes, turning Avery, Stellan, Jack, and Elodie into the most wanted people in the world. To clear their names and the growing rift between the families of the Circle before the world dissolves into World War Three, they’ll have to make a desperate, dangerous final race for Alexander the Great’s tomb. What they will find inside will mean the world’s salvation—or destruction.

Avery will have to decide how much she’s willing to sacrifice—for the world, for family, and for love—in this thrilling conclusion to the Conspiracy of Us series.
 



Bernice Aurora Wescott has one thing she doesn't want anyone to know: her name. That is, until Bee meets Levi, the local golden boy who runs a charity organization called The Color Project.

Levi is not at all shy about attempting to guess Bee’s real name; his persistence is one of the many reasons why Bee falls for him. But while Levi is everything she never knew she needed, giving up her name would feel like a stamp on forever. And that terrifies her.

When unexpected news of an illness in the family drains Bee's summer of everything bright, she is pushed to the breaking point. Losing herself in The Color Project—a world of weddings, funerals, cancer patients, and hopeful families that the charity funds—is no longer enough. Bee must hold up the weight of her family, but to do that, she needs Levi. She’ll have to give up her name and let him in completely or lose the best thing that’s ever happened to her.

For fans of Stephanie Perkins and Morgan Matson, THE COLOR PROJECT is a story about the three great loves of life—family, friendship, and romance—and the bonds that withstand tragedy.

Available Saturday, July 22nd

Action-packed and wildly funny, this near-future sci-fi features three teens on an inter-dimensional mission to save the world.

Rosa and Eddie are among hundreds of teens applying to NASA’s mysterious Multi-World Agency. After rounds of crazy-competitive testing they are appointed to Team 3, along with an alternate, just in case Eddie screws up (as everyone expects he will). What they don’t expect is that aliens will arrive from another dimension, and look just like us. And no one could even imagine that Team 3 would be the only hope of saving our world from their Earth-destroying plans. The teens steal the spacecraft (it would be great if they knew how to fly it) and head to Earth2, where the aliens’ world and people are just like ours. With a few notable exceptions. 

There, the teens will find more than their alternate selves: they'll face existential questions and high-stakes adventure, with comedy that's out of this world.


In the tradition of Sarah Dessen and Morgan Matson comes a pitch perfect novel about friendship and what it takes to break the bonds between friends.

Caddy and Rosie have always been inseparable. But that was before Suzanne. Now the twosome has become a triangle with constantly shifting alliances.

Caddy’s ready to be more than just the quiet one. She wants something to happen. Suzanne is trying to escape her past and be someone different, someone free. But sometimes downward spirals have a momentum of their own. And no one can break your heart like a best friend.


**You will not be charged for Pre-orders until release.**

August Pre-Orders


Coming in September

 

Coming in October


          No, the Universe is not expanding at an accelerated rate, say physicists        
This could change everything. Back in 2011, three astronomers were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery that the Universe wasn’t just expanding - it was expanding at an accelerating rate. The discovery led to the widespread acceptance of the idea that our Universe is dominated by a mysterious force called dark energy, and altered the standard model of cosmology forever. But now physicists say this discovery might have been false, and they have a much larger dataset to back them up. For a bit of background on the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics, it was shared between...
          Vakvnt’s dark energy        
Black metal singer Vulpes the Almighty gets in the zone COMIC BY Jordyn Bochon and Tim Carpenter…
          The Platypus of Torah Portions        
Rabbi Mike Feurer joins Rabbi Yishai to discuss this most unusual Torah Portion and together they too push back on the dark energy of death with life! Le'Chaim!
          Monte Cook Games' The Strange        
So what is The Strange? It’s an RPG set on Earth, in the modern day. But a few people—a very few people—have discovered how to travel to other places. They call them recursions, and they’re like limited pocket dimensions with their own laws of reality, connected to Earth via a dark energy network beneath the normal matter of the universe. A dangerous, chaotic network they call the Strange.
Recursions spawn from the myths, legends, and fiction of humanity, so the setting of virtually any story, film, or novel could form a recursion, as could any mythical realm or place of legend. They aren’t entire parallel universes—they’re limited in scope, rarely larger than a continent and sometimes not much bigger than a city block. Often the denizens aren’t even self-aware, but are little more than automatons going through the motions of their fictional world.
But sometimes, in the larger or more mature recursions, they have the spark: Self awareness. Sentience. The ability to form their own motivations and agendas.
And some of those beings understand that they aren’t alone in the Strange. Some of them know about Earth, and the limitless universe beyond it. And some of them are very, very dangerous.
In our own world, there are individuals who secretly travel to these recursions—perhaps for adventure, perhaps for profit. But there are others with more nefarious motives, and conspiratorial organizations operating in the shadows, looking to exploit the Strange and its recursions for their own ends. And some of them are also very, very dangerous.
Your character is quickened; you’re one of the ones who can travel into Earth’s shoals to discover and explore the seemingly limitless recursions around our world. Oz. Barsoom. Asgard. The Dreamlands. The Victorian London of Sherlock Holmes. The setting of your favorite novel or movie. Worlds even more exotic or bizarre, driven by laws of magic, psionics, or weird science. When you visit these worlds, you adapt to them, taking on some of the physical aspects and knowledge of the natives. You become, in part at least, a different version of yourself.
What will you find when you venture into Earth’s shoals? And what will find you, as you travel into. . .

          How to Get Something from Nothing        
A Universe from Nothing book cover

A Universe from Nothing. By Lawrence M. Krauss. Free Press (Simon and Schuster), New York, 2012. ISBN-13: 978-1-4516-2445-8. 204 pp. Hardcover, $24.99.

There are two voices in Lawrence Krauss’s new book, A Universe from Nothing. One is that of Krauss the science popularizer, carefully leading his readers through the intricacies of modern cosmology. The other is that of Krauss the antitheistic rhetorician, eager to deflate philosophy and theology by denying their ability to make any contribution to “the truly fundamental questions that perplex us about our existence.” I had quite different reactions to these two personas.

Krauss uses the philosophical question of whether “Something can come from Nothing” as a recurring theme in his voyage to the forefront of cosmology. His explanations of the science are first-rate. They constitute most of the book and make it worth reading. However, I was not convinced by his claim that science gives a positive answer to the question of whether Something can come from Nothing. I also found it hard to discern a coherent viewpoint in the (anti) philosophical rhetoric with which he surrounds the science: there were expansive claims on behalf of science but also expressions of a more modest view of its reach.

To start with the rhetoric, most skeptics will share Krauss’s irritation at theologians who seriously propose that we need God as the “first cause” of the universe. As he notes (173), these arguments can be refuted in short order by pointing out that the God of religion is loaded with far more assumed properties than are required for a first cause. After making this point, I think the antitheist’s best bet is to stop talking. If you try to make it seem as if science can answer the big questions that religion claims to address then you will likely end up offering science-inspired speculations that undermine your own skeptical credentials. Krauss starts by shrugging off such inhibitions, offering science as the answer to “deep questions” (xvi, 182). But later in the book he seems to assign it a more limited role.

If you want to apply science to big questions like “can Something come from Nothing?” then, as Krauss makes clear (144), you need a scientific formulation of the question that allows it to be tested by experiment. However, his efforts to define Nothing seem half-hearted; he mostly defines it as “empty space,” which is not noticeably more precise. He also proposes “equal amounts of matter and antimatter” (177) and “space filled with a constant energy density” (103), both of which sound more like Something than Nothing. There are sharper definitions available: the most obvious would be “all the degrees of freedom are in their lowest-energy state (ground state)”; we will return to this below. A more radical definition would be “no degrees of freedom at all,” in which case it would certainly be impossible to get Some­thing from Nothing.

The bulk of the book (its first eight chapters or so) is dominated by the familiar voice of Krauss the science popularizer. Krauss unveils an ex­tremely understandable introduction to modern cosmology. He starts off with dark matter, the unidentified but now almost indisputable extra ingredient whose presence in galaxy clusters has been revealed by the way its gravitational field bends light passing through the cluster from more distant objects. He spends one chapter on the “flatness” of the universe, which can be inferred from the pattern of microwave brightness that we observe in the sky. An apparent detour into quantum mechanics and the energy of “virtual particles” prepares us for more exotic and speculative aspects of cosmology, starting with “dark energy,” a completely mysterious background of uniformly spread-out energy that is posited to explain the recently noticed acceleration of the expansion of the universe. Krauss spends a chapter drawing out the dismal consequences: if the universe continues its accelerating expansion then most of it will disappear from view, leaving future astronomers in a cooling, shrinking prison. More cheerfully, the same ac­celeration process, occurring in a violent burst early in the Big Bang, gives us inflation, an explanation of the flatness of the observed universe. Krauss’s coverage of these topics is both expert and informal. Using a combination of historical anecdotes, down-to-earth examples, and simple diagrams, he manages to communicate both well-established science and cutting-edge research in a way that will be accessible to almost any reader.

In places throughout the book, and in a more sustained way in later chapters, Krauss returns to the question of whether the science that he has de­scribed shows that one can get Some­thing from Nothing. His strongest pronouncement is that theologians and philosophers have “no foundation in science” for their contention that Nothing will always remain Nothing (174). Here Krauss is making an interesting and provocative claim, but I think it is an overstatement. If one uses a natural scientific definition of Nothing, namely “the lowest-energy state of a system,” then it is a simple consequence of Schrödinger’s equation that this state will never evolve into any other state. Krauss suggests that “fluctuations” in the ground state can be the source of Some­thing, but this is really just an artifact of using classical language that obscures the static and unchanging nature of the quantum mechanical ground state. The only way such so-called fluctuations can become real is through the influence of an “environment” consisting of additional degrees of freedom that, through a process called “decoherence,” effectively measure the state of the original system. But decoherence will not occur if the environment is also in its ground state (C. Kiefer and D. Polarski, Advanced Science Letters 2, 164173 [2009]). So, as long as we are in the realm of conventional quantum mechanics, current science supports the theologians: Nothing will always lead to Nothing. Conven­tional quantum mechanics, however, does not include the dynamic flexing of space that we think is an essential aspect of gravity. For that, one would need a theory of quantum gravity. Krauss (as usual being admirably clear about the fact that he is stepping into speculative uncertainty) outlines some ideas that have been suggested about the quantum-gravitational nucleation of “baby universes” and the possible origin of our universe from them.

However, this does not imply that one is getting Something from Noth­ing. As Krauss himself notes (182), theories of quantum gravity may not contain anything corresponding in a straightforward way to our current concepts of Nothing and Something. This leaves one unable to come to any scientific conclusions about questions involving these concepts. At this point, the science of Nothing is overwhelmed by so much ambiguity and speculation that I am not sure how much advantage it has over theology.

It is remarkably enjoyable to read a book and find it full of insightful truths, especially when it is spiced with pro­vocative authorial contentions. I am im­pressed at Krauss’s strong commitment to evidence over prejudice. He always tells the reader how much evidence supports the ideas he is presenting.

His discussion of the anthropic principle is excellent, and it includes the rarely emphasized point that in order for it to be a genuine explanation one needs to know the underlying probability distribution (176). I loved his quotation from Richard Feynman, rejecting the idea that science is a search for ultimate laws of physics (177); I think it shows that Feynman understood that science is not in the business of answering the “big questions.” To quote Krauss himself, “what is really useful is not pondering this question but rather participating in the exciting voyage of discovery ...” (178). In other words, after all the promises of scientific answers to the big questions, the whole question of Something from Nothing turns out to be a nice authorial device for motivating a wide-ranging explanatory tour through modern cosmology. And there’s no question that Krauss is one of the master tour guides, with the rare gift of bringing understanding of science to audiences far beyond the ivory tower of academic research.


          Mathematics and metaphysics: Any thoughts on Langan’s CTMU?        

Would like some feedback on Chris Langan and his Theory of Everything (ToE), the CTMU. Although awash with obscure terms that make for some slow reading and could be easily mistaken as pure obscurantism, the basic ideas seem like they warrant some attention.

http://cosmosandhistory.org/index.php/journal/article/view/618

First, the bad:

- Langan himself seems like a pretty terrible ambassador for his idea. Ignore the hype and distraction about his personal story (He has a high IQ…so what? Appeal to authority), as they have no bearing on the central thesis.
- He is apparently embraced by some contingent from the Intelligent Design community, which is strange because his idea seems to describe, if anything, a panpsychic/panentheistic scenario rather than anything explicitly to do with any Abrahamic deity. Would be better to call it “Intelligible Design,” if anything (see below).
- Again, Langan seems to draw unwarranted conclusions from his idea (Monotheism, eugenics, etc. etc). But it’s better not to dwell on the man, but rather his theory itself.

When stripped of its neologisms and meandering verbiage, the theory seems to me to have a number of interesting points:

- That physics in and of itself cannot provide a ToE, but rather implies that it is “nested” (along with all other forms of knowledge) in a comprehensive metaphysics (that also justifies itself, somehow).
- If I understand right, Langan proposes to describe that metaphysics as relationship between the observer/language/subject and the “outside” world/object—a singular relationship that would encompass Cartesian dualism. He proposes to describe this relationship by a specific logical formulation (see above link) which he calls a “supertautology” that undergirds…everything, basically. It is the same relationship that (he says) seems to undergird any type of (intelligible) language or cognitive system, and perhaps evolution itself on some level. This seems to be along the lines of what Lawrence Krauss and Sam were discussing in their recent podcast, so not necessarily a new idea, but Langan proposes that you can characterize it with logic.
- It is in this sense, then, that two seemingly contradictory worldviews could both be “true” (true is a poor word choice—see also Jordan Peterson and Sam’s digression on this. IMO it would be better to say that two systems/language-games/consciousnesses could be “valid,” as true should be reserved for things that are empirically verified). Thus, any religious system could be “valid” in that it draws the correct conclusions from its premises, so long as it does not pretend to extend itself into another sphere of knowledge, for as soon as it introduces the concept of facts—which is the domain of science—science wins. Any system that didn’t draw the obvious conclusions from its given premises would be invalid, and basically madness/incoherence. (It’s this apparent endorsement of relativism/“Separate magisteria” that gets the religious all excited, I reckon, but I think what Langan is saying here is that although a system of thought can be internally consistent, it doesn’t have the same degree of truth of a system supported by observation and facts of “external” reality).
- The whole system—the cosmos—is this process writ large, a system that is selecting for intelligence/intelligibleness (shades of Alan Watts). It’s here where Langan gets into his theistic conceptions.

All of these points, are arguable, and I may have misconstrued them. But at a gut level, the idea that logic is some kind of intrinsic aspect of the universe is appealing (though that doesn’t necessarily make it true).

So why would any of this have value? Well, whereas evolution is a theory that just happens to be supported by mounds and mound of evidence, it seems that Langan’s theory could be used to make predictions that prove either true or false (what form artificial/alien/animal/other intelligence would look like, perhaps, or the dispersal of matter in the known universe (see that recent study about the seeming illusion of dark energy)).

Thoughts? Any “there” there, or just a sham?

Thanks.


          Il lato oscuro dell'universo in una mappa        

Ottenuta grazie al Dark Energy Survey osservando 26 milioni di galassie


          Quantum fields        

Some say everything is made of atoms, but this is far from true. Light, radio, and other radiations aren't made of atoms. Protons, neutrons, and electrons aren't made of atoms, although atoms are made of them. Most importantly, 95% of the universe's energy comes in the form of dark matter and dark energy, and these aren't made of atoms. The central message of our most fundamental physical theory, namely quantum physics, is that everything is made of quantized fields.

The post Quantum fields appeared first on OUPblog.

         

          It's Not Just Earth: The Whole Universe Is in a Recession        
In this week's episode of SlateV's weekly science news roundup: Dark Energy is putting the universe into a recession. Medical names for ailments, no matter how mundane, make them more frightening. Space = superbugs.
          Shadowplay: Whispers of the Past Collector's Edition        
Warning - Shadowplay: Whispers of the Past is an intense thriller intended for mature audiences. Big Fish Editor's Choice! This title was selected for its exceptional quality and overwhelmingly positive reviews from our Game Club beta testers. Mad Head Games proudly presents the newest addition to the Shadowplay series! As preparations for a new exhibit come to a close, you look forward to some well-earned quality time with your daughter. Your pleasant evening quickly takes a dark turn when an artifact is stolen and a dark energy kidnaps your daughter! Do you have what it takes to track down the thief and save your daughter in time? Find out in this thrilling hidden-object puzzle adventure game! See what our Beta testers had to say: “All I can say is WOW! This game is one of the best I've played in awhile. The graphics, sound, puzzles and story were awesome!” - Brandon, beta tester “Great game! The puzzles were refreshing and hidden object scenes were interesting and relevant to the story line. Kudos for something new!” - Megan, beta tester
          SOG Dark Energy 750A (Rechargeable | 687 lumens)        
SOG Dark Energy 750A (Rechargeable | 687 lumens)

SOG's line of powerful LED flashlights, Dark Energy, pierce the night with ease. They look different and they behave differently. SOG's goal was simple - for you to have the brightest flashlights of their size. You will be surprised at the power and durability of these lights as soon as you hol..

Price: $144.95


          SOG Dark Energy 550A (2x CR123A | 624 lumens)        
SOG Dark Energy 550A (2x CR123A | 624 lumens)

SOG's line of flashlights, Dark Energy, pierces the night with ease. They look different and they behave differently. SOG's goal was simple. They wanted you to have the brightest flashlights of their size. You will be surprised at the power and durability of these lights as soon as you hold one..

Price: $99.95


          SOG Dark Energy 200A (2x AA | 231 lumens)        
SOG Dark Energy 200A (2x AA | 231 lumens)

SOG's line of powerful LED flashlights, Dark Energy, pierce the night with ease. They look different and they behave differently. SOG's goal was simple - for you to have the brightest flashlights of their size. You will be surprised at the power and durability of these lights as soon as you hol..

Price: $57.95


          SOG Dark Energy 120A (1x AA | 128 lumens)        
SOG Dark Energy 120A (1x AA | 128 lumens)

SOG's line of flashlights, Dark Energy, pierces the night with ease. They look different and they behave differently. SOG's goal was simple. They wanted you to have the brightest flashlights of their size. You will be surprised at the power and durability of these lights as soon as you hold one..

Price: $66.95


          Paiste 10" Signature Dark Energy MK1        
Neu seit 26.01.2007: Paiste Line Serie 10" Dark Energy Splash Mark I, dunkler Körper, volles Frequenzspektrum, brillante Höhen, sehr breiter Tonumfang, direkte sensible Ansprache, kräftiger Anschlag, ausgeglichener...
244 € - Artikelnr. 112400

          Search For Stellar Survivor of a Supernova Explosion        

Star might answer question of how white dwarfs explode
Of all the varieties of exploding stars, the ones called Type Ia are perhaps the most intriguing. Their predictable brightness lets astronomers measure the expansion of the universe, which led to the discovery of dark energy. Yet the cause of these supernovae remains a mystery. Do they happen when two white dwarf stars collide? Or does a single white dwarf gorge on gases stolen from a companion star until bursting?

If the second theory is true, the normal star should survive. Astronomers used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to search the gauzy remains of a Type Ia supernova in a neighboring galaxy called the Large Magellanic Cloud. They found a sun-like star that showed signs of being associated with the supernova. Further investigations will be needed to learn if this star is truly the culprit behind a white dwarf's fiery demise.


          NASA's Hubble Finds Universe Is Expanding Faster Than Expected        

When astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered nearly 100 years ago that the universe was uniformly expanding in all directions, the finding was a big surprise. Then, in the mid-1990s, another shocker occurred: astronomers found that the expansion rate was accelerating perhaps due to a repulsive property called "dark energy." Now, the latest measurements of our runaway universe suggest that it is expanding faster than astronomers thought. The consequences could be very significant for our understanding of the shadowy contents of our unruly universe. It may mean that dark energy is shoving galaxies away from each other with even greater – or growing – strength. Or, the early cosmos may contain a new type of subatomic particle referred to as "dark radiation." A third possibility is that "dark matter," an invisible form of matter that makes up the bulk of our universe, possesses some weird, unexpected characteristics. Finally, Einstein's theory of gravity may be incomplete.

These unnerving scenarios are based on the research of a team led by Nobel Laureate Adam Riess, who began a quest in 2005 to measure the universe's expansion rate to unprecedented accuracy with new, innovative observing techniques. The new measurement reduces the rate of expansion to an uncertainty of only 2.4 percent. That's the good news. The bad news is that it does not agree with expansion measurements derived from probing the fireball relic radiation from the big bang. So it seems like something's amiss – possibly sending cosmologists back to the drawing board.


          NASA Introduces New, Wider Set of Eyes on the Universe: Baltimore's Space Telescope Science Institute to Partner on New NASA 'Wide-View' Space Telescope        

After years of preparatory studies, NASA is formally starting an astrophysics mission designed to help unlock the secrets of the universe the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST). WFIRST will image large regions of the sky in near-infrared light to answer fundamental questions about dark energy and the structure and evolution of the universe. It will also find and characterize planets beyond our solar system, and as a general-purpose observatory, revolutionize many other astrophysical topics. WFIRST will have a mirror the same size as Hubble's, but it will have a 100 times wider view of space. Slated for launch in the mid-2020s, it will complement the capabilities of NASA's other major astrophysical observatories.

WFIRST is managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, with participation by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California; the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland; the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), also in Pasadena; and a science team comprised of members from U.S. research institutions across the country. STScI will be a partner on the WFIRST science operations and will focus during the mission formulation phase on the observation scheduling system, wide-field imaging data processing system, and the data archive.

To learn more about the WFIRST mission and STScI, join a live Hubble Hangout discussion with scientists at 3:00 p.m. EST on Thurs., Feb. 18, at http://hbbl.us/y6I.


          Dr. Roeland van der Marel Appointed as STScI Lead on Proposed "Wide View" Space Telescope        

The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, has appointed Dr. Roeland van der Marel to lead its work on a proposed NASA space telescope that will provide images as sharp as the Hubble Space Telescope, but over a hundred times larger area. The space observatory, called the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA), is being studied for launch in the mid-2020s, pending program approval by NASA. The telescope will be used to probe the distribution of dark matter and the characteristics of dark energy, measure the abundance and characteristics of planets orbiting other stars, and will provide observations and surveys to study many other astrophysical subjects. STScI is presently the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope and the science and mission operations center for the James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled for launch in 2018. Van der Marel joined the STScI staff in 1997. He is also an adjunct professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. He is an expert on black holes and the structure of galaxies.


          Hubble Stretches Stellar Tape Measure 10 Times Farther into Space        

Astronomers continue refining the precision of distance measurement techniques to better understand the dimensions of the universe. Calculating the age of the universe, its expansion rate, and the nature of dark energy all depend on the precise distance measurements to stars and galaxies. If the astronomical yardsticks are off, the astronomical interpretation may be flawed. The most reliable method for making astronomical distance measurements is to use straightforward geometry where the 186-million-mile diameter of Earth's orbit is used to construct a baseline of a triangle, much as a land surveyor would use. If a target star is close enough, it will appear to zigzag on the sky during the year as a reflection of Earth's orbit about the Sun. This technique is called parallax. The stars are so far away that the angle of this parallax shift is incredibly tiny. An innovative new observing technique has extended Hubble's yardstick 10 times farther into our galaxy, out to a distance of 7,500 light-years from Earth.


          NASA's Hubble Breaks New Ground with Distant Supernova Discovery        

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has detected a distant Type Ia supernova, the farthest stellar explosion that can be used to measure the expansion rate of the universe. The supernova is the remnant of a star that exploded 9 billion years ago. The sighting is the first finding of an ambitious survey that will help astronomers place better constraints on the nature of dark energy: a mysterious repulsive force that is causing the universe to fly apart ever faster. The object, nicknamed SN Primo, belongs to a special class called Type Ia supernovae, which are bright beacons used as distance markers for studying the expansion rate of the universe.

SN Primo is the farthest Type Ia supernova whose distance has been confirmed through spectroscopic observations. The supernova was discovered as part of a three-year Hubble program to survey faraway Type Ia supernovae, enabling searches for this special class of stellar explosion at greater distances than previously possible. The remote supernovae will help astronomers determine whether the exploding stars remain dependable distance markers across vast distances of space in an epoch when the cosmos was only one-third its current age of 13.7 billion years. Called the CANDELS+CLASH Supernova Project, the census uses the sharpness and versatility of Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) to look in regions targeted by two large Hubble programs: the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and the Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble (CLASH).


          Astrophysicist Adam Riess Wins the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics        

Adam Riess, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and Krieger-Eisenhower Professor in Physics and Astronomy at The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, today was awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. The academy recognized him for leadership in the High-z Team's 1998 discovery that the expansion rate of the universe is accelerating, a phenomenon widely attributed to a mysterious, unexplained "dark energy" filling the universe.


          NASA's Hubble Rules Out One Alternative to Dark Energy        

Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have ruled out an alternate theory on the nature of dark energy after recalculating the expansion rate of the universe to unprecedented accuracy. The universe appears to be expanding at an ever-increasing rate, and one explanation is that the universe is filled with a dark energy that works in the opposite way of gravity. One alternative to that hypothesis is that an enormous bubble of relatively empty space eight billion light-years across surrounds our galactic neighborhood. If we lived near the center of this void, observations of galaxies being pushed away from each other at accelerating speeds would be an illusion. This hypothesis has been invalidated because astronomers have refined their current understanding of the universe's present expansion rate to an uncertainty of just 3.3 percent. The new measurement reduces the error margin by 30 percent over Hubble's previous best measurement in 2009. The results are reported in the April 1 issue of The Astrophysical Journal.

Amongst the myriad stars in spiral galaxy NGC 5584, imaged in visible light with Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3 between January and April 2010, are pulsating stars called Cepheid variables and one recent Type Ia supernova, a special class of exploding stars. Astronomers used Cepheid variables and Type Ia supernovae as reliable distance markers to measure the universe's expansion rate. NGC 5584 lies 72 million light-years away in the constellation Virgo and was one of the eight galaxies astronomers studied to measure the universe's expansion rate. In those galaxies, astronomers analyzed more than 600 Cepheid variables, including 250 in NGC 5584. Cepheid variables pulsate at a rate matched closely by their intrinsic brightness, making them ideal for measuring distances to relatively nearby galaxies. Type Ia supernovae flare with the same brightness and are brilliant enough to be seen from relatively longer distances. Astronomers search for Type Ia supernovae in nearby galaxies containing Cepheid variables so they can compare true brightness of both types of stars. That brightness information is used to calibrate the measurement of Type Ia supernova in far-flung galaxies and calculate their distance from Earth. Once astronomers know accurate distances to galaxies near and far, they can determine the universe's expansion rate.


          Astrophysicist Adam Riess Wins the 2011 Einstein Medal        

Adam Riess, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and a professor in physics and astronomy at The Johns Hopkins University, today was awarded the 2011 Einstein Medal by the Albert Einstein Society, located in Bern, Switzerland. The Society recognized him for leadership in the High-z Supernova Search Team's 1998 discovery that the expansion rate of the universe is accelerating, a phenomenon widely attributed to a mysterious, unexplained "dark energy" filling the universe. Riess will receive the medal at a ceremony in Bern in May 2011.


          Detailed Dark Matter Map Yields Clues to Galaxy Cluster Growth        

Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope received a boost from a cosmic magnifying glass to construct one of the sharpest maps of dark matter in the universe. They used Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys to chart the invisible matter in the massive galaxy cluster Abell 1689, located 2.2 billion light-years away. The cluster contains about 1,000 galaxies and trillions of stars. Dark matter is an invisible form of matter that accounts for most of the universe's mass. Hubble cannot see the dark matter directly. Astronomers inferred its location by analyzing the effect of gravitational lensing, where light from galaxies behind Abell 1689 is distorted by intervening matter within the cluster.

Researchers used the observed positions of 135 lensed images of 42 background galaxies to calculate the location and amount of dark matter in the cluster. They superimposed a map of these inferred dark matter concentrations, tinted blue, on a Hubble image of the cluster. The new dark matter observations may yield new insights into the role of dark energy in the universe's early formative years.


          First Use of Cosmic Lens to Probe Dark Energy        

An international team of astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has devised a new method for measuring perhaps the greatest puzzle of our universe – dark energy. This mysterious phenomenon, discovered in 1998, is pushing our universe apart at ever-increasing speeds. The team's results appear in the August 20, 2010 issue of the journal Science.


          Hubble Opens New Eyes on the Universe        

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is back in business, ready to uncover new worlds, peer ever deeper into space, and even map the invisible backbone of the universe. The first snapshots from the refurbished Hubble showcase the 19-year-old telescope's new vision. Topping the list of exciting new views are colorful multi-wavelength pictures of far-flung galaxies, a densely packed star cluster, an eerie "pillar of creation," and a "butterfly" nebula. With its new imaging camera, Hubble can view galaxies, star clusters, and other objects across a wide swath of the electromagnetic spectrum, from ultraviolet to near-infrared light. A new spectrograph slices across billions of light-years to map the filamentary structure of the universe and trace the distribution of elements that are fundamental to life. The telescope's new instruments also are more sensitive to light and can observe in ways that are significantly more efficient and require less observing time than previous generations of Hubble instruments. NASA astronauts installed the new instruments during the space shuttle servicing mission in May 2009. Besides adding the instruments, the astronauts also completed a dizzying list of other chores that included performing unprecedented repairs on two other science instruments.

Now that Hubble has reopened for business, it will tackle a whole range of observations. Looking closer to Earth, such observations will include taking a census of the population of Kuiper Belt objects residing at the fringe of our solar system, witnessing the birth of planets around other stars, and probing the composition and structure of the atmospheres of other worlds. Peering much farther away, astronomers have ambitious plans to use Hubble to make the deepest-ever portrait of the universe in near-infrared light. The resulting picture may reveal never-before-seen infant galaxies that existed when the universe was less than 500 million years old. Hubble also is now significantly more well-equipped to probe and further characterize the behavior of dark energy, a mysterious and little-understood repulsive force that is pushing the universe apart at an ever-faster rate.


          Refined Hubble Constant Narrows Possible Explanations for Dark Energy        

Less than 100 years ago scientists didn't know if the universe was coming or going, literally. It even fooled the great mind of Albert Einstein. He assumed the universe must be static. But to keep the universe from collapsing under gravity like a house of cards, Einstein hypothesized there was a repulsive force at work, called the cosmological constant, that counterbalanced gravity's tug. Along came Edwin Hubble in 1923 who found that galaxies were receding from us at a proportional rate, called the Hubble constant, which meant the universe was uniformly expanding, so there was no need to shore it up with any mysterious force from deep space. In measuring how this expansion was expected to slow down over time, 11 years ago, two studies, one led by Adam Riess of the Space Telescope Science Institute and the Johns Hopkins University and Brian Schmidt of Mount Stromlo Observatory, and the other by Saul Perlmutter of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, independently discovered dark energy, which seems to behave like Einstein's cosmological constant.

To better characterize dark energy, Riess used Hubble Space Telescope's crisp view (combined with 2003 data from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, WMAP) to refine the value of the universe's expansion rate to a precision of three percent. That's a big step from 20 years ago when astronomers' estimates for the Hubble constant disagreed by a factor of two. This new value implies that dark energy really is a steady push on the universe as Einstein imagined, rather than something more effervescent (like the early inflationary universe) that changes markedly over time.


          STScI Astrophysicist Adam Riess Receives MacArthur Fellowship        

The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation today named Adam Riess of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) and the Johns Hopkins University among 25 new MacArthur Fellows for 2008. Riess is the leader of the seminal study for a team that in 1998 co-discovered "dark energy," a mysterious repulsive force in the universe.


          STScI and JHU Astronomer Adam Riess Elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences        

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences has elected Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) astronomer and professor at the Johns Hopkins University Adam Riess as an Honorary Member. The Academy honors excellence by electing to membership remarkable men and women who have made preeminent contributions to their fields, and to the world. Riess joins a new class of Academy members drawn from the sciences, the arts and humanities, business, public affairs, and the nonprofit sector. The 212 scholars, scientists, artists, civic, corporate and philanthropic leaders come from 20 states and 15 countries, and range in age from 37 to 86. Represented among this year's newly elected members are more than 50 universities and more than a dozen corporations, as well as museums, national laboratories and private research institutes, media outlets and foundations. Riess is a leader of a team that, in 1998 co-discovered "dark energy", a mysterious repulsive force in the universe. Dark energy is the biggest mystery now confronting astrophysics, and Riess continues doing observations to deduce what dark energy is. The 38-year-old astrophysicist has been at STScI since 1999.


          Hubble Finds Double Einstein Ring        

The Hubble Space Telescope has revealed a never-before-seen optical alignment in space: a pair of glowing rings, one nestled inside the other like a bull's-eye pattern. The double-ring pattern is caused by the complex bending of light from two distant galaxies strung directly behind a foreground massive galaxy, like three beads on a string. This very rare phenomenon can offer insight into dark matter, dark energy, the nature of distant galaxies, and even the curvature of the universe. The phenomenon, called gravitational lensing, occurs when a massive galaxy in the foreground bends the light rays from a distant galaxy behind it, in much the same way as a magnifying glass would. When both galaxies are exactly lined up, the light forms a circle, called an "Einstein ring," around the foreground galaxy. If another background galaxy lies precisely on the same sightline, a second, larger ring will appear. The massive foreground galaxy is almost perfectly aligned in the sky with two background galaxies at different distances. The foreground galaxy is 3 billion light-years away. The inner ring and outer ring are comprised of multiple images of two galaxies at a distance of 6 billion and approximately 11 billion light-years. The odds of seeing such a special alignment are estimated to be 1 in 10,000.


          Gruber Cosmology Prize Awarded to STScI Dark Energy Discoverers        

Four astronomers at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. are on two teams sharing the $500,000 2007 Gruber Cosmology Prize for their discovery that the expanding universe is accelerating under a mysterious cosmic force called dark energy.

The astronomers are Andrew Fruchter (top left), Ron Gilliland (top right), Nino Panagia (bottom left), and Adam Riess (bottom right). Gilliland and Riess are on the High-z Supernova Search Team led by Brian Schmidt of the Australian National University. Fruchter and Panagia are on the Supernova Cosmology Project led by Saul Perlmutter of the University of California at Berkeley.


          Hubble Finds Evidence for Dark Energy in the Young Universe        

Scientists using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have discovered that dark energy is not a new constituent of space, but rather has been present for most of the universe's history. Dark energy is a mysterious repulsive force that causes the universe to expand at an increasing rate. Investigators used Hubble to find that dark energy was already boosting the expansion rate of the universe as long as nine billion years ago. This picture of dark energy is consistent with Albert Einstein's prediction of nearly a century ago that a repulsive form of gravity emanates from empty space. Data from Hubble provides supporting evidence to help astrophysicists to understand the nature of dark energy. This will allow them to begin ruling out some competing explanations that predict that the strength of dark energy changes over time.

Researchers also have found that the class of ancient exploding stars, or supernovae, used to measure the expansion of space today look remarkably similar to those that exploded nine billion years ago and are just now being seen by Hubble. This important finding gives additional credibility to the use of these supernovae for tracking the cosmic expansion over most of the universe's lifetime. Supernovae provide reliable measurements because their intrinsic brightness is well understood. They are therefore reliable distance markers, allowing astronomers to determine how far away they are from Earth. These snapshots, taken by Hubble reveal five supernovae and their host galaxies. The arrows in the top row of images point to the supernovae. The bottom row shows the host galaxies before or after the stars exploded. The supernovae exploded between 3.5 and 10 billion years ago.


          Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys Resumes Exploring the Universe        

After a brief hiatus, the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is back in business, probing the far reaches of space in a quest to understand the true nature of the universe's most dominant constituent: dark energy.

This is one of the first images of the universe taken after the ACS camera resumed science operation on July 4th. The camera was offline for nearly two weeks as NASA engineers switched to a backup power supply after the camera's primary power supply failed.


          Dark Energy Co-Discoverer Adam Riess Shares Shaw Prize in Astronomy for 2006        

Astronomer Adam Riess, of the Space Telescope Science Institute and the Johns Hopkins University, and two colleagues, have been awarded this year's $1 million Shaw Prize in astronomy for their discovery of the mysterious "dark energy" that is causing the universe to expand at an ever-faster rate.


          New Clues About the Nature of Dark Energy: Einstein May Have Been Right After All        

The good news from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is that Einstein was right - maybe. A strange form of energy called "dark energy" is looking a little more like the repulsive force that Einstein theorized in an attempt to balance the universe against its own gravity. Even if Einstein turns out to be wrong, the universe's dark energy probably won't destroy the universe any sooner than about 30 billion years from now, say Hubble researchers.


          Far-Flung Supernovae Shed Light on Dark Universe        

New Hubble Space Telescope observations of a pair of very distant exploding stars, called Type Ia supernovae, provide new clues about the accelerating universe and its mysterious "dark energy." Astronomers used the telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys to help pinpoint the supernovae, which are approximately 5 billion and 8 billion light-years from Earth. The farther one exploded so long ago the universe may still have been decelerating under its own gravity.


          O mais detalhado mapa já feito da matéria escura revela que o Universo não é tão rugoso        
Os cosmólogos produziram o maior e mais detalhado mapa já feito da estrutura do Universo. Eles acreditam que o cosmos é menos irregular e com uma quantidade de energia escura menor do que as pesquisas anteriores sugeriram.

Foto de Reidar Hahn, Fermilab

Os novos resultados, que fazem parte da pesquisa Dark Energy Survey  (DES), mapeou a distribuição da matéria em parte através da medição da forma com que a luz se curva na presença de massa, um efeito conhecido como lente gravitacional. O Universo era extremamente suave, com a matéria uniformemente distribuída em sua infância, quase 14 bilhões de anos atrás, mas a massa se aglomerou em galáxias, nuvens de gás e outras estruturas desde então. Dados divulgados pela equipe do DES em 3 de agosto sugerem que a aglomeração tem acontecido mais lentamente do que o indicado pelas estimativas anteriores, que foram baseadas em fotos do Universo bebê feitas através da medição da radiação cósmica de fundo, o brilho do Big Bang.

A diferença nos resultados produzidos pelas duas técnicas ainda estão dentro das margens de erro em ambos os conjuntos de medidas, disseram os líderes da pesquisa. Uma pesquisa menor de lentes gravitacionais, o Kilo Degree Survey (KIDS) também encontrou uma discrepância semelhante no ano passado.

De qualquer forma, os resultados mostram que a DES está agora a atingindo níveis de precisão que a torna competitiva com o levantamento da radiação cósmica de fundo do satélite Planck da Agência Espacial Europeia, um dos mais importantes da cosmologia obervacional - disse o líder do estudo Joshua Frieman, um cosmólogo do Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, em Batavia, Illinois. “Acreditamos que, com estes resultados, já não somos o 'primo pobre'” de outros esforços, diz ele. “Agora temos resultado que têm poder comparável para restringir dados cosmológicos.”

Este mapa da matéria escura é feito a partir de medidas de lente gravitacional de 26 milhões de galáxias no Dark Energy Survey. O mapa cobre cerca de 1/30 de todo o céu e abrange vários bilhões de anos-luz de extensão. As regiões vermelhas têm mais matéria escura do que a média e nas regiões azuis menos matéria escura. Chihway Chang of the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago and the DES collaboration.

DES, uma colaboração de mais de 400 pesquisadores, emprega a ainda jovem técnica de lentes gravitacionais fracas usando o telescópio Blanco 4 metros, parte do Observatório de Cerro Tololo, no Chile. De acordo com a teoria geral da relatividade de Albert Einstein, a massa distorce o espaço, de modo que uma grande quantidade de matéria no primeiro plano de uma galáxia pode dobrar a sua luz de uma maneira que faz com que pareça um pouco esmagada. Isto é verdade se a massa de primeiro plano for feita de matéria escura invisível ou matéria comum. Galáxias muitas vezes podem parecer oblongas por outras razões, incluindo as suas formas reais e orientação; mas se muitas galáxias em uma certa região do céu aparecem, em média, sendo desviadas ao longo da mesma direção, a lente gravitacional é a provável culpada.

O mais recente estudo foi baseado no primeiro ano de recolhimento de dados, na qual o DES mapeou 26 milhões de galáxias no céu do sul e mediu suas formas aparentes. A equipe então calculou o montante de lente gravitacional em cada parte do céu para reconstruir a densidade da matéria. Os resultados confirmam o que se tornou o 'modelo padrão' da cosmologia, em que a matéria comum constitui apenas 4% do conteúdo do universo. Mas os pesquisadores encontraram uma quantidade ligeiramente menor de matéria escura - cerca de 26% - do que os dados do Planck de 29%, sendo o restante ocupado por 'energia escura', o material que se acredita-se estar empurrando o cosmos distante a uma velocidade acelerada.

Galáxias e matéria escura não estão distribuídas uniformemente através do Universo, em vez disso tem-se concentrado, sob a força da gravidade, em uma estrutura semelhante à uma rede aglomerados e filamentos, com enormes vazios entre eles. O nível de concentração medido pelo DES é 7% menor do que o modelo padrão da cosmologia prevê, com base em dados do Planck do Universo primordial.

Se confirmada, essa lacuna pode significar que a massa foi aglomerada em um ritmo menor do que o previsto, potencialmente revelando uma nova física. Por exemplo, ele poderia apontar para interações inesperadas entre a matéria escura e energia escura, ou a novos tipos de neutrinos.

A discrepância entre o modelo cosmológico padrão e as medidas de aglomeração mais recentes não é estatisticamente grande, em um desvio padrão, embora o levantamento KIDS no ano passado tenha descoberto que os dois valores tem três desvios padrão de distância.

Os resultados do DES, que ainda não foram revistos por pares, foram apresentados numa reunião da Sociedade Americana de Física do Fermilab em 3 de Agosto, e os autores  colocaram uma bateria de 10 artigos on-line.

Os astrônomos descobriram que a expansão cósmica atual é mais rápida do que seria previsto com base em dados de Planck. George Efstathiou, diretor do Instituto Kavli de Cosmologia em Cambridge, Reino Unido, e um membro de ambas as colaborações Planck e DES, diz que a discrepância encontrada por DES é preocupante - e potencialmente mais preocupante do que a relativa à expansão cósmica.

Mas o cosmólogo Anthony Tyson, um pioneiro da lente gravitacional fraca na Universidade da Califórnia, em Davis, diz que espera que quando o DES acumular mais dados, as suas conclusões irão se aproximar do Planck. “Eu acredito que eles têm sido muito cuidadosos e conservadores em suas interpretações", diz ele sobre a pesquisa.

No geral, os pesquisadores estão animado para ter uma ferramenta adicional para sondar o cosmos em detalhes cada vez maiores. “Meu ponto de vista de todas estas medidas é que elas são testes deslumbrantes sobre o modelo cosmológico, e a precisão e exatidão só mantêm-se melhor”, disse o astrônomo Wendy Freedman, da Universidade de Chicago.


O último mapa é baseado na primeira rodada de observação do DES, que começou em 2013, e que abrange cerca de um trigésimo do céu, três vezes maior do que  um mapa preliminar do levantamento lançado em 2015. A pesquisa final, que irá concluir-se em 2018, irá abranger um décimo do céu; os resultados podem aparecer em 2020, disse Frieman. Finalmente, o objetivo do DES é mapear uma região grande o suficiente para ver como a influência da energia escura tem evoluído ao longo da história recente do Universo.

Symmetry Magazine

          LYNX Men in Progress        
Unilever has completed LYNX Men In Progress, a series of nine films designed to challenge perceptions of the modern man and celebrate masculinity. To create the campaign Dark Energy met with 70 men across eight locations in the UK to hear their stories and views on different aspects of masculinity. Key influencers are also featured […]
          "USNISA VIJAYA DHARANI SUTRA"        
This Sutra was once widely circulated and practiced... but owing to turbulent times (caused by natural disasters and calamities), very few people propagated it, and the circulation of this rare and precious Dharma treasure stagnated and ceased, finally becoming silent and unheard of, no longer radiating its Dharma light throughout the universe...

This Sutra is broadcast with the aim that all sentient beings living in the troubled and tumultuous world would benefit from it... that the Sutra would help beings leave sufferings and obtain happiness, increase prosperity and longevity, remove karmic obstacles, eliminate disasters and calamities, remove enmity and hatred, fulfill all wishes and quickly be led onto the Buddha's way... that it could help sentient beings overcome worries and sufferings and more people can be made aware of its importance in the present materialistic life...

The merits and awesome power of Usnisa Vijaya Dharani are in-conceivable...
___________________________________________________________________________________

(Translated version of Master Buddhapala during the Tang Dynasty)

Thus I have heard, at one time, the Bhagavan (World Honoured One) was dwelling in the city of Shravasti at the Jeta Grove, in the Garden of the Benefactor of Orphans and the Solitary (Ananthapindada) , together with his regular disciples of twelve hundred and fifty great Bhikshus and twelve thousand Maha Bodhisattvas Sangha in all. At that time the devas in Trayastrimsa Heaven were also having a gathering in the Good Dharma Hall. Among them was a devaputra by the name of Susthita who, together with the other great devaputras, was frolicking in the garden and courtyard, enjoying in the supremely wonderful bliss of heavenly life. Surrounded by devis they were extremely happy - singing, dancing and entertaining themselves. Soon after nightfall, Devaputra Susthita suddenly heard a voice in space saying, "Devaputra Susthita, you have only seven days left to live. After death, you will be reborn in Jambu-dvipa (Earth) as an animal for seven successive lives.

Then you will fall into the hells to undergo more sufferings. Only after fulfilling your karmic retribution will you be reborn in the human realm, but to a humble and destitute family, while in the mother's womb you will be without eyes and born blind." On hearing this, Devaputra Susthita was so terrified that his hair stood on end. Tormented and distressed, he rushed over to the palace of Lord Sakra. Bursting into tears and not knowing what else to do, he prostrated himself at the feet of Lord Sakra, telling Lord Sakra of what had happened. "As I was enjoying the frolic of dance and songs with the heavenly devis, I suddenly heard a voice in space telling me that I had only seven days left, and that I would fall into Jambu-dvipa after death, remaining there in the animal realm for seven successive lives.

Following that, I would fall into the various hells to endure greater sufferings. Only after my karmic retribution had been fulfilled would I reborn as a human, and even then I would be born without eyes in a poor and disreputable family. Lord of Heaven, how can I escape from such sufferings?" Lord Sakra immediately calmed his mind to enter Samadhi and made careful observations. Instantly, he saw that Susthita would undergo seven successive evil paths in the forms of a pig, dog, jackal, monkey , python, crow and vulture, all feeding on filth and putrescence. Having seen the seven future rebirth forms of Devaputra Susthita, Lord Sakra was shattered and was filled with great sorrow, but could not think of any way to help Susthita. He felt that only the Tathagata, Arhate, Samyak-sambuddha could save Susthita from falling into the great sufferings of evil destines. Thus, soon after nightfall that very day, Lord Sakra prepared various types of flower wreaths, perfume and incense. Adorning himself with fine deva garments and bearing these offerings, Lord Sakra made his way to the garden of Ananthapindada, abode of the World Honoured One. Upon arrival, Lord Sakra first prostrated himself at the Buddha's feet in reverence, then circumambulated the Buddha seven times clockwise in worship, before laying out his great puja (offerings).

Kneeling in front of the Buddha, Lord Sakra described the future destiny of Devaputra Susthita who would soon fall into the evil paths with seven successive rebirths in the animal realm with details of his subsequent retribution. Instantly, the usnisa (crown of the head) of the Tathagata radiated multiple rays of light, illuminating the world in all ten directions, the light then returned, circling the Buddha three times before entering His mouth. Then the Buddha smiled and said to Lord Sakra, "Lord of Heaven, there is a Dharani known as the 'Usnisa Vijaya Dharani'. It can purify all evil paths, completely eliminating all sufferings of birth and death. It can also liberate all miseries and sufferings of beings in the realms of hell, King Yama and animal, destroy all the hells, and transfer sentient beings onto the virtuos path." "Lord of Heaven, if one hears this Usnisa Vijaya Dharani once, all the bad karma incurred from his previous lives that should cause him to fall into hells will be destroyed altogether. He will instead acquire a fine and pure body. Wherever he is reborn, he will clearly remember the Dharani - from one Buddhahood to another, from one heavenly realm to another heavenly realm.

Indeed, throughout the Trayastrimsa Heaven, wherever he is reborn, he will not forget." "Lord of Heaven, if someone at death's door recalls this divine Dharani, even for just a moment, his lifespan will be extended and he will acquire purification of body, speech and mind. Without suffering any physical pain and in accordance with his meritorious deeds, he will enjoy tranquility everywhere. Receiving blessings from all the Tathagatas, and constantly guarded by devas and protected by Bodhisattvas, he will be honoured and respected by people, and all the evil hindrances will be eradicated." "Lord of Heaven, if anyone can sincerely read or recite this Dharani even for a short period of time, all his karmic retribution which would lead him to suffer in the hells, the animal realm, the realm of King Yama and the hungry ghost realm, will be completely destroyed and eradicated without leaving any trace. He will be free to go to any of the Buddhas' Pure lands and heavenly palace; all gateways leading to the Bodhisattvas' abode are open to him unobstructed." After hearing the above discourse, Lord Sakra immediately appealed to the Buddha, "For the sake of all sentient beings, may the World Honoured One kindly give a discourse on how one's lifespan can be lengthened." The Buddha was aware of Lord Sakra's intention and his eagerness to hear His discourse on this Dharani and so immediately proclaimed the Mantra thus:


"NAMO BHAGAVATE TRAILOKYA PRATIVISISTAYA BUDDHAYA BHAGAVATE. TADYATHA, OM, VISUDDHAYA-VISUDDHAYA, ASAMA-SAMA SAMANTAVABHASA- SPHARANA GATI GAHANA SVABHAVA VISUDDHE, ABHINSINCATU MAM. SUGATA VARA VACANA AMRTA ABHISEKAI MAHA MANTRA-PADAI. AHARA-AHARA AYUH SAM-DHARANI. SODHAYA-SODHAYA, GAGANA VISUDDHE. USNISA VIJAYA VISUDDHE. SAHASRA-RASMI, SAMCODITE, SARVA TATHAGATA AVALOKANI, SAT-PARAMITA, PARIPURANI, SARVA TATHAGATA MATI DASA-BHUMI, PRATI-STHITE, SARVA TATHAGATA HRDAYA ADHISTHANADHISTHITA MAHA-MUDRE. VAJRA KAYA, SAM-HATANA VISUDDHE. SARVAVARANA APAYA DURGATI, PARI-VISUDDHE, PRATI-NIVARTAYA AYUH SUDDHE. SAMAYA ADHISTHITE. MANI-MANI MAHA MANI. TATHATA BHUTAKOTI PARISUDDHE. VISPHUTA BUDDHI SUDDHE. JAYA-JAYA, VIJAYA-VIJAYA, SMARA-SMARA. SARVA BUDDHA ADHISTHITA SUDDHE. VAJRI VAJRAGARBHE, VAJRAM BHAVATU MAMA SARIRAM. SARVA SATTVANAM CA KAYA PARI VISUDDHE. SARVA GATI PARISUDDHE. SARVA TATHAGATA SINCA ME SAMASVASAYANTU. SARVA TATHAGATA SAMASVASA ADHISTHITE, BUDDHYA-BUDDHYA, VIBUDDHYA-VIBUDDHYA, BODHAYA-BODHAYA, VIBODHAYA-VIBODHAYA. SAMANTA PARISUDDHE. SARVA TATHAGATA HRDAYA ADHISTHANADHISTHITA MAHA-MUDRE SVAHA."

(This Usnisa Vijaya Dharani is the improved version with some additions to the original Sanskrit transliteration) Then the Buddha told Lord Sakra, "The above Mantra is known as the 'Purifying All Evil Paths' Usnisa Vijaya Dharani'. It can eliminate all evil karmic hindrances and eradicate the suffering of all evil paths." "Lord of Heaven, this great Dharani is proclaimed together by by Buddhas as numerous as eighty-eight kotis (hundred million) of the grains of sand of the Ganges River.

All Buddhas rejoice and uphold this Dharani that is verified by the wisdom seal of the Maha Vairocana Tathagata. This is because in the evil paths, to liberate them from painful retribution in hell, animal and King Yama's realms; to deliver beings facing immediate danger of falling into the sea of birth and death (samsara); to assist helpless beings with short lifespans and poor fortune and to deliver beings who like to commit all kinds of evil deeds. Moreover, because of its dwelling and being upheld in the Jambu- dvipa world, the power manifested by this Dharani would cause all beings in hells and other evil realms; those with poor fortune and revolving in the cycles of birth and death; those not believing in the existence of good and evil deeds and are deviated from the proper path, to attain deliverance." Again Buddha reminded Lord Sakra, "I now entrust this divine Dharani to you. you should in turn transmit it to Devaputra Susthita. In addition , you yourself should receive and uphold it, recite, contemplate and treasure it, memorise and revere it. This Dharani Mudra should be widely proclaimed to all beings in the Jambu-dvipa world. I also entrust this to you, for the benefit of all heavenly beings, that this Dharani Mudra should be proclaimed.

Lord of Heaven, you should deligently uphold and protect it, never letting it to be forgotten or lost." "Lord of Heaven, if someone hears this Dharani even for just a moment, he will not undergo karmic retribution from the evil karma and severe hindrances accumulated from thousands of kalpas ago, that would otherwise cause him to revolve in the cycles of birth and death - in all kinds of life forms in the evil paths - hell, hungry ghost, animal, realm of King Yama, Asuras, Yaksa, Raksasa, ghosts and spirits, Putana, Kataputana, Apasmara, mosquitoes, gnats, tortoises, dogs, pythons, birds, ferocious animals, crawling creatures and even ants and other life forms. Owing to the merits accrued from hearing for a moment this Dharani, once this very life is over, he will be reborn in the Buddhalands, together with all the Buddhas and Ekajati-pratibaddha Bodhisattvas, or in a distinguished Brahmin or Ksatriya family, or in some other wealthy and reputable family. Lord of Heaven, this man can be reborn in one of the above-mentioned prosperous and reputable families simply because he has heard this Dharani, and hence be reborn in a pure place." "Lord of Heaven, even acquiring the most victorious Bodhimanda is a result of praising the meritorious virtues of this Dharani. Hence, this Dharani is also known as the Auspicious Dharani, which can purify all evil paths. This Usnisa Vijaya Dharani is like a Treasury of Sun Mani Pearl - pure and flawless, clear as space, its brilliance illuminating and all- prevading. If any beings uphold this Dharani, likewise will they be bright and pure. This Dharani is similar to the Jambunada gold - bright, pure, and soft, can not be tainted by filth and well-liked by all who see it.

Lord of Heaven, beings who uphold this Dharani are just as pure. By virture of this pure practice, they will be reborn in the good paths." "Lord of Heaven, where this Dharani dwells, if it is written for distribution, propagated, received and upheld, read and recited, heard and revered, this will cause all evil paths to be purified; miseries and sufferings in all hells will be completely eradicated." Buddha again told Lord Sakra cautiously, "If someone could write this Dharani and place It on the top of a tall banner, high mountain or in a tall building or even keep It in a stupa; Lord of Heaven! If there are bhiksus or bhiksunis, upasakas or upasikas, laymen or laywomen who have seen this Dharani atop the above structures; or if the shadows of these structures should fall on beings who who come near to the structures, or particles of dust from the written Dharani are blown onto their bodies; Lord of Heaven: Should the accumulated evil karma of these beings cause them to fall into the evil paths such as realms of hell, animal, King Yama, hungry ghost, Asura and other, they will all be spared from the evil paths, and they will not be tainted with filth and defilement. Lord of Heaven! Instead, all Buddhas will bestow predictions (Vyakarana) onto these beings who will never regress from the path to Anuttara-samyak-sambodhi (complete enlightenment)." "Lord of Heaven, let alone if one makes various offerings of flower wreaths, perfumes, incense, banners and flags, canopies decorated with gems, clothing, necklaces of precious stones, etc, to adorn and honour this Dharani; and at major routes, if one builds special stupas to house this Dharani, then most respectfully with palms together circumambulates the pagoda, bowing and taking refuge, Lord of Heaven, those who make such offerings are called the great Mahasattvas, Buddha's true disciples, and the pillars of Dharma. Such stupas will be regarded as the Tathagata's complete body sharira-stupa." At that time, in the early part of the night, the ruler of the Hell Realm - King Yama.

came to the abode of the Buddha. First, using various deva garments, beautiful flowers, perfumes and other adornments, he made offerings to the Buddha, then circumambulated the Buddha seven times before prostrating himself at the feet of the Buddha in reverence, saying, "I heard that the Tathagata was giving a discourse in praise of upholding the powerful Dharani; I have come with the intention to learn and cultivate it. I shall constantly guard and protect those who uphold, read and recite this powerful Dharani, not allowing them to fall into hell because they have followed the teachings of the Tathagata." At this time, the four Guardians of the world - the Caturmaharajas (Four Heavenly Kings) circumambulated the Buddha three times, and most respectfully said, " World Honoured One, may the Tathagata kindly explain in detail the way to uphold this Dharani." The Buddha then told the Four Heavenly Kings, "Please listen attentively, for your benefit as well as for the benefit of all beings with short lifespans, I will now explain the method to uphold this Dharani. On a full-moon day - the 15th day of the lunar month, one should first bathe oneself and put on new clothes, uphold the profound precepts and recite this Dharani a 1000 times. This will cause one to lengthen one's lifespan, and be permanently free from the sufferings of illness; all one's karmic hindranceswill be completely eradicated. One will also be liberated from suffering in hell. If birds, animals and other sentient beings hear this Dharani once, they will never again be reborn in these impure and gross body forms once their lives have ended." The Buddha continued, "If someone from a serious disease hears this Dharani, he will be free from the disease.

All other illnesses will also be eradicated, so too will the evil karma that will cause him to fall into the evil paths. He will be reborn in the Land of Ultimate Bliss after the end of his life. From then onwards he will no longer be born from the womb. Instead , wherever he is reborn, he will be born transformed from the lotus flower and would always remember and uphold this Dharani and gain knowledge of his past lives." The Buddha added, "If someone has commited all the severe evil deeds before his death, according to his sinful deeds, he ought to fall into one of these realms of hell, animals, King Yama or hungry ghosts, or even into the big Avici Hells, or be reborn as an aquatic creature, or in one of the many forms of birds and animals. If someone could obtain part of the skeleton of the deceased, and holding a fistful of soil, chant this Dharani 21 times before scattering the soil over the bones, then the deceased will be reborn in heaven." The Buddha further added, "If one can chant this Dharani 21 times daily, one is worthy of accepting all the immense worldly offerings and will be reborn in the Land of Ultimate Bliss after one's death. If one chants this Dharani constantly, one will attain Maha Parinirvana and be able to lengthen one's lifespan besides enjoying the most extraordinary bliss. After one's life is over, one will reborn in any of the wonderful Buddhalands, in constant company of the Buddhas. All Tathagatas will always give discourses on the profound and wonderful truth of Dharma and all World Honoured Ones will bestow predictions of enlightenment upon one. The light illuminating from one's body will pervade all Buddhalands." The Buddha further explained, "To recite this Dharani, one should first, in front of the Buddha's image, use some clean soil to construct a square mandala, the size according to one's wish. On top of the mandala one should spread different kinds of grass, flowers and burn different kinds of quality incense. Then kneeling down with the right knee on the floor, mindfully reciting the Buddha's name and with the hands in the Mudrani symbol, (i.e. each hand bending the forefinger before and pressing it down with the thumb and placing both palms together before the chest) in reverence, one should recite this Dharani 108 times. The showers of flowers would rain down from the clouds and would thus be universally made as offerings to Buddhas as numerous as the grains of sand of eighty- eight million Ganges Rivers. These Buddhas will simultaneously praise, "Ezcellent! Rare indeed! A Buddha's true disciple!" One will instantly attain Unobstructed Wisdom Samadhi and the Great Bodhi Mind Adorned Samadi.

Thus is the way to uphold this Dharani." The Buddha again exhorted Lord Sakra, saying, "Lord of Heaven, the Tathagata uses this expedient means to deliver beings who would otherwise have fallen into hells; to purify all evil paths and to lengthen the lifespans of those who uphold this Dharani. Lord of Heaven, please go back and transmit this Dharani to Devaputra Susthita. After seven days , come to see me with Devaputra Susthita." Thus, at the abode of the World Honoured One, the Lord of Heaven respectfully received this Dharani practice and returned to his heavenly palace to convey it to Devaputra Susthita." Having received this Dharani, Devaputra Susthita kept to the practice as instructed for six days and six nights, after which all his wishes were completely fulfilled. The karma which should have led him to suffer in all the evil paths were all eradicated. He would remain on the Bodhi Path and increase his lifespan for an immeasurable period of time.

Thus, he was extremely delighted, exclaiming aloud in praise, "Extraordinary Tathagata! What a rare and wonderful Dharma! Its efficacy explicity verified! Rare indeed! Truly I have thus obtained deliverance!" When the seven days were over, Lord Sakra brought Devaputra Susthita, together with other heavenly beings, respectfully bearing excellent and wonderful adornment of flower-wreaths, perfumes, incense, jewelled banners, canopies decorated with gemstones, deva-garments and garland of precious stones, approached Buddha's abode and presented their grand offerings. Using heavenly garments and various garlands of precious stones to make offerings to the World Honoured One, they then respectfully circumambulated the Buddha a hundred thousand times, paid homage to the Buddha, then happily took their seats and listened to the Buddha preach the Dharma. The World Honoured One then extended his golden arm and touched the crown of Devaputra Susthita, to whom He not only preached the Dharma but bestowed a prediction of Devaputra Susthita's attainment to Bodhi. Finally, the Buddha said, "This Sutra shall be known as the 'Purifying All Evil Paths' Usnisa Vijaya Dharani'. You should deligently uphold it." On hearing this Dharma, the entire assembly was extremely happy. They faithfully accepted and respectfully practised it.

Source:
http://www.buddhism.org/Sutras/2/UsnisaVijayaDharani.htm
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Usnisa Vijaya Heart Mantra : Om Amrita Teja Vate Svaha

The visualization needed during the chanting of the mantra. One visualizes his heart transforming into a Moon Disc, and above this Moon Disc imprints a Sanskrit syllable `Kham`, emitting rays of light to illuminate all sentient beings. Whosoever connects with this light shall have his karma removed, rendering his mind and body in a state of purity. He shall attain great wisdom.
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Grand Master Lu's Book 148 - The Power of Mantra

The Usnisa Vijaya Mantra
(Translated by Lotus Cheng)

A man by the name of Zhao Hui enquired about his destiny. When he stepped into my house I sensed a dark cloud was roaming over this person`s head, and two ghostly entities were following him. However, these two ghosts were stopped by the Door Guardian outside my door. They were raising much noise.
Zhao Hui sat in front of me. I looked at him and his face appeared greyish; a stale energy lingered around him. I sighed as I observed this person from head to toe; his skin, his flesh, his bones, and all his past lives revealed nothing that was worthy of mention. What should I do?

Zhao Hui asked, `How`s my destiny?`
I told him, `Seriously speaking, your life`s destiny is something I rather not say.`
`Its OK. Please speak frankly.`
I said, `Your parents died when you`re young. You`re raised by your relatives.`
`That`s right. Damn! You`re good!`
`You had a tough life during your youth. You left school and did odd jobs, got into fights, and was sent for rehabilitation.`
`That`s right.`
`In your youth you became a thief and was jailed twice!`
`That`s right. You even know about this.`
`Now you have achieve nothing and people avoid you.`
`Yes.`
`Are you still mixing with the gangsters?` I asked.
Zhao Hui nodded his head. When I came to this point, I spoke no further. I knew that a person like Zhao Hui could be described with a modern usage, `scum bag`. This was because he had never done something proper in his life. He fooled around, led a fast life and lived loosely. He went wining and dining, whoring and gambling. He took drugs, stole and robbed, swindled and cheated.
Zhao Hui asked me, `When will I become rich?`
I laughed bitterly inside but told him, `You may have to wait!`
`For how long?`
`I don`t know.`

Zhao Hui was not too happy and said, `People say you`re the best in divination and you know everything. Now you are saying you don`t know about my destiny. You had better be careful.`
`Sorry. But the truth is your destiny is quite challenging to predict.`
`Even a dog`s life has its destiny. You better tell me about my life. If I am pissed off, I`ll make sure you disappear from the face of this earth!`
It sounded like a direct threat! I said, `Zhao Hui, if I help you, will you do as I say?`
`Yes I`ll listen. I may be a good-for-nothing, but I can tell who`s good to me and who`s not.`

I said, `I want to help you change your destiny. In actual fact, you destiny is clouded and I`m afraid you will not have any success in your life. Only by changing your destiny then you can become rich. If you do as I say, I can help you change your life.`
`Cut the crab! Tell me!`

I said, `You have two ghosts following you. If these two ghosts don`t leave, you`ll never have a good life. Where did these two ghosts come from?`
`Two ghosts?` Zhao Hui was all confused.
`You killed anyone before?` I asked.
`Nope. I have threatened to kill, but in reality I only hurt someone, but never killing any.`
`Think. If you haven`t killed anyone, where does these two ghosts come from? Have you offended any ghost somewhere?`
Zhao Hui scratched his head and then exclaimed, `Damn! That`s it! I robbed someone`s grave twice. Is grave robbing offensive to the ghosts?`
I replied, `Of course.`
`Damn! I only stole his funerary objects. I didn`t hurt anyone. What on earth are they following me?`
`Grave robbing is a crime. If you dig up someone`s grave, the dead is not going to be happy. These two ghosts are following you and you`re doomed to bad luck all the time!`
`What then?` Zhao Hui asked.
At that time I was thinking of teaching him a mantra which could help turn his life around. But how should one balance all the causes and effects in his life?
To be charitable - one receives blessings.
To be miserly - one attracts poverty.
To release life - one gains longevity
To kill life - one suffers a short life.
I know that the teachings of Buddha is supreme, extraordinary and refined. The Tantric mantra functions like the Precious Mani Pearl, which can fulfill all virtuous vows and attain all matters of excellence. But is Zhao Hui worthy of receiving this Precious Mani Pearl? I reviewed the past lives of Zhao Hui and saw in one life he was a butcher and in another he ran a brothel. In this present life, apart from stealing and robbing others, there is nothing good about him.
I asked Zhao Hui, `Have you done any kind deeds?`
`Kind deeds?` Zhao Hui shoke his head.
`Do not kill, do not steal, do not commit adultery, do not lie, do not engage in worthless talk, do not gossip, do not insult, do not be greedy, do not get angry, do not be ignorant. These are the Ten Precepts.`
`Ha! I have committed all evils!`
`Can you think of one good thing that you have done?` I could not simply impart the precious Tantric teachings to some rascal who had committed all evil doings.
Zhao Hui thought hard and said, `Once, I stole many things from a Buddhist temple, mainly, the money donated for incense offering. I stuffed myself full of cash and actually carried the whole damn offering box away. They got it locked but it`s useless. I also picked a painting off the wall and when I got home I saw that it was the picture of Shakyamuni Buddha. When I realized it was the image of the Buddha, I had wanted to dump it away. Damn! How much can you fetch from this piece of work? I might as well dump it. But later, I thought it actually looked kind of nice and so I hanged it on the wall. I looked at the Buddha image, put my palms together and paid my respect to the Buddha. Is this a good deed?`
`Oh?` I was dumbfounded.

Would you consider hanging a stolen painting of the Buddha on the wall a good deed? And paying respect to this stolen painting with palms close an act of goodness? I was confused.

Zhao Hui said, `I did something really good. Hehe!`
`What great kind deed have you done?` I was surprised.
`I came to see you. That itself is a very good thing!`
`Oh!` I was again speechless.

I told Zhao Hui, `Every sentient being is born with the purity of heart. A heart so clear, it shines like the full moon. Should the hungry ghost from the Three Lower Realms recite the mantra three times, all of them shall receive the profound secret teachings and be liberated from the entanglement of all negative karma. They shall gain all merits. If I impart this mantra to you, your destiny will change and you shall have great achievement.`
Zhao Hui was overjoyed and exclaimed, `Then hurry and teach me!`

I imparted the Usnisa Vijaya Dharani Mantra to Zhao Hui:
Om Amrita Teja Vate Svaha(Heart Mantra).

I took out a copy of the Usnisa Vijaya Dharani Sutra and showed it to Zhao Hui. The sutra reads:

Then the Buddha told Lord Indra, `The above Mantra is known as the `Purifying All Evil Paths Usnisa Vijaya Dharani`. It can eliminate all evil karmic hindrances and eradicate the suffering of all evil paths.`

`Lord of Heaven, this great Dharani is proclaimed together by Buddhas as numerous as eighty-eight kotis (hundred million) of the grains of sand of the Ganges River. All Buddhas rejoice and uphold this Dharani that is verified by the wisdom seal of the Maha Vairocana Tathagata. Lord of Heaven, if someone hears this Dharani even for just a moment, he will not undergo karmic retribution from the evil karma and severe hindrances accumulated from thousands of kalpas ago, that would otherwise cause him to revolve in the cycles of birth and death - in all kinds of life forms in the evil paths - hell, hungry ghost, animal...even ants. Owing to the merits accrued from hearing for a moment this Dharani, once this very life is over, he will be reborn in the Buddhalands, together with all the Buddhas and Ekajati-pratibaddha Bodhisattvas.`

I told Zhao Hui, `Grab a handful of soil, recite this Dharani twenty-one times before scattering the soil onto the deceased and his Soul shall ascend to heaven.`
When Zhao Hui heard this, he immediately put it into action. I led Zhao Hui outside the house and instructed Zhao Hui to cast the soil in the direction as directed, and with a loud `Bang!, the two ghosts vanished and ascended to heaven. When the two ghosts disappeared, the dark energy around Zhao Hui slowly faded away.

The Usnisa Vijaya Dharani states, `When someone recites this Dharani, all his karma from a hundred kalpas shall be eradicated. He will be free from serious disease and receive peace and longevity; his destiny changed and at the time of his death he shall be reborn into the various Buddhalands.`

I imparted the Usnisa Vijaya Mudra. I imparted the visualization needed during the chanting of the mantra. One visualizes his heart transforming into a Moon Disc, and above this Moon Disc imprints a Sanskrit syllable `Kham`, emitting rays of light to illuminate all sentient beings. Whosoever connects with this light shall have his karma removed, rendering his mind and body in a state of purity. He shall attain great wisdom.

* * *

Zhao Hui was enlightened with an idea. After he had learned the Usnisa Vijaya Dharani, he practised diligently and felt that the instruction `Grab a handful of soil, recite this Dharani twenty one times before scattering the soil onto the deceased and his Soul shall ascend to heaven` was simply marvellous.
Zhao Hui told no one about this. He recited the mantra continuously with all his heart and visited the cemetery every night to scatter the mantra-empowered soil to every grave he found. It matters not whether he knew the dead. Zhao Hui felt that it was simply a meaningful thing to do.

When he completed scattering the soil at one public cemetery, he would proceed to another. Zhao Hui left his mark at many public graveyards.
Once, the sight of Zhao Hui gave me a fright. There were ghosts all over him. But these ghosts were not his debtors but rather a community of benevolent ghosts who were here to support Zhao Hui.

I said, `You have become a Ghost Keeper!`
Zhao Hui replied, `That`s the only way I know how to do good!`
Zhao Hui`s aura had changed. His countenance of dark greyish cloud of energy had faded, replaced with a reddish and whitish glow. He appeared to be very proud of himself.

The truth was, Zhao Hui`s luck had changed for the better. His health was not good. After chanting the mantra, he felt he had more strength. His immune system strengthened (due mainly to the support given to him by the benevolent ghosts). His illnesses healed naturally. They simply diminished without medication.
Zhao Hui had always been taking protection fees from stores and hawkers in his territory. The hawkers were enjoying a good business and gave him good dividends. He was not greedy and returned the dividends to the hawkers. Thus, he gained more respect.

His foster parents died and left a sum of money for him. With the money, he started a restaurant and to his surprise it made him lots of money. He went into investment and every investment was a success. He had become a wealthy man.
He got married and had a son. From being the chief of the neighbourhood, he rose to become the borough warden, and then a magistrate of a rural township, and finally a councilor today. (Many had supported Councilor Zhao. In reality, his support comes from the many benevolent ghosts around him.)

* * *

Zhao Hui told me one incident, `Usnisa Vijaya Mantra can protect one from physical harm!`

Zhao Hui related an incident when an opposition candidate sent a hit man to kill him. The hit man positioned himself at close range and pointed his handgun at his chest. Zhao Hui immediately recited the mantra once, `Om Amrita Teja Vate Svaha`.
The gunner pulled the trigger and Zhao Hui felt he was doomed. Unthinkably, a cracking sound suggested a blockage of the bullet in the gun. The hit man shouted, `Shit! Something is spooky here!`

The hit man ran away quickly. Zhao Hui said, `This is just one example of how a crisis was averted. There are numerous cases of such miracles. In the worst of times, there will always be a turn of events to resolve any crisis. It is simply unbelievable!`

I saw the growing numbers of benevolent ghosts who had gathered to help him, and he would likely rise from being a city councilor to a provincial councilor, and eventually a member of the parliament.
Here`s a verse:

Empowering the ordinary soil with mantra,
This scattering of soil over the deceased is a way of Dharma.
When one reaches the end of the tunnel and all seems lost,
A new world opens and awaits him.

Source :
http://www.tbsn.org/english2/article.php?id=74
          shminux on What jobs are safe in an automated future?        

1 Hindsight bias? Quite a diagnosis there. I never specified the level of those algorithms.

I have, in my reply: probably AGI-level, i.e. too far into the haze of the future to be considered seriously.

2 Which part of theoretical physics is not math?

Probably the 1% that counts the most (I agree, 99% of theoretical physics is math, as I found out the hard way). It's finding the models that make the old experiments make sense and that make new interesting predictions that turn out to be right that is the mysterious part. How would you program a computer that can decide, on its own, that adding the gauge freedom to the Maxwell equations would actually make them simpler and lay foundations for nearly all of modern high-energy physics? That the Landau pole is not an insurmountable obstacle, despite all the infinities? That 2D models like graphene are worth studying? That can resolve the current mysteries, like the High Tc superconductivity, the still mysterious foundations of QM, the cosmological mysteries of dark matter and dark energy, the many problems in chemistry, biology, society etc.? Sure, it is all "symbol manipulation", but so is everything humans do, if you agree that we are (somewhat complicated) Turing machines and Markov chains. If you assert that it is possible to do all this with anything below an AGI-level complexity, I hope that you are right, but I am extremely skeptical.


          Shur-i-kan in the Mix : June 2015        

00:00 - Tones ft. Sophie Brown - Thinking About You (Greymatter Remix)

04:20 - Art of Tones - Koniokola - Lazy Days

08:00 - Four Lights - Brame & Hamo - Dirt Crew Recordings

11:30 - Pools - 3rd Eye (Luvless Remix) - Razor’n’Tape

14:30 - Tazz - Worked It (6th Borough Project Mix) - Tsuba

17:15 - 25 Places - These Moments - Dirt Crew Recordings

20:30 - Ivan Latyshev - Save Me Music - Luvbug

24:00 - System Of Survival - Detroit Museum Experience - Rebirth

27:30 - Kyodai - You Know It - RWAV

31:30 - Lifelike & Kris Menace - Ready 4 Love - Computer Science

35:00 - HNNY - For The Very First Time (DirtyTwo’s Midas Touch Remix) - Local Talk

38:00 - Headcore - In & Out - Versatile

42:00 - Sobek - Ubomi  - HiFly Records

44:40 - Maxxi Soundsystem ft Danielle Moore - Near Me (Club Mix) - Future Boogie

50:00 - Eddy & Dus - A From B (Yoruba Soul Remix) - Freerange

53:40 - Pete Dafeet - Baltimore (Charles Webster Remix 1) - Lost My Dog

 

57:00 - Shur-i-kan - After Hours - Dark Energy


          Shur-i-kan in the Mix : April 2015        

[Time] - [Artist] - [Track] - [Label]

00:00 - Till Von Sein - Booty Angel (Jimpster Mix) - Sol

06:15 - DirtyTwo - Moody (HNNY Edit) - Local Talk

10:00 - Crackazat - Eye Light - Local Talk

14:30 - 4004 - Reciprocal - Faces

19:00 - Dave DJ - Whitehill ft. Piper Davis

23:45 - Ponty Mython - Lux or Cairo 88

27:00 - Shur-i-kan - Horse Play - Dark Energy

32:00 - Atjazz - Leave Me Here - Lazy Days

37:20 - Guillaume & The Coutu Domonts - Doughnut Jam (Who Took It Out?) - Freerange

42:30 - Emanuel Satie - All Things Go

47:30 - Son of Sound - Jewel Eye Nights

52:30 - Nebraska - Aw-rite (mute version) - Delusions

 

56:30 - Jody Wisternoff - The Bridge ft. Sian Evans (Shur-i-kan Mix) - Anjunadeep


          Shur-i-kan in the Mix : February 2015        

00:00 - Intr0beatz - Sweet Sensation - Dark Energy

05:30 - Andy Hart - MLYNY - Freerange

09:30 - Mennie - Phoenix - Exploited Ghetto

13:30 - Sam Ir - Ions

17:00 - Shur-i-kan - Something In The Air - Lazy Days

22:40 - John Daly - Journey’s End - LFR

26:50 - Bobby van Balen - First Imprint (Daniel Leseman Remix)

30:50 - Georgi Barrel - Down - Sinnmusik

34:15 - Detroit Swindle - Pursuit - Heist

40:00 - Joss Moog - Willian’s Groove - 249 Records

44:00 - Percussions - KHLHI

47:20 - Intr0beatz - Dusty Crates - Dark Energy

51:30 - Voyeur - Philae & Posetta - Madhouse

 

56:00 - Shur-i-kan - My Love - Anjunadeep


          Shur-i-kan in the Mix : December 2014 (Shur-i-kan Retrospective)        

 

[Time] - [Artist] - [Title] - [Label]

00:00 - Shur-i-kan - Living Inside - Freerange Records

04:50 - Fred Everything - Here I Am (Shur-i-kan Remix) - Lazy Days

09:20 - Shur-i-kan - Won’t Love Can’t Love - Lazy Days

13:00 - Shur-i-kan - Don’t Care - Dark Energy Recordings

16:50 - Shur-i-kan - Joe’s Joint - Dark Energy Recordings

21:20 - Shur-i-kan - Out of Time - Freerange Records

26:30 - Shur-i-kan - Away - Lazy Days

30:20 - Shur-i-kan - As We (Variation II) - Ten Thirty

33:30 - Re:Jazz - MG4BB (Shur-i-kan Remix) - Infracom

37:30 - Robert Babicz - Astor (Shur-i-kan Remix) - Systematic Recordings

42:00 - Lowpazz - G.O.D. (Shur-i-kan Remix) - Dark Energy Recordings

46:00 - Shur-i-kan - In Love - Dikso

49:50 - Shur-i-kan - Like Rick Says - Dark Energy Recordings

53:15 - Shur-i-kan vs Milton Jackson - Swap Shop - Winding Road Records

 

58:00 - Shur-i-kan - Gripper - Urban Torque


          Shur-i-kan In The Mix : July 2013        

Shur-i-kan in the Mix : July 2013

-------------------------------------------

[Time] - [Artist] - [Track] - [Label]

00:00 - Lone - Airglow Fires - R&S

05:00 - Nick Holder - A Word From Mr. Prince - NHK

11:30 - J Paul Getto -No Doubt About It (Doug Willis Partytime Edit)

13:00 - Hausick - Gospel - Fresh Meat

19:00 - Till Von Sein - Molly Brown - Dirt Crew Recordings

22:30 - Full Intention - Icon 

28:50 - Mistra - Smile (Shur-i-kan Harmonic Dub) - Z Records

33:00 - Detroit Swindle - Sometimes - Tsuba 

38:00 - Dusky - Mr. Man - Anjuadeep

42:50 - Ry, Frank Wiedemann, The Howling - Shortline (Frank Wiedemann Remix) - Compost

46:45 - Shur-i-kan - The Light - Dark Energy Recordings

51:30 - Deux Tigres - Dragonfly (Deux Tigres vs Erkka Remix)

56:00 - Samaris - Gooa Tungi (Sei A Remix)

http://shurikan.libsyn.com

http://www.shur-i-kan.com


          Shur-i-kan In The Mix : April 2013        

Shur-i-kan In the Mix : April 2013

[Time] - [Artist] - [Title] - [Label]

00:00 - Jimpster - Rollergirl - Freerange

05:30 - Johnny Fiasco - Aurora Borealis - Chicano

09:45 - Admin - Sunday Loops (Crump Remix) - 

16:48 - Hans Thalau - Asdis - Dark Energy Recordings

21:10 - DJ W!LD - Acid Porn

24:30 - Fred Everything - Legacy - Local Talk

29:20 - JpE - Want From Me (Gerds Tools Remix) - Undulate

33:15 - Kyodai, Gabriela - Can You Hear The Beat - Muak

39:00 - Supernova - Devotion

44:20 - Astrid Suryanto - Home (Neil Quigley remix)

48:20 - Akabu - Everybody Wants Something ft. Alex Mills (Akabu Warehouse Mix) - Z Records

52:30 - Iron Curtis - Daniel - Smallville

56:00 - Ambient Jazz Ensemble - Jazz Face (Ambient Jazz Ensemble Rework) - HereAndNow

http://www.shur-i-kan.com

Finest deep and underground house in the mix for an hour every month


          Shur-i-kan In the Mix : March 2013        

Shur-i-kan In The Mix : March 2013

Deepest and Finest Underground House

http://www.shur-i-kan.com

Time] - [Artist] - [Title] - [Label]

00:00 - Sound Stream - Julies Theme

04:30 - Tony Lionni - When Time Began - Freerange

07:00 - Be - Driving In XTSE - Hudd Trax

10:30 - The True Rebels -  I Remember Things - Soul Free

15:30 - Dubble D - Down (Floor Dub) - Dark Energy Recordings

21:00 - Zoo Look - Over Me (Detroit Swindle Rmx) - Morris Audio

24:40 - Ooft - Arbitrary - Foto Recordings

28:30 - Borrow Identity & Mechanical Soul Brother - Love For The Gang

32:45 - Ian Pooley - Swing Mode - Pooled Music

36:30 - Agnes - Silence & Snow

40: 00 - James Johnston - What You Do To Me - GodzillaKebab Recs

44:30 - A Lister - Never You - LuvBug

50:15 - Dale Howard - Make It Count - Lost My Dog

55:30 - Copy Paste Soul - Look At Me - Exploited


          Shur-i-kan In The Mix - Feburary 2013        

Shur-i-kan In the Mix : Feburary 2013

[Time] - [Artist] - [Track] - [Label]

00:00 - Medlar - The Sun

04:00 - Milton Jackson - Don't Worry About The Drums - Dark Energy

08:30 - Fresh Tee - Unreleased

15:31 - AtJazz & Fred Everything - Back Together (AtJazz's Intrepretation) - Lazy Days

18:30 - Mark Romboy, KiNK - Delusion of the Enemy - Systematic

25:00 - Lowpazz - G.O.D. (Shur-i-kan Remix) - Dark Energy

30:00 - Bruno Be - Time Out

35:00 - Barrington - Is It True feat Daj (Forrest Remix) - PetFood

38:45 - Tuccillo - About Luv - 8Bit

42:20 - Alci - Some Snitches - Robsoul

46:00 - Ian Pooley - Swing Mode - Pooled Music

48:00 - Delano Smith - I Fly - Kolour Recordings

51:00 - Lu Chase, Christopher Wilde - Bitter Sweet Feelings (Club Mix)

55:30 - Bonobo - Cirrus - Ninja Tune

Regular monthly show featuring the best of deep house. Free

http://www.shur-i-kan.com


          Shur-i-kan in the Mix : January 2013        

Shur-i-kan in the Mix : Jan 2013

[Time] - [Artist] - [Track] - [Label]

00:00 - Roberto Rodrigeuz - Oxymoron - Freerange Records

06:00 - Waze & Odyssey - I Want You You You - Throne of Blood

10:45 - Paskal - Gotta Make It Right (ft. Byron Stingily) - Peppermint Jam

14:00 - Igor Jadranin - Blue Phase - Bokhari Records

19:24 - Dan Ghenacia - Manhattan 85 - Apollonia

23:45 - Hans Thalau - 014.1 - Thal Communications

27:15 - Amir Alexander - Gutter Flex

32:45 - Benjamin Brunn - Papanin - Third Ear Recordings

36:45 - Sidney Charles - My Hope - Sex Panda White

44:00 - Moodwax - Wisher - Malfunktion Deep

49:30 - Lowpazz - G.O.D. - Dark Energy Recordings

55:30 - Jimpster - These Times (Kyodai Mix) - Freerange Records

Deep and underground house.

http://shurikan.libsycn.com

http://www.shur-i-kan.com


          A mechanistic common cause for inflation and dark energy using only standard model physics        
Rather than providing another functional construct to fit observational cosmology, a mechanistic standard model approach seems to predict the same regarding both dark energy and inflation. The open access Journal of Cosmology recently published this theory and so a very brief attempt to review the physics is presented here for your intellectual enjoyment (see http://journalofcosmology.com/JOC26/Hayes.pdf).

Dark Energy

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          Waldorf, Make Noise, Doepfer, stb keresek        

Analóg desktop szintiket keresek megvételre:

Waldorf Pulse 2, Make Noise 0-Coast, Doepfer Dark Energy 2, Dreadbox Nyx vagy Hades, Kilpatrick Phenol, Moog Mother-32, Trax Retrowave R-1, Anyware Minisizer, Vermona Mono Lancet '15 illetve más ajánlatokat is meghallgatok ezen a vonalon.


          Dark Energy        
Meet one of the three winners of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics, Lawrence Berkeley Lab astrophysicist Saul Perlmutter. He explains how dark energy, which makes up 70 percent of the universe, is causing our universe to expand.
          Einstein’s latest anniversary marks the birth of modern cosmology         

1917 paper introduced infamous cosmological constant in equation describing gravity

Context
Andromeda galaxy

Edwin Hubble’s observations of stars in the Andromeda galaxy (shown) demonstrated that the universe was vastly bigger than Albert Einstein realized. Nevertheless, Einstein’s paper applying his general theory of relativity, published a century ago, became the foundation for the modern science of cosmology.

First of two parts

Sometimes it seems like every year offers an occasion to celebrate some sort of Einstein anniversary.

In 2015, everybody lauded the 100th anniversary of his general theory of relativity. Last year, scientists celebrated the centennial of his prediction of gravitational waves — by reporting the discovery of gravitational waves. And this year marks the centennial of Einstein’s paper establishing the birth of modern cosmology.

Before Einstein, cosmology was not very modern at all. Most scientists shunned it. It was regarded as a matter for philosophers or possibly theologians. You could do cosmology without even knowing any math.

But Einstein showed how the math of general relativity could be applied to the task of describing the cosmos. His theory offered a way to study cosmology precisely, with a firm physical and mathematical basis. Einstein provided the recipe for transforming cosmology from speculation to a field of scientific study.

“There is little doubt that Einstein’s 1917 paper … set the foundations of modern theoretical cosmology,” Irish physicist Cormac O’Raifeartaigh and colleagues write in a new analysis of that paper. 

Einstein had pondered the implications of his new theory for cosmology even before he had finished it. General relativity was, after all, a theory of space and time — all of it. Einstein’s showed that gravity — the driving force sculpting the cosmic architecture — was simply the distortion of spacetime geometry generated by the presence of mass and energy. (He constructed an equation to show how spacetime geometry, on the left side of the equation, was determined by the density of mass-energy, the right side.) Since spacetime and mass-energy account for basically everything, the entire cosmos ought to behave as general relativity’s equation required.

Newton’s law of gravity had posed problems in that regard. If every mass attracted every other mass, as Newton had proclaimed, then all the matter in the universe ought to have just collapsed itself into one big blob. Newton suggested that the universe was infinite, filled with matter, so that attraction inward was balanced by the attraction of matter farther out. Nobody really bought that explanation, though. For one thing, it required a really precise arrangement: One star out of place, and the balance of attractions disappears and the universe collapses. It also required an infinity of stars, making it impossible to explain why it’s dark at night. (There would be a star out there along every line of sight at all times.)

Einstein hoped his theory of gravity would resolve the cosmic paradoxes of Newtonian gravity. So in early 1917, less than a year after his complete paper on the general theory was published, he delivered a short paper to the Prussian Academy of Sciences outlining the implications of his theory for cosmology.

In that paper, titled “Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity,” he started by noting the problems posed by using Newton’s gravity to describe the universe. Einstein showed that Newton’s gravity would require a finite island of stars sitting in an infinite space. But over time such a collection of stars would evaporate. That problem could be avoided, though, if the universe turned out not to be infinite. Instead, Einstein said, everything would be fine if the universe is finite. Big, sure, but curved in such a way that it closed on itself, like a sphere.

Einstein’s mathematical challenge was to show that such a finite cosmic spacetime would be static and stable. (In those days nobody knew that the universe was expanding.) He assumed that on a large enough scale, the distribution of matter in this universe could be considered uniform. (Einstein said it was like viewing the Earth as a smooth sphere for most purposes, even though its terrain is full of complexities on smaller distance scales.) Matter’s effect on spacetime curvature would therefore be pretty much constant, and the universe’s overall condition would be unchanging.

All this made sense to Einstein because he had a limited view of what was actually going on in the cosmos. Like many scientists in those days, he believed the universe was basically just the Milky Way galaxy. All the known stars moved fairly slowly, consistent with his belief in a spherical cosmos with uniformly distributed mass. Unfortunately, general relativity’s math didn’t work if that was the case — it suggested the universe would not be stable. Einstein realized, though, that his view of the static spherical universe would succeed if he added a term to his original equation.

In fact, there were good reasons to include the term anyway. O’Raifeartaigh and colleagues point out that in his earlier work on general relativity, Einstein remarked in a footnote that his equation technically permitted the inclusion of an additional term. That didn’t seem to matter at the time. But in his cosmology paper, Einstein found that it was just the thing his equation needed to describe the universe properly (as Einstein then supposed the universe to be). So he added that factor, designated by the Greek letter lambda, to the left-hand side of his basic general relativity equation.

“That term is necessary only for the purpose of making possible a quasi-static distribution of matter, as required by the fact of the small velocities of the stars,” Einstein wrote in his 1917 paper. As long as the magnitude of this new term on the geometry side of the equation was small enough, it would not alter the theory’s predictions for planetary motions in the solar system.

Einstein’s 1917 paper demonstrated the mathematical effectiveness of lambda (also called the “cosmological constant”) but did not say much about its physical interpretation. In another paper, published in 1918, he commented that lambda represented a negative mass density — it played “the role of gravitating negative masses which are distributed all over the interstellar space.” Negative mass would counter the attractive gravity and prevent all the matter in Einstein’s spherical finite universe from collapsing.

As everybody now knows, though, there is no danger of collapse, because the universe is not static to begin with, but rather is rapidly expanding. After Edwin Hubble had established such expansion, Einstein abandoned lambda as unnecessary (or at least, set it equal to zero in his equation). Others built on Einstein’s foundation to derive the math needed to make sense of Hubble’s discovery, eventually leading to the modern view of an expanding universe initiated by a Big Bang explosion.

But in the 1990s, astronomers discovered that the universe is not only expanding, it is expanding at an accelerating rate. Such acceleration requires a mysterious driving force, nicknamed “dark energy,” exerting negative pressure in space. Many experts believe Einstein’s cosmological constant, now interpreted as a constant amount of energy with negative pressure infusing all of space, is the dark energy’s true identity.

Einstein might not have been surprised by all of this. He realized that only time would tell whether his lambda would vanish to zero or play a role in the motions of the heavens. As he wrote in 1917 to the Dutch physicist-astronomer Willem de Sitter: “One day, our actual knowledge of the composition of the fixed-star sky, the apparent motions of fixed stars, and the position of spectral lines as a function of distance, will probably have come far enough for us to be able to decide empirically the question of whether or not lambda vanishes.”

Follow me on Twitter: @tom_siegfried


          Comment on “Foo!” to “Are we shortening the Universe’s life by observing it?” by Dustin        
To the New Scientist I ask, "What constitutes an observation?" Dark matter and dark energy are so tied to the dynamics of galaxies, including our own, that even looking at the sky at any point would cause the kind of collapse they're talking about, a la Schroedinger. Even if we aren't aware of it, we can look up at the night sky and have our retinas bombarded by photons emitted by distant quasars and clusters of galaxies. Isn't that an observation? Or do we have to be cognizant of the fact that we're indirectly observing dark matter and dark energy whenever we look at anything? An affirmative answer to that question doesn't make any sense, and if we answer no we have to ask what makes the interaction of a photon with our retinas more important than the interaction of dark matter with a galaxy. I don't think it is any more important. I think it was Heisenberg who suggested that we'd ought to adopt the word "interaction" rather than "observation". I'm sure that if we take that kind of view through to its conclusion, we arrive at something like the relational quantum mechanics described by Smolin, Rovelli, et al. The blogosphere seems to be populated by many-worlders and ensemble supporters, so I'll probably be run off with torches and pitchforks for saying it, but there isn't, as far as I know, any room at all for looking at the universe as having a wavefunction within the scope of relational quantum mechanics. I don't think we have to wait for quantum gravity at all to say that it's doubtful that the universe will display the kind of quantum behavior the New Scientist is suggesting it does.
          Bringing Dark Energy to Light        
Congress could approve funding for a space telescope that would help scientists investigate dark energy.
          Comment on Guest posts by john kulick        
Google the expression, A Multidimensional Geometric Expansion of Spacetime. There is a link to a peer reviewed PDF paper that at the very least will prove to be novel. The benefit is that it appears that there is no dark matter and no dark energy. Gravity diminishes over time, as believed by Dirac and Gamow, which alters the luminosity of stars used in distance determination. An inter-dimensional "inward" field effect is predicted which negates the necessity for dark matter. Respectfully John Kulick Reverse Engineer
          21st-century Insoluble Pancakes: dark matter, dark energy and how we know what we know        
These days, we know far more about the origin, nature and fate of the Universe than at any time in history. Justification? Well, any good description of the Universe has to be able both to provide a framework for understanding what has happened in the past and provide predictions for what will happen in the future. It should, more than anything, be consistent with observations. During the past few centuries, the quantity and quality of observations we have made have...

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          Puzzle Pieces to Consider -- Trump, NESARA, GCR/RV, NPTB, Chinese Elders and More        
Source: Dinar Chronicles

Hello all!

I'm sure we're all feeling the "fatigue" as Yosef puts it but here are some things to consider to help everyone to hang in there for a bit longer. I really do feel that we are right there at any moment, at the least by the end of the day, Monday, 8-21-17, which is less than 2 weeks away.

We know through Yosef that this big "show" is scripted to follow along the lines of Water Gate and the USA, Inc., CEO Richard Nixon's impeachment which makes total sense. That script is obviously being followed if you're paying attention to the "fake news" in the "fake mainstream media". I don't trust the mainstream media but I've been paying attention to certain stories for the purpose of connecting the dots of the continuing saga of the "big show". Following this script will help the sleepwalking masses to adjust to the removal of burner CEO, Donald Trump, of the long "defunct" USA, Inc., through threat of impeachment and his likely resignation to avoid it.

Just remember that he is not really the President. One can not be a CEO or President of a long "defunct" or "dead" corporation which is what USA, Inc., is. Paul Ryan was already the "true" interim President of the restored Republic before the big show of the "fake" 2016 Presidential election took place in November 2016 so Trump couldn't be elected to the restored Republic Presidential position either.

Another reason he wouldn't be qualified for the "true" position is that per NESARA LAW, which we've been inside since 2007/2008 per Quan Yin, No corrupt candidates will be allowed to run for the restored Republic President. If you do your research, which I did when Trump announced his candidacy in June 2015, he is very definitely corrupt, therefore, ineligible. Of course, it goes without saying that Hillary is/was very definitely corrupt too.

Burner CEO, Donald Trump, is away from the White House on "so-called" vacation, for 17 days which was specifically stated in the news. He left the White House on Friday, 6-5-17, for his destination so he will, in the eyes of the general sleepwalking public, be returning to a "newly" renovated White House on Monday, 8-21-17, which is when all global financial reforms are to complete worldwide. It is interesting that his "vacation" is the exact number of days to get us to 8-21-17.

We know he will not actually be returning to the White House so he must be impeached or "resign" by 8-21-17. Remember, when he moved to the White House he took very little with him in terms of personal effects because he knew he was just part of the "big show" and wouldn't be there long. I don't think he believed he'd even "fake win" the fake election so I think it was a bit of a shock.

For those of you who still believe burner CEO, Donald Trump really is the President, I could cite many reasons that is not the case but a simple one that stands out and has stood out to me since it was announced is that Melania Trump and their son, Barron, would not be moving in to the White House. That was very telling. I already knew by the fall of 2016 that the election was a big show but this info just added to the puzzle pieces of confirmation. I believe that Sierra also pointed this out in a post several days ago. Well done Sierra! I was beginning to think I was the only one who questioned that glaring bit of info! Yes, I'm aware that it was claimed in the fake mainstream media that they were just waiting for Barron's school year to end before moving to D.C., yet, they still haven't and in about 2 weeks the new school year begins!

What little Donald Trump did take to the White House with him when he won the "big show" fake election has already been removed and our true "interim" Republic President, Paul Ryan, was moved in to the White House on Friday, 8-4-17 while the "big show" of "alleged" repairs and renovations are being completed.

We know that Special Prosecutor, Robert Mueller, "allegedly" impaneled the grand jury in Washington D.C., Friday, 8-4-17 which is part of the "big show". He will "allegedly" subpoena burner CEO Trump which should, in turn, cause Trump to fire Mueller, setting off his resignation big show. I'm surprised this hasn't already happened.

We know that burner Vice CEO of the long defunct USA, Inc., Mike Pence, will be resigning publicly, maybe quietly, likely before Trump resigns publicly to avoid impeachment. Again, this is all scripted and we know they've both already resigned although I don't know how they could "resign" from a long defunct USA, Inc. (dead corporation). I guess it's just a technicality in the big show and is part of their "amnesty agreements". Anyone who still believes Trump, Pence and their fake Administration are the real deal should ask why the need for all of those amnesty agreements. Maybe they are all corrupt cabal and cabal puppets! I believe that to be the case.

Okay, let's not forget that on Saturday, 8-5-17, USA, Inc's. burner Vice CEO, Mike Pence's emails were submitted to an Indiana investigator about his involvement in "shady dealings" just like Nixon's V.P. Spiro Agnew, who quietly resigned before Nixon was forced to resign so this should push Pence's resignation in to the lime light. Another piece of the "big show" puzzle.

Having observed Donald Trump's showy massive ego for many years, if he has any say in his "big show finale", he will want to make a grand stand to make himself look like he's benevolently resigning for the good of the country so could it be that he will resign today, Wednesday, 8-9-17? Maybe...because President Richard Nixon resigned on 8-9-1974! This is just something to consider! We shall see.

8-21-17 would be a very meaningful date for the announcement of our true restored Republic, our "interim" President, Paul Ryan, "interim" VP, Ben Sasse, and General Joseph Dunford. The announcement should include NESARA (although it's been my understanding for a long time that it won't be publicly announced by name so don't expect it, just be pleasantly surprised if it is announced by name) and the Gold Standard (which "we" know is already in force but has yet to be publicly announced, at least to the extent that the general public in this country will really know and understand it's in force).

Here is another important puzzle piece. According to NESARA, the President must be out of the country for the RV to "go", and Yosef did say several days ago that Paul Ryan and his family are at an undisclosed military base over seas as we speak. This means to me that he won't return to this country until we receive the 800#'s/"go". One would think he'd have to be in the country when the big announcement is made on 8-21-17 if that is, in fact, the plan. It makes perfect sense to me.

The date of 8-21-17 is also when there will be a rare total solar eclipse that hasn't happened since the cabal's USA, Inc., was founded on 8-21-1871, and more importantly, it is said to be Christ's true date of birth which could be why the cabal founded the evil USA, Inc., on that date to overshadow the good with their evil.

What better date for the Asian Elders and the NPTB to choose than the date of Christ's birth to bring in the Christ Consciousness energy to replace the dark energy cabal creation of USA, Inc., not that the reset is all about this country, not at all. It is about the world. I just feel that so much evil has been perpetrated on this world by USA, Inc./the cabal, so at the very least, it would be very symbolic to make the announcement that good has won out over evil on that specific date. We already know that the public announcement of the restored Republic will kill USA, Inc., once and for all so it must be done A.S.A.P.!!!

All of this, one would think, would be the flash bang big show needed to cover the "go" for the 800# release. Remember, Monday, 8-21-17, is less than 2 weeks from now so the series of events should roll out during this time frame and hopefully, the 800 numbers will be released sooner rather than later within the time frame, barring any unforeseen circumstances. Of course, the NPTB know best since they know what all the circumstances surrounding the big show are and we do not.

Note: While I was typing this post, we received an emergency system alert 'test' on TV in the PDT. We've been receiving them regularly for the past 2 months and I think it's in preparation for the possible necessity to enact Marshal Law when Trump is impeached or resigns since so many people either really love him or really hate him.

Peace, Love, Blessings & Light!

Spiritual Angel
          A caccia della materia oscura con la nuova e più precisa mappa        
SCOPERTE – Oltre 26 milioni di galassie osservate da più di 400 ricercatori della collaborazione internazionale Dark Energy Survey, DES, ha permesso la realizzazione della più precisa mappa della distribuzione di materia oscura nell’universo. Un risultato eccezionale, basato su appena un anno di presa dati dei 5 previsti e che ha già mostrato una compatibilità con un margine di errore di appena il 7% con la precedente mappa realizzata dai dati del satellite Planck dell’European Space Agency, ESA. Per la prima volta infatti gli scienziati sono stati in grado di osservare con estrema precisione l’immagine dell’universo attuale e con la stessa chiarezza con cui Planck ha permesso di osservare la sua infanzia, quando il cosmo aveva appena 380mila anni dopo il Big Bang. Avere a disposizione queste due istantanee dell’universo e poter combinare i dati ha inoltre permesso di individuare il filo, passo dopo passo, della sua evoluzione e la determinazione con una precisione senza precedenti delle costanti cosmologiche che guidano l’espansione dell’universo. Materia oscura, energia oscura: perché una mappa? Della materia oscura e dell’energia oscura ad oggi sappiamo ancora poco. Non conosciamo la loro forma, non sappiamo che tipo di forza esercitino, ma sappiamo che costituiscono rispettivamente il 26% [...]
          Two big physics problems        
Why are the Higgs field and dark energy so weak? Find the answer and you could earn yourself a Nobel Prize, says Dr Karl.
          Why Is The Earth's Crust Mostly Silicon?        
A couple posts ago, I mused that it was a pretty goddamn convenient coincidence that most of the crust of the planet we live on was made of the one element that's absolutely essential to all modern technology.  Being a generally lazy person, I was ready to just shrug and say "eh god did it" until I remembered that I'm, at best, an agnostic and not supposed to be doing that.  So I went with my backup plan-- shrugging and saying "eh, astronomy/geology did it."  It wasn't really germane to the earlier post's topic anyway, but the whole point of this blog is to actually try to find out the answers to all the things in life I usually just shrug and accept.  Plus thinking about it got me curious about two things I know next to nothing about: how heavy elements are formed and how the earth was formed.

The answer to this one goes all the way back to the beginning of the universe, when all the matter in existence (your desk, my computer, Andy Reid, etc) was created in the first couple of hundred thousand years after the Big Bang.  Problematically, that matter at the time consisted almost entirely of hydrogen and helium, since a rapidly cooling quark-gluon-lepton plasma (the mess left by the Big Bang) is going to relax into the least energetic state possible. In this case, that means lots of individual or double protons that were eventually able to capture an equivalent number of electrons as the universe continued to cool.

Hydrogen is great for making water and explosions and everyone loves balloons, but as you've probably noticed almost everything solid in the universe is made up of heavier elements like carbon, silicon, and iron.  So how did we go from "shit-tons of hydrogen, helium, and not much else" to the clusterfuck of 100+ elements that makes up the periodic table?

Short answer: explosions, and lots of 'em.  All those clouds of hydrogen and helium in the early universe would eventually (~1 billion years) coalesce into discrete masses, aided by gravity.  Eventually these masses got dense enough that the hydrogen and helium at the cores was under enough pressure to undergo fusion.  The result was lots and lots of gigantic primordial stars. 
 
These primordial stars, being much purer hydrogen-helium blobs than most of our current crop, were able to burn a lot hotter and, as a result, could get quite a bit bigger.  More mass means more core pressure means way more fusion than we see in most "modern" stable stars, which mostly just make helium; large numbers of protons could be fused into heavy elements. Every element from carbon through iron is/was formed via extreme stellar fusion this way.

Conveniently, the stellar mass that's necessary for this kind of higher-order fusion to occur also tends to make a giant star (superstar?) extremely unstable, so after creating heavier elements in its core for awhile it generally goes boom in a supernova/hypernova event, spreading those elements out through the universe.  As a result, the universe's supply of heavy elements consists overwhelmingly of the stuff between carbon and iron on the periodic table.  The elements heavier than iron, created from less-common non-fusion processes in large stars (physical limits on stellar mass mean iron is about the heaviest thing you can make with pure stellar fusion), are quite a bit rarer and get even more so as their atomic number goes up.

Relative abundance of the elements in our solar system (and, by extension, the galaxy/universe).  The weird sawtooth pattern is due to the fact that elements with even atomic numbers have a higher binding energy than odd-numbered ones.  Note that the y-axis is log scale, so differences are bigger than they look.  (thx Wikipedia)

So a lot of the early history of the universe was just giant stars forming and exploding, making lots of heavy elements in the process (it's worth mentioning that this is still going on, although less frequently).  At the same time this supernova-fest was happening, more reasonably-sized stars that didn't explode all the damn time were also getting formed and coalesced into clusters, galaxies, etc, eventually giving us approximately the universe we know and love today.  Once there were stable stars, the whole process of gravitational capture of heavy elements and planetary accretion started creating solar systems, including ours. 

So at the end of the day (or couple billion years or whatever), the top ten most common heavy elements in the galaxy (in order of abundance) are oxygen, carbon, neon, iron, nitrogen, silicon, magnesium, sulfur, argon, and calcium.  It's a pretty safe bet that most of these are going to have a lot to do with Earth's composition.  We can rule neon and argon out almost immediately though; they're noble gasess and aren't going to form anything solid without lots of coercion.  Of the others, oxygen has a tremendous advantage: it can form stable, solid compounds with everything else on the list except the carbon and nitrogen, and lots of other elements too.  More importantly, it's the only top-ten element that's capable of doing this.  So it's pretty much a given that the crust is going to be made up of mostly "rock-like" (solid at planetary temperatures) oxides of abundant elements.  Oxygen, ergo, is pretty much a lock for most common crustal element, and indeed wins by more than a factor of two over the first runner-up.

So now that we're battling for second place, the question now becomes "which oxides?"  You can roughly work this out by looking at all the rock-like oxides, rating them by the galactic abundance (or lack thereof) of the other element involved, and then accounting for each oxide's molecular weight.  The weight matters because Earth was basically a liquid during its formation; heavier elements/compounds had a tendency to sink down toward the core, while the lighter ones floated around in what would become the crust.  So while you'd expect iron oxide to be the most common compound in the crust, its relatively high molecular weight causes it to place a distant fifth, after the silicon, aluminum, calcium, and magnesium oxides.  Same deal with magnesium, to a lesser extent; the less common, but much lighter aluminum and calcium oxides end up beating it out even though aluminum isn't even in the top ten of galactic abundance.

Relative abundance of elements in the Earth's crust.  Note that the green blob (elements that form rocky oxides) is kicking everything else's ass. (thx Wikipedia)
Silicon, though, is the best of all worlds: not only is it the second most common rock-like-oxide forming element in the galaxy (after iron), but the oxide it forms is also pretty light as these things go. Result: lots of silicon oxide in the overall composition of the earth, and nearly all of it floating at the top in what would eventually cool down and become the crust.  The only other oxide that even comes close is aluminum, and even it still lags more than a factor of three behind silicon oxide in crustal abundance.

So as usual, there's a perfectly reasonable, if somewhat long and complicated, explanation for why the most common element in the crust of our home planet is also one of the most useful.  Yes, it's a complete coincidence that silicon happens to also be a semiconductor as far as I can tell, but at least now we know why there's so much of it around.  Still, if silicon didn't semiconduct we'd be pretty SOL; the next most common Si-like elemental semiconductor is germanium, which is about six orders of magnitude less abundant than silicon.  (Slight caveat for the pedantic: carbon, in diamond form, will semiconduct, but not in ways that are very conducive to the low-power digital electronics we like so much.  Still, we might've made it work if we had to, we're clever like that.) 

An interesting, largely unrelated fact I learned while looking all this up is that the galaxy (and by extension probably the universe) is, even now, still more than 99% composed of hydrogen and helium.  All the rest of the other elements put together barely comprise enough matter to even rate as a contaminant.  Even weirder, that contaminated field of hydrogen-helium only comprises about 5% of the universe; the rest is apparently dark matter and dark energy.  And that's where I'll stop, because I really don't want to have to go there.  

Thanks to Wikipedia for most of the basics of this one, and the blog's astrophysicist pal for some fact-checking of the parts with stars in them.

          What Is the Mass of the Universe?        
I don't feel bad about knowing this one because in some sense astronomy is basically the opposite of nanotechnology (my numbers are really small, their numbers are really big, right?).  Still, like any good nerd I read most of the pop-science books and articles I run across about space and the various weird things floating around in it.  Most of those articles concern dark matter and dark energy, the parts of the universe that we know have to be there but can't figure out a way to directly observe.  The question of dark matter and dark energy appears, to this vaguely informed outsider, to be a huge clusterfuck of an issue and not something anybody has a good answer for at this point (this has been confirmed by at least one actual astronomer person that I know, right down to the word "clusterfuck"), so I'm not even going to step in that one.

My question is related, but much simpler: we know "dark matter" exists because the mass of the "visible" universe is much lower than you'd expect it to be from gravity observations.  Ergo, there must be more matter out there than we can directly detect (secret science hint: aforementioned astronomer friend says it's probably just lots of neutrinos, and not "invisible space monsters" as I'd originally guessed).  Implicit in that explanation is something pretty staggering: astronomers have apparently figured out how to estimate the mass of the entire goddamn observable universe to a reasonable level of precision (at least a couple of orders of magnitude).  How the hell did they manage that?

This seemed kind of impractical (image of universe from Wikipedia, image of scale from random google image search)

The answer is kind of an anticlimax, unfortunately; there were no ridiculous calculations or impossibly precise measurements of gravity involved, just some basic observations and lots of extrapolation.

The key is that space, as far as we can tell, is pretty much the same all across the universe: stars of the same type have roughly the same densities, galaxies have roughly the same stellar densities, chunks of space have roughly the same galactic densities, etc etc etc.  There are centuries of astronomical data to back this one up, and the fact that even I know it should say something about its complete lack of controversy. 

So armed with that convenient fact, you can vastly simplify the question: if you can calculate the area of one more or less representative chunk of space, you should be able to extrapolate that number out ad infinitum.  That's still a lot of universe to deal with, but you can keep drilling down until you hit numbers that can actually be measured.

One of the most current (according to Wikipedia, which may not be the leading authority on this matter) estimates of the mass of the universe uses the Hubble volume (a sphere as big as the whole observable universe; what's important here is that it has a volume of about 4 x 10^30 cubic light years) as its representative chunk of space.  It combines this with observations (by the Hubble telescope, natch) of stellar and galactic volume and density to estimate the number of galaxies, and by extension the number of stars, in the gigantic bubble, mostly by assuming that the parts we've been able to observe are the same as all the other parts density-wise.  For what it's worth, there are about 5 x 10^21 stars in there.

So we're almost there, we just need to decide what to use as the mass of a star.  This is where it gets a little heliocentric and sketchy; the mass of the sun (2 x 10^30 kg) gets used as the mean stellar mass, ostensibly because it's about average-sized (there are lots of bigger stars, but also lots of much smaller ones) but also because we know its mass to a conveniently high degree of precision, what with it being right next door and all.  Still, people who know a lot more than me about this stuff seem to think it's a reasonable assumption.

So the mass calculation becomes a simple equation: mass = number of stars * mean stellar mass.  Even I can do that one.  Apparently the mass of the observable universe is approximately 3 x 10^52 kg, which is a lot of kg. There's another estimation that's even simpler, based on the fact that the universe appears to be at near-critical density, but it gives you essentially the same number. 

Interestingly, if you go back and use that number to calculate the density of observable space, you get 1.766 x 10^-26 kg/m^3 as the mean density of the universe.  To put that in nano-perspective, that's slightly under one atom per cubic meter.  The universe is pretty empty when you think about it.
          Odkryto nową planetę karłowatą w Układzie Słonecznym        

W naszym Układzie Słonecznym odkryto nową planetę karłowatą. Ciało niebieskie o nazwie 2014 UZ224 znajduje się daleko poza orbitą Plutona i posiada stosunkowo niewielkie rozmiary.

 

Średnica nowej planety karłowatej wynosi około 530 kilometrów. Obiekt znajduje się 13,7 miliarda kilometra od naszej gwiazdy. Dla porównania, średnica Plutona to 2300 kilometrów a jego maksymalna odległość od Słońca wynosi około 4,5 miliarda kilometra. Jeden rok na planecie karłowatej 2014 UZ224 trwa aż 1100 ziemskich lat.

 

Odkrycia dokonano dzięki instrumentowi o nazwie Dark Energy Camera (DECam). Jest on wykorzystywany do obserwacji ruchu galaktyk i supernowych. Przy jego pomocy, astronomowie próbują wyjaśnić czym właściwie jest ciemna energia i skąd ona pochodzi.

 

Z kolei projekt Dark Energy Survey (DES), posługując się danymi z DECam, tworzy mapy Wszechświata. Raz w tygodniu wykonuje również zdjęcia niewielkich fragmentów nieba. Kilka lat temu, profesor astronomii na Uniwersytecie Michigan, David Gerdes, poprosił studentów aby spojrzeli na zdjęcia i poszukali niezidentyfikowanych obiektów w Układzie Słonecznym. Specjalny program komputerowy pozwolił namierzyć poruszający się obiekt. W ten właśnie sposób odkryto ciało niebieskie 2014 UZ224. Dokładna ścieżka orbitalna nie jest obecnie znana, lecz potwierdzenie istnienia tego obiektu zajęło dwa lata.

 


          StarShipSofa No 322 Robert Scherrer        

Coming up…

Fact: Looking Back at Genre History by Amy H. Sturgis 02:10

“Descartes’ Stepchildren” by Robert Scherrer 16:20

Robert Scherrer is Professor and Chair of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Vanderbilt University.  His research area is cosmology, encompassing work on dark energy, dark matter, big bang nucleosynthesis, and the large-scale structure of the universe.  He is also the author of a quantum mechanics textbook and has published several popular science articles and science fiction short stories.

THE SOFANAUTS IS PROUD TO PRESENT A LECTURE FROM HARRY TURTLEDOVE

A big thank you to McPherson College for allowing The Sofanauts to play this...

          65. The shape of space 1of2 Dark energy or geometry? - 1 April 2010        
A plausible alternative to the elephant in the room of cosmology.

          Ep 171: Science... sort of - Beatrice Walks The Plank        

00:00:00 - Katie McKissick, creator of the Beatrice the Biology and contributor to Symbiartic, joins Ben and Ryan to talk about the highs and lows of making comics about biology. (NOTE TO PARENTS: The language does get a bit salty, it is biology after all.) Katie has also recently put out a book of her comics, Amoeba Hugs and Other Nonsense, which you would be an utter fool not to buy.

00:38:39 - Drinks go into your biology and that can be a good thing. Katie has a Gams-bart Roggenbier from Los Angeles Ale Works, aka her husband's brewery! Ben enjoys some sticky sweet soursop juice. And Ryan makes a Corpse Reviver #2 in honor of a certain holiday.

00:49:24 - We talk about zombies often, so how could we avoid covering the trailer for the upcoming fire monkey zombie movie World War Z. And don't forget, we talked to the author of the book, Max Brooks, back in episode 66.

01:13:14 - Some clever chaps at the Max Plank Institute have released their findings readjusting the ratios of dark energy, dark matter, and regular matter. Ben takes a long time to explain this and Ryan forgot to turn on the timer duck. Sorry Christina! (And really everyone else too.)

01:41:52 - PaleoPOWs are a lot like constants in phyisics, they change all the time. Ryan has a generous donation from Bryan E. Thanks, Bryan! And Trevor R. wants to know what's up with this "archive" thing. Turns out it's spelled arXiv and you can go there to learn stuff.

 

Thanks for listening and be sure to check out the Brachiolope Media Network for more great science podcasts!

 

Music for this week's show provided by:

The Plank - The Devil Makes Three

Payday at the Pub - Slim Dusy

Search and Destroy - The Stooges

I Am A Man Of Constant Sorrow - The Soggy Bottom Boys


          Geektown Radio : Episode 49 – Interview with Writer/Director Christopher Butler Plus UK TV News, Premiere Updates & Air Date Info!        

Geektown Radio returns this week, not only with lots of news about recent tv happenings, but also an interview with Christopher Butler, writer and director of the award winning movie The Scopia Effect which comes out on DVD on February 15th 2016.

Reincarnation goes horribly wrong causing glitches to echo through reality. Through hypnosis, Basia (Joanna Ignaczewska) opens up parts of her mind that should never be accessed, releasing a dark energy. The lines between her past lives start to blur, upsetting the balance of her very existence. Her reality becomes increasingly unstable as she battles to hang onto what is real.

This week's co-host is Matt, so expect some XBone chat to go along with the latest tv and film news!
In this weeks show:

We take a look at the tv & films we’ve watched recently and talk gaming with Matt.
All the latest tv and film news including changes at Doctor Who, the new 24 and what Stephen Fry did next!
The interview with The Scopia...

          Bram Stoker Preliminary Ballot Announcement         


Leap Books is thrilled BEWARE THE LITTLE WHITE RABBIT, our Alice-in-Wonderland inspired young adult fiction anthology has made it to the preliminary ballot stage of the Horror Writers Association's (HWA) Bram Stoker Awards in the Superior Achievement in an Anthology category.

At this stage, we're not an official nominee for the award, but we're among the titles being considered as finalists. Those who do make the cut and proceed to the nominee stage will be announced by the HWA on February 23rd. And the actual winners of the awards will be announced at the first annual STOKER CON in Los Vegas on May 14th.

Below is a full list of all the award categories and titles under consideration and here is a link to the announcement. Congrats and good luck to all!


Superior Achievement in a Novel
The Scarlet Gospels, Clive Barker (St. Martin’s)
The Catacombs, Jeremy Bates (Ghillinnein)
The Fold, Peter Clines (Crown)
The Deep, Michaelbrent Collings (self-published)
The Cure, JG Faherty (Samhain)
Monster, Keith Ferrario (Samhain)
Black Tide, Patrick Freivald (JournalStone)
Skullcrack City, Jeremy Robert Johnson (Lazy Fascist)
Werewolf Cop, Andrew Klavan (Pegasus)
The Private Sector, Leigh M. Lane (Eldritch)
He Who Walks in Shadow, Brett J. Talley (JournalStone)
A Head Full of Ghosts, Paul Tremblay (Morrow)


Superior Achievement in a First Novel
Shutter, Courtney Alameda (Feiwel & Friends)
Mr. Suicide, Nicole Cushing (Word Horde)
Heaven, Hell, or Houston: A Zombie Thriller, Thom Erb (Severed)
The Amazing Mr. Howard, Kenneth W. Harmon  (JournalStone)
The Library at Mount Char, Scott Hawkins (Crown)
Consumption, Heather Herrman (Hydra)
We Are Monsters, Brian Kirk (Samhain)
Hannahwhere, John McIlveen (Crossroad)
The Keeper of the Crows, Kyle Alexander Romines (Sunbury)
Riding the Centipede, Jean Claude Smith (Omnium Gatherum)

 Superior Achievement in a Young Adult Novel
Never Let Me Sleep, Jennifer Brozek (Permuted)
The Suffering, Rin Chupeco (Sourcebooks Fire)
The Ridealong, Michaelbrent Collings (self-published)
Devil’s Pocket, John Dixon (Simon & Schuster)
Department 19: Darkest Night, Will Hill (HarperCollins Children’s)
Hallowed, Tonya Hurley (Simon & Schuster)
The Shadow Cabinet, Maureen Johnson (Penguin)
The Silent End, Samuel Sattin (Ragnarok)
Bleed, Dax Varley (Garden Gate)
End Times at Ridgemont High, Ian Welke (Omnium Gatherum)

Superior Achievement in Long Fiction
“Paper Cuts”, Gary A. Braunbeck (Seize the Night)
Cracked Sky, Ben Eads (Omnium Gatherum)
“Becoming Invisible, Becoming Seen”, Scott Edelman (Dark Discoveries 1/15)
The Torment of Rachel Ames, Jeff Gunhus (Seven Guns)
The Box Jumper, Lisa Mannetti  (Smart Rhino)
“Resistance”, Seanan McGuire (The End Has Come)
At the Lazy K, Gene O’Neill (Written Backwards)
“Dia de los Muertos”, Jason Parent  (Bad Apples 2)
“Special Collections”, Norman Partridge (The Library of the Dead)
“Little Dead Red”, Mercedes M. Yardley (Grimm Mistresses)

Superior Achievement in Short Fiction
“Snow”, Dale Bailey (Nightmare 6/15)
“A Trader on the Border of the Mutant Rain Forest”, Bruce Boston (Daily Science Fiction 8/21/15)
“An American Ghost in Zurich”, Daniel Braum (Savage Beasts)
“Choking Hazard”, Michael Paul Gonzalez (Winter Horror Days)
“All the Day You’ll Have Good Luck”, Kate Jonez (Black Static 7-8/15)
“The Massacre of the Mermaids”, Alessandro Manzetti (The Massacre of the Mermaids)
The Algernon Effect, Gene O’Neill (White Noise)
“Happy Joe’s Rest Stop”, John Palisano (18 Wheels of Horror)
“The Cork Won’t Stay”, Nate Southard (Nightmare 7/15)
“Sing Me Your Scars”, Damien Angelica Walters (Sing Me Your Scars)
“Hungry Daughters of Starving Mothers”, Alyssa Wong  (Nightmare 10/15)
 
Superior Achievement in an Anthology
The Library of the Dead, Michael Bailey, ed. (Written Backwards)
The Doll Collection: Seventeen Brand-New Tales of Dolls, Ellen Datlow, ed. (Tor)
Beware the Little White Rabbit, Shannon Delany & Judith Graves, eds. (Leap)
Seize the Night,  Christopher Golden, ed. (Gallery )
Horrorology, Stephen Jones, ed. (Quercus)
nEvermore!, Nancy Kilpatrick & Caro Soles, ed. (Edge Science Fiction and Fantasy)
X-Files: Trust No One, Jonathan Maberry, ed. (IDW)
18 Wheels of Horror, Eric Miller, ed. (Big Time)
Shadows Over Main Street, Doug Murano & D. Alexander Ward, eds. (Hazardous)
Midian Unmade, Joseph Nassise & Del Howison, eds. (Tor)
Shrieks and Shivers from the Horror Zine, Jeani Rector, ed. (Post Mortem)
Exigencies, Richard Thomas, ed. (Dark House)

Superior Achievement in a Fiction Collection
Halfway Down the Stairs, Gary Braunbeck (JournalStone)
Apocalypse Girl Dreaming, Jennifer Brozek (Evil Girlfriend Media)
The Abandonment of Grace and Everything After, Shane Jiraiya Cummings (Brimstone)
The Mirrors, Nicole Cushing (Cycatrix)
Sacrificing Virgins, John Everson (Samhain)
The Dark at the End of the Tunnel, Taylor Grant (Crystal Lake)
New Avalon: Love and Loss in the City of Steam, Neal F. Litherland (James Ward Kirk)
The Hitchhiking Effect, Gene O’Neill (Dark Renaissance)
While the Black Stars Burn, Lucy A. Snyder (Raw Dog Screaming)
Dominoes in Time, Matthew Warner (Cemetery Dance)

Superior Achievement in Non-Fiction
The Unique Legacy of Weird Tales: The Evolution of Modern Fantasy and Horror, Justin Everett & Jeffrey H. Shanks, eds. (Rowman & Littlefield)
Monsters and Monstrosity from the Fin de Siècle to the Millennium, Sharla Hutchinson & Rebecca A. Brown, eds. (McFarland)
The Art of Horror, Stephen Jones (Applause Theatre & Cinema)
Author’s Guide to Marketing with Teeth, Michael Knost (Seventh Star)
Horror 201: The Silver Scream, Joe Mynhardt & Emma Audsley, eds. (Crystal Lake)
Studies in the Horror Film: Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining, Danel Olson (Centipede)
Haunted by the Abyss: The Otherworldly Experiences of Paranormal, Sarah Soderlund  (Llewellyn)
Haunted Plantations of the South, Richard Southall (Llewellyn)

Superior Achievement in a Poetry Collection
Resonance Dark and Light, Bruce Boston (Eldritch)
The Madness in our Marrow, Amanda Crum (Amanda Crum)
The Robot Scientist’s Daughter, Jeannine Hall Gailey (Mayapple)
Dark Parchments, Michael H. Hanson (MoonDream)
Eden Underground, Alessandro Manzetti (Crystal Lake )
Dark Energy, Robert Morgan (Penguin Books)
The Crimson Tome, K.A. Opperman (Hippocampus
Poetic Allegories, Michael Randolph (Eldritch)
Naughty Ladies, Marge Simon (Eldritch)
An Exorcism of Angels, Stephanie M. Wytovich (Raw Dog Screaming)

Superior Achievement in a Graphic Novel
Harrow County, Vol. 1: Countless Haints, Cullen Bunn (Dark Horse)
Hellbound, Victor Gischler (Dark Horse)
Behemoth, Chris Kipiniak (Monkeybrain)
Outcast, Vol. 1: A Darkness Surrounds Him, Robert Kirkman (Image)
The Children’s Vampire Hunting Brigade, Vol. 2: Age of the Wicked, David Lucarelli (Creator’s Edge)
Wytches, Vol. 1, Scott Snyder (Image)
Colder, Vol. 2: The Bad Seed, Paul Tobin (Dark Horse)
Shadow Show: Stories in Celebration of Ray Bradbury, Sam Weller & Mort Castle, eds. (IDW)

Superior Achievement in a Screenplay
Spring
Crimson Peak
Goodnight, Mommy
Hannibal: “The Wrath of the Lamb”
The Walking Dead: “Here’s Not Here”
Penny Dreadful: “And Hell Itself My Only Foe”
Penny Dreadful: “Nightcomers”
It Follows
What We Do in the Shadows
Bone Tomahawk

          Crazy ideas you have in the bath        
You know how it is … you go for a run and then lying in the bath you read a New Scientist article about Dark Energy and you think of two crazy ideas which you hope some respectable scientist will at least have stuck a paper on arXiv on, so you can at least say … Continue reading Crazy ideas you have in the bath
          Water         
So... a few Sundays ago, my pastor preached on offense (or being offended). One of the things he said was that offense should roll off of our backs like water (I may not be getting this verbatim, but that was the point). I can't remember if this was part of a scripture or not. In any event, picture water rolling off your back... this is how unbothered you should be by the offenses of life.

Sometimes, when things are said in church, I metaphorically kind of roll my eyes... (I'm just being honest) or just tune it out a bit. Sometimes, I feel like the church community can be so general about things. I am not trying to justify having a wrong attitude or spirit. I am just saying that life can feel so complex at times... and writing down point number 4 in the sermon may not always feel like enough to suffice for where I am at in life.

In pondering on this a bit deeper, I realize that maybe my pastor was right. Offense is something that happens to us all. Some are minor. Some are major. Some are just plain out catastrophic. Nevertheless, what I've come to realize is that offense not only offends... it also robs. When something offends you, it ruffles you in some manner. No one (I don't care who you are) is completely numb to offense. We ALL have emotions, even if we deal with them differently. I feel like even people who act unbothered are being robbed of openness and vulnerability. Offense can rob you of your time. If you can't get it off of your mind or are venting it out... that's time. It can rob you of your peace. It can rob you of your character if it causes you to react in a way that can be unfavorable. It can rob you of your energy on different levels. It can rob you of your happiness. Offense not only slaps you, and pushes you on the ground. It also runs off with a piece of your internal wealth.

It is so easy to stay in a place of indifference and irritation when it comes to being offended. I definitely think you need to evaluate the type of offenses that come into your life... as well as the source. I think that it is wise to cultivate a behavior that really does cause offenses to roll off your back because, at times, there is no escaping them. If I could, I'd run off to an island and let real water run off of me. However, that is not real life. I have learned that many times in life taking the high road may feel like you "lost the fight"... or are a punk. I just think that it important to decide what you want for yourself. I've reached an age where I don't have time for too many things that zap me of my positive energy. Sometimes, you can cut off situations. Other times, it's not so easy. Either way, you have to fight the dark energy with the light that's in you.

The Bible says that we wrestle not against flesh and blood... (Ephesians 6:12). If we are wrestling against principalities and powers, then we have to know that we must use the light in us to overcome the darkness trying to attack our energy. Sometimes, that means biting your tongue. Sometimes, that means not responding to everything. Sometimes, that means walking away. Sometimes, that means really thinking about the offense. Is it really a personal attack... or is this a normal occurrence across the board? Sometimes, it's not giving the offense the energy of even mentioning it for venting purposes. Sometimes, it does mean cutting off toxic situations. For me, I feel like it always means prayer for direction.

These days, I am trying to look out more for my higher self. It's not so much about proving points... or maintaining a certain image to others. It's just about what brings me peace across the board. High energy feels so AMAZING! That is where I want to dwell for the majority of my time. I don't like feeling low. I don't like being out of my character or element. I don't like dark energy coming in to rob me of my happiness and productivity. I don't like being robbed of kindness and love. I can't control all of the elements around me. However, I can try to just learn and grow from it all in the most beautiful way possible. So... that's the goal. I guess the seed my pastor planted is starting to grow. These are just some thoughts floating through my mind. We all handle things differently... and I would never try to impose my way on anyone. I'm just putting this energy out there for whoever may appreciate it... and for my own therapy (hahaha)! :)

Love,

Autumn


          A tragicomic romp through a vivid world in the sublime Sharps        
From The Week of February 24, 2014

For all but a powerful few, we are pawns in another's game, our lives subject to forces we'll never comprehend. The potent influences of politicians and CEOs, diplomats and warlords, may not seep to the surface of our daily existences, but they are there, nudging us in directions of another's choosing. Part of this shaping is indirect, the ripple effects created by the wakes of society's prime movers, but a significant component is conscious, the tangible result of men and women who believe they are in the right and who are not afraid of acting on that belief. But what if those beliefs are wrong? What if those plans are too cruel to be tolerated? When do we, as the pawns in their games, decide to take ourselves from the board and make our own choices? K. J. Parker poses these very questions in her fascinating, political adventure. The dark energy generated from their answers is enough to make this one of 2012's finest reads.

In a world of merchant banks and triumphant generals, of powerful priests and corrupted nobles, Permia and the Republic of Scheria endure an uneasy peace. The two countries have little in common. Their skills, their gods, even their politics are completely different, leaving little room for common ground. No surprise, then, that the two bickering nations have recently concluded a decades-long war that destroyed the economies of both countries and was only ended thanks to the brilliance, and the brutality, of Scheria's legendary general, Herec Carnufex, infamously known as the Irrigator. However much they may hate one another, though, they do share a love of fencing, a sport which is of fanatical importance in both lands and can perhaps serve as a bridge by which to heal old wounds.

That appears to be the idea behind a mutually agreed-upon tour in which Scheria's finest fencers will be escorted through passionate Permia and set against its greatest swordsmen, in an ostensibly symbolic display of skill and glory. But when Scheria's prime movers select a band of misfits to represent them, more than a few eyebrows are raised in influential circles. A woman? An accidental murderer? A veteran of the Permian war haunted by his service? The Irrigator's second son who seems far more interested in books than blades? This is hardly a team to be feared. So why have they been sent into an unfamiliar land, with foreign customs and unstable politics? Why do they all get the sense that they are taking part in a game none of them understand? As Permia erupts in revolt, they will have to find answers quickly or else full-on war may resume. And this time, there may not be anything left to salvage when the guns have ceased their firing.

Delightful and dour, Sharps is a sublime work of fantasy fiction from an author whose relative obscurity is entirely undeserved. Ms. Bishop does a masterful job of layering her plots with interconnected schemes that slowly, tragicomically unwind through the narrative, ensnaring her characters in webs of lies and powerplays that rarely end well. This sophistication, in both its understanding of the selfishness of human nature and of the corrosiveness of politics, provides the fertile ground from which her complex characters grow.

This is hardly the first time that misfits have been asked to, in some sense, save the world, but rarely has it been done with such class and verve. It is an easy thing to assemble a cast of clowns and watch them bumble their way towards an inevitable conclusion. It is entirely another matter to animate a company of selfish smart-asses, secretive heroes and foolish businessmen, who not only attract the reader's interest and fondness, but who also succeed in elevating themselves from their darkly humorous circumstances to be rounded, plausible individuals, endowed with the tragic desire to do right, to fulfil their own kind of justice. A misstep of any significance on Ms. Bishop's part and Sharps would have slid into the ditch of farcical absurdity, a world in which the outcome loses all mass. That she has avoided as much here is a credit to her skill.

No review of Sharps specifically, and Ms. Bishop's work generally, would be complete without commenting on the mountains of research and experience from which these tales benefit. The author has a complex understanding of banking and trade that surely flows from an inquisitive mind open to the training and the knowledge of numerous disciplines. But these economic principles are mere icing on the cake that is her familiarity with fencing without which the novel would be a pale shadow. The author speaks fluently of not just the moves but the mentality of the fencer, of the fears and moments of explosive action that characterize it. This expertise deeply enriches the work.

Sharps' only flaw is that it is not the beginning of a series, a greater whole for the eager to devour. We must content ourselves with this unmystical gem that, for all its dirty politics, shines like the sun. (5/5 Stars)


          steve hutchinson added a discussion to the group OUR CELESTIAL GUIDES & ASCENDED MASTERS        
steve hutchinson added a discussion to the group OUR CELESTIAL GUIDES & ASCENDED MASTERS
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How to Experience Harmony at a Physical Level By Natalie Glasson ... And ... Dancing through Life By Pamela Kribbe ... And ... Simply Relax into the Knowingness... that Everything is Taken Care Of !

How to Experience Harmony at a Physical Level - Lord Melchizedek Through Natalie GlassonBrilliant blessings upon the Earth, I recognise you all in this way, you are a blessing to the Earth and all upon her. Brilliant is your soul and the ascension process you are moving through. I, Lord Melchizedek, invite you to connect with and observe the brilliance within your being, the energy, light and consciousness that you are in this very moment. In doing so you will observe the magical Universe of the Creator within your being.As you observe the Universe of the Creator, meaning all that is the Creator, there is one energy and quality you will recognise as being ever-present; harmony. Harmony exists within all aspect of the Creator and between all aspects of the Creator. It is often an energy which goes unrecognised, and yet it is a powerful force that moves through all.It is important to contemplate the harmony ever-present within the Universe of the Creator and therefore your own being. Not only will it awaken harmony within your being, it will guide you as to how to exist naturally in harmony with everything in your physical reality. Harmony is a natural quality within your being and soul, and yet sometimes it may feel that the energies within you and around you are inharmonious. Many people experience disharmony daily and may not even be aware that they can experience harmony instead.There are many ways to encourage the natural vibrations of harmony within your being to awaken and ground into your entire being. There is a need for you to contemplate in your own time:What harmony means to youWhether you prefer or are attached to experiencing drama or harmony within your being and reality.To further aid your understanding I, Lord Melchizedek wish to share with you:Why disharmony manifestsHow to experience harmony at a physical levelIn my opinion, harmony is the bond that connects all aspects of the Creator as one. It is akin to invisible golden threads that connect the truth, core and essence of all beings creating a flow of the Creator’s light, love and consciousness. Harmony is always present at the core of your being and the core of relationships, or with your connection with all aspects of the Creator. Harmony is an eternal bond and alignment which can never be broken.Disharmony only manifests when you distract yourself from recognising the truth within your being. Distractions are drama, illusions, blockages, limitations and boundaries, in truth anything that encourages you to ignore the truth of the Creator.If it is more exciting to experience drama and illusions in your reality, then you will continue to manifest these experiences.There is a need to recognise that harmony is not boring or mundane, instead it energises, rejuvenates, connects you with your power and aligns you with your inner wisdom. It is the truth of your being that is required to be acknowledged.Affirm:‘It is safe for me to live in harmony with myself, the Creator, humanity and my reality.’Due to many people being accustomed to disharmony within their being and reality and their acceptance of disharmony as a way of life, there is a need to reaffirm that it is safe to live in a state of harmony.Disharmony is familiar, it means that you can hide yourself, not take responsibility for your actions, and exist without inner observation and transformation. Disharmony encourages and allows you to blame others and look outside of yourself for answers and guidance.While harmony is a natural aspect of your essence, in order to embody harmony there is a need to align with your truth, accept your power, realise that you create your reality, that you are responsible for your reality, and all you require is within you. To achieve this takes courage, not because it is challenging to be aligned with your truth and essence, instead due to you letting go of all that is illusion as well as familiar to you in your physical reality.The greatest energy within you which creates disharmony within your being, reality and relationships is fear. When we recognise that fear is only a reaction of being misaligned with our inner power and truth, we realise that it has little power.When we connect into our inner love, power and wisdom, fear dissolves as does disharmony. And yet disharmony is the result of our fear and can take on many forms, even an energy of its own developing in our reality. We can recognise that disharmony in relationships, with self and the world is caused by existing and expressing from a space of fear, projecting fear and all its other manifestation into the world.Fear within our beings means that disharmony is present within our mind, emotions and energy bodies, our inner world reflects into our outer world. This is a reason why chaos, anger, pain and suffering manifests within the world of the Earth, causing so many people to abuse others mentally, physically and emotionally. Often people fear connecting with themselves as a divine loving powerful being and connecting with others in the same way. It is much easier to close your heart to yourself and the world than to take actions from an expansive loving heart.Video: "Channeled Message How to Experience Harmony at a Physical Level by Lord Melchizedek" Through Natalie Glasson - https://youtu.be/Pa2BU1nNrXIHow to Experience Harmony at a Physical LevelAffirm:‘I live in harmony with all aspects of the Creator.’There is a need to observe what you are projecting into your reality and the world, and also when you meet or think of others. Take time in your daily reality to contemplate this. What is occurring within your being? Are you experiencing fear and disharmony, or are you acknowledging your love and power predominantly?Remember that you do not have to be in a space of love and power at all times. It is natural to experience fear. Of more importance is simply how you deal with the fear, whether you sink into it or shift your perspective to love and examine the fear from a space of love.This requires focus and determination from you. Realise if you are approaching people, situations or yourself with negativity, this is creating disharmony in your relationship with the person, situation or yourself. When there is disharmony there is also a lack of love, trust and acceptance. The flow of the Creator is limited and supressed.Allow yourself to approach every person, situation or even conversation with yourself with the perspective that you are creating the energy and therefore the outcome. With this perspective, there is no need to allow your ego to engage with manipulation, control or dominance.Instead you are deciding what energy you wish to share. This energy energises and lovingly influences your experience, creating an outcome that is aligned with and a representation of your inner truth.You are constantly giving and sharing energy, just as you are constantly creating the world around you and within you the way you wish it to be, whether that is from the loving centre of your being or the negative programming/ fear based programming of your subconscious.Now is the time to take responsibility for the energy you share by creating an intention for your energy with each new situation and experience in your reality. When something negative occurs, what energy do you normally express (mostly the expression is without words or actions) and what would you like to express? Each situation will be different. When you connect with another person be aware of what energy from within your being you express. Is it loving or fear based? What would you like to express instead?Rather than the words you say and the actions you make, although these do express your energy, I wish to encourage you to engage with your feelings, emotions and reactions within, observing and acknowledging them with love.Then when you choose the energy from the core of your being that you wish to express and project instead, take time to go deep within. Find the energy, feel it build within you, sink into its embrace and embody the energy.Then allow yourself to project and radiate the energy from your being to the situation, person or yourself.The original feeling will dissolve and be replaced by the energy you have activated and engaged.This will naturally and positively influence your actions and words, further magnifying the energy within you. Disharmony will dissolve. You will notice a new sense of harmony within yourself and between yourself and your outer world. Your inner harmony will activate and expand into all that you are, supporting many in accessing the same.You are a source of harmony,Lord MelchizedekRead more from Lord Melchizedek - https://www.omna.org/lord-melchizedek-list-of-channeled-messages/Free audio download of Natalie's message - https://spaces.hightail.com/receive/Q0aBxQDKE8/fi-b436c4e7-004e-4c62-a64d-d7acc1ea9c76/fv-0b364008-027d-44bd-8da5-0393480d21f1/136-%20How%20to%20Experience%20Harmony%20at%20a%20Physical%20Level%20-%20Lord%20Melchizedek%20-%2004-08-17-%20Natalie%20Glasson.mp3Video: "Experience The Light Of Your Divine Self" - https://youtu.be/tK9NVWlZ1kMDancing through Lifea message from Pamela KribbePamela channels Isis:Dear friends, dear lovers of life, I am Isis. I am the bird that flies freely in the sky, enjoying both the energies of Heaven and of Earth. I am inside you all, so one day you will fly free of this body and be like a bird, traveling elsewhere in the universe.Wherever you go, you have two energies inside you. One is the energy of joy, which keeps you moving forward, always finding new ways of expressing yourself, always seeking life and adventure.The energy of joy is the light inside you; it is truly what Creation is made of. When you feel the energy of joy, truly feel it and become fulfilled; know there is nothing outside it that you are looking for. The energy of joy is a purpose in itself. It is the expression of life in its freest form and therefore you cannot capture it – joy is the essence of life.But, as I said, there are two energies which you take with you. The energy of joy is one and the energy of darkness or pain is the other. Where there is darkness or pain, there is no joy, only its absence.It is the part of you that feels stuck, separated, and lonely. Nonetheless, it has a meaningful role to play within Creation.The energy of joy and the energy of pain or darkness deeply belong together. Inside the darkness is always a craving for liberation, for life. Darkness yearns to be released, and when the energy of joy embraces it with acceptance and lightness, the darkness cannot resist and will open up. Everything that is dark, both within you and within the world, longs for life, longs for liberation.I ask you to now connect with your own darkness and to not see it as an enemy. It is a part of Creation, it has meaning. As the joyful part of you seeks expression during many lifetimes throughout the universe, it crosses boundaries and discovers unknown territories.This very movement will create the energies of fear, insecurity, and ignorance, and you are then confronted with pain and suffering. Nonetheless, somewhere behind this suffering is the energy of joy. There is such a lust for life in your heart and your soul that at a deep level you are willing to engage with the suffering. Because you are so full of love, the joy enables you to explore life deeply and always go beyond boundaries and into new adventures.I now ask that you connect inside your body with the dark areas which cause you trouble, or where you feel a heavy energy, or where you connect with an emotion that is continually  bothering you and that you consider to be negative and blocking you.And now imagine that you see this particular area or emotion as an energy that is waiting to be released. You can look at it in this way: this dark energy inside you is a pioneer of consciousness; it is the part of you that is moving beyond what you consider safe. It is exploring something new that you do not yet understand and therefore gives you confusion and perhaps sadness or struggle. But it is because you are such an adventurous spirit that you are willing to accept the darkness and to deal with it.So I ask that you see the darkest part of yourself – the part that is struggling – as your most revolutionary part that is uncovering new experiential territory. I invite you to visualize this part – this difficult emotion or that physical problem – as a warrior. Visualize this part as a warrior in whatever way you like. See it as a male presence, and look at the fire in his eyes. He is wounded, but at the same time he is a deeply creative part of you.Now imagine or visualize the joyful part of you and see it in the shape of a female figure, a woman. She is dancing, singing, feeling free and light, but she wants to join the warrior. She has a deep yearning to be with him and to embrace him, because she knows that he is the adventurer and will open up new territories to explore. And she will follow him and embrace him with her healing powers and her spirit of joy and laughter. So imagine the two of them coming together: the hurt and wounded part of you and the joyful and free part. Imagine them embracing; you can feel that they deeply love each other.The words "light" and "dark" have become associated with good and bad, with judgment, but these energies are much more playful and far-reaching than such a narrow framework would allow.Both these energies are full of life and together form the essence of Creation. So imagine these energies merging and feel this in your heart and in your abdomen.The heart is the seat of love and joy, while the abdomen is the seat of passion and emotion, and, therefore, also of emotional pain. The heart desires to descend and to embrace the energy in the abdomen and this is what true healing means: that you embrace the dark emotions and desires within yourself and recognize them as your partners in Creation, and not as an energy you need to get rid of, but as an essential part of you.Darkness plays a vital role in your lives, and exploring that role is why you are here, why you have incarnated in this flesh. When the emotions – the so-called lower nature of yourself as a human – become inspired by the energy of the heart, the energy of joy and fearlessness, then true creativity arises. By that I mean you will experience a kind of creativity within you that is grounded and real and that you can truly express in your everyday life.Some people have a lot of loving energy in their hearts and so they are able to connect with the energy of joy at those times when they feel inspired. But because the emotions of the lower region of their abdomen feel stuck or blocked, and because they do not know how to deal with these emotions, these people are unable to fully release and express their joy and inspiration in practical ways. They start to feel disconnected from this world, from Earth, and from human society.The key to overcoming this lack of connection is to really address the parts of yourself that are in need of emotional healing. Inspiration alone is not enough; you need to recognize the darkness within yourself as your partner and not as a block that needs to be eliminated. It is by embracing and working with your own darkness that spiritual alchemy takes place: true transformation.Often when you “work on yourself” – for example, in therapy or different modes of healing – you are still struggling with your darkness, because you are very eager to find ways to get rid of it. But behind this eagerness is a disrespect for the vital role that darkness fulfills in the universe. You are not playing or dancing with these energies; instead, you are struggling with them and, in the end, this can exhaust you because it takes a lot of energy to struggle with yourself.To genuinely start the healing process, you need to release the notion of a struggle or a battle between light and dark within yourself. Really respect the dark parts; even your violent, aggressive parts are not intrinsically bad. If you address these parts with compassion and the sincere yearning to reach into their essence in order to fully understand what they are really about, they will listen to you; they will come to you as would a child.It is the energy of judgment and resistance that intensifies darkness, whereas it is the energy of acceptance and joy that always creates unification.This dynamic process is something that is unfolding, not only at the level of your personal lives, you can also witness it in the world at large in which you are living.Throughout your religious traditions, there has been an immense fear of darkness, passion, creativity, and free self-expression. Out of fear, there has developed a need to control the human spirit. And the sad thing is that, as a result, there has been not only a fear of darkness, but also a fear of joy.The energy of joy has not been welcome in human societies for a very long time.It may seem strange to say this, because everyone on Earth agrees that all human beings want to be happy, but your notions of happiness have become so restricted, so narrow, that they leave no space for the energy of joy.Joy is ever flowing, it cannot live inside rigid structures and hierarchies, or obey false authorities; joy is a truly revolutionary energy. Joy has often been expressed in the arts: in literature, poetry, and music, and most people who surrender to the flow of joy in their life will become outsiders. They will feel that they are different and do not fit in with mainstream consciousness.There are certain definitions of happiness in your society, but most of them are to some extent controlling. For instance, earning money is supposed to make you happy, having a successful career is supposed to make you happy, getting married and having a family is a goal that many people pursue, but as you all know and observe around you, all these things do not guarantee happiness.You can find happiness in all these things, but the essential part of that happiness is something inside you. Nothing outside you can make it happen. True happiness means that you feel you are embodying the spirit of joy; that you have become friends with the dark parts of yourself and are free to explore life.The theme of our gathering, here and now, is the return of Isis, and I am waiting for you to open up to my spirit and to find the fountain of joy inside your heart and, at the same time, to embrace the darkness within. And that is actually one movement, one flow. Dance with life; dance with whatever life is bringing to you. Try not to judge it, to label it as good or bad; life is far too rich and mysterious to be approached in that way. You really liberate yourself if you stop doing that.Very briefly put, there are two ways of opening up to the Isis energy, and this is what is now happening all around the world. Either you decide to open up to this energy consciously and freely or you get so caught up in crisis and suffering that you go through a really difficult time or become ill, and then you will have to open up to the spirit of life, either in this lifetime or in another one.At this moment on Earth, things are intensifying. There is a huge need for liberation, for releasing the heavy energies inside people.Energies always move, they are dynamic, and there is such an accumulation of pain and suffering in humanity that this energy has to rise to the surface and express itself. It is like something explosive: it needs expression at some point.The more conscious people become, the more this healing process of release can happen in a balanced way. The more you address darkness with deep understanding, the milder its expression will be. But this will not be possible all round the world. There will be expressions of deep pain and aggression that can be really hurtful to others.I am asking you, even in the face of very violent expressions of pain, to remain in the space of compassion. Compassion does not judge, it simply observes.You may feel sad about the lack of awareness in the world, the presence of fear and misunderstanding and the lack of communication; but I am asking of you: if you want to preserve my spirit, if you want to pass it on to others, do not judge the darkness; be still and keep the space inside your heart open.What holds you all together as living beings is your humanness. You all are made up of light and darkness, of joy and pain. And when we deeply understand this about each other, and dare to communicate freely about it with one another, then true healing will arise. It is unavoidable, because things cannot stay as they are.Please travel lightly, do not hold on to the burdens of the past. You are an explorer of the new, you are an adventurer. Work together with the warrior inside you. It is a wounded warrior, but a brave one, and he is yearning for my embrace, the embrace of joy and light and laughter. I am Isis, I am inside you.Copyright © Pamela Kribbe - Permission is granted to copy and redistribute this article on the condition that the URL www.jeshua.net is included as the resource and that it is distributed freely. E-mail: aurelia@jeshua.net Video: "Goddess Isis Love Initiation Through Natalie Glasson"https://youtu.be/AP-clZliAG4Sound Your Note By Joe Hurley You are a wonderful note.Sound your note.You are an amazing song.Sing your song. Let go of control.Accept the flow.Feel your song.Express the dance. Hear the music that is all around you.Look inside and see your magic.Tune into wisdom and know what is.Sense into unconditional love all that you can be. Pure affinity brings you together to dance with others.Divine synchronicity is the key.Open at a speed that is truly loving.Open and experience true harmony.  The universe has its own song.It allows you to sing.You have your own song.Sing !  You are a wonderful note.Sound your note !You are an amazing song.Sing your Song !           Simply Relax into the Knowingness... that Everything is Taken Care Of !It can be extremely easy and graceful to go through life, if you are in a constant state of allowance. Meaning, assuming that all energies are here serving you, that you are a Master and everything will respond to you accordingly... meaning that you no longer effort and struggle through anything, but allow everything to serve you.In a Pure State of Allowance, you no longer doubt yourself and the Ability of your Consciousness to attract absolutely anything that it needs. You simply know everything is going to work out, without having to know how. Without having to know if this is going to be in the form of a new job, someone providing you with a roof, or suddenly finding money on the ground (or anything else you need)... you don't need to confuse your mind with details because that clouds the Knowingness and Simplicity of your Consciousness.You just Know, that everything comes to you, everything is going to work out. You Assume It, and it becomes so. It doesn't have to be a complicated assumption, the Simpler it is the Better.The mind loves to complicate things. Consciousness, is Simple.It can be like, going beyond time. Experiencing, Sensing your Future Potentials and assuming these are already fulfilled, in this precious moment of realization. Suddenly, those aren't needs anymore, because everything is already there.It doesn't have to be clouded with thoughts, details, facts and figures... it is simply, a Sensation. A Sensational Experience of Realizing Yourself as the Master, as the Creator of every single experience. Realizing that therefore, you can't fail at anything, you can fall in any abyss, everything is taken care of for you, and you don't have to worry about anything.It is not a thought, or a feeling, it is a sensation that goes beyond the mind, the emotions, and the physical senses. It is an Awareness, a Knowingness, that doesn't need force or power, it just knows... it senses that everything is taken care of, and there is nothing to worry about.As you Allow Yourself to be Constantly Aware of this Sense of Knowingness, you will forever assume your beingness, in a Realm of Ease, Grace, Fulfillment, Simplicity and Mastery.Beyond the need for doubts, or worries, beyond even much need for thought.It frees up Your Consciousness, to go beyond the mind.Because doubts are just clouds covering up your consciousness, an inexistent glass-sealing that prevents your Wings from carrying you the rest of the way. This sealing isn't real, but most humans believe in it.That is why, as you constantly remain aware that the Wings of your Consciousness are carrying you the rest of the way, that everything is taken care of, that you do not need worry about anything, it will always be so.The Only Key that I would use, is Relaxation into this Knowingness. The more you relax into it, the least resistance there will be and the easier things will flow.There is no need for any complicated belief systems or linear gears of creation. No mantra needs to be whispered, no ceremony needs to be done... just Relax, into the Knowingness that Everything Is Taken Care Of.Video: "You Have The Power To Create Miracles" - https://youtu.be/lRDQIoqz9Ek See More

          Mysterious New 'Dark Flow' Discovered in Space        
As if the mysteries of dark matter and dark energy weren't vexing enough, another baffling cosmic puzzle has been discovered. Patches of matter in the universe seem to be moving at very high speeds and in a uniform direction that can't be explained by any of the known gravitational forces in the observable universe. Astronomers are calling the phenomenon "dark flow." The stuff that's pulling this matter must be outside the observable universe, researchers conclude. When scientists talk about the observable universe, they don't just mean as far out as the eye, or even the most powerful telescope, can see....
           Cosmic chronometers: constraining the equation of state of dark energy. I: H(z) measurements         
Stern, Daniel and Jimenez, Raul and Verde, Licia and Kamionkowski, Marc and Stanford, S. Adam (2010) Cosmic chronometers: constraining the equation of state of dark energy. I: H(z) measurements. Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 2010 (2). Art. No. 008. ISSN 1475-7516. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20100603-113559863
           Neutrino oscillations, Lorentz/CPT violation, and dark energy         
Ando, Shin’ichiro and Kamionkowski, Marc and Mocioiu, Irina (2009) Neutrino oscillations, Lorentz/CPT violation, and dark energy. Physical Review D, 80 (12). Art. No. 123522 . ISSN 1550-7998 . http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20100120-140505994
           Axion Constraints in Non-standard Thermal Histories         
Grin, Daniel and Smith, Tristan and Kamionkowski, Marc (2009) Axion Constraints in Non-standard Thermal Histories. In: Sources and detection of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. AIP Conference Proceedings . No.1166. American Institute of Physics , Melville, NY, pp. 119-125. ISBN 978-0-7354-0703-9 . http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20100804-142905281
           Cosmology: Dark matter and dark energy         
Caldwell, Robert and Kamionkowski, Marc (2009) Cosmology: Dark matter and dark energy. Nature, 458 (4). pp. 587-489. ISSN 0028-0836. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20090812-112103742
           Dynamical and gravitational instability of an oscillating-field dark energy and dark matter         
Johnson, Matthew C. and Kamionkowski, Marc (2008) Dynamical and gravitational instability of an oscillating-field dark energy and dark matter. Physical Review D, 78 (6). Art. No. 063010. ISSN 0556-2821. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:JOHprd08
           Direct reconstruction of the dark energy scalar-field potential         
Li, Chao and Holz, Daniel E. and Cooray, Asantha (2007) Direct reconstruction of the dark energy scalar-field potential. Physical Review D, 75 (10). Art. No. 103503. ISSN 0556-2821. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:LICprd07b
           Uncorrelated estimates of dark energy evolution         
Huterer, Dragan and Cooray, Asantha (2005) Uncorrelated estimates of dark energy evolution. Physical Review D, 71 (2). Art. No.023506. ISSN 0556-2821. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:HUTprd05
           Growth rate of large-scale structure as a powerful probe of dark energy         
Cooray, Asantha and Huterer, Dragan and Baumann, Daniel (2004) Growth rate of large-scale structure as a powerful probe of dark energy. Physical Review D, 69 (2). Art. No. 027301. ISSN 0556-2821. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:COOprd04d
          Across the Sea, Somewhere, Waiting for Me!        
I know, I know, the Bobby Darrin song is Beyond the Sea, but it's close enough.

This post will be in two parts. The first part will basically a speech on what I think it not a good trend among Lost fans, and how I was reborn during Jay and Jack's 30 Hour Podcast. The second part will be me explaining why I now support the theory proposed on the podcast.

So, there was a lot of negativity about this episode. A lot more than I expected when I was done watching it. On DarkUFO's poll it's rated much lower than I thought it would be, and hearing several podcasters, and friends comment on it I have really had enough. Before I start, I want to point out I in no way am saying people HAD to love, or even like this episode. If you hated it, then that's up to you. Personally, I liked it a lot. Is it the best episode of the season? No way! Scroll down a few posts if you want to see which one I think that is. I don't want this to be a rant, so I'll make it more of a speech. There was a time this season where I was pretty negative, and angry at the series. I wasn't getting what I wanted, and it wasn't blowing me away every week like I expected it should, and would. Then something amazing happened. I was asked by Jay and Jack to appear on their 30 hour podcast. Which wasn't that nuts, a lot of people were there including The Joshmeister(whom I appeared with) What was nuts was that the guy on directly after me was Damon Lindeloff!

What happened would really change the way I viewed the show. For those who didn't hear it, I'll summarize. Josh and I were asked our opinions on various things, and to discuss the show. Sounds pretty standard right? But I found myself being particularly negative. Specifically about the Flashsideways, and the happenings of episodes like What Kate Does. Because Jay and Jack are awesome guys they didn't yell at me, or tell me I was wrong. They simply said that they agreed things were moving a little slow at times, but they had faith, and were just going to enjoy the ride. That hit me pretty hard. I don't think they even meant it this way, but they basically said to me, "Hey, if you want to be negative that's fine, but you'll ruin it for yourself". I continued discussing the show with them for a few moments until it was time for Damon.

When Damon came on I was blown away, listening to him live was amazing. Jay and Jack have released this interview on their feed, and I definitely recommend it. I don't recall his exact words, but he basically said the same thing J&J did. That it's been about the journey. After that, I really was changed. Why be negative about small things? Why get annoyed or frustrated if I don't like what's happening in the story? Why focus on things I don't like? Since then i've tried to simply enjoy the journey because as Jacob says, "It only ends once."

This is where this turns to you guys. Again, you can think what you want, but just try and consider what I'm going to say. Does it really matter that the knife wasn't magnetized in the well? I mean really? Try not to focus on that, focus on what was being said in that scene. Does it really matter that the CGI of the light cave wasn't perfect or that it looked a little cheesy? So what? It's not about CGI, it's about the impact that that discovery has on the characters. Does it matter that the kids were not Oscar caliber actors? Does it really? Listen to what they are saying, and what the writers are trying to tell us in those scenes.

Stop focusing on the production aspect of the show, and start focusing on the content of the show. Just enjoy what the writers have created for us. Remember, the show is for US, but what is created is what they wanted. Do you think they don't think it matters or that they don't care? They worked extremely hard on this, and they gave us exactly what they wanted. If you don't like it, then that's fine, but what's the use in complaining? It won't change, and you'll just make yourself miserable. I'm not saying you should love it unconditionally. I definitely have issues with it and I talked about them on the show. All I am saying is, just try to focus on the positive, and just try to have fun.

I hope that didn't sound like a lecture, I certainly didn't mean it to be one.

Ok, on to the theory. For those that missed it, one of Amanda's friends said he had a theory that the Smoke Monster has actually trapped down in the cave, and MIB freed him by going down there. I really like this theory a lot. I'm actually starting to think it may be true. Here is some evidence. Jacob and MIB are told by CJ(not-mom), that they need to protect this place, and she tells Jacob that he can never go down there. Well, I think floating MIB's dead body down there did in fact release the Smoke Monster from captivity. After escaping Smokey threw MIB's body to the side, just like he did with Locke's body. Smokey does in fact want to leave the Island more than anything. MIB wanted to leave too, but Smokey wants to escape. I also think that MIB and Jacob could both leave whenever they wanted to, but simply were prevented to by CJ. If MIB had the ability to leave, then why did CJ attack him before completion of the Donkey Wheel? Wouldn't she let him attempt to leave, and fail? No, she needed to stop him so that he wouldn't leave. Smokey however had all this time to activate the wheel, but he hasn't. He really can't leave until Jacob and his Candidates are dead.

Another thing about this theory that I love is that it does what Lost has done for years. Which is it takes someone we thought knew everything, and turns them into someone who is just being played. From Locke, to Ben, to Richard, and now both Jacob and MIB. Both of them were simply played by the Smoke Monster. It makes sense too. For me, it makes much more sense that in the center of the Island since the beginning of time, there has existed a darkness and it finally was allowed to escape. Smokey took on the personality and traits of MIB, just as he is doing so now, but for Locke. This also may explain how MIB knew about the donkey wheel being able to get them off the Island. However, I'm not totally convinced on that last part. I do like to think he simply knew it could be done because he was special. Just as Walt was special and had certain powers, and Hurley has certain powers. This theory also gets rid of the needs to learn how MIB changed into Smokey. It's much easier to learn what Smokey is. Personally, I'd be pleased if it's simply "darkness". I mean, somethings in real life don't have describable answers in current science, such as Dark Energy. Finally, I also think this doesn't hurt my Vincent Theory at all. In fact, it strengthens it in my opinion.

Well that's that.

Don't forget to join us directly after the episode next week on Talkshoe. It will be the final Initial Reaction Lost Flashbacks ever!! So we really would love to have a big group. And, just like this week we would love for folks to call in.

And then for the Finale, we'll be doing Big-O's show, but then on Monday the 24th, don't forget we will be doing our very own show. One major highlight will be of me eating my very old, and hopefully tasty Apollo Bar live on Ustream.

Have a good week all, and Namaste

P.S. Sorry for no pictures this week, I may edit it later to add some. There are some errors, and it's not allowing me to add them properly. Sorry for the inconvenience.

P.P.S. Due to recent bot and spam attacks on the blog I am now reviewing all comments. Don't worry, if you're a real person I'll allow all comments though, but just know they won't show up right away.
          Dark energy as theoretical entity        
Dark matter and dark energy are typical examples of what is known in the philosophy of science as “theoretical entity”: elements of theories, whose existence is hypothesized and with assumed properties and behaviours that can be used for explanation of … Continue reading
          Terrifying Encounter With A Skinwalker        

Paranormal researcher / author Rosemary Ellen Guiley recently forwarded the following article from her website, Visionary Living:

In Native American lore, especially throughout the American Southwest, skinwalkers are sorcerers who shapeshift into animal form at night and practice their black arts.

J.G. Bucklin is part Apache, and related to me a terrifying experience he had with a skinwalker.

JGB: I saw the a skinwalker around 1993. I was working as security in a hotel in Taos, New Mexico It was a beautiful summer and the nights were warm and comfortable. I always worked the graveyard shift. This hotel was haunted and I experienced a few things, but nothing prepared me for what I saw that night.

It was after midnight, close to 2 AM, and I was in my car patrolling. I parked under a tree and I guess I semi-drifted off. Suddenly, something struck the bottom of my car with enough force to make it sway. This car was a rather heavy 1978 Thunderbird. I started the car and pulled forward turning around in the lot.

Sitting where I had been parked was a dog-like thing with an odd face staring me down. I felt a dark energy about it, like it was invading my soul. It had human features, especially the eyes. They had that spark of human, but they were whole evil. Its face didn’t have a long snout. It looked like a human nose, a bit extended but not black tipped like a dog. As for size and body, it was a bit bigger than an adult German Shepard. Its fur was rather mangy and dirty-looking black and tan. It was thickly muscled.

Looking at this thing gave me that feeling of fear instinct, when you know you’re in big danger.

I hit the gas and tried to hit it with the car. It ran off the property onto native land across the road. It then ran back across onto the hotel property. I made chase. It ran into a third parking lot.

It then ran into an area called the “ponds,” where the weeds grow about eight to nine feet tall. There were two large cesspools there, and the area was really weed-filled. I parked and grabbed my pistol and ran on foot after it. I could hear it moving through the weeds. It was circling, trying to come up behind me. Then it rushed and threw me aside like I was built of matchsticks! I felt around and found my pistol and made chase. What ran in on four legs ran back out on two! It looked like a shambling, nude man-like thing that screamed as it fled. The scream was both human and animal – it was horrifying.

The thing ran across an area that had sagebrush and cactus, in the direction of some houses, so I could not risk a shot at it.

That morning I told the hotel housekeeping crew what happened. Some of the girls were natives from the Taos pueblo. They said matter of factly, “Oh yeah, you saw a skinwalker.”

Since then my luck has not been the best – several failed marriages and failed kidneys. My bad luck may or may not have been a result of my encounter. I saw to it that a shaman, Tall Eagle Boy, saged, rattled and prayed over me within the week. We blew sacred smoke. He passed away since.

REG: Do you have any idea why the skinwalker engaged with you?

JGB: I know it was stalking me. I was parked on hotel property but who knows how long he was prowling. He may have been watching me for weeks, or even months. My big question is, how did it fit under my car, which was somewhat low and quite heavy. When it struck the bottom of my car, I felt the jolt and the car actually “rocked.”

REG: Have you recovered in health and luck?

JGB: Since then my sacred protector is a large white wolf that appeared to me in a dream, and I have seen it in fleeting glimpses. Among my people, the wolf is brave, and takes care of its family.

My health has diminished but has stabilized. It has taken time, but my luck has improved greatly. I think that prayer and the timely introduction of my spirit animal may have broken any hold skinwalker may have had – I hope.

Skinwalkers are common among more than the Navajo – Apache and other tribes also have these abominations. Our people learn to avoid them and not speak of them. Like a big dummy, I made the mistake of attempting combat.

REG comments: The reason for this engagement with a skinwalker will probably never be known, but for some reason, J.G. Bucklin landed on its radar. Perhaps it meant to toy with him by bucking the car. Skinwalkers are shapeshifters, and so it would be possible for them to fit into narrow spaces. When J.G. gave chase—instead of leaving the scene, as many would have done—it retaliated by leaving its mark of a debilitating effect on his life. Similar effects have been reported after engagements with men and women in black, black-eyed kids and people, the Djinn, and other entities who carry a baleful energy.

The safest thing to do in an unexpected encounter is to leave the scene, and especially avoid eye contact.

For more information about skinwalkers, see Fate Presents Werewolves and Dogmen




          New Probes of Old Structure: Cosmology with 21cm Intensity Mapping and the Cosmic Microwave Background [Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium]        

Current cosmological measurements have left us with deep questions about our Universe: What caused the expansion of the Universe at the earliest times? How did structure form? What is Dark Energy and does it evolve with time? New experiments like CHIME, HIRAX, and ACTPol are poised to address these questions through 3-dimensional maps of structure and measurements of the polarized Cosmic Microwave Background. In this talk, I will describe how we will use 21cm intensity measurements from CHIME and HIRAX to place sensitive constraints on Dark Energy between redshifts 0.8 -- 2.5, a poorly probed era corresponding to when Dark Energy began to impact the expansion history of the Universe. I will also discuss how we will use data from new instruments on the ACT telescope to constrain cosmological parameters like the total neutrino mass and probe structure at late times.


 

APPLIED PHYSICS/PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM

Held Tuesdays at 4:30 pm in the William R. Hewlett Teaching Center, room 200. Refreshments in the lobby of Varian Physics at 4:15 pm.

Winter 2016/2017, Committee: A. Linde (Chair), S. Kivelson, S. Zhang


          Why Tamsin Shaw Imagines the Psychologists Are Taking Power        

Tamsin Shaw’s essay in the February 25th issue of The New York Review of Books, provocatively titled “The Psychologists Take Power,” is no more scholarly than your average political attack ad, nor is it any more credible. (The article is available online, but I won’t lend it further visibility to search engines by linking to it here.) Two of the psychologists maligned in the essay, Jonathan Haidt and Steven Pinker, recently contributed a letter to the editors which effectively highlights Shaw’s faulty reasoning and myriad distortions, describing how she “prosecutes her case by citation-free attribution, spurious dichotomies, and standards of guilt by association that make Joseph McCarthy look like Sherlock Holmes” (82).

Upon first reading Shaw’s piece, I dismissed it as a particularly unscrupulous bit of interdepartmental tribalism—a philosopher bemoaning the encroachment by pesky upstart scientists into what was formerly the bailiwick of philosophers. But then a line in Shaw’s attempted rebuttal of Haidt and Pinker’s letter sent me back to the original essay, and this time around I recognized it as a manifestation of a more widespread trend among scholars, and a rather unscholarly one at that.

Shaw begins her article by accusing a handful of psychologists of exceeding the bounds of their official remit. These researchers have risen to prominence in recent years through their studies into human morality. But now, instead of restricting themselves, as responsible scientists would, to describing how we make moral judgements and attempting to explain why we respond to moral dilemmas the way we do, these psychologists have begun arrogating moral authority to themselves. They’ve begun, in other words, trying to tell us how we should reason morally—according to Shaw anyway. Her article then progresses through shady innuendo and arguments based on what Haidt and Pinker call “guilt through imaginability” to connect this group of authors to the CIA’s program of “enhanced interrogation,” i.e. torture, which culminated in such atrocities as those committed in the prisons at Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo Bay.
Tamsin Shaw

Shaw’s sole piece of evidence comes from a report that was commissioned by the American Psychological Association. David Hoffman and his fellow investigators did indeed find that two members of the APA played a critical role in developing the interrogation methods used by the CIA, and they had the sanction of top officials. Neither of the two, however, and none of those officials authored any of the books on moral psychology that Shaw is supposedly reviewing. In the report’s conclusion, the investigators describe the responses of clinical psychologists who “feel physically sick when they think about the involvement of psychologists intentionally using harsh interrogation techniques.” Shaw writes,

It is easy to imagine the psychologists who claim to be moral experts dismissing such a reaction as an unreliable “gut response” that must be overridden by more sophisticated reasoning. But a thorough distrust of rapid, emotional responses might well leave human beings without a moral compass sufficiently strong to guide them through times of crisis, when our judgement is most severely challenged, or to compete with powerful nonmoral motivations. (39)

What she’s referring to here is the two-system model of moral reasoning which posits a rapid, intuitive system, programmed in large part by our genetic inheritance but with some cultural variation in its expression, matched against a more effort-based, cerebral system that requires the application of complex reasoning.

But it must be noted that nowhere does any of the authors she’s reviewing make a case for a “thorough distrust of rapid, emotional responses.” Their positions are far more nuanced, and Haidt in fact argues in his book The Righteous Mind that liberals could benefit from paying more heed to some of their moral instincts—a case that Shaw herself summarizes in her essay when she’s trying to paint him as an overly “didactic” conservative.
Jonathan Haidt

            Haidt and Pinker’s response to Shaw’s argument by imaginability was to simply ask the other five authors she insinuates support torture whether they indeed reacted the way she describes. They write, “The results: seven out of seven said ‘no’” (82). These authors’ further responses to the question offer a good opportunity to expose just how off-base Shaw’s simplistic characterizations are.

None of these psychologists believes that a reaction of physical revulsion must be overridden or should be thoroughly distrusted. But several pointed out that in the past, people have felt physically sick upon contemplating homosexuality, interracial marriage, vaccination, and other morally unexceptionable acts, so gut feelings alone cannot constitute a “moral compass.” Nor is the case against “enhanced interrogation” so fragile, as Shaw implies, that it has to rest on gut feelings: the moral arguments against torture are overwhelming. So while primitive physical revulsion may serve as an early warning signal indicating that some practice calls for moral scrutiny, it is “the more sophisticated reasoning” that should guide us through times of crisis. (82-emphasis in original)

One phrase that should stand out here is “the moral arguments against torture are overwhelming.” Shaw is supposedly writing about a takeover by psychologists who advocate torture—but none of them actually advocates torture. And, having read four of the six books she covers, I can aver that this response was entirely predictable based on what the authors had written. So why does Shaw attempt to mislead her readers?

            The false implication that the authors she’s reviewing support torture isn’t the only central premise of Shaw’s essay that’s simply wrong; if these psychologists really are trying to take power, as she claims, that’s news to them. Haidt and Pinker begin their rebuttal by pointing out that “Shaw can cite no psychologist who claims special authority or ‘superior wisdom’ on moral matters” (82). Every one of them, with a single exception, in fact includes an explanation of what separates the two endeavors—describing human morality on the one hand, and prescribing values or behaviors on the other—in the very books Shaw professes to find so alarming. The lone exception, Yale psychologist Paul Bloom, author of Just Babies: The Origins of Good and Evil, wrote to Haidt and Pinker, “The fact that one cannot derive morality from psychological research is so screamingly obvious that I never thought to explicitly write it down” (82).

Yet Shaw insists all of these authors commit the fallacy of moving from is to ought; you have to wonder if she even read the books she’s supposed to be reviewing—beyond mining them for damning quotes anyway. And didn’t any of the editors at The New York Review think to check some of her basic claims? Or were they simply hoping to bank on the publication of what amounts to controversy porn? (Think of the dilemma faced by the authors: do you respond and draw more attention to the piece, or do you ignore it and let some portion of the readership come away with a wildly mistaken impression?)
Paul Bloom

            Haidt and Pinker do a fine job of calling out most of Shaw’s biggest mistakes and mischaracterizations. But I want to draw attention to two more instances of her falling short of any reasonable standard of scholarship, because each one reveals something important about the beliefs Shaw uses as her own moral compass. The authors under review situate their findings on human morality in a larger framework of theories about human evolution. Shaw characterizes this framework as “an unverifiable and unfalsifiable story about evolutionary psychology” (38). Shaw has evidently attended the Ken Ham school of evolutionary biology, which preaches that science can only concern itself with phenomena occurring right before our eyes in a lab. The reality is that, while testing adaptationist theories is a complicated endeavor, there are usually at least two ways to falsify them. You can show that the trait or behavior in question is absent in many cultures, or you can show that it emerges late in life after some sort of deliberate training. One of the books Shaw is supposedly reviewing, Bloom’s Just Babies, focuses specifically on research demonstrating that many of our common moral intuitions emerge when we’re babies, in our first year of life, with no deliberate training whatsoever.

            Bloom comes in for some more targeted, if off-hand, criticism near the conclusion of Shaw’s essay for an article he wrote to challenge the increasingly popular sentiment that we can solve our problems as a society by encouraging everyone to be more empathetic. Empathy, Bloom points out, is a finite resource; we’re simply not capable of feeling for every single one of the millions of individuals in need of care throughout the world. So we need to offer that care based on principle, not feeling. Shaw avoids any discussion of her own beliefs about morality in her essay, but from the nature of her mischaracterization of Bloom’s argument we can start to get a sense of the ideology informing her prejudices. She insists that  
    
when Paul Bloom, in his own Atlanticarticle, “The Dark Side of Empathy,” warns us that empathy for people who are seen as victims may be associated with violent, punitive tendencies toward those in authority, we should be wary of extrapolating from his psychological claims a prescription for what should and should not be valued, or inferring that we need a moral corrective to a culture suffering from a supposed excess of empathic feelings. (40-1)

The “supposed excess of empathic feelings” isn’t the only laughable distortion people who actually read Bloom’s essay will catch out; the actual examples he cites of when empathy for victims leads to “violent, punitive tendencies” include Donald Trump and Ann Coulter stoking outrage against undocumented immigrants by telling stories of the crimes a few of them commit. This misrepresentation raises an important question: why would Shaw want to mislead her readers into believing Bloom’s intention is to protect those in authority? This brings us to the McCathyesque part of Shaw’s attack ad.

            The sections of the essay drawing a web of guilt connecting the two psychologists who helped develop torture methods for the CIA to all the authors she’d have us believe are complicit focus mainly on Martin Seligman, whose theory of learned helplessness formed the basis of the CIA’s approach to harsh interrogation. Seligman is the founder of a subfield called Positive Psychology, which he developed as a counterbalance to what he perceived as an almost exclusive focus on all that can go wrong with human thinking, feeling, and behaving. His Positive Psychology Center at the University of Pennsylvania has received $31 million in recent years from the Department of Defense—a smoking gun by Shaw’s lights. And Seligman even admits that on several occasions he met with those two psychologists who participated in the torture program. The other authors Shaw writes about have in turn worked with Seligman on a variety of projects. Haidt even wrote a book on Positive Psychology called The Happiness Hypothesis.

            In Shaw’s view, learned helplessness theory is a potentially dangerous tool being wielded by a bunch of mad scientists and government officials corrupted by financial incentives and a lust for military dominance. To her mind, the notion that Seligman could simply want to help soldiers cope with the stresses of combat is all but impossible to even entertain. In this and every other instance when Shaw attempts to mislead her readers, it’s to put the same sort of negative spin on the psychologists’ explicitly stated positions. If Bloom says empathy has a dark side, then all the authors in question are against empathy. If Haidt argues that resilience—the flipside of learned helplessness—is needed to counteract a culture of victimhood, then all of these authors are against efforts to combat sexism and racism on college campuses. And, as we’ve seen, if these authors say we should question our moral intuitions, it’s because they want to be able to get away with crimes like torture. “Expertise in teaching people to override their moral intuitions is only a moral good if it serves good ends,” Shaw herself writes. “Those ends,” she goes on, “should be determined by rigorous moral deliberation” (40). Since this is precisely what the authors she’s criticizing say in their books, we’re left wondering what her real problem with them might be.

            In her reply to Haidt and Pinker’s letter, Shaw suggests her aim for the essay was to encourage people to more closely scrutinize the “doctrines of Positive Psychology” and the central principles underlying psychological theories about human morality. I was curious to see how she’d respond to being called out for mistakenly stating that the psychologists were claiming moral authority and that they were given to using their research to defend the use of torture. Her main response is to repeat the central aspects of her rather flimsy case against Seligman. But then she does something truly remarkable; she doesn’t deny using guilt by imaginability—she defends it.

Pinker and Haidt say they prefer reality to imagination, but imagination is the capacity that allows us to take responsibility, insofar as it is ever possible, for the ends for which our work will be used and the consequences that it will have in the world. Such imagination is a moral and intellectual virtue that clearly needs to be cultivated. (85)

So, regardless of what the individual psychologists themselves explicitly say about torture, for instance, as long as they’re equipping other people with the conceptual tools to justify torture, they’re still at least somewhat complicit. This was the line that first made me realize Shaw’s essay was something other than a philosopher munching on sour grapes.

            Shaw’s approach to connecting each of the individual authors to Seligman and then through him to the torture program is about as sophisticated, and about as credible, as any narrative concocted by your average online conspiracy theorist. But she believes that these connections are important and meaningful, a belief, I suspect, that derives from her own philosophy. Advocates of this philosophy, commonly referred to as postmodernism or poststructuralism, posit that our culture is governed by a dominant ideology that serves to protect and perpetuate the societal status quo, especially with regard to what are referred to as hegemonic relationships—men over women, whites over other ethnicities, heterosexuals over homosexuals. This dominant ideology finds expression in, while at the same time propagating itself through, cultural practices ranging from linguistic expressions to the creation of art to the conducting of scientific experiments.

            Inspired by figures like Louis Althusser and Michel Foucault, postmodern scholars reject many of the central principles of humanism, including its emphasis on the role of rational discourse in driving societal progress. This is because the processes of reasoning and research that go into producing knowledge can never be fully disentangled from the exercise of power, or so it is argued. We experience the world through the medium of culture, and our culture distorts reality in a way that makes hierarchies seem both natural and inevitable. So, according to postmodernists, not only does science fail to create true knowledge of the natural world and its inhabitants, but the ideas it generates must also be scrutinized to identify their hidden political implications.
Ullica Segerstrale

            What such postmodern textual analyses look like in practice is described in sociologist Ullica Segerstrale’s book, Defenders of the Truth: The Sociobiology Debate. Segerstrale observed that postmodern critics of evolutionary psychology (which was more commonly called sociobiology in the late 90s), were outraged by what they presumed were the political implications of the theories, not by what evolutionary psychologists actually wrote. She explains,

In their analysis of their targets’ texts, the critics used a method I call moral reading. The basic idea behind moral reading was to imagine the worst possible political consequences of a scientific claim. In this way, maximum guilt might be attributed to the perpetrator of this claim. (206)  
This is similar to the type of imagination Shaw faults psychologists today for insufficiently exercising. For the postmodernists, the sum total of our cultural knowledge is what sustains all the varieties of oppression and injustice that exist in our society, so unless an author explicitly decries oppression or injustice he’ll likely be held under suspicion. Five of the six books Shaw subjects to her moral reading were written by white males. The sixth was written by a male and a female, both white. The people the CIA tortured were not white. So you might imagine white psychologists telling everyone not to listen to their conscience to make it easier for them reap the benefits of a history of colonization. Of course, I could be completely wrong here; maybe this scenario isn’t what was playing out in Shaw’s imagination at all. But that’s the problem—there are few limits to what any of us can imagine, especially when it comes to people we disagree with on hot-button issues.

            Postmodernism began in English departments back in the ‘60s where it was originally developed as an approach to analyzing literature. From there, it spread to several other branches of the humanities and is now making inroads into the social sciences. Cultural anthropologywas the first field to be mostly overtaken. You can see precursors to Shaw’s rhetorical approach in attacks leveled against sociobiologists like E.O. Wilson and Napoleon Chagnon by postmodern anthropologists like Marshall Sahlins. In a review published in 2001, also in The New York Review of Books, Sahlins writes,

The ‘60s were the longest decade of the 20th century, and Vietnam was the longest war. In the West, the war prolonged itself in arrogant perceptions of the weaker peoples as instrumental means of the global projects of the stronger. In the human sciences, the war persists in an obsessive search for power in every nook and cranny of our society and history, and an equally strong postmodern urge to “deconstruct” it. For his part, Chagnon writes popular textbooks that describe his ethnography among the Yanomami in the 1960s in terms of gaining control over people.
Demonstrating his own power has been not only a necessary condition of Chagnon’s fieldwork, but a main technique of investigation.

The first thing to note is that Sahlin’s characterization of Chagnon’s books as narratives of “gaining control over people” is just plain silly; Chagnon was more often than not at the mercy of the Yanomamö. The second is that, just as anyone who’s actually read the books by Haidt, Pinker, Greene, and Bloom will be shocked by Shaw’s claim that their writing somehow bolsters the case for torture, anyone familiar with Chagnon’s studies of the Yanomamö will likely wonder what the hell they have to do with Vietnam, a war that to my knowledge he never expressed an opinion of in writing.

However, according to postmodern logic—or we might say postmodern morality—Chagnon’s observation that the Yanomamö were often violent, along with his espousal of a theory that holds such violence to have been common among preindustrial societies, leads inexorably to the conclusion that he wants us all to believe violence is part of our fixed nature as humans. Through the lens of postmodernism, Chagnon’s work is complicit in making people believe working for peace is futile because violence is inevitable. Chagnon may counter that he believes violence is likely to occur only in certain circumstances, and that by learning more about what conditions lead to conflict we can better equip ourselves to prevent it. But that doesn’t change the fact that society needs high-profile figures to bring before our modern academic version of the inquisition, so that all the other white men lording it over the rest of the world will see what happens to anyone who deviates from right (actually far-left) thinking.
From Divigaciones

Ideas really do have consequences of course, some of which will be unforeseen. The place where an idea ends up may even be repugnant to its originator. But the notion that we can settle foreign policy disputes, eradicate racism, end gender inequality, and bring about world peace simply by demonizing artists and scholars whose work goes against our favored party line, scholars and artists who maybe can’t be shown to support these evils and injustices directly but can certainly be imagined to be doing so in some abstract and indirect way—well, that strikes me as far-fetched. It also strikes me as dangerously misguided, since it’s not like scholars, or anyone else, ever needed any extra encouragement to imagine people who disagree with them being guilty of some grave moral offense. We’re naturally tempted to do that as it is.

Part of becoming a good scholar—part of becoming a grownup—is learning to live with people whose beliefs are different from yours, and to treat them fairly. Unless a particular scholar is openly and explicitly advocating torture, ascribing such an agenda to her is either irresponsible, if we’re unwittingly misrepresenting her, or dishonest, if we’re doing so knowingly. Arguments from imagined adverse consequences can go both ways. We could, for instance, easily write articles suggesting that Shaw is a Stalinist, or that she advocates prosecuting perpetrators of what members of the far left deem to be thought crimes. What about the consequences of encouraging suspicion of science in an age of widespread denial of climate change? Postmodern identity politics is this moment posing a threat to free speech on college campuses. And the tactics of postmodern activists begin and end with the stoking of moral outrage, so we could easily make a case that the activists are deliberately trying to instigate witch hunts. With each baseless accusation and counter-accusation, though, we’re getting farther and farther away from any meaningful inquiry, forestalling any substantive debate, and hamstringing any real moral or political progress.

Many people try to square the circle, arguing that postmodernism isn’t inherently antithetical to science, and that the supposed insights derived from postmodern scholarship ought to be assimilated somehow into science. When Thomas Huxley, the physician and biologist known as Darwin’s bulldog, said that science “commits suicide when it adopts a creed,” he was pointing out that by adhering to an ideology you’re taking its tenets for granted. Science, despite many critics’ desperate proclamations to the contrary, is not itself an ideology; science is an epistemology, a set of principles and methods for investigating nature and arriving at truths about the world. Even the most well-established of these truths, however, is considered provisional, open to potential revision or outright rejection as the methods, technologies, and theories that form the foundation of this collective endeavor advance over the generations.

In her essay, Shaw cites the results of a project attempting to replicate the findings of several seminal experiments in social psychology, counting the surprisingly low success rate as further cause for skepticism of the field. What she fails to appreciate here is that the replication project is being done by a group of scientists who are psychologists themselves, because they’re committed to honing their techniques for studying the human mind. I would imagine if Shaw’s postmodernist precursors had shared a similar commitment to assessing the reliability of their research methods, such as they are, and weighing the validity of their core tenets, then the ideology would have long since fallen out of fashion by the time she was taking up a pen to write about how scary psychologists are.  

The point Shaw's missing here is that it’s precisely this constant quest to check and recheck the evidence, refine and further refine the methods, test and retest the theories, that makes science, if not a source of superior wisdom, then still the most reliable approach to answering questions about who we are, what our place is in the universe, and what habits and policies will give us, as individuals and as citizens, the best chance to thrive and flourish. As Saul Perlmutter, one of the discoverers of dark energy, has said, “Science is an ongoing race between our inventing ways to fool ourselves, and our inventing ways to avoid fooling ourselves.” Shaw may be right that no experimental result could ever fully settle a moral controversy, but experimental results are often not just relevant to our philosophical deliberations but critical to keeping those deliberations firmly grounded in reality.

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          Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium: ACT and the CMB in Polarization        

We have a well-established standard model of cosmology. After a review of its foundations from a CMB perspective, we discuss new tests of the model with a focus on what we can learn with polarization. In addition to the search for primordial gravitational waves, the CMB polarization can be used to assess the sum of neutrino masses and the dark energy. In light of this we present recent results from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and discuss future plans. The CMB is still a goldmine for measuring the cosmos.  We have an enormous amount left to learn from it.


 

 

Held Tuesdays at 4:15 pm, in the William R. Hewlett Teaching Center, room 200 (see map). Refreshments in the lobby of Varian Physics at 4:00 pm.

Autumn 2014/15, Committee: A. Linde (Chair), L. Hollberg, B. Macintosh & Young Lee


          Comment on The Missing Sentence in Einstein’s General Relativity by Michael Boyd        
Photons [light] has no inertia and photoelectric effect is only a property of non-bonding electron orbitals in matter, not anything to do with gravitation what ever. The simplest flaw I see is it fails to address the anti-symmetric nature between the mass of electrons (electron..........0.00091x10-27 kg ) and protons (proton.............1.6726 x 10-27 kg ) and how that effects the flow [mobility] of the different types of charge, protons[holes] and electrons. Since the form of energy the light weight electrons produce is light [mass-less photons] and the force of energy protons produce is attractive gravity [massive gravitons] therefore I assume EM and gravitation are not directly related, but only indirectly instead. In order to understand why gravity is different [stronger] close-up you have to understand the theory of gravitation being what's called the large extra-dimension... Theoretical physicists Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos and Dvali pointed [2], out that prior to now, gravity had not been measured below a distance of about a millimeter. They whose model is known as ADD, suggest that there could be extra dimensions as large as a millimeter in diameter. In particle physics, the ADD model, also known as the model with large extra dimensions [1], offers an alternative scenario to explain the weakness of gravity relative to the other forces. This theory requires that the fields of the standard model are confined to a four-dimensional membrane, while gravity propagates in several additional spatial dimensions that are large compared to the Planck scale. Theoretical physics typically treats the Planck scale as the highest energy scale and all dimensional parameters are measured in terms of the Planck scale. In models of large extra dimensions the fundamental scale is much lower than the Planck scale. This occurs because the power law of gravity changes. For example, assuming r is the distance between the gravitational induction sensor and the spinning disk; when there are two extra dimensions of size d, the power law of gravity is 1/r4 for objects with r <> d. This relationship suggests if we want the Planck scale to be equal to the next accelerator energy (1 TeV) we should take d approximately 1mm. As suggested by ADD, gravity could be just as strong as the other forces but only felt strongly at short distances. Scientists funded by the European Space Agency have measured the gravitational equivalent of a magnetic field for the first time in a laboratory. Just as a moving electrical charge creates a magnetic field, so a moving mass generates a gravitomagnetic field. According to Einstein's Theory of General Relativity, the effect is virtually negligible. However Tajmar [3] have measured the effect in a laboratory. Their experiment involves a ring of superconducting material rotating up to 6,500 times a minute. My hypothesis is that protons [holes in the semiconductor junction] in all forms of matter and their presence in our location in the universe, this is the source of the attractive force of gravity in the vicinity of matter. My discovery is at 100nm distance away the force of gravity is magnified and can be harnessed to produce gravitomagnetic induction with my invention, the mass spin-valve or gravitational rectifier, due to this gravity large extra dimension. The other novel thing I discovered in the absence of matter produces a repulsive anti-gravity force that is much weaker then the gravity force and balloon like. Electrons however do not contribute enough mass to really effect gravitation in any significant way. See http://www.calfree.com/ProofThatGravityIndependentMagnetism.pdf The GMR head in the device sees the magnetic image at 100nm distance and something else? The way my device distinguishes the EM from the gravitation is using Maxwell's right hand rule for magnetic induction. Using that rule I know the edges of my nano-features on a spinning disk will produce a magnetic induction signal that is dependent on the direction of the magnetization of the magnetic media on the disk which I can control by change the bias applied to the write transducer [a microscopic metal coil] on the head in the disk drive assembly. Notice the direction of the gravitomagnetic signal shown doesn't change however; that's because that force field's direction depends on the presence or absence of matter. Effects of geometry on gravitational fields and time See http://www.calfree.com/FiguresGravityRectifierPZTvGMRpit&bump.pdf The geometry of matter, or lack there of, causes a force field to be produced that I could measure. The reason gravitation is a direct tensor is because it has two components one is the normal gravitational energy produced by the presence of matter's nucleus in the universe and the other what we call repulsive anti-gravity or dark energy is produced by its absence. But the tensor for gravity is much stronger than anti-gravity since the absence of mass produces only about 16% of the magnitude for the same volume (geometry). Some other differences are normal gravity is much stronger below 1 mm from matter than it is above that distance; as is the antigravity force. I found for normal gravity above 1 mm it is consistently linear with distance; while antigravity is ~ 0. That means the force is 1/r^2 above 1mm and 1/r^4 below 1 mm but that means gravity is still linear with distance within both regions of normal gravity space time. Antigravity on the other hand is a third order force repulsive force tensor whose force fields are like that of balloon with their force field's strength being strongest at the membrane of the balloon and weak inside. Regarding the gravitational temporal relation both forms of gravitation experience the same amount of frame dragging as described in Einstein's General Relativity theory; so doesn't that means Time must be the substance between gravitational energy and EM energy that makes up our existence? Time must be a substance. That's because gravitational space time is produced by hole states of matter and electromagnetism spacetime (EM or light) is produced by electron states of matter. QM is built on EM space time; not gravitational space time. However Special Relativity is built on EM space time while General Relativity is built on gravitational space time. The manifold of events in spacetime are a "substance" which exists independently of the matter within it...Special Relativity and General Relativity created a conundrum for Einstein that he tried to resolve unsuccessfully to unit the two theory in to one grand unified field theory. My discovery is that while the speed of light is constant that's not true for gravitation. It can be slower in speed and faster too. Einstein focused to much on the speed of light and not enough on the "holes" all around him. That's where the gravitation is. That "electromagnetism is in spacetime A" let's call that space-time "{EM} space-time", and this is what Einstein's "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Korper"[4] ("On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies") described which reconciles Maxwell's equations for electricity and magnetism with the laws of mechanics, by introducing major changes to mechanics close to the speed of light. This later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity (SR).[5][6] That "gravitation is in spacetime B" let's call that space-time "{G}space-time" and this is what Einstein's General relativity (GR) describes. According to general relativity,[7] the observed gravitational attraction between masses results from the "warping of space and time by those masses". When I write about this "manifold of events in spacetime are a "substance" which exists independently of the matter within it" this "manifold of events in spacetime" is this property that makes Time; as we measure it; the emergent {positive arrow of time}. Therefore time is a vector which direction depends on your position in our universe which is created by a change of energy states between gravitation to electromagnetism; and visa versa. Theoretical Implications of Nano-scale Quantum Gravitomagnetism In the event horizon of a black hole gravity is faster than the speed of light. In that domain light is forbidden. Einstein's problem was he only understood the universe from the side of electrons not the holes side that dominates it. If you think of empty space as a high density of holes and matter as regions where electron density is higher then you see Einstein Dirac etc..., where blinded by the light produced by electrons..., that's why they couldn't see the holes in the universe all around them. The mass of a neutron is greater than the mass of a proton because the neutron contains a proton, contains an electron with some subatomic particles. Neutron stars are collapsed matter leaving only neutrons at the atomic scale that makes up the neutron star and black holes are nearly identical but made of protons [holes] instead. Black holes are black not because light doesn't escape but because black holes are made of holes [collapsed protons] where light is not present because there are no electrons to absorb the light for re-emission of the light. My hypothesis is that protons [holes in the semiconductor junction] in all forms of matter and their presence in our location in the universe, this is the source of the attractive force of gravity in the vicinity of matter. My discovery is at 100nm the force of gravity is magnified and can be harnessed to produce gravitomagnetic induction with my invention the mass spin-valve or gravitational rectifier due to this gravity large extra dimension. The other novel thing I discovered is the absence of matter produces a repulsive anti-gravity force that is much weaker then the gravity force and balloon like. Electrons however do not contribute enough mass to real effect gravitation in any real way as far as I can measure. [1] ANTONIADIS, N., ARKANI-HAMED, N., DIMOPOULOS, S., DVALI, G. New dimensions at a millimeter to a Fermi and superstrings at a TeV. arXiv: hep-ph/9804398, 1998. [2] ARKANI-HAMED, N., DIMOPOULOS, S., DVALI, G. The Hierarchy problem and new dimensions at a millimeter. arXiv: hepph/9803315, 1998. [3] TAJMAR, M., MATOS, C.J. Gravitomagnetic Fields in Rotating Superconductors to Solve Tate's Cooper Pair Mass Anomaly. arXiv: gr-qc/060786, 2006. [4] EINSTEIN, A. Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Korper. Annalen der Physik 17: 891-921, 1905. [5] EINSTEIN, A.; GROSSMANN, M. Entwurf einer verallgemeinerten Relativitatstheorie und einer Theorie der Gravitation. Zeitschrift fur Mathematik und Physik 62: 225-261, 1913. [6] EINSTEIN, A. Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie. Annalen der Physik, 49, 1916. [7] HILBERT, D., Die Grundlagen der Physik. Mathematische Annalen, 92, 1924.
          The State of the Universe: Matter and Age Up, Dark Energy Down        
The European Space Agency's Planck mission has generated a map of the infant universe that refines our understanding of what it's all made of and has upped its age by 100 million years.
          NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer Helps Confirm Nature of Dark Energy        
A five-year survey of 200,000 galaxies, stretching back seven billion years in cosmic time, has led to one of the best independent confirmations that dark energy is driving our universe apart at accelerating speeds.
          The Strange – Fictional Linkage        
In Bruce R. Cordell’s The Strange, Earth is surrounded by a miasma of dark energy which, according to the best guess of Carter Morrison (who most prominently discovered it), is the broken remnant of an ancient interstellar transportation network created by some vast alien civilization. In its current state, the dark energy network — which […]
          Een visualisatie van DES+OzDES, WiggleZ, GAMA, 2dF, 6dF & SDSS        
Jaja, een titel waar je hoogstwaarschijnlijk geen snars van snapt. Begrijpelijk, het zijn afkortingen van speurtochten in de kosmos, surveys die over de gehele wereld gaande zijn om het gehele universum in kaart te brengen. DES kennen we waarschijnlijk wel, de Dark Energy Survey, waarvan deze week de resultaten van Y1 (waarneemjaar één) bekend werden […]
          Belief in multiverse requires exceptional vision        
Randomness

By
2:00pm, August 14, 2013
Citations

F. Wilczek. Multiversality. arXiv:1307.7376. Posted July 28, 2013. [Go to]

If you can’t see it, it doesn’t exist. That’s an old philosophy, one that many scientists swallowed whole. But as Ziva David of NCIS would say, it’s total salami. After all, you can’t see bacteria and viruses, but they can still kill you.

Yet some scientists still invoke that philosophy to deny the scientific status of all sorts of interesting things. Like the theoretical supertiny loops of energy known as superstrings. Or the superhuge collection of parallel universes known as the multiverse.

It’s the same attitude that led some 19th century scientists and philosophers to deny the existence of atoms.

Ernst Mach, leader of the anti-atomists, said atoms were a “mental artifice,” existing only in thought. “Atoms cannot be perceived by the senses,” he said.

To be fair, Mach was an accomplished physicist and a deep thinker. He wouldn’t have objected to believing in bacteria once you looked at them through a microscope. But Mach thought atoms were unobservable in principle. “From their very nature,” he wrote, they “can never be made the objects of sensuous contemplation.” He turned out to be wrong—today super-duper microscopes can not only show you images of atoms but can also drag them around to spell out IBM on magazine covers.

Even if atoms had been forever unseeable, their existence could still be established indirectly. That’s what Einstein did in 1905 when he analyzed Brownian motion, the random fluttering of tiny particles suspended in a liquid. Einstein showed mathematically that Brownian motion was a consequence of atoms and molecules bouncing off the suspended particles. So atoms do exist, even if they can’t be observed, as their existence implies phenomena that can be observed.

Similar reasoning can be applied to parallel universes. If other universes exist, they may well be forever beyond the power of humankind’s observational instruments. But perhaps the laws explaining observable things also require unobservable universes.

“It might be that the laws we use successfully to describe the observable universe are most naturally formulated in a larger framework, that includes unobservable parts,” writes Nobel laureate physicist Frank Wilczek of MIT.

In a new paper, Wilczek ruminates on the various ways that a multiverse could reveal its reality. By multiverse, he means realms where different laws of physics can apply at different places and times — a property he calls “multiversality.” It makes sense to consider the multiverse real, Wilczek contends, if aspects of observable reality can be explained only by recourse to the principle of multiversality.

One such aspect of observable reality, he points out, is the observable universe itself, and the fact that it contains observers. It turns out that a very limited range of physical conditions allow the ingredients needed for observers to exist (stars, planets, atoms). When you investigate what would happen if you changed some basic quantities of physics (say the speed of light or the charge on an electron), you find that “the emergence of complex structures capable of supporting intelligent observation appears quite fragile,” Wilczek writes.

One such feature of the universe is the amount of energy residing throughout the vacuum of space. This “dark energy” exerts a repulsive force; in large amounts it would dilute matter in the universe too much for stars and galaxies to form. Fortunately the actual observed amount of dark energy is very small, allowing the universe to build the infrastructure needed for life.

Attempts to calculate why the dark energy is so weak have failed, and “lucky coincidence” does not really count as a scientific explanation. But if the multiverse exists, with a multiplicity of dark energy densities, then the mystery is solved: Humans live in the part of the multiverse where dark energy is meager. In regions with a lot of dark energy, nobody is around to wonder about it.

Wilczek examines other examples of multiversality, including the role that superstring theory plays in explaining the dark energy mystery. In several cases he finds that multiversality can explain the otherwise inexplicable.

He warns that some phenomena may be unexplained simply because physicists haven’t yet been sufficiently clever to find the true explanation. But his deeper point remains: the need to recognize that science should not limit its vision.

“In the past scientists have repeatedly reached ‘intellectual closure’ on inadequate pictures of the universe, and underestimated its scale,” he notes. To Copernicus, the universe was little more than the solar system. A century ago, it was not yet clear that the universe was anything more than the Milky Way galaxy. Now telescopes reveal a universe with billions of billions of galaxies.

It shouldn’t be considered silly to propose that existence will once again turn out to be bigger than humans have previously supposed. It’s just that this time seeing farther will require abandoning the link between seeing and existing. As Wilczek notes, the dictum that “nothing that is not observed exists” has “no empirical content.”

“It is more in the nature of a moral exhortation,” he writes, “whose application, though usually appropriate, might be outweighed by other scientific considerations.”


          I was a good friend and a        

In reply to Gravity is a Push

I was a good friend and a student of Walter Wright. He was known as Red Wright to most of his friends. He gave me a copy of his book Gravity is a Push and he mentioned my name in the book. I am not a scientist, although I have some limited knowledge of the field. Red may not have been a scientist, but he was a brilliant and interesting individual. I am writing this several years after his death. I wish I could have contacted him before he died to let him know that there is new evidence that his theory that gravity is a push which he tried to explain to me on many occasions, is in fact being studied more closely now. I saved an article from USA Today, dated Tuesday, October 2, 2007 entitled, "Scientists still in the murk about Cosmic 'Dark energy' it could hold the key to universe;s fate, by Ron Cowen . The article among other things stated, "Science writers took part in a workshop last month at the space telescope Science Institute in Baltimore to focus on the question of why gravity on the largest scales, has switched roles -pushing out instead of holding in," also stated, "Astronomer Adam Riess remembers the moment he realized that instead of pulling galaxies together, gravity was pushing them apart. This is a very interesting article and should be read in its entirety to see the relationship between what is now being explored and what Red postulated. I sure would have loved to show this to Red while he was alive. I know he would have been pleased.
I


          New Clues to Universe's Structure Revealed        
What is our universe made of, and has its composition changed over time? Scientists have new insights about these fundamental questions, thanks to an international collaboration of more than 400 scientists called the Dark Energy Survey (DES). Three scientists from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, are part of this group that is helping to further our understanding of the structure of the universe. The advances in astrophysics from DES are crucial to preparations for tw [...]

          [SOUTH AMERICA] Brasil participa en proyecto internacional para investigar energía oscura        
El Observatorio Nacional (ON) de Brasil es uno de los participantes de la iniciativa astronómica internacional Dark Energy Survey, destinada a recoger informaciones sobre la energía oscura,como es llamada la fuerza desconocida que supuestamente domina el Universo y que es responsable por la aceleración de su expansión. En el proyecto participan centros de astronomía de EEUU, Inglaterra, España y Brasil, dijo el astrofísico Luiz Nicolaci da Costa, investigador del ON, en declaraciones publicadas hoy por la agencia de noticias de la Fundación de Amparo a la Pesquisa en el Estado de Sao Paulo.

"Tras años de investigación concluimos que casi el 95 por ciento del Universo es compuesto por cosas que no conocemos, llámese energía oscura o materia oscura, y de las que nadie consiguió probar su existencia.Simplemente no sabemos lo que es. Es eso lo que estamos estudiando", explicóDa Costa.

El astrónomo dijo que los científicos de todo el mundo coincidieron, tras la observación directa en 1998 de algunas supernuevas (cuerpos celestes surgidos tras la explosión de estrellas), que la expansión del Universo se había acelerado y que eso apenas podía explicarse por alguna nueva fuerza. Dicha fuerza de la que se tienen ideas teóricas pero no comprobación física es conocida como la energía oscura.

Según Da Costa, además del Observatorio Nacional, otras instituciones brasileñas que participan en el Dark Energy Survey son la Universidad Federal de Río Grande do Sul y el Centro Brasileño de Pesquisas Físicas.

El especialista explicó que el estudio se encuadra en la nueva tendencia de la astronomía, que prevé la colaboración de varias instituciones para elaborar mapas detallados de extensas regiones del Universo para crear muestras estadísticas que permitan estudiar galaxias o sistemas planetarios.

El Dark Energy Survey, por ejemplo, prevé la elaboración de un estudio fotométrico de 5 grados cuadrados del cielo en siete diferentes filtros para poder investigar las características y propiedades de la energía oscura. El objetivo es intentar comprobar empíricamente y por observación la influencia de la energía oscura en la expansión del Universo.

"La idea es que esos datos puedan ser usados para confrontar teorías físicas. Al final, es la física la que va a tener que explicar la expansión del Universo", según Da Costa.

El astrofísico afirmó que el Observatorio Nacional también estágestionando su participación en el Sloan Digital Sky Survey 3 (SDSS-III), un estudio espectroscópico que, también mediante la colaboración de varias instituciones mundiales, pretende recoger informaciones sobre la estructura de la Vía Láctea.

"Apenas trabajando en conjunto, las diferentes instituciones brasileñas podremos exigir apoyo gubernamental y hacer viable nuestra participación en este tipo de proyectos de carácter mundial, que pueden ayudar a formar la próxima generación de astrónomos del país", afirmó.

El SDSS-III es una ambiciosa red de colaboración internacional que estásiendo montada para recoger muestras estadísticas que sirvan para estudios en diferentes áreas de la astronomía, como cosmología, estructura de la galaxia y sistemas planetarios.

Tales muestras serán resultados de diferentes imágenes y estudios espectroscópicos de extensas regiones del Universo hechas por los participantes desde diversos lugares del mundo. En sus primeras ediciones, la red de cooperación internacional montó uno de los mapas galácticos más detallados existentes hasta hoy.

Source: Xinhuanet

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          New theory on the origin of dark matter        
Only a small part of the universe consists of visible matter. By far the largest part is invisible and consists of dark matter and dark energy. Very little is known about dark energy, but there are many theories and experiments on the existence of dark matter designed to find these as yet unknown particles. Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. This new model proposes an alternative to the WIMP paradigm that is the subject of various experiments in current research.

          WFIRST        

Back in 2012, Christmas came a little early for NASA. In June, the National Reconnaissance Office gave the agency two space telescopes, each with a main mirror as big as that on Hubble Space Telescope. It took some time for the space agency to figure out what to do with the telescopes. But this year, it’s finalizing plans for one of them: It’ll study dark energy, the earliest galaxies, and planets in other star systems.

The mission is known as WFIRST — the Wide-Field InfraRed Space Telescope. It’ll take advantage of the fact that the would-be spy telescope has a much wider field of view than Hubble, allowing it to see an area of sky a hundred times larger.

With that expansive view, WFIRST will look at a billion galaxies across the cosmos. Precise measurements of the location and motion of these galaxies will allow astronomers to measure changes in dark energy over the eons. Dark energy is causing the universe to expand faster as it ages, but so far, it’s not certain what dark energy really is.

The telescope also will look at galaxies in the very early universe to learn more about the birth of the first stars.

And WFIRST will carry a special instrument to block out the light of a star. That will allow the telescope to probe the space around a star for planets — and even to take pictures of the planets.

Scientists and engineers are looking at another way to use WFIRST to take pictures of planets, and we’ll talk about that tomorrow.


Script by Damond Benningfield

StarDate: 
Thursday, March 17, 2016
Teaser: 
Unwrapping a Christmas present

          Hubblecast 99: Hubble’s biggest discoveries — part 2        
To many, Hubble is best known for its stunning images of celestial objects, but among astronomers it is admired for the valuable data it delivers. Hubble has helped revolutionise astronomy, including shedding light on dark matter and dark energy, lifting the veil on black holes, and peering into the dusty regions around stars to image exoplanets. This new Hubblecast is the second part of an exploration of some of Hubble’s most important discoveries throughout its history.
          The Skeptics Guide #619 - May 20 2017        
What's the Word: Degenerate; News Items: Are You Being Watched?, Mechanism Behind Dark Energy, Dinosaur Extinction, Rational Arguments for God?; Who's That Noisy; Your Questions and E-mails: Indigenous Science, AI Follow Up; Science or Fiction
          The Skeptics Guide #435 - Nov 16 2013        
Interview with Gerald Posner; This Day in Skepticism: LSD; News Items: Oldest Animal, Junk DNA, Martian Lizard, Dark Energy; Who's That Noisy; Your Questions and E-mails: Knee Ligament; Science or Fiction
          The Skeptics Guide #375 - Sep 22 2012        
This Day in Skepticism: Golden Tablets and Hobbit Day; News Items: Warp Drive, Bad Science Reporting, Dark Energy Camera, Crowdsourcing Science, Spheres on Mars, CSICon 2012; Who's That Noisy; Your Questions and E-mails: Blue Moon and Frances; Science or Fiction
          The Skeptics Guide #306 - May 25 2011        
This Day in Skepticism; News Items: Rapture Rationalizations, Fake Moon Rock, Dark Energy Confirmed, Religious Right vs Women's Rights, Preparing for a Zombie Apocalypse; Who's That Noisy; Your Questions and E-mails: Banning Marmite; Science or Fiction
          10 Facts about Dark Energy        
Facts about Dark Energy discuss an unknown form of energy.  The experts believe that the dark energy has great impact for expanding the universe. The term dark energy is very common to spot in the astronomy and physical cosmology. The expansion of universe has been observed by the experts since 1990s.  They believe that dark […]
          A Friend For Pluto: Astronomers Find New Dwarf Planet In Our Solar System        
Scientists in Michigan have found a new dwarf planet in our solar system. It's about 330 miles across and some 8.5 billion miles from the sun. It takes 1,100 years to complete one orbit. But one of the most interesting things about the new object, known for the time being as 2014 UZ224, is the way astronomers found it. David Gerdes of the University of Michigan led the team that found the new dwarf planet. Gerdes describes himself as "an adult-onset astronomer," having started his scientific career as a particle physicist. He helped develop a special camera called the Dark Energy Camera that the U.S. Department of Energy commissioned to make a map of distant galaxies. A few years ago, Gerdes had some undergraduates visiting him for the summer. He decided to give them a project: He asked them if they could find some solar system objects lurking in the galaxy map. How do you find solar system objects in pictures taken of the sky looking for galaxies? Well, you look for things that move:
          Survey Provides High-Precision Measurements of Universe’s Makeup        

New measurements – made possible by the 570-megapixel Dark Energy Camera in Chile – of the amount and “clumpiness” of dark matter in the present-day cosmos were made with a precision that rivals that of inferences from the early universe by a space telescope, the European Space Agency’s Planck observatory.

The post Survey Provides High-Precision Measurements of Universe’s Makeup appeared first on News Center.


          Survey to build largest map of dark matter        
STARSTUFF PODCAST: The biggest survey of dark energy and dark matter ever undertaken about to begin in Australia. Also; a possible alien planet in our solar system, and oops the prime meridian's in the wrong place!
          How Jupiter was made        
STARSTUFF PODCAST: The king of planets may have formed from pebbles. Also; Don't panic! Asteroid won't hit Earth next month, says NASA, and studies narrow down the candidates in the search for dark energy and dark matter.
          How Does NASA Use Underwater Missions to Prepare for Space?        

This question originally appeared on Quora, the knowledge-sharing network where compelling questions are answered by people with unique insights.

Answer by Robert Frost, instructor and flight controller in the flight operations directorate at NASA, on Quora:

The NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations, or NEEMO, project has a charter to extend human presence across the solar system by the affordable and innovative use of spaceflight analogs.

It's a facility that allows NASA to work toward its goals while simultaneously performing experiments that further fields such as marine biology and geology, in conjunction with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Operating in the underwater environment involves similar challenges and hazards to operating in space. If something goes wrong, the crew cannot quickly be evacuated (there is a 15-hour decompression required), so the space flight resource management skills are tested in a realistic environment in which safety must remain a constant portion of the crew’s focus.

NEEMO 21 is a 16-day mission with a variety of experiments on the time line. These include testing a mini DNA sequencer, a medical telemetry device, operations software, and optical communications equipment; performing simulated spacewalks to collect geological and marine biology samples; working with underwater remote operating vehicles; restoring coral and developing a coral nursery; and testing Mars analog operations (crew and ground working together with 15-minute delay in communications).

What is NASA studying with the NEEMO 21 mission? originally appeared on Quora, the knowledge-sharing network where compelling questions are answered by people with unique insights. You can follow Quora on Twitter, Facebook, and Google Plus.  More questions:​


          We Didn’t Really Need to See The E-Mails        
It is easy to go see climate talks at Berkeley and as a social scientist I have to say that they usually make me uncomfortable.  If you go to an  astronomy or physics  talk,  nobody bats an eyelash when people  question the evidence for, say, Dark Energy.   (Criticizing the idea that speed of light sets an absolute limit on velocity definitely will encounter  ... Continue reading »
          Codigos Para yugioh GX Tag Force *_*        
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A Wingbeat of Giant Dragon 28596933
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Armed Dragon LV 3 00980973
Armed Dragon LV 5 46384672
Armed Dragon LV 7 73879377
Armed Dragon LV10 59464593
Armed Ninja 09076207
Armed Samurai - Ben Kei 84430950
Armor Axe 07180418
Armor Break 79649195
Armored Lizard 15480588
Armored Starfish 17535588
Armored Zombie 20277860
Array of Revealing Light 69296555
Arsenal Bug 42364374
Arsenal Robber 55348096
Arsenal Summoner 85489096
Assault on GHQ 62633180
Astral Barrier 37053871
Asura Priest 02134346
Aswan Apparition 88236094
Atomic Firefly 87340664
Attack and Receive 63689843
Attack Reflector Unit 91989718
Aussa the Earth Charmer 37970940
Autonomous Action Unit 71453557
Avatar of the Pot 99284890
Axe Dragonute 84914462
Axe of Despair 40619825
B. Skull Dragon 11901678
B.E.S. Covered Core 15317640
B.E.S. Crystal Core 22790789
B.E.S. Tetran 44954628
Baby Dragon 88819587
Back to Square One 47453433
Backfire 82705573
Backup Soldier 36280194
Bad Reaction to Simochi 40633297
Bait Doll 07165085
Ballista of Rampart Smashing 00242146
Banisher of the Light 61528025
Bark of Dark Ruler 41925941
Barrel Dragon 81480460
Basic Insect 89091579
Battery Charger 61181383
Batteryman AA 63142001
Batteryman C 19733961
Batteryman D 55401221
Battle Footballer 48094997
Battle Ox 05053103
Battle-Scarred 94463200
Bazoo The Soul-Eater 40133511
Beast Soul Swap 35149085
Beaver Warrior 32452818
Beckoning Light 16255442
Beelze Frog 49522489
Begone, Knave 20374520
Behemoth the King of All Animals 22996376
Beiige, Vanguard of Dark World 33731070
Berserk Dragon 85605684
Berserk Gorilla 39168895
Beta the Magnet Warrior 39256679
Bickuribox 25655502
Big Bang Shot 61127349
Big Burn 95472621
Big Core 14148099
Big Koala 42129512
Big Shield Gardna 65240384
Big Wave Small Wave 51562916
Big-Tusked Mammoth 59380081
Bio-Mage 58696829
Birdface 45547649
Black Illusion Ritual 41426869
Black Luster Soldier - Envoy of the Beginning 72989439
Black Pendant 65169794
Black Tyranno 38670435
Blackland Fire Dragon 87564352
Blade Knight 39507162
Blade Rabbit 58268433
Blade Skater 97023549
Bladefly 28470714
Blast Held By a Tribute 89041555
Blast Magician 21051146
Blast with Chain 98239899
Blasting the Ruins 21466326
Blazing Inpachi 05464695
Blind Destruction 32015116
Blindly Loyal Goblin 35215622
Block Attack 25880422
Blockman 48115277
Blowback Dragon 25551951
Blue-Eyes Shining Dragon 53347303
Blue-Eyes Toon Dragon 53183600
Blue-Eyes Ultimate Dragon 23995346
Blue-Eyes White Dragon 89631139
Blue-Winged Crown 41396436
Bokoichi the Freightening Car 08715625
Bombardment Beetle 57409948
Bonding - H2O 45898858
Boneheimer 98456117
Book of Life 02204140
Book of Moon 14087893
Book of Taiyou 38699854
Boss Rush 66947414
Bottom Dweller 81386177
Bottomless Shifting Sand 76532077
Bottomless Trap Hole 29401950
Bountiful Artemis 32296881
Bowganian 52090844
Bracchio-Raidus 16507828
Brain Control 87910978
Brain Jacker 40267580
Branch! 30548775
Breaker the Magical Warrior 71413901
Broww, Huntsman of Dark World 79126789
Brron, Mad King of Dark World 06214884
Bubble Blaster 53586134
Bubble Illusion 80075749
Bubble Shuffle 61968753
Bubonic Vermin 06104968
Burning Algae 41859700
Burning Beast 59364406
Burning Land 24294108
Burst Breath 80163754
Burst Return 27191436
Burst Stream of Destruction 17655904
Buster Blader 78193831
Buster Rancher 84740193
Butterfly Dagger - Elma 69243953
Byser Shock 17597059
Call of The Haunted 97077563
Call of the Mummy 04861205
Cannon Soldier 11384280
Cannonball Spear Shellfish 95614612
Card of Safe Return 57953380
Card Shuffle 12183332
Castle of Dark Illusions 00062121
Cat's Ear Tribe 95841282
Catapult Turtle 95727991
Cathedral of Nobles 29762407
Catnipped Kitty 96501677
Cave Dragon 93220472
Ceasefire 36468556
Celtic Guardian 91152256
Cemetery Bomb 51394546
Centrifugal 01801154
Ceremonial Bell 20228463
Cetus of Dagala 28106077
Chain Burst 48276469
Chain Destruction 01248895
Chain Disappearance 57139487
Chain Energy 79323590
Chain Thrasher 88190453
Chainsaw Insect 77252217
Change of Heart 04031928
Chaos Command Magician 72630549
Chaos Emperor Dragon - Envoy of the End 82301904
Chaos End 61044390
Chaos Greed 97439308
Chaos Necromancer 01434352
Chaos Sorcerer 09596126
Chaosrider Gutaph 47829960
Charcoal Inpachi 13179332
Charm of Shabti 50412166
Charubin the Fire Knight 37421579
Chiron the Mage 16956455
Chopman the Desperate Outlaw 40884383
Chorus of Sanctuary 81380218
Chthonian Alliance 46910446
Chthonian Blast 18271561
Chthonian Polymer 72287557
Chu-Ske the Mouse Fighter 08508055
Clay Charge 22479888
Cliff the Trap Remover 06967870
Cobra Jar 86801871
Cobraman Sakuzy 75109441
Cold Wave 60682203
Collected Power 07565547
Combination Attack 08964854
Command Knight 10375182
Commander Covington 22666164
Commencement Dance 43417563
Compulsory Evaculation Device 94192409
Confiscation 17375316
Conscription 31000575
Continuous Destruction Punch 68057622
Contract With Exodia 33244944
Contract With the Abyss 69035382
Contract with the Dark Master 96420087
Convulsion of Nature 62966332
Cost Down 23265313
Covering Fire 74458486
Crab Turtle 91782219
Crass Clown 93889755
Creature Swap 31036355
Creeping Doom Manta 52571838
Crimson Ninja 14618326
Criosphinx 18654201
Cross Counter 37083210
Crush D. Gandra 64681432
Cure Mermaid 85802526
Curse of Aging 41398771
Curse of Anubis 66742250
Curse of Darkness 84970821
Curse of Dragon 28279543
Curse of the Masked Beast 94377247
Curse of Vampire 34294855
Cyber Dragon 70095154
Cyber End Dragon 01546123
Cyber Twin Dragon 74157028
Cyber-Dark Edge 77625948
Cyber-Stein 69015963
Cyberdark Dragon 40418351
Cyberdark Horn 41230939
Cyberdark Keel 03019642
D - Shield 62868900
D - Time 99075257
D. D. Assailant 70074904
D. D. Borderline 60912752
D. D. Crazy Beast 48148828
D. D. Dynamite 08628798
D. D. M. - Different Dimension Master 82112775
D. D. Trainer 86498013
D. D. Trap Hole 05606466
D. D. Warrior Lady 07572887
Dancing Fairy 90925163
Dangerous Machine TYPE-6 76895648
Dark Artist 72520073
Dark Bat 67049542
Dark Blade 11321183
Dark Blade the Dragon Knight 86805855
Dark Driceratops 65287621
Dark Dust Spirit 89111398
Dark Elf 21417692
Dark Energy 04614116
Dark Factory of Mass Production 90928333
Dark Flare Knight 13722870
Dark Hole 53129443
Dark Magic Attack 02314238
Dark Magic Ritual 76792184
Dark Magician 46986414
Dark Magician Girl 38033121
Dark Magician of Chaos 40737112
Dark Magician's Tome of Black Magic 67227834
Dark Master - Zorc 97642679
Dark Mirror Force 20522190
Dark Paladin 98502113
Dark Room of Nightmare 85562745
Dark Sage 92377303
Dark Snake Syndrome 47233801
Dark-Piercing Light 45895206
Darkfire Dragon 17881964
Darkfire Soldier #1 05388481
Darkfire Soldier #2 78861134
Darkworld Thorns 43500484
De-Spell 19159413
Deal of Phantom 69122763
Decayed Commander 10209545
Dedication Through Light And Darkness 69542930
Deepsea Shark 28593363
Dekoichi the Battlechanted Locomotive 87621407
Delinquent Duo 44763025
Demotion 72575145
Des Counterblow 39131963
Des Croaking 44883830
Des Dendle 12965761
Des Feral Imp 81985784
Des Frog 84451804
Des Kangaroo 78613627
Des Koala 69579761
Des Lacooda 02326738
Des Wombat 09637706
Desert Sunlight 93747864
Destertapir 13409151
Destiny Board 94212438
Destiny Hero - Captain Tenacious 77608643
Destiny Hero - Diamond Dude 13093792
Destiny Hero - Doom Lord 41613948
Destiny Hero - Dreadmaster 40591390
Destiny Signal 35464895
Destroyer Golem 73481154
Destruction Ring 21219755
Dian Keto the Cure Master 84257639
Dice Jar 03549275
Dimension Distortion 95194279
Dimensional Warrior 37043180
Disappear 24623598
Disarmament 20727787
Disc Fighter 19612721
Dissolverock 40826495
Divine Dragon Ragnarok 62113340
Divine Wrath 49010598
DNA Surgery 74701381
DNA Transplant 56769674
Doitsu 57062206
Dokurorider 99721536
Dokuroyaiba 30325729
Don Turtle 03493978
Don Zaloog 76922029
Doriado 84916669
Doriado's Blessing 23965037
Dragon Seeker 28563545
Dragon Treasure 01435851
Dragon Zombie 66672569
Dragon's Mirror 71490127
Dragon's Rage 54178050
Dragoness the Wicked Knight 70681994
Draining Shield 43250041
Dream Clown 13215230
Drillago 99050989
Drillroid 71218746
Dunames Dark Witch 12493482
Dust Tornado 60082867
Earth Chant 59820352
Earthbound Spirit 67105242
Earthquake 82828051
Eatgaboon 42578427
Ebon Magician Curran 46128076
Electro-Whip 37820550
Elegant Egotist 90219263
Element Dragon 30314994
Elemental Burst 61411502
Elemental Hero Avian 21844576
Elemental Hero Bladedge 59793705
Elemental Hero Bubbleman 79979666
Elemental Hero Burstinatrix 58932615
Elemental Hero Clayman 84327329
Elemental Hero Electrum/Erekshieler 29343734
Elemental Hero Flame Wingman 35809262
Elemental Hero Mariner 14225239
Elemental Hero Necroid Shaman 81003500
Elemental Hero Neos 89943723
Elemental Hero Phoenix Enforcer 41436536
Elemental Hero Shining Flare Wingman 25366484
Elemental Hero Shining Phoenix Enforcer 88820235
Elemental Hero Sparkman 20721928
Elemental Hero Thunder Giant 61204971
Elemental Mistress Doriado 99414158
Elemental Recharge 36586443
Elf's Light 39897277
Emblem of Dragon Destroyer 06390406
Embodiment of Apophis 28649820
Emergency Provisions 53046408
Emes the Infinity 43580269
Empress Judge 15237615
Empress Mantis 58818411
Enchanted Javelin 96355986
Enchanting Mermaid 75376965
Enemy Controller 98045062
Enraged Battle Ox 76909279
Enraged Muka Muka 91862578
Eradicating Aerosol 94716515
Eternal Draught 56606928
Eternal Rest 95051344
Exhausting Spell 95451366
Exile of the Wicked 26725158
Exiled Force 74131780
Exodia Necross 12600382
Exodia the Forbidden One 33396948
Fairy Box 21598948
Fairy Dragon 20315854
Fairy King Truesdale 45425051
Fairy Meteor Crush 97687912
Faith Bird 75582395
Fatal Abacus 77910045
Fenrir 00218704
Feral Imp 41392891
Fiber Jar 78706415
Fiend Comedian 81172176
Fiend Scorpion 26566878
Fiend's Hand 52800428
Fiend's Mirror 31890399
Final Countdown 95308449
Final Destiny 18591904
Final Flame 73134081
Final Ritual of the Ancients 60369732
Fire Darts 43061293
Fire Eye 88435542
Fire Kraken 46534755
Fire Princess 64752646
Fire Reaper 53581214
Fire Sorcerer 27132350
Firegrass 53293545
Firewing Pegasus 27054370
Fireyarou 71407486
Fissure 66788016
Five God Dragon (Five Headed Dragon) 99267150
Flame Cerebrus 60862676
Flame Champion 42599677
Flame Dancer 12883044
Flame Ghost 58528964
Flame Manipulator 34460851
Flame Swordsman 45231177
Flame Viper 02830619
Flash Assailant 96890582
Flower Wolf 95952802
Flying Fish 31987274
Flying Kamakiri #1 84834865
Flying Kamakiri #2 03134241
Follow Wind 98252586
Foolish Burial 81439173
Forest 87430998
Fortress Whale 62337487
Fortress Whale's Oath 77454922
Frenzied Panda 98818516
Frozen Soul 57069605
Fruits of Kozaky's Studies 49998907
Fuh-Rin-Ka-Zan 01781310
Fuhma Shuriken 09373534
Fulfillment of the Contract 48206762
Fushi No Tori 38538445
Fusion Gate 33550694
Fusion Recovery 18511384
Fusion Sage 26902560
Fusion Weapon 27967615
Fusionist 01641883
Gadget Soldier 86281779
Gagagigo 49003308
Gaia Power 56594520
Gaia the Dragon Champion 66889139
Gaia the Fierce Knight 06368038
Gale Dogra 16229315
Gale Lizard 77491079
Gamble 37313786
Gamma the Magnet Warrior 11549357
Garma Sword 90844184
Garma Sword Oath 78577570
Garoozis 14977074
Garuda the Wind Spirit 12800777
Gatling Dragon 87751584
Gazelle the King of Mythical Beasts 05818798
Gear Golem the Moving Fortress 30190809
Gearfried the Iron Knight 00423705
Gearfried the Swordmaster 57046845
Gemini Elf 69140098
Getsu Fuhma 21887179
Giant Axe Mummy 78266168
Giant Germ 95178994
Giant Kozaky 58185394
Giant Orc 73698349
Giant Rat 97017120
Giant Red Seasnake 58831685
Giant Soldier of Stone 13039848
Giant Trunade 42703248
Gift of the Mystical Elf 98299011
Giga Gagagigo 43793530
Giga-Tech Wolf 08471389
Gigantes 47606319
Gigobyte 53776525
Gil Garth 38445524
Gilasaurus 45894482
Giltia the D. Knight 51828629
Girochin Kuwagata 84620194
Goblin Attack Force 78658564
Goblin Calligrapher 12057781
Goblin Elite Attack Force 85306040
Goblin Thief 45311864
Goblin's Secret Remedy 11868825
Gogiga Gagagigo 39674352
Golem Sentry 82323207
Good Goblin Housekeeping 09744376
Gora Turtle 80233946
Graceful Charity 79571449
Graceful Dice 74137509
Gradius 10992251
Gradius' Option 14291024
Granadora 13944422
Grand Tiki Elder 13676474
Granmarg the Rock Monarch 60229110
Gravedigger Ghoul 82542267
Gravekeeper's Cannonholder 99877698
Gravekeeper's Curse 50712728
Gravekeeper's Guard 37101832
Gravekeeper's Servant 16762927
Gravekeeper's Spear Soldier 63695531
Gravekeeper's Spy 24317029
Gravekeeper's Vassal 99690140
Graverobber's Retribution 33737664
Gravity Bind 85742772
Gray Wing 29618570
Great Angus 11813953
Great Long Nose 02356994
Great Mammoth of Goldfine 54622031
Green Gadget 41172955
Gren Maju Da Eiza 36584821
Ground Attacker Bugroth 58314394
Ground Collapse 90502999
Gruesome Goo 65623423
Gryphon Wing 55608151
Gryphon's Feather Duster 34370473
Guardian Angel Joan 68007326
Guardian of the Labyrinth 89272878
Guardian of the Sea 85448931
Guardian Sphinx 40659562
Guardian Statue 75209824
Gust Fan 55321970
Gyaku-Gire Panda 09817927
Gyroid 18325492
Hade-Hane 28357177
Hamburger Recipe 80811661
Hammer Shot 26412047
Hamon 32491822
Hand of Nephthys 98446407
Hane-Hane 07089711
Hannibal Necromancer 05640330
Hard Armor 20060230
Harpie Girl 34100324
Harpie Lady 1 91932350
Harpie Lady 2 27927359
Harpie Lady 3 54415063
Harpie Lady Sisters 12206212
Harpie's Brother 30532390
Harpies' Hunting Ground 75782277
Hayabusa Knight 21015833
Headless Knight 05434080
Heart of Clear Water 64801562
Heart of the Underdog 35762283
Heavy Mech Support Platform 23265594
Heavy Storm 19613556
Helios - The Primordial Sun 54493213
Helios Duo Megistus 80887952
Helios Tris Megiste 17286057
Helping Robo for Combat 47025270
Hero Barrier 44676200
HERO Flash!! 00191749
Hero Heart 67951831
Hero Kid 32679370
Hero Ring 26647858
Hero Signal 22020907
Hidden Book of Spell 21840375
Hidden Soldier 02047519
Hieracosphinx 82260502
Hieroglyph Lithograph 10248192
High Tide Gyojin 54579801
Hiita the Fire Charmer 00759393
Hino-Kagu-Tsuchi 75745607
Hinotama Soul 96851799
Hiro's Shadow Scout 81863068
Hitotsu-Me Giant 76184692
Holy Knight Ishzark 57902462
Homunculus the Alchemic Being 40410110
Horn of Heaven 98069388
Horn of Light 38552107
Horn of the Unicorn 64047146
Horus The Black Flame Dragon LV4 75830094
Horus The Black Flame Dragon LV6 11224103
Horus The Black Flame Dragon LV8 48229808
Hoshiningen 67629977
House of Adhesive Tape 15083728
Howling Insect 93107608
Huge Revolution 65396880
Human-Wave Tactics 30353551
Humanoid Slime 46821314
Humanoid Worm Drake 05600127
Hungry Burger 30243636
Hydrogeddon 22587018
Hyena 22873798
Hyozanryu 62397231
Hyper Hammerhead 02671330
Hysteric Fairy 21297224
Icarus Attack 53567095
Illusionist Faceless Mage 28546905
Impenetrable Formation 96631852
Imperial Order 61740673
Inaba White Rabbit 77084837
Incandescent Ordeal 33031674
Indomitable Fighter Lei Lei 84173492
Infernal Flame Emperor 19847532
Infernal Queen Archfiend 08581705
Inferno 74823665
Inferno Fire Blast 52684508
Inferno Hammer 17185260
Inferno Reckless Summon 12247206
Inferno Tempest 14391920
Infinite Cards 94163677
Infinite Dismissal 54109233
Injection Fairy Lily 79575620
Inpachi 97923414
Insect Armor with Laser Cannon 03492538
Insect Barrier 23615409
Insect Imitation 96965364
Insect Knight 35052053
Insect Princess 37957847
Insect Queen 91512835
Insect Soldiers of the Sky 07019529
Inspection 16227556
Interdimensional Matter Transporter 36261276
Invader From Another Dimension 28450915
Invader of Darkness 56647086
Invader of the Throne 03056267
Invasion of Flames 26082229
Invigoration 98374133
Iron Blacksmith Kotetsu 73431236
Island Turtle 04042268
Jack's Knight 90876561
Jade Insect Whistle 95214051
Jam Breeding Machine 21770260
Jam Defender 21558682
Jar of Greed 83968380
Jar Robber 33784505
Javelin Beetle 26932788
Javelin Beetle Pact 41182875
Jellyfish 14851496
Jerry Beans Man 23635815
Jetroid 43697559
Jinzo 77585513
Jinzo #7 32809211
Jirai Gumo 94773007
Jowgen the Spiritualist 41855169
Jowls of Dark Demise 05257687
Judge Man 30113682
Judgment of Anubis 55256016
Just Desserts 24068492
KA-2 Des Scissors 52768103
Kabazauls 51934376
Kagemusha of the Blue Flame 15401633
Kaibaman 34627841
Kaiser Dragon 94566432
Kaiser Glider 52824910
Kaiser Sea Horse 17444133
Kaminari Attack 09653271
Kaminote Blow 97570038
Kamionwizard 41544074
Kangaroo Champ 95789089
Karate Man 23289281
Karbonala Warrior 54541900
Karma Cut 71587526
Kelbek 54878498
Keldo 80441106
Killer Needle 88979991
Kinetic Soldier 79853073
King Dragun 13756293
King Fog 84686841
King of the Skull Servants 36021814
King of the Swamp 79109599
King of Yamimakai 69455834
King Tiger Wanghu 83986578
King's Knight 64788463
Kiryu 84814897
Kiseitai 04266839
Kishido Spirit 60519422
Knight's Title 87210505
Koitsu 69456283
Kojikocy 01184620
Kotodama 19406822
Kozaky 99171160
Kozaky's Self-Destruct Button 21908319
Kryuel 82642348
Kumootoko 56283725
Kurama 85705804
Kuriboh 40640057
Kuwagata Alpha 60802233
Kwagar Hercules 95144193
Kycoo The Ghost Destroyer 88240808
La Jinn The Mystical Genie of The Lamp 97590747
Labyrinth of Nightmare 66526672
Labyrinth Tank 99551425
Lady Assailant of Flames 90147755
Lady Ninja Yae 82005435
Lady of Faith 17358176
Larvas 94675535
Laser Cannon Armor 77007920
Last Day of Witch 90330453
Last Turn 28566710
Launcher Spider 87322377
Lava Battleguard 20394040
Lava Golem 00102380
Layard the Liberator 67468948
Left Arm of the Forbidden One 07902349
Left Leg of the Forbidden One 44519536
Legendary Black Belt 96438440
Legendary Flame Lord 60258960
Legendary Jujitsu Master 25773409
Legendary Sword 61854111
Leghul 12472242
Lekunga 62543393
Lesser Dragon 55444629
Lesser Fiend 16475472
Level Conversion Lab 84397023
Level Limit - Area A 54976796
Level Limit - Area B 03136426
Level Modulation 61850482
Level Up! 25290459
Levia-Dragon 37721209
Light of Intervention 62867251
Light of Judgment 44595286
Lighten the Load 37231841
Lightforce Sword 49587034
Lightning Blade 55226821
Lightning Conger 27671321
Lightning Vortex 69162969
Limiter Removal 23171610
Liquid Beast 93108297
Little Chimera 68658728
Little-Winguard 90790253
Lizard Soldier 20831168
Lord of D. 17985575
Lord of the Lamp 99510761
Lost Guardian 45871897
Luminous Soldier 57282479
Luminous Spark 81777047
Luster Dragon 11091375
Luster Dragon #2 17658803
M-Warrior #1 56342351
M-Warrior #2 92731455
Machine Conversion Factory 25769732
Machine Duplication 63995093
Machine King 46700124
Machine King Prototype 89222931
Machiners Defender 96384007
Machiners Force 58054262
Machiners Sniper 23782705
Machiners Soldier 60999392
Mad Dog of Darkness 79182538
Mad Lobster 97240270
Mad Sword Beast 79870141
Mage Power 83746708
Magic Drain 59344077
Magic Jammer 77414722
Magical Cylinder 62279055
Magical Dimension 28553439
Magical Explosion 32723153
Magical Hats 81210420
Magical Labyrinth 64389297
Magical Marionette 08034697
Magical Merchant 32362575
Magical Plant Mandragola 07802006
Magical Scientist 34206604
Magical Thorn 53119267
Magician of Black Chaos 30208479
Magician of Faith 31560081
Magician's Circle 00050755
Magician's Unite 36045450
Magician's Valkyrie 80304126
Magnet Circle 94940436
Maha Vailo 93013676
Maharaghi 40695128
Maiden of the Aqua 17214465
Maji-Gire Panda 60102563
Maju Garzett 08794435
Makiu 27827272
Makyura the Destructor 21593977
Malevolent Nuzzler 99597615
Malfunction 06137095
Malice Ascendant 14255590
Malice Dispersion 13626450
Mammoth Graveyard 40374923
Man Eater 93553943
Man-Eater Bug 54652250
Man-Eating Black Shark 80727036
Man-Eating Treasure Chest 13723605
Man-Thro' Tro' 43714890
Manga Ryu-Ran 38369349
Manju of the Ten Thousand Hands 95492061
Manticore of Darkness 77121851
Marauding Captain 02460565
Marie the Fallen One 57579381
Marine Beast 29929832
Marshmallon 31305911
Marshmallon Glasses 66865880
Maryokutai 71466592
Masaki the Legendary Swordsman 44287299
Mask of Brutality 82432018
Mask of Darkness 28933734
Mask of Restrict 29549364
Mask of Weakness 57882509
Masked Dragon 39191307
Masked of the Accursed 56948373
Masked Sorcerer 10189126
Mass Driver 34906152
Master Kyonshee 24530661
Master Monk 49814180
Master of Dragon Knight 62873545
Master of Oz 27134689
Mataza the Zapper 22609617
Mavelus 59036972
Maximum Six 30707994
Mazera DeVille 06133894
Mech Mole Zombie 63545455
Mecha-Dog Marron 94667532
Mechanical Hound 22512237
Mechanical Snail 34442949
Mechanical Spider 45688586
Mechanicalchaser 07359741
Meda Bat 76211194
Medusa Worm 02694423
Mefist the Infernal General 46820049
Mega Thunderball 21817254
Mega Ton Magical Cannon 32062913
Megamorph 22046459
Megarock Dragon 71544954
Melchid the Four-Face Beast 86569121
Memory Crusher 48700891
Mermaid Knight 24435369
Messenger of Peace 44656491
Metal Armored Bug 65957473
Metal Dragon 09293977
Metallizing Parasite 07369217
Metalmorph 68540058
Metalzoa 50705071
Metamorphosis 46411259
Meteor B. Dragon 90660762
Meteor Dragon 64271667
Meteor of Destruction 33767325
Meteorain 64274292
Michizure 37580756
Micro-Ray 18190572
Mid Shield Gardna 75487237
Mighty Guard 62327910
Mikazukinoyaiba 38277918
Millennium Golem 47986555
Millennium Scorpion 82482194
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Milus Radiant 07489323
Minar 32539892
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Mind Wipe 52718046
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Minor Goblin Official 01918087
Miracle Dig 06343408
Miracle Fusion 45906428
Miracle Kid 55985014
Miracle Restoring 68334074
Mirage Dragon 15960641
Mirage Knight 49217579
Mirage of Nightmare 41482598
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Mirror Wall 22359980
Misfortune 01036974
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Mokey Mokey 27288416
Mokey Mokey King 13803864
Mokey Mokey Smackdown 01965724
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Monk Fighter 03810071
Monster Egg 36121917
Monster Eye 84133008
Monster Gate 43040603
Monster Reborn 83764718
Monster Recovery 93108433
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Morale Boost 93671934
Morphing Jar 33508719
Morphing Jar #2 79106360
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Mr. Volcano 31477025
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Muka Muka 46657337
Multiplication of Ants 22493811
Multiply 40703222
Musician King 56907389
Mustering of the Dark Scorpions 68191243
Mysterious Puppeteer 54098121
Mystic Horseman 68516705
Mystic Lamp 98049915
Mystic Plasma Zone 18161786
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Mystic Swordsman LV 4 74591968
Mystic Swordsman LV 6 60482781
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Mystical Elf 15025844
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Mystical Sheep #2 30451366
Mystical Shine Ball 39552864
Mystical Space Typhoon 05318639
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Mythical Beast Cerberus 55424270
Nanobreaker 70948327
Necklace of Command 48576971
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Neo Bug 16587243
Neo the Magic Swordsman 50930991
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Nightmare Wheel 54704216
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Ninja Grandmaster Sasuke 04041838
Ninjitsu Art of Decoy 89628781
Ninjitsu Art of Transformation 70861343
Nitro Unit 23842445
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Nobleman of Crossout 71044499
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Non Aggression Area 76848240
Non-Fusion Area 27581098
Non-Spellcasting Area 20065549
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Nubian Guard 51616747
Numinous Healer 02130625
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Offerings to the Doomed 19230407
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Ojama Delta Hurricane 08251996
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Opticlops 14531242
Option Hunter 33248692
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Order to Charge 78986941
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Otohime 39751093
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Phantom Beast Thunder-Pegasus 34961968
Phantom Beast Wild-Horn 07576264
Pharaoh's Servant 52550973
Pharonic Protector 89959682
Phoenix Wing Wind Blast 63356631
Photon Generator Unit 66607691
Pikeru's Circle of Enchantment 74270067
Pikeru's Second Sight 58015506
Pinch Hopper 26185991
Pineapple Blast 90669991
Piranha Army 50823978
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Poison Draw Frog 56840658
Poison Fangs 76539047
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Poison of the Old Man 08842266
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Pot of Avarice 67169062
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Precious Card from Beyond 68304813
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Prepare to Strike Back 04483989
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Primal Seed 23701465
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Princess of Tsurugi 51371017
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Protective Soul Ailin 11678191
Protector of the Sanctuary 24221739
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Pyramid of Light 53569894
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Queen's Knight 25652259
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Rain Of Mercy 66719324
Rainbow Flower 21347810
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Raregold Armor 07625614
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Ray & Temperature 85309439
Ray of Hope 82529174
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Ready For Intercepting 31785398
Really Eternal Rest 28121403
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Red-Eyes Black Metal Dragon 64335804
Red-Eyes Darkness Dragon 96561011
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Reinforcement of the Army 32807846
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Rescueroid 24311595
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Respect Play 08951260
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Right Arm of the Forbidden One 70903634
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Roll Out! 91597389
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Ryu-Kishin Powered 24611934
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Salvage 96947648
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Sand Gambler 50593156
Sand Moth 73648243
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Sanwitch 53539634
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Sasuke Samurai #2 11760174
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Satellite Cannon 50400231
Scapegoat 73915051
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Science Soldier 67532912
Scroll of Bewitchment 10352095
Scyscraper 63035430
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Sealmaster Meisei 02468169
Second Coin Toss 36562627
Second Goblin 19086954
Secret Barrel 27053506
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Senri Eye 60391791
Serial Spell 49398568
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Serpentine Princess 71829750
Servant of Catabolism 02792265
Seven Tools of the Bandit 03819470
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Shadow Of Eyes 58621589
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Shifting Shadows 59237154
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Shooting Star Bow - Ceal 95638658
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Silver Fang 90357090
Simorgh, Bird of Divinity 14989021
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Sinister Serpent 08131171
Sixth Sense 03280747
Skill Drain 82732705
Skilled Dark Magician 73752131
Skilled White Magician 46363422
Skull Archfiend of Lightning 61370518
Skull Descovery Knight 78700060
Skull Dog Marron 86652646
Skull Invitation 98139712
Skull Lair 06733059
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Skull-Mark Ladybug 64306248
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Slate Warrior 78636495
Smashing Ground 97169186
Smoke Grenade of the Thief 63789924
Snatch Steal 45986603
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Soitsu 60246171
Solar Flare Dragon 45985838
Solar Ray 44472639
Solemn Judgment 41420027
Solemn Wishes 35346968
Solomon's Lawbook 23471572
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Sonic Jammer 84550200
Sorcerer of Dark Magic 88619463
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Soul Reversal 78864369
Soul Tiger 15734813
Soul-Absorbing Bone Tower 63012333
Souleater 31242786
Souls Of The Forgotten 04920010
Space Mambo 36119641
Spark Blaster 97362768
Sparks 76103675
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Spear Cretin 58551308
Spear Dragon 31553716
Spell Canceller 84636823
Spell Economics 04259068
Spell Purification 01669772
Spell Reproduction 29228529
Spell Shield Type-8 38275183
Spell Vanishing 29735721
Spell-Stopping Statute 10069180
Spellbinding Circle 18807108
Spherous Lady 52121290
Sphinx Teleia 51402177
Spiral Spear Strike 49328340
Spirit Barrier 53239672
Spirit Caller 48659020
Spirit Message A 94772232
Spirit Message I 31893528
Spirit Message L 30170981
Spirit Message N 67287533
Spirit of Flames 13522325
Spirit of the Breeze 53530069
Spirit of the Harp 80770678
Spirit of the Pharaoh 25343280
Spirit Reaper 23205979
Spirit Ryu 67957315
Spiritual Earth Art - Kurogane 70156997
Spiritual Energy Settle Machine 99173029
Spiritual Fire Art - Kurenai 42945701
Spiritual Water Art - Aoi 06540606
Spiritual Wind Art - Miyabi 79333300
Spiritualism 15866454
St. Joan 21175632
Stamping Destruction 81385346
Star Boy 08201910
Statue of the Wicked 65810489
Staunch Defender 92854392
Stealth Bird 03510565
Steam Gyroid 05368615
Steamroid 44729197
Steel Ogre Grotto #1 29172562
Steel Ogre Grotto #2 90908427
Stim-Pack 83225447
Stop Defense 63102017
Storming Wynn 29013526
Stray Lambs 60764581
Strike Ninja 41006930
Stronghold 13955608
Stumbling 34646691
Success Probability 0% 06859683
Summon Priest 00423585
Summoned Skull 70781052
Summoner of Illusions 14644902
Super Conductor Tyranno 85520851
Super Rejuvenation 27770341
Super Robolady 75923050
Super Roboyarou 01412158
Supply 44072894
Susa Soldier 40473581
Swarm of Locusts 41872150
Swarm of Scarabs 15383415
Swift Gaia the Fierce Knight 16589042
Sword Hunter 51345461
Sword of Deep-Seated 98495314
Sword of Dragon's Soul 61405855
Sword of the Soul Eater 05371656
Swords of Concealing Light 12923641
Swords of Revealing Light 72302403
Swordsman of Landstar 03573512
Symbol of Heritage 45305419
System Down 18895832
T.A.D.P.O.L.E. 10456559
Tactical Espionage Expert 89698120
Tailor of the Fickle 43641473
Taunt 90740329
Tenkabito Shien 41589166
Terra the Terrible 63308047
Terraforming 73628505
Terrorking Archfiend 35975813
Terrorking Salmon 78060096
Teva 16469012
The Agent of Creation - Venus 64734921
The Agent of Force - Mars 91123920
The Agent of Judgment - Saturn 91345518
The Agent of Wisdom - Mercury 38730226
The All-Seeing White Tiger 32269855
The Big March of Animals 01689516
The Bistro Butcher 71107816
The Cheerful Coffin 41142615
The Creator 61505339
The Creator Incarnate 97093037
The Dark - Hex Sealed Fusion 52101615
The Dark Door 30606547
The Dragon Dwelling in the Cave 93346024
The Dragon's Bead 92408984
The Earl of Demise 66989694
The Earth - Hex Sealed Fusion 88696724
The Emperor's Holiday 68400115
The End of Anubis 65403020
The Eye Of Truth 34694160
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The Flute of Summoning Dragon 43973174
The Flute of Summoning Kuriboh 20065322
The Forceful Sentry 42829885
The Forces of Darkness 29826127
The Forgiving Maiden 84080938
The Furious Sea King 18710707
The Graveyard in the Fourth Dimension 88089103
The Gross Ghost of Fled Dreams 68049471
The Hunter With 7 Weapons 01525329
The Illusionary Gentleman 83764996
The Immortal of Thunder 84926738
The Kick Man 90407382
The Last Warrior From Another Planet 86099788
The Law of the Normal 66926224
The League of Uniform Nomenclature 55008284
The Legendary Fisherman 03643300
The Light - Hex Sealed Fusion 15717011
The Little Swordsman of Aile 25109950
The Masked Beast 49064413
The Portrait's Secret 32541773
The Regulation of Tribe 00296499
The Reliable Guardian 16430187
The Rock Spirit 76305638
The Sanctuary in the Sky 56433456
The Second Sarcophagus 04081094
The Secret of the Bandit 99351431
The Shallow Grave 43434803
The Spell Absorbing Life 99517131
The Thing in the Crater 78243409
The Third Sarcophagus 78697395
The Trojan Horse 38479725
The Unhappy Girl 27618634
The Unhappy Maiden 51275027
The Warrior Returning Alive 95281259
Theban Nightmare 51838385
Theinen the Great Sphinx 87997872
Thestalos the Firestorm Monarch 26205777
Thousand Dragon 41462083
Thousand Energy 05703682
Thousand Needles 33977496
Thousand-Eyes Idol 27125110
Thousand-Eyes Restrict 63519819
Threatening Roar 36361633
Three-Headed Geedo 78423643
Throwstone Unit 76075810
Thunder Crash 69196160
Thunder Dragon 31786629
Thunder Nyan Nyan 70797118
Thunder of Ruler 91781589
Time Seal 35316708
Time Wizard 71625222
Timeater 44913552
Timidity 40350910
Token Festevil 83675475
Token Thanksgiving 57182235
Tongyo 69572024
Toon Cannon Soldier 79875176
Toon Dark Magician Girl 90960358
Toon Defense 43509019
Toon Gemini Elf 42386471
Toon Goblin Attack Force 15270885
Toon Masked Sorcerer 16392422
Toon Mermaid 65458948
Toon Summoned Skull 91842653
Toon Table of Contents 89997728
Toon World 15259703
Tornado Bird 71283180
Tornado Wall 18605135
Torpedo Fish 90337190
Torrential Tribute 53582587
Total Defense Shogun 75372290
Tower of Babel 94256039
Tradgedy 35686187
Transcendent Wings 25573054
Trap Dustshoot 64697231
Trap Hole 04206964
Trap Jammer 19252988
Treeborn Frog 12538374
Tremendous Fire 46918794
Tri-Horned Dragon 39111158
Triage 30888983
Trial of Nightmare 77827521
Trial of the Princesses 72709014
Triangle Ecstasy Spark 12181376
Triangle Power 32298781
Tribe-Infecting Virus 33184167
Tribute Doll 02903036
Tribute to The Doomed 79759861
Tripwire Beast 45042329
Troop Dragon 55013285
Tsukuyomi 34853266
Turtle Oath 76806714
Turtle Tiger 37313348
Twin Swords of Flashing Light 21900719
Twin-Headed Beast 82035781
Twin-Headed Behemoth 43586926
Twin-Headed Fire Dragon 78984772
Twin-Headed Thunder Dragon 54752875
Twin-Headed Wolf 88132637
Two Thousand Needles 83228073
Two-Man Cell Battle 25578802
Two-Mouth Darkruler 57305373
Two-Pronged Attack 83887306
Tyhone 72842870
Type Zero Magic Crusher 21237481
Tyranno Infinity 83235263
Tyrant Dragon 94568601
UFOroid 07602840
UFOroid Fighter 32752319
Ultimate Insect LV1 49441499
Ultimate Insect LV3 34088136
Ultimate Insect LV5 34830502
Ultimate Insect LV7 19877898
Ultimate Obedient Fiend 32240937
Ultimate Tyranno 15894048
Ultra Evolution Pill 22431243
Umi 22702055
Umiiruka 82999629
Union Attack 60399954
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United We Stand 56747793
Unity 14731897
Unshaven Angler 92084010
Upstart Goblin 70368879
Uraby 01784619
Uria, Lord of Sealing Flames 06007213
V-Tiger Jet 51638941
Valkyrion the Magna Warrior 75347539
Vampire Genesis 22056710
Vampire Lord 53839837
Vampire Orchis 46571052
Vengeful Bog Spirit 95220856
Victory D 44910027
Vilepawn Archfiend 73219648
VW-Tiger Catapult 58859575
VWXYZ-Dragon Catapult Cannon 84243274
W-Wing Catapult 96300057
Waboku 12607053
Wall of Revealing Light 17078030
Wandering Mummy 42994702
Warrior Dai Grepher 75953262
Warrior of Zera 66073051
Wasteland 23424603
Water Dragon 85066822
Water Omotics 02483611
Wave Motion Cannon 38992735
Weed Out 28604635
Whiptail Crow 91996584
Whirlwind Prodigy 15090429
White Dragon Ritual 09786492
White Horn Dragon 73891874
White Magical Hat 15150365
White Magician Pikeru 81383947
White Ninja 01571945
Wicked-Breaking Flameberge-Baou 68427465
Wild Nature's Release 61166988
Winged Dragon, Guardian of the Fortress #1 87796900
Winged Kuriboh 57116033
Winged Kuriboh LV10 98585345
Winged Minion 89258225
Winged Sage Falcos 87523462
Wingweaver 31447217
Witch Doctor of Chaos 75946257
Witch of the Black Forest 78010363
Witch's Apprentice 80741828
Witty Phantom 36304921
Wolf Axwielder 56369281
Woodborg Inpachi 35322812
Woodland Sprite 06979239
Worm Drake 73216412
Wroughtweiler 06480253
Wynn the Wind Charmer 37744402
X-Head Cannon 62651957
Xing Zhen Hu 76515293
XY-Dragon Cannon 02111707
XYZ-Dragon Cannon 91998119
XZ-Tank Cannon 99724761
Y-Dragon Head 65622692
Yamata Dragon 76862289
Yami 59197169
Yata-Garasu 03078576
Yellow Gadget 13839120
Yellow Luster Shield 04542651
Yomi Ship 51534754
YZ-Tank Dragon 25119460
Z-Metal Tank 64500000
Zaborg the Thunder Monarch 51945556
Zero Gravity 83133491
Zoa 24311372
Zolga 16268841
Zombie Tiger 47693640
Zombyra the Dark 88472456
Zure, Knight of Dark World 07459013
          CONSOLATION TEN: ZEST FOR LIVING (1)        
     Most non-atheists see atheists as unhappy campers.  They think that atheists find no meaning or purpose in human life and nature as a whole.  They believe that without a transcendent, supernatural intelligence to validate it, nature offers no basis for human joy.  To them, it seems impossible that an atheist who on one hand denies a divine plan for humanity and on the other affirms a random materiality at the core of being can find human life happy or fulfilling.  They feel that all atheists must be  uniquely prone to pessimism and depression in the face of existential discouragements like those caused by today's hard economic times.
     In this and follow-up posts I want to explain to those who feel this way why I and most other atheists do not agree.  On the contrary, we feel at least as much zest for living and as much pleasure in having been born as they.  Furthermore, we much prefer our explanation of the world to theirs.  The world is not the creation of supernatural and immaterial deities, we hold, but instead a boundless web of material substance that during the Big Bang lost its initial symmetries and became the time-space-mass-energy manifold that generated every atom in our cosmos,
     Today I'll begin by explaining how I think this human zest for living, joie de vivre, or Lebensfreude originated.  As I've said in earlier posts, materialists like me believe that all existence is material and that so-called nothingness and non-existence are human fictions.  Everything, including human thought and feeling, consists at bottom of mass-energy.  Every particle in our cosmos came from the Big Bang, which released all the matter of our stars and galaxies as well as the space-time they occupy.  All the best evidence indicates that the Big Bang was a chance eruption of unknown natural forces.
     We infer from the facts of our own cosmos that this eruption was not caused by a human attribute like cognition or emotion but was, like all the natural objects it produced -- stars, galaxies, black holes --, the result of a fundamentally non-rational, non-human randomness at the heart of reality.  But how could objects as predictable as the black holes, galaxies, and stars of our world have emerged from such unpredictability?
     Almost certainly, I would argue, from the same kind of clash between material order and disorder we see everywhere around us.  Electromagnetism, gravity, and the strong and weak nuclear forces obey a rigid lawfulness yet intersect randomly in space-time.  Not one black hole, galaxy, or star was planned, predestined, or "necessitated."  They all arose from these four fundamental forces blindly driving atomic mass into black holes and stars.  Then they just as blindly began recycling the debris from exploding stars and colliding galaxies into subsequent-generation solar systems.  Everything in the cosmos emerged from a material order utterly oblivious of itself.
     So too our solar system.  Its originatiing clouds of dust and gas were pulled by gravity into a rotating disk with just enough mass and motion to cause a nuclear ignition at the centerpoint and just enough debris elsewhere to coalesce into orbiting satellites.  Among these satellites, our earth was just close enough, just tilted enough, rotating on its own axis just fast enough, with an orbit just circular enough (and so on) to evolve human sentience.  The laws of nature formed our oxygen-wrapped planet and us by chance.
     Somehow human sentience emerged from this mystifying blend of order and disorder.  I say "mystifying" because from a human point of view the ultimate facts of existence are unknown and quite probably unknowable.  So-called supernatural revelations are products of human fraud or delusion and useless except as case examples of crime or craziness.  Scientific study is incomparably more useful and valid, but it too is limited by its current inability to verify anything beyond the physics of our cosmos -- or even to understand that physics fully.  It hasn't yet ascertained what the "dark energy" making space-time balloon nor what the "dark matter" comprising most of cosmic mass are.  It doesn't yet know for sure whether neutrinos travel faster than light.  It has no idea how or why the Big Bang happened.
     All we can currently do is speculate about where nature's from and headed by extrapolating from what we know about it here to the mysterious unknowns that enfold us.  One conclusion I've drawn from this kind of speculative extrapolaton is that infinite reality is as natural and material -- and as interconnected and continuous -- as the finite reality we experience here.  The All, as materialists since Epicurus and Lucretius have termed it, is an endless and timeless continuum of some fundamental substance.
     Another conclusion I've reached is that the finite particulars of our Big Bang, our cosmos, our solar system, and our species are unique and original within the All.  That is, they are finite manifestations of infinite material Being.  No matter how closely ours may resemble other Big Bangs, cosmoses, solar systems, planets, or species elsewhere in the All, the particulars of the mesh of pattern and accident that formed us here can never recur.  That unique mesh created a circumstance and reality different from any other that ever did or will exist.
     We are the only material objects of precisely our shape and substance that could have emerged from the randomly interacting natural laws of our cosmos.  The melding, blending, and amalgamation that resulted from the clash of order and disorder here is inimitable.  As products of evolutionary chance, we think and feel in a way nothing else ever did or will.
     In other words, our sentience is the unique offshoot of random convergences in this unique cosmos.  While it may resemble sentience elsewhere here or in the All, it can never be duplicated or even approximated.  It stands irreducibly alone, occupying an entirely new and unrepeatable existence within the totality of the All's patterned chaos.  It's as worthy and valuable as the All itself simply because it too exists.  Material existence in any form never needs any validation or justification.  It is as infinitely self-validating and self-justifying as the All itself, which is all material being.  Its possibilities for self-realization are limitless, to me an exciting and inspiring thought.  Moreover, my sense of my own value and uniqueness in this infinity of material being makes me especially glad that, unlike the inorganic matter I'm made of, I'm somewhat self-aware.
     In my next post, I'll extend this notion of value and uniqueness to human evolution and argue that my zest for living is rooted in, but not confined to, that same inorganic matter.

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          Mathematics and metaphysics: Any thoughts on Langan’s CTMU?        

Would like some feedback on Chris Langan and his Theory of Everything (ToE), the CTMU. Although awash with obscure terms that make for some slow reading and could be easily mistaken as pure obscurantism, the basic ideas seem like they warrant some attention.

http://cosmosandhistory.org/index.php/journal/article/view/618

First, the bad:

- Langan himself seems like a pretty terrible ambassador for his idea. Ignore the hype and distraction about his personal story (He has a high IQ…so what? Appeal to authority), as they have no bearing on the central thesis.
- He is apparently embraced by some contingent from the Intelligent Design community, which is strange because his idea seems to describe, if anything, a panpsychic/panentheistic scenario rather than anything explicitly to do with any Abrahamic deity. Would be better to call it “Intelligible Design,” if anything (see below).
- Again, Langan seems to draw unwarranted conclusions from his idea (Monotheism, eugenics, etc. etc). But it’s better not to dwell on the man, but rather his theory itself.

When stripped of its neologisms and meandering verbiage, the theory seems to me to have a number of interesting points:

- That physics in and of itself cannot provide a ToE, but rather implies that it is “nested” (along with all other forms of knowledge) in a comprehensive metaphysics (that also justifies itself, somehow).
- If I understand right, Langan proposes to describe that metaphysics as relationship between the observer/language/subject and the “outside” world/object—a singular relationship that would encompass Cartesian dualism. He proposes to describe this relationship by a specific logical formulation (see above link) which he calls a “supertautology” that undergirds…everything, basically. It is the same relationship that (he says) seems to undergird any type of (intelligible) language or cognitive system, and perhaps evolution itself on some level. This seems to be along the lines of what Lawrence Krauss and Sam were discussing in their recent podcast, so not necessarily a new idea, but Langan proposes that you can characterize it with logic.
- It is in this sense, then, that two seemingly contradictory worldviews could both be “true” (true is a poor word choice—see also Jordan Peterson and Sam’s digression on this. IMO it would be better to say that two systems/language-games/consciousnesses could be “valid,” as true should be reserved for things that are empirically verified). Thus, any religious system could be “valid” in that it draws the correct conclusions from its premises, so long as it does not pretend to extend itself into another sphere of knowledge, for as soon as it introduces the concept of facts—which is the domain of science—science wins. Any system that didn’t draw the obvious conclusions from its given premises would be invalid, and basically madness/incoherence. (It’s this apparent endorsement of relativism/“Separate magisteria” that gets the religious all excited, I reckon, but I think what Langan is saying here is that although a system of thought can be internally consistent, it doesn’t have the same degree of truth of a system supported by observation and facts of “external” reality).
- The whole system—the cosmos—is this process writ large, a system that is selecting for intelligence/intelligibleness (shades of Alan Watts). It’s here where Langan gets into his theistic conceptions.

All of these points, are arguable, and I may have misconstrued them. But at a gut level, the idea that logic is some kind of intrinsic aspect of the universe is appealing (though that doesn’t necessarily make it true).

So why would any of this have value? Well, whereas evolution is a theory that just happens to be supported by mounds and mound of evidence, it seems that Langan’s theory could be used to make predictions that prove either true or false (what form artificial/alien/animal/other intelligence would look like, perhaps, or the dispersal of matter in the known universe (see that recent study about the seeming illusion of dark energy)).

Thoughts? Any “there” there, or just a sham?

Thanks.


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          Re: I'm a bit confused about some of the things I've been reading in your blog        

Steve

Thank you for your comment under my

[Right: Charles Hodge (1797-1878): Wikipedia. Hodge coined the term, "mediate, progressive creation" (see below), and therefore I acknowledge him as the founder of my General Theory of Progressive Mediate Creation.]

post "I am training to be a high school biology teacher, so less blogging!" Your words are bold to distinguish them from mine.

----- Original Message -----
From: Steve Cook
To: Stephen E. Jones
Sent: Friday, November 20, 2009 9:07 PM
Subject: [CreationEvolutionDesign] New comment on I am training to be a high school biology teacher,....

>Stephen, >I hope your classes are going well. I'm also currently working on a biology degree with the intent to teach high school teacher. Putting aside all questions of sanity, I think the biology teachers I had in high school were the biggest influence in my becoming interested in science. Of course, what could be better than getting paid to talk about biology all day, no wonder they were so into their jobs.

Thanks. As updated on the above post, I have successfully completed my science teacher training and now am just awaiting the formal advice to that effect. And I agree about what could be better than getting paid to talk about biology all day. However, I will probably only relief teach part-time.

>I'm a bit confused about some of the things I've been reading in your blog and I was hoping you could shed some light, or at least direct me to where I can find answers.

You do not say which of my posts you were reading. But I presume that one of them is my, "What I believe about Creation, Evolution and Design."

>There are a couple of instances where I've read that you do not agree with evolution but only decent with modification. So, all organisms are genetically and ancestrally related and have become that way by natural and supernatural means.

As a Christian, I don't agree with "evolution" in the "standard scientific theory" sense "that `human beings have developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life, but God had no part in this process'":

"... perhaps we should not be surprised at the results of a 2001 Gallup poll confirming that 45 percent of Americans believe `God created human beings pretty much in their present form at one time within the last 10,000 years or so'; 37 percent prefer a blended belief that `human beings have developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life, but God guided this process'; and a paltry 12 percent accept the standard scientific theory that `human beings have developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life, but God had no part in this process.'" (Shermer, M.B., 2002, "The Gradual Illumination of the Mind," Scientific American, February. My emphasis).

That is, I do not agree with fully Naturalistic (i.e. Atheistic Evolution). I do however agree with "decent with modification" and indeed with Universal Common Descent that "all organisms share a common ancestor":

"Further, I find the idea of common descent (that all organisms share a common ancestor) fairly convincing, and have no particular reason to doubt it." (Behe, M.J., 2006, "Darwin's Black Box," pp.5-6).

They are not the same thing. As both Darwin and Dawkins admitted, God could have supernaturally intervened at links in the chains of common descent, in which case it would not be "evolution at all" (my emphasis):

"Darwin ... wrote ... I would give nothing for the theory of Natural selection, if it requires miraculous additions at any one stage of descent.' ... For Darwin, any evolution that had to be helped over the jumps by God was not evolution at all." (Dawkins, 1986, pp.248-249)

but a form of "divine creation" (my emphasis):

"... many theologians ... smuggle God in by the back door: they allow him some sort of supervisory role over the course that evolution has taken, either influencing key moments in evolutionary history ... In short, divine creation, whether instantaneous or in the form of guided evolution, joins the list of other theories we have considered in this chapter." (Dawkins, 1986, pp.316-317).

And note that Darwin and Dawkins say it would not be "evolution," not that it would not be "descent with modification."

>I'm curious as to what natural means are in PMC. I've seen that you have made arguments against natural selection being a method of speciation, however, genetic drift is also a mechanism of evolution.

"Natural" in PMC (my General Theory of Progressive Mediate Creation) means all the proven natural mechanisms of biological change, including natural selection and genetic drift.

But you beg the question by claiming that they are mechanisms of evolution, when as Dawkins and Darwin pointed out above, if God supernaturally intervened in common descent, then it would not be evolution at all but a form of divine creation. And that supernatural intervention by God in chains of common descent, to "inject ... new genetic material," is "perfectly possible for theists" who "reject that [fully naturalistic] theory of evolution":

"It would still be perfectly possible for theists to reject that theory of evolution and accept instead a theory according to which natural processes and laws drove most of evolution, but God on occasion abridged those laws and inserted some crucial mutation into the course of events. Even were God to intervene directly to suspend natural law and inject essential new genetic material at various points in order to facilitate the emergence of new traits and, eventually, new species, that miraculous and deliberate divine intervention would by itself leave unchallenged such key theses of evolutionary theory as that all species derive ultimately from some common ancestor. Descent with genetic intervention is still descent-it is just descent with nonnatural elements in the process." (Ratzsch, D.L., 1996, "The Battle of Beginnings: Why Neither Side is Winning the Creation-Evolution Debate," InterVarsity Press: Downers Grove IL, pp.187-188).

>Genetic drift is something that scientists have observed in many populations of species including humans (CCR5 and blood type in native americans).

I have no problem with genetic drift, or indeed any proven mechanism of biological change (see above). But that there are natural mechanisms of biological change does not preclude God also supernaturally intervening at strategic points in life's history, as Progressive Creation (including Progressive Mediate Creation) maintains:

"Progressive creationism accepts much of the scientific picture of the development of the universe, assuming that for the most part it developed according to natural laws. However, especially with regard to life on earth, PCs hold that God intervened supernaturally at strategic points along the way. On their view, Creation was not a single six-day event but occurred in stages over millions of years. ... The PC view tends to overlap with other views, particularly with old-earth creationism." (Pennock, R.T., 1999, "Tower of Babel: The Evidence Against the New Creationism," MIT Press: Cambridge MA, Fourth Printing, pp.26- 27. Emphasis original).

>I'm guessing that supernatural changes would be whole genes/genomes appearing ex nihilo to account for irreducible complexity.

Not ex nihilo in PMC but ex materia, i.e. from pre-existing material. The Mediate in Progressive Mediate Creation means that the changes were mediate, in the sense of the opposite of immediate ( i.e. immediate with no intervening secondary causes or materials and were therefore ex nihilo). The leading 19th century theologian Charles Hodge (see above) contrasted "Immediate Creation ... which ... was instantaneous and immediate, i. e. without the intervention of any second causes" with "Mediate ... Creation ...gradual ...:forming out of preexisting material ... the power of God working in union with second causes."

"Mediate and Immediate Creation. But while it has ever been the doctrine of the Church that God created the universe out of nothing by the word of his power, which creation was instantaneous and immediate, i. e., without the intervention of any second causes; yet it has generally been admitted that this is to be understood only of the original call of matter into existence. Theologians have, therefore, distinguished between a first and second, or immediate and mediate creation. The one was instantaneous, the other gradual; the one precludes the idea of any preexisting substance, and of cooperation, the other admits and implies both. There is evident ground for this distinction in the Mosaic account of the creation. ... It thus appears that forming out of preexisting material comes within the Scriptural idea of creating. ... There is, therefore, according to the Scriptures, not only an immediate, instantaneous creation ex nihilo by the simple word of God, but a mediate, progressive creation; the power of God working in union with second causes." (Hodge, C., "Systematic Theology," [1892], James Clark & Co: London, Vol. I, 1960, reprint, pp.556-557. Emphasis original)

Mediate creation is in fact the pattern in Genesis 1, after the original creation of raw material in Genesis 1:1. "`Let the earth bring forth living creatures ` (Gen. 1:24) does not exclude the idea of mediate creation, through natural generation":

"But, on the other hand, the Scriptures do not disclose the method of man's creation. Whether man's physical system is or is not derived, by natural descent, from the lower animals, the record of creation does not inform us. As the command `Let the earth bring forth living creatures' (Gen. 1:24) does not exclude the idea of mediate creation, through natural generation, so the forming of man `of the dust of the ground' (Gen. 2:7) does not in itself determine whether the creation of man's body was mediate or immediate." (Strong, A.H., 1907, "Systematic Theology," p.465).

"... after Genesis 1:1 the narrator deals with a mediate creation, which involves the actualizing of potentialities latent in the original creation":

"Perhaps we are not to rule out dogmatically the possibility that the dust of man's origin may have been animated, since the animals before man appear to have been fashioned from the earth (Gen. 1:24). The Bible does not explicate man's physical origin in detail. The fact that, after Genesis 1:1 the narrator deals with a mediate creation, which involves the actualizing of potentialities latent in the original creation, should caution us against the one-sided invocation of divine transcendence. The new levels of being arise with quite obvious dependence on the lower in the creation account." (Henry, C.F.H., 1957, "Contemporary Evangelical Thought: A Survey," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, Reprinted, 1968, p.282).

"By mediate creation Warfield meant that God acted, or intervened, with already existing material to bring something new into existence":

"Warfield's third category was ... mediate creation-in effect, a via media between evolution and creation ex nihilo .... By mediate creation Warfield meant that God acted, or intervened, with already existing material to bring something new into existence that could not have developed from the forces latent in the material itself. Like creation ex nihilo, mediate creation required a direct act of God. Like evolution, mediate creation featured already existing material." (Noll M.A. & Livingstone D.N., 2000, "B.B. Warfield: Evolution, Science and Scripture," pp.34-35).

"... God ... in the beginning brought forth the whole visible and invisible universe, without the use of preexistent material ... this ... applies only to what is generally known as primary or immediate creation ... in Gen. 1:1. But the Bible clearly uses the word `create' also in cases in which God did make use of preexisting materials ... through secondary causes":

"Creation in the strict sense of the word may be defined as that free act of God whereby He, according to His sovereign will and for His own glory, in the beginning brought forth the whole visible and invisible universe, without the use of preexistent material ... this definition applies only to what is generally known as primary or immediate creation, that is, the creation described in Gen. 1:1. But the Bible clearly uses the word `create' also in cases in which God did make use of preexisting materials, as in the creation of sun, moon, and stars, of the animals and of man. ... creative work, in which God works through secondary causes, Ps. 104:30; Isa. 45:7,8; Jer. 31:22; Amos 4:13, and produces results which only He could produce." (Berkhof, L., 1949, "Systematic Theology," pp.128-129).

>It sounds like you've had all the same arguments about IC already so I'm curious as to why you still accept IC? Behe's examples do have components that work independent of the whole.

I am not sure what are these "all the same arguments about IC" (Irreducible Complexity) that would make you curious as to why I still accept IC. My definition of IC is "any complex organ .... which could not"PLAUSIBLY "have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications":

"Darwin knew that his theory of gradual evolution by natural selection carried a heavy burden: `If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.' [Darwin, C., 1872, "Origin of Species", 6th ed., New York University Press: New York, 1988, p.154]. ... What type of biological system could not be formed by `numerous, successive, slight modifications'? Well, for starters, a system that is irreducibly complex. By irreducibly complex, I mean a single system composed of several well-matched, interacting parts that contribute to the basic function, wherein the removal of any one of the parts causes the system to effectively cease functioning. An irreducibly complex system cannot be produced directly ... by slight, successive modifications of a precursor system, because any precursor to an irreducibly complex system that is missing a part is by definition nonfunctional. .... Since natural selection can only choose systems that are already working then if a biological system cannot be produced gradually it would have to arise as an integrated unit ... for natural selection to have anything to act on." (Behe, M.J., 2006, "Darwin's Black Box," p.39. Emphasis original).

since Darwin was being deliberately dishonest, and unscientific, in protecting his theory from falsification, by demanding that critics of his theory had to show the impossible, "a complex organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications."

And the ultimate complex organ is the first living cell (i.e. the origin of life) which even Dawkins tacitly admits was irreducibly complex in that "it could not" PLAUSIBLY "have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications" (in effect). That is because, as Dawkins states, "Cumulative selection ... had to get started, and we cannot escape the need to postulate a single-step chance event in the origin of cumulative selection itself" but "the ... machinery of replication ... seems too complicated to have come into existence by means of anything less than many generations of cumulative selection":

"Cumulative selection is the key but it had to get started, and we cannot escape the need to postulate a single-step chance event in the origin of cumulative selection itself. ... The replication processes that we know seem to need complicated machinery to work ... But if replication needs complex machinery, since the only way we know for complex machinery ultimately to come into existence is cumulative selection, we have a problem. ... cumulative selection cannot work unless there is some minimal machinery of replication and replicator power, and the only machinery of replication that we know seems too complicated to have come into existence by means of anything less than many generations of cumulative selection! Some people see this as a fundamental flaw in the whole theory of the blind watchmaker. ... the ultimate proof that there must originally have been a designer, ... a far-sighted supernatural watchmaker." (Dawkins, R., 1986, "The Blind Watchmaker," pp.140-141. Emphasis original).

>Finally, consider the consequences of a God who is all knowing, all powerful, and beyond human comprehension in any respect.

Agreed that while God can be known by man, He cannot be comprehended (i.e. fully known) by man:

Job 5:9. He performs wonders that cannot be fathomed, miracles that cannot be counted. Job 11:7. "Can you fathom the mysteries of God? Can you probe the limits of the Almighty? Job 26:14. And these are but the outer fringe of his works; how faint the whisper we hear of him! Who then can understand the thunder of his power?" Ecc 8:17. then I saw all that God has done. No one can comprehend what goes on under the sun. Despite all his efforts to search it out, man cannot discover its meaning. Even if a wise man claims he knows, he cannot really comprehend it. Isa 55:8-9. "For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways," declares the LORD. "As the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways and my thoughts than your thoughts. Rom 11:33. Oh, the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable his judgments, and his paths beyond tracing out! 1Cor 13:12. Now we see but a poor reflection as in a mirror; then we shall see face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known.

.>If this being created the universe, wouldn't you expect the laws that he designs to govern it would be so complex that no human could understand them all on an intuitive level?

I am not sure what you mean by "no human could understand them all on an intuitive level." The laws of physics are simple and can typically be expressed in a brief mathematical formula, e.g. E=mc^2, F=ma, etc. It is perhaps the ultimate design argument that our minds are fitted to understand the underlying laws of nature:

"Another of Einstein's famous remarks is that the only incomprehensible thing about the universe is that it is comprehensible. The success of the scientific enterprise can often blind us to the astonishing fact that science works. ... it is both incredibly fortunate and deeply mysterious that we are able to fathom the workings of nature by use of the scientific method. .... Why has the human mind the capacity to `unlock the secrets of nature' ... It is easy to imagine worlds in which the regularities of nature are ... impenetrably complicated ... requiring far more brainpower than humans possess to decode them. In fact, the cosmic code seems almost attuned to human capabilities. This is all the more mysterious on account of the fact that human intellectual powers are presumably determined by biological evolution, and have absolutely no connection with doing science." (Davies, P.C.W., 1994, "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Science," p.54).

>Quantum-mechanics would be a pretty good example of laws completely incomprehensible intuitively to humans.

Again, physicists understand the laws of Quantum Mechanics (along with the other laws of physics), in that they can discover, formulate and apply them, but they cannot fully comprehend those laws in the sense of being able to explain why they exist, where they come from, and why they are their particular value and not any other.

>And this being has already seen everything in the universe happen already .

Agreed that God "has already seen everything in the universe happen already," i.e. that is going to happen in time. But I am not sure about "in every permutation possible."

>At the point of creation he already knew not only everything going on on this planet, but every other planet, star, cloud of dark matter or dark energy, all at once.

Agreed.

>He would have made living things have DNA and made that DNA mutate causing variations in populations.

Agreed. But that does not mean that God made DNA with the power to randomly mutate such that those mutations could be naturally selected to originate life's complex designs.

>It would be how he designed those variations to change when selective pressures were applied to them etc etc.

Agreed, but within the limits observed in nature. It is a leap of Darwinian faith, based on there being "no mechanism ... known ... that could guide mutation in directions that are non-random":

"It is only in this fifth respect, the 'mutationist' respect, that the true, real-life Darwinian insists that mutation is random. Mutation is not systematically biased in the direction of adaptive improvement, and no mechanism is known (to put the point mildly) that could guide mutation in directions that are non-random in this fifth sense. .... It is selection, and only selection, that directs evolution in directions that are nonrandom with respect to advantage." (Dawkins, 1986, p.312).

but that assumes that there is no God who could have supernaturally intervened to "guide mutation in directions that are non-random."

>He designed the universe around each human and it is such a perfect design that every event, from the beginning till now, happened exactly the way he expected it to.

There is ambiguity in your "expected it to" such that, together with "a perfect design" makes it sounds like God approved "every event, including every sin, which are events. And that Jesus commanded us to pray that the Father's will be done on earth as it is in heaven :

Mt 6:9-10. "This, then, is how you should pray: `'Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name, your kingdom come, your will be done on earth as it is in heaven.'"

show that His perfect will is not yet being done on earth.

>Doesn't this sound like a god thats described with all powerful, all knowing, etc?

It is interesting (and perhaps significant) that as you get to the conclusion of your argument for "evolution and natural selection" (see below) you start dropping the capital "G" in God.

>So, why demand evidence for god's design in the universe when the whole universe, including evolution and natural selection, is evidence of his design?

There are different levels of design, as leading ID theorist Bill Dembski explains, using the analogy of painting on a canvas:

"In its treatment of design, this book focuses not so much on whether the universe as a whole is designed but on whether we are able to detect design within an already given universe. ... Although one can ask whether that causal backdrop is itself designed, one can as well ask whether events and objects occurring within that backdrop are designed. At issue here are two types of design: (1) the design of the universe as a whole and (2) instances of design within the universe. An analogy illustrates the difference. .... An oil painting is typically painted on a canvas. One can therefore ask whether the canvas is designed. Alternatively one can ask whether some configuration of paint on the canvas is designed. The design of the canvas corresponds to the design of the universe as a whole. The design of some configuration of paint corresponds to an instance of design within the universe." (Dembski, W.A. , 1999, "Intelligent Design: The Bridge Between Science and Theology," pp.13-14).

A better analogy would be ancient rock art.The rock is designed at one level, but the design engraved on the rock by an intelligent human designer is designed at a different, higher level.

And to talk of "evolution" being designed is to commit the fallacy of equivocation. As pointed out above, "evolution" in the "standard scientific theory" sense is that "God (including an Intelligent Designer) had no part in this process."

However, if there is a God then Naturalism (nature is all there is) is false and so Naturalistic Evolution would have no philosophical support. Moreover, there would be something (namely supernatural intervention by God) "that could guide mutation in directions that are non-random" so the central assumption in Darwinism would be false also.

>I hope that sounded somewhat profound. I hope that it was an argument that you have not heard yet and start inching a little closer to the TE side.

I debated against all comers (including leading TEs) in the Calvin Evolution Reflector and later on my own Yahoo group for over a decade (1994-2005) and I have heard and debated that argument many tines.

The problem with TE (Theistic Evolution) is that in my experience its proponents always end up arguing for Naturalistic (i.e. Atheistic) Evolution!

>Evolution does not demand atheism at all but it is observable in every aspect of biology.

Naturalistic evolution (including Darwinian evolution), which is the only acceptable evolution in science, does assume Atheism by its claim that there was nothing available "that could guide mutation in directions that are non-random."

Darwin admitted to the Christian botanist Asa Gray that he wrote "atheistically" in his Origin of Species:

"With respect to the theological view of the question. This is always painful to me. I am bewildered. I had no intention to write atheistically." (Darwin, C.R., Letter to Asa Gray, May 22, 1860, in Darwin, F., ed., 1898], "The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin," p.105).

And what's more Darwin was lying in his claim that he "had no intention to write atheistically." Darwin's notebooks published after his death showed that he was an uncompromising philosophical materialist:

"The notebooks prove that Darwin was interested in philosophy and aware of its implications. He knew that the primary feature distinguishing his theory from all other evolutionary doctrines was its uncompromising philosophical materialism. Other evolutionists spoke of vital forces, directed history, organic striving, and the essential irreducibilty of mind-a panoply of concepts that traditional Christianity could accept in compromise, for they permitted a Christian God to work by evolution instead of creation. Darwin spoke only of random variation and natural selection. In the notebooks Darwin resolutely applied his materialistic theory of evolution to all phenomena of life, including what he termed `the citadel itself' - the human mind. And if mind has no real existence beyond the brain, can God be anything more than an illusion invented by an illusion? In one of his transmutation notebooks, he wrote: `Love of the deity effect of organization, oh you materialist!...' [Darwin, C.R., "C Notebook," February 1838, p.166]" (Gould, S.J. , 1978, "Darwin's Delay," in "Ever Since Darwin: Reflections in Natural History," Penguin: London, Reprinted, 1991, pp.24-25. Ellipses Gould's).

>It would be a shame for a fellow biologist to miss the elegance in a system that describes so well the greatness of god.

What am I missing out on? I accept that the proven natural mechanisms of biological change over time testify to the greatness of God (capital "G").

You may not realise it but your claim, or implication, that a god who works only through evolution (i.e. natural processes) is greater than a God who also supernaturally intervenes in His creation (as the Biblical God does), is a form of Gnostic thinking:

"Gnosticism is an ancient belief system that draws a strong distinction between spirit and matter. .... In Darwin's time the world was increasingly seen as controlled by natural laws. God may have instituted these laws in the beginning, but he had not since interfered; the laws were now his secondary causes .... This view seemed to have a divine sanction; after all, to control the world exclusively through natural laws-God's secondary causes-required an even greater God... In 1794 Darwin's grandfather Erasmus Darwin wrote this Gnostic-sounding statement of how natural history should be viewed: `The world itself might have been generated, rather than created; that is, it might have been gradually produced from very small beginnings, increasing by the activity of its inherent principles, rather than by a sudden evolution by the whole by the Almighty fiat. What a magnificent idea of the infinite power of the great architect! The Cause of Causes! Parent of Parents! Ens Entium! For if we may compare infinities, it would seem to require a greater infinity of power to cause the causes of effects, than to cause the effects themselves.' [Darwin E., "Zoonomia," J. Johnson: London: 1794, Vol. 1, p.509]" (Hunter, C.G., 2001, "Darwin's God," p.129).

Sorry Steve but your little "g" god who is limited by the dictates of Naturalistic philosophy, such that he would not have supernaturally intervened at strategic points in his own creation, is too small a god for me. I believed in that little "g" god over 40 years ago when I was a Deist on my journey from Atheism to Christianity. The Christian capital "G" God of the Bible whom I believe in is not limited by any philosophy of men, let alone an Atheistic philosophy like Naturalism.

>--Steve Cook

It is ironic that former atheist Antony Flew, who now believes in a God who supernaturally intervened to create the first living cell:

"A British philosophy professor who has been a leading champion of atheism for more than a half-century has changed his mind. He now believes in God ... based on scientific evidence .... At age 81, after decades of insisting belief is a mistake, Antony Flew has concluded that some sort of intelligence or first cause must have created the universe. A super-intelligence is the only good explanation for the origin of life and the complexity of nature, Flew said .... Yet biologists' investigation of DNA `has shown, by the almost unbelievable complexity of the arrangements which are needed to produce (life), that intelligence must have been involved,' Flew says in the new video, `Has Science Discovered God?' .... The first hint of Flew's turn was a letter to the August-September issue of Britain's Philosophy Now magazine. `It has become inordinately difficult even to begin to think about constructing a naturalistic theory of the evolution of that first reproducing organism,' he wrote. ...Flew told The Associated Press his current ideas have some similarity with American `intelligent design' theorists, who see evidence for a guiding force in the construction of the universe." (Ostling, R.N., 2004, "Atheist Philosopher, 81, Now Believes in God," Livescience, 10 December).

although not a Christian, is more theistic than most of the Christian Theistic Evolutionists I have debated, because most of them denied that God supernaturally intervened in His creation, even to originate life!

Stephen E. Jones, BSc. (Biology).
My other blogs: The Shroud of Turin & Jesus is Jehovah!


"Evolution is a controversial topic, so it is necessary to address a few basic questions at the beginning of the book. Many people think that questioning Darwinian evolution must be equivalent to espousing creationism. As commonly understood, creationism involves belief in an earth formed only about ten thousand years ago, an interpretation of the Bible that is still very popular. For the record, I have no reason to doubt that the universe is the billions of years old that physicists say it is. Further, I find the idea of common descent (that all organisms share a common ancestor) fairly convincing, and have no particular reason to doubt it. I greatly respect the work of my colleagues who study the development and behavior of organisms within an evolutionary framework, and I think that evolutionary biologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the world. Although Darwin's mechanism-natural selection working on variation-might explain many things, however, I do not believe it explains molecular life. I also do not think it surprising that the new science of the very small might change the way we view the less small." (Behe, M.J., 2006, "Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution," [1996], Free Press: New York NY, 10th Anniversary Edition, pp.5-6).

"Darwin knew that his theory of gradual evolution by natural selection carried a heavy burden: `If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.' [Darwin, C., 1872, "Origin of Species", 6th ed., New York University Press: New York, 1988, p.154]. It is safe to say that most of the scientific skepticism about Darwinism in the past century has centered on this requirement. From Mivart's concern over the incipient stages of new structures to Margulis's dismissal of gradual evolution, critics of Darwin have suspected that his criterion of failure had been met. But how can we be confident? What type of biological system could not be formed by `numerous, successive, slight modifications'? Well, for starters, a system that is irreducibly complex. By irreducibly complex, I mean a single system composed of several well-matched, interacting parts that contribute to the basic function, wherein the removal of any one of the parts causes the system to effectively cease functioning. An irreducibly complex system cannot be produced directly (that is, by continuously improving the initial function, which continues to work by the same mechanism) by slight, successive modifications of a precursor system, because any precursor to an irreducibly complex system that is missing a part is by definition nonfunctional. An irreducibly complex biological system, if there is such a thing, would be a powerful challenge to Darwinian evolution. Since natural selection can only choose systems that are already working then if a biological system cannot be produced gradually it would have to arise as an integrated unit, in one fell swoop, for natural selection to have anything to act on." (Behe, 2006, p.39. Emphasis original).

"It should be noted that Scripture does not always use the Hebrew word bara' and the Greek term ktizein in that absolute sense. It also employs these terms to denote a secondary creation, in which God made use of material that was already in existence but could not of itself have produced the result indicated, Gen. 1:21,27; 5:1; Isa. 6:7,12; 54:16; Amos 4:13; I Cor. 11:9; Rev. 10:6. It even uses them to designate that which comes into existence under the providential guidance of God, Ps. 104:30; Isa. 45:7,8; 65:18; I Tim. 4:4. two other terms are used synonymously with the term `to create,' namely, `to make' (Heb., 'asah; Greek, poiein) and `to form' (Heb. yatsar; Greek, plasso). The former is clearly used in all the three senses indicated in the preceding: of primary creation in Gen. 2:4; Prov. 16:4; Acts 17:24; more frequently of secondary creation, Gen. 1:7,16,26; 2:22; Ps. 89:47; and of the work of providence in Ps. 74:17. The latter is used similarly of primary creation, Ps. 90:2 (perhaps the only instance of this use); of secondary creation, Gen. 2:7,19; Ps. 104:26; Amos 4:13; Zech. 12:1; and of the work of providence, Deut. 32:18; Isa. 43:1,7,21; 45:7. All three words are found together in Isa. 45:7. Creation in the strict sense of the word may be defined as that free act of God whereby He, according to His sovereign will and for His own glory, in the beginning brought forth the whole visible and invisible universe, without the use of preexistent material and thus gave it an existence, distinct from His own and yet always dependent on Him. In view of the Scriptural data indicated in the preceding, it is quite evident, however, that this definition applies only to what is generally known as primary or immediate creation, that is, the creation described in Gen. 1:1. But the Bible clearly uses the word `create' also in cases in which God did make use of preexisting materials, as in the creation of sun, moon, and stars, of the animals and of man. ... cases, also designated in Scripture as creative work, in which God works through secondary causes, Ps. 104:30; Isa. 45:7,8; Jer. 31:22; Amos 4:13, and produces results which only He could produce." (Berkhof, L., 1949, "Systematic Theology," Banner of Truth: London, 1966, Reprinted, pp.128-129).

"With respect to the theological view of the question. This is always painful to me. I am bewildered. I had no intention to write atheistically. But I own that I cannot see as plainly as others do, and as I should wish to do, evidence of design and beneficence on all sides of us. There seems to me too much misery in the world. I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and omnipotent God would have designedly created the Ichneumonidae with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of Caterpillars, or that a cat should play with mice. Not believing this, I see no necessity in the belief that the eye was expressly designed. On the other hand, I cannot anyhow be contented to view this wonderful universe, and especially the nature of man, and to conclude that everything is the result of brute force. I am inclined to look at everything as resulting from designed laws; with the details, whether good or bad, left to the working out of what we may call chance. Not that this notion at all satisfies me. I feel most deeply that the whole subject is too profound for the human intellect. A dog might as well speculate on the mind of Newton. Let each man hope and believe what he can." (Darwin, C.R., Letter to Asa Gray, May 22, 1860, in Darwin, F., ed., "The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin," [1898], Basic Books: New York NY, Vol. II., 1959, reprint, p.105).

"The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Science. Another of Einstein's famous remarks is that the only incomprehensible thing about the universe is that it is comprehensible. The success of the scientific enterprise can often blind us to the astonishing fact that science works. Though it is usually taken for granted, it is both incredibly fortunate and deeply mysterious that we are able to fathom the workings of nature by use of the scientific method. The purpose of science is to uncover patterns and regularities in nature, but the raw data of observation rarely exhibit explicit regularities. Nature's order is hidden from us: the book of nature is written in a sort of code. To make progress in science we need to crack the cosmic code, to dig beneath the raw data, and uncover the hidden order. To return to the crossword analogy, the clues are highly cryptic, and require some considerable ingenuity to solve. What is so remarkable is that human beings can actually perform this code-breaking operation. Why has the human mind the capacity to `unlock the secrets of nature' and make a reasonable success at completing nature's cryptic crossword"? It is easy to imagine worlds in which the regularities of nature are transparent at a glance or impenetrably complicated or subtle, requiring far more brainpower than humans possess to decode them. In fact, the cosmic code seems almost attuned to human capabilities. This is all the more mysterious on account of the fact that human intellectual powers are presumably determined by biological evolution, and have absolutely no connection with doing science. Our brains have evolved to cope with survival in the jungle," a far cry from describing the laws of electromagnetism or the structure of the atom." (Davies, P.C.W., "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Science," in Templeton, J.M., ed., "Evidence of Purpose: Scientists Discover the Creator," Continuum: New York NY, 1994, p.54).

"Cumulative selection is the key but it had to get started, and we cannot escape the need to postulate a single-step chance event in the origin of cumulative selection itself. And that vital first step was a difficult one because, at its heart, there lies what seems to be a paradox. The replication processes that we know seem to need complicated machinery to work ... The theory of the blind watchmaker is extremely powerful given that we are allowed to assume replication and hence cumulative selection. But if replication needs complex machinery, since the only way we know for complex machinery ultimately to come into existence is cumulative selection, we have a problem. Certainly the modern cellular machinery, the apparatus of DNA replication and protein synthesis, has all the hallmarks of a highly evolved, specially fashioned machine. .... At its own level of ultra-miniaturization, it is of the same order of elaborateness and complexity of design as the human eye .... an apparatus as complex as the human eye could not possibly come into existence through single-step selection. Unfortunately, the same seems to be true of at least parts of the apparatus of cellular machinery whereby DNA replicates itself .... So, cumulative selection can manufacture complexity while single-step selection cannot. But cumulative selection cannot work unless there is some minimal machinery of replication and replicator power, and the only machinery of replication that we know seems too complicated to have come into existence by means of anything less than many generations of cumulative selection! Some people see this as a fundamental flaw in the whole theory of the blind watchmaker. They see it as the ultimate proof that there must originally have been a designer, not a blind watchmaker but a far-sighted supernatural watchmaker." (Dawkins, R., 1986, "The Blind Watchmaker: Why the Evidence of Evolution Reveals a Universe Without Design," W.W. Norton & Co: New York NY, pp.140-141. Emphasis original).

"Darwin ... wrote in a letter to Sir Charles Lyell, the leading geologist of his day: `If I were convinced that I required such additions to the theory of natural selection, I would reject it as rubbish...I would give nothing for the theory of Natural selection, if it requires miraculous additions at any one stage of descent.' [Darwin, C.R., Letter to C. Lyell, October 11, 1859, in Darwin, F., ed., "The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin," [1898], Basic Books: New York NY, Vol. II., 1959, reprint, pp.6-7]. This is no petty matter. In Darwin's view, the whole point of the theory of evolution by natural selection was that it provided a non- miraculous account of the existence of complex adaptations. For what it is worth, it is also the whole point of this book. For Darwin, any evolution that had to be helped over the jumps by God was not evolution at all." (Dawkins., 1986, p.248-249).

"There is a fifth respect in which mutation might have been nonrandom. We can imagine (just) a form of mutation that was systematically biased in the direction of improving the animal's adaptedness to its life. But although we can imagine it, nobody has ever come close to suggesting any means by which this bias could come about. It is only in this fifth respect, the 'mutationist' respect, that the true, real-life Darwinian insists that mutation is random. Mutation is not systematically biased in the direction of adaptive improvement, and no mechanism is known (to put the point mildly) that could guide mutation in directions that are non-random in this fifth sense. Mutation is random with respect to adaptive advantage, although it is non- random in all sorts of other respects. It is selection, and only selection, that directs evolution in directions that are nonrandom with respect to advantage." (Dawkins, 1986, p.312. Emphasis original).

"At first sight there is an important distinction to be made between what might be called 'instantaneous creation' and 'guided evolution'. Modern theologians of any sophistication have given up believing in instantaneous creation. ... many theologians ... smuggle God in by the back door: they allow him some sort of supervisory role over the course that evolution has taken, either influencing key moments in evolutionary history (especially, of course, human evolutionary history), or even meddling more comprehensively in the day-to-day events that add up to evolutionary change. ... In short, divine creation, whether instantaneous or in the form of guided evolution, joins the list of other theories we have considered in this chapter." (Dawkins, 1986, pp.316-317a).

"In its treatment of design, this book focuses not so much on whether the universe as a whole is designed but on whether we are able to detect design within an already given universe. The universe provides a well-defined causal backdrop (physicists these days think of it as a field characterized by field equations). Although one can ask whether that causal backdrop is itself designed, one can as well ask whether events and objects occurring within that backdrop are designed. At issue here are two types of design: (1) the design of the universe as a whole and (2) instances of design within the universe. An analogy illustrates the difference. Consider an oil painting. An oil painting is typically painted on a canvas. One can therefore ask whether the canvas is designed. Alternatively one can ask whether some configuration of paint on the canvas is designed. The design of the canvas corresponds to the design of the universe as a whole. The design of some configuration of paint corresponds to an instance of design within the universe. Though not perfect, this analogy is useful. The universe is a canvas on which is depicted natural history. One can ask whether that canvas itself is designed. On the other hand, one can ask whether features of natural history depicted on that canvas are designed. In biology, for instance, one can ask whether Michael Behe's irreducibly complex biochemical machines are designed. Although design remains an important issue in cosmology, the focus of the intelligent design movement is on biology. That's where the action is. It was Darwin's expulsion of design from biology that made possible the triumph of naturalism in Western culture. So, too, it will be intelligent design's reinstatement of design within biology that will be the undoing of naturalism in Western culture." (Dembski, W.A. , 1999, "Intelligent Design: The Bridge Between Science and Theology," InterVarsity Press: Downers Grove IL, pp.13-14).

"Gnosticism is an ancient belief system that draws a strong distinction between spirit and matter. Spirit is good and matter is evil. Whereas the Bible says that God made the world, Gnosticism holds that God is separate from the world, thus Gnosticism is a theodicy. Yes, there is evil, but it is far from God. God is separate and distinct from the world and not responsible for its evils. In Darwin's time the world was increasingly seen as controlled by natural laws. God may have instituted these laws in the beginning, but he had not since interfered; the laws were now his secondary causes. As in Gnosticism, God was seen as separate from the world. Since God was separate from the world, natural phenomena were not interpreted as results of divine providence. This view seemed to have a divine sanction; after all, to control the world exclusively through natural laws-God's secondary causes-required an even greater God. In other words, a clean separation of God and creation made for an even purer God, just as the Gnostics had found that spirit could be good when it was opposed to matter. In 1794 Darwin's grandfather Erasmus Darwin wrote this Gnostic-sounding statement of how natural history should be viewed: `The world itself might have been generated, rather than created; that is, it might have been gradually produced from very small beginnings, increasing by the activity of its inherent principles, rather than by a sudden evolution by the whole by the Almighty fiat. What a magnificent idea of the infinite power of the great architect! The Cause of Causes! Parent of Parents! Ens Entium! For if we may compare infinities, it would seem to require a greater infinity of power to cause the causes of effects, than to cause the effects themselves.' [Darwin E., "Zoonomia," J. Johnson: London: 1794, Vol. 1, p.509]" (Hunter, C.G., 2001, "Darwin's God Evolution and the Problem of Evil," Brazos Press: Grand Rapids MI, p.129).

"Pfleiderer's conclusions prompted Warfield to insist that `when we say 'evolution,' we definitely deny creation. and when we say 'creation,' we definitely deny evolution. Whatever comes by the one process by that very fact does not come by the other. Whatever comes by evolution is not created; whatever is created is not evolved.' Evolution and creation were mutually exclusive categories. ... This 1901 essay was Warfield's most articulate presentation yet of a crucial distinction he was drawing between three modes of divine action or superintendence of the physical world. Warfield saw them as methods that God used to generate physical forms, species, and individuals. First was theistic evolution, or the providentially controlled unfolding of nature. Second was creation ex nihilo, or out of nothing. Warfield's third category was the most complicated and the one that least resembles schemes developed since his time. This was the category of mediate creation-in effect, a via media between evolution and creation ex nihilo that he developed from hints in earlier Reformed theologians. By mediate creation Warfield meant that God acted, or intervened, with already existing material to bring something new into existence that could not have developed from the forces latent in the material itself. Like creation ex nihilo, mediate creation required a direct act of God. Like evolution, mediate creation featured already existing material." (Noll M.A. & Livingstone D.N., eds, 2000, "B.B. Warfield: Evolution, Science and Scripture: Selected Writings," Baker: Grand Rapids MI, pp.34-35).

"A British philosophy professor who has been a leading champion of atheism for more than a half-century has changed his mind. He now believes in God --more or less -- based on scientific evidence, and says so on a video released Thursday. At age 81, after decades of insisting belief is a mistake, Antony Flew has concluded that some sort of intelligence or first cause must have created the universe. A super-intelligence is the only good explanation for the origin of life and the complexity of nature, Flew said in a telephone interview from England. Flew said he's best labeled a deist like Thomas Jefferson, whose God was not actively involved in people's lives. ...,' he said. `It could be a person in the sense of a being that has intelligence and a purpose, I suppose.' ... Over the years, Flew proclaimed the lack of evidence for God while teaching at Oxford, Aberdeen, Keele, and Reading universities in Britain, in visits to numerous U.S. and Canadian campuses and in books, articles, lectures and debates. There was no one moment of change but a gradual conclusion over recent months for Flew, a spry man who still does not believe in an afterlife. Yet biologists' investigation of DNA `has shown, by the almost unbelievable complexity of the arrangements which are needed to produce (life), that intelligence must have been involved,' Flew says in the new video, `Has Science Discovered God?' .... The first hint of Flew's turn was a letter to the August-September issue of Britain's Philosophy Now magazine. `It has become inordinately difficult even to begin to think about constructing a naturalistic theory of the evolution of that first reproducing organism,' he wrote. ... if his belief upsets people, well `that's too bad,' Flew said. `My whole life has been guided by the principle of Plato's Socrates: Follow the evidence, wherever it leads.' ... Flew told The Associated Press his current ideas have some similarity with American `intelligent design' theorists, who see evidence for a guiding force in the construction of the universe. He accepts Darwinian evolution but doubts it can explain the ultimate origins of life." (Ostling, R.N., 2004, "Atheist Philosopher, 81, Now Believes in God," Livescience/Associated Press, 10 December).

"In one of the most existentially penetrating statements ever made by a scientist, Richard Dawkins concluded that `the universe we observe has precisely the properties we should expect if there is, at bottom, no design, no purpose, no evil and no good, nothing but blind, pitiless indifference.' Facing such a reality, perhaps we should not be surprised at the results of a 2001 Gallup poll confirming that 45 percent of Americans believe `God created human beings pretty much in their present form at one time within the last 10,000 years or so'; 37 percent prefer a blended belief that `human beings have developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life, but God guided this process'; and a paltry 12 percent accept the standard scientific theory that `human beings have developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life, but God had no part in this process.'" (Shermer, M.B., 2002, "The Gradual Illumination of the Mind," Scientific American, February. My emphasis).

"But, on the other hand, the Scriptures do not disclose the method of man's creation. Whether man's physical system is or is not derived, by natural descent, from the lower animals, the record of creation does not inform us. As the command `Let the earth bring forth living creatures ` (Gen. 1:24) does not exclude the idea of mediate creation, through natural generation, so the forming of man `of the dust of the ground' (Gen. 2:7) does not in itself determine whether the creation of man's body was mediate or immediate. We may believe that man sustained to the highest preceding brute the same relation which the multiplied bread and fish sustained to the five loaves and two fishes (Mat. 14:19), or which the wine sustained to the water which was transformed at Cana (John 2:7-10), or which the multiplied oil sustained to the original oil in the O.T. miracle (2 K. 4:1-7) The `dust,' before the breathing of the spirit into it, may have been animated dust." (Strong, A.H., 1907, "Systematic Theology," Judson Press: Valley Forge PA, Reprinted, 1967, p.465).


          Doepfer Dark Energy II        
Tillgänglig sedan 11.09.2012:
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          Mathematics and metaphysics: Any thoughts on Langan’s CTMU?        

Would like some feedback on Chris Langan and his Theory of Everything (ToE), the CTMU. Although awash with obscure terms that make for some slow reading and could be easily mistaken as pure obscurantism, the basic ideas seem like they warrant some attention.

http://cosmosandhistory.org/index.php/journal/article/view/618

First, the bad:

- Langan himself seems like a pretty terrible ambassador for his idea. Ignore the hype and distraction about his personal story (He has a high IQ…so what? Appeal to authority), as they have no bearing on the central thesis.
- He is apparently embraced by some contingent from the Intelligent Design community, which is strange because his idea seems to describe, if anything, a panpsychic/panentheistic scenario rather than anything explicitly to do with any Abrahamic deity. Would be better to call it “Intelligible Design,” if anything (see below).
- Again, Langan seems to draw unwarranted conclusions from his idea (Monotheism, eugenics, etc. etc). But it’s better not to dwell on the man, but rather his theory itself.

When stripped of its neologisms and meandering verbiage, the theory seems to me to have a number of interesting points:

- That physics in and of itself cannot provide a ToE, but rather implies that it is “nested” (along with all other forms of knowledge) in a comprehensive metaphysics (that also justifies itself, somehow).
- If I understand right, Langan proposes to describe that metaphysics as relationship between the observer/language/subject and the “outside” world/object—a singular relationship that would encompass Cartesian dualism. He proposes to describe this relationship by a specific logical formulation (see above link) which he calls a “supertautology” that undergirds…everything, basically. It is the same relationship that (he says) seems to undergird any type of (intelligible) language or cognitive system, and perhaps evolution itself on some level. This seems to be along the lines of what Lawrence Krauss and Sam were discussing in their recent podcast, so not necessarily a new idea, but Langan proposes that you can characterize it with logic.
- It is in this sense, then, that two seemingly contradictory worldviews could both be “true” (true is a poor word choice—see also Jordan Peterson and Sam’s digression on this. IMO it would be better to say that two systems/language-games/consciousnesses could be “valid,” as true should be reserved for things that are empirically verified). Thus, any religious system could be “valid” in that it draws the correct conclusions from its premises, so long as it does not pretend to extend itself into another sphere of knowledge, for as soon as it introduces the concept of facts—which is the domain of science—science wins. Any system that didn’t draw the obvious conclusions from its given premises would be invalid, and basically madness/incoherence. (It’s this apparent endorsement of relativism/“Separate magisteria” that gets the religious all excited, I reckon, but I think what Langan is saying here is that although a system of thought can be internally consistent, it doesn’t have the same degree of truth of a system supported by observation and facts of “external” reality).
- The whole system—the cosmos—is this process writ large, a system that is selecting for intelligence/intelligibleness (shades of Alan Watts). It’s here where Langan gets into his theistic conceptions.

All of these points, are arguable, and I may have misconstrued them. But at a gut level, the idea that logic is some kind of intrinsic aspect of the universe is appealing (though that doesn’t necessarily make it true).

So why would any of this have value? Well, whereas evolution is a theory that just happens to be supported by mounds and mound of evidence, it seems that Langan’s theory could be used to make predictions that prove either true or false (what form artificial/alien/animal/other intelligence would look like, perhaps, or the dispersal of matter in the known universe (see that recent study about the seeming illusion of dark energy)).

Thoughts? Any “there” there, or just a sham?

Thanks.


          Priyamvada Natarajan: Solving Dark Matter and Dark Energy        
No one thinks longer, or bigger, than astrophysicists. “This is the golden age of cosmology,” says Priya Natarajan, one of the world’s leading astrophysicists, because data keeps pouring in to vet even the most radical theories. And the dominant mysteries are profound. She observes that “The vast majority of stuff in the universe—both dark matter and dark energy, which dominate the content and fate of the universe—is unknown.“ The universe’s greatest exotica are the focus of her research—dark matter, dark energy, and black holes. She is an expert, for example, in the complex behavior and gravitational lensing of galaxy clusters, where arrays of 1,000 galaxies are 95% dark matter. Her theory of the “direct” formation of supermassive black holes may explain the profound mystery of quasars. Priyamvada Natarajan is a professor in the Departments of Astronomy and Physics at Yale University and at the Dark Cosmology Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. She is an active proponent for the public understanding and study of science.
          Awesome Powers Vol. 10: Light and Darkness Powers        
Awesome Powers Vol. 10: Light and Darkness PowersPublisher: Basic Action Games

Awesome Powers is a supplement for the BASH! Ultimate Edition RPG. Inside, you will find new Powers, new Enhancements, new Limitations, and new ideas to incorporate into your BASH! campaigns.

Chiefly, this product is designed to allow you to create characters with themes, making use of pre-designed powers. and nbsp; You can use these powers for inspiration, or you can even create your character by rolling for powers at random. As the Awesome Powers library grows, so will the list of available powers.

Volume 10 of Awesome Powers deals with powers of a Light and Shadow. It is ideal for building luminous beings who soar through the cosmos, shadowy figures who melt into the dark, or manipulators of light or dark energy. and nbsp;

Light and nbsp;allows you to control photons, produce damaging lasers or radiation, phase through matter, or withstand the rigors of cosmic travel at incredible speed, as well as many other tricks. and nbsp;

Shadow and nbsp;allows you to manipulate darkness itself, solidifying it to make weapons and traps, or to desolidify matter to move through solid objects. It can also be used as a means of travel (or storage) through use of the mysterious and quot;Shadow Dimension and quot;. and nbsp;

Volume 10 Also introduces two new powers. First, there is an alternative to Super Speed called and quot;Hyper Speed and quot; which allows characters to perform a number of and quot;Speed Stunts and quot; in a given Panel in lieu of taking additional Panels per Page. There is also a playtest for the and nbsp;Wizardry and nbsp;power, that will be a part of our final volume on Magic and amp; Artifacts. Wizardry is meant to be a catch-all power that allows you to perform any number of wonderous effects without requiring Cosmic-scale powers. It is intended for making wizards, extra-dimensional beings, and certain magical creatures. and nbsp;

You'll also find all new Alterations and Enhancements. and nbsp;

Volume 10 has included a Random Power Generator compiling all powers from Awesome Powers 1-10. So now you can completely create a character without needing to flip through multiple books. and nbsp;

As the Awesome Powers library grows, it will include: and nbsp;

Volume 1: Elemental Powers

Volume 2: Mechanical Powers

Volume 3: Spatial Powers

Volume 4: Force / Gravity Powers

Volume 5: Mental Powers

Volume 6: Tech Powers

Volume 7: Fortune Powers

Volume 8: Inner Strength and amp; Intense Training

Volume 9: Hyper Speed and amp; Time Powers

Volume 10: Light and amp; Shadow Powers

Volume 11: Matter and amp; Morphing Powers

Volume 12: Powerhouse and amp; Stretching Powers

Volume 13: Size and amp; Density Powers

Volume 14: Sonic and amp; Toxic Powers

Volume 15: Life and amp; Death Powers

Volume 16: Plant and amp; Animal Powers

Volume 17: Magic and amp; Artifacts

Volume 18: Bonus


          Comment on Whole Genome Sequencing for All? The Quest for Evidence Continues by Sherman Jew        
Our understanding of the human genome, I sense, is more akin to how much we now know about the universe and less of, as we once thought, a straightforward exercise in reading a conventional map. The observable universe makes up to less than 5% of the entire universe. Conversely, the parts that are hidden from us at this time: roughly 68% of the universe is dark energy, and dark matter makes up about 27%. So, the parts - the majority parts – of the universe that we don’t see are more likely the keys in understanding what really make the universe tick. In comparison, the identifiable protein-coding portions – what we traditionally think as the functional parts of a gene – make up only to less than 3% of the whole genome. The remaining parts, the so called “junk”, “non-protein coding”, “selfish” DNA, or, I would name, the “dark DNA” portions make up the majority of the total sequence, 96% plus of the entire genome. In that light, epigenetics might hold the keys to genomic medicine, and, given the complexity of gene-environment interaction, we still have to learn more before fully using the genome in clinical application.
          Surreal Higgs Bumps The LHC        
Alan Gillis Reports   ¿Es macho el Higgs o no es macho? Did Alexander Calder discover the Higg's boson while inventing the Large Hadron Collider? Well, anything is possible in Quantum mechanics. Physicists at CERN have always been closet Surrealists. Their latest hat trick, Run Rabbit Run, a brand new particle, possibly the one they were looking for. Though it will take more analysis and more experimental data and maybe even a new cleaner very high energy electron-positron collider to find out. The Higgs is an important particle and central to Standard Model physics if it exists. The Higgs has to be nailed or the SM collection of interlocking theories is flawed. Without the Higgs the SM cannot account for the mass of the Universe. Ergo non fiat, no Ferrari in any CERN parking lot. And that's impossible and might start a trend if $10 Billion is not enough to prove anything.

All CERN has for sure is a new particle that looks like a Higg's candidate. And the Higgs may not be fundamental after all, only responsible for a small amount of the mass of the Universe. See the "Higgs Fandango" below.

Chorus from The Rain In Spain ...

“As a layman, I would now say, I think we have it,” said CERN Director-General Rolf-Dieter Heuer (back row 2nd from left, Peter Higgs in front) announcing the preliminary results July 4. “It’s a historic milestone today. I think we can all be proud, all be happy.”

Anyway after 50 years of slaving over hot colliders, you can't blame physicists if they're partying now. It's great for morale and with the whole world watching the party, the applause from enraptured physicists, the Champagne flowing, well it's a relief for any physicist just to be human again.

Then it's the post-collider hangover and maybe we over did it. A heavy particle at 125 GeV or about the mass of an iodine atom looks good in the data but Dr Heuer clarifying "it" as a "fundamental scalar boson"? Sounds like Premature Collider Evacuation Syndrome where circumlocution pops out a Higgs, but with no conclusive evidence for scalar or zero spin from these bosons at the LHC.

The WW decay data channel should tell CERN that the Higgs decays into two W bosons indicating it is the SM Higgs with zero spin, but there is a deficit in this data both in the CMS and ATLAS experiments.

Lots of types of decays happen too and there are other puzzling deficits. Here's the research from ATLAS on what's been discovered in all channels.

There's an odd excess too. The diphoton decay channel for this new boson shows many more photon events than was predicted for the Higgs. Here's the latest diphoton data from ATLAS in pdf.

Higgs? Blasts Into 4 Muons

So it's premature to talk of any Higgs discovery. Maybe we have signals from one of a group of Higgs particles, but not from the Standard Model Higgs. Maybe it's just a new charged particle outside the Higgs group. Or even a composite particle. Two things we know for sure are more research is needed and CERN PR provides more spin than any known particle.

A Simple Higgs Experiment For The LHC

The mysterious Higgs and all from a vacuum too. So why not study the vacuum? CERN already has a space-type vacuum at a space temperature of near absolute zero in its 54 km (27 km x 2) beam pipe system. This heavy Higgs field has to be inside it if it's real. Run the LHC without the protons and see if you can excite the Higgs field with the RF system used to accelerate protons. But CERN does this anyway in any proton run. Both protons and any fields in the vacuum are being accelerated. You could say the data is in. No Higgs field has been excited or accelerated or collided or found. So is there a real Higgs field that exists everywhere? Not at the LHC. No says CERN, that's not how it works:

"Higgs bosons are quantum fluctuations in the Englert-Brout-Higgs field that are visible experimentally only when energy is “injected” into the field. Concentrating the right amount of energy in proton-proton collisions at the LHC excites the Englert-Brout-Higgs field, which resonates at a precise energy corresponding to the mass of the Higgs boson.  The Higgs boson appears momentarily before decaying into other particles that the LHC experiments can measure. Some theories predict the existence of multiple Higgs bosons."


The fundamental Higgs boson decays? So far all big particles discovered at colliders decay. Why? Well the short answer is because they can. That's one answer from Lily Asquith at ATLAS. But maybe these fundamental particles aren't fundamental, but unstable composites from the bottomless pit of collider physics.

Maybe the  E-B-Higgs field is unstable too. Then can CERN kick it with some energy to get a Higgs? Or is there another pathway if it is stable? An electron is stable and an electron field is stable. Do you need to kick the electron field with energy to produce an electron? Unstable particles would have no mother fields.  

What CERN says above, can be translated in another way. CERN strikes a Higgs high C "energy" from its SteinwayLHC that is "injected" into the totally quiet and invisible high C E-B-Higgs field where the energy "resonates" and "excites" the field and out pops an excited real world high C Higgs note that suddenly decays into other minor notes, sometimes 4 bright photons or a trill of mi-mi-mi-mi's etc etc.

Nonsense, as we know the air here is the field that resonates with high C but there are no high Cs in it that pop out. Don't need a collider to prove that at least. In either case, with or without a collider, is there any proof of a Higgs field?

If you don't think a musical analogy works, well CERN started it. Listen to "Higgs" for piano at ATLAS (Bravo!) based on an actual data graph or read more first on data sonification.

Collider Artifacts Of The Universe

Back to work. Nice theory CERN (in quotes above) on how energy (125 GeV) knocks a Higgs out of Higgs Space for us to see, but it is true? Recall the Big Bang in a vacuum? No fields before then and suddenly some super-condensed energy ball the size of an orange explodes, eventually producing everything including the Quantum fields presumably now in Spacetime where everything else is too including the LHC. Unless the LHC is in some hyper-reality because 10,000 physicists concentrate the LHC into a Higgs Player Piano or anything else they agree on just by a collective observer effect you do see in Quantum physics. Which could also be interpreted as a mass delusion like dancing orbs of light over Phoenix and other UFOs the Army always flatly denies. If only the Army reviewed LHC data? Not convincing guys. Call it a night. Your wives are waiting. OK so labcoats are confusing. CERN says 9% of their physicists definitely have larger breasts. See Fabiola over at ATLAS for details.

Shortfalls In CERN's Little Bang Machine

In reality however, the much hyped LHC Big Bang Machine or Little Bang frankly, is supposed to create similar conditions just a very tiny fraction of a second after the first BB explosion. Doesn't seem to be at all that similar. First thing you get is matter particles from high energy explosions that often decay into massless particles.

Blame that on the big Higgs field from the first BB. But then you really can't study the BB with CERN's Little Bang Machine. Fields from the BB are always interfering. Particles with mass seem to appear first and then some decay into particles without mass in these collider experiments. So the real object is not to make CERN PR a real world event, but to tease particles out from BB fields. Then why aren't there a lot of relatively low energy 125 GeV Higgs in all collider data? There aren't, indeed Higgs are extremely rare. Lower power but powerful enough colliders like the former Tevatron at Fermilab (RIP) and the still operating RHIC at Brookhaven should have seen them easily. Why does it take 8000 GeV (8 TeV) to produce a Higgs weighing 125 GeV? Well, there have been mysterious unconfirmed signals from other colliders including CERN's old LEP. But would the old data have been conclusive if it was processed by CERN's mighty computing center? Might have saved a few Billion dollars.

The new Mother Of All Colliders at CERN uses a sledge hammer to smash a mosquito to get one Higgs. Sorry, but CERN used to say they were smashing proton mosquitos together to make high energy physics look modest, familiar and safe.

Well CERN protons are heavy. When a proton at rest of 1 GeV (1 billion electron volts) is accelerated near light speed that adds a lot of mass. In the Higgs experiment CERN was using 4 TeV protons (4 trillion electron volts) meaning each proton punched 4,000 times above its rest mass weight for a collision energy of 8 TeV from just 2 protons. With on average 27 very very near simultaneous head-on collisions/explosions per 2 beam bunches crossing for collisions near twice the speed of light in a very tiny space, you get fireballs that explode. This isn't early days atom smashing. Though there is a lot of smashing due to focusing difficulties.

Millions of other collisions going on at the same time are off center elastic types, and these protons can smash each other to bits. What happens is already well known and this data noise is filtered and deleted. On a good day any of the 4 main experiments can achieve 100 million events each or more per second. But nearly all the data is noisy elastic collisions and so is discarded. Only interesting primary events are recorded for study.


Even so, there are mountains of interesting data that rush out so fast, the events have to be computer modeled if we want to see anything remotely like the original events. So it's complex software and vast computing power, that gives CERN its images and graphs and they are really only simplified schematics of strange but real events. An abstract of abstract events. How accurate are they? As good as the software, as clean as the original signals flowing through miles of fiber optics and copper wire and thousands of cores ganged together.

If you're a pro photographer working with RAW files and converters and then processing and enhancing images with various other software packages always being updated, you get the idea. No real definitive image of reality, just interesting versions. And if you didn't take the original shot yourself of something you've never seen with the shutter set to near light speed, capturing the very very insanely small, what is the image supposed to look like? What are we studying here?
 

Safety First But First The Higgs

In 2 years the LHC should reach its design objective of 14 TeV collisions a little later than planned. Hot on the trail of the Higgs on a giddy July 4th, everything else can wait. A year-long shutdown of the LHC for safety retrofits including more tinkering with weak magnets, has been delayed again, now for 3 months more, so as not to stop the LHC before Spring 2013. Fine except more safety systems after the $40 Million accident of 2008, were recommended and promised by CERN. Some safety modifications were made, and are working. But CERN is driving the collider hard, 24 hours a day.

Imagine an all electric Ferrari with an electrical short like last time. Imagine the mechanic says the liquid helium rad could still blow like last time. You want to go with a few tiny--don't mess with the collider--dimwit relief valves? You twist out some manometers for that? You need hundreds more of those in all 8 Sectors. Big ones are better remember? Gimme the big toot-toot ones you engineers said after the boom-boom-boom, when everything has got to be cooled down as cold as space. If not then it's boom-boom-boom again. This is a 10 Billion Dollar Machine. Safety first you say or gimme-dat Higgs?

As any old hand from the days of the Tevatron will tell you, every relief valve is a big problem. They leak all the time. And they blow all the time when helium pressure fluctuates as it does. And then beams dump and Cryogenic Havoc!

Could that be why CERN avoided installing them everywhere they should have before Catastrophic 2008? Nevermind, now we need them. A few tiny ones will do or maybe no collider for years. Safety, or as they might say in Collider Safety Committee meetings post-2008, Gentlemen we have a solution. Démarrons!


Vraiment? Well so far so good, but to get an idea what power one proton beam has at its eventual 7 TeV, imagine a Subaru travelling at 1712 kilometers per hour around the 27 km LHC ring tunnel. Then a second Subaru like the first but travelling in the opposite direction. All this from a little cc vial of hydrogen gas that's had its electrons stripped from its protons. 

Fortunately it's very difficult to collide protons head-on. From a pokey though much celebrated start, the LHC is now blazing. CERN keeps working up the numbers, hoping that at full power and luminosity it can get 600 million with hopes of a billion collisions per second. Though that's still a tiny fraction of the protons per beam. Yet if CERN loses control these beams can melt near a metric tonne of copper cooled to 2 degrees Kelvin (LHC beam vacuum is at 1.9 K) in a flash.  Or burn holes right through the collider and spill  liquid helium as instantly expanding cold gas that blows safety doors off their hinges. The LHC spilled tonnes of helium in the 2008 accident but due to other causes. Lost beams in a collider or runaway beams have happened before. A runaway beam of about 1 TeV at the Tevatron did cause major damage in 2003. See my article Major Failures At The Tevatron that also covers 1200 faulty relief valves.

Bottomless Pit Collider Physics

To return to what the LHC is for really. Evidently not a Big Bang Machine. No Big Bang yet, we're hoping. Not really a scalable model for the Big Bang either as BB fields distort experimental data. No way of extracting Big Bang data from a dingbat Little Bang Collider relying on Artificial Conditions that did not exist at the time of the Big Bang, like near light speed proton beams colliding head on in gigantic magnetic fields. American Baseball might be similar to English Cricket if you're a moron. So what kind of experiment is the LHC geared to?

Producing particles which it does. With more energy available than any other collider, then maybe new heavier particles. But perhaps this mania for the discovery of particles that need to be produced in colliders to be identified, as they cannot be found elsewhere in the real Universe, is an open-ended search that could produce an untold number of new particles that can exist temporarily in colliders and maybe exist elsewhere. Or don't exist elsewhere and may never have existed except inside rarefied and artificial environments like these gigantic fusion reactors that make them inside gigantic magnetic fields that CERN simply and modestly calls Detectors like CMS and ATLAS at the LHC.

If experiments are open-ended sooner or later the LHC could make dangerous collider objects like theoretically possible micro black holes. So far no experimental data show any being produced, but the race for higher and higher energy collisions at the LHC goes on. Up another big notch now from 3.5 TeV per proton beam to 4 TeV for collisions at 8 TeV and eventually to 14 TeV and that's Tera or Trillion electron Volts.

Proof positive of the Higgs is the main advertised event. But equally welcome to String theorists in the majority at CERN, are mBH from the LHC as Black Hole Factory, no longer advertised. Probable proof then of String theory and its extra dimensions and a chance to study elusive black holes, a quantum mechanical gold mine and a possible alternate for the Big Bang.

The LHC Demonstrates Einstein At Least

Waait a minute. Isn't something obvious going on at the LHC? About as simple as OxyClean on TV. Mysterious Quantum fields hiding in a vacuum are not needed to produce a Higgs or anything else. Just watch the LHC. Concentrate tremendous energies into a teeny bit of space and matter erupts from energy. The original Energy is transformed.

Happens all the time at the LHC. Isn't that what Einstein more or less implied with E=MC^2 ?

Do we even need a Higgs?

The Higgs Fandango 

Sure a particle might make sense inside a theory especially that partially predicts it, but is that why it's there? Can't the same particle fit into a better theory no one has invented yet, that explains that Theory H is suspect, because Particle H is really Particle Y which may be the case with the new Higgs Candidate. Theory H also doesn't predict the Higgs mass so any new boson lurking in the future with Spin0 might be the Higgs. The spectacular Higgs field is even stranger, everywhere, but nowhere we can find it. Thinking about mass for a minute, how does it account for the mass of an astronaut on the moon, one sixth of what it is on earth? Aha! Well physicists and CERN can answer that but don't often in all the brouhaha about the Higgs. Yes, you guessed it. There are other more important forces and the Higgs only accounts for a small amount of mass, like 1% of your body weight.

That's what they say at CERN behind closed doors. Gian Francesco Giudice, a CERN physicist, mentions it in his new book, A Zeptospace Odyssey: A Journey into the Physics of the LHC. Though you'll have to dig deep pp173-175.

"... the Higgs sector is rather arbitrary, and its form is not dictated by any deep fundamental principle. For this reason its structure looks frighteningly ad-hoc". Then he drops the other shoe, "It is sometimes said that the discovery of the Higgs boson will explain the mystery of the origin of mass. This statement requires a good deal of qualification.” And goes on to say, “In summary, the Higgs mechanism accounts for about 1 per cent of the mass of ordinary matter, and for only 0.2 per cent of the mass of the universe. This is not nearly enough to justify the claim of explaining the origin of mass.”
I think I just heard an explosion at Building 40, is it? From the CERN PR Machine.

The fundamental Higgs is not as important as advertised. So why fill the Universe with a Higgs field that doesn't do very much? Would CERN do that even if it could?

No, it's just not simple and elegant enough. Not Premium Grade A Physics.

Then why the Higgs circus at CERN? Why all this categorical rubbish about the importance of the Higgs? Sounds like stamp collecting for physicists, the rare penny black Higgs, but there's a serious Nobel on the horizon and more funding, certainly. In the end it's the not very likely and in basic energy terms very expensive Higgs field with little effect on the cosmos, with the very big question of gravity, unresolved.

The Higgs Key To Gravity? H to 4e

Unless the Higgs is really a graviton and in that case it can also account for the missing 1%, plus all the mass in the Universe which then also happens to be relative. Then we have an astonishing discovery and Alan Gillis should get the Nobel.
     

Nevermind, CERN Like Any Housewife Wants More

Let's face it Higgs are great but what every String theorist wants is funding and a real mBH for a thesis or a knock'em dead paper. In this Brave New World finally all String theorists are proved exactly right, and that's most physicists at the LHC. Except what would mBH do? Decay says Hawking and CERN. Or you can't produce mBH says CERN at the rock bottom On Sale Now new low power LHC, confidently invoking Einstein to cool down earlier PR and excited String theorists. Other worst case scenarios aren't taken seriously as real risks.

Anything new is interesting too. Some strange particles or collider objects may have been already created by colliders. If you don't know what to look for, you might miss them entirely. Always a career risk, but there are always more particles.

If the subdetectors in the big Detectors aren't specific enough to unknown particles or the magnetic fields aren't strong enough for containment, you could lose particles you never even dreamed of. Or maybe some physicists fast asleep have found Mt Blanc closed due to strange matter "tomato paste", leaving CERN ski teams baffled. We don't really know if it's strange matter yet.

CERN has built a CASTOR detector hitched to CMS for not expected but possible events, just in case. Then the unexpected can be familiar like a bus and yet knock you down, going the wrong way down a one-way street. Unexpected Symmetry breaking if you aren't looking both ways. Or something totally unexpected as we don't yet have an infinite number of theories to cover everything happening and anything can happen in Quantum mechanics.

No one wants that many theories of course, just one Theory of Everything that includes the big fields outside, like the gravity of the Universe and now theoretical dark energy and dark matter.

Or on the quest for ToE, have physicists simply reached the end of their mindset? Now padding reality with theories and inventing collider particles to prove them? Maybe it's as simple as going off on the wrong foot, in the wrong direction. Going into the maze that has no end, when maybe you should have stopped at the Starbucks first and had a double slim latte on ghiaccio with Amaretto and biscotti.

Italians are sensible. Neutrinos travel faster than light when they jump from CERN Geneva to Gran Sasso Italy and they make better and cheaper lattes. You would too if you were an Italian Neutrino working for CERN who just passed through a paper stupido cup of espresso americano from one of CERN's autocuppa machinas. But Slim in Italia, non subis est.

The LHC is all about human ambition and imagination like other extreme sports. With no more Everests to climb, there's the power of the surreal to conquer. Build a new fantastic Everest and climb it. And take the world with you.

Except the Maya didn't bring an end to the Long Count and all Long Counts, but CERN could, on or before December 21, 2012. Or after, if the Maya got it wrong. Time at CERN might be wrong too measured in bizarre units of 1 trillion collision events, but interesting as a proof of elastic time that might be real. So how many more Inverse Femtobarns to go you guys?


Back To Square One 

The Maya would be impressed with the magic of the LHC.
Is this your temple? What are you doing? You don't know yet!

In the old Mayan days, the stars told them. Outside on a clear night in Spacetime.

--Alan Gillis
          Colliders Are Forever        
M's OFFICE LONDON

What do you know about CIRC in Geneva, Commander Bond?

Not much sir. Centre International pour la Récherche Circulaire. About says it all. They've built the world's largest Dyson Ball Vac according to CIRC PR, but physicists are a canny bunch. Half the time they don't know what they're talking about. It might look like a giant Dyson Ball Vac but it might not work like one.

Good. That confirms our intelligence. Might not be a Vac at all. Find out for us in case it's anti-British. This is the beast, a hundred meters underground. (unrolling a giant schematic) 27 km around. A great deal of suction.

$10 Billion to date, sir.

Not a total waste we're finding. Picking up dust as far as London. But where are they going to put it all eventually when they shut it down for cleaning? Not our problem fortunately. Touch and go on other fronts. Accidents, some new theories on what might happen at the Doomsday Machine. But they say they've got more baffling concerns. Seems they've found a physicist in the blower, but he's not one of theirs. Looks like the spitting image of one of the Cenral Vac Café waiters, who has suddenly disappeared. Uppity sort who always wanted to be a physicist. It's probably him having a lark at their expense or he's simply lost his marbles. In any case we have a security risk. CIRC wants some answers. Problem is the waiter's spinning stories that are so fantastic they might be creditable like quantum physics theory. CIRC is bamboozled.

Surely it's rather obvious. A personnel problem. CIRC fires the waiter. He finds another job. Hardly a security issue.

In the best of all possible worlds. Not sure where CIRC fits in. Thing is there's a Russian connection. Our friend Dimitri Obolin, the waiter, has some support from the Russians working at the Dyson Ball from FermiBall the rival American Vac. The new Russian Upright Vac project has expressed interest in trading him for one of their waiters. Rather complicated. Camilla and HRH the Prince of Wales are due to visit CIRC tomorrow. Something about Hitler's New Bunker, no not the National Library this time. It could be a new chapter in the Cold Vac War we thought had blown a fuse. Where you come in 007.

GENEVA, HOOVER NOVOTEL LOBBY

Welcome to Geneva, Mr Bond and the Hoover Novotel. I see you're on Dyson business. CIRC will be covering all your expenses. There's a delegation waiting to receive you in the Poussière Dorée Bar. Your suite is ready if you'd like to shower and change. Should I say you'll be down soon?

Bit early. Don't know if I can face physicists before supper. How many?

Four I believe.

Is this standard procedure? A welcome committee?

For VIPs yes and government people.

Then the Hoover is a CIRC hotel?

No, it's a public hotel but we cater largely to a CIRC clientèle and the airport. The Dyson is just down the road.

Very convenient. Think I'll look in on the delegation now. Is the suite big enough for entertaining? Do you have a penthouse available?

Usually booked, but I can check. Yes, we have one coming up. It won't be ready for an hour or so.

Fine, I'll have it then. Rather quiet for a big hotel? Apart from the Dyson noise and dust. I suppose people in Geneva are a bit nervous? Are you?

About the Dyson? It's the press stories, you know, end of the world. We're used to that. Though the Dyson energies are going way up soon, Mach 3.5 if that's what you mean.

Sorry. (turning) Is that you Q--ing? Splendid surprise.

What on earth are you doing in Geneva, James?

Consulting, sightseeing. Time for a drink?

Yes, rather a good idea. Why not?

It will have to be a quick one in the lounge. Otherwise engaged. (to the concierge) Send over a vodka martini shaken not stirred and a Pimm's Number 1 or if that's too arcane, make it a Long Island Iced Tea.

(walking to the lounge) Sorry about barging in. Happened to be shopping at the bijouteries, clocks and watches, partly professional interest, and then I get a call. You know your car at Heathrow? Blown up. Your flat in Kensington burglarized, and you're being audited by Inland Revenue, but we think we can fix that. We don't know who's behind it.

No, but we do have (sitting) a security breach, Q. Well? You have nothing. Is that all?

Isn't that enough? There's a bit more from M if you'll stop being testy. We know now that CIRC owns this hotel. Novotel just runs it. Under the circumstances, better ask for another room. I'll have it hoovered for you later.

Hoovered? Don't forget a box of chocolates and flowers for the maid. No. Listen closely. Don't. CIRC is supposed to be on our side. In the field, things aren't just technical. What else did M say?

Your Dimitri may be from a parallel universe.

Which parallel universe Q? The one in London? Might have mentioned it earlier. I see. Some aliens, some Russians check into the Hoover? To pick him up and take him home?

Cubans, a trade delegation. You might recall the big Vac projects started in Cuba in the 1950's.

Looks like there's a lineup for CIRC's Loony Bin. There's a welcome committee of four from CIRC waiting for me at the bar. Know who they are?

From CIRC evidently, unscheduled it seems. Hadn't heard. Not on your schedule?

Exactly. Are they official or unofficial?

Splitting hairs aren't we?

What do you think field agents do while you people have your endless meetings and cucumber sandwiches?

Besides crashing cars and blowing things up? Can't say. Plenty of sweaty sex? Don't envy you Bond. It's a hard life. Not a casino girl in sight. (drinks arrive) Alright, I've finished. You're right. Looking tiresomely suspicious, this CIRC business. Did you know a CIRC helio landed on the roof here about 40 minutes ago?

Is it still there?

Was 10 minutes ago. Ingenious really, a special helio screw to avoid turbulence. Modified Sikorsky--

Why the helio? CIRC is a stone's throw away. There's the Dome out your window.

Traffic snarl. Security is very tight around the Dyson. Been here a few days. Shouldn't have bothered really. All roads closed. Some protesters packed off in Police vans. CIRC said they might try Mach 3.5 today. Rather more dust around. And that nerve-wracking woo-woo-woo. Imagine all this nonsense to save the environment? Anyway, no choice but to fly in your delegation.

Then everything makes sense. Everything's fine. Just some extra security for their Dyson and the VIP, me. I don't like it.

If that's all, I'd better be off. Bond? Maybe it's all routine, except for your Morgan.

Blast you Q, you're a big help. Is M convinced I've walked into a trap? Have my orders changed?
Don't think so?

Can I trust CIRC?

Can't say.

Think back. What did M say?

Hornet's nest, don't spare the horses, provide assistance. 005 fell off a building.

Fine. Now cover my back and tell London it's Jack. Do you have a wire with you? Any sort of transmitter? Can you track me?

No, not officially on duty. Brought my wife along. She still thinks I work in insurance.

I'm activating you Q. Now provide assistance. Think.

Think? You mean I'm Triple-0? This is a nice surprise. Or is it? You've got your mobile? Good. Call Universal Export and slip me your Bluetooth earpiece. It's only good for 10 meters, a bit dodgy, not encrypted but keep talking and London and I will know what you're doing.

Charming. I've changed rooms by the way for a penthouse suite, but I might be in the bar next. Keep in range if you can. I don't want to disappear. Hang around the gift shop. Buy a paper. Company's coming. (both stand to shake hands) Nice to see you again. Do keep in touch.

Right you are, James.

(as Q leaves the concierge brings a woman over) Mr Bond, this is Dr Ersuite from CIRC. She's with the delegation.

(shaking hands) A pleasure Mr Bond.

Just on my way. An old school friend waylaid me.

We're running late. The café is full of some noisy Cubans. Hope you don't mind. Our delegation has gone up to your penthouse. Just follow me. (walking to the elevators) We'll be changing elevators up on the last public floor. You'll like the DG's suite. It's very private.

A nice bonus. (Q comes up) Oh it's you again old boy. Feeling your oats?

You'll never guess. Forgot this bit. Manchester United is in town. Can't make out when they're playing. It's these French papers. (unfolds his newspaper for display) Imagine, calling them boozy bastards. See about tickets if you like and call me.

Manchester United en faillite. Les comptables en justice, ces «Boozy Bastards»
Alien décovert à CIRC
Nouvelle scandale Dyson, la «X Machine»

Sorry my French isn't up to yours. More meetings on tap. Call me in London when you get back.

Right you are. Thought I'd hang around for supper. Superb brasserie on the tenth floor with a view, tables outside when the Dyson's off. Think I'll call Doris and make a night of it. Drop by if you can old sport. Did I tell you I found a Rolex for 50 quid? So real it might be hot, probably a knockoff, but who can complain? Here it is. A beauty. The Swiss must be slipping. Knockoffs in Geneva, what next? Here's an idea! What about going to the island later to watch The Spout? They light the thing up, rather splendid.

Not on I'm afraid. Give Doris my regrets. If you like let's try tomorrow. Meet me here at the bar 2 PM.

Ever try the Grosvenor for high tea and croquet? Camilla and Charles might drop by. Doris would love it.

Perhaps the hippodrome. Now if you'll excuse us? Can't keep the lady waiting.

So sorry. (to her) Dreadfully sorry. Thought you wanted the elevator. (smiling, wandering backwards) Well tomorrow then. I'm off.

I can't seem to shake him. Have to keep him happy. He's on the Board of my Club. You were saying, Dr Ersuite?

(elevator arrives) Yes, I hope you're enjoying Geneva? CIRC knows how to make their guests very comfortable. After our meeting, I might have a surprise for you?

PUBLIC ELEVATOR INTERIOR

(doors close) Quite. While I freshen up, you can shave your moustache, Dr Borovda.

I don't know what you are talking about.

Who's with you? (Bond shoves his Beretta into her neck) Where is Dimitri?

Don't shoot.

I'm trying not to. What's in your shoulder bag? A Glock. Not standard CIRC issue. Talk. (karate chop, she falls heavily) Three seconds.

Oow. You hurt me!

Broken collar bone. Anything else I can do?

Please! I'm not with them. I was raised in the State Orphanage, indoctrinated. There are two of them. The CIRC people are dead by now. You're the fall guy. Shoot Gyorgi when the door opens.

(elevator door opens, Gyorgi waiting) It might be a seizure. She just fell. Take her down to the lobby and call an ambulance.

(Gyorgi leans into a kick, knocked down, Glock to his head) Ooooh.

But he's not dead.

HOTEL HALLWAY

(Bond throws her flying over the body) Move. No one is dead yet as far as I know. Fix your hair. I'm right behind you. Where's Dimitri?

(she stumbles to her feet) In the helio on the roof. CIRC wanted us to transfer him to you.

(Bond jabs the Glock into her back, shoving her across the hall) Talk!

They panicked, CIRC panicked. The alien story is all over the papers and they want deniability.

Why!

Dimitri might be genuine. He says he works for CERN Geneva, a nuclear lab, a particle accelerator, that he thinks will blow up his world.

His world?

There is no CERN Geneva. Only in his world. We have his ID, we have strange plastic cards, some phony Euro currency and diamonds, lots of diamonds, large stones, clear and uncut, but polished like ice.

From where?

We don't know. Not from the Dyson, not from CERN.

They're genuine diamonds?

Highly radioactive.

What's going on at Dyson?

I don't know. I'm with CIRC PR. They don't tell us anything. It's supposed to be about carbon capture, global warming. The Dyson collects carbon dioxide, dust, cosmic dust is what they want. That's all I know.

Is this the elevator? Who's the Russian waiting for us in the penthouse?

He's an American. Tall, strong like a football player. Wyman Follers. Big W.

Just him?

Yes, just him.

The helio pilot, is Wyman the pilot?

Yes.

The helio, what make?

Sikorski.

Tell Wyman you had to kill me. Tell Wyman I killed Gyorgi. Tell Wyman you have to take the helio and get out with Dimitri. Will it work?

Yes. Maybe.

How many real CIRC people?

Just one, a physicist.

One too few I think. You want Dimitri and me or is it just me? But I'm the fall guy? How many are there!

Two!

(bang) You're finally probably right. (pulling out his phone) Bond here. Backup requested now. Hoover penthouse, Hoover roof. Intercept Hoover helio. Are you deaf!

(phone) We don't cater parties. Strictly on our premises.

Yes you do.

(phone) Not on the Hoover Dam.

Hoover Hotel blast it, in Geneva now. Call Q, call the Geneva Police and shut up.

(phone) Geneva New York?

Geneva Geneva, Dyson Vac Geneva, Switzerland! I'm going in. I'm taking Dimitri and the CIRC helio.

PRIVATE ELEVATOR TO PENTHOUSE

(door opens to W waiting) Is there some mistake? You seem to be in my suite.

Where's Dr Ersuite?

No idea. Are you with CIRC?

You met her, you saw her?

No. (Bond shoots through his jacket pocket 3 times) I'm in a bit of a rush.

PENTHOUSE HELIO PAD NIGHT, HELIO LIT AND READY

(Bond running) We have to go now! Bond shot W! The police are coming!

Gyorgi!

Get out now! We have to run for it! (a man jumps down, Bond fires twice, kicks him over) I'm a British agent with CIRC! Dimitri! Stay inside! I'm coming in!

HELIO INTERIOR LIT NIGHT

(Bond climbs in, two bodies slumped at the back) Anyone dead?

Not dead, we are drugged, don't shoot us.

Dimitri?

Yes. Dr Dimitri Obolin, CERN. Are those CIRC people dead? They're crazy. That one said he would kill us if something went wrong.

You're safe with me.

We have to get out of here now. The Dyson Vac. CERN will blow it up.

(a hoarse whisper) It's Q. It's me Q! Bond, it's Q. Don't shoot.

Not now Q. I'm busy.

Busy!

Trouble?

Not my department. Just a mad scramble. Four penthouses, yours the blasted last.

Did you see Gyorgi? Anyone?

Georgi the one stuck in the elevator?

That's him. Dead?

Gurgling a bit. And your girlfriend, dead I think.

Any police?

Not yet.

Here, take the Glock Q. Watch the roof. (Bond aims his Beretta) Don't move a muscle Dimitri. No time to be nervous. We're British agents, not CIRC.

We must leave now! Get us out of here. The danger is real. Our Large Hadron Collider is a matter transporter. It wasn't designed for that, but that is why I am here. I'm from CERN. I'm here in your world.

That's a matter of opinion.

How else did I get here?

People believe strange stories. People tell strange stories. Especially in my line of work.

Your Dyson Vac, isn't it dangerous?

Not if it's a Vac.

Is it a Vac? Ask Dr Vander here. He's with CIRC.

Yes, Vander, Dr Vander. I'm a nuclear physicist. Who are you? Let me think.

Is the Dyson a Vac?

Not exactly. The Dyson captures dust and CO2 but there is some strange cosmic energy that CIRC claims it is capturing. It makes no sense to me.

Let me speak, I'm Dr Vander. I think we have found some new energy. We can condense it, but we can't analyze it yet. It is something physical and unknown.

Is it dangerous?

We don't know yet. In our detectors diamond becomes highly radioactive. We call it dark energy.
Dr Vander, do you believe Dimitri?

Yes and no. Well his quantum chromodynamics are interesting. They might apply to ours but it would take weeks of computing and analysis. What he says only a physicist could invent. CIRC is embarrassed. They don't want to find out if he is right or wrong. They want to get rid of him. The DG told me at the last minute we had to transfer Dr Obolin to the British. No one will take us seriously if we have an alien at CIRC.

So we can't trust CIRC?

Of course you can trust CIRC. We are scientists. Our goals are more science, more knowledge. Certainly the Vac is not perfectly safe. It might fall through the earth like a stone through water. Anything is possible in quantum physics. But is the impossible likely? Dr Obolin has to be a fake, but is he lying?

What about CERN, Dimitri? Is what they are doing safe?

Last week I would have said yes. Now I'm very worried. At never before seen energies, the LHC could surprise us. ALICE especially when we fire heavy lead nuclei beams at each other. It is an enormous particle collider, but the end is nuclear fusion. We didn't know, we still don't know about your parallel world. Our physics doesn't predict it. Our physics is obviously incomplete as is yours. If our worlds share the same matter we are mutually interdependent. It might only be clear in nuclear events, the destruction or creation of matter. When something nuclear happens at CERN, the Dyson will be affected. And vice-versa. Dr Vander, do you get unexplained nuclear events?

Listen everybody! (Dr Vander was yelling) Maybe we can prove what Dimitri says! We know about nuclear fission and fusion, but we think it's too dangerous to apply. Everyone knows there are strange events in many places. Energy vortices we cannot explain all over France. Some in Italy, in England, in Russia, China, in the United States. In 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki disintegrated and many people vanished, many were horribly sick.

In my world, we have about 2,000 nuclear reactors, fission reactors using enriched uranium. We're producing plutonium! With nuclear fission weapons in 1945 we destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Dr Obolin, this is theoretically possible. Technically possible. Many years ago we had an experimental reactor in Chicago. We made some plutonium.

Bond! Time for a reality check. Are we waiting for more trouble? CIRC is bloody well going to change their minds about dumping Dimitri when they find out how desperate the Russians are to get him. And what about the Russians? What are they doing now? They're expecting our CIRC helio and Dimitri. Let's get out of here!

(rotors start turning) Right Q. You're making sense. Hop in, we're going. Helmets on everyone. Pass them around Q. Buckle in. Radios on. Hear me?

HELIO LIFTOFF AND FLIGHT

Fine, yes, OK.

Bond, what's Jack anyway?

A bolthole in Evian. We fly south over Lake Leman. We land at the Grand Hotel. We drive away. Just don't want us shot down. Wait! I've still got Universal on the line. Bond here! Do not shoot down CIRC helio! Yell back! Heading for Evian. Take off your helmet Q. Talk to Universal!

You didn't tell them to shoot us down!

Of course I didn't. I asked for backup, for intercept. See anybody Q?

Your phone is dead, Bond. Look! Blinky light flying, port side high. Kill all your lights. Would CIRC shoot us down?

It's their helio.

Good point. Rather expensive piece of equipment. What's the radar say?

(a tense moment) Blinky light closing. We're changing course for Lausanne. Know of any Russian presence in the area?

Small jets fly into Geneva all the time, UNESCO and another half dozen UN agencies. That would be it. Occasional private yacht might have a helio, but I'm guessing.

Yes. It's the Russians. No radio contact. It's their getaway jet. They're fast, faster than us, flying loop the loop to keep behind us.

Why don't they shoot us down?

Maybe they're not sure it's us, or they don't have a missile. If we give them more time, they'll think of something. An RPG, or buzzing us into the drink. Burn us some way. I'm going to radio the airport Lausanne. Mayday! Mayday! Medical emergency. Requesting permission to land. Lausanne, do you copy?

Roger that. Identify yourself over?

UN helio B7471, Uncle Norman Bob 7471 from Geneva. United Nations flight. Request permission to land, over.

Roger that UN B7471. You are cleared to approach. Proceed to helio pad 1, main terminal roof, over.

Roger that Lausanne.

Proceed due west, via runway 40 airspace, over.

Proceeding due west via 40, four zero runway space, do you copy?

Roger.

ETA in 11 minutes, over.

Roger. Light winds 5 knots North by North West, over.

Winds North by North West 5 knots. Radio static, static building, static total, over. Can't hear you Lausanne, radio static over.

It's not the radio Bond. It's the Dyson Ball. Fire! It's bleeding orange. Over there! The sky is cracking!

Copyright (c) Alan Gillis 2009 All Rights Reserved
          A New Theory of Time: X-tention is Simultaneously Discrete and Continuous        
Time has been conceived mainly as either discrete or continuous, but not widely as a simultaneity of the two. I would like to articulate a new theory of time in which time is reconceived as a ‘raw material’ whose natural state is both discrete and continuous. This is a “middle third” position that extends Husserl’s theory of internal time consciousness by being a new form of time in the middle between and connecting retention-protention (which are continuous) and recollection-expectation (which are discrete). What I am naming X-tention is this middle kind of time, existing in a primordial state that is simultaneously discrete and continuous, with the capacity to solidify into either in the case of a specific situation. Time could be analogous to another fundamental physical element, light, which exists in a superposition state of both particle and wave before collapsing into one or the other per observation.

Husserl's theory of internal time structure 
In The Phenomenology of Internal Time Consciousness (1893-1917), Husserl expounds his theory of the structure of time. His core claim is that any present-now moment is comprised of three elements. There is a primal impression, the pure perception of the present now, plus a link to what this perception retains of just-recently past-now moments (retention) and what it anticipates of quickly-upcoming future-now moments (protention). Husserl distinguishes between two kinds of memory, primary memory as retention and secondary memory as recollection. Retention does not break continuity with the present-now moment; it is the part of a temporal object that contemplates its pastness and allows the present to emerge from the temporal background. Recollection does break continuity with the present; the current moment is interrupted to recall and re-represent past memory. Husserl’s theory is depicted in Figure 1.


A new middle third form of time: X-tention
Retention-protention is continuous; recollection-expectation is discrete. Recollection and expectation are piled-up snapshots of discrete past moments and imagined future events. When brought to mind, they are reproduced in a new present-now flow, but exist prior to recall or replay as un-presented discrete elements. The structure of the present-now moment, on the other hand, is a continuous flow of the intentional unity of primal impression and retention-protention. How far the retention-protention horizon extends is unclear. It might only encompass the most immediate recent-pasts and near-futures surrounding the primal impression of the present-now moment, or it might extend to include all previous and future experiences in the realms of recollection and expectation. I posit the conception of a middle third form of time, X-tention, to sit respectively between recollection and retention, and protention and expectation. My addition to Husserl’s theory is illustrated in Figure 2. Whereas protention and retention are continuous, and recollection and expectation are discrete, X-tention as the middle form of time is simultaneously discrete and continuous.


http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/temporality-of-the-future

X-tention: a superposition of raw time collapsible into discreteness or continuousness
X-tention as the middle third conception of time is conceptually similar to light’s wave-particle duality. Like light, the idea is not that time is an either/or kind of a thing. Light is not the kind of thing that is a particle or a wave, light is the kind of a thing that is more fundamentally not either, and may behave like a wave or particle depending on the situation. Likewise, the nature of time could be that it is fundamentally a kind of a thing that is more malleable in its core state, and that may behave as discrete or continuous based on the situation. X-tentive time thus exists as a possibility space where time is simultaneously discrete and continuous, a superposition of the possibility of both until collapsed into a reality situation of one or the other. The metaphor is that of Schrödinger’s cat, which exists in a quantum superposition state of being simultaneously both dead and alive until an observer looks into the box and the state collapses into one or the other. With X-tention too, it is possible to “look into the box,” i.e.; force the superposition state of dual time possibility to collapse into a reality instance of either discreteness (recollection-expectation) or continuousness (retention-protention). The possibility state collapses into one determination or the other. Since time is a function of the intentional act of meaning, for Husserl, in the case of time, “observing” would be applying an intentional act of meaning. Applying an act of meaning, in the sense of directing intentionality toward an object or objective, would collapse the potential time instance into either retention-impression-protention (continuous) or recollection-expectation (discrete).

Why is a middle third position of time needed? 
It may well be queried why a middle third position of time might be needed. How is it that Husserl did not more explicitly connect the two time regimes? Likewise, while other subsequent thinkers of time such as Heidegger and Derrida have critiqued many aspects of Husserl's theory, they essentially adopted wholesale the time structure of continuous retention-impression-protention and discrete recollection-expectation. However, I think that the discrete and the continuous are too disjoint, and do not seem to connect closely ontologically, methodologically, or practically to each other. Even just the posited structure of time as a binary “either-or” state is an indication that these might not be the only states, or that like light, the more foundational nature of the phenomenon is such that discreteness and continuousness are merely proximate behavioral dimensions of a more profound underlying phenomenon. Conceiving of time as simultaneously both discrete and continuous might also more closely correspond to the real-life phenomenological experience of time, which can seem to be both simultaneously snapshot and flow in the course of lived experience. Moreover, this is congruent with the Husserlian project of phenomenology, describing “how” things are experienced, not “what” is experienced. In summary, the concept of the middle third term of time, X-tention, is simultaneous time duality, where one of time’s properties is discreteness versus continuousness. "Raw time" or "pure time" exists simultaneously in a superposition of both states before an intentional act of meaning collapses it into one or the other state. X-tention can be seen as a perdurant (e.g.; temporal object-based) temporality of complexity because indeterminacy (as non-determinacy) is a key property. A temporality of complexity is important as we are now starting to have the understanding and technological tools to approach reality in the more nuanced manner of complex systems (non-linear, dynamic, emergent, open, unknowable at the outset, interdependent, self-organizing) as opposed to situations of simple linear causality.

Matter, energy, and light vs. space and time
I am positing the case of light wave-particle duality as a metaphor, not necessarily as justificatory grounds for my conjecture of a middle third designation for time. Just because duality is true for light does not mean that duality would be true for time. For one thing, matter, energy, and light are one class of physical phenomena, while space and time are another. Matter, energy, and light are ‘what is there,’ while space and time are the composition of the background. It is not that light is grounds for time, but it could be that many or even all physical phenomena ultimately turn out to have a property of duality or multiplicity. At small enough scales, many phenomena in physics might have a duality or multiplicity of states and behaviors, or more broadly indeterminacy as a general property that collapses from possibility to actuality per certain conditions. The presence of an observer is also a dynamic that is not yet fully understood. Matter, energy, and light are inter-translatable per Einstein’s equivalency of E=mc2, and thus perhaps all subject to wave-particle duality in some sense.

Physics: Scientific formulations of time as simultaneously discrete and continuous 
The conceptualization of time as simultaneously discrete and continuous is an under-explored notion in the philosophy of time, but is enjoying some degree of investigation in physics. One interesting paper notes that information is a quantity which is both discrete and continuous, where time and other physical phenomena might be reconceived as simultaneously discrete and continuous with an information theoretic formulation. The specific calculation involves Shannon’s sampling theory, which is essentially scaling any ‘analog’ phenomenon down to a digital’ formulation, and translating between the two. Another theory, loop quantum gravity, also holds that time might be simultaneously discrete and continuous at small enough scales, like the smallest scale, the Planck length (1×10−35 m). Nanotechnology, the precise placement of atoms in positional nanoassembly as a comparison for example, takes place at the (1×10−9 m) scale. At the Planck scale, fundamental building blocks of spacetime might be composable like Legos into different spacetime fabrics, such as those of “regular” baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy.

More information: Temporality of the Future

          Our Self Importance        
Recently, Scientists are coming to the conclusion that they alone are lucky enough to know the universe. Those that came before us were too primative and we may not be able to see the wonderous universe for what it is, those after us, apparently, will never know.

Obviously the Big Bang Paradigm is in trouble if they can predict its own defunctness.

The authors go on to ponder what this means in terms of the anthropic principle: the idea that we exist in a universe that's got conditions favorable to life largely because anything else would preclude any life arising that could ponder the universe. They suggest that there's another layer of complexity on top of that, namely that we only recognize that there is an anthropic principle because we came along at the right time. Too much earlier, and we wouldn't be able to detect that the universe is in a new inflationary era, which tells us that it's dominated by dark energy. Too much later, and we wouldn't be able to know that there's a universe at all. As the authors put it, "we live in a very special time in the evolution of the universe: the time at which we can observationally verify that we live in a very special time in the evolution of the universe!"

How faith based has cosmology become that no matter what evidence, what science and what questions are brought out against it, Cosmologists only see the same thing, invisible matter and forces where only electromagnetism is required.

The course, is hammered out ahead, unchanging and completely erroneous.
          ... An Understatement?        
A report on the expansion of the Universe has cause me humour. Due to the hubris of the claims that are being made, I find only the possibility that we could be so arrogant to make the claim (then add the only truth and wisdom in the whole piece, just at the end) to be an embarrassment of science.

Now, physicists Lawrence Krauss from Case Western Reserve University and Robert J. Scherrer from Vanderbilt University predict that trillions of years into the future, the information that currently allows us to understand how the universe expands will have disappeared over the visible horizon. What remains will be "an island universe" made from the Milky Way and its nearby galactic Local Group neighbors in an overwhelmingly dark void.

How can this largely filimentary structure, which is shown to be in constant evolution possibly fly apart? When have we ever seen evidence of this?

What appears almost as a story from science fiction, the cosmologists began to envision a universe based on "what ifs." Long after the demise of the solar system, it will be up to future physicists that arise from planets in other solar systems to fathom and unravel the mysteries of the system’s origins from their isolated universes dominated by dark energy.

"We live in a special time in the evolution of the universe," stated the researchers, somewhat humorously: "The only time at which we can observationally verify that we live in a very special time in the evolution of the universe."

Accurately the skepticism of the writer shows through. This is a story, made up of incorrect assumptions and 'what ifs', the evidence of this is minimal. The ego of the scientist, sure of their assumptions, shows through, however.

Krauss closed with a comment that he suggested is implicit in the paper’s conclusions. "We may feel smug in that we can detect a host of things future civilizations will not know about, but by the same token, this suggests we wonder about what important aspects of the universe we ourselves may be missing. Thus, our results suggest a kind of a ‘cosmic humility’".

Maybe you are missing something. That something is electricity. From Thunderbolts.info:

The Big Bang, which fails to take the electrical properties of plasma into account, assumes that redshift must be an indicator of distance. As a result, it projects the high-redshift filaments and arcs far into the background. In order to account for the association of these features with foreground galaxies, gravitational lensing must be invoked to “explain away” the number of features as multiple images of only one “distant” QSO. But even this subterfuge is in vain: The number of the allegedly distant objects should, on the astronomers' assumptions, increase with faintness, but observed numbers actually decrease.
           Getting to the Bottom Of Dark Energy Mystery         

This fall, NASA and the Department of Energy plan to invite proposals for a $600 million satellite mission devoted to dark energy. But some scientists fear that might not be enough.



          Something for nothing and your universe for free        
One argument I keep running into that is supposedly evidence for God (sometimes a generic god, sometimes a specific one) is that the universe began, therefore it must have been created. Sometimes it's more elaborate than this, sometimes not. In the cases where it's just this simple, it's effectively a God of the gaps argument. Since that type of argument has been dismantled repeatedly, I'm going to focus on the more elaborate versions today.

The most common elaboration to this argument is that the creation of the universe violates conservation of energy. "It's a well-known fact of science that you can't get something from nothing," they say. Interestingly, it seems that the people who say this sort of thing rarely have any real background in physics, much less a background in theoretical physics or cosmology. Before making big assumptions like this, wouldn't it make sense to check with someone who knows what they're talking about in this area to see if they could explain it?

Now, if only we had a cosmologist on hand... Wait a second, I'm a cosmologist! Well, I guess I'd better try to make some sense of these problems then. So, to the claims that the creation of the universe violates conservation of energy, my response can be summed up in two simple retorts: "Says who?" and "Even if so, so what?" Allow me to elaborate.

The first catch is that we don't know for sure that the creation of the universe actually does violate conservation of energy. First, let's keep to known science, and use an example taking place within our own universe. Let's say that somehow, a massive particle was created. Since mass = energy, this took up energy to create it. Now, what could have happened to allow this creation? A few possibilities:

1. Some physical process took place which resulted in an excess of energy. This extra energy was converted into this particle.
2. Even a vacuum doesn't have zero energy. It's possible that this particle borrowed energy from the vacuum in order to form (possibly along with its antiparticle if it has other properties such as charge which need to be conserved).
3. This particle was created alongside a mirro version of itself which has negative mass, resulting in a net change of zero energy. Note that we've never observed negative mass particles, but our current laws of physics don't bar them from existing.

So, let's expand to the creation of our universe. It turns out that for each of these, there's a nice parallel for the creation of the universe as well:

1. Some physical process took place outside our universe which resulted in an excess of energy. This extra energy was converted into our universe.
2. Whatever medium exists outside our universe might not necessarily have zero energy. It's possible that the creation of our universe simply borrowed some energy from this medium. A parallel anti-universe might also exist to balance quantities which must be conserved.
3. Our universe was created alongside a negative energy version of itself, so the net change in energy is zero.

There's also one more explanation which works for our universe, but not for the particle example:

4. Our universe has a net energy of zero. It is possible that the mysterious phenomenon we've termed "Dark energy" actually has negative energy, and this balances out the positive energy all of the mass in the universe provides. A little catch is that there's likely much more dark energy in the universe than all the other mass, so we'd actually be at an excess if this were true. That's little problem though, as it could easily have just been radiated away or whatever outside our universe.

So there you have it, four possible reasons why the creation of our universe might not violate conservation of energy. But even going into all that isn't really necessary. The catch is, violating conservation of energy isn't necessarily a problem when it comes to the creation of the universe. The reason for this is a bit complicated, but a simple version is as follows: Conservation of energy is an observation we've made which always seems to hold within our universe. We have no evidence that it holds outside our universe, or even that any of our laws of physics are the same out there. Therefore, we don't have reason to believe it must hold at the point of creation.

Now, for the more complicated explanation. We actually do have one explanation for why energy (and other properties, for that matter) is conserved. The reasoning is complicated, so I won't go into it here, but the key point is that it relies on what are known as symmetries. In the physics world, a symmetry is more than simply being able to mirror something and have it be the same. What it means here is that we could move the whole frame of reference in some way, and all the physics would remain the same.

There are three big symmetries of this type you'll know of. There's translational symmetry, which means if you move a foot to the right for instance, physics stays the same. There's rotation symmetry, which means whichever way you turn, the physics is the same. And there's temporal symmetry, which means that physics stays the same over time. There are also some others you probably haven't heard of it you haven't take college physics, such as gauge symmetry, but you don't need to worry about those here.

The important point about this is that there's a law of physics which states that for every symmetry, there must be some conserved quantity. This is completely unintuitive, but it's provable. Not easily provable, and most people reading this probably wouldn't understand the proof in any case, but it is provable, so just trust me on this. When we apply this law, we get the following conservations from the following symmetries:

-Translational symmetry gives us conservation of momentum.
-Rotational symmetry gives us conservation of angular momentum.
-Temporal symmetry gives us conservation of energy.
-Gauge symmetry gives us conservation of charge.

The important one for our purposes is the third: Temporal symmetry gives us conservation of energy. What happens if we no longer have temporal symmetry? Well, we can no longer guarantee conservation of energy. Now, think back to the beginning of the universe. At this point, all of the universe is compressed to a single, zero-dimensional point. Are the laws of physics the same here? Not at all. Temporal symmetry must be broken at this point, so we have no reason to believe that conservation of energy must apply. The instant after it, we start to have temporal symmetry, so whatever energy we start with we're stuck with, but there's no way to say what this might be.

So there you have it: a cosmologist's perspective on conservation of energy at the beginning of the universe. We don't know that the beginning of the universe violates conservation of energy at all. Even if it does, this isn't necessarily a problem. Even if all this is a problem, it's still at best a God of the gaps argument, and that's really no reason to believe at all.
          Hubblecast 99: Hubble’s biggest discoveries — part 2        
To many, Hubble is best known for its stunning images of celestial objects, but among astronomers it is admired for the valuable data it delivers. Hubble has helped revolutionise astronomy, including shedding light on dark matter and dark energy, lifting the veil on black holes, and peering into the dusty regions around stars to image exoplanets. This new Hubblecast is the second part of an exploration of some of Hubble’s most important discoveries throughout its history.
          [SK071] Implant - Dead Space        
IMPLANT
"DEAD SPACE"
[SK071]

Creepy Friday 13th 2014 Full Moon release

DOWNLOAD MP3

DESCRIPTION:

From Bulgaria, we present you Implant's musical portal, 'Dead Space.' Inspired by the dark matter of the universe: cyber glitch, drones, ambient space scapes, folk instruments and mutated noise seduce you to the darkest spaces of your mind. Through this portal comes the energy to create the fields that you experience, utilise and manipulate to recreate your reality. You are the dimension that you think you occupy, you are Dead Space. - Mindgrrind

TRACKLISTING:

01. Time and Space by themselves do not exist
02. Excess Humanity
03. Afterlife
04. Afterlife Rebirth
05. Energon
06. For Other Worlds We Humans are also Aliens
07. Vibrations of the Universe
08. Speck in the galaxy.. molecule in the universe this is planet earth
09. The Wrong Visitor in Splatter Planet
10. Struggle between dark energy and dark matter
11. Minimal Place
12. Manipulation of the Subconscious
13. Accelerator
14. Repression
15. Cosmic Microwave Background
16. Amorphous Mass of Radiation 17. Split Second 18. Anisotropic 19. Fractal Structure 20. Relativistic

CREDITS:

All Tracks Produced by Implant https://soundcloud.com/implantcore
Cosmic Microwave Background
Album Artwork by Facundo Percio

FOR MORE NOISE FOLLOW:

SPLATTERKORE
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Bandcamp

          100% Invisible        
ENCORE  In astronomy, the rule of thumb was simple: If you can’t see it with a telescope, it’s not real.  Seeing is believing.  Well, tell that to the astronomers who discovered dark energy, or dark matter … or, more recently, Planet 9.   And yet we have evidence that all these things exist (although skepticism about the ninth – or is it tenth? – planet still lingers). Find out how we know what we know about the latest cosmic discoveries – even if we can’t see them directly.  The astronomer who found Planet 9 – and killed Pluto – offers his evidence.  And, a speculative scenario suggests that dark matter helped do away with the dinosaurs.  Plus, the winner of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics explains why neutrinos that are zipping through your body right now may hold clues to the origin of the universe.  Guests: Michael Brown – Astronomer, California Institute of Technology Michael Lemonick – science writer and an editor at Scientific American magazine Lisa Randall – Theoretical physicist, Harvard University, author of Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs: The Astounding Interconnectedness of the Universe Arthur McDonald – Astrophysicist emeritus, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, and winner of the 2015 […]
          Big Questions Somewhat Answered        
Here are questions that give a cosmologist – and maybe even you – insomnia: What happened after the Big Bang? What is dark matter? Will dark energy tear the universe apart? Let us help you catch those zzzzs. We’re going to provide answers to the biggest cosmic puzzlers of our time. Somewhat. Each question is the focus of new experiments that are either underway or in the queue. Hear the latest results in the search for gravitational waves that would be evidence for cosmic inflation, as well as the hunt for dark matter and dark energy. And because these questions are bigger than big, we’ve enlisted cosmologist Sean Carroll as our guide to what these experiments might reveal and what it all means. Guests: •   Sean Carroll – Cosmologist, California Institute of Technology •   Jamie Bock – Experimental cosmologist at the California Institute of Technology and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and a member of the BICEP team •   Brendan Crill – Cosmologist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and member of the Planck collaboration •   Jeff Filippini – Post-doctoral Fellow, California Institute of Technology, assistant professor of physics at the University of Illinois and member of the Spider team •   Neil […]
          Cosmos: It’s Big, It’s Weird Reprise        
ENCORE It’s all about you. And you, and you, and you and you… that is, if we live in parallel universes. Imagine you doing exactly what you’re doing now, but in an infinite number of universes. Discover the multiverse theory and why repeats aren’t limited to summer television. Plus, the physics of riding on a light beam, and the creative analogies a New York Times science writer uses to avoid using the word “weird” to describe dark energy and other weird physics. Also, people who concoct their own theories (some would say fringe) of the universe: is all matter made up of tiny coiled springs? Guests: Brian Greene – Physicist and mathematician, Columbia University, and author of The Hidden Reality: Parallel Universes and the Deep Laws of the Cosmos Dennis Overbye – Reporter, New York Times Simon Steel – Science educator at University College London Margaret Wertheim – Science writer, author of Physics on the Fringe: Smoke Rings, Circlons, and Alternative Theories of Everything Descripción en español First released January 9, 2012.
          Cosmos: It’s Big, It’s Weird        
It’s all about you. And you, and you, and you and you… that is, if we live in parallel universes. Imagine you doing exactly what you’re doing now, but in an infinite number of universes. Discover the multiverse theory and why repeats aren’t limited to summer television. Plus, the physics of riding on a light beam, and the creative analogies a New York Times science writer uses to avoid using the word “weird” to describe dark energy and other weird physics. Also, people who concoct their own theories (some would say fringe) of the universe: is all matter made up of tiny coiled springs? Guests: Brian Greene – Physicist and mathematician, Columbia University, and author of The Hidden Reality: Parallel Universes and the Deep Laws of the Cosmos Dennis Overbye – Reporter, New York Times Simon Steel – Science educator at University College London Margaret Wertheim – Science writer, author of Physics on the Fringe: Smoke Rings, Circlons, and Alternative Theories of Everything
          Light, the Universe, and Everything        
ENCORE What’s it all about? And we mean ALL. What makes up this vast sprawling cosmos? Why does it exist? Why do we exist? Why is there something rather than nothing? Ow, my head hurts! For possible answers, we travel to the moment after the Big Bang and discover all that came into being in those few minutes after the great flash: time, space, matter, and light. Plus, the bizarre stuff that makes up the bulk of the universe: dark energy and dark matter. Also, what we set in motion with the invention of the light blub. How artificial light lit up our homes, our cities and – inadvertently – our skies. Guests: Sean Carroll – Theoretical physicist at California Institute of Technology Leonard Susskind – Theoretical physicist, Stanford University Jane Brox – Author of Brilliant: The Evolution of Artificial Light Peter Fisher – Physicist, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Descripción en español First aired September 6, 2010
          Physics Phrontiers        
ENCORE Physics means getting physical if you´re tackling the biggest, most mysterious questions in the universe. Stoic scientists endure the driest, darkest, coldest spots on the planet to find out how it all began and why there´s something rather than nothing. From the bottom of an old iron mine to the top of the Andes, we´ll hear their stories. Plus, Steven Weinberg on this weird stuff called dark energy, and Leonard Susskind sees double, no, triple, no, …infinite universes. Guests: Anil Ananthaswamy –“ Corresponding editor for New Scientist magazine in London and author of The Edge of Physics: A Journey to Earth´s Extremes to Unlock the Secrets of the Universe Steven Weinberg –“ Nobel Prize-winning physicist at University of Texas at Austin and author of Lake Views: This World and the Universe Leonard Susskind –“ Professor of theoretical physics, Stanford University André de Gouvêa –“ Associate professor of physics, Northwestern University Descripción en español
          Big, Really Big        
The universe is big –“ really big.* Galaxies, for instance, are often large enough to hold a trillion stars. But how did these heavenly heavyweights come to be? Hear how still-mysterious dark matter is implicated in the birth of galaxies. Also, gamma ray bursts –“ explosions more energetic than anything since the Big Bang –“ take place somewhere in the visible universe every day. What are they, and could they obliterate life on Earth? And, the biggest cosmic mystery de jour: dark energy. Why new, super-size telescopes may finally reveal just what it is. We´re living large on "Big, Really Big." *appreciative nod to Douglas Adams Guests: George Djorgovski –“ Astronomer, California Institute of Technology Sandra Faber –“ Astronomer and Chair of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz Daniel Perley –“ Astronomer, University of California at Berkeley Ed Stone –“ Former director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and physicist at the California Institute of Technology Richard Panek –“ Author of The 4 Percent Universe: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Race to Discover the Rest of Reality
          Gone Missing!        
We all hear about research discoveries, but what about what scientists don´t find? Tune in for a round-up of eureka moments that have yet to come, such as the hunt for the dark energy of the universe and the search for the elusive elementary particle responsible for the mass of objects. Also, we miss the woolly mammoth so much, scientists plan to clone the hairy beast and bring the extinct animal back. Plus, why the missing link is no longer missing, what extrasolar planets have now been found, and –“ NASA money for science: where´d it go? Guests: Alan Stern –“ Aerospace consultant and planetary scientist Natalie Batalha –“ Deputy Science Team Lead for NASA´s Kepler Mission Leslea Hlusko –“ Biologist at the University of California, Berkeley Ian Sample –“ Science writer, author of Massive: The Missing Particle That Sparked the Greatest Hunt in Science Saul Perlmutter –“ Physicist, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Darin Croft –“ Professor of Anatomy, Case Western Reserve, Cleveland
          Light, the Universe, and Everythings        
What´s it all about? And we mean ALL. What makes up this vast sprawling cosmos? Why does it exist? Why do we exist? Why is there something rather than nothing? Ow, my head hurts! For possible answers, we travel to the moment after the Big Bang and discover all that came into being in those few minutes after the great flash: time, space, matter, and light. Plus, the bizarre stuff that makes up the bulk of the universe: dark energy and dark matter. Also, what we set in motion with the invention of the light blub. How artificial light lit up our homes, our cities and –“ inadvertently –“ our skies. Guests: Sean Carroll –“ Theoretical physicist at California Institute of Technology Leonard Susskind –“ Theoretical physicist, Stanford University Jane Brox –“ Author of Brilliant: The Evolution of Artificial Light Peter Fisher –“ Physicist, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
          Back after a long pause        
After a looooong time away for several different reasons (and yes, I must admit that I left the blog resting aside for a while), it's time to come back. To feel less guilt, a short review of some of the stuff that happened in the last 2 months and a half :-)


  1. I've traveled to the US for a couple of conferences: "A Decade of Dark Energy" at the STScI, and "21 cm Cosmology" at the CfA, Harvard. Moreover, I had the chance to meet again, in the same week (!), two old friends I haven't seen since I left Trieste: Thomas Sotiriou, who is now a postdoc in the University of Maryland, in a short visit to DC, and Marcos Valdes, who was attending the 21 cm conference. By the way, both conferences have recorded the seminars, and they are available as webcasts (DE & 21).




  2. I finally got a MacBook!! All I can say is that now I DO understand why so many people are crazy about them. Absolutely fantastic!!




  3. I became 30...



  4. We're still fighting with numerical issues of our MaVaN paper, but it seems that now things are converging (literally!), and it should appear on arXiv in the next weeks.



  5. To keep it short, a last thing is that we are organizing in Valencia a school on neutrino physics, "Probing the Universe with Neutrinos". More on that soon.

  6. etc, etc...
That's it for the moment. :-)
          LSST Receives $30 Million        
Via Interactions.Org

LSST Receives $30 Million from Charles Simonyi and Bill Gates



The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project is pleased to announce receipt of two major gifts: $20M from the Charles Simonyi Fund for Arts and Sciences and $10M from Microsoft founder Bill Gates.

Under development since 2000, the LSST is a public-private partnership. This gift enables the construction of LSST's three large mirrors; these mirrors take over five years to manufacture. The first stages of production for the two largest mirrors are now beginning at the Mirror Laboratory at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona. Other key elements of the LSST system will also be aided by this commitment.

The LSST exemplifies characteristics Simonyi and Gates have exhibited in their successful lives and careers – innovation, excitement of discovery, cutting edge technology, and a creative energy that pushes the possibilities of human achievement. The LSST leverages advances in large telescope design, imaging detectors, and computing to engage everyone in a journey of cosmic discovery.

Proposed for "first light" in 2014, the 8.4-meter LSST will survey the entire visible sky deeply in multiple colors every week with its three-billion pixel digital camera, probing the mysteries of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, and opening a movie-like window on objects that change or
move.

"This support from Charles Simonyi and Bill Gates will lead to a transformation in the way we study the Universe," said University of California, Davis, Professor and LSST Director J. Anthony Tyson. "By mapping the visible sky deeply and rapidly, the LSST will let everyone
experience a novel view of our Universe and permit exciting new questions in a variety of areas of astronomy and fundamental physics."

The LSST will be constructed on Cerro Pachón, a mountain in northern Chile. Its design of three large mirrors and three refractive lenses in a camera leads to a 10 square degree field-of-view with excellent image quality. The telescope's 3200 Megapixel camera will be the largest digital camera ever constructed. Over ten years of operations, about 2000 deep exposures will be acquired for every part of the sky over 20,000 square degrees. This color "movie" of the Universe will open an entirely new window: the time domain. LSST will produce 30 Terabytes of data per night, yielding a total database of 150 Petabytes. Dedicated data facilities will process the data in real time.

"What a shock it was when Galileo saw in his telescope the phases of Venus, or the moons of Jupiter, the first hints of a dynamic universe" Simonyi said. "Today, by building a special telescope-computer complex, we can study this dynamism in unprecedented detail. LSST will produce a database suitable for answering a wide range of pressing questions: What is dark energy? What is dark matter? How did the Milky Way form? What are the properties of small bodies in the solar system? Are there potentially hazardous asteroids that may impact the earth causing significant damage? What sort of new phenomena have yet to be discovered?"

"LSST is just as imaginative in its technology and approach as it is with its science mission. LSST is truly an internet telescope, which will put terabytes of data each night into the hands of anyone that wants to explore it. Astronomical research with LSST becomes a software issue - writing code and database queries to mine the night sky and recover its secrets. The 8.4 meter LSST telescope and the three gigapixel camera are thus a shared resource for all humanity - the ultimate network peripheral device to explore the universe" Gates said. "It is fun for Charles and me to be a team again supporting this work given all we have done together on software projects."

"The LSST will be the world's most powerful survey telescope. This major gift keeps the project on schedule by enabling the early fabrication of LSST’s large optics and other long-lead components of the LSST system," said Donald Sweeney, LSST Project Manager.

LSST is designed to be a public facility - the database and resulting catalogs will be made available to the community at large with no proprietary restrictions. A sophisticated data management system will provide easy access, enabling simple queries from individual users (both professionals and amateurs), as well as computationally intensive scientific investigations that utilize the entire database. The public will actively share the adventure of discovery of our dynamic Universe.

More information about the LSST including current images, graphics, and
animation can be found at http://www.lsst.org

In 2003, the LSST Corporation was formed as a non-profit 501(c)3 Arizona corporation with headquarters in Tucson, AZ. Membership has since expanded to twenty two members including Brookhaven National Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Columbia University, Google Inc., Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology - Stanford University, Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Princeton University, Purdue University, Research Corporation, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, The Pennsylvania State University, The University of Arizona, University of California, Davis, University of California at Irvine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of Pennsylvania, University of Pittsburgh, and the University of Washington.

          Dark Energy from the Largest Galaxy Maps         


          AAS Subject Key Words        

AAS Subject Key Words

as of 4/21/2017  (list itself dates from 2013, but is revised only every 5 years or so)

USE ONLY THESE WHEN ADDING ALERT NOTICE OR SPECIAL NOTICE TO ADS

Authors should select subject key words for their manuscripts using the list given below. No more than six key words should be given (and if key words are used for individual stars, galaxies, etc., each object normally counts as one key word). The overall categories (which are capitalized) should not be included. Also, do not include any part of a key word that is in parentheses (marked in italic below), thus,

(stars:) binaries (including multiple): close

should be given as

binaries: close

The key words should be listed in alphabetical order after the abstract and separated by a comma as in the following example:

Key Words: astronomical databases: miscellaneous, planet–star interactions, planets and satellites: individual (Proxima Cen b), stars: individual (Proxima Cen), stars: variables: general

Headings such as stars: individual (..., ...) should include the individual name(s) in the parentheses, as indicated above. If more than one star, separate them by a comma within the parentheses.

Note that in RevMexAA macros, the \addkeyword{text} command for subject key words must be placed after the \abstract{text} command and not before it.

The easiest way to submit an abstract to ADS is to use the form at

http://adsset.cfa.harvard.edu/adsfeedback/submit_abstract.html.

Subject Key Words List

General

editorials, notices
errata, addenda
extraterrestrial intelligence
history and philosophy of astronomy
miscellaneous
obituaries, biographies
publications, bibliography
sociology of astronomy
standards
 

Physical Data and Processes

acceleration of particles
accretion, accretion disks
asteroseismology
astrobiology
astrochemistry
astroparticle physics
atomic data
atomic processes
black hole physics
chaos
conduction
convection
dense matter
diffusion
dynamo
elementary particles
equation of state
gravitation
gravitational lensing: strong
gravitational lensing: weak
gravitational lensing: micro
gravitational waves
hydrodynamics
instabilities
line: formation
line: identification
line: profiles
magnetic fields
magnetic reconnection
magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)
masers
molecular data
molecular processes
neutrinos
nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances
opacity
plasmas
polarization
radiation: dynamics
radiation mechanisms: general
radiation mechanisms: non-thermal
radiation mechanisms: thermal
radiative transfer
relativistic processes
scattering
shock waves
solid state: refractory
solid state: volatile
turbulence
waves
 

Astronomical Instrumentation, Methods and Techniques

atmospheric effects
balloons
instrumentation: adaptive optics
instrumentation: detectors
instrumentation: high angular resolution
instrumentation: interferometers
instrumentation: miscellaneous
instrumentation: photometers
instrumentation: polarimeters
instrumentation: spectrographs
light pollution
methods: analytical
methods: data analysis
methods: laboratory: atomic
methods: laboratory: molecular
methods: laboratory: solid state
methods: miscellaneous
methods: numerical
methods: observational
methods: statistical
site testing
space vehicles
space vehicles: instruments
techniques: high angular resolution
techniques: image processing
techniques: imaging spectroscopy
techniques: interferometric
techniques: miscellaneous
techniques: photometric
techniques: polarimetric
techniques: radar astronomy
techniques: radial velocities
techniques: spectroscopic
telescopes
 

Astronomical Databases

astronomical databases: miscellaneous
atlases
catalogs
surveys
virtual observatory tools
 

Astrometry and Celestial Mechanics

astrometry
celestial mechanics
eclipses
ephemerides
occultations
parallaxes
proper motions
reference systems
time
 

The Sun

Sun: abundances
Sun: activity
Sun: atmosphere
Sun: chromosphere
Sun: corona
Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs)
Sun: evolution
Sun: faculae, plages
Sun: filaments, prominences
Sun: flares
Sun: fundamental parameters
Sun: general
Sun: granulation
Sun: helioseismology
Sun: heliosphere
Sun: infrared
Sun: interior
Sun: magnetic fields
Sun: oscillations
Sun: particle emission
Sun: photosphere
Sun: radio radiation
Sun: rotation
(Sun:) solar–terrestrial relations
(Sun:) solar wind
(Sun:) sunspots
Sun: transition region
Sun: UV radiation
Sun: X-rays, gamma rays
 

Planetary Systems

comets: general
comets: individual (..., ...)
Earth
interplanetary medium
Kuiper belt: general
Kuiper belt objects: individual (..., ...)
meteorites, meteors, meteoroids
minor planets, asteroids: general
minor planets, asteroids: individual (..., ...)
Moon
Oort Cloud
planets and satellites: atmospheres
planets and satellites: aurorae
planets and satellites: composition
planets and satellites: detection
planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability
planets and satellites: formation
planets and satellites: fundamental parameters
planets and satellites: gaseous planets
planets and satellites: general
planets and satellites: individual (..., ...)
planets and satellites: interiors
planets and satellites: magnetic fields
planets and satellites: oceans
planets and satellites: physical evolution
planets and satellites: rings
planets and satellites: surfaces
planets and satellites: tectonics
planets and satellites: terrestrial planets
protoplanetary disks
planet–disk interactions
planet–star interactions
zodiacal dust
 

Stars

stars: abundances
stars: activity
stars: AGB and post-AGB
stars: atmospheres
(stars:) binaries (including multiple): close
(stars:) binaries: eclipsing
(stars:) binaries: general
(stars:) binaries: spectroscopic
(stars:) binaries: symbiotic
(stars:) binaries: visual
stars: black holes
(stars:) blue stragglers
(stars:) brown dwarfs
stars: carbon
stars: chemically peculiar
stars: chromospheres
(stars:) circumstellar matter
stars: coronae
stars: distances
stars: dwarf novae
stars: early-type
stars: emission-line, Be
stars: evolution
stars: flare
stars: formation
stars: fundamental parameters
stars: general
(stars:) gamma-ray burst: general
(stars:) gamma-ray burst: individual (..., ...)
(stars:) Hertzsprung–Russell and C–M diagrams
stars: horizontal-branch
stars: imaging
stars: individual (..., ...)
stars: interiors
stars: jets
stars: kinematics and dynamics
stars: late-type
stars: low-mass
stars: luminosity function, mass function
stars: magnetars
stars: magnetic field
stars: massive
stars: mass-loss
stars: neutron
(stars:) novae, cataclysmic variables
stars: oscillations (including pulsations)
stars: peculiar (except chemically peculiar)
(stars:) planetary systems
stars: Population II
stars: Population III
stars: pre-main sequence
stars: protostars
(stars:) pulsars: general
(stars:) pulsars: individual (..., ...)
stars: rotation
stars: solar-type
(stars:) starspots
stars: statistics
(stars:) subdwarfs
(stars:) supergiants
(stars:) supernovae: general
(stars:) supernovae: individual (..., ...)
stars: variables: Cepheids
stars: variables: delta Scuti
stars: variables: general
stars: variables: RR Lyrae
stars: variables: S Doradus
stars: variables: T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be
(stars:) white dwarfs
stars: winds, outflows
stars: Wolf–Rayet
 

Interstellar Medium (ISM), Nebulae

ISM: abundances
ISM: atoms
ISM: bubbles
ISM: clouds
(ISM:) cosmic rays
(ISM:) dust, extinction
(ISM:) evolution
ISM: general
(ISM:) HII regions
(ISM:) Herbig–Haro objects
ISM: individual objects (..., ...) (except
planetary nebulae)
ISM: jets and outflows
ISM: kinematics and dynamics
ISM: lines and bands
ISM: magnetic fields
ISM: molecules
(ISM:) planetary nebulae: general
(ISM:) planetary nebulae: individual (..., ...)
(ISM:) photon-dominated region (PDR)
ISM: structure
ISM: supernova remnants
 

The Galaxy

Galaxy: abundances
Galaxy: bulge
Galaxy: center
Galaxy: disk
Galaxy: evolution
Galaxy: formation
Galaxy: fundamental parameters
Galaxy: general
(Galaxy:) globular clusters: general
(Galaxy:) globular clusters: individual (..., ...)
Galaxy: halo
(Galaxy:) local interstellar matter
Galaxy: kinematics and dynamics
Galaxy: nucleus
(Galaxy:) open clusters and associations: general
(Galaxy:) open clusters and associations: individual (..., ...)
(Galaxy:) solar neighborhood
Galaxy: stellar content
Galaxy: structure
 

Galaxies

galaxies: abundances
galaxies: active
(galaxies:) BL Lacertae objects: general
(galaxies:) BL Lacertae objects: individual (..., ...)
galaxies: bulges
galaxies: clusters: general
galaxies: clusters: individual (..., ...)
galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium
galaxies: distances and redshifts
galaxies: dwarf
galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD
galaxies: evolution
galaxies: formation
galaxies: fundamental parameters
galaxies: general
galaxies: groups: general
galaxies: groups: individual (..., ...)
galaxies: halos
galaxies: high-redshift
galaxies: individual (..., ...)
galaxies: interactions
(galaxies:) intergalactic medium
galaxies: irregular
galaxies: ISM
galaxies: jets
galaxies: kinematics and dynamics
(galaxies:) Local Group
galaxies: luminosity function, mass function
(galaxies:) Magellanic Clouds
galaxies: magnetic fields
galaxies: nuclei
galaxies: peculiar
galaxies: photometry
(galaxies:) quasars: absorption lines
(galaxies:) quasars: emission lines
(galaxies:) quasars: general
(galaxies:) quasars: individual (..., ...)
(galaxies:) quasars: supermassive black holes
galaxies: Seyfert
galaxies: spiral
galaxies: starburst
galaxies: star clusters: general
galaxies: star clusters: individual (..., ...)
galaxies: star formation
galaxies: statistics
galaxies: stellar content
galaxies: structure
 

Cosmology

(cosmology:) cosmic background radiation
(cosmology:) cosmological parameters
cosmology: miscellaneous
cosmology: observations
cosmology: theory
(cosmology:) dark ages, reionization, first stars
(cosmology:) dark matter
(cosmology:) dark energy
(cosmology:) diffuse radiation
(cosmology:) distance scale
(cosmology:) early universe
(cosmology:) inflation
(cosmology:) large-scale structure of universe
(cosmology:) primordial nucleosynthesis
 

Resolved and Unresolved Sources as a Function of Wavelength

gamma rays: diffuse background
gamma rays: galaxies
gamma rays: galaxies: clusters
gamma rays: general
gamma rays: ISM
gamma rays: stars
infrared: diffuse background
infrared: galaxies
infrared: general
infrared: ISM
infrared: planetary systems
infrared: stars
radio continuum: galaxies
radio continuum: general
radio continuum: ISM
radio continuum: planetary systems
radio continuum: stars
radio lines: galaxies
radio lines: general
radio lines: ISM
radio lines: planetary systems
radio lines: stars
submillimeter: diffuse background
submillimeter: galaxies
submillimeter: general
submillimeter: ISM
submillimeter: planetary systems
submillimeter: stars
ultraviolet: galaxies
ultraviolet: general
ultraviolet: ISM
ultraviolet: planetary systems
ultraviolet: stars
X-rays: binaries
X-rays: bursts
X-rays: diffuse background
X-rays: galaxies
X-rays: galaxies: clusters
X-rays: general
X-rays: individual (..., ...)
X-rays: ISM
X-rays: stars
 


          Welcome Skateboards Dark Energy Pocket T-Shirt - Black/Gold        
Welcome Skateboards Dark Energy Pocket T-Shirt - Black/Gold

Welcome Skateboards Dark Energy Pocket T-Shirt - Black/Gold

Welcome  Dark Energy Pocket Skate T-Shirt Features: Dark Energy T-Shirt Left Chest Pocket Backprint Colour - Black/Gold Regular Fit Buy Welcome Skate T-Shirts at Native Skate Store


          Eclipse 2017 Spectacular: Astronomer Robert Kirshner PhD Explains All To The Satellite Sisters        

Eclipse 2017 Spectacular: Astronomer Robert Kirshner Explains All To The Satellite Sisters.  Satellite Sisters Liz Dolan, Lian Dolan and Julie Dolan are joined by noted astronomer Dr. Robert Kirshner in a special podcast episode devoted entirely to #Eclipse2017 which will sweep across the United States on August 21. The Satellite Sisters know Kirshner as Cousin Bob, the family astronomer.  He is also the Clowes Professor of Science at Harvard University and the Chief Program Officer for Science at the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation in Palo Alto, CA.  On this Satellite Sisters Eclipse 2017 special podcast episode, Dr. Kirshner recommends some key resources for everyone interested in enjoying the historic celestial event. The Moore Foundation has distributed eclipse glasses to thousands of public libraries throughout the country. For complete information on a site near you and an information guide, go to starnetlibraries.org. For additional authoritative information on Eclipse 2017, go to Great American Eclipse. 

In this entertaining and informative interview from Cambridge, Massachusetts, Kirshner explains what makes the human experience of "the totality" so unique. Liz Dolan will be among the millions of Americans who have positioned themselves in that narrow band for the 100% eclipse. And for those who live in parts of the country where they will view a partial eclipse, including Lian Dolan in Pasadena CA and Julie Dolan in Dallas TX, he has advice for maximum enjoyment + safety.  Kirshner also describes what scientists will be able to observe and learn during the historic eclipse.  On August 21, he will be at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Sun Valley, Idaho, which is in the path of totally, of course. Robert Kirshner's book The Extravagant Universe: Exploding Stars, Dark Energy and The Accelerating Cosmos is available at amazon. 

The Satellite Sisters will host a second Eclipse 2017 on Tuesday August 22 to discuss their experiences.  If you wish to post messages about your experiences to be shared on that podcast special, please join the Satellite Sisters Facebook Group.  Follow the Satellite Sisters on Twitter and Instagram @SatSisters. Tag your posts #eclipse2017 and #eclipseolypse2017.  

To access the complete Satellite Sisters podcast archive, click here.
For more information about Satellite Sisters books, events and sponsors, go to the Satellite Sisters website.

          Lian Dolan hears cousin Robert Kirshner explain Dark Matter, Dark Energy         

In anticipation of our August 1 Eclipse 2017 Spectacular with astronomer Robert Kirshner, we replay a 2015 podcast where Lian attends a speech at CalTech by Dr. Kirshner.  

The Accelerating Universe: Lian attends a talk by astrophysicist Dr. Robert Kirshner about The Accelerating Universe. Dr. Kirshner happens to be our cousin, but that doesn't mean we know what he's talking about. Lian tries to break down what's happening in the world of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Interested? Read more about his book, The Exatravagent Universe  here: http://www.amazon.com/The-Extravagant-Universe-Exploding-Accelerating/dp/069111742X

This week's episode of Outlander called The Search. This episode has it all: Singing, dancing, murder, confessions and lactation! We loved it. Words of advice: Plant Potatoes and Express Yourself. 

Macchu Pichu Prep: Julie heads off to Peru for an Epic Adventure. And she wants to know:  What's a Spanish Shower? 

The Truth About Nail Salons: Read the two part series on the Price of Pretty Nails by reporter Sarah Maslin Nir. Great journalism that leads to real questions about your mani/pedi habit. 

The Cats of Disneyland: Read about the Cat Colony at the Mouse and the Disney fans who care for cats. Want more details? Check out the Disneyland Cats blog. 

Update on Maverick, the neighbor's dog

Plus the Tuesday Trends:  Snoopy on the comeback trail.  Yeah!

Find all of our shows at Apple Podcasts or on our complete Satellite Sisters audio archive here. 


          NASA Celebrates Chandra X-Ray Observatory's 10th Anniversary        
(Washington, July 23, 2009) -- Ten years ago, on July 23, 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory was launched aboard the space shuttle Columbia and deployed into orbit. Chandra has doubled its original five-year mission, ushering in an unprecedented decade of discovery for the high-energy universe. With its unrivaled ability to create high-resolution X- ray images, Chandra has enabled astronomers to investigate phenomena as diverse as comets, black holes, dark matter and dark energy. "Chan...
          THE WAY IT ALL WORKS        
THE WAY IT ALL WORKS                 December 2016

This is an attempt to suggest a basic mechanism that underpins the workings of the Universe. It is by no means a coherent theory, and offers no mathematical basis. It is simply an exploration of an idea that came to me in the early hours of the morning a while ago.

The idea partly has its origins in something I wrote a long time ago called ‘Backtracking’ http://www.atiyah.plus.com/backtrack.htm. This describes a mechanism for ‘exploring’ a domain to find a ‘target’, and using this information to gain an end result.

I was reminded of this in a recent program on BBC Click, which described how Alibaba (?) were attempting to deliver products before they were ordered, by using big data analytics to predict where they were needed.

This mechanism is prevalent in many areas, such as decision making, geographical exploration, and optimization. The underlying process is the utilization of a number of concurrent test trials and a selection from them. In some ways this is similar to evolution. It does not have inherited characteristics, but there is a process of trials in an environment, and a selection from those trials.

Now to the Universe, with all that we know about it:

General relativity, Quantum theory, basic attributes of mass, charge and spin.
Bosons and Fermions et al.
Quantum foam, wormholes, black holes, zero point energy and virtual particles.
Oh, and dark energy and dark matter.

What this is all telling us is that the Universe is somehow globally connected as well as locally. The shape of the space anywhere depends on the matter in the rest of the Universe, and a particle at one end can somehow be ‘coupled’ with one at the other end.

It seems reasonable to think of the Universe as a collection of events which are transactions between one part of it and another. If there are no events, the Universe is static, boring, and possibly impossible. Transactions involve transferring attributes of one part to another.

The mechanism I envisage of all these events is a selection process where different outcomes are ‘tried’ concurrently, and one is selected. The trial potentially involves the rest of the environment (i.e. the Universe). This gives us a picture of global connectivity and the distributed nature of quantum transactions (where a particle can seem to be in more places than one).

Quantum theory seems to be telling us that at bottom everything is discrete; you cannot divide the Universe into infinitely small parts. So this mechanism must be discrete itself, taking place on a connected network of event nodes.

Now you may well ask ‘how is this happening all over the Universe’. Well, good question, but remember that gravitational and electrical fields extend all over the Universe. They are just another way of looking at things that we are used to.

So every event is a kind of selection process, the Universe is fundamentally a kind of evolutionary system. This is why Feynman’s ‘Sum over Histories’ works. Each event really is a kind of composite of all possible ones.


Well, that’s about it. I thought this was going to be a lot longer. I may add to it in future, but my brain is beginning to get tired. And hopefully, I have explained the basic idea.

          The world is complicated        
Several things recently have prompted me to write this post; I'm not quite sure where its going, but lets start.

In BBC's excellent series 'Secrets of a Living Planet' with Chris Packham, it showed how complex webs of living organisms can create a sort of super organism, with lots of symbiosis and feedback going on.

For example, underground fungi networks connect  up lots of trees and other plants in a kind of living network. The fungi derive sugar from the tree roots, but the trees also benefit by getting various nutrients from the fungi. The fungi get the nutrients from other plants and decaying matter, some of which (in this case) are from decaying salmon which had been left by bears.

Amazingly it is possible to analyze the bear diet (from a single hair) and know that about 80% of their protein comes from the salmon, despite it being a short season when the salmon run. Even more amazing is analysis of the tree cores which shows that they too owe most of their structure to the salmon. Trees made from fish.

Of course it has long been known that complex relations exist between species, but this series really brought home how interdependent all living things are. It begins to make sense to think of the whole earth as a complex genome - Gaia if you like. It is a simple truism to say that no species could exist all by itself, so it is always necessary to consider evolution of a collection of species rather than just one.

Another hot topic at the moment is 'proteomics', or the extended genome. We now know that the human body carries 10 time as much DNA (by base numbers, not weight) in bacteria and fungi, than it does in its own  DNA. We know that there are hundreds (thousands?) of species of bacteria on and in each human individual, that these vary in different parts of the body, and vary between individuals. We know some of what they do, but we don't know the half of it. There is now an ongoing project to find out about all this stuff, which is as big as the human genome project - probably bigger, but thankfully won't take as long because of the huge advances in gene sequencing.

What amazed me though was to learn that some of these bacteria produce messengers that affect the way in which our genes are expressed in the human immune system. So they aren't just hitching a ride, or helping the digestion. They are a part of our genome almost as much as our own DNA is. Our evolution is a kind of co-evolution with our bacterial and fungal partners.

This is similar in a way to the living network idea above. The point is that we have to think about extended genomes, not just the genome in a specific individual or species. Richard Dawkins wrote a book called 'The extended Phenotype' some years back to discuss how we should consider things like artifacts and society as part of the 'phenotype' of a gene - the way it affects the individual's development. Looks like now is the time for one on the 'extended genome'.

On Science Friday I also heard of things called giant viruses. Apparently these have only been found fairly recently. They are as big as bacteria and operate differently from normal viruses - they set up a kind of internal virus factory. And they are  big enough to have their own viruses attacking them - virophages.
Now that we know they exist, all kinds of different ones are being found all over the place, including in arctic ice and underground.

Now The large hadron collider may (or may not) have found the higgs boson - though it seems it is not quite as simple as that. Apparently there are (or maybe) several different flavours of the possible higgs, and it may (or may not) involve some other new particles, in different flavours naturally.

What with the ever elusive dark matter and dark energy, it seems to me that, just as we begin to think that we are beginning to really understand everything, it all gets a lot more complex, and we realize that we don't actually understand it.

Thats why I wrote this post.
          Mathematics and metaphysics: Any thoughts on Langan’s CTMU?        

Would like some feedback on Chris Langan and his Theory of Everything (ToE), the CTMU. Although awash with obscure terms that make for some slow reading and could be easily mistaken as pure obscurantism, the basic ideas seem like they warrant some attention.

http://cosmosandhistory.org/index.php/journal/article/view/618

First, the bad:

- Langan himself seems like a pretty terrible ambassador for his idea. Ignore the hype and distraction about his personal story (He has a high IQ…so what? Appeal to authority), as they have no bearing on the central thesis.
- He is apparently embraced by some contingent from the Intelligent Design community, which is strange because his idea seems to describe, if anything, a panpsychic/panentheistic scenario rather than anything explicitly to do with any Abrahamic deity. Would be better to call it “Intelligible Design,” if anything (see below).
- Again, Langan seems to draw unwarranted conclusions from his idea (Monotheism, eugenics, etc. etc). But it’s better not to dwell on the man, but rather his theory itself.

When stripped of its neologisms and meandering verbiage, the theory seems to me to have a number of interesting points:

- That physics in and of itself cannot provide a ToE, but rather implies that it is “nested” (along with all other forms of knowledge) in a comprehensive metaphysics (that also justifies itself, somehow).
- If I understand right, Langan proposes to describe that metaphysics as relationship between the observer/language/subject and the “outside” world/object—a singular relationship that would encompass Cartesian dualism. He proposes to describe this relationship by a specific logical formulation (see above link) which he calls a “supertautology” that undergirds…everything, basically. It is the same relationship that (he says) seems to undergird any type of (intelligible) language or cognitive system, and perhaps evolution itself on some level. This seems to be along the lines of what Lawrence Krauss and Sam were discussing in their recent podcast, so not necessarily a new idea, but Langan proposes that you can characterize it with logic.
- It is in this sense, then, that two seemingly contradictory worldviews could both be “true” (true is a poor word choice—see also Jordan Peterson and Sam’s digression on this. IMO it would be better to say that two systems/language-games/consciousnesses could be “valid,” as true should be reserved for things that are empirically verified). Thus, any religious system could be “valid” in that it draws the correct conclusions from its premises, so long as it does not pretend to extend itself into another sphere of knowledge, for as soon as it introduces the concept of facts—which is the domain of science—science wins. Any system that didn’t draw the obvious conclusions from its given premises would be invalid, and basically madness/incoherence. (It’s this apparent endorsement of relativism/“Separate magisteria” that gets the religious all excited, I reckon, but I think what Langan is saying here is that although a system of thought can be internally consistent, it doesn’t have the same degree of truth of a system supported by observation and facts of “external” reality).
- The whole system—the cosmos—is this process writ large, a system that is selecting for intelligence/intelligibleness (shades of Alan Watts). It’s here where Langan gets into his theistic conceptions.

All of these points, are arguable, and I may have misconstrued them. But at a gut level, the idea that logic is some kind of intrinsic aspect of the universe is appealing (though that doesn’t necessarily make it true).

So why would any of this have value? Well, whereas evolution is a theory that just happens to be supported by mounds and mound of evidence, it seems that Langan’s theory could be used to make predictions that prove either true or false (what form artificial/alien/animal/other intelligence would look like, perhaps, or the dispersal of matter in the known universe (see that recent study about the seeming illusion of dark energy)).

Thoughts? Any “there” there, or just a sham?

Thanks.


          Shadowplay: Whispers of the Past Collector's Edition        
Warning - Shadowplay: Whispers of the Past is an intense thriller intended for mature audiences. Big Fish Editor's Choice! This title was selected for its exceptional quality and overwhelmingly positive reviews from our Game Club beta testers. Mad Head Games proudly presents the newest addition to the Shadowplay series! As preparations for a new exhibit come to a close, you look forward to some well-earned quality time with your daughter. Your pleasant evening quickly takes a dark turn when an artifact is stolen and a dark energy kidnaps your daughter! Do you have what it takes to track down the thief and save your daughter in time? Find out in this thrilling hidden-object puzzle adventure game! See what our Beta testers had to say: “All I can say is WOW! This game is one of the best I've played in awhile. The graphics, sound, puzzles and story were awesome!” - Brandon, beta tester “Great game! The puzzles were refreshing and hidden object scenes were interesting and relevant to the story line. Kudos for something new!” - Megan, beta tester
          From the Tau to Dark Energy: Martin Perl's Blog        
Physicists have certainly been ahead of the information-technological curve at times. The web was invented at CERN, and of course we mastered open publishing simply by doing it, while other disciplines have struggled to come up with workable models. But … Continue reading
          à¸«à¸²à¸à¸”วงจันทร์อันเป็นที่รักต้องจากไป (mata)        

บทความที่แล้ว  à¸œà¸¡à¹„ด้เขียนเป็นนิทานเรื่อง  à¸”วงจันทร์กับสายน้ำแห่งความรัก à¹ƒà¸™à¸™à¸´à¸—านเรื่องนี้ได้กล่าวถึงกำเนิดดวงจันทร์ à¹à¸¥à¸°à¸œà¸¥à¸‚องดวงจันทร์กับปรากฏการณ์น้ำขึ้นน้ำลง  à¸—ี่เขียนให้เป็นนิทานก็เพียงหวังเพื่อให้ผู้อ่านได้เข้าใจและทำให้จดจำง่ายขึ้น  à¹‚ดยเฉพาะเยาวชนหรือผู้ปกครองได้อ่านให้บุตรหลานฟังเพื่อความบันเทิงและเป็นความรู้  à¹à¸•à¹ˆà¹ƒà¸™à¸—้ายนิทานเรื่องนี้ทิ้งท้ายว่า à¸¥à¸­à¸‡à¸–ามโลกดูสิว่า......เธอจะอยู่อย่างไรหากไร้ซึ่งดวงจันทร์....และประโยคนี้คือที่มาของบทความที่ท่านจะได้อ่านต่อไป

เชื่อกันว่า ทั้งโลกและดวงจันทร์มีอายุพอๆ กัน คือราว 4,600 à¸¥à¹‰à¸²à¸™à¸›à¸µ  à¸¡à¸µà¸«à¸¥à¸²à¸¢à¸—ฤษฏีเกี่ยวกับกำเนิดดวงจันทร์  à¸—ฤษฎีที่ยอมรับกันมากที่สุดในปัจจุบัน คือ à¸—ฤษฎีการชนครั้งใหญ่ à¸à¸¥à¹ˆà¸²à¸§à¸§à¹ˆà¸²à¸¡à¸µà¸§à¸±à¸•à¸–ุขนาดดาวอังคารโคจรมาชนโลก à¹ƒà¸™à¸Šà¹ˆà¸§à¸‡à¸—ี่โลกกำลังก่อตัวขึ้นใหม่ ๆ ทำให้เนื้อโลกบางส่วนที่ยังร้อนอยู่กระเด็นออกไป กระจัดกระจายในอวกาศและรวมตัวกันเป็นดวงจันทร์  à¹ƒà¸™à¸Šà¹ˆà¸§à¸‡à¹€à¸§à¸¥à¸²à¸™à¸±à¹‰à¸™à¹€à¸Šà¸·à¹ˆà¸­à¸§à¹ˆà¸²à¹‚ลกและดวงจันทร์หมุนรอบตัวเองด้วยความเร็วมากกว่าในปัจจุบัน  à¹à¸•à¹ˆà¸”้วยแรงดึงดูดที่ส่งผลระหว่างกันจึงทำให้การหมุนช้าลงจนเท่าปัจจุบัน  à¸­à¸µà¸à¸—ั้งดวงจันทร์หมุนรอบตัวเองและโคจรรอบโลกใช้เวลาเท่ากันเรียกว่าการหมุนแบบสมวาร  à¸—ำให้ดวงจันทร์หันหน้าเข้าหาโลกด้านเดียว



เอ็ดวิน à¸®à¸±à¸šà¹€à¸šà¸´à¸¥ (Edwin Hubble) à¹„ด้สังเกตเห็นว่า à¹€à¸­à¸à¸ à¸žà¸à¸³à¸¥à¸±à¸‡à¸‚ยายตัวตลอดเวลา à¹€à¸žà¸£à¸²à¸°à¹„ด้เห็นดาราจักร (galaxy) à¸•à¹ˆà¸²à¸‡à¹† à¸—ี่อยู่ไกลโพ้น à¹€à¸„ลื่อนที่หนีจากกันด้วยความเร็วที่เป็นปฏิภาคโดยตรงกับระยะทาง (นั่นคือยิ่งอยู่ไกล à¸”าราจักรยิ่งมีความเร็วมากและนักฟิสิกส์ได้อธิบายสาเหตุที่ทำให้เอกภพขยายตัวว่า à¸¡à¸²à¸ˆà¸²à¸à¸žà¸¥à¸±à¸‡à¸‡à¸²à¸™à¸—ี่หลงเหลืออยู่หลังการระเบิดครั้งยิ่งใหญ่ (Big Bang) à¹€à¸¡à¸·à¹ˆà¸­ 13,700 à¸¥à¹‰à¸²à¸™à¸›à¸µà¸à¹ˆà¸­à¸™ 

เมื่อดาวฤกษ์ที่มีมวลมหึมาแตกดับลง มันอาจจะทิ้งสิ่งที่ดำมืดที่สุด ทว่ามีอำนาจทำลายล้างสูงสุดไว้เบื้องหลัง นักดาราศาสตร์เรียกสิ่งนี้ว่า หลุมดำ (black hole) à¹€à¸£à¸²à¹„ม่สามารถมองเห็นหลุมดำด้วยกล้องโทรทรรศน์ใดๆ เนื่องจากหลุมดำไม่เปล่งแสงหรือรังสีใดเลย แต่นักดาราศาตร์ก็มีวิธีอื่นในการค้นหา และจนถึงปัจจุบันได้ค้นพบหลุมดำในจักรวาลแล้วอย่างน้อย à¹à¸«à¹ˆà¸‡ หลุมดำเป็นซากที่สิ้นสลายของดาวฤกษ์ที่ถึงอายุขัยแล้ว สสารที่เคยประกอบกันเป็นดาวนั้นได้ถูกอัดตัวด้วยแรงดึงดูดของตนเองจนเหลือเป็นเพียงมวลหนาแน่นที่มีขนาดเล็กยิ่งกว่านิวเคลียสของอะตอมเดียว ซึ่งเรียกว่า เอกภาวะ (singularity) à¹€à¸™à¸·à¹ˆà¸­à¸‡à¸ˆà¸²à¸à¸«à¸¥à¸¸à¸¡à¸”ำมีแรงโน้มถ่วงมหาศาล ดึงดูดทุกสิ่งทุกอย่างที่เข้าใกล้มิให้หนีออกไปจากหลุมดำได้  à¹à¸¡à¹ˆà¹à¸•à¹ˆà¹à¸ªà¸‡à¸à¹‡à¸«à¸™à¸µà¸­à¸­à¸à¸ˆà¸²à¸à¸«à¸¥à¸¸à¸¡à¸”ำไม่ได้(จึงมองไม่เห็นและจึงมีชื่อเรียกว่า หลุมดำ) 

เอกภพมีสสารที่เรารู้จักและเข้าใจดีเพียง 4% à¹€à¸—่านั้นเอง à¸„ือมีอีก 22% à¸—ี่เป็นสสารมืด (dark matter) à¸—ี่ตามองไม่เห็น à¹à¸¥à¸°à¸­à¸¸à¸›à¸à¸£à¸“์ต่างๆ à¸¢à¸±à¸‡à¸•à¸£à¸§à¸ˆà¸ˆà¸±à¸šà¹„ม่ได้ à¸à¸±à¸šà¸­à¸µà¸ 74% à¸—ี่เหลือเป็นพลังงานมืด (dark energy) à¸‹à¸¶à¹ˆà¸‡à¸—ำหน้าที่เป็นแรงผลักดัน à¸‹à¸¶à¹ˆà¸‡à¹à¸£à¸‡à¸™à¸µà¹‰à¸£à¸¸à¸™à¹à¸£à¸‡à¸¢à¸´à¹ˆà¸‡à¸à¸§à¹ˆà¸²à¹à¸£à¸‡à¹‚น้มถ่วงมาก

จากการขยายตัวของจักรวาลจึงส่งผลให้ดวงดาวมีระยะห่างระหว่างกันมากขึ้น  à¸£à¸§à¸¡à¸—ั้งโลกและดวงจันทร์ด้วย  à¹ƒà¸™à¸—ุกๆ ปีดวงจันทร์ห่างโลกด้วยอัตรา 3 เซนติเมตรต่อปี ซึ่งอีก 1 ล้านปีจะเคลื่อนห่างออกไปประมาณ 30 กิโลเมตร  à¹€à¸£à¸²à¸—ราบดีว่าดวงจันทร์มีบทบาทสำคัญต่อการเกิดน้ำขึ้นและน้ำลง  à¸à¸²à¸£à¸—ี่โลกเราหมุนรอบตัวเองด้วยความเสถียร (ไม่แกว่ง) นั้น  à¸ªà¹ˆà¸§à¸™à¸«à¸™à¸¶à¹ˆà¸‡à¹€à¸Šà¸·à¹ˆà¸­à¸§à¹ˆà¸²à¹€à¸›à¹‡à¸™à¹€à¸žà¸£à¸²à¸°à¹€à¸à¸´à¸”แรงดึงดูดระหว่างกันของโลกและดวงจันทร์  à¸«à¸²à¸à¸”วงจันทร์ห่างออกไปมากจนพ้นแรงดึงดูดของโลก  à¸ˆà¸°à¸ªà¹ˆà¸‡à¸œà¸¥à¸à¸£à¸°à¸—บกับโลกเราอย่างไรบ้าง

การเกิดน้ำขึ้นน้ำลงคงได้รับผลกระทบโดยตรง  à¸«à¸²à¸à¹€à¸à¸´à¸”ภาวะน้ำนิ่ง (ขึ้นและลงระดับน้อยมาก) จะส่งผลต่อวัฏจักรของพืชพันธุ์และสัตว์แค่ไหน  à¸«à¸²à¸à¹‚ลกหมุนแบบไม่เสถียรจะส่งผลต่อสภาพภูมิกาศโลกเพียงใด  à¸¤à¸”ูกาลที่คงที่มายาวนานจะเปลี่ยนแปลงหรือไม่  à¸—ั้งหมดคงเกิดในอีกหลายรุ่นต่อจากเรา  à¸¡à¸±à¸™à¸„งยังอีกยาวไกลหากดวงจันทร์ค่อยๆ จากไปทีละน้อย  à¹à¸•à¹ˆà¸«à¸²à¸à¹€à¸à¸´à¸”อะไรขึ้นกับดวงจันทร์ที่เป็นผลจากการถูกพุ่งชนของอุกาบาตหรือดาวเคราะห์น้อยดวงโต  à¸”วงจันทร์คงจากเราไปเร็วกว่าที่คาด  à¹à¸¥à¹‰à¸§à¸§à¸±à¸™à¸™à¸±à¹‰à¸™à¹€à¸£à¸²à¸ˆà¸°à¸­à¸¢à¸¹à¹ˆà¸­à¸¢à¹ˆà¸²à¸‡à¹„รหากไร้ซึ่งดวงจันทร์

หวังว่าบทความนี้คงเป็นประโยชน์กับผู้อ่านบ้าง  à¹à¸¥à¸°à¸–้าอ่านประกอบกับนิทานเรื่อง ดวงจันทร์กับสายน้ำแห่งความรัก ก็จะทำให้เสริมความเข้าใจง่ายขึ้น  à¸ªà¸³à¸«à¸£à¸±à¸šà¸œà¸¹à¹‰à¸—ี่ยังไม่ได้อ่านนิทานก็อยากให้อ่านครับ  à¸•à¹ˆà¸­à¹„ปเราคงต้องห่วงใยดวงจันทร์ให้มากกว่านี้  à¸—ุกครั้งที่แหงนมองดูดวงจันทร์คำอธิษฐานที่เคยขอคงต้องเพิ่มอีกข้อ 

..……ขอให้ดวงจันทร์ปลอดภัยและอยู่คู่โลกไปแสนนาน……….

สงวนสิทธิ์ à¸«à¹‰à¸²à¸¡à¸™à¸³à¸šà¸—ความนี้ไปใช้ในเชิงพาณิชย์  à¸«à¸²à¸à¸„ัดลอกไปกรุณาให้เครดิตผู้ประัพันธ์ด้วย ขอบคุณครับ


ภาพประกอบ  à¸žà¸£à¸Šà¸±à¸¢  สังเวียนวงศ์ (mata)
ประพันธ์โดย  à¸žà¸£à¸Šà¸±à¸¢  สังเวียนวงศ์ (mata)
ข้อมูลอ้างอิง  http://thaiastro.nectec.or.th , Google.co.th

เนื้อหาโดย: mata

          Repurposing a Spy Satellite        
On June 4, NASA announced that they have acquired two spy satellites from the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO). The satellites include extremely high quality telescopes with 2.4 meter collection mirrors - the same size as Hubble, and much better quality. For reference, that kind of light-collection power would allow you to see a dime on top of the Washington Monument (or what Kim Jong-un is eating for dinner). The donation is a windfall to NASA's cash-strapped astronomical research program, which will likely turn the impressive optics towards space in the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) project to hunt for dark energy, IF, that is, they can scrape up enough money to launch and commission one of the telescopes. That kind of money may not be available for several years.
The donated satellites have better quality
optics than the Hubble telescope.


It's nice to see where our national priorities lie - as NASA's Planetary Science department literally holds bake sales to raise money and awareness about budget cuts (Obama's 2013 budget cuts 21% from NASA's planetary-science budget, and 38% from its Mars projects,) the NRO has two Hubbles lying around, collecting dust. Of course, we must remember that the NRO deals with very, very important issues of national security, whereas NASA is just playing around with trivial matters of casual public interest, like investigating the mysterious energy that permeates space and accounts for 73% of all matter in the universe.
          Dark Empire Strikes Back        
In 1998 Adam Riess was first author on a paper claiming evidence that the universe was accelerating. In 2011 he shared 1/4 of a Nobel Prize for the "discovery". Shortly after Oxford researchers published a paper saying the dark energy may not exist, Riess was compelled to write a denial in Scientific American blogs.

No, astronomers haven't decided dark energy is nonexistent!

It's on!
          "Dark energy" still doesn't exist        
Professor Subir Sarkar of Oxford has long been a skeptic of "dark energy". The idea of an accelerating universe was first proposed in 1998 by two competing groups of physicists, both based in Berkeley and both using the same data on Type Ia supernovae. In a new study of 740 supernovae, 10 times the original dataset, Professor Sarkar concludes that the data is consistent with a non-accelerating universe.

Marginal evidence for cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernovae

For years physicists have spent careers and their credibility professing that the universe is filled with a repulsive "dark energy". If DE really dominated the universe, objects would not fall toward Earth!

Data indicating an "accelerating universe" really shows a slowing speed of light. A simple equation GM=tc^3 predicts the data precisely.
          Waves and Dukes        

(From Waikiki, 2006)

Duke Kahanamoku was an Olympic swimming champion and a hero to us islanders. He popularised our Hawaiian sport of surfing to the world. At age 20, in an amateur meet, he broke the world record for the 100-meter freestyle. This feat by an islander was so surprising that the athletic union didn't recognise it for years. He won Olympic medals for the US in 1912, 1920 and the Paris Olympics of 1924.

Between Olympics Duke Kahanamoku gave surfing displays around the world. His exhibition in Sydney on December 23, 1914 is regarded as the start of Australian surfing. A statue of Duke stands at Freshwater Beach north of Manly. Thanks to the Duke, Queensland's Coast is known as Surfer's Paradise. He worked as a film actor in Hollywood, like yours truly. While living in Newport Beach, he single-handedly rescued 8 people from a sinking boat using his board.

Future generations will wonder why this planet was called "Earth," since it is mostly covered by water. If one grew up on an island, it is obvious that we are surrounded by the sea. Pacific navigators colonised the islands from Asia to Hawaii in a process that took centuries. That is a natural model for exploring other solar systems.

As we have seen many times, waves are important to physics and astronomy. The imprint of waves in the CMB can determine whether inflation happened or a changing speed of light. Maxwell's equations show that visible light, infrared and gamma radiation are all electromagnetic waves. Contributor Nigel has explored the waves in nuclear explosions. Waves touch us in sound and in the tides. The effect of tides on the Moon is one more clue that c has changed.

Because sound waves travel in air and water waves through water, it was long assumed that light travelled through some medium. Since light travels throughout the Universe, this ether was presumed to be invisible and fill all Space, just like "dark energy." Maxwell himself believed that Earth travelled through ether like a ship through water. The inferrence of an invisible ether lasted until Einstein introduced Special Relativity.

In 1924, while Duke Kahanamoku was competing in the Paris Olympics, another duke was making waves nearby. A graduate student in Paris named Duc Louis de Broglie suggested that electrons also took the form of waves. Their wavelength is given by the relation h/p. De Broglie published this simple relation in an extremely short PhD thesis.

Like an equation about light, Duc De Broglie's thesis was short but revolutionary. His thesis would have been rejected outright except for the support of Albert Einstein, who recommended De Broglie for a PhD. Einstein also nominated De Broglie for the Nobel Prize in 1929--nice to have friends like that. Like Duke Kahanamoku's 100-meter record, Duc de Broglie's achievement almost went unrecognised. Thanks to supporters like Einstein, we enjoy both surfing and De Broglie waves.
          Paiste 17" Signature Dark Energy MK1        
Prissänkt den 10.08.2017:
452 € tidigare 462 € - Artikelnr. 169451

          Wednesday, July 13, 8PM @ the Bell House, Secret Science Club presents Astrophysicist & Author Priyamvada Natarajan, FREE!        
At the next Secret Science Club, we’re blasting off with astrophysicist and author Priyamvada Natarajan on a mission to explore black holes and dark matter—two of the most mysterious entities in the Universe.

In this mind-blowing talk, coinciding with the release of her new book Mapping the Heavens, Dr. Natarajan examines the most recent breakthroughs in cosmology—from mapping invisible dark matter to the discovery of gravitational waves, the ripples in the fabric of spacetime predicted by Einstein.

Priyamvada Natarajan is a professor of astronomy and physics at Yale University, specializing in dark matter, dark energy, and black holes. A fellow of the American Physical Society, Royal Astronomical Society, and Explorers Club, she is the author of over 100 scientific papers and has written for The Huffington Post, Washington Post, New York Review of Books, and Discover Magazine. She has just published her first book, Mapping the Heavens: The Radical Scientific Ideas that Reveal the Cosmos, which brilliantly explains advances in our understanding of the heavens from ancient times up through the most pressing questions at the frontier of astrophysics today.

Before & After
--Imbibe our starry-eyed cocktail of the night, the Cosmic Explorer
--Sway to groovitational tunes and stick around for the celestial Q&A
--Snag a signed copy of Dr. Natarajan’s fantastic new book, MAPPING THE HEAVENS

This out-of-this-world edition of the Secret Science Club meets Wednesday, July 13, 2016, 8pm @ the Bell House, 149 7th St. (between 2nd and 3rd avenues) in Gowanus, Brooklyn. Subway: F or G to 4th Ave; R to 9th St. 

Doors open at 7:30 pm. Please bring ID: 21+. No cover. Just bring your smart self!

          Are the Conjectures of Dark Energy and Dark Matter Expensive Blunders Following Recent Experiments on Earth?        

Dr. Ruggero M. Santilli, a former scientist at MIT and Harvard University, now the President of The Institute for Basic Research, recalls that the frequency shift of light due to relative motion has been solely established for light propagating in vacuum, while numerous experiments have established the frequency shifts without relative motion for light propagating within gases. He then announces that these recent experiments have confirmed the rejection by Einstein, Hubble, Fermi and others of the expansion of the universe, by eliminating the related conjectures of dark energy and dark matter (http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/No-universe-expans.pdf).

(PRWeb April 09, 2015)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/04/prweb12637959.htm


          Gear Of The Weak For August 3, 2017        

You can buy virtually anything on the internet. Some of those things, maybe even many of those things, are good. But many, many more of the things for sale online are bad, to the point where you wonder what dark energy incanted them into existence . Gear Of The Weak is here to highlight the most absurd, awful and comical gear the internet has to offer. Whenever you feel bad about having a bad i...


          Measuring the Properties of Dark Energy with Photometrically Classified Pan-STARRS Supernovae. I. Systematic Uncertainty from Core-collapse Supernova Contamination        
First Author: Jones, D. O.
Instruments: VIMOS
ProgramIDs: 175.A-0839, 070.A-9007, 072.A-0586, 073.A-0647
BibCode: 2017ApJ...843....6J

The Pan-STARRS (PS1) Medium Deep Survey discovered over 5000 likely supernovae (SNe) but obtained spectral classifications for just 10% of its SN candidates. We measured spectroscopic host galaxy redshifts for 3147 of these likely SNe and estimate that ∼1000 are Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) with light-curve quality sufficient for a cosmological analysis. We use these data with simulations to determine the impact of core-collapse SN (CC SN) contamination on measurements of the dark energy equation of state parameter, w. Using the method of Bayesian Estimation Applied to Multiple Species (BEAMS), distances to SNe Ia and the contaminating CC SN distribution are simultaneously determined. We test light-curve-based SN classification priors for BEAMS as well as a new classification method that relies upon host galaxy spectra and the association of SN type with host type. By testing several SN classification methods and CC SN parameterizations on large SN simulations, we estimate that CC SN contamination gives a systematic error on w ({σ }w{CC}) of 0.014, 29% of the statistical uncertainty. Our best method gives {σ }w{CC}=0.004, just 8% of the statistical uncertainty, but could be affected by incomplete knowledge of the CC SN distribution. This method determines the SALT2 color and shape coefficients, α and β, with ∼3% bias. However, we find that some variants require α and β to be fixed to known values for BEAMS to yield accurate measurements of w. Finally, the inferred abundance of bright CC SNe in our sample is greater than expected based on measured CC SN rates and luminosity functions.
          MILKY WAY WORMHOLE/DARK MATTER & DARK ENERGY        

  The possibility of wormholes, and more specifically, the possibility of a black hole at the center of our Milky Way Galaxy being a wormhole is very intriguing indeed. Image from: en.wikipedia.org The existence of a wormhole especially when it comes to providing an avenue, or shortcut, for time travel allows for some thought provoking … Continue reading MILKY WAY WORMHOLE/DARK MATTER & DARK ENERGY →

The post MILKY WAY WORMHOLE/DARK MATTER & DARK ENERGY appeared first on Mysterious Topics .


          Everything about the 'Bachelor in Paradise' sex scandal and what's next        

corinne and demario bachelor in paradise

The much-anticipated fourth season of "Bachelor in Paradise" is set to premiere on Monday, after a misconduct scandal threatened to not only cancel the show, but forever change ABC's long-running hit "Bachelor" franchise going forward.

Even though an investigation into the incident by show producer Warner Bros. concluded that that there was no misconduct, there continues to be more to the story.

The alleged incident occurred in early June while taping in Mexico. It temporarily shut down production, but was resumed after Warner Bros. wrapped its investigation.

But both "Bachelor in Paradise" contestants who are at the center of the scandal, DeMario Jackson and Corinne Olympios, claimed that they were victims and sought legal counsel. They've since announced their continuing participation with the show.

How did we get here? and what's next? Ahead of Monday's premiere, catch yourself up on all the twists and turns. 

Here's a rundown of all the events so far:

SEE ALSO: 'I got played': DeMario Jackson calls 'Bachelor in Paradise' scandal a 'conspiracy'

FOLLOW US: INSIDER is on Facebook

Sunday, June 4: Day of the alleged sexual assault.

With three seasons under its belt, taping on its fourth season started on this day in Mexico. Taping was slated to last three weeks. It also happened to be the day when the reported incident occurred.

Sources told news outlets that a sexual encounter between Jackson ("The Bachelorette" season 13) and Olympios ("The Bachelor" season 21) occurred when she was too drunk to give proper consent and the show's cameras were rolling.

TMZ published a graphic description of the alleged sexual encounter between the contestants in a hot tub.



Tuesday, June 6: An investigation was underway, production halted, and the contestants were placed on lockdown.

According to The Hollywood Reporter, production continued on the show Monday. But at some point between Sunday and Tuesday, a producer filed a complaint of potential sexual misconduct. It isn't clear whether that producer was present while the incident was being taped.

On the condition of anonymity, a contestant told People that taping was being suspended and the cast members were placed on lockdown Tuesday, meaning they were sent to separate rooms, couldn't contact one another, and were under constant supervision by production.

"We were told to stay in a certain part of the [resort] while they figured out what the hell had happened,” the contestant said “We knew something bad had happened; there was a dark energy that came around the house. You have to understand that we weren’t even there a week. The game hadn’t even really begun yet."

THR reported that Jackson and Olympios had been questioned ahead of the other contestants after the complaint was filed and were sent home.

 



Thursday, June 8: The cast members were informed of the investigation and told that the season will probably be canceled.

The anonymous cast member told People that the producers officially informed the contestants that an investigation was underway and it didn't look like they show would be returning this season.

"One of them was crying. She told us that it was over and we'd all be going home," the contestant said of a meeting with a producer held after the lockdown.

"[The producer] was like, 'I don't think that's realistic,'" the cast member continued of the likelihood that production would resume. "She said that there was an investigation going on, and that could take days, weeks, or even months. And by that time, we all have lives and jobs and things to go back to, so it just wasn't going to work out. They told us that we'd be considered for future seasons and opportunities in the franchise, but that this adventure was probably over."

Over the next few days, the cast and crew were questioned individually, according to The Hollywood Reporter.



See the rest of the story at INSIDER
          The Cosmological Constant        
We show how to calculate Einstein's cosmological constant using the Grand Unified Theory. Using the topological properties of the gauge, we calculate the exact percentages of ordinary baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy in the universe. These values are in perfect agreement with the seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations. Thus dark matter, dark energy and the cosmological constant are intrinsic properties of the gauge in the Grand Unified Theory. Ashay Dharwadker, 2011.
          Shadowplay: Whispers of the Past Collector's Edition (PC)        
Can you stop an ancient darkness before it's too late?
Warning: Shadowplay: Whispers of the Past is an intense thriller intended for mature audiences.Big Fish Editor's Choice! This title was selected for its exceptional quality and overwhelmingly positive reviews from our Game Club beta testers.Mad Head Games proudly presents the newest addition to the Shadowplay series! As preparations for a new exhibit come to a close, you look forward to some well-earned quality time with your daughter. Your pleasant evening quickly takes a dark turn when an artifact is stolen and a dark energy kidnaps your daughter! Do you have what it takes to track down the thief and save your daughter in time? Find out in this thrilling hidden-object puzzle adventure game!See what our Beta testers had to say:“All I can say is WOW! This game is one of the best I've played in awhile. The graphics, sound, puzzles and story were awesome!”: Brandon, beta tester“Great game! The puzzles were refreshing and hidden object scenes were interesting and relevant to the story line. Kudos for something new!”: Megan, beta tester

Free Download Shadowplay: Whispers of the Past Collector's Edition Game
Download Shadowplay: Whispers of the Past Collector's Edition for PC
More Casual Games for PC


          155 – Professor Brian Schmidt – The Accelerating Universe – Public Talk        
In 1998, two teams traced back the expansion of the universe over billions of years and discovered that it was accelerating, a startling discovery that suggests that more than 70% of the cosmos is contained in a previously unknown form of matter, called Dark Energy. The 2011 Nobel Laureate for Physics, Brian Schmidt, leader of […]
          The 4 Percent Universe: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Race to Discover the Rest of Reality        
The 4 Percent Universe: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Race to Discover the Rest of Reality
author: Richard Panek
name: Linda
average rating: 3.86
book published: 2010
rating: 5
read at: 2016/06/01
date added: 2017/02/06
shelves: non-fiction, science, physics, astronomy, richard-panek
review:


          Frontiers Lecture: Mapping the Heavens        
Astrophysicist Priyamvada Natarajan, as she explains the science behind the essential ideas of dark matter and dark energy, and provides an understanding of how radical scientific theories gain acceptance. This lecture took place in the Hayden Planetarium on October 3, 2016. Support for Hayden Planetarium Programs is provided by the Horace W. Goldsmith Endowment Fund.
          Darkness Crescent (2nd ability)        
Name: Xalgon Name of Skill/Ability: Darkness Crescent What does it do: Xalgon Charges up is keyblade with darkness and swings it in a wide arc, unleashing a torrent of dark energy in a crescent shape. How much Skill Points: 15 How much Damage: 20 History: Xalgon has experimented alot with his keyblade and his darkness abilities, finding ways to combine the two at times. He began trying to charge his keyblade with dark energy to try and make his skills more powerful, he tried doing ...
          â€œI have a working knowledge of the entire universe and everything it contains”        
As Sheldon Cooper would have it, physics explains everything. All the workings of the universe, from black holes and dark energy to the financial markets down to the inner workings of our brains and the atoms and molecules that comprise … Continue reading
          Universo: realizzata la prima mappa della materia oscura        
Ottenuta la prima mappa della distribuzione della materia oscura, la materia misteriosa e invisibile che occupa l’Universo per circa il 26%, e dell’energia oscura, il motore altrettanto sconosciuto che lo costituisce per il 79% e che lo spinge a espandersi. Il risultato, in via di pubblicazione sul sito arXiv, si deve al progetto internazionale Dark Energy Survey, basato sull’osservazione di ben 26 milioni di galassie fatta con il telescopio Blanco, dell’osservatorio Inter-Americano di Cerro Tololo, sulle Ande cilene. “E’ un risultato davvero emozionante”, ha detto uno dei coordinatori del progetto, Scott Dodelson, del Fermilab, presentando i dati nel convegno della Divisione di fisica delle particelle della Società Americana di Fisica organizzato presso il Fermilab. Un’altra presentazione è in programma per il 9 agosto, sempre negli Stati Uniti, a Columbus (Ohio). Sono dati che riguardano solo il primo di quattro anni di
          NowYou Know: Dark Matter        
In 1998, two teams of astronomers discovered the expansion of the Universe was accelerating, rather than slowing down, as the theory at the time suggested. Physicists speculated that the acceleration was caused by something they named dark energy. Since then, observations have indicated that dark energy and dark matter together account for 96% of the […]
          Finding Compassion For Those Who Hate        

When you put yourself out there, share your heart and voice with the world, there will inevitably be those who love you, those who hate you and those who just don’t care. Being on the spiritual path, I find this to be an excellent teacher and a perfect ego grinder, because whatever people think of me, it does not matter. Of course, my ego says, I would love everyone to like me. But I have no control over what people think and do, or how people judge. I can only do my best, love as best I can and humbly continue to open to each moment and learn the lessons each one brings. In the end, what matters most is my relationship with the divine, which affects how I treat others and myself. What is essential, lasting and true is that I practice seeing the divine in all, even in those who may not like me.

It is hard to understand the motivation of hate, but in essence, we all have the capacity for it. No one is immune to its seduction. When I am lucidly honest with myself, I can openly say that I have felt it rise in me and take me over. I have felt its burn singe my heart. I have fallen into the indulging thrill and delusional self-importance that it conveniently provides. I have felt pumped up, important and proud through it. And I have also felt immensely alone and in pain because of it.

It is hard when we fall out with someone we once called a friend. It is extra hard to see someone close turn into someone who expresses hatred toward us. Hopefully, we do our best to understand each other, talk about the misunderstandings, heal, make amends and return to love. But without both parties being willing to return to a place of humility, little healing can take place. Walls are built, misunderstandings grow and pain festers. Whether friends or strangers, people who do not like us are still our valuable teachers. They teach us what Amma asks us to embody: “Progress is being made when you can retain evenness of mind in the face of praise and shame, honor and dishonor.”

I recall an encounter that reminds me of this. As I watched spiteful venom come my way from people I had considered friends, I had to take pause and witness the propulsion of pain. I noticed that I did not feel hatred towards them. After I worked through my initial shock and hurt at meeting this kind of dark energy, I found myself watching others hold onto their pain as they seemed to wish it upon others. I noticed that ultimately, it seemed they just wanted to feel loved, but were going about it in an upside-down manner. They were indirectly asking for love through hate, which simultaneously was pushing love away.

In that moment, I understood their suffering. By holding onto and identifying with their pain, the people they were hurting most was themselves. Amma says, “When you harm anyone, you harm everyone, especially your own self.” It was clear they were just in pain, and no amount of painful thoughts from me projected their way was going to help them, or me. I did not want to add more pain to the fabulous job they were already doing to themselves.

Amma advises, “Communication begins when you fully understand the other person's point of view.” What was the other people’s point of view? They were hurting and felt I was the source of that hurt. No apology was helping, no reaching out was received, no healing was of interest. They seemed attached to feeling “right”, hard done by, and wanted to hold onto their sense of hurt. With one party unwilling, there could be no discussion. So their pain continued. But I did not need to hold on. So I walked away and still wish them well. Amma says, “If you cannot speak with love and respect, wait until you can.” In the case of haters, the best option is silence.

The exchange was ultimately a gift, another piece along my path. Whether I am at the top of the electronic charts (where I now have been for many weeks, thank you for your generous support!) or whether people love or hate me, I cannot rest my happiness on other’s opinions. My job is to love, understand and serve each moment as best I can with a sense of receptivity to what it brings.

The deeper gift in that exchange for me is found in Amma’s wise words: “If someone is doing something that you find really offensive, check to see whether you are doing something similar to someone else or to yourself.” People who direct ill will our way can be divine mirrors to ways we may be relating to others or ourselves. In my case, I was reminded of how hard I am on myself, which I have been in the midst of seeing more clearly these past months. I don’t always speak to myself with kindness. I don’t always treat myself with love. I don’t always offer myself compassionate understanding. I can allow my self-confidence to be undermined by an old habit of self-doubt. Through that exchange, further contents of my psyche were stirred for me to see and ultimately release. So thank you, even to those who hate me, because you bring me back to the divine and teach me to love.

This day opens with a clear intention to continue to practice feeling ok being me, regardless of what others think. Because ultimately, I will only love others as well as I love myself. Amma says, “Don't just apologize for hurting someone; make the firm resolve that you will never again do that painful act to anyone.” So my sincere prayer is to continue to learn to care for, befriend, honour, love and be gentle with myself. May I have a rich relationship with the divine and may this inform a loving relationship with self and all beings.

When my grandmother was on her deathbed, I asked her what was the meaning of life. She said to me so wisely: “It is all about being yourself. It is so simple, most people miss it.” I can miss it, get caught up in thinking I “should” be/do/think/act in some other way than what feels most relaxed and myself. My true nature is love. So I learn to relax more deeply into trusting that divine truth. I go continue to allow it to flower within me and simply be, no second-guessing. Trust the arising.

The divine love that Amma shows us is within us all. It is our true nature. The rest is just temporary clouds passing through the pure and vast sky. Sometimes the clouds are dark thunderclouds, like when we meet the energy of hatred. But that has no real lasting power. Pain is perpetuated when we hold on and won’t come back to the reality that our true nature is love. I cannot make someone who is attached to pain treat me with love and respect. But I can love and respect myself and learn to treat everyone that way, without condition. That will bring me the joy and lasting happiness I seek and create the best offering I can bring to the world.

May we all know our divine nature and love!

Jai Ma,

Parvati


          Vera Rubin, Discoverer of Dark Matter, Has Died        

Vera Rubin, a pioneering astronomer who discovered dark matter, has died. She was 88.

Her work in astronomy ushered in a revolution in how we saw the Universe. Dark matter is invisible, but it has mass, and affects the cosmos on a large scale. Rubin’s work was studying galaxy rotation curves, literally how spiral galaxies spin. When she plotted her data, she found that the graphs of rotation speed versus distance from the center could not be explained using the standard model for galactic structure. She realized that what her data showed is that there must be far more mass in the outskirts in galaxies than we can see. We now know this to be correct: Almost all galaxies are embedded in a vast cloud of invisible material we call dark matter. And these halos are truly massive; dark matter outmasses normal matter by a factor of more than 5 to 1.

Later work showed that entire clusters of galaxies had dark matter halos, and that this stuff actually helped the largest scale structures in the Universe form when the cosmos was very young. Without it, the Universe would look very, very different.

Do you see how important this is? Most of the Universe, Rubin discovered, is invisible to us, yet this material has had a profound effect on literally everything.

I didn’t know her personally, but everyone I know who did spoke highly of her. She was a mentor and role model to many, including many women. She was an advocate for women in astronomy, working for years for example to get more women into the National Academy of Sciences. Lots of people are sharing lovely stories online about meeting her and the effect she had on their lives, including Carolyn Collins Petersen and Dr. Chanda Prescod-Weinstein.

One more thing that must be said. As a woman, Rubin faced in uphill battle in much of her career. She deserved a Nobel Prize for her work but was overlooked year after year. I’ve written about this before; her work predates the discovery of dark energy by decades, yet the two teams of astronomers who made that discovery were awarded the Nobel in 2011. I do think the 2011 award was deserved, but why did the Nobel Committee skip over Rubin for so long? The last woman to win the prize for physics was Maria Goeppert-Mayer (for her work on atomic nuclear structure), and that was in 1963. The most recent woman before that was Marie Curie, in 1903. And that’s it. Just two women.

But the Nobel committee, by its own rules, does not give the award posthumously. So that’s that.

Except it isn’t. Her work lives on, and as she herself said when being admitted to the National Academy of Sciences:

Fame is fleeting. My numbers mean more to me than my name. If astronomers are still using my data years from now, that’s my greatest compliment.

How many women were inspired by her, how many structures in astronomical societies exist because of her? Even if the general public might not know her name, her positive influence will extend well beyond her own lifespan.


          The Universe Voids Itself, and Einstein Predicted It        

Most of the Universe is empty space.

Duh. I mean, sure, that’s why we call it space. But what’s so very interesting about this is what you see when you look on very large scales; scales so huge that galaxies become mere dots. You might expect matter to be strewn evenly throughout the Universe, but it isn’t. Over these vast vistas, matter in the Universe is clumped, falling along huge filaments and sheets. These in turn are curved, closing in on themselves.

The Universe is foamy! It looks like a sponge, with matter clumping along the outside of the bubbles. Shortly after the Universe formed, dark matter clumped up, creating those filaments. These acted like gravitational scaffolding, its gravity attracting normal matter, which then fell onto the filaments like Spanish moss hanging from tree branches. This material formed galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

Matter is still falling into those filaments today. As it does, the voids—the bubbles of the sponge—get bigger. We can predict how they grow using Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, which describes how the Universe expands and how the matter and energy in it behave as it does. This video from the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics shows that growth in a computer simulation:

But there’s more to this: Dark energy, the weird stuff pervading space that’s causing the Universe to expand faster every day, is also in there, inflating the voids. Relativity, as originally formulated, doesn’t include that. If we can measure just how voids grow we can use that as a test of relativity and also understand better how these gigantic pockets of nothing get bigger. To do this, traditionally, astronomer measure that growth by examining the galaxies along the bubble edges.

But that turns out to be hard, because galaxies aren’t just falling onto the filaments. They also have what’s called peculiar motion, sideways velocity which makes measuring their precise velocity difficult. What to do?

A group of astronomers did something clever: Instead of looking at the galaxies, they looked into the voids themselves. Using observational data that shows distances to galaxies in the Universe—and therefore the locations of voids—they compare how these voids change in shape over time to what’s expected by computer models using relativistic calculations.

Not surprisingly, they find relativity to be pretty robust. The behavior of the Universe appears to obey the rules laid down by relativity, which is reassuring. I’ll note relativity has been tested approximately a bazillion times, and always comes up looking good.

So while that’s not exactly shocking, what I find interesting about this is that by looking at the voids instead of the galaxies around them, the astronomers who did this work were able to improve on previous methods dramatically, with uncertainties (that is, statistical accuracies) four times smaller than previous models!

That’s pretty dang good. We’re still learning just how the Universe behaves on the very largest scaled; heck, dark energy was only discovered in 1998! Research like this will help us understand what the Universe itself is doing as it ages and grows, and that to me is simply stunning. Even if you don’t understand the details of the work or the math behind it, know this: Astronomers are trying to understand literally everything, across all space and time.

And they’re doing a pretty good job of it.


          Yes, anti-matter does anti-gravitate!        
Sabine Hossenfelder asks in a recent post at Backreaction:
  • Why doesn’t anti-matter anti-gravitate?
According to the gravitational model presented in my app NewMath: Darkenergy, anti-matter does anti-gravitate as a result of the gravitational law
  • $\Delta\phi = \rho$
where $\phi (x,t)$ is gravitational potential and $\rho (x,t)$ mass density depending on a Euclidean space coordinate $x$ and $ t$ is a time coordinate, where $\rho (x,t)$ can be both positive and negative, and positive $\rho (x,t)$ signifies presence of normal matter and negative $\rho (x,t)$ signifies presence of anti-matter, at $(x,t)$.

This model is explored under the following categories on this blog
Here is an output from as simulation with anti-matter (green) repelling normal matter (red) into expansion, as an explanation of the observed expansion of the universe.


Hopefully, you are now encouraged to download the app and test the model!



           Cosmic vector for dark energy         
Beltrán Jiménez, José y López Maroto, Antonio (2008) Cosmic vector for dark energy. Physical Review D, 78 (6). ISSN 550-7998
          Comment on Are there any other types of energy that we haven’t discovered yet but could possibly exist? by craigfisherxmas        
It is possible, but the "Standard Model" of physics (as it is called) does a pretty good job (although not perfect!) of explaining how things in the universe operate (in terms of fundamental particles and forces). That said, "dark energy" is a mysterious form of energy proposed to explain the perceived accelerating expansion of the universe. So far there has been no experimental verification of its existence, though, so it's probably too soon to pre-order your dark-energy powered flying car!
          now the year needs to expand        
or just make a new calendar (after all if we are moving into a Post-Modern version of our language, why not a PoMo calendar...)

Past, Present, and the Quantity of the Year

New York TimesPublished: May 3, 2011
How long is a year? Ask most people, and they’d say 365 days and not nearly long enough. The year, of course, is the time it takes the Earth to orbit around the Sun, a rate that is slowing fractionally each century. For many reasons, scientists need a more precise definition of the year than its length in days, yet the only unit of time defined in the International System of Units is the second, which is measured in oscillations of cesium atoms.
(i'm not sure i love this word, though

Recently, a task force of geologists and chemists proposed a new unit of measure called the annus — the Latin word for year — which would use the length of time between one equinox or solstice and the same equinox or solstice a year later. Because the Earth’s orbit varies in temporal length, the annus is keyed to the year 2000, which was 31,556,925.445 seconds long.Astronomers prefer to use the Julian year — which is 31,557,600 seconds long — and they, like some scientific journals, are not likely to adopt the annus. Many working geologists are objecting to the proposed abbreviation for annus, which is “a.” To the task force, the symbol Ma means mega-annus, or million years. But to geologists, Ma means “million years ago,” and 90 Ma, for instance, means a specific point in the Cretaceous period.
However this is resolved, we are left meditating on a remark made by a pair of geologists who note that a geological date like 90 Ma, or 90 million years ago, implies “before present.” Unfortunately, these geologists write, the present “is not well defined.” We know the feeling. We also know that whatever you call it, the year gets shorter and shorter the older you get.
(do you remember when the days, and weeks, and months, and years went by so slow you couldn't stand the wait?)but then, of course, all of our years will run out. . .

Someday the Sun Will Burn Out and the World Will End (but don't tell anyone)

The New York Times By DENNIS OVERBYE
Published: February 14, 2006


I've always been proud of my irrelevance.

When I raised my hand to speak at our weekly meetings here in the science department, my colleagues could be sure they would hear something weird about time travel or adventures in the fifth dimension. Something to take them far from the daily grind. Enough to taunt the mind, but not enough to attract the attention of bloggers, editors, politicians and others who keep track of important world affairs.
(is this anything like my raising my hand to argue with my high school teachers?)
So imagine my surprise to find the origin of the universe suddenly at the white hot center of national politics. Last week my colleague Andrew Revkin reported that a 24-year-old NASA political appointee with no scientific background, George C. Deutsch, had told a designer working on a NASA Web project that the Big Bang was "not proven fact; it is opinion," and thus the word "theory" should be used with every mention of Big Bang.
It was not NASA's place, he said in an e-mail message, to make a declaration about the origin of the universe "that discounts intelligent design by a creator."
In a different example of spinning science news last month, NASA headquarters removed a reference to the future death of the sun from a press release about the discovery of comet dust around a distant star known as a white dwarf. A white dwarf, a shrunken dense cinder about the size of earth, is how our own sun is fated to spend eternity, astronomers say, about five billion
years from now, once it has burned its fuel.
"We are seeing the ghost of a star that was once a lot like our sun," said Marc Kuchner of the Goddard Space Flight Center. In a statement that was edited out of the final news release he went on to say, "I cringed when I saw the data because it probably reflects the grim but very distant future of our own planets and solar system."
An e-mail message from Erica Hupp at NASA headquarters to the authors of the original release at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., said, "NASA is not in the habit of frightening the public with doom and gloom scenarios."
Never mind that the death of the sun has been a staple of astronomy textbooks for 50 years.
Personally, I can't get enough of gloom- and-doom scenarios. I'm enchanted by the recent discovery, buttressed by observations from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, that an antigravitational force known as dark energy might suck all galaxies out of the observable universe in a few hundred billion years and even rip apart atoms and space. But I never dreamed that I might be frightening the adults.
What's next? Will future presidential candidates debate the ontological status of Schrödinger's cat? That's the cat that, according to the uncertainty principle of quantum physics, is both alive and dead until we observe it.
Apparently science does matter.
Dreading the prospect that they too may be dragged into the culture wars, astronomers have watched from the sidelines in recent years as creationists in Kansas and Pennsylvania challenged the teaching of evolution in classrooms. Never mind that the Big Bang has been officially accepted by the Roman Catholic Church for half a century. The notion of a 14-billion-year-old cosmos doesn't fit if you believe the Bible says the world is 6,000 years old.
And indeed there have been sporadic outbreaks, as evidenced by the bumper stickers and signs you see in some parts of the country: "Big Bang? You've got to be kidding — God."
When the Kansas school board removed evolution from the science curriculum back in 1999, they also removed the Big Bang.
In a way, the critics have a point. The Big Bang is indeed only a theory, albeit a theory that covers the history of creation as seamlessly as could be expected from the first fraction of a second of time until today. To call an idea "a theory" is to accord it high status in the world of science. To pass the bar, a theory must make testable predictions — that stars eventually blow out or that your computer will boot up.
Sometimes those predictions can be, well, a little disconcerting. When you're talking about the birth or death of the universe, a little denial goes a long way.
That science news is sometimes managed as carefully as political news may not come as a
surprise to most adults. After all, the agencies that pay for most scientific research in this country have billion-dollar budgets that they have to justify to the White House and the Congress. It helps to have newspaper clippings attesting to your advancement of the president's vision.
It's enough to make you feel sorry for NASA, whose very charter mandates high visibility for both its triumphs and its flops, but which has officers recently requiring headquarters approval before consenting to interviews with the likes of me.
The recent peek behind the curtains of this bureaucracy has been both depressing and exciting. So they are paying attention after all.
They should be paying attention, but I'm not looking forward to having to include more politicians and bureaucrats in my rounds of the ever-expanding, multi-dimensional universe (or universes).
I'll do it, but, lacking the gene for street smarts, I fear being played like a two-bit banjo.
I'm even happy to go star-gazing with Dick Cheney, if duty so calls, but only if he agrees to disarm
and I can wear a helmet.

I loved going to the planeterium as a child, one of the programs showed (what they imagined to be) the solor system's birth to death. The idea that it would all die out wasn't so much frightening as incomprehensible to me.I also remember being in church and finding it so hard to contemplate a never-ending eternity (like a ring that has no beginning and no end.) It hurt my brain and i was left in the void not being able to contemplate either ending or not-ending.Luckily it looks like i'll have 7.59 years to work it out...
In the end, there won’t even be fragments.

          Why is the universe speeding up?        
The Dark Energy Survey aims to answer that question, and UCL astrophysicists are heavily involved in the collaboration. This film explains the project – and features Prof Ofer Lahav (UCL Physics & Astronomy), one of the leading figures of the DES science programme.
          Jeffrey visits Apollo Studio Again        
Yesterday I was visited by Jeffrey again (AKA Synthex). He bought a Doepfer Dark Energy that didn't track very well, so firstly we calibrated and tuned it. Then Jeffrey finally got to play on the Elke Synthex that worked prefectly yesterday. Unfortunately that is not always the case. After that he recorded some music for a new album on several synths like the Jupiter 8, Minimoog and EMS VCS3. We had a great time as usual and for me it was actually good to have a break from my work finally. When they left I did a little extra work on one track that is taking shape quite well already. Then I exported all the tracks to WAV to Jeffrey can work on it in his own studio. It was nice to be in the studio again and I really must make some music of my own again soon :) Jeffreys father also filmed a bit, so I'm sure there will be a video on youtube soon. I will post it on my blog as well if I see it.

          Colloquium presentation by Dr. Wayne Barkhouse: "Shedding Light on Dark Energy" Friday, March 28th at 4 p.m.        
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          Standard Model of the Universe Withstands Most Precise Test by Dark Energy Survey        
SLAC and Stanford astrophysicists made crucial contributions to the galaxy survey, showing that the universe clumps and expands as predicted by our best cosmological models.

          Symmetry: 2016 year in particle physics        

Scientists furthered studies of the Higgs boson, neutrinos, dark matter, dark energy and cosmic inflation and continued the search for undiscovered particles, forces and principles.


          Symmetry: The Contents of the Universe        
How do scientists know what percentages of the universe are made up of dark matter and dark energy?

          Harnessing the Dark Energy        
Ori Josephine Lenkinski reflects on thought-provoking experiences with choreographers Marten Spangberg and Keith Hennessey at Impulstanz.
          Re: Mystik (RPG)        

After a short time the dark clouds erupted into a fierce storm. Torrential rains poured down remorselessly as thunder boomed and lighting split the sky. Aryni's slick and curved body caused the rain to glide off of her, but the travellers were not as fortunate. Malachai, Squee and Kal were soaked within seconds.  Malachai looke dup at the clouds frequently, staring at them as if something was wrong. In time he knew what was amiss. There were only afew stormy clouds, and yet the rain was following them even as Aryni travelled at full speed. This was no normal storm.

"Hmm..." Malachai decided to figure out what was going on by firing a sphere of dark energy up at the clouds. Suddenly there was deafening roar of thunder and bolts of lightning shot out at the travellers.  Suddenly the clowds shifted their shape and formed an enormous winged creature with  sparks of lightning emanating from its massive wingtips. The creature's beak was also formed of pure electricity, and blasts of lighting spewed from its mouth.

"I knew it!" Malachai exclaimed. He turned to his comrades and shouted over the gail-force winds "I hope you lads are up for a fight! The storm that's been plaguing us was a thunderbird, and I believe I've made it mad!"


          Re: Mystik (RPG)        

Malachai observed on the back of Aryni as the warrior defeated the Dracholic. "He's destryoed its spirit. It was already 'dead', but now it is truly departed to the land of spirits. However, it is not useless."

Malachai stretched out his hads, which began to glow with dark energy. tiny orbs of blackness encircled the necromancer's clawed gloves, and his eyes were closed as he concentrated on his incantation. Suddenly, his eyes flew open, glowing bright purple in their sockets. The black orbs were condensed into two brilliant beams of necromantic energy, and the beams sped towards the area where Valthonin's battle had taken place.

"There. The dragon will rise again, an enormous skeletal puppet. Admittedly its power will be significantly less, but you see, this monster has slain many travellers and their bodies are strewn about its lair. They too will rise and give our opponent grief. Let us depart." And they did so.


          Little Atoms Road Trip 23 – Priya Natarajan        
While in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Neil spent an afternoon talking cosmology at the apartment of the theoretical astrophysicist Priyamvada Natarajan. Priya Natarajan is a Professor in the Departments of Astronomy and Physics at Yale University. Her research is focused on exotica in the Universe – dark matter, dark energy and black holes. She is noted for her key contributions to two […]

          Little Atoms Road Trip 07 – Sean Carroll        
In this episode, Neil visits the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, and talks to theoretical physicist Sean Carroll. Sean Carroll has written papers on Dark Energy, Dark Matter, the physics of extra dimensions and alternative theories of gravity. He is also one of the founders of the group blog cosmicvariance, named one of the five top science […]

          DESI, le coup d’envoi est donné !        
L’instrument Desi (Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument) analysera la lumière émise par 35 millions de galaxies et quasars à plusieurs moments du passé de l’Univers et jusqu’à 11 milliards d’année, pour mieux cerner l’énergie noire. Son passage en phase de construction en 2016 couronne plusieurs années de recherche et développement qui ont abouti à un design solide et une stratégie d’observation crédible. L’Irfu, partenaire du projet depuis la première heure, y a tenu toute sa place. Retour sur une année qui a vu le projet devenir réalité. Une nouvelle phase commence pour DESI La phase de construction de DESI a été lancée l’été dernier après approbation par le département de l’énergie américain (DOE). Son installation auprès du télescope Mayall de 4 m (Fig. 1) situé à l’observatoire national Kitt Peak en Arizona commencera en 2018 avec l’arrivée du correcteur de champ.   La campagne d’observations, portant sur un tiers du ciel, débutera en 2019 et durera 5 ans. Elle devrait produire 10 fois plus de données que le projet précédent, BOSS (Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey) achevé il y a deux ans. Cette dernière phase d’approbation par le DOE permet de lancer la construction des pièces maîtresses de l’instrument. A savoir, les 5000 robots positionneurs de fibres (Fig. 2) qui permettront de pointer précisément les objets dont on veut capter la lumière - galaxies, quasars, étoiles - et les spectrographes alimentés par les fibres optiques qui analyseront la lumière recueillie en la décomposant en multiples longueurs d’ondes. 
          Comment on Less dark matter in distant galaxies? by Gregorio Baquero        
This is a simpler idea that actually predicted the latest observations: https://gregoriobaquero.wordpress.com/2017/01/26/rame-is-dm/ “…younger galaxies do have less Dark Matter in proportion to regular matter since the mass-energy relativistic accumulation has a compounding effect over time: The higher the energy density ratio; the more mass-energy relativistic accumulation, the more mass-energy relativistic accumulation; the more gravity, the more gravity; the more mass-energy relativistic accumulation. Even though in the early universe energy density was higher, that density was more uniformly distributed. That means that the further away we look to younger galaxies, the less Dark Matter we should find.” No Wimps no Mond: Dark Energy mass density calculation is right but its actual energy density is higher because its nature is different to any other form of energy we know.(Casimir Effect experiments suggest a minimum of 12 orders of magnitude higher vacuum energy density if the distance between the sphere and the plate could get logarithmically half way closer to plank scales). That density gets gradually higher the closer it is around cosmic structures when compared to the energy density at an orbiting star frame of reference due to gravitational time dilation (Galactic Shapiro delay inside a sphere with the star orbiting radius). The net effect is the accumulation of relativistic equivalent mass (Dark Matter). Since this explanation is purely relativistic, this hypothesis could explain why there are big discrepancies between Dark Matter measurements from gravitational lensing and rotation velocities, why dwarf galaxies seem to be submerged on seas of DM, why there is not sensible higher CDM densities when calculated from inner orbiting star velocities. Since the mechanism is accumulative, it explains why the younger the galaxy you measure the rotation speed the less “influential” Dark Matter is in that galaxy. Also, since it is mass(equivalent mass) it has inertia as observed in the bullet cluster. The mathematical model is far from perfect but exposes a mechanism that has been overlooked because relativistic speeds are a lot higher than any possible escape velocity (not counting around black holes). We would no need to change the standard model of particle physics (suggested by CDM’s WIMPS) nor General Relativity (suggested by MOND) . It only needs our better understanding of Dark Energy. https://gregoriobaquero.wordpress.com/2017/02/25/on-the-nature-of-dark-energy-and-gravityf/ Would these possibilities make any sense?
          155 – Professor Brian Schmidt – The Accelerating Universe – Public Talk        
In 1998, two teams traced back the expansion of the universe over billions of years and discovered that it was accelerating, a startling discovery that suggests that more than 70% of the cosmos is contained in a previously unknown form of matter, called Dark Energy. The 2011 Nobel Laureate for Physics, Brian Schmidt, leader of […]
          Year in Review: Planck refines cosmic history        
Feature

Satellite hints at slower expansion rate for universe

By
4:00pm, December 20, 2013

CHANGING TEMPS  A color-coded map shows fluctuations in microwave radiation temperature across the sky recorded by the Planck satellite. Noteworthy features include differences between hemispheres and a cold spot (circle at right).

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In October, astronomers said good-bye to the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite, breaking off contact with the source of the most precise measurements yet of the universe’s oldest light.

Planck had finished its mission to measure the Big Bang’s remnant radiation, which today constitutes an invisible bath of microwaves permeating the cosmos. This ancient radiation has cooled over time to less than 3 kelvins (degrees above absolute zero). Its precise temperature varies ever so slightly from point to point across the sky.

With 25 times the sensitivity of its predecessor, NASA’s Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Planck was able to identify temperature variations as small as a millionth of a degree. Those temperature fluctuations reflect tiny density differences in the infant universe. As the young universe expanded, matter in the higher-density regions clumped together to form intricate clusters of galaxies.

In March, Planck scientists released data that largely confirmed the standard view of the cosmos and its evolution. An improved estimate for the age of the universe, 13.82 billion years, is slightly older than the previous one but within its range of uncertainty (SN: 4/20/13, p. 5).

Planck data also suggested that the universe contains a higher proportion of matter than earlier estimates had indicated — both the ordinary kind of matter found on Earth and the perplexing invisible “dark” variety that affects the motion of galaxies. The probe’s wide-angle view of dark matter distribution throughout the cosmos complements underground experiments, such as the CDMS project in Minnesota and the LUX detector in South Dakota, which are designed to identify individual particles of dark matter (SN: 5/18/13, p. 10).

Planck also measured a slower expansion rate for the universe than other methods have found. “This is one of the most exciting parts of the data,” says Martin White of the University of California, Berkeley.

Scientists who measure the brightness of stellar explosions at large distances calculate an expansion rate considerably higher than Planck’s. As physicists work to determine how quickly the universe is expanding now, they are also trying to measure whether the strength of dark energy, which causes the expansion rate to accelerate, has changed over time (SN: 12/28/13, p. 31). Such changes would have major implications for understanding what the universe looked like in the past as well as for predicting its ultimate fate.

Planck also confirmed a strange finding by the Wilkinson probe that one side of the sky contains more extreme temperature fluctuations on average than the other. That’s a confounding observation, since most experts agree that the universe began as a smooth ball of energy that then expanded uniformly in all directions. Dozens of papers have proposed explanations for the asymmetry, including the possibility that other universes have collided with ours and left behind discernible distortions.

Although communication with Planck has now ended, not all of the satellite’s data have been released. Over the next two years, mission scientists plan to produce enhanced maps of the Big Bang afterglow that could provide a window into inflation, a brief burst of extremely rapid expansion of the universe that most experts believe took place in the instant immediately after the Big Bang.

See all top science stories of 2013 


          Dark matter, dark energy, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory        
Neil deGrasse Tyson is an astrophysicist, author, host of "NOVA ScienceNOW," and the Frederick P. Rose Director of the Hayden Planetarium. Listen as Dr. Tyson discusses the extraordinary capabilities of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the nature of dark matter and dark energy.
                  


THE EINSTEIN ALMANAC By Alice Calaprice

Not exactly a biography but more of a year by year recounting of Einstein's scientific papers along with significant events of his personal life and world events to situate the science. The book begins with a brief timeline of the years 1879 (when Einstein was born on March 14) to 1900 and opens in the year 1901 with his first scientific paper 'Conclusions drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity' in Annalen der Physik. not world stunning, but quite competent. From here it's up and away, but there are still only four more papers until the year 1905 when five papers changed physics forever. 'On a Heuristic point of View Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light' introduced the quantum theory of light. 'On the Motion of Small Particles Suspended in Liquids at Rest' established the mathematical description of Brownian motion and, believe it or not, is Einstein's most cited paper. There was also 'A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions', A rework of Einstein's doctoral thesis.

There were two papers that presented the theory of special relativity: 'On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies' and 'Does the Inertia of a Body Depend On Its Energy Content'. All of these papers were presented in Annalen der Physik. The latter two papers presented postulates such as the constancy of the speed of light, the equivalence of mass and energy and the connectedness of space and time. This was Einstein's 'Miraculous Year' when modern physics was born. Note that he early contributed to the theories of quantum mechanics which were to give him so much worry in later years.

Over the next few years Einstein elaborated on the ideas presented in his papers of 1905 and began to publish in journals other than Annalen der Physik. As he developed his theories other experimentalists such as Rutherford developed the nucleus/electron model of the atom, and the gene theory of heredity was being elaborated. It was a time of rapid advance in many fields not just in physics. While the scientists drove forward in their laboratories the world of politics fell back into the modern barbarism od WW1. With this Einstein began his career as a 'public intellectual' by declaring himself as a pacifist associating himself with anti-war initiatives, all of which were fruitless. The first test of Einstein's theory was to occur by observations of a group of German scientists of an eclipse of the sun in Russia. The eclipse happened on the same day war was declared. The scientists were imprisoned, and the test never happened. The confirmation of relativity waited until 1919 and Eddington's expedition.

While WW1 raged Einstein worked further on his relativity theory. In 1915 three new papers, 'On the General Theory of Relativity', 'Explanation of the Perihelion Motion of Mercury from the General Theory of Relativity' and 'The Field Equations of Gravitation' expanded his 1905 special relativity into the 'general theory of relativity'. The new picture of space and time was complete, or at least as complete as it could be given what was known about the Universe at that time. With these papers the flatness of space-time that remained even in special relativity curled up to produce the curved space of his theory of gravitation. All this time Einstein continued his work in quantum theory and his contribution to pacifist causes.

Others began to work with Einstein's theories. In 1916 Karl Schwarzschild solved Einstein's equations for the area surrounding a star. He showed that as the star's radius shrunk to number less than (2GM)/(c^2) the 'Schwarzschild Radius' the curvature became infinite. Thus was born the idea of the 'black hole'. Einstein began to write popular accounts of his theories. In a 1917 paper on the large scale structure of the Universe he introduced his 'cosmological constant' to account for what was believed at the time to be a static universe. As evidence for an expanding universe came to light he began to describe this as, "my greatest error". Yet further on in history with the discovery of 'dark energy', however, it turned out to be right after all. Efforts began to unify the forces of nature, gravitation with all the others. Only electromagnetism was known at the time; the strong and weak nuclear forces were yet to be discovered. Despite the efforts of Einstein and many others the unification of gravity with the other forces remains unsolved today.

The war ended. A new solar eclipse was due, over the Atlantic, and Einstein's explanation of the bending of starlight around the sun could be tested. Eddington's expedition found the proof, four days before Einstein's wedding. It was a good year for Albert.

After this decade of discovery Einstein's life remained productive but never again "reordered the universe". Einstein intensified his pacifist, democratic socialist and Zionist activity. Though he never joined a Zionist organization and even declared that he was not a Zionist he continued to sympathize with the idea of a homeland for the world's Jewry. His socialism could at times be quite radical. It's not in the book, but in a visit to Barcelona he went out of his way to visit the headquarters of the anarchosyndicalist CNT. His nephew Karl was a more convinced anarchist and fought with their militias during the Spanish Civil War.

The story continues year by year, weaving Einstein's personal life with the events of the day, his popularization of physics, his political activity and his continued scientific work. In 1920 he first conceived the idea of nuclear power, but as yet he had no idea of how it would come about. Einstein was 'in demand', and he soon began to travel the world. With the rise of Nazism in Germany Albert and his family wisely decided to emigrate  In 1933 they sailed for America which was to be his home of the rest of his life. In the face of the rise of Hitler Einstein began to modify his pacifism. With the outbreak of WW2 he was one of the motive forces behind convincing the Americans to develop the atomic bomb for fear that the Nazis might develop it first.

He remained in Princeton through the rest of his life, still productive scientifically and mentoring new generations of physicists. After the war he, like many of the scientists connected to the creation of atomic weaponry, developed great concern with their potential for destruction, and he spend much time in his latter years campaigning for the UN as a 'world government' and for disarmament. His original scientific output declines, but with a younger collaborator he continued publication right up to his death in 1955.

I can  heartily recommend this book. The author manages to present all of Einstein's scientific output with clear explanations appended to the most significant ones. His wider political and philosophic writings are also documented if not in such detail. The yearly almanac formula works masterfully and allows the author to situate the science in the context of Einstein's personal life, world events and developments in other scientific fields. She concludes with a useful bibliography, index and photo credit list.

It was a worthwhile read.




          A New Theory of Time: X-tention is Simultaneously Discrete and Continuous        
Time has been conceived mainly as either discrete or continuous, but not widely as a simultaneity of the two. I would like to articulate a new theory of time in which time is reconceived as a ‘raw material’ whose natural state is both discrete and continuous. This is a “middle third” position that extends Husserl’s theory of internal time consciousness by being a new form of time in the middle between and connecting retention-protention (which are continuous) and recollection-expectation (which are discrete). What I am naming X-tention is this middle kind of time, existing in a primordial state that is simultaneously discrete and continuous, with the capacity to solidify into either in the case of a specific situation. Time could be analogous to another fundamental physical element, light, which exists in a superposition state of both particle and wave before collapsing into one or the other per observation.

Husserl's theory of internal time structure 
In The Phenomenology of Internal Time Consciousness (1893-1917), Husserl expounds his theory of the structure of time. His core claim is that any present-now moment is comprised of three elements. There is a primal impression, the pure perception of the present now, plus a link to what this perception retains of just-recently past-now moments (retention) and what it anticipates of quickly-upcoming future-now moments (protention). Husserl distinguishes between two kinds of memory, primary memory as retention and secondary memory as recollection. Retention does not break continuity with the present-now moment; it is the part of a temporal object that contemplates its pastness and allows the present to emerge from the temporal background. Recollection does break continuity with the present; the current moment is interrupted to recall and re-represent past memory. Husserl’s theory is depicted in Figure 1.


A new middle third form of time: X-tention
Retention-protention is continuous; recollection-expectation is discrete. Recollection and expectation are piled-up snapshots of discrete past moments and imagined future events. When brought to mind, they are reproduced in a new present-now flow, but exist prior to recall or replay as un-presented discrete elements. The structure of the present-now moment, on the other hand, is a continuous flow of the intentional unity of primal impression and retention-protention. How far the retention-protention horizon extends is unclear. It might only encompass the most immediate recent-pasts and near-futures surrounding the primal impression of the present-now moment, or it might extend to include all previous and future experiences in the realms of recollection and expectation. I posit the conception of a middle third form of time, X-tention, to sit respectively between recollection and retention, and protention and expectation. My addition to Husserl’s theory is illustrated in Figure 2. Whereas protention and retention are continuous, and recollection and expectation are discrete, X-tention as the middle form of time is simultaneously discrete and continuous.


http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/temporality-of-the-future

X-tention: a superposition of raw time collapsible into discreteness or continuousness
X-tention as the middle third conception of time is conceptually similar to light’s wave-particle duality. Like light, the idea is not that time is an either/or kind of a thing. Light is not the kind of thing that is a particle or a wave, light is the kind of a thing that is more fundamentally not either, and may behave like a wave or particle depending on the situation. Likewise, the nature of time could be that it is fundamentally a kind of a thing that is more malleable in its core state, and that may behave as discrete or continuous based on the situation. X-tentive time thus exists as a possibility space where time is simultaneously discrete and continuous, a superposition of the possibility of both until collapsed into a reality situation of one or the other. The metaphor is that of Schrödinger’s cat, which exists in a quantum superposition state of being simultaneously both dead and alive until an observer looks into the box and the state collapses into one or the other. With X-tention too, it is possible to “look into the box,” i.e.; force the superposition state of dual time possibility to collapse into a reality instance of either discreteness (recollection-expectation) or continuousness (retention-protention). The possibility state collapses into one determination or the other. Since time is a function of the intentional act of meaning, for Husserl, in the case of time, “observing” would be applying an intentional act of meaning. Applying an act of meaning, in the sense of directing intentionality toward an object or objective, would collapse the potential time instance into either retention-impression-protention (continuous) or recollection-expectation (discrete).

Why is a middle third position of time needed? 
It may well be queried why a middle third position of time might be needed. How is it that Husserl did not more explicitly connect the two time regimes? Likewise, while other subsequent thinkers of time such as Heidegger and Derrida have critiqued many aspects of Husserl's theory, they essentially adopted wholesale the time structure of continuous retention-impression-protention and discrete recollection-expectation. However, I think that the discrete and the continuous are too disjoint, and do not seem to connect closely ontologically, methodologically, or practically to each other. Even just the posited structure of time as a binary “either-or” state is an indication that these might not be the only states, or that like light, the more foundational nature of the phenomenon is such that discreteness and continuousness are merely proximate behavioral dimensions of a more profound underlying phenomenon. Conceiving of time as simultaneously both discrete and continuous might also more closely correspond to the real-life phenomenological experience of time, which can seem to be both simultaneously snapshot and flow in the course of lived experience. Moreover, this is congruent with the Husserlian project of phenomenology, describing “how” things are experienced, not “what” is experienced. In summary, the concept of the middle third term of time, X-tention, is simultaneous time duality, where one of time’s properties is discreteness versus continuousness. "Raw time" or "pure time" exists simultaneously in a superposition of both states before an intentional act of meaning collapses it into one or the other state. X-tention can be seen as a perdurant (e.g.; temporal object-based) temporality of complexity because indeterminacy (as non-determinacy) is a key property. A temporality of complexity is important as we are now starting to have the understanding and technological tools to approach reality in the more nuanced manner of complex systems (non-linear, dynamic, emergent, open, unknowable at the outset, interdependent, self-organizing) as opposed to situations of simple linear causality.

Matter, energy, and light vs. space and time
I am positing the case of light wave-particle duality as a metaphor, not necessarily as justificatory grounds for my conjecture of a middle third designation for time. Just because duality is true for light does not mean that duality would be true for time. For one thing, matter, energy, and light are one class of physical phenomena, while space and time are another. Matter, energy, and light are ‘what is there,’ while space and time are the composition of the background. It is not that light is grounds for time, but it could be that many or even all physical phenomena ultimately turn out to have a property of duality or multiplicity. At small enough scales, many phenomena in physics might have a duality or multiplicity of states and behaviors, or more broadly indeterminacy as a general property that collapses from possibility to actuality per certain conditions. The presence of an observer is also a dynamic that is not yet fully understood. Matter, energy, and light are inter-translatable per Einstein’s equivalency of E=mc2, and thus perhaps all subject to wave-particle duality in some sense.

Physics: Scientific formulations of time as simultaneously discrete and continuous 
The conceptualization of time as simultaneously discrete and continuous is an under-explored notion in the philosophy of time, but is enjoying some degree of investigation in physics. One interesting paper notes that information is a quantity which is both discrete and continuous, where time and other physical phenomena might be reconceived as simultaneously discrete and continuous with an information theoretic formulation. The specific calculation involves Shannon’s sampling theory, which is essentially scaling any ‘analog’ phenomenon down to a digital’ formulation, and translating between the two. Another theory, loop quantum gravity, also holds that time might be simultaneously discrete and continuous at small enough scales, like the smallest scale, the Planck length (1×10−35 m). Nanotechnology, the precise placement of atoms in positional nanoassembly as a comparison for example, takes place at the (1×10−9 m) scale. At the Planck scale, fundamental building blocks of spacetime might be composable like Legos into different spacetime fabrics, such as those of “regular” baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy.

More information: Temporality of the Future

          Astrônomos brasileiros ajudam a mapear matéria escura do Universo        
Dark Energy Survey é conduzido no Observatório Interamericano de Cerro Tololo, no Chile (Foto: divulgação)

Se nosso Universo fosse uma árvore frondosa, faria sentido dizer que, pela primeira vez, os cientistas conseguiram mapear com certa precisão seus intermináveis e misteriosos galhos de matéria escura, que correspondem a 26% da árvore.

Eles são invisíveis pois se recusam a interagir com a luz, mas sabemos que estão lá pois detectamos sua gravidade espreitando e aglutinando a matéria convencional.

Esta matéria, por sinal, da qual nós e as estrelas somos feitos, seria comparável às folhinhas da planta, somando só 4% do todo — sim, tudo o que a gente conhece do Universo corresponde a só 4%. Mas e os outros 70%? Calma: chegaremos lá.

Leia também:
+ Entenda a nova teoria da gravidade que desbanca Einstein e Newton
+ Matéria escura pode ser formada por buracos negros minúsculos

Acontece que, até então, era como se os pesquisadores precisassem voltar quase 14 bilhões de anos no tempo e analisar a semente dessa árvore se quisessem reconstruir seus processos de germinação, crescimento e o estado atual. Não parece meio complicado?

E é mesmo: tanto que a cosmologia, que estuda o nascimento e evolução do Universo, permanece com diversas questões em aberto graças à limitação de dados. A semente é a radiação cósmica de fundo (RCF), micro-ondas que permeiam todos os cantos do cosmos — resquício do Big Bang que teve origem menos de 400 mil anos após a grande explosão.

De 2009 a 2013, o satélite Planck, da Agência Espacial Europeia, fez um mapeamento detalhado dessa radiação. Desde então, os cosmólogos usam e abusam do valioso mapa produzido para decifrar as condições e a estrutura do Universo quando ele era um bebê de colo.

É por isso que os dados sobre a RCF desempenham um papel fundamental nos modelos que explicam como chegamos até aqui — e para onde estamos indo.

Copa da árvore cósmica
Agora, foram publicados dez artigos com resultados preliminares do DES (Dark Energy Survey, ou Levantamento da Energia Escura), promissora colaboração com mais de 400 pesquisadores de sete países.

Eles querem produzir dados que se igualem ou superem a precisão do Planck sobre a estrutura do cosmos na maior escala (os filamentos que congregam superaglomerados de galáxias como em uma teia de aranha).

Mapa preliminar com os resultados do primeiro ano do DES: regiões em vermelho têm maior concentração de matéria escura (Foto: Reprodução)

 

A grande diferença entre o levantamento do Planck e do DES é que, enquanto o primeiro só nos mostra um retrato da semente da árvore cósmica, o segundo nos dará nos próximos anos um mapeamento muito mais recente da copa dessa árvore.

É um pouco como pegar aquele álbum de fotografias velho e empoeirado guardado na casa de seus pais e se ver mais jovem, em várias etapas de sua vida.

“À medida em que formos tendo imagens intermediárias de como era nosso Universo, veremos como suas características mudaram da fase de bebê até a vida adulta”, diz o astrônomo Marcio Maia, do Observatório Nacional (ON).

Se o cosmos como mostrado pelo satélite Planck é um bebê de colo, o que está sendo revelado pelo DES ainda não é o adulto formado que vemos hoje, mas já é um mocinho beirando a maioridade.

“Isso ajuda a estabelecer um roteiro histórico que mostre como ele veio daquela fase até essa”, explica Maia, um dos cerca de 30 pesquisadores do consórcio DES-Brazil, grupo com estudantes e pós-docs do ON e cinco universidades que coordena a colaboração brasileira no projeto.

Nossa participação custou pouco para uma iniciativa desta envergadura: US$ 400 mil e mais o desenvolvimento até dezembro de um portal científico para disponibilizar os dados coletados. Segundo Maia, a contrapartida de fazer a plataforma foi um ótimo negócio: resultou em economia de pelo menos o dobro do valor pago e em capacitação de nossa comunidade científica.

“Esse dinheiro que iria para os Estados Unidos é gasto aqui no Brasil, empregando brasileiros para trabalhar principalmente na parte de informática.” Com isso, aprimoramos a capacidade de elaborar e gerir projetos de big data no contexto astronômico.

Quem toca tudo isso por aqui é o Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), cuja missão é estimular e organizar a participação de pesquisadores brasileiros em grandes consórcios internacionais de mapeamento do Universo.

Entre as consequências mais notáveis, está a chance de fornecer a nossos cientistas, da graduação à pós, a chance de estar na fronteira da produção científica mundial e de atuar em pé de igualdade com pesquisadores do exterior. “A competição é grande, mas se nos empenhamos, temos protagonismo”, diz Maia.

Tateando no escuro
Para obter os resultados apresentados pelos astrônomos no início de agosto, foi necessário uma das câmeras fotográficas mais potentes do planeta, com incríveis 570 megapixels. Ela analisou a luz de mais de 26 milhões de galáxias, localizadas a até oito bilhões de anos-luz da Terra.

Acoplado ao Telescópio Blanco, que fica no Observatório Interamericano de Cerro Tololo, no norte do Chile, o instrumento opera em um vale de céus límpidos, no cume de uma montanha andina com mais de 2 mil metros de altitude.

E olha que esses dados do DES que geraram o melhor mapa da matéria escura até agora cobriram só um trigésimo do céu: ainda são um gostinho do que está por vir. Trata-se do material coletado apenas no primeiro ano da pesquisa, em 2013.

Em fevereiro de 2018, ao fim dos cinco anos de duração do projeto, os pesquisadores esperam ter analisado mais de 300 milhões de galáxias e cobrir um oitavo do céu.

Telescópio Blanco, no observatório interamericano de cerro tololo (Foto: divulgação)

 

Eles desenvolveram técnicas minuciosas para quantificar a matéria escura através da distorção ínfima que sua gravidade provoca na luz das galáxias distantes. Também determinam distâncias de supernovas, examinam o crescimento de aglomerados de galáxias ao longo das eras e calculam os graus de aglomeração da matéria.

O objetivo disso tudo é solucionar o mistério da matéria escura e outro enigma dos mais angustiantes da astrofísica.

Sina do Universo
“O levantamento utiliza as observações de galáxias para obter informações sobre como o Universo está crescendo”, diz Maia. E é aqui que voltamos aos 70% da árvore cósmica — a energia escura. Na nossa metáfora, seria como uma força vital que faz a planta crescer cada vez mais depressa.

Na cosmologia, diz-se que ela é uma espécie de antigravidade, uma rival da matéria escura que permeia o espaço e faz com que as galáxias se afastem umas das outras de forma acelerada.

Descobrir o que são essas duas coisas é essencial não só porque elas somam 96% da composição do Universo, mas também pois compreendê-las é a chave para desvendar seu destino.

Como saber se a sina do cosmos daqui a bilhões de anos é atingir um ponto de contração, em que entrará em colapso sobre si mesmo e voltará a ser uma singularidade, ou então se transformar em uma escuridão gelada, na qual nem os átomos serão capazes de se manter aglomerados frente à expansão acelerada movida pela energia escura? Ou se nenhuma das duas hipóteses é correta? Os dados do DES devem ajudar.

“Tem bastante modelo cosmológico por aí, mas não podem estar todos certos, com certeza vamos conseguir eliminar alguns”, afirma Maia. Ele acredita que o problema da matéria escura pode até ser resolvido por físicos de partículas, já que experimentos e colisores como o LHC trabalham nisso noite e dia. Mas com a energia escura é outra história.

“Só dá para sentir seu efeito em escalas muito grandes”, diz. “Essa vai ter que ser resolvida pelos astrônomos, não tem jeito.”


          The Cosmic Distance Ladder        

Distances in the universe are so vast that we do not have a simple way of measuring them.  For distances within the solar system we can measure them directly, using radar for example, and some very straightforward trigonometry.  But radar is hard to use when it takes light minutes or hours to cross the solar system; and the nearest star is four light years away!  A more difficult but straightforward method is trigonometric parallax, the derivation of distances to nearby stars by measuring by how much they appear to shift relative to background stars during the course of a year.  This method is the most direct way that we have of measuring the distances to the stars, but only for those within about a thousand light years.  The measurement of parallaxes requires very precise measurements of the positions of stars on the sky.  The largest parallax -- that of alpha Centauri -- is less than one arcsecond, and that is the closest star to us (4.3 light years away).  For comparison, the full moon is 1800 arcseconds across!  The size of the parallax decreases the farther away the star is, until eventually it is smaller than we can measure.

Beyond this point, we have to start relying not just on observation but also on our understanding of astrophysics.  As an example, after parallaxes we can use open clusters -- groups of stars formed at the same time having the same ages but different masses, temperatures, and luminosities --  to make educated guesses as to the absolute brightnesses (and hence distances) of the cluster members.  We calibrate those guesses using clusters for which we can measure parallaxes, and then extend them outwards to where we can't measure parallax.  Our understanding of the size of the universe is dependent upon The Cosmic Distance Ladder, a series of measurements of different kinds of objects and phenomena, each building upon the previous step in the ladder.  By extending the ladder with different kinds of measurements (and intelligent guesses), we can measure larger and larger distances in the universe. 

Several of these steps are critically dependent upon variable stars, and the physical study of the Distance Ladder is in some ways a physical study of variable stars.  How have variable stars contributed to the Distance Ladder, and why?  Here, we'll discuss two of them: the Period-Luminosity relation of pulsating stars, and the use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles.

The Leavitt Law: Cepheid variables as distance indicators

Harvard Astronomer Henrietta Swan Leavitt made a critical observation about Cepheid variables observed in the Small Magellanic cloud.  After measuring the periods of the Cepheids and the relative brightnesses of each, she found a relation between the period and apparent brightness for all of the stars; the stars with longer periods were brighter than those with shorter periods.  Making the reasonable assumption that the Small Magellanic Cloud is far enough away that all the stars are at approximately the same distance, you can assume that there is a relation between the period and the absolute brightness as well.  This was a critically important discovery in modern astrophysics; it meant that one could make an easy measurement -- the pulsation period of the Cepheid -- and obtain the distance, which is otherwise impossible to obtain.  

Leavitt's measurements of periods and apparent brightnesses for SMC CepheidsWhile stars in the Magellanic cloud are much too far away to measure distances using parallax, there are enough well-calibrated, in-between steps in the Distance Ladder to let you calibrate the Cepheid Period-Luminosity relation for nearby Cepheids.  The PL relation has become one of the most critically important tools for distance measurement in the cosmos.  Leavitt's 1908 discovery was confirmed to work not only for Cepheids but for a number of other pulsating variables as well.  One of these types were the RR Lyrae stars commonly found in globular clusters, and measurement of distances to the globular clusters formed part of the argument that allowed astronomers to finally understand the size and shape of the Milky Way galaxy and all other "spiral nebulae" in the universe.  One measurement changed the our understanding of the size of the universe by many orders of magnitude -- from thousands of light years to millions (and eventually to billions).

Why does this relation exist?  One way to think about it is to consider why stars have different intrinsic brightnesses.  The amount of light a star will give off is dependent on two things: its physical size, and its temperature.  Cepheids lie in a fairly narrow range of temperatures, and so the primary difference between one Cepheid and another is its size.  You can prove, using simple dynamical arguments, that the amount of time it takes a star to complete one pulsation cycle is directly proportional to the size of the star -- the bigger the star, the longer it takes for it to complete a pulsation cycle.  But since we know bigger stars are more luminous, then we can determine a relation between the period and the luminosity.

Folded visual light curves of two Cepheids, SV Vul and T Vul.  The period of SV Vul is about 10 times longer than that of T Vul.  If they were the same distance from us, T Vul would appear to be fainter than SV Vul; since it is not (T Vul is about 1.5 magnitudes brighter at maximum), it must be much closer.

We've used the period-luminosity relation to measure distances to Cepheids in the Milky Way, the local Group, and out to galaxies about 60 million light years distant (M100 is the most distant galaxy with measured Cepheids).  We continue to refine and recalibrate the Cepheid period-luminosity relation as we get better data, but distances obtained with it are probably good to around five percent.  Thus we have a good measure of the distances to nearby galaxies.  Critically, we can then use Cepheids to calibrate another rung of the distance ladder, redshifts.  Using Cepheids, we can obtain measures of distances to nearby galaxies with redshifts showing a clear direct relationship between distance and redshift.  Redshifts are in turn used to measure distances of hundreds of millions or billions of light years, rather than the tens of millions possible with Cepheid variable observations.

In recognition of Henrietta Swan Leavitt's discovery of and early work on the period-luminosity relation, the Cepheid P-L relation is now referred to as the Leavitt Law.  It was one of the most important astrophysical discoveries of the 20th Century, but it may not be the most important discovery in the story of the Cosmic Distance Ladder.  That distinction might go to what we talk about next.

Type Ia Supernovae, Dark Energy, and the Acceleration of Cosmic Expansion

Those who measure distances in the universe often use the term "standard candle" as a metaphor for a calibrated light source in a distant target.  In order to measure large distances you need a very, very bright candle.  The supernovae are among the brightest variable stars there are, and we can see supernovae in galaxies hundreds of millions of light years distant.  There are a number of different types of supernovae, but they originate primarily from two different types of progenitors: the collapse and subsequent explosion of massive white dwarf stars in cataclysmic variable binary systems, and the collapse of massive stars at the ends of their lives.  The most interesting systems for the current discussion are the collapsing white dwarf systems, known as supernovae of "Type Ia".  

One-day averages of visual observations of the Type-Ia supernova SN 1994D (discovered March 9, 1994).

In Type Ia supernovae, a white dwarf in a binary system is accreting matter from the secondary star of the binary.  White dwarfs have limits on how massive they can be (about 1.4 times the mass of the Sun), which is known as the Chandrasekhar limit after its discoverer, Subramanyan Chandrasekhar.  If a white dwarf becomes more massive than this (by accreting matter from a companion, for example) then the atomic forces that hold the star up against gravity can no longer support the weight of the outer layers and the star collapses.  In so doing, the core of the star undergoes violent nuclear reactions that generate an enormous amount of energy, and the star explodes, disrupting it entirely.  Since all type Ia supernovae are caused by the same physical process, type Ia supernovae behave in roughly the same way and release the same amount of energy when they explode.  This is exactly what one needs when looking for a standard candle.  And better still, type Ia supernovae are bright, and can outshine all of the other stars in a galaxy combined.  You can detect supernovae in galaxies hundreds of millions of light years distant, giving us a powerful tool for calibrating redshifts at larger distances than Cepheids can.

But now the story gets interesting.  In the late 1990's, there were two independent teams of astronomers trying to find and record type Ia supernovae in distant galaxies as part of a larger study trying to understand the fundamental nature of the cosmos.  It was assumed that the relationship between redshift and the peak brightness of supernovae should be constant since it was also assumed that the expansion of the universe has been constant since the big bang.  However, the two teams discovered that type Ia supernovae at higher redshifts were fainter than one would expect from this constant expansion, meaning they were further away.  This implies that the universe has not been expanding at a constant rate, but is accelerating.  This is the first observational hint of the existence of something called "dark energy", something predicted by Albert Einstein but whose cause and origin remains largely unknown.  If dark energy is real -- and multiple lines of cosmological evidence are pointing toward that conclusion -- it represents a fundamental reworking of our understanding of the universe, its origins, and its ultimate fate.  While the Leavitt Law represented a new way to measure the size of the Universe, the measurement of cosmic acceleration might bring about an entirely new understanding of cosmology.

Variable Stars help tell the story

Distance measurement in the universe has been an important advance in astronomical history, and it's not only telling us how big the universe is, but what the universe is fundamentally like and how it will evolve over time.  These two classes of variable stars -- pulsating Cepheids and exploding supernovae -- have provided key steps in the Cosmic Distance Ladder.  They're just one example of how variable stars have helped to advance the science of astronomy, and taught us more about the cosmos in which we live.  It's hard to predict what future advances will be, but it's likely that variable stars will provide many more insights into the nature of our universe.


          Dark Energy as a Cosmological Consequence of Existence of the Dirac Scalar Field in Nature        
The solution of the field equations of the conformal theory of gravitation with Dirac scalar field in Cartan-Weyl spacetime at the very early Universe is obtained. In this theory dark energy (described by an effective cosmological constant) is a function of the Dirac scalar field . This solution describes the exponential decreasing of at the inflation stage and has a limit to a constant value of the dark energy at large time. This can give a way to solving the fundamental cosmological constant problem as a consequence of the fields dynamics in the early Universe.
          Constraining the Properties of Dark Energy Using GRBs        
Don Lamb, University of Chicago & KITP
          Comment on Ohio School Board Flirts With Creationism by David        
Modusoperandi said: "Cool. Exempting "We don't know everything" and "There are gaps", can you list this "scientific information that questions evolution"?" How about scientific information that gives further support to particle physicist Russ Humphreys' while hole cosmology model? http://creationwiki.org/White_hole_cosmology Water Near Edge of Universe Bolsters Creation Cosmology by Brian Thomas, M.S. [August 3, 2011] http://www.icr.org/article/6247/ * Water, Water Everywhere in Space http://crev.info/content/110723_water_water_everywhere_in_space [snip] The blogger writes: Interesting the prominence Genesis gives to primordial water at the creation (Genesis 1). The Bible’s top-down account of creation solves many problems. By contrast, evolutionists, with their bottom-up philosophy, have to build water up with only hydrogen and helium (and traces of lithium) to start with – actually, less than that: nothing that banged. They have to speculate that the first stars they call “Population III” (never observed) formed out of condensed hydrogen gas once atoms formed, burned for millions of years, then blew up as supernovae to create oxygen and other heavy elements before any water was possible. Even then, they have to account for the current observation of a supermassive black hole surrounded by incredible amounts of water shortly after their big bang. That’s just one of many awkward speculations required by the bottom-up feeders. [end of quote] * Danny Faulkner, professor of astronomy and physics at the University of South Carolina (Lancaster) is the author of "Universe By Design: An Explanation of Cosmology and Creation" (Master Books, 2004). In chapter 6, Faulkner mentions Humphreys' model, outlined in his book "Starlight and Time" (1994). Faulkner writes: "Indeed, general relativity demands that time pass at different rates at different locations in the universe. With certain initial conditions a literal day or two could have passed on the earth while permitting millions or even billions of years to have elapsed elsewhere. Such things are possible as a consequence of general relativity. Therefore the Humphreys cosmology could provide a resolution to the light-travel-time problem.. Whether or not the Humphreys cosmology survives, we should be encouraged by its proposal." On May 15, 2010 I interviewed Faulkner. He commented: "The Ptolemaic model (of the solar system) stood for 15 centuries, but ultimately was rejected in the 17th century because of the huge complexity it had. The real problem with that model was you couldn’t falsify it. No matter what new data, new observations came along, you could always patch it up with a fix of new epicycles or other effects." "Over the past three decades the Big Bang model has been changed tremendously. They changed the expansion rate, hence the age of the universe. They’ve thrown in dark matter, dark energy...inflation, ...string theory... and it’s starting to look more and more like the Ptolemaic model.... So at what point does the Big Bang model become as unwieldy as the Ptolemaic model, that caused people to reject it?"
          New Scientist: The Origin of (Almost) Everything: From the Big Bang to Belly-button Fluff [Audiobook]        
New Scientist: The Origin of (Almost) Everything: From the Big Bang to Belly-button Fluff [Audiobook]
New Scientist: The Origin of (Almost) Everything: From the Big Bang to Belly-button Fluff [Audiobook] by Graham Lawton, Stephen Hawking, read by David Thorpe
2017 | MP3@64 kbps | 7 hrs 36 mins | 209.05MB

Does Anything Eat Wasps? meets Information Is Beautiful: a journey through life, the universe and everything. From what actually happened in the big bang to the accidental discovery of Post-it notes, science is packed with surprising discoveries.

Did you know, for instance, that if you were to get too close to a black hole it would suck you up like a noodle (it's called spaghettification), why your keyboard is laid out in QWERTY (it's not to make it easier to type) or whether the invention of the wheel was less important to civilisation than the bag (think about it)? New Scientist does.

And now they want to take you on a whistle-stop journey from the start of our universe (through the history of stars, galaxies, meteorites, the moon and dark energy) to our planet (through oceans and weather to oil) and life (through dinosaurs to emotions and sex) to civilisation (from cities to alcohol and cooking) and knowledge (from alphabets to alchemy), ending up with technology (computers to rocket science). Witty essays explore concepts that zoom from how many people have ever lived to showing you how a left-wing brain differs from a right-wing one.


          Misteri Luar Angkasa Yang Belum Terpecahkan        
Dalam sesuatu yang besar seperti alam semesta, ada fenomena yang sulit dijelaskan, dan hal-hal yang ini benar-benar tidak bisa dipahami. Alam semesta menunjukkan kepada kita betapa kecilnya kita sebenarnya, dan di tempat yang begitu besar, apakah benar-benar masuk akal untuk percaya bahwa kita sendirian? Dan apakah ada alasan seseorang mungkin tidak ingin kita ketahui? Ini adalah daftar apa yang saya yakini sebagai sebagian dari misteri terbaik dan teori konspirasi dari luar angkasa.

1. Bayangan Manusia dalam Eagle Nebula


Salah satu fakta unik yang pernah diambil dari ruang adalah dari Nebula Eagle. Foto itu sendiri yang seharusnya untuk menunjukkan kelahiran bintang dari awan gas. Namun, ketika foto itu ditampilkan di CNN, ratusan panggilan masuk dari orang-orang melaporkan mereka bisa melihat wajah di awan. Ketika warna foto itu disesuaikan, suatu bentuk manusia yang besar tampak muncul dalam awan. Ilmuwan belum mampu menjelaskan fenomena ini.



2. Darimanakah Datangnya Galaxy Jagad Raya?

Misteri jagad raya masih tersimpan rapi. Ilmu Pengetahuan baru-baru ini mampu menjelaskan dari mana bintang dan planet berasal. Sekarang, para ilmuwan telah mengalihkan perhatian mereka ke sebuah misteri yang jauh lebih besar, dari mana galaksi datang? Apa yang diketahui adalah bahwa galaksi tidak tersebar secara acak di seluruh ruang angkasa, mereka ditemukan dalam kelompok-kelompok, yang dikenal sebagai “gugus super”.

Para ilmuwan memiliki dua teori utama untuk mencoba untuk menjelaskan pembentukan galaksi. Pertama, gas yang tersisa dari Ledakan besar berkumpul bersama untuk membentuk galaksi, di mana bintang-bintang dan planet lahir. Kedua adalah bahwa gas dari big bang menciptakan bintang-bintang dan planet-planet di seluruh alam semesta, dan mereka bermigrasi melalui gravitasi ke galaksi. Namun belum teori yang diterima secara universal untuk menjawab misteri fakta unik ini.
Misteri Luar Angkasa:
3. Mungkinkah Ada Bumi Yang Lain?

Bintang besar kita yaitu matahari, adalah hanya satu dari triliunan di alam semesta. Ketika Anda melihat kenyataan bahwa bintang kita memiliki delapan planet, maka secara matematika itu memberitahu Anda bahwa adalah mungkin untuk menjadi delapan kali lebih banyak planet di alam semesta daripada bintang-bintang. Apakah tidak mungkin bahwa hanya salah satu planet mungkin memiliki mahluk hidup di dalamnya?


Ini adalah sebuah fakta bahwa, sejak tahun 2000, ratusan planet diluar tata surya telah ditemukan mengorbit bintang-bintang jauh. Beberapa ini telah ditemukan dari bumi seperti, seperti planet Gliese 581d, planet yang diyakini memiliki air cair di permukaannya. Mungkinkah mengandung kehidupan? Semoga dengan kemajuan teknologi pada dekade berikutnya, kita akan segera tahu jawabannya. Sampai saat itu, ia tetap menjadi salah satu misteri terbesar ruang angkasa.

4. Misteri Alam Semesta Yang Lain

Ini adalah salah satu argumen yang lebih kontroversial tentang luar angkasa raya. Fakta unik-nya adalah bahwa misteri alam semesta yang lain masih bergulir. Teorinya adalah bahwa ada suatu jumlah tak terbatas alam semesta, masing-masing diatur oleh seperangkat hukum sendiri dan itulah hukum fisika.

Banyak ilmuwan menolak argumen ini tak lebih dari spekulasi, karena tidak ada bukti atau hukum matematika yang memungkinkan untuk keberadaan alam semesta lain.Namun demikian, penganut teori ini berpendapat bahwa tidak ada yang menyangkal bahwa hal itu baik. Ini adalah salah satu misteri alam yang hanya dapat diatasi jika kita dapat melakukan perjalanan di sana, namun, dengan perluasan alam semesta, maka manusia tidak akan pernah menemukan jawabannya.

5. Misteri Masalah Kegelapan

Persamaan Albert Einstein E = MC ^ 2 mungkin persamaan paling terkenal abad ini. Namun bila diterapkan pada ruang, anomali terjadi. Ketika kita menggunakannya untuk menentukan berapa banyak materi yang alam semesta harus miliki, kita menyadari bahwa kita hanya menemukan empat persen dari materi di alam semesta! Dimana sisanya? Banyak yang percaya adalah dalam bentuk materi gelap. Dimana hal gelap ini? Ini di mana-mana, di mana pun tidak ada masalah yang terlihat. Para ilmuwan belum menunjukkan bukti yang meyakinkan bahwa materi gelap sebenarnya tidak ada. Kenyataan bahwa Anda tidak bisa melihatnya, menyentuhnya, dan cahaya dan gelombang radio melewati menembus itu tidak terpengaruh membuat sangat sulit untuk dideteksi, dan fakta unik ini masih akan terus menjadi misteri alam semesta.
6. Benarkah Ada Kehidupan Planet Mars?

Ketika berbicara tentang kehidupan di planet lain, ada yang mengatakan kita tak harus pergi jauh dari tata surya kita. Mars selalu dipikirkan untuk kehidupan baru dengan banyak teori konspirasi, namun NASA menutupi itu.

Banyak foto sebagai fakta unik yang juga dipertanyakan dengan peradaban di Mars, seperti wajah Mars, Piramida di Mars, dan foto yang tampaknya menjadi seperti sosok kera duduk di atas batu di Mars. Namun para ilmuwan telah menghilangkan prasangka terhadap foto-foto ini, mereka juga mengakui dan mereka percaya sekali cairan samudra menutupi permukaan Mars sebelum medan magnet itu menghilang. Apakah mungkin bahwa hidup memang pernah ada disana? Misi ke Mars saat ini berharap untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini.


7. Penampakan UFO kepada Astronot NASA

Astronot NASA adalah beberapa orang yang paling sangat terlatih khusus di dunia. Seringkali sebagai ahli ilmuwan dapat menjelaskan hampir semua hal. Jadi, ketika mereka melihat sesuatu yang mereka tidak bisa jelaskan, Anda dapat bertaruh itu akan menaikkan alis. Salah satu insiden yang paling terkenal terjadi pada siaran langsung di televisi NBC pada tahun 1963.

Mayor Gordon Cooper pada akhir perjalanan solo 22 orbit mengelilingi bumi ketika ia mengatakan bahwa dari salah satu jendela, ia bisa melihat objek hijau menyala mendekat dengan cepat. Objek kemudian berbelok tajam dan terpelanting. Dia yakin dia tidak melihat hal-hal lain selain objek itu, seperti radar di pesawat ruang angkasa itu mengambil objek juga. Setelah kembali ke bumi pewawancara ingin bertanya padanya tentang objek itu, namun para pejabat NASA tidak mengizinkannya.


8 “White” Holes

Salah satu prestasi terbesar Albert Einstein meskipun itu dalam bidang matematika, telah terbukti yaitu keberadaan lubang hitam. Satu lagi fakta unik mulai terungkap. Dari kemajuan teknologi, kita sekarang telah dapat menemukan beberapa lubang hitam, dan percaya ada satu berada di pusat galaksi kita sendiri Bima Sakti.

Apa yang menakjubkan, bagaimanapun juga adalah apa yang dibuktikan Einstein juga melalui persamaan-nya; lubang putih juga ada. Berlawanan dari lubang hitam, lubang putih diyakini “memuntahkan” sejumlah materi yang luar biasa dashyat. Namun yang putih ini masih merupakan misteri alam yang sangat sedikit diketahui. Obyek tersebut tidak mudah untuk ditemukan, namun tak ada satupun yang menemukan. Jika salah satu ditemukan, mungkin membantu kita menjelaskan misteri yang tidak dikenal lainnya, seperti dari mana berasal bahan yang membuat galaksi.
Misteri Luar Angkasa:
9. Reruntuhan Bangunan di Bulan


Dalam artikel lalu kita telah membahas kemungkinan kehidupan di planet jauh, dan di planet dekat. Teori konspirasi menyatakan bahwa memang ada reruntuhan kuno dan bangunan di bulan, tetapi pemerintah telah menyensor mereka dari pengamatan masyarakat.

Teori ini tidak punya dukungan sampai dua terobosan baru-baru ini. Seorang pria yang mengaku telah bekerja untuk pemerintah mensensor foto bulan, menjelaskan bagaimana sensor dilakukan dan bahwa memang ada struktur di bulan. Baru-baru ini, ilmuwan mengumumkan mereka yakin bahwa mereka telah menemukan air, mungkin dalam es atau bentuk cair, di bawah permukaan bulan. Untuk teori konspirasi, ini adalah bukti yang mereka butuhkan, sementara kritikus menganggapnya sebagai “spekulasi konyol”. Anda dapat membaca lebih lanjut tentang ini, dan menonton video yang menarik.
Misteri Luar Angkasa:
10. Energi Gelap

Energi kegelapan adalah misteri alam terbesar di alam semesta ini, karena fakta unik ini yang diyakini ada di sekitar kita, dan itu menjelaskan mengapa sepertinya ada anomali dalam hukum gravitasi. Menurut hukum gravitasi, benda besar seperti cluster galaksi, harus tarik-menarik satu sama lain, dan tarik-menarik gravitasi ini harus pada objek lain.

Namun ini tidak terjadi, dan faktanya adalah kelompok galaksi yang bergerak paling jauh terpisah. Hal ini disebabkan oleh fakta bahwa alam semesta terus bertambah pada tingkat yang luar biasa.Untuk menjawab pertanyaan tentang mengapa hal ini, para ilmuwan mengembangkan teori Dark Energy, yang memiliki efek berlawanan dengan gravitasi, mendorong hal-hal menjadi terpisah. Perhitungan Matematika menunjukkan bahwa itu memang ada dan membentuk 74% dari semesta kita, diluar berat gravitasi, dan inilah sebabnya mengapa alam semesta memanjang keluar. Namun kita masih tidak memiliki bukti konklusif, sehingga tetap menjadi misteri alam bagi kita.

          ÎœÎµÎ³Î±Î»ÏÏ„ερος και πιο λεπτομερής «χάρτης» ύλης και ενέργειας του σύμπαντος        
Ένα νέο και πιο ακριβή από κάθε προηγούμενο χάρτη της ύλης του σύμπαντος δημιούργησαν οι επιστήμονες. Ο νέος χάρτης επιβεβαιώνει την ορθότητα των έως τώρα βασικών θεωριών της κοσμολογίας για την εξέλιξη του σύμπαντος, δηλαδή του μοντέλου ΛCDM ή Lambda-CDM, όπου Λάμδα είναι η κοσμολογική σταθερά με την οποία επεκτείνεται συνεχώς το σύμπαν και CDM-Cold Dark Matter είναι η κρύα σκοτεινή ύλη.
Ο χάρτης (Dark Energy Survey), που παρουσιάσθηκε από τη μεγάλη διεθνή ερευνητική κοινοπραξία Dark Energy Consortium (DES) σε συνέδριο της Αμερικανικής Φυσικής Εταιρείας στο Εργαστήριο Fermilab, σύμφωνα με το BBC και το "Nature", βασίσθηκε στη μελέτη άνω των 26 εκατομμυρίων γαλαξιών του ουρανού του νοτίου ημισφαιρίου της Γης, περισσότερων από κάθε άλλη φορά στο παρελθόν. Μεταξύ άλλων, δείχνει πώς η κατανομή των γαλαξιών στο σύμπαν έχει αλλάξει κατά τα τελευταία επτά περίπου δισεκατομμύρια χρόνια (σχεδόν η μισή ηλικία του σύμπαντος). Η κατανομή της ύλης προκύπτει από τον τρόπο που η μάζα καμπυλώνει το φως, σύμφωνα με τη γενική θεωρία της Σχετικότητας του Αϊνστάιν. 
Η ύλη δεν κατανέμεται ομοιόμορφα στο σύμπαν, αλλά υπό την επίδραση της βαρύτητας συγκεντρώνεται σε ορισμένες περιοχές, ενώ άλλες τεράστιες περιοχές του σύμπαντος μένουν κενές. Οι γαλαξίες, τα σμήνη γαλαξιών, τα μοριακά νέφη και άλλες κοσμικές δομές αποτελούν τις μεγαλύτερες συσσωματώσεις ύλης (ορατής και αόρατης) στο σύμπαν. Ο νέος χάρτης κατανομής της συμπαντικής ύλης σε γενικές γραμμές συμφωνεί με τις παρατηρήσεις του ευρωπαϊκού δορυφόρου «Πλανκ» για την κατανομή της κοσμικής μικροκυματικής ακτινοβολίας υποβάθρου (του «αποτυπώματος» της αρχικής Μεγάλης Έκρηξης). 
Ο χάρτης θα βοηθήσει τους επιστήμονες να καταλάβουν καλύτερα τη φύση της μυστηριώδους σκοτεινής ύλης και της ακόμα πιο μυστηριώδους σκοτεινής ενέργειας, που συναπαρτίζουν το σύμπαν μαζί με την ορατή ύλη. Η κίνηση των άστρων και των γαλαξιών «προδίδει» ότι στο σύμπαν υπάρχει μια κρύα αόρατη ύλη πολύ περισσότερη από την ορατή, αλλά κανείς μέχρι στιγμής δεν έχει ιδέα από τι αποτελείται αυτή η σκοτεινή ύλη. Από την άλλη, η ολοένα επιταχυνόμενη επέκταση του σύμπαντος αποδίδεται στη λεγόμενη σκοτεινή ενέργεια, για την οποία οι επιστήμονες έχουν επίσης...μαύρα μεσάνυχτα. Από κοινού, η σκοτεινή ύλη και η σκοτεινή ενέργεια εκτιμάται ότι αποτελούν το 96% περίπου του σύμπαντος, με την ορατή ύλη - δηλαδή το ορατό σύμπαν- να είναι μόνο το 4%. 
 Î— κοινοπραξία DES που έφτιαξε το νέο συμπαντικό χάρτη, ξεκίνησε να εργάζεται το 2004 και αποτελείται από 400 περίπου επιστήμονες από επτά χώρες. Για την μελέτη του σύμπαντος, χρησιμοποιεί το διαμέτρου τεσσάρων μέτρων τηλεσκόπιο «Βίκτορ Μπλάνκο» στη Χιλή, στο οποίο έχει τοποθετηθεί μία από τις πιο ευαίσθητες κάμερες που έχουν ποτέ κατασκευασθεί, η DECam με ανάλυση 570 μεγαπίξελ, η οποία είναι ικανή να συλλαμβάνει αμυδρό φως από γαλαξίες σε απόσταση έως οκτώ δισεκατομμυρίων ετών φωτός. ΑΠΕ-ΜΠΕ
          Sleepless Nights 12-14-2015 with Dazzlin' Dylan        
Playlist:

The Bug- Fat Mac feat Flowdan - Angels Devils
The Buttress- Funeral - Behind Every Great Man
Tom Waits- Gods Away On Business - Blood Money
Death Grips- Turned Off - The Powers That B
- voicebreak -
Joanna Newsom- Waltz Of The 101st Lightborne - Divers
Granny- Ty Phoo - Platipus Archive 9
East India Youth- Beaming White - Culture Of Volume
- voicebreak -
Chester Watson- Ogre - Tin Wooki
Kirk Knight- 5 Minutes feat Joey Bada - Late Knight Special
Earl Sweatshirt- Wool feat Vince Staples - I Dont Like Shit I Dont Go Outside An Album By Earl Sweatshirt
Joey Bada- Paper Trail - B4DA
- voicebreak -
Jlin- Guantanamo - Dark Energy
AtYyA- Immortal - Aurical EP
Open Mike Eagle- Doug Stamper feat Hannibal Buress - Dark Comedy
- voicebreak -
Jib Kidder- Windowdipper - All On Yall
James Blake- Love What Happened Here - Love What Happened Here Single
Angel Haze- Moonrise Kingdom - Back To The Woods
Random Rab- Kalide - Awoke
- voicebreak -
Suicideyear- Dropp - Japan
Azizi Gibson- Gotham - PreHISTORIC Till Death
Mykki Blanco- Angggry Byrdz - Betty Rubble The Initiation
- voicebreak -
Father John Misty- True Affection - I Love You Honeybear
Raury- Trap Tears feat Key - All We Need
Ibeyi- Ghosts - Ibeyi
Nina Simone- Blackbird - Nina With Strings
- voicebreak -
Flatbush ZOMBIES- LiveFromHell - Better Off Dead
Run The Jewels- All Due Respect feat Travis Barker - Run The Jewels 2
Kanye West- New Slaves - Yeezus


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/1/playlistDate/2015-12-14
          Quantum Charismatics and “Popping Qwiffs”        
Part 12
CONCLUSION to A Serial Book Review & Theological Interaction[2] of The Physics of Heaven

Summary:
The book The Physics of Heaven (TPOH) boldly attempts to launch a new theology. Pastor Larry DeBruyn's 12-part series has provided our readers with a solid apologetic to refute both its pseudo-science and mystical teachings. When he wrote Part 1 Pastor DeBruyn observed that “some within the Charismatic movement are asserting that a Quantum merger is taking place between the powers of heaven and the energies of earth.” He summarized the book's emerging eschatology:


READ the 12-part review series:
Part 1: The Physics of Heaven
Part 2: The Power of the Zero-Point Field
Sidebar: Jesus' Lesser Works
Part 3: Extracting the Precious From the Worthless
Part 4: Vibrating in Harmony With God
Part 5: BILL JOHNSON: Squandering Our Spiritual Inheritance
Part 6: Unsagacious Seers
Part 7: Bad Vibes
Part 8: Sound of Heaven, Symphony of Earth
Part 9: Quantum Charismatics
Part 10: “The Energy Angel” and the Energy Crisis

Part 11: God's New Sound

Part 12: Quantum Charismatics and “Popping Qwiffs”[1]
Review of Chapter 11, “Strange Things Are Afoot” by Ellyn Davis,[3] and Chapter 12, “Quantum Mysticism” by Ellyn Davis[4]
Graphic from Heartland Apostolic Prayer Network (HAPN) e-mail 8-12-16

By Pastor Larry DeBruyn

Quantum Leap—Mystic Manipulators
Because of the great deal of “strangeness afoot” in quantum physics, it has inevitably attracted metaphysical interpretation. Most of that interpretation has leaned towards using quantum physics to reinforce Eastern mystical beliefs about the nature of the oneness of all reality and the power of human consciousness to create and manipulate that reality. 
—Ellyn Davis (TPOH, 113)

Jesus Power—“Popping Qwiffs”
It shouldn’t be a stretch for us to believe that, as “observers” to whom Jesus gave all power in heaven and earth, we can, through faith, intent, prayer and declaration, call things into existence. Jesus has given us the power, through our faith and intent, to “pop a qwiff” and bring things from the unseen world into the visible.
—Ellyn Davis (TPOH, 128)

Introduction
During the last century and one half, science has changed its view of reality; that is, how everything that comprises the universe is understood. The old scientific paradigm advocated by Sir Isaac Newton expected the universe to behave predictably like a clock. But in contrast to this mechanistic understanding of the cosmos, the new science understands the universe to be more of a mystery—that what constitutes the universe’s micro-reality behaves unpredictably. So according to the old scientific paradigm, scientists observed the universe for its obvious and predictable behavior, our solar system being an example. In contrast, quantum science looks at the universe according to its not-so-obvious and unpredictable behavior at the atomic and sub-atomic levels of reality. Physicists have discovered that though the macro universe appears to behave mechanically, the micro universe seems to behave mysteriously.

Hence, author Ellyn Davis, who heads up a list of of contributors that reads like a Who’s Who within the charismatic New Apostolic Reformation movement (NAR), remarks in The Physics of Heaven of this observable mystery that, “Quantum physics theories seem more like science fiction than science fact”(TPOH, 111). All of this, and more, raises the question, what is the essence of the cosmos in which “we live, and move, and have our being”? (See Acts 17:28.)

Authors of The Physics of Heaven

The “Enlightenment” of Physics
Until the beginning of the 20th century, science viewed the observable universe as a combination of matter and energy. This however changed when physicists began to surmise that the essence of the universe was light or energy that could at times appear as matter. The emerging physics proposed that the universe was made up of, as Davis states, “packets of energy” which at times acted like matter while at other times like light waves. The “energy packets” were called “quanta.” So physics “discovered” that as the author puts it, “at the most basic level of existence, everything is constantly vibrating energy and that every particle also possesses a wave character and every wave possesses a particle character.”(TPOH, 110) Hence the science of quantum physics was born.

A Science Shrouded in Mystery
According to the New Physics the essence of everything in the universe, animate or inanimate, consists of vibrating energy which can appear mysteriously as either waves or particles, depending upon how or when the phenomena is observed and who is doing the observing. Hence Davis titles her chapter “Strange Things are Afoot.” She notes the baffling nature of the universe caused one physicist to remark, “If you are not completely confused by quantum mechanics, you do not understand it.”(TPOH, 111) Such is the mystery. However, all is not lost. To solve the mystery, some quantum physicists, New Age believers and Charismatics advocate that there’s a “consciousness connection” by which the human mind can find meaning in the universe as it explores and combines mystical spirituality with a scientific worldview.

Science Shrouded in Mysticism
In, of and by itself modern science can provide no ultimate meaning or significance for life. Paul Kalanithi (1977-2015), the brilliant brain surgeon who died of cancer at an early age, returned to the Christian faith of his family upbringing. He explained that “to believe that science provides no basis for God, you are almost obligated to conclude that science provides no basis for meaning and, therefore, life itself doesn’t have any.”[5] The ability of science (immediate knowing about earth or what’s “down here”) is limited in providing meaning for the soul (ultimate knowing about heaven or what’s “up there”). So to try and make sense of a universe described as “shocking,” “absurd” and “confusing,” some physicists are turning to mysticism to experience the supernatural. In their quest Davis notes that “mystical ideas” inspired several of them.(TPOH, 114) As the German physicist Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) has been quoted:

The great scientific contribution in theoretical physics that has come from Japan since the last war may be an indication of a certain relationship between philosophical ideas in the tradition of the Far East and the philosophical substance of quantum theory.[6]

Given the growing rapprochement between the science of the West and the spirituality of the East, New Age Religion has incorporated quantum theory to help define and embellish the spirituality it embraces and promotes. Assuming that “many quantum concepts appropriated by the New Age are actually distortions of Christian spiritual truths,” Ellyn Davis and other contributing writers to The Physics of Heaven also seek to find compatibilities between their Charismatic faith with modern science and New Age Spirituality. And to do so, Davis sets forth certain assumptions wherein agreement might be found between Charismatic Christianity and the mysterious-mystical spirituality of quantum physics and New Age spirituality.

From Mystery to Monism to Mysticism
As I review Ellyn Davis’ two chapters (“Strange Things Are Afoot” and “Quantum Mysticism”) in The Physics of Heaven, I offer the following summary of the belief system she proposes. In defining how the universe works, her system, along with that of the other authors, involves a dialectical web involving quantum physics, scientific mystery, pantheism, mystical spirituality and distorted theism. To summarize, she believes that,

Our illusory universe is “One” interconnected and vibrating whole in which divine consciousness permeates and interconnects everything. The human race, the most intelligent and therefore ultimate observers of this “mindful” universe, is collectively evolving into a zone of higher consciousness (i.e., “enlightenment”) of which “the manifest sons of God” are becoming the most aware. These Quantum Charismatics believe that their emerging consciousness will be enhanced by the powers of a coming second Pentecost which will soon be released upon the church and planet. The powers of Pentecost will enable them to “consistently” alter the reality of nature by their thoughts and intentions as they work miracles (i.e., “pop qwiffs”) greater than Jesus did. (As indicated by the author’s use of the word “consistently,” these “manifest sons of God” are currently able to miraculously alter reality only “inconsistently.”)[7] With these new-found powers, these Quantum Charismatics or manifest sons of God will bring God’s kingdom to earth.[8]

We turn now to review seven beliefs Davis derives through a curious and eclectic mixing and matching of scientific mystery, spiritual mysticism and Scripture twisting. Of the metaphysical beliefs she sets forth we ask, “Are they biblically and theologically compatible with the Christian faith?” We shall find that they are not. In the integrative dialectic proposed by the author, there can be no synthesis derived by combining quantum philosophy, New Age spirituality and the Christian faith.

Quantum Assumptions
Foundational to developing her Quantum Charismatic worldview, Ellyn Davis assumes the premise, “All truth is God’s truth.”[8](TPOH, 127) Given this postulate, she bases her argument upon a conglomerate of “truths” held by quantum physicists and New Agers which she accepts to be compatible with the Christian faith. “Many quantum concepts appropriated by the New Age” she states, “are actually distortions of Christian truths”[9](TPOH, 116); and adds that, “there are many precious ‘God-truths’ hidden in Quantum Mysticism for us to claim as our own.”(TPOH, 127) In other words, as she arbitrates the claims, Davis is comfortable in combining the mysteries of physics (detailed in her two chapters) with the mysticism of New Age religion. The trouble with the data she references from the two belief systems is that readers will have difficulty understanding what she accepts as “truth” (i.e., the precious) and what she rejects as false (i.e., the worthless). Thus, the obvious antagonism and contradictions between her sources (i.e., quantum physics, New Age spirituality and Scripture) forces her to issue the following disclaimer:

Christians and quantum mystics part ways over four issues: (1) where God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit fit into the picture; (2) what constitutes sin; (3) where the Bible fits into the picture: [sic] and (4) what happens after we die.(TPOH, 127)

The problem with this disavowal is that it contradicts most everything she directly or implicitly affirms in the two chapters! Despite the obvious contradiction and antagonism between her sources, she states (sometimes appending a question mark indicating uncertainty—and incidentally, uncertainty is not denial) four “God-truths” or Compatibilities with Christianity. Quantum Charismatics share these mystical “god-truths” with quantum physicists and New Agers.(TPOH, 127) The compatibles are:  
  • By Faith, We Can Speak Things Into Existence (unquestioned);  
  • Thoughts and Attitudes Are Powerful (unquestioned);  
  • A Oneness Connection (questioned, but possible); and  
  • Different Levels of Reality (questioned, but possible).(TPOH, 128-131) 
Given her affirmations I proceed to evaluate seven (7) of the mystery-monistic-mystic “truths” that Ellyn Davis either directly or indirectly asserts. We begin with the first:

1. An Illusory World
Human perception of the inhabited world is illusory, not “real.”(TPOH, 113)

Welcome to Disneyworld, an illusory but gaming cosmos which at times can be seen while at other times cannot. Only by the intent of faith can Quantum Charismatic “observers” magically cause “things from the unseen spiritual world” to appear in “the natural” or visible world; this cause-affect is called “popping qwiffs.”(TPOH, 128, 122, 115). In her booklet Quantum Faith Annette Capps explains the way to cause the unseen world of energy and spirituality to materialize.

Faith observes that which ‘is not’, and gives it substance so that it may appear and become visible. The key to manifesting matter, is to interact with that which ‘is not’ so that it becomes what you hope for.[10]

At the outset, the similarity between this first “truth” and the Hindu worldview must be noted. The Hindu concept of Maya also asserts we live in an illusory reality. Maya is a Sanskrit word (Sanskrit is the “sacred” language of Hinduism, the language of the gods) often translated “illusion.”[11] The power of Maya also resembles the quantum power of “popping qwiffs.” The following two quotes, one describing Maya and the other describing “popping a qwiff,” are submitted for comparison.

Maya
Extraordinary power of an incomprehensible, marvelous, supernatural, or magical sort which enables those who posses it—principally gods and remarkable humans—to produce forms in the realm of phenomena.[12]

“Popping a Qwiff”
A quantum physics term for the transformation of a wave into a particle by the intent of the observer.... All realities only exist in probability until a particular reality is selected... we can bring into existence whatever reality we have chosen by “popping that qwiff”.[13]

Others have noted the spiritual connection between quantum physics philosophy and the mystical religions of the east. (See previous footnote 6.) But for reasons to be stated, such a kingdom worldview in which mediating “sons of God” manipulate their reality by “popping faith qwiffs” (i.e., to cause or call energy to materialize and work for them in an illusory world) has nothing in common with the historical and revelatory faith of the Bible. The following questions indicate this incompatibility.

Is the Bible Real?
Assuming for the sake of argument that the world we live in is illusory, then it must be asked, is Holy Scripture real or just metaphor?[14] The prophets, Jesus and the Apostles believed in the real reality of the Word of God. In contrast to seeking a word sourced in the occult, Isaiah exclaimed, “To the law and to the testimony: if they [false prophets] speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them” (Isaiah 8:20). Jesus quoted the Old Testament often and said of the sacred writings, “the Scripture cannot be broken” ((John 10:35). The Apostle Peter wrote:

We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts: Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation.[15]  For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.
—2 Peter 1:19-21

The Scriptures are not illusory. In fact, God’s Word is so real that Christians will be held accountable for everything He communicated through His Son and the witness born to Him by God’s holy prophets and true Apostles.

Was Man’s Fall Sin Illusory?
The third chapter the Bible teaches that sin and the consequent curse of the earth are real, not make-believe. The fall happened in the context of real time, matter and space (See Genesis 3:16-19.). In real time all of us will die a real death (Romans 5:12). Death is no illusion. Mary Baker Glover Patterson Eddy, the mother of Christian Science, believed death was not real. But she died anyway. Every hospital, funeral home and grave yard testifies to the fact that something is “really” wrong with life as we know it. So those who believe the story that life and the world are illusory need to take a reality check by visiting a nursing home, hospital or cemetery. Alluding to the Genesis account, Paul wrote about the real sufferings of the present age (Romans 8:18-23). Suffering is not make-believe and neither will it go away by “popping a qwiff.” Only God will one day liberate change the groans into glory (Romans 8:18-23).

Was Jesus’ Incarnation Real?
The unreality of Jesus’ incarnation is a heresy asserted during the time of the early church (circa 85 AD). Docetism taught “that Christ did not actually become flesh, but merely seemed to be a man.”[16] Yet to combat the heresy of an unreal Jesus in an unreal world, John begins his first letter like this: “That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled, of the Word of life” (Emphasis added, 1 John 1:1). Then later in the same epistle the Apostle John notes,

Hereby know ye the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God: And every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God: and this is that spirit of antichrist, whereof ye have heard that it should come; and even now already is it in the world.
—1 John 4:2-3 (See 2 John 7.)

Like Docetism, presuming we live in an illusory world must, as a matter of consistency, lead to the denial of the time-space-matter incarnation of the Lord Jesus Christ. With their mystery-monistic-mystic-magical kingdom worldview, these Charismatic “manifest sons of God” place at risk this fundamental belief of the Christian faith—the manifested incarnation of the Word of Life which the Apostles heard, saw and touched (1 John 1:1).

Other Questions
It can also be asked—assuming our world to be unreal—were Jesus’ death and resurrection an illusion? (I would point out that that many cultists and liberal Christians point out that Jesus’ resurrection was essentially “spiritual” which is compatible with the unreality of it.) Too, will His Second Coming be essentially spiritual or unreal in the dimensions of reality we inhabit? (Some preterist theologians believe Jesus’ return was wholly spiritually in AD 70.)[17]

That Jesus died on the cross indicates He was no magician (Greek magos). If He had been, then His powers (“popping a qwiff”) failed to help Him avoid the cross or come down off from it (See Matthew 26:29-32; 29:37-44.). Apostolic witnesses also testified that His resurrection was real. Jesus’ invitation to Thomas (“Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side,” John 20:27) indicates He really possessed a body. Furthermore, when Jesus returns He will return visibly, personally and bodily (Acts 1:9-11; Zechariah 12:10; Matthew 24:29-30; Revelation 1:7).

Note: I am aware that critics with an anti-supernatural bias think Moses, the prophets, Jesus and the apostles were mere workers of magic. Their miracles however, testified against the magicians; Moses against Pharaoh’s (Exodus 7:1-9:35), Daniel against Babylon’s (Daniel 2:37-39), Jesus against the Jew’s (Matthew 12:22-29; 9:34; Acts 19:13), Peter against a Sorcerer’s (Acts 8:8-14-24), and Paul against the seven sons of Sceva (Acts 19:11-20). The biblical worldview sees God as having introduced the unseen world above (heaven) to the seen world below (earth). (See John 8:21-24.) Any presumption that we inhabit a Disneyland-like world raises “real” contradictions with the Christian faith. We turn now to the next monistic-mystic assumption Quantum Charismatics embrace, and that is...

2. The Universe is a Unified and Interconnected Whole
Our universe, whatever is “down here” or “out there,” is a unified and interconnected whole.(TPOH, 114)

This quantum concept Davis borrows from Ernest Lucas in his book Science and the New Age Challenge, is monism, the belief of the unity of all things.[18] Belief in the unity of everything is pantheism; that everything existing in the universe is God. In other words, God minus the universe equals nothing. Yet one God-Truth asserted by Davis states that the whole universe is possessed of A Oneness Connection.(TPOH, 130) This acceptance of a mystic-monistic connection of everything causes the author to reason that “since all is one, then all must be God which means that you are God.”(TPOH, 114) This premise enhances the belief of many Charismatics that they are “gods” or “manifest sons of God.”

But monistic pantheism contradicts the biblical presentation that God is “holy”; that God is separate from the universe He created and therefore separate from everything which exists. The Old Testament word for “holy” (Hebrew, qds) derives from a root meaning to “to cut or separate.” As regards God being holy, an Old Testament scholar observed:

The basic idea conveyed by the holiness of God is His separateness... the One who stands apart from and above the creation.... It is no exaggeration to state that this element overshadows all others in the character of the deity....[19]

If God and everything else in the universe are thought to be pantheistic unity, then God cannot be magnified or worshipped as holy (Genesis 1:1; Revelation 4:8, 11; Isaiah 6:3). But God is holy because as the Genesis account of creation states, He personally and eternally existed apart from and before He created anything. And if He eternally existed apart and before He created everything, then He cannot possibly be one with it. We move on to Davis’s third monistic-mystic premise, and that is...

3. Consciousness Permeates the Whole Universe
Everything that exists in the universe (whether animate—humans, animals, flowers, trees, etc., or inanimate—e.g., rocks and stars) possesses interconnected consciousness or mind, an essence of the divine mind. Davis writes that this “single, universal consciousness permeates all things.”(TPOH, 123)

Corollary to God permeating the universe, it is assumed that the divine mind universally infuses everything. Given the monistic assumption that the universe is “one” and permeated by God’s immanent presence, God’s mind is also believed to pantheistically permeate the whole of nature. This permeation, “which reduces all reality into one substance, may regard this substance as either material... or spiritual....”[20] In other words, the consciousness connection proposes that One Mind infuses the whole of One Universe. Everything existing, whether animate or inanimate, shares together the “Mind of God.” By misusing and abusing Scripture this is exactly what Davis proposes. One of her “God-Truths” states:

Scripture tells us that rocks cry out, stars can sing, and trees can “clap their hands” in joy, so we wouldn’t be too surprised to discover that they have a form of consciousness too, a “mind” as it were.(TPOH, 130)[21]

Whether in part or the whole, believing that energy-consciousness permeates matter is the heart of idolatry. Pagans believe the material out of which they make their idols possess the personality of intellect, emotion and will and therefore the power to influence life. But such thinking the Bible denounces. For example, in comparing the Lord to idols, Psalm 115 states:

Not unto us, O LORD, not unto us, but unto thy name give glory, for thy mercy, and for thy truth’s sake. Wherefore should the heathen say, Where is now their God? But our God is in the heavens: he hath done whatsoever he hath pleased. Their idols are silver and gold, the work of men’s hands. They have mouths, but they speak not: eyes have they, but they see not: They have ears, but they hear not: noses have they, but they smell not: They have hands, but they handle not: feet have they, but they walk not: neither speak they through their throat. They that make them are like unto them; so is every one that trusteth in them.
—Emphasis added, Psalm 115:1-8, KJV

A reading of this Scripture passage indicates that idols formed posses “no consciousness.” The Psalmists indicts the idols to be “mindless.” The only entities that might incarnate themselves into and communicate through idols are demons.

Years ago I listened to a debate between a Christian apologist and humanist. One question discussed between them concerned the subject of nothingness. The Christian was asked to define nothing. He responded, “Nothing is what rocks think about!” Now in a complete turn-about with the quantum-New Age mystical worldview, Davis assigns interactive consciousness to rocks (i.e., “rocks cry out”). Imagine... rocks think and talk!

But in this assignment there is a grave spiritual danger according to the Psalmist; that is, devoted worshippers will become just like their idols—deaf and dumb to God’s Word and therefore devoid of any ability to understand the true and living God (See Deuteronomy 4:28; Psalm 135:15-18.). In other words, in the mind control exerted by quantum philosophy over Christians and non-Christians alike, they become “vain in their imaginations” even as their foolish hearts become “darkened” (Romans 1:21; Compare Colossians 2:8.). How ironic! In their presumption they are becoming “enlightened,” the hearts of Quantum Charismatics may become darkened.

As it drifts in a sea of uncertainty, human knowing or science can devour the capacity of idolaters to understand the Lord God in heaven. “Where now is the God of Israel?” the nations ask, and then they proceed to find Him in creation whether that creation be manifested in the matter of graven images or the energy of gravity. The nations exchange the glory of God (i.e., His divine effulgence or brilliant radiance) for the worship of images “made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.” And amidst all this foolish imagining they profess themselves to be wise (Romans 1:22-23). As one commentary states:

Man’s refusal to acknowledge and glorify God leads to a downward path: first, worthless thinking; next, moral insensitivity; and then, religious stupidity (seen in idol-worship).[22]

We turn to the fourth monistic-mystic concept.


4. Everything in the Universe Emits Energetic Vibrations
Everything in the universe, “even our human thoughts and emotions—emits energetic vibrations.”(TPOH, 124)

With belief that “mystic-consciousness” permeates the universe, Davis also theorizes that everything in the universe—including rocks, flowers, cats, humans or whatever—also quantumly vibrates. In humans, the vibes can negatively stem from the lower consciousness (like anger or hate) or positively from the higher consciousness (like love or acceptance). About the energy polarities, Davis writes that, “most metaphysical, New Age, and oriental healing modalities center around techniques for ridding ourselves of negative energies and balancing our flow of positive energy in order to reach states of better health and higher consciousness.”(TPOH, 125)

The assumption that there exists this infinite energy field which Charismatics can tap into to perform miracles is not unlike the belief of eastern and New Age religion. For example, one website explains:

All around you, and throughout the entire universe, circulates the life energy. It exists not only as an energy field around every living thing, but also circulates through the earth, through the atmosphere around us and throughout nature. The flow of this energy connects everything that exists, and you, as a living being, are taking in this energy at every moment.[23]

New Thought philosophy which arose in America during the last century, also assumes that man can conquer negativity through positivity. Championed by Christian luminaries like Earnest Holmes (Creative Mind and Success, 1922), Norman Vincent Peale (The Power of Positive Thinking, 1952), Robert H. Schuller (Move Ahead With Possibility Thinking, 1967) and presently Joel Osteen (The Power of I Am: Two Words That Will Change Your Life Today, 2015), positivity dominates today’s so-called evangelical preaching.[24] There’s energy in thoughts and emotions, and thinking positive thoughts (Like the church which advertises, “Come and feel the love.”) will release the power for people to experience health and success in life.

Question
But with the assertion that “everything” in the universe emits energetic vibrations, a question arises. What about dark matter? One source states that, “The standard model of cosmology indicates that the total mass–energy of the universe contains 4.9% ordinary matter, 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% dark energy. Thus, dark matter constitutes 84.5% of total mass, while dark energy [Ed., if it can be called energy] plus dark matter constitute 95.1% of total mass–energy content.”[25]

The point is, though it has never been seen, the very existence of dark matter contradicts the idea that light-vibrations permeate everything (all matter) in the universe. Even in theory, dark matter would emit no energy/light because it’s dark and therefore unobservable. It should be remembered Jesus indicated that in the universe there is a place where there is no light. On three occasions He spoke of a place He called “outer darkness” to be the destiny of unbelievers (Matthew 8:12; 22:13; 25:30), a state of existence separate from God who is light (1 Timothy 6:16; James 1:17) and the Son who is light (John 8:12). Furthermore, there’s another issue vital to true spirituality, and that is “the Dark matter” of the human soul, something the Bible calls sin. Only the Lord Jesus who is the light of the world can through the Holy Spirit deal with this state of the soul (John 8:12).

Come, Let Us Play God
Within the Charismatic movement people claim that like Jesus, they too are “manifest sons of God.” This claim advances to the point that these “manifest sons” believe themselves to be sovereign gods exercising the power and prerogatives of God. This will become apparent in a survey of Bible verses Ellyn Davis subtly twists to substantiate her quantum contention that human observers can before their very own eyes create their material reality out of energy thus making themselves out to be “little gods” or “Jesuses.” We move on now to Davis’ fifth assertion.

5. Human Beings Can Create Material Reality from Energy
Through the intent of faith, human beings can employ divine consciousness to create material realities out of the energy in an illusory universe.(TPOH, 114) Christians possess the consciousness-power to by the force of faith influence and create material reality; in other words, to “pop qwiffs.”(TPOH, 121)[26]

On her list of God-Truths, Davis’ first is, By Faith, We Can Speak Things Into Existence.(TPOH, 127) By this she means that by the exercise of their faith/intent, Christian observers “can affect changes in the material world.”(TPOH, 127) This exercise The Physics of Heaven calls “popping a qwiff,’ a quantum term which designates a “manifest son” of God’s ability to transform wave/energy into matter/particle.(TPOH, 145) By “popping qwiffs” Charismatic observers can by the intent of faith work miracles as they cause unseen energy to materialize. In the view of Quantum Charismatics, Jesus, as demonstrated by His miraculous ministry—changing water into wine, walking on water, feeding the multitudes, healing the sick, etc.—could be viewed as the ultimate “qwiff popper.” In the next chapter (“Keys to Your Quantum Leap”), the author David Van Kovering states that everything is possessed of “the vibrating frequencies of Jesus’ voice” by which the unseen can become real.(TPOH, 138)

Note: In developing her argument, both Davis and Van Koevering (in the next chapter 13, “Keys to Your Quantum Leap”) borrow much from Annette Capps in her booklet, Quantum Faith (2003) written ten years before The Physics of Heaven (2012).[27] Reading the three authors (Capps, Davis and Van Koevering) indicates this to be the case. So to validate her proposal, Davis alludes to quantum explanations of biblical passages which Capps fancifully twists to suit her fancy. These Scriptures therefore need to be looked at to see whether or not they substantiate the proposal that by faith “Christians can speak things into existence.” We begin with the first that Davis references.

SIDEBAR: Scripture Twisting