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African players that scored 10 or more goals in top division European leagues in the 2013/2014 season.

Algeria
16 - El Arbi Hillel Soudani (Dinamo Zagreb: Croatia)

Angola
13 - Igor Vetokele (København: Denmark)

Cameroon
16 - Vincent Aboubakar (Lorient: France)
13 - Leandre Tawamba Kana (MFK Ružomberok: Slovakia)
11 - Mbilla Etame (Khazar Lankaran FK: Azerbaijan)
11 - Leonard Kweuke (Rizespor: Turkey)
10 - Maxim Choupo-Moting (Mainz: Germany)

Cape Verde Islands
11 - Garry Rodrigues (Levski Sofia: Bulgaria)
10 - Héldon (Sporting CP: Portugal)

Central African Republic
13 - Mouhamadou Habibou (KAA Gent: Belgium)

Comoros
15 - El Fardou Ben Nabouhane (Veria: Greece)

Congo
14 - Francis Litsingi (FK Teplice: Czech Republic)
10 - Prince Oniangué (Reims: France)

Côte d'Ivoire
20 - Yaya Touré (Manchester City: England)
18 - Seydou Doumbia (CSKA Moscow: Russia)
17 - Wilfried Bony (Swansea City: England)
16 - Salomon Kalou (Lille: France)
15 - Serge Deblé (FC Shirak: Armenia)
12 - Yannick Boli (Zorya Luhansk: Ukraine)
10 - Didier Drogba (Galatasaray: Turkey)

DR Congo
13 - Dieumerci Mbokani (Dynamo Kyiv: Ukraine)

Gabon
13 - Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang (Borussia Dortmund: Germany)

Gambia
11 - Demba Savage (HJK: Finland)

Ghana
10 - David Accam (Helsingborg: Sweden)

Madagascar
10 - Anicet Andrianantenaina (FK Botev Plovdiv: Bulgaria)

Mali
12 - Cheick Diabaté (Bordeaux: France)
11 - Mustapha Yatabaré (Guingamp: France)

Morocco
17 - Aatif Chahechouhe (Sivasspor: Turkey)
15 - Abderrazak Hamdallah (Aalesund: Norway)
13 - Omar Er Rafik (Differdange: Luxembourg)
12 - Youssef El-Arabi (Granada: Morocco)

Nigeria
15 - Stanley Ohawuchi (Sliema: Malta)
14 - Ikechukwu Uche (Villarreal: Spain)
14 - Kennedy Igboananike (AIK: Sweden)
13 - Marco Tagbajumi (Ermis FC: Cyprus)
12 - Emmanuel Emenike (Fenerbahçe: Turkey)
11 - Alfred Effiong (Qormi: Malta)
11 - Obinna Obiefule (Hibernians: Malta)
11 - Abiola Dauda (Crvena Zvezda: Serbia)
10 - Imoh Ezekiel (Standard Liege: Belgium)
10 - Sylvester Igboun (Midtjylland: Denmark)
10 - Adeshina Lawal (B36 Tórshavn: Faroe Islands)
10 - Shola Shodiya (Birkirkara: Malta)
10 - Leke James (Aalesund: Norway)

Senegal
15 - Moussa Sow (Fenerbahçe: Turkey)
13 - Sadio Mané (FC Red Bull Salzburg: Austria)
13 - Dame N'Doye (Lokomotiv Moscow: Russia)
12 - Baye Omar Niasse (Akhisar Belediyespor: Turkey)
10 - Ibrahim Sidibé (Debrecen: Hungary)
10 - Malek Mane (Sogndal: Norway)
10 - Lamine Diarra (Antalyaspor: Turkey)

Togo
11 - Emmanuel Adebayor (Tottenham Hotspur: England)

Tunisia
17 - Hamdi Harbaoui (KSC Lokeren: Belgium)


Stats from European 'Summer' leagues in Scandinavia and elsewhere are from the completed 2013 season.

          CAF confirms final CHAN qualifiers programme        
The Confederation of African Football (CAF) has confirmed the programme for the 2018 African Nations Championship (CHAN) qualifiers third round fixture between Namibia and Comoros as the two nations eye their first ever qualification for the continental local-based players showpiece in Kenya. According to the NFA website, the Brave Warriors and Comoros will go head […]
          Countries in Africa        
Africa is the second-largest continent in the world.Here is the list of 55 countries in Africa and their capitals.
Africa
Africa






S.no.
Countries
Capitals
1.
Algeria
Algiers
2.
Angola
Luanda
3.
Benin
Porto-Novo
4.
Botswana
Gaborone
5.
Burkina Faso
Ouagadougou
6.
Burundi
Bujumbura
7.
Cameroon
Yaoundé
8.
Cape Verde
Praia
9.
The Central African Republic
Bangui
10.
The Comoros
Moroni
11.
Cote d'Ivoire
Yamoussoukro
12.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kinshasa
13.
Djibouti
Djibouti
14.
Egypt
Cairo
16.
Equatorial Guinea
Malabo
17.
Eritrea
Asmara
18.
Ethiopia
Addis Ababa
19.
Gabon
Libreville
20.
The Gambia
Banjul
21.
Ghana
Accra
22.
Guinea
Conakry
23.
Guinea-Bissau
Bissau
24.
Chad
N'Djamena
25.
Kenya
Nairobi
26.
Lesotho
Maseru
27.
Liberia
Monrovia
28.
Libya
Tripoli
29.
Madagascar
Antananarivo
30.
Malawi
Lilongwe

31.
Mali
Bamako
32.
Mauritania
Nouakchott
33.
Mauritius
Port Louis
34.
Morocco
Rabat
35.
Mozambique
Maputo
36.
Namibia
Windhoek
37.
Niger
Niamey
38.
Nigeria
Abuja
39.
The Republic of the Congo
Brazzaville
40.
Rwanda
Kigali
41.
Sao Tome and Principe
São Tomé


42.
Senegal
Dakar
43.
The Seychelles
Victoria
44.
Sierra Leone
Freetown
45.
Somalia
Mogadishu
46.
South Africa
Pretoria
47.
Sudan
Khartoum
48.
Swaziland
Mbabane
49.
Tanzania
Dodoma
50.
Togo
Lomé
51.
Tunisia
Tunis
52.
Uganda
Kampala
53.
Western Sahara
Laayoune
54.
Zambia
Lusaka
55.
Zimbabwe
Harare

          Dynaflex appointed authorized representative for TGI ILMADUR gauge & sight glasses in Middle East & Africa        
TGI's factory in Ilmenau

Ilmenau — 22 June 2012 — Dynaflex Corporation, the authorized importer, stockist & representative in India for ILMADUR gauge & sight glasses manufactured by Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH, has been allotted by TGI the additional territories of the Middle East & Africa to cater to requirements of their ILMADUR branded gauge & sight glasses in the region. With this appointment, Dynaflex Corporation will now export Ilmadur Gauge & Sight Glasses to Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kurdistan, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Northern Cyprus, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Comoros, Djibouti, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan & Sahrawi.

ILMADUR branded gauge & sight glasses are manufactured by Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH at it's Ilmenau plant. ILMADUR gauge and sight glasses are manufactured from borosilicate “I-420” material developed and patented by TGI particularly to produce high-quality sight glasses.

About TGI
Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH is a leading manufacturer of laboratory and household glassware, sight and gauge glasses, pressed technical glasses, glass tubes, capillaries & rods in Ilmenau, a town located in the district of Ilm-Kreis, Thuringia, Germany.

About Dynaflex Corporation
Dynaflex Corporation is a leading importer and one of the largest stockists in the world of technical & safety glasses from the leading manufacturers in Europe & the USA. Most of the products are again re-exported to South East Asia, Middle East, Africa, North & South Americas & Europe.

Contact
To learn more about this topic, please contact
Dynaflex Corporation, Media Relations
Tek Towers (DOXA)
No.11, Rajiv Gandhi Salai (OMR)
Thoraipakkam
Chennai 600097, INDIA
pr@dynaflex.asia


          Celebrating World Fisheries Day in Comoros        
This World Fisheries day, we are celebrating a new initiative for marine conservation and fishery management in the Comoros.

          La Cenicienta Egipcia        


En un pequeño pueblo del Bajo Egipto vivía una joven de veinte años cuya belleza se asimilaba a la de una diosa. Su nombre era Nitocris.
Le gustaba ayudar a su padre que trabajaba como escriba de rebaños, contando cabezas de ganado y evitando las discusiones entre los ganaderos. Nitocris sabía leer, escribir y contar, y cuando su padre se jubilara, le sustituiría.
Todos los chicos del pueblo y de los alrededores deseaban casarse con Nitocris, pero ella sólo compartiría su vida con un hombre al que amara con todo el corazón. Los jóvenes seguían insistiendo pero ella los rechazaba tajantemente. Su padre se extrañaba, incluso le proponía casamiento con el apuesto hijo del alcalde, pero ella no podía soportarle.
Sus padres sólo deseaban la felicidad de la hermosa joven:
- Nitocris, solamente tú puedes elegir al hombre al que amarás como esposo.
La tarde estaba soleada y Nitocris salió a darse un baño al canal pensando que a esa hora nadie la molestaría. Se quitó las sandalias, se desvistió y se metió poco a poco en el agua que gozaba de una temperatura deliciosa. Estuvo nadando durante mucho tiempo.
Por allí cerca, los chicos cazaban o jugaban a la pelota. Cuando la joven volvió hacia la orilla, un chico le hizo señas con la mano ofreciéndole su ayuda para salir del agua. Se trataba del hijo del alcalde, que muy orgulloso, armado con un arco y unas flechas, le regalaba una liebre que había cazado.
- No quiero tus regalos. ¡Aléjate de mi! – dijo Nitocris.
- ¡Ni hablar! Deseo hablarte. Sabes que yo seré tu marido – contestó el joven.
- ¡Jamás! ¡Nunca me casaré contigo!
Nitocris se fue en busca de sus sandalias, cuando escuchó el ruido de un aleteo. Un halcón bajó hacia el suelo a gran velocidad cogiendo una de sus sandalias con sus garras, y de nuevo subió al cielo.
Cuando el hijo del alcalde tensó su arco apuntando hacia el halcón, Nitocris gritó:
- ¡No tires! El halcón es el animal sagrado del dios Horus, el protector del faraón. Nadie puede matarlo.
El joven se fue muy avergonzado por su acción.
Un poco más tarde se celebraba el consejo de ministros presidido por el faraón en el jardín del palacio. El rey (este faraón algunos consideran que fue Micerino, y otros dicen que fue un faraón bastante más posterior llamado Amasis II) continuaba soltero y esta situación no debía alargarse más. La Regla exigía que reinara junto a él una gran esposa real, pero ninguna le interesaba.
Estaba pensativo y no prestaba atención al ministro, cuando de repente, el halcón se abalanzó hacia el rey dejando caer algo en sus rodillas. Se trataba de una sandalia, la más bonita que jamás había visto. Rápidamente hizo llamar al jefe de guardia, y se dirigió a él enérgicamente:
- Envíe a sus hombres a todas las ciudades y pueblos y ordene que todas las muchachas se prueben la sandalia. ¡Encuentren a su dueña!


El hijo del alcalde iba hacia la casa de Nitocris, cuando vio a dos guardias cumpliendo el encargo del faraón. No dudó en preguntar qué ocurría, a lo que le respondieron amablemente. Sólo les quedaba visitar la última casa del pueblo que se encontraba al final de la calle. El chico, al reconocer la sandalia de Nitocris, trató de evitar que la encontraran. Pero en ese momento, la muchacha salió de su casa portando un ramo de flores de loto. El guardia, al verla, quedó impresionado por su belleza, y al probarle la sandalia comprobó que era suya.
Nitocris atravesó los inmensos jardines de tamariscos, sicomoros y palmeras, llegando a una enorme sala del palacio. El suelo estaba decorado con azulejos en forma de lotos y en las paredes se representaban preciosas pinturas con escenas de caza. Allí, en su trono, estaba sentado el faraón de Egipto.
La joven se arrodilló ante el faraón como muestra de admiración y respeto. El rey, portando sus insignias reales, la tomó de la mano ayudándola a levantarse. Admirado por su belleza, el faraón le calzó la sandalia que le había hecho llegar el halcón. Nitocris era la esposa elegida por los dioses, y ella se había enamorado del faraón.


Esta es la leyenda de Nitocris contada por Estrabón y en la que se basó la Cenicienta. La versión de otros autores, entre ellos la poetisa griega Safo, es prácticamente igual, sólo que en lugar de un halcón, la sandalia se la arrebata una golondrina.

En la realidad Nitocris fue una Reina de la VI dinastía egipcia. Es la primera mujer considerada oficialmente faraón, pues su nombre figura en la lista real del Papiro de Turín, aunque su existencia continúa siendo incierta. Hubo otras listas que fueron probablemente destruidas y tenemos constancia de que, antes de Nitocris, Meryt-Neith ejerció el poder supremo durante la I Dinastía. Ya veis que hubo más mujeres faraón aparte de Hatshepsut o Cleopatra VII. Incluso se cree que Nefertiti fue faraón bajo el nombre de Semenejkara.

Según Heródoto, Nitocris fué la esposa de un rey al que dieron muerte unos traidores, quienes ofrecieron el trono a la desconsolada viuda. Ella aceptó y comenzó a preparar en secreto su venganza. Hizo construir una gran sala subterránea, dónde invitó a los asesinos a celebrar un banquete. Durante la celebración, ordenó que se abriera un conducto que inundó el lugar.Los traidores murieron ahogados. Posteriormente se encerró en una cámara de cenizas que le provocaron la asfixia.

En un fragmento de Manetón se dice de ella que reinó doce años y poseía más valor que los hombres de su época y era la más bella de todas las mujeres; era rubia y de mejillas sonrosadas. Se dice que construyó la tercera pirámide.

No tenemos ninguna información arqueológica o literaria coetánea sobre Nitocris, por lo que se ignoran todos los aspectos de su reinado, ascendencia, hechos, duración. Muy pronto la leyenda se encargó de desdibujar su personalidad histórica, identificándola con la cortesana Rhodopis de Naúcratis y haciéndola constructora de la tercera gran pirámide de Gizeh (la correspondiente a Micerinos). Esta confusión tiene una explicación linguística : el cutis rosado de la reina en griego se llama “rhodophis”.


También se relacionó a Nitocris con una perversa Rodopis. Según una leyenda, a la hora del crepúsculo, en la llanura de Gizeh, cuando el sol esta a punto de desaparecer, se pasea en solitario una misteriosa mujer de gran hermosura, que no es otra que el mismísimo fantasma de la Reina Nitocris, el alma de la pirámide encargada de guardar el monumento. La tradición asegura que el hombre que cede a sus encantos enloquece.
          10 Poorest Countries In The World | Ten Poorest Countries In list        

10. Ethiopia (GDP – per capita: $700)


Seen Better Days - Ethiopia
“The Sadomo region of the Ethiopia is known for producing the best coffee second to Harar….Make Trade Fair!” – mcandrea
Ethiopia ranks 170 out of 177 the poorest countries on the Human Development Index (UNDP HDI 2006). Half of its GDP depends on agricultural activity. The agricultural sector suffers lowdown because of poor cultivation techniques and frequent drought. 50% of its population 74.7 million bears the burden of poverty and 80% lives on bread line. 47% of males and 31% of females are literate. Some parts of Ethiopia run a high risk of hepatitis A, hepatitis E, typhoid fever, malaria, rabies, meningococcal meningitis and schistosomiasis.
Child Poverty

09. Niger (GDP – per capita: $700)

Niger with a population of 12.5 million is one of the ten poorest countries in the world. Drought is a common natural calamity in Niger. It often undergoes a phase of severe food crisis. 63% of its total population lives on below $1 a day. Adult literacy rate is as low as 15%. Life expectancy spans up to 46 years. A number of people die of hepatitis A, diarrhea, malaria, meningococcal meningitis and typhoid fever.
“Escaping from poverty”

08. Central African Republic (GDP – per capita: $700)

Rebel in northern Central African Republic
“Rebel in northern Central African Republic”
The Central African Republic ranks 171 as a poor country. Agriculture is the backbone of its unstable economy. Life expectancy of its meager population 4.3 ranges from 43.46 to 43.62 years. 13.5% of its population is at risk of AIDS.
Destruction in the north-west
“Boy in front of destroyed homes in Ngaoundaye, Central African Republic. Since early 2007, the troubled region has been caught up in fighting between APRD rebels and government troops.” – hdptcar

07. Guinea-Bissau (GDP – per capita: $600)

“Africa, Guinea-Bissau, Bijene, January 2005. Mbemba Djaló, 13 years young, earns some extra cash after school, running his little shop at the veranda of an abandoned colonial house. Photography by Ernst Schade” – ernst schade
The rank of Guinea Bissau as a poor country is 172. Farming and fishing are the only pillars of its economy. The level of income is not even in all parts of the country. About 10% of its adult population is at risk of HIV.

06. Union of the Comoros (GDP – per capita: $600)

Itsandra at sunset
Population growth and unemployment at a high rate are responsible for the poor economy of Union of the Comoros. Population density at a rate of 1000 per square km in agriculture zones may result in an environmental crisis. Agricultural contribution to its GDP is 40%. The low level of education has raised the level of labor force. Economy mainly depends on foreign grants.

05. Republic of Somalia (GDP – per capita: $600)

“Sixteen million people in eastern Africa are in need of emergency food aid and the threat of starvation is severe, according to FAO’s latest report on the Food Supply Situation and Crop Prospects in sub-Saharan Africa.” – ☠ ● qυєєη σƒ яσ¢к ● ☠
Agriculture is the base of the economy of Republic of Somalia in the Horn of Africa. Nomads and semi-nomads comprise a major part of the population. Rearing livestock is the primary source of livelihood for them. The small agricultural industry contributes 10% to its GDP.
Somalia
“Mogadishu. October 2004. View of Mogadishu north. Mogadishu is the place where effects of the conflict are more striking. There are arround 400.000 internally displaced persons. Access to health structures is quite impossible for the danger to circulate in the streets where combats are on-going and all type infrastructures have disapeared: water, sanitation, schools… The absence of state during more than 13 years has made impossible any investment in public structures. It is estimated that around 72% of Somalia’s population lacks access to basic healthcare services and the healthcare system is in ruins.” – abdisalla

04. The Solomon Islands (GDP – per capita: $600)

Solomon Islands Tsunami -- Minister whose church was washed away
“Solomon Islands Tsunami — Minister whose church was washed away”
The Solomon Islands is a country in Melanesia. Fishing holds its domestic economy. Above 75% of the labor class, is involved in fishing. Timber was the main product for export until 1998. Palm oil and copra are important cash crops for export. The Solomon Islands are rich in mineral resources like zinc, lead, gold and nickel.

03. Republic of Zimbabwe (GDP – per capita: $500)

Desperate
“The expression on these guys faces says a million things, weak from hunger and too poor to own shoes or have a shirt to wear. This is all because of the tyrant they call a president.
A beautiful country ruined because of one mans greed. ”
– Mr Sean
Republic of Zimbabwe is located between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers in the south of Africa. Its economy suffers a slowdown due to supply shortage, soaring inflation and foreign exchange shortage. Zimbabwe’s involvement in the Democratic Republic of the Congo left its economy fragile. The worst consequence of the knelt-down economy is unemployment that is as high as 80%.
“March, 5, 2008. The Zimbabwean currency tumbled to a record 25 million dollars for a single US dollar”

02. Republic of Liberia (GDP – per capita: $500)

Young boy looks through hole in garbage dump
“MONROVIA, LIBERIA – NOVEMBER 12, 2006 : Young Liberian boy standing on Randal street in Monrovia looks through a hole in a garbage filled car that has been turned on its side and salvaged fro spare parts. ( Photo by: Christopher Herwig )” – herwigphoto.com
Republic of Liberia on the west coast of Africa is one of the ten poorest economies across the globe. A decline in the export of commodities, the flight of many investors from the country, the unjust exploitation of the country’s diamond resource, looting and war profiteering during the civil war in 1990 brought the economy of the country to its knees. External debt of the country is more than its GDP.
Government child soldiers
“Liberia: Government child soldiers,Ganta; on the back of their truck is an anti-aircraft gun. © Teun Voeten, 2003.
Liberia’s decade-long civil war was fuelled by weapons imported in to the country in violation of a UN arms embargo. Shipments over three months in 2002 from a Serbian security company, for example, brought in enough bullets to kill the entire population of Liberia.”
– controlarms

01. Republic of the Congo (GDP – per capita: $300)

Street of Kinshasa
“This picture shows what Kinshasa is: full of contradictions. The beauty of the sunlight, nature, happy people contrasts with the filth on the streets, disorganisation, poverty… These two persons seem to stand there, in the middle of all that. Can they push the country forward… Are they part of a generation that will one day live in a modern Democratic Republic of Congo, freed of all suffering and pain?” – fredogaza
Republic of the Congo in Central Africa is the last at the bottom of the economic heaps. Depreciation of Franc Zone currencies, incredibly high levels of inflation in 1994, eruption of the civil war, and continuation of armed conflict and slumping oil price in 1998 broke down the economy of the country.
Former child soldiers
“A group of ‘kotelengana’, or former child soldiers, in DRC” – War Child UK
GDP – per capita (PPP) 2008 Country Ranks
SOURCE: CIA World Factbook 2008

          Commentaires sur Occlusions veineuses rétiniennes par MichaelNex        
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          Comoros authorization to file EUCLID instrument with UNTS        
none
          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Guatemala Quetzal(GTQ)/Comoros Franc(KMF)        
1 Guatemala Quetzal = 61.19486 Comoros Franc
          Comoros 1000 Francs 2005        
Obverse: Coelacanth fish; Reverse: Man in a catamaran boat; Watermark: BCC Bank logo. *winner of IBNS 2006 “Bank Note of 2006” award Taken from IBNS: Banque Centrale des Comores – 1000 Franc note The International Bank Note Society (IBNS) is proud to announce the winner of the IBNS Bank Note of 2006, awarded to the […]
          List of African Countries by region        
List of countries of East Africa Burundi Comoros Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mozambique Rwanda Seychelles Somalia South Sudan Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe List of countries of West Africa Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Gambia Ghana Nigeria Guinea Guinea Bissau Ivory Coast Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Senegal Sierra Leone Togo List of countries of ...
          List of countries of Africa by Region        
The countries of Africa by region are as follows; Angola Cameroon Central African Republic Chad DR. Congo Equatorial Guinea Gabon Republic of Congo Sao Tome and Principe Burundi Comoros Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mozambique Rwanda seychelles Somalia South Sudan Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe  Algeria Egypt Libya Morocco Sudan Tunisi Botswana Lesotho Maurtius NamibiaSouth ...
          Bulan Juli        








1 Juli
Kanada Merdeka dari Inggris
Tanggal 1 Juli 1867, Kanada meraih kemerdekaannya dari Inggris. Kanada adalah sebuah kawasan di ujung timur benua Amerika dan berbatasan dengan AS. Bangsa Inggris sejak abad ke-15 mengklaim kawasan itu sebagai wilayah kekuasaannya dan terjadilah migrasi besar-besaran orang-orang Inggris ke sana. Pada abad ke-16, bangsa Perancis juga datang ke Kanada dan mengklaimnya sebagai bagian dari kekuasaan Perancis. Akibatnya, pecah perang antara adalah kedua bangsa imperialis tersebut yang berlangsung selama 75 tahun dan berakhir dengan kekalahan Perancis. Kanada akhirnya menjadi koloni Inggris secara penuh. Sementara itu, penduduk asli Kanada, yaitu suku Maori, ditekan dan tersingkir. Sejak awal abad ke-19, bangsa Eropa penghuni Kanada mulai menghendaki didirikannya pemerintahan sendiri yang terpisah dari Inggris. Akhirnya pada tahun 1867, Inggris menyetujui didirikankan Dominion Kanada.

Leibnitz Lahir
Tanggal 1 Juli tahun 1646, Wilhelm Leibnitz, seorang filsuf dan matematikawan Jerman, terlahir ke dunia. Pada usia 15 tahun, Leibnitz sudah diterima di Universitas Leipzig di bidang hukum. Namun, pada dua tahun pertama di universitas itu, Leibnitz lebih banyak mencurahkan perhatiannya pada bidang filsafat dan setelah itu, mempelajari matematika. Akhirnya pada tahun 1666, pada usia 20 tahun, Leibnitz berhasil meraih gelar doktor di bidang hukum. Dalam usia muda itu, Leibnitz telah menghasilkan banyak karya penulisan. Karya-karya Leibnitz diantaranya berjudul "On Natural Law".

Republik Somalia Berdiri
Tanggal 1 Juli tahun 1960, didirikanlah Republik Somalia yang merupakan gabungan dari Somaliland Protectorate dibawah kekuasaan Inggris dan Somaliland Italia yang dikuasai Italia di bawah mandat PBB. Somaliland Inggris meraih kemerdekaan dari Inggris pada tanggal 26 Juni 1960 sedangkan Somaliland Italia merdeka dari kekuasaan Italia pada tanggal 1 Juli 1960. Somalia dijajah Inggris dan Italia sejak awal abad ke-19. Penduduk kawasan Somalia utara dan Barat sejak tahun 1901 di bawah pimpinan Abdullah Hasan mengobarkan perlawanan melawan Inggris, sedangkan penduduk Somalia timur dan selatan bergabung dengan Eritrea dan Ethiopia untuk melawan Italia. Setelah Perang Dunia II, PBB terlibat dalam masalah Somalia. Pada tahun 1947, Italia menyerahkan kawasan jajahannya itu kepada PBB dalam rangka mempersiapkan kemerdekaan Somalia. Akhirnya, barulah pada tahun 1960 Republik Somalia yang merdeka berhasil didirikan.

Rwanda dan Burundi Merdeka
Tanggal 1 Juli tahun 1962, Rwanda dan Burundi, dua negara yang saling berbatasan di Afrika, meraih kemerdekaan mereka masing-masing. Kedua negara ini sejak abad ke-18 dijajah oleh Jerman, namun setelah kekalahan Jerman pada Perang Dunia Pertama, Liga Bangsa-Bangsa menyerahkan kekuasaan atas kedua negara Afrika itu kepada Belgia. Resolusi PBB tahun 1962 akhirnya mengakhiri kolonialisme di Rwanda dan Burundi. Penduduk mayoritas Rawanda dan Burundi adalah suku Hutu dan Tutsi.


Hongkong Dikembalikan ke Cina
Tanggal 1 Juli tahun 1997, Inggris mengembalikan Hongkong kepada Cina setelah menguasainya selama 155 tahun. Hongkong yang merupakan sebuah pulau di tenggara Cina diduduki Inggris sejak tahun 1842 dalam era Perang Candu. Melalui berbagai usaha diplomatik, Cina berusaha untuk merebut kembali Hongkong. Akhirnya pada tahun 1898, Inggris menandatangani perjanjian akan mengembalikan Hongkong kepada Cina 99 tahun kemudian. Pada 1985, Inggris dan Cina kembali menandatangani kesepakatan yang menetapkan tanggal penyerahan Hongkong kepada Cina, yaitu tanggal 1 Juni tahun 1997.


2 Juli

Republik Brazil Berdiri
Tanggal 2 Juli 1889, dalam sebuah revolusi damai, sistem kekaisaran di Brazil dibubarkan dan berdirilah Republik Brazil. Brazil dijajah Portugis sejak awal abad ke-16 dan hasil buminya dikuras oleh bangsa penjajah tersebut. Pada tahun 1808, ketika Napoleon menyerbu Portugis, Raja John VI dari Portugis melarikan diri ke Brazil. Pada tahun 1821, Raja John kembali ke Portugis dan putranya, yaitu Dom Pedro menjadi penguasa di Brazil. Setelah menobatkan diri sebagai Kaisar Brazil, Dom Pedro melakukan berbagai reformasi, di antaranya, melepaskan Brazil dari wilayah kekuasaan Portugis dan menghapuskan perbudakan. Rakyat pribumi Brazil kemudian bangkit untuk menggulingkan kekaisaran Dom Pedro dan akhirnya berdirilah Republik Brazil.

Ernest Hemingway Meninggal
Tanggal 2 Juli tahun 1961, Ernest Hemingway, seorang penulis terkenal AS, meninggal dunia. Hemingway dilahirkan pada tahun 1899 di Illionis dan memulai karirnya sebagai penulis di sebuah suratkabar pada usia 17 tahun. Pada era Perang Dunia I, Hemingway ikut terjun dalam perang. Ia juga pernah dikirim ke medan perang dalam kapasitas sebagai reporter surat kabar. Berbagai pengalamannya selama perang menjadi latar belakang dalam beberapa novelnya, di antaranya berjudul For Whom The Bell Tolls. Hemingway juga banyak menulis cerpen, di antaranya dibukukan dengan judul Men Without Women yang terbit tahun 1927. Pada tahun 1954, Hemingway meraih hadiah Nobel di bidang sastra.

Ayatullah Saduqi Gugur Syahid
Tanggal 2 Juli tahun 1982, Ayatullah Muhammad Saduqi, seorang ulama pejuang Iran, gugur syahid akibat teror dari kelompok teroris, Mujahidin Al-Khalq. Ayatullah Saduqi menuntut ilmu di hauzah ilmiah Qum dan bersamaan dengan itu, beliau juga aktif dalam perjuangan untuk menentang rezim Shah Pahlevi yang despotik. Ayatullah Saduqi kemudian menjadi salah satu tokoh garis depan Revolusi Islam dan merupakan salah satu pendukung utama Imam Khomeini. Setelah kemenangan revolusi Islam, Ayatullah Saduqi diangkat sebagai anggota Majelis Ahli dan berperan besar dalam penyusunan UUD Republik Islam Iran. Beliau juga ditunjuk sebagai wakil Imam Khomeini dalam memimpin sholat Jumat di kota Yazd dan di saat memimpin sholat Jumat itulah beliau gugur syahid.






3 Juli
Theodore Hertzel Meninggal
Tanggal 3 Juli 1904, Theodore Hertzel, pendiri gerakan Zionisme Internasional, meninggal dunia. Hertzel dilahirkan pada tahun 1860 di Budapest, Hongaria, dan kemudian ia pindah ke Austria. Di Austria, pemikiran Hertzel mengenai pendirian negara Yahudi yang independen semakin mengkristal. Ia kemudian pada tahun 1895 menuliskan hasil pemikirannya itu dalam sebuah buku berjudul Pemerintahan Yahudi. Dalam buku itu, Hertzel menuliskan pemikiran Zionisme berkenaan dengan perluasan kekuasaan dan keunggulan ras Yahudi di atas ras-ras lainnya. Pada tahun 1897, Theodore Hertzel dan para pendukungnya mengadakan kongres di Swiss dan terbentuklah Organisasi Zionisme Internasional. Setelah Theodore Hertzel meninggal, gerakan zionisme terus berkembang dan akhirnya pada tahun 1948, gerakan zionis berhasil merealisasikan cita-cita ilegalnya dengan mendirikan negara Israel di atas tanah air milik bangsa Palestina.

Franz Kafka Lahir
Tanggal 3 Juli 1883, Franz Kafka, penulis terkenal Cheko, terlahir ke dunia. Pada masa hidupnya, bahasa resmi di Cheko adalah bahasa Jerman, sehingga Kafka menuntut ilmu dalam bahasa Jerman dan semua karya tulisnya menggunakan bahasa tersebut. Kafka meraih gelar doktor dalam bidang hukum dan ia kemudian mempelajari sastra Jerman. Kafka mulai menulis sejak usia muda namun ia menerbitkan karyanya untuk pertama kali pada tahun 1907.
Kualitas dari karya-karya Kafka mulai dikenal luas setelah kematiannya. Pada tahun 1940-an, karya-karya Kafka mulai populer di Perancis, namun rakyat Jerman mulai mengenalnya setelah Perang Dunia Kedua. Ketika karya Kafka berjudul Collected Works diterbitkan tahun 1950-an, Kafka dimasukkan ke dalam kelompok penulis terkemuka Jerman abad ke-20. Karya Franz Kafka yang paling terkenal berjudul The Trial yang terbit tahun 1925.


Pesawat Sipil Iran Ditembak AS
Tanggal 3 Juli 1988, sebuah pesawat sipil Airbus milik Iran dalam perjalanannya dari Iran menuju Dubai, ditembak rudal oleh kapal perang AS, Vincennes. Seluruh penumpang pesawat bernomor Iran Air 655 itu beserta awak pesawatnya, yang keseluruhan berjumlah 298 orang, tewas. Peristiwa ini terjadi di akhir perang Irak-Iran. Saat itu, kapal perang AS tersebut tengah berada di perairan Teluk Persia. AS menyatakan bahwa penembakan itu disebabkan karena kelalaian tentaranya. Namun mengingat kapal perang Vincennes milik AS itu memiliki perlengkapan yang sangat canggih, alasan tersebut sulit diterima. Yang lebih aneh lagi, setelah peristiwa itu, komandan kapal perang Vincennes tersebut malah diberi medali kehormatan oleh pemerintah AS. Semua fakta ini, termasuk juga dokumen-dokumen resmi lainnya, menunjukkan bahwa penembakan terhadap pesawat sipil Iran oleh AS adalah sebuah kesengajaan.






4 Juli
Hari kemerdekaan AS
Tanggal 4 Juli 1776, para wakil dari 13 negara bagian pertama AS menandatangi proklamasi kemerdekaan negeri mereka di kota Philadelphia. Selama ribuan tahun, benua Amerika merupakan tempat tinggal etnis kulit merah. Namun semenjak abad ke 15, para petualang Eropa menemukan benua itu, dan mereka pun berusaha menguasai tiap bagian dari benua tersebut. Perlahan, para imigran Eropa di Amerka semakin bertambah. Mereka pun turut membawa jutaan budak dari Afrika ke sana, untuk dipekerjakan di perkebunan dan pabrik-pabrik Amerika. Para imigran dibantu pasukan militer Inggeri berhasil mengusir tentera Perancis. Pasca kemenangan ini, para imigran pun berbalik arah, dan kini menyerang tentera Inggris. Sejak tahun 1775 meletuslah perang di antara kedua belah pihak. Meski kemerdekaan AS telah diproklamasikan, namun perang masih terus berlanjut. Hingga akhirnya pada tahun 1778 Inggris mengalami kekalahan, dan secara de facto mengakui kemerdekaan AS.

Pasca dimulainya pembantaian etnis Indian Amerika pada tahun 1814, dan meletusnya perang saudara yang berlangsug dari tahun 1861 sampai 1865, perlahan posisi AS pun mulai stabil. Di akhir abad ke 19, AS punmulai melangkah melebarkan hegemoninya hingga ke Amerika Tengah dan Selatan. Pada masa Perang Dunia 1 dan ll, AS bergabung dengan pasukan sekutu. Setelah Perang Dunia ll usai, AS pun mulai melancarkan kembali politik imperialismenya, mencampuri urusan internal negara lain, dan melakuka invasi ke sejumlah negara.

Negara AS terletak di Amerika Utara, di antara samudra Pasifik dan Atlantik. Negeri ini memiliki luas 9 juta 300 ribu km persegi. Berbatasan dengan Kanada di sebelah utaranya, dan Meksiko di sebelah selatannya.


Philipina Merdeka
Tanggal 4 Juli 1946, kepulauan Philipina mendeklarasikan kemerdekaannya dari AS. Bangsa Eropa yang pertama kali datang ke Kepulauan Philipina adalah rombongan pelaut Spanyol di bawah pimpinan Ferdinand Magellan pada tahun 1521. Sejak saat itu, Philipina dijadikan kawasan jajahan Spanyol hingga tiga abad kemudian. Meningkatnya perlawanan rakyat Philipinan membuat kekuatan Spanyol semakin melemah. Pada saat yang sama, Spanyol juga kalah perang dari AS, sehingga Spanyol memutuskan untuk menjual Philipina kepada AS seharga 20 juta dolar. Rakyat Philipina kemudian melanjutkan perjuangan untuk mengusir tentara AS dari tanah air mereka. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1946 bangsa Philipina berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya.


Mohammad Muin Meninggal
Tanggal 4 Juli 1971, Doktor Muhammad Muin, cendekiawan sastra Persia terkemuka, meninggal dunia. Doktor Muin dilahirkan pada tahun 1914 di kota Rasht, Iran utara. Sejak muda, dia mulai mempelajari sastra Arab dan kemudian menuntut ilmu di Darul Funun, sebuah lembaga pendidikan terkemuka di Iran saat itu. Selanjutnya, Muhammad Muin melanjutkan pendidikan ke fakultas sastra dan filsafat di Universitas Teheran. Pada tahun 1942, Muhammad Muin berhasil menjadi lulusan pertama tingkat doktoral di bidang sastra Persia. Doktor Muin kemudian mengabdikan hidupnya untuk mengajar, melakukan penelitian, dan menulis buku di bidang sastra Persia. Karya penulisan yang ditinggalkan Doktor Muin di antaranya adalah kamus besar bahasa Persia yang terdiri dari enam jilid.






5 Juli
Venezuela Merdeka
Tanggal 5 Juli 1811, Venezuela memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya dari Spanyol yang telah menjajah negara itu selama tiga abad. Selama periode tersebut, penduduk pribumi Venezuela, yaitu bangsa kulit merah Indian disingkirkan dan dibunuh, sementara imigran Spanyol datang membanjiri Venezuela. Sejak awal abad ke-19, para imigran Spanyol yang telah menjadi warga Venezuela, menghendaki pemerintahan independen yang terpisah dari Spanyol. Dengan dipimpin oleh Fransesco Miranda, rakyat Venezuela pada tahun 1806 memulai perjuangan mengusir tentara Spanyol, namun menemui kegagalan. Pada tahun-tahun berikutnya, Miranda bersama Simon Bolivar meneruskan perjuangan mereka, sampai akhirnya Spanyol angkat kaki dari Venezuela.

Aljazair Merdeka
Tanggal 5 Juli 1962, setelah berjuang selama bertahun-tahun dan mengorbankan sekitar saju juta syuhada, rakyat muslim Aljazair akhirnya berhasil meraih kemerdekaan mereka. Pada tahun 1830, Perancis datang menyerang Aljazair dengan tujuan menjadikan negara itu sebagai wilayah jajahannya, namun mendapat perlawanan keras dari bangsa Aljazair. Salah satu pejuang kemerdekaan Aljazair yang terkemuka adalah Amir Abdul Qadir Aljazairi. Namun setelah 17 tahun berjuang, ia akhirnya tertangkap oleh tentara Perancis dan sejak itu, kekuasaan Perancis di Aljazair semakin hari semakin besar. Dengan leluasa, Perancis menguras hasil bumi negara ini dan menindas rakyat Aljazair. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua berakhir, perjuangan rakyat Aljazair kembali meningkat dan ketika De Gaulle diangkat sebagai Presiden Perancis, ia setuju untuk memberikan hak otonomi kepada Aljazair. Namun, perjuangan rakyat Aljazair yang menghendaki kemerdekaan penuh terus berlanjut, sampai akhirnya atas tekanan internasional, Perancis bersedia menandatangani "Perjanjian Evian" yang secara resmi mengakui kemerdekaan Aljazair.


Zia-ul-Haq Meraih Kekuasaan
Tanggal 5 Juli 1977, Jenderal Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, dengan memanfaatkan kondisi Pakistan yang saat itu sedang krisis, melancarkan kudeta berdarah terhadap Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Presiden Pakistan saat itu. Selain mengangkat diri sebagai Presiden sekaligus Perdana Menteri Pakistan, Zia-ul-Haq menghukum mati Zulfikar Ali Bhutto dan para pendukungnya. Ia juga membubarkan parlemen serta melarang aktivitas partai-partai dan media massa. Atas tekanan dari dalam negeri, pada tahun 1985, Zia-ul-Haq mengadakan pemilu dan membubarkan pemerintahan militer. Namun pada tahun 1988 sekali lagi Zia-ul-Haq membubarkan parlemen dan memecat perdana menteri sambil menjanjikan akan kembali mengadakan pemilu. Tetapi tak lama kemudian, pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1988, Zia-ul-Haq beserta beberapa pejabat militer Pakistan tewas dalam ledakan pesawat udara.

Diplomat dan Wartawan Iran Disandera
Tanggal 5 Juli 1982, tiga orang warga Iran yang terdiri dari diplomat dan wartawan disandera oleh kelompok militan Phalangist di Beirut, Libanon. Pada masa itu, rezim Zionis dengan dukungan kelompok militan Kristen Libanon, yaitu Phalagist, menduduki Libanon. Zionis dan kelompok Phalangist melakukan berbagai aksi teror di Libanon, termasuk di antaranya pembantaian massal warga Palestina yang tinggal di kamp pengungsian Sabra-Shatila pada bulan September 1982. Penyenderaan terhadap diplomat dan wartawan Iran juga merupakan salah satu di antara aksi teror tersebut mengingat Republik Islam Iran di bawah pimpinan Imam Khomeini merupakan negara yang paling aktif dalam menentang penindasan yang dilakukan Rezim Zionis terhadap bangsa Palestina. Hingga saat ini, ketiga warga Iran tersebut masih belum jelas nasibnya dan PBB sama sekali tidak melakukan langkah nyata apapun dalam penyelesaian kasus ini.






6 Juli
Dante Alighieri Lahir
Tanggal 6 Juli 1265, Dante Alighieri, seorang penyair terkenal Italia, terlahir ke dunia di kota Florence. Selain sebagai penyair, Dante juga aktif sebagai politikus yang membuat ia dibuang keluar dari Florence akibat penentangannya terhadap penguasa saat itu. Karya pertama Dante berjudul Vita Nuova atau ‘kehidupan baru' yang selesai ditulis tahun 1294. Filosofi Dante yang tampak pada puisi-pusinya adalah bahwa semua kebaikan dan kejahatan berakar dari cinta. Karya-karya Dante lainnya berjudul "Purgatorio" yang menunjukkan bahwa cinta dapat diatur dengan baik dan "Paradiso" yang menggambarkan bahwa cinta dapat ditingkatkan hingga mencapai cinta yang hakiki, yaitu cinta Ilahiah. Dante dianggap sebagai penyair yang menciptakan genre puisi Italia dan berhasil meninggalkan pengaruh dalam sastra modern. Dante Alighieri meninggal dunia tahun 1321.

William Faulkner Meninggal
Tanggal 6 Juli 1962, William Faulkner, seorang penulis terkemuka AS, meninggal dunia. Faulkner dilahirkan tahun 1897 di kawasan selatan AS. Dalam novel-novelnya, Faulkner banyak mengambil inspirasi latar belakang sejarah dan dekadensi moral yang terjadi di kawasan selatan AS, tempat dia lahir dan menulis karya-karyanya. Sebelum menekuni dunia penulis, Faulkner sempat bergabung dengan Angkatan Udara Inggris dalam Perang Dunia Pertama. Ia kemudian bekerja sebagai penulis di surat kabar dan penulis skenario di Hollywood. Akhirnya, Faulkner tinggal di kota kelahirannya untuk menulis novel dan cerpen. Dalam novel-novelnya, Faulkner banyak menyuarakan kritikan atas rasialisme dan penindasan terhadap kaum Negro di AS, di antaranya berjudul Intruder In the Dust dan In Light in August .

Malawi Merdeka
Tanggal 6 Juli 1964, Malawi, sebuah negara di Afrika Tenggara, meraih kemerdekaannya dari Inggris. Penduduk asli Malawi adalah etnis Bantu. Pada tahun 1859, seorang petualang asal Scotlandia, David Livingstone, tiba di danau Nyasa dan sejak itu, Malawi menarik perhatian bangsa-bangsa Eropa untuk dijadikan kawasan perdagangan budak. Pada tahun 1891, setelah berhasil mengusir Jerman dan Portugis yang juga mengincar Malawi untuk dijadikan jajahan, Inggris mengklaim Malawi sebagai wilayah jajahannya dan menamakan kawasan itu sebagai British Central African Protectorate. Sejak tahun 1907, kawasan itu diberi nama Nyasaland, dan akhirnya, ketika merdeka tahun 1964, barulah nama Malawi digunakan.

Komoro Merdeka
Tanggal 6 Juli 1975, Komoro, sebuah negara kepulauan yang terletak di lepas pantai Mozambik, Afrika Tenggara, memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya dari Perancis. Komoro memiliki penduduk mayoritas muslim dan karena itulah rakyat negara ini sepakat untuk mendirikan negara Islam atau Federal Islamic Republic of Comoros. Kepulauan Komoro awalnya dikuasai oleh bangsa Arab sehingga agama Islam menyebar di sana. Setelah itu, Komoro sempat dijajah oleh Portugis sebelum akhirnya dikuasai oleh Perancis sejak tahun 1832. Sekitar satu setengah abad kemudian, barulah perjuangan kemerdekaan rakyat Komoro mencapai hasilnya.






7 Juli
Giovani Bottesini
Tanggal 7 Juli 1889, Giovani Bottesini, seorang komposer Italia terkenal, meninggal dunia. Bottesini dilahirkan tahun 1823 di Lombardy, Italia dan kemudian menuntut ilmu di Konservatorium Milan dengan mengkhususkan diri pada penggunaan instrumen double-bass. Setelah lulus dari sekolah musik, Bottesini sempat menjadi pemusik di teater di Havana, dan disanalah ia memproduksi opera pertamanya yang berjudul Cristoforo Colombo. Selanjutnya, Bottesini menjadi semakin terkenal atas permainan double-bass-nya sehingga di dunia musik, nama Bottesini kerap diasosiasikan dengan alat musik ini.

Edward Brown Meninggal
Tanggal 7 Juli 1926, Edward Brown, seorang sastrawan dan orientalis asal Inggris, meninggal dunia. Brown dilahirkan pada tahun 1862. Brown sangat meminaati masalah ketimuran dan ia menjadi dosen bahasa-bahasa Timur di Universitas Cambrige. Brown dikenal menguasai bahasa Turki, Arab, dan Persia. Selama beberapa waktu, edward Brown juga pernah tinggal di Iran untuk melakukan penelitian terhadap sejarah, sastra, dan sosiologi Iran. Hasil penelitian Brown ditulis pada buku-buku berjudul "Sejarah Sastra Iran" dan "Revolusi Bangsa Iran".

Gustav Walter Heinemann Meninggal
Tanggal 7 Juli 1976, Gustav Walter Heinemann, mantan presiden federal Jerman Barat tahun 1969 hingga tahun 1974, meninggal dunia. Heinemann lahir pada tahun 1899 dan sejak muda telah aktif dalam berbagai partai politik. Antara tahun 1945 hingga 1949, Heinemann diangkat sebagai walikota Essen dan pada tahun 1949, ia diangkat menjadi menteri dalam negeri pada pemerintahan federal. Karir politik Heinemann terus meningkat sampai akhirnya ia diangkat sebagai presiden pada tahun 1969. Selama masa jabatannya, Heinemann mendukung Kebijakan Timur yang dijalankan Kanselir Jerman barat saat itu, Willy Brant, yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan hubungan antara Jerman Barat dengan Jerman Timur serta negara-negara komunis lainnya di Eropa dan Soviet.

Kepulauan Solomon Merdeka
Tanggal 7 Juli 1978, kepulauan Solomon yang terletak di timur Papua Nugini, meraih kemerdekaannya. Kepulauan ini telah berpenghuni sejak 1000 tahun sebelum Masehi dan bangsa Eropa pertama kali menginjakkan kaki di sana pada tahun 1567. Pada tahun 1885, Jerman mengklaim kepulauan Solomon sebagai wilayah jajahannya. Namun satu dekade kemudian, Inggris menduduki kepulauan itu dan menjadikannya sebagai protektorat. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, rakyat Solomon bangkit memperjuangkan kemerdekaannya sampai akhirnya merdeka tahun 1978. Penduduk Solomon mayoritasnya berasal dari etnis Melanesia.

Ledakan di kota London
Tanggal 7 juli 2005 masehi, terjadi ledakan di sebuah bus dan tiga stasiun metro di pusat kota London menyebabkan 50 orang tewas dan 700 cidera. Serangan itu terjadi saat berlangsungnya sidang pemimpin 8 negara industri di Skotlandia, utara Inggris. Para pakar politik percaya bahwa ledakan bom London merupakan protes terhadap kerjasama pemerintah Inggris dengan Amerika Serikat yang menduduki Afghanistan dan Irak serta pembunuhan warga kedua negara ini. Di pihak lain, ledakan ini menunjukkan kelemahan sistem intelegen Inggris dalam menegakkan keamanan negara ini. Pemerintah London mengklaim bahwa ledakan didalangi oleh orang-orang Islam, akibatnya tekanan terhadap warga muslim Inggris yang sudah ada sejak 11 September 2001 semakin keras.






8 Juli
Perjanjian Tilsit Ditandatangani
Tanggal 8 Juli 1807, perjanjian bersejarah Tilsit ditandatangani oleh Tzar Rusia, Alexander Pertama dan Kaisar Perancis, Napoleon Bonaparte. Melalui perjanjian ini, kedua negara itu sepakat untuk saling membantu jika ada negara ketiga yang menyerang Perancis atau Rusia. Namun kesepakatan itu dengan segera bubar tiga tahun kemudian karena Rusia mendapati bahwa perjanjian dengan Perancis malah membuat terganggunya perdagangan luar negeri Rusia. Karena itu, Rusia kembali membuka pelabuhan-pelabuhannya terhadap kapal-kapal dari negara-negara yang netral dan tetap mengenakan pajak yang besar terhadap barang-barang Perancis yang masuk ke Rusia. Akhirnya pada tanggal 24 Juni 1812, Perancis menyerang Rusia.

Ayatullah Rabbani Amlashi Meninggal
Tanggal 8 Juli 1985, Ayatullah Rabbani Amlashi, seorang ulama kontemporer dan pejuang Iran, meninggal dunia. Ayatullah Amlashi dilahirkan pada tahun 1313 di kota Qom dalam sebuah keluarga yang relijius. Rabbani Amlashi menuntut ilmu-ilmu agama di hauzah ilmiah di kota suci Qom. Selain mengabdikan diri di bidang keilmuan, Ayatullah Amlashi juga sangat aktif dalam berjuang menegakkan nilai-nilai Islam. Beliau merupakan salah satu pendukung Imam Khomeini dalam Revolusi Islam Iran. Akibatnya, beliau sempat diasingkan oleh rezim Shah. Namun akhirnya, perjuangan rakyat Iran yang dipimpin para ulama itu mencapai hasilnya pada tahun 1979 dengan berdirinya negara Islam di Iran. Pada tahun-tahun terakhir usianya, Ayatullah Rabbani Amlashi menduduki jabatan sebagai anggota Dewan Pengawal Revolusi Islam.

Kim Il Sung Meninggal
Tanggal 8 Juli 1994, Kim Il Sung, pemimpin Korea Utara dan sekjen Partai Komunis negara itu, meninggal dunia. Kim dilahirkan pada tahun 1912 dan sejak muda telah aktif dalam kegiatan komunis. Pendidikan formal Kim terhenti hingga kelas tingkat SMA karena dipenjara akibat keterlibatannya dalam organisasi komunis di daerahnya. Kemudian, Kim bergabung dengan kelompok gerilya komunis Cina di Manchuria yang berjuang melawan Jepang. Pada tahun 1945, Kim kembali ke Korea bersama pasukan pendudukan Soviet. Oleh tentara Soviet, Kim diangkat sebagai Ketua Komite Perlengkapan Rakyat dan kemudian diangkat sebagai ketua Partai Komunis. Akhirnya, ketika Republik Demokratik Rakyat Korea atau Korea Utara didirikan pada bulan September 1945, Kim terpilih sebagai perdana menteri. Ia memimpin negara tersebut hingga sekitar empat dekade kemudian. Setelah meninggal, posisi Kim Il Sung digantikan putranya, Kim Jung Il .






9 Juli
Argentina Merdeka

Tanggal 9 Juli 1816, Argentina meraih kemerdekannya. Kaum Eropa pertama yang datang ke wilayah Argentina adalah Juan Diaz de Solis dari Spanyol tahun 1516, dan sejak itu, dimulailah migrasi besar-besaran bangsa Spanyol ke Argentina. Argentina pun kemudian dijadikan daerah koloni Spanyol. Sementara itu, penduduk asili Argentina, bangsa Indian Pampas, pada abad ke 19, hampir punah dan sisanya hidup tersingkir. Sejak awal abad ke-19, para imigran Spanyol yang menjadi warga Argentina memuali gerakan revolusioner untuk mendirikan pemerintahan sendiri yang terpisah dari Spanyol. Semantara itu, Spanyol saat itu tengah berperang dengan Inggris dan mulai melemah, sehingga Buenos Aires, ibu kota Argentina, sempat diduduki oleh Inggris. Namun akhirnya, atas perlawanan keras rakyat Argentina, negara ini akhirnya berhasil meraih kemerdekaan.

Perang Arab-Zionis Kembali Meletus
Tanggal 9 Juli 1948, setelah satu bulan gencatan senjata, perang antara Arab dan Zionis kembali meletus. Perang ini diawali oleh didirikannya negara Israel dan rezim Zionis pada bulan Mei tahun 1948 di atas tanah air milik bangsa Palestina. Atas perintah Dewan Keamanan PBB, diadakan gencatan senjata dan dalam waktu satu bulan, rezim Zionis berhasil mengumpulkan persenjataan yang banyak dari negara-negara Barat, terutama AS. Rezim Zionis kemudian memulai kembali perang dan setelah meraih kemenangan besar, rezim ini bersedia menghenatikan perang. Pada bulan Januari tahun 1949, perjanjian penghentian perang ditandatangani dan pada saat itu 78 peren tanah Palestina dikuasai oleh rezim Zionis dan 750.000 rakyat Palestina terusir dari tanah mereka dan menajdi pengungsi.

Ghasan Kan'ani Diteror Mosad
Tanggal 9 Juli 1972, Ghasan Kan'ani, seorang penulis perjaung kebebasan Palestina beserta keponakannya, tewas akibat teror agen rahasia Israel, Mosad. Kanani merupakan salah seorang pejabat kelompok sosialis untuk pembebasan Palestina. Ia tewas karena mobilnya meledak di Beirut akibat bom yang diletakkan oleh agen Mosad. Enam belas harui kemudian, sekretaris Kanani, Basam Abu Syarif, juga terkena ledakan bom dan terluka parah. Pembunuhan atas tokoh-tokoh pejuang Palestina yang berada di luar negeri merupakan salah satu metode yang dilakukan rezim Zionis dalam upaya untuk menekan perlawnan bangsa Palestina.






10 Juli
Pulau Islandia Ditemukan
Tanggal 10 Juli 874, pulau Islandia yang terletak di dekat kutub utara, ditemukan oleh para nelayan Norwegia. Sejak itu, pulau itu didatangi oleh orang-orang dari Norwegia dan Skotlandia. Pada tahun 930, rakyat Islandia mulai membentuk sebuah pemerintahan dan parlemen. Sejak tahun 1261, negara ini dikuasai oleh Norwegia tetapi pada tahun 1380, kedua negara tersebut jatuh ke dalam kekuasaan Denmark. Antara tahun 1940-944, Islandia berpindah-pindah dari kekuasaan Inggris, lalu jatuh ke tangan AS, dan akhirnya kembali ke tangan Denmark. Pada tahun 1944, barulah Islandia berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya.

Alaska Ditemukan
Tanggal 10 Juli 1741, kawasan Alaska yang terletak di barat laut Kanada, ditemukan oleh petualang Denmark, Vitus Bering. Pada tahun 1784, kolonialis Rusia mendirikan pemukiman Eropa pertama di pulau Kodiak, di teluk Alaska dan kemudian Rusia memiliki hak monopoli atas Alaska. Pada tahun 1867, AS membeli kawasan Alaska dari Rusia seharga 7 juta 200 ribu dolar AS. Sejak saat itu, Alaska dieksplorasi oleh AS dan mendatangkan uang dalam jumlah besar. Pertama, di sana dibangun pabrik pengalengan ikan salmon. Kemudian, pada awal tahun 1900-an, tambang emas dibuka, dan terakhir, pada tahun 1968, ditemukan cadangan minyak raksasa di Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Sejak tahun 1959, Alaska secara resmi menjadi negara bagian ke-49 dari Amerika Serikat.

Kurt Alder Lahir

Tanggal 10 Juli 1902, Kurt Alder, seorang kimiawan Jerman peraih Nobel, terlahir ke dunia. Pada tahun 1922, Alder mulai mempelajari kimia di Universitas Berlin. Alder melanjutkan studinya di Universitas Kiel sampai meraih gelar doktor pada tahun 1926 dan kemudian diangkat menjadi dosen di universitas tersebut. Pada tahun 1936, Alder meninggalkan pekerjaannya sebagai dosen karena diangkat sebagai kepala laboratorium perusahaan kimia. Di sana ia bekerja mempersiapkan pembuatan karet sintetik Buna. Pada tahun 1940, Alder ditunjuk sebagai direktur bidang kimia teknologi dan eksperimental di Universitas Cologne. Sepanjang hidupnya, Kurt Alder melakukan berbagai penelitian di bidang kimia yang hasilnya dituliskan dalam makalah-makalah ilmiah yang jumlahnya sekitar 150 buah. Kurt Alder banyak meraih penghargaan, di antaranya the Emil Fischer Memorial Medal dari Asosiasi Kimiawan Jerman dan pada tahun 1950, ia berhasil meraih hadiah Nobel bidang kimia.


Bahama Merdeka
Tanggal 10 Juli 1973, kepulauan Bahama yang terletak di lautan Atlantik, di sebelah timur Amerika, meraih kemerdekaannya. Orang Eropa yang pertama kali datang ke Kepulauan Bahama adalah Christoper Columbus tahun 1492 dan sejak itu, Bahama dijadikan wilayah kekuasaan Spanyol. Penduduk asli Bahama adalah suku Indian Arawak, yang sebagaimana juga terjadi di negara-negara jajahan Eropa lainnya, suku Indian itu akhirnya tersingkir dan punah. Pada tahun 1647, Bahama jatuh ke tangan Inggris dan didirikanlah pemukiman pertama orang Eropa di kepulauan tersebut. Pada tahun 1964, Bahama mendapatkan status otonomi dan barulah pada tahun 1973, meraih kemerdekaan penuh. Bahama kini menjadi salah satu tempat pariwisata terkenal di dunia dan pendapatan devisa terbesar negara ini diperoleh dari sektor pariwisata.






11 Juli
King Peter I Karadjordjevic Lahir
Tanggal 11 Juli 1844, Peter Karadjordjevic atau yang dikenal dengan nama Peter Pertama, Raja Serbia, terlahir ke dunia. Peter menyelesaikan sekolah menengahnya di Beograd dan kemudian meneruskan ke sebuah institut di Jenewa, Swiss. Setelah itu, Peter masuk ke akademi militer di Perancis. Selama ia berada di Paris, Peter aktif menambah pengetahuannya di bidang politik dan militer dan hal ini memperluas wawasannya atas liberalisme, parlementarisme, dan demokrasi. Pada tahun 1868, pada usia 24 tahun, Pangeran Peter telah menerbitkan hasil terjemahannya atas essay karya John Stuart Mill berjudul "Kebebasan" dan isi tulisan itu kemudian menjadi program politiknya. Pada tahun itu pula, terjadi konflik potitik di Serbia, dan dinasti Obrenovic berkuasa di negara tersebut. Pangeran Peter dilarang pulang ke negaranya dan seluruh harta benda keluarganya disita. Peter kemudian melakukan berbagai aksi politik untuk meraih kembali haknya. Pada tahun 1903, Raja Obrenovic dibunuh dan tentara memproklamasikan Pangeran Peter Karadjordjevic sebagai Raja Serbia. Dengan demikian, setelah 45 tahun berlalu, keluarga Karadjordjevic kembali meraih kekuasaannya di Serbia. Raja Peter I meninggal dunia tahun 1921 di Beograd.

Mongolia Merdeka
Tanggal 11 Juli 1921, Mongolia, sebuah negara di Asia Tengah, memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya. Mongolia merupakan negara dengan sejarah yang kuno dan sempat menjadi negara adikuasa pada abad ke-13. Pada massa itu, Mongolia dipimpin oleh Raja Jengis Khan yang berhasil memperluas kekuasaannya dari Asia hingga Eropa. Setelah Jengis Khan meninggal, Mongolia terpecah menjadi dua bagian, yaitu Mongolia Dalam yang dikuasai Cina dan Mongolia Luar. Pada akhir abad ke-17, Mongolia Luar juga jatuh ke tangan Cina. Pada tahun 1911, Mongolia Luar memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya dari Cina, namun tak lama kemudian dicaplok oleh Rusia. Setelah terjadi revolusi komunis di Rusia tahun 1921, Mongolia Luar kembali memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya. Pada tahun 1924, setelah raja Mongolia meninggal dunia, atas provokasi Soviet, negara itu mengubah sistem pemerintahannya dari bentuk kerajaan menjadi Republik Sosialis.

Pembantaian massal keatas warga Bosnia
Tanggal 11 juli 1995, lebih dari 8 ribu warga muslim Bosnia, penduduk kota Srebenica, di timur negara ini dibantai secara massal oleh kalangan Serbia radikal. Tragedi ini merupakan aksi pembantaian massal terbesar di Eropa pasca Perang Dunia ll. Kendati Dewan Keamanan PBB pada tahun 1993 telah menetapkan Srebenica sebagai kawasan aman dan pasukan penjaga perdamaian PBB ditempatkan di sana, namun pasukan milisi Serbia yang didukung pemerintah Beograd tetap nekad menguasai kawasan tersebut.
Menjelang agresi militer milisi Serbia ke Srebenica warga muslim kota ini berusaha mengungsi, namun rencana mengungsi itu berhasil digagalkan oleh milisi Serbia. Mereka akhirnya membantai para lelaki muslim Bosnia, dan hanya memberi kesempatan mengungsi kepada perempuan dan anak-anak.
Ironisnya, tentara penjaga perdamaian PBB asal Belanda yang ditempatkan di sana tidak melakukan reaksi apapun untuk melindungi jiwa warga muslim dan membiarkan tragedi itu terjadi. Tentu saja sikap pasif negara-negara Eropa terhadap peristiwa ini merupakan ihwal yang patut dicermati. Tiga komite pencari kebenaran yang dibentuk setelah terjadinya tragedi itu menuding Uni Eropa dan PBB telah bersikap abai terhadap kasus pembantaian tersebut. Ironisnya, hingga kini para pelaku utama pembantaian massal itu masih belum mendapat hukuman yang setimpal atas kejahatan mereka.






12 Juli
Thariq bin Ziyad Masuk ke Spanyol
Tanggal 12 Juli 711, untuk pertama kalinya dalam sejarah Islam, Thariq bin Ziyad bersama sejumlah besar pasukannya, berhasil memasuki wilayah Spanyol. Kemenangan ini menjadi awal dari penaklukan pasukan Islam atas wilayah-wilayah Eropa lainnya. Thariq bin Ziyad masuk ke Spanyol dengan melewati selat di antara Maroko dan Spanyol, yang kemudian diberi nama sesuai dengan namanya, yaitu Jabal Thariq. Selat ini menghubungkan antara Samudera Atlantik dengan Laut Mediterania. Setelah ditaklukkannya Andalusia atau Spanyol, selama 8 abad kaum muslimin berkuasa di wilayah itu dan menyebarkan peradaban Islam di Eropa.

Bandar Iskandariah Dikepung Tentara Salib
Tanggal 12 Juli 1233, pelabuhan Iskandariah di Mesir dikepung oleh kapal-kapal perang Tentara Salib dari Belanda. Pada saat itu, Salahuddin Al-Ayyubi , pahlawan muslim dalam Perang Salib yang merupakan pemimpin di pelabuhan tersebut, sedang tidak berada di tempat tersebut. Namun demikian, pasukan muslimin tetap berjuang keras untuk mempertahankan pelabuhan tersebut. Ketika akhirnya Salahuddin Al-Ayyubi tiba, ia memimpin perlawanan kaum muslimin sampai akhirnya mereka berhasil mengusir tentara Salib.

Perlawanan Warga Kota Masyhad Dimulai
Tanggal 12 Juli 1935, warga kota Masyhad di Iran, memulai perlawanan yang terkenal dengan nama "Kebangkitan Masjid Gauharsyad". Perlawanan ini dilancarkan oleh rakyat kota tersebut dalam rangka menentang keputusan raja Iran saat itu, Syah Reza Pahlevi, yang berlawanan dengan syariat Islam, di antaranya, larangan untuk menggunakan jilbab. Perlawanan rakyat yang dipimpin oleh para ulama ini berpusat di Masjid Gauharsyad yang terletak di sisi makam Imam Ridha a.s. Tentara rezim Syah menghadapi perlawnaan rakyat tersebut dengan represif sehingga banyak warga kota Masyhad yang gugur syahid.


Hotel Malik Daud Diledakkan Zionis
Tanggal 12 Juli 1946, hotel Malik Daud di Baitul Maqdis Palestina, diledakkan oleh kelompok teroris Zionis yang bernama kelompok Irgun. Hotel Malik Daud itu banyak dikunjungi oleh warga Palestina. Akibat ledakan tersebut, lebih dari 200 warga Palestina tewas. Di antara para korban terdapat 15 orang Yahudi yang merupakan bukti bahwa kelompok teroris Zionis demi mencapai tujuan mereka tidak segan-segan membunuh saudara sebangsa mereka sendiri.


Kudeta AS di Iran Terbongkar
Tanggal 12 Juli 1980, rencana kudeta di Iran yang didalangi AS terbongkar dan berhasil digagalkan oleh tentara Republik Islam Iran. Kudeta ini direncanakan oleh pihak-pihak dalam negeri yang terkait dengan mantan rezim Syah, yang bekerja sama dengan AS, rezim Zionis, dan rezim Ba'ats Irak. Kudeta yang bertujuan untuk menggulingkan Republik Islam Iran yang baru saja berdiri itu, terjadi dua bulan setelah kegagalan AS dalam serangan militernya ke Tabash, di wilayah timur Iran. Para pelaku kudeta ini berencana, dengan berpangkalan di pangkalan angkatan udara Iran "Nuzhe" di dekat kota Hamedan, mereka akan melancarkan serangan milter ke berbagai gedung penting di Teheran, antara lain gedung Radio dan Televisi Iran dan rumah Imam Khomeini. Namun kudeta ini berhasil terbongkar sebelum sempat dilaksanakan.


Serangan Rezim Zionis ke Lebanon
Tanggal 12 Juli 2006, untuk kesekian kalinya tentara rezim Zionis Israel melancarkan agresi militer ke Lebanon. Israel berdalih, agresi ini dilancarkan untuk membebaskan dua serdadunya yang ditawan oleh gerakan Hizbullah. Tujuan utama rezim zionis Israel menggelar agresinya ke Lebanon yang didukung penuh oleh Washington, sejatinya untuk menumpas gerakan Hizbullah dan melucuti persenjataan kelompok ini, Hizbullah merupakan kekuatan perjuangan rakyat Lebanon dalam melawan penjajah.
Pasukan militer zionis membombardir dan menghancurkan pelbagai fasilitas umum dan infrastruktur Lebanon. Mereka menanggap dengan cara itu, rakyat Lebonan akan didera kesulitan ekonomi dan melepaskan dukungannya kepada Hizbullah. Selama perang berlangsung, pesawat-pesawat tempur Israel telah melancarkan serangan udara sebanyak 10 ribu kali dan lebih dari 10 ribu warga sipil menjadi korban. Namun demikian, rakyat Lebanon pantang mundur dan tetap bertahan mendukung perjuangan Hizbullah.
Di sisi lain, pasukan militer rezim Zionis Israel gagal meraih ambisinya dan menelan kekalahan telak, setelah serangan roket Hizbullah berhasil menghancurkan sejumlah target militer di Israel, dan para pejuang gerakan ini berhasil melumpuhkan serangan darat militer zionis. Sampai-sampai AS yang selama ini mendukung penuh agresi militer Israel, terpaksa mengeluarkan resolusi Dewan Keamanan PBB untuk menggelar gencatan senjata dan penarikan mundur tentara Israel dari tanah Lebanon. Resolusi ini juga menugaskan pasukan penjaga perdamaian PBB untuk ditempatkan di Lebanon.






13 Juli
Kota Roma Terbakar
Tanggal 13 Juli tahun 64, terjadilah kebakaran besar di kota Roma. Karena sebagian besar bangunan pada zaman itu terbuat dari kayu, dalam waktu singkat sebagian besar bangunan kota tersebut beserta sejumlah besar warga kota, hangus terbakar. Kebakaran ini dijadikan alasan oleh kaisar Nero untuk menimpakan kesalahan kepada para penganut Kristen dan melakukan pembunuhan massal terhadap mereka. Lebih dari 100 ribu warga Roma menjadi korban kekejaman Kaisar Nero tersebut.

Perjalanan James Cook Berakhir
Tanggal 13 Juli 1771, berakhirlah ekspedisi laut mengelilingi setengah planet bumi yang dipimpin oleh James Cook. Dalam ekspedisi itu, James Cook dan rombongannya yang terdiri dari para ilmuwan, melakukan berbagai penelitian terhadap tumbuh-tumbuhan, hewan-hewan, dan para penduduk di berbagai kawasan. Di antara anggota rombongan James Cook adalah sebuah tim astronom yang meneliti planet Venus. Perjalanan James Cook dan romobongannya memakan waktu selama tiga tahun, yang dimulai sejak tanggal 26 Juli tahun 1768.


Perang Kursk Berakhir
Tanggal 13 Juli 1943, The Battle of Kursk atau Perang Kursk, yang melibatkan dua juta tentara, 6000 tank, dan 5000 pesawat tempur, berakhir dengan ke

                  

                  

Prosecutors investigate Vatican Bank mafia link

Prosecutors investigate Vatican Bank mafia link

Anti Mafia prosecutors have asked the secretive Vatican Bank to disclose details of an account held by a priest in connection with a money laundering and fraud investigation, it emerged on Sunday.

Father Treppiedi
Image 1 of 4
Father Treppiedi, 36, was serving as a priest in Alcamo, near Trapani, said to be the richest parish on the Mafia's island stronghold of Sicily 
The official request was made more than a month ago but so far the Vatican Bank, known as the Institute for Religious Works, has refused to disclose any records of the account held by father Ninni Treppiedi – who is currently suspended from serving as a priest.
Investigators want to know more about vast sums of money that are said to have passed through his account to establish if they were money laundering operations by on the run Mafia Godfather, Matteo Messina Denaro.

Fall of the Republic-The Presidency Of Barack H Obama-Part 2

G. Edward Griffin: Govt Has Become A 'Crime Syndicate'

Bankers Declare U.S. & Europe Conquered

Bankers Declare U.S. & Europe Conquered

  • Print The Alex Jones Channel Alex Jones Show podcast Prison Planet TV Infowars.com Twitter Alex Jones' Facebook Infowars store
World government now an open secret
Paul Joseph Watson & Alex Jones


A recent CNBC clip in which financial analysts admit to viewers that America is under the control of a group of central bankers who are building a world government is a damning insight into how the establishment has dispensed with any pretense of trying to hide their agenda as it is finalized.

During the video, the host asks guests, “Do we all work for central bankers – is this global governance at last – is it one world – the central bankers in charge….aren’t we all just living and dying for what the central banks do?”
“To answer your question, we are absolutely slaves to central banks,” responds the guest.
“We beholden to what central bankers and policy makers do rather than the fundamentals in the economy,” adds another.

Obama Front Group Attacks Drudge For Linking To Infowars

Obama Front Group Attacks Drudge For Linking To Infowars

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Political establishment in D.C. upset with Internet maverick
Paul Joseph Watson


The political establishment in Washington D.C. is not happy with Internet trailblazer Matt Drudge for linking to Infowars.com, with the Obama front group Think Progress deeming it necessary to devote an entire article to whining about the fact that Drudge promotes alternative media sources.
Obama Front Group Attacks Drudge For Linking To Infowars matt drudge close up
In a piece entitled, Drudge Funneled At Least 30 Million Visitors To Conspiracy Websites In The Last Year, Think Progress’ Aviva Shen throws her toys out of the pram at the fact that, “Drudge drove over 30 million page views to World Net Daily and InfoWars in the last year.”
Shen points out that a single Drudge link can drive as many as 500,000 page views to an article, and that Drudge himself has been called “the Walter Cronkite of his era.”
Shen divulges how Think Progress conducted a study which “found that, throughout the year, Drudge frequently and consistently linked to conspiracy sites,” as if it was some dark and dirty secret that Infowars and WND stories had appeared on DrudgeReport.com.

UAE State Terrorism – Online Activist Stripped of Citizenship – Sent into exile

UAE State Terrorism – Online Activist Stripped of Citizenship – Sent into exile

Comoros Islands Government Agrees to Provide UAE Terror Victims ‘Exile’ Passports for $200 million Cash Deal


         … by  Jim W. Dean, VT Editor                 … featuring  Press TV


Is the Ship of State Going Adrift?
We have a common saying around here at VT, “You just can’t make this stuff up!”
Every time we think a top shocker will never be broken along comes another one to prove us wrong.
Autocratic governments being hostile toward reform is not a new story by any means. It’s the historical norm.
But the UAE is a unique example. Despite the one man rule the economic transformation there has been incredible.
This is a country where once a major cause of death was blood poisoning from untreated tooth abcesses, a result of high consumption of dates and poor oral hygiene.

Condi Rice, Monster in Disguise

Condi Rice, Monster in Disguise

Genocide Denier Condoleezza Rice, Unworthy to Teach at Stanford

And This is Her Good Side

by  Harut Sassounian Publisher,

The California Courier

In her newly published 750-page book, “A Memoir of My Years in Washington: No Higher Honor,” former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice proudly describes her efforts to defeat Armenian Genocide resolutions on two separate occasions.
With great relish, she brags about her success in undermining the acknowledgment of the Armenian Genocide by the U.S. Congress in 1991 and 2007.
A close scrutiny of Rice’s arguments exposes her flawed judgment and ethical lapses.
In her memoir, she relates that her first experience “with this problem” was in 1991, when she worked in the White House as acting special assistant to Pres. George H. W. Bush. Her task was “to mobilize an effort to defeat the resolution in the House of Representatives.”
Gloating over her triumph, she depicts herself as battling..
“the powerful Armenian American lobby” that “has for years pressured Congress to pass a resolution branding the Ottoman Empire’s mass killings of Armenians starting in 1915 as genocide.”
Any mention hat the victims were Christian is often airbrushed from the narrative.

World Economies on Life Support

World Economies on Life Support

by Stephen Lendman


Since crisis economic conditions erupted in fall 2007, resolution has been sorely lacking.
US corporations and America’s super-rich benefitted from over $3 trillion in tax cuts.
Anywhere from $9 trillion to double or triple that amount went to bankers that caused the crisis.
Ordinary Americans have been largely left out. The nation’s economic engine stalled. Recovery is more illusion than reality. Increasingly it looks dangerously troubled. More on that below.
Financial analyst Martin Weiss said he’s “never seen anything like the whirlwinds and dark clouds now encircling the so-called advanced economies of the world.”

Al-Alam and Reuters Report Hillary Clinton Convoy Attack in Israel

Breaking/Confirmed: Sec Clinton Assassination Attempt in Israel (Updated)

“Shoes and Tomatoes in Cairo – Bullets in Israel”


ALLEGED ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT

Al-Alam and Reuters Report Hillary Clinton Convoy Attack in Israel

By Gordon Duff, Senior Editor

Israeli radio and Reuters broke the story then went mysteriously silent, an assassination attempt inside Israel, on Secretary of State Clinton. 
Soon afterward, Iran’s national network, al Alam went public with a translated version which is being boycotted by news services.
Details on the unsuccessful murder attempt on America’s top diplomat below but first some background.
Possibly responsible for the assassination attempt on Clinton is this tale of deceit by Rep. Michelle Bachmann as outlined by CNN’s Andersen Cooper:

US: Fight The Fiat

US: Fight The Fiat – by Lewis E. Lehrman

Papering over U.S. debts and trade imbalances will take more bills than we can print.
The Economic Crisis We Endure Today is only the latest chapter in the century-long struggle to restore financial order in world markets-a struggle whose outcome is inextricably bound up with U.S. prosperity and the promise of the American way of life.
As we think through the consequences of financial disorder, what come to mind are the economic heresies of fascism and bolshevism, and the catastrophic world wars of the 20th century. These historical episodes compel us to remember that floating exchange rates and competitive currency wars became the occasion for violent social disorder and revolutionary civil strife in the first half of the 20th century. They remind us that natural resource rivalry, monetary depreciation, mercantilism, and war clouds have appeared together from time immemorial.

US: Transportation Secretary Wants Us to Be Like Communist China

US: Transportation Secretary Wants Us to Be Like Communist China – by Amy Payne

China’s attempt at a high-speed rail network is fraught with corrupt officials, impossible costs, and deadly safety failures. But U.S. Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood wishes America would follow it as a model.
LaHood told The Cable last week: “The Chinese are more successful [in building infrastructure] because in their country, only three people make the decision. In our country, 3,000 people do, 3 million. In a country where only three people make the decision, they can decide where to put their rail line, get the money, and do it. We don’t do it that way in America.”

US: Fast and furious is not a D.C. law firm

US: Fast and furious is not a D.C. law firm – by Ann Coulter

Most Americans don’t care about whether Attorney General Eric Holder is hiding Fast and Furious documents because they don’t understand the story.
Until someone can tell us otherwise, there is only one explanation for why President Obama’s Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives gave thousands of guns to Mexican drug dealers: It put guns in their hands to strengthen liberals’ argument for gun control.
Precisely because this is such a jaw-dropping accusation — criminality at the highest level of government to score a political point — Republicans refuse to make it.

US: Difficult Economic Lessons

US: Difficult Economic Lessons – by Walter E. Williams

One of the more difficult lessons to teach economics neophytes — and, many times, trained economists — is that economic theory cannot say anything definitive about subjective statements, such as what’s better, good, bad or worse. Let’s try a few examples to make the point.
Cabernet sauvignon wine is better than fume blanc. Turkey is better than pork. Matter in the solid state is better than the plasma state. Each of those statements begs the question: Where’s the proof? With subjective statements such as those, disagreements can go on forever. It’s simply a matter of personal opinion. One person’s opinion of what’s better or worse is just as good as another’s.

US: Romneyconomics: Good but incomplete

US: Romneyconomics: Good but incomplete – by Lewis E. Lehrman

Mitt Romney has articulated the choice we will make in November. We can choose President Obama and a European future—i.e., high unemployment, demographic winter, big government commanding over 50 percent of future output, a welfare state engineered and manipulated by the Washington bureaucracy, the end of American leadership, and, ultimately, national insolvency. Or we can embark once again on the road to rapid economic expansion, through pro-growth tax reform, smaller government, a balanced budget, and sound money. What we need, Romney argues, is an entrepreneurial economy based on the free price mechanism, free markets, free and fair international trade. For Romney the goal of rapid economic growth is full employment, a strong national defense, and a rising American standard of living. These policies are necessary. But are they sufficient?
Romney’s analysis emphasizes the character of presidential leadership, the need for hands-on White House direction of national economic policy. Workable economic policies require not only the right goals but also a strong president capable of leading Congress and the nation in a new direction—away from Obama’s backward-looking statism, and forward to pro-growth tax policies, budgetary equilibrium, and sound monetary policies. Regulations must be radically simplified. The tax code must be comprehensively reformed—with a larger base, fewer loopholes, and lower rates.

US: First Amendment & Federal Elections

US: First Amendment & Federal Elections – by Derwood S. Chase, Jr.

Dear Editor,
I write in regard to your June 4th story “Council OKs Resolution Against Citizens United Ruling” in which the U.S.  Supreme Court found that the First Amendment prohibits the federal government from restricting independent political advertising paid for by corporations or labor unions.
Right now the United States Congress is considering 16 amendments to overturn Citizens United. Most of them give Congress unlimited power to control spending by anyone â€“ individuals, businesses, unions or groups – on federal elections. Two of the amendments even propose prohibiting private spending on elections.

The Toxic Transition in Venezuela

 

If a narco-state or violent crackdown emerges in Venezuela, the White House will no longer be able to avert its attention from the mess or to ‘lead from behind.’
Contrary to statements by Venezuelan caudillo Hugo Chávez, a cancerous tumor discovered in his colon late last month has not been removed, according to my sources. Heeding the self-serving advice of Cuban doctors, Chávez has rejected surgery so that he can return to his public duties as soon as possible and bolster his regime’s ongoing succession strategy. The Castro brothers need him back on the political stage in Venezuela, not in a hospital bed. Meanwhile, back in Caracas, corrupt military leaders are consolidating their power and plotting their political survival as if Chávez were already dead.

Searching for Gorbachev in Caracas

 

The Bolivarian Revolution risks breaking to pieces. With each passing day, Caracas more closely resembles Moscow circa 1991.
When the going gets tough, the tough apply the thinnest veneers of window dressing—or so one would assume of Hugo Chavez, the Venezuelan strongman running for his third six-year presidential term this October.
Venezuela has led the world in inflation for every year since 2007, thanks to the expansionary fiscal policy of his “Bolivarian Revolution,” with consumer price index growth topping 26 percent in January 2012. Last year CPI growth outpaced that of wages by 40 percent, leaving people unable to afford basic goods. Chavez reacted as any good economist, and effectively “banned inflation.” When his Fair Prices and Costs Law took effect in November 2011, the government acquired authority to pre-approve all retail prices in the country. Predictably, this has created shortages of food and other consumer staples, as producers and retailers have no incentive to bring products to market that they cannot profitably sell. The Bolivarian Revolution risks breaking to pieces. With each passing day, Caracas more closely resembles Moscow circa 1991.

The Hayek Effect: The Political Consequences of Planned Austerity

 

Why the political revolt in Greece may not be a fluke, but a harbinger of more revolts to come.
In 2010, Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary named “austerity” as its “Word of the Year,” noting that it had been the subject of more than 250,000 searches on its free website. This sudden flare-up of interest in austerity did not arise because large numbers of people suddenly decided to live like Trappist monks. Rather, it was owing to the austerity programs that the creditor nations of the European Union, led by Germany, had decided to impose on the EU debtor nations, such as Greece, Ireland, Portugal, and Spain. In return for a pledge to continue loaning the debtor nations more money, the creditor nations demanded that the debtors must in effect tighten their belts. This belt-tightening required slashing some of the government-provided benefits and social services that the citizens of the debtor nations have come to take for granted. It also took the form of higher taxes and lower wages.

Eurozone Bonds: Learning from Pre-Nuptial Agreements

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          CAF World Cup Qualifying Review: Nigeria and Ghana held        
Ghana have left themselves with work to do in the return leg of their second-round World Cup qualifying tie after being held to a 0-0 draw in Comoros. Comoros struck the post and had an effort ruled out for offside, while the visitors' best efforts came late in the game as Emmanuel Agyemang-Badu and Andre Ayew rattled the woodwork. Nigeria will empathise with Ghana after failing to beat Swaziland in a disappointing encounter in Lobamba as neither side managed to find the net. Kenya recorded a narrow home win over Cape Verde Islands, with Michael Olunga's ninth-minute strike making the difference. Senegal, meanwhile, pulled off a superb comeback to get a 2-2 draw against Madagascar after falling two goals behind. Faneva Andriatsima opened the scoring in the 27th minute before Njiva Rakotoharimalala made it two at the hour mark, but Moussa Konate and Sadio Mane eventually salvaged a draw for the visitors. Libya proved to too strong for Rwanda at the Stade Olympique in Sousse, Tunisia, with Faisal Saleh deciding the game from the spot early in the second half. Elsewhere, South Africa recorded a 3-1 win over Angola at the Ombaka National Stadium in Benguela. Gelson gifted the hosts an early lead, but Tokelo Rantie and Thamsanqa Gabuza helped South Africa to a 2-1 lead at half-time, with Andile Jali putting the match from 12 yards in the 80th minute. Niger stood no chance against Cameroon as three goals in the space of five minutes before the break effectively decided the match in Niamey. Stephane M'Bia opened the scoring in the 36th minute, before Vincent Aboubakar and Edgar Salli made it 3-0. Ivory Coast did just enough to record a vital away win over Liberia, with former Anderlecht striker Gohi Bi Zoro Cyriac scoring the only goal of the game in the dying minutes of the first half. Finally, Tunisia came from behind to beat Mauritania 2-1 on their own turf. Oumar N'Diaye gifted Mauritania the lead halfway through the first half, yet Wahbi Khazri and Yasin Chikhaoui turned things around after the interval.
          Africa Cup of Nations Qualifying Review: South Sudan make history, Liberia shock Tunisia        
South Sudan earned their first ever competitive victory with a 1-0 win over Equatorial Guinea in their Africa Cup of Nations qualifier on Saturday. The minnows joined the ranks of international football in 2012 and had not found the net since a 3-1 defeat to Kenya in November 2013, but Atak Lual's 52nd-minute strike was enough to seal a 1-0 win in Juba. The momentous result lifts Lee Sung-Je's side to second place in Group C ahead of Benin’s clash with Mali on Sunday. There was similar joy for Liberia, who shocked Group A rivals Tunisia with a 1-0 victory despite being without first-choice goalkeeper Nathaniel Sherman, who reportedly suffered a serious eye injury after inadvertently barging into a glass door at the team's hotel. But a Francis Forkey Doe strike in the 11th minute proved decisive, in the first international match to be held in Monrovia since the lifting of the Ebola ban. Ghana, runners-up to the Ivory Coast in 2015, look well-placed for another finals berth after preserving their 100 per cent record in Group H by edging to a 1-0 win over Rwanda thanks to Mubarak Wakaso's superb 88th-minute free-kick. Morocco were more emphatic in securing their second win in Group F, brushing aside Sao Tome and Principe 3-0. In Group K, Senegal took advantage of Burundi's 2-0 win over Niger with 2-0 win away to Namibia, courtesy of goals from Premier League stars Cheikhou Kouyate and Sadio Mane – a win that leaves them three points clear at the top. Meanwhile, three-time champions Nigeria were held to a disappointing 0-0 draw at Tanzania and could be knocked off the top of Group G should Egypt beat Chad on Sunday, while South Africa's difficulties in Group M continued with a 3-1 defeat to Mauritania. A solitary 25th-minute strike from Tonny Mawejje saw Uganda rise to the top of group D with a 1-0 win away to Comoros, overtaking Burkina Faso, who slumped to a 1-0 defeat at Botswana. Elsewhere, 10-man Seychelles lifted themselves off the bottom of Group J with a 1-1 draw to Ethiopia, while Group E remains wide open after Congo's 1-1 draw with Guinea Bissau.
          Africa Cup of Nations Qualification Preview: Egypt, Nigeria target AFCON return        
Hector Cuper's first key assignment as Egypt coach begins on Sunday as the seven-time continental champions begin qualification for the Africa Cup of Nations. Egypt were absent from the most recent AFCON after bowing out in qualification, with the former Inter boss appointed in March. Cuper's men are at home to Tanzania, while the other fixture in Group G sees 2013 champions Nigeria host Chad. Stephen Keshi's men also failed to qualify for this year's competition and the Super Eagles' qualification build-up has been marred by reports of a bust-up between the coach and midfielder John Obi Mikel. "I don't have a problem with Mikel," Keshi responded this week. "I spoke with him before I invited his fellow players for this game. We don't need him at this moment. In September we might need his services if he is available." Ghana will be heavy favourites to move into the next round from Group H as this year's beaten finalists welcome Mauritius while group rivals Mozambique and Rwanda meet in Maputo. Holders Ivory Coast travel to hosts and automatic qualifiers Gabon for a friendly without influential midfielder Yaya Toure with Sierra Leone and Sudan looking to get some early momentum in the only three-team group. George Weah junior - son of the legendary Liberia striker - could make his international debut for James Debbah's men when they face Togo in Lome. Elsewhere in Group A, Africa's lowest-ranked side Djibouti will hope to pull off a surprise result against Tunisia while Aliou Cisse takes charge of his first competitive Senegal match against Burundi in Dakar. The former Senegal international has been keen to play down his side's favourites tag, but will nonetheless be confident following March's friendly win over Ghana. Group K's other fixture sees COSAFA Cup winners Namibia travel to Niger, while there are also away trips for Libya, Swaziland and Zimbabwe, who travel to Morocco, Guinea and Malawi. Group M favourites Cameroon and South Africa face Mauritania and Gambia, with Cape Verde Islands hosting Sao Tome e Principe and Guinea-Bissau taking on Zambia. Elsewhere, Uganda and Burkina Faso entertain Botswana and Comoros, and Congo and Congo DR take on Kenya and Madagascar. In Group C, Equatorial Guinea - hosts of 2015's competition - welcome Benin as Mali face South Sudan. Guinea-Bissau meet Zambia in Ndola with Algeria taking on Seychelles and Lesotho travelling to Ethiopia.
          Daftar Keanggotaan di WOSM         
Albania Beslidhja Skaut Albania
Algeria Scouts Musulmans Algériens
(Algerian Muslim Scouts)
Angola Associação de Escuteiros de Angola (AEA)
(Scout Association of Angola)
Argentina Scouts de Argentina
(Scouts of Argentina)
Armenia Hayastani Azgayin Scautakan Sharjum Kazmakerputiun (HASK)
(Armenian National Scout Movement)
Australia Scouts Australia
Austria Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Österreichs
(Scouts and Guides of Austria)
Azerbaijan Azerbaican Skaut Assosiasiyasi
(The Association of Scouts of Azerbaijan)
Bahamas The Scout Association of the Bahamas
Bahrain Boy Scouts of Bahrain
Bangladesh Bangladesh Scouts
Barbados Barbados Boy Scouts Association
Belgium
Belize The Scout Association of Belize
Benin Scoutisme Béninois
(Benin Scouting)
Bhutan Bhutan Scout Tshogpa
Bolivia Asociación de Scouts de Bolivia
(The Scout Association of Bolivia)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Council of Scout Associations in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana The Botswana Scouts Association
Brazil União dos Escoteiros do Brasil
(Brazilian Scouts Association)
Brunei Darussalam Persekutuan Pengakap Negara Brunei Darussalam
(Brunei Darussalam National Scout Association)
Bulgaria Organizatsia Na Bulgarskite Skauty (OBS)
(Organization of Bulgarian Scouts)
Burkina Faso
Fédération Burkinabé du Scoutisme
(Scout Federation of Burkina Faso)
  • Les Eclaireurs et Eclaireuses du Burkina Faso (The Scouts and Guides of Burkina Faso)
  • Les Scouts du Burkina Faso (The Scouts of Burkina Faso)
Burundi Association des Scouts du Burundi
(Scout Association of Burundi)
Cameroon Les Scouts du Cameroun/Boy Scouts of Cameroon
Cambodia National Association of Cambodian Scouts
Canada Scouts Canada, with which is affiliatedAssociation des Scouts du Canada
Cape Verde Associação dos Escuteiros de Cabo Verde (A.E.C.V.)
(Scout Association of Cape Verde)
Chad
Fédération du Scoutisme Tchadien
(Scout Federation of Chad)
  • Eclaireurs du Tchad
  • Scouts du Tchad (Scouts of Chad)
Chile Asociación de Guias y Scouts de Chile
(Guide and Scout Association of Chile)
China, Scouts of Scouts of China
Colombia Asociación de Scouts de Colombia
(Scout Association of Colombia)
Comoros Wezombeli (Association Nationale du Scoutisme Comorien)
(The National Scout Association of Comoros)
Congo, The Democratic Republic of The Fédération des Scouts de la République démocratique du Congo
(The Scout Federation of the Democratic Republic of The Congo)
Costa Rica Asociación de Guias y Scouts de Costa Rica
(Association Guides and Scouts of Costa Rica)
Côte-d'Ivoire
Fédération Ivoirienne du Scoutisme
(Scout Federation of Côte d'Ivoire)
  • Les Eclaireurs Laïcs de Côte d'Ivoire
  • Les Eclaireurs Unionistes de Côte d'Ivoire (Unionist Scouts of Côte d'Ivoire)
  • Les Scouts Catholiques de Côte d'Ivoire (The Catholic Scouts of Côte d'Ivoire)
Croatia Savez Izvidaca Hrvatske
(The Scout Association of Croatia)
Cyprus Cyprus Scouts Association
Czech Republic Junák-Svaz Skautu a Skautek
Denmark
Fællesrådet for Danmarks Drengespejdere
(The Danish Scout Council)
Dominica The Scout Association of Dominica
Dominican Republic Asociación de Scouts Dominicanos
(Dominican Scout Association)
Ecuador Asociación de Scouts del Ecuador
(Scout Association of Ecuador)
Egypt Egyptian Scout Federation
El Salvador Asociación de Scouts de El Salvador
(Scout Association of El Salvador)
Estonia Eesti Skautide Ühing (Estonian Scout Association)
Ethiopia Ethiopia Scout Association
Fiji Fiji Scouts Association
Finland Suomen Partiolaiset-Finlands Scouter
France
Scoutisme Français
(French Scouting)
Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Unionistes de France (EEUF)(Unionist Guides and Scouts of France)
Les Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France (EEDF) (Guides and Scouts of France)
Les Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Israélites de France (EEIF) (Jewish Guides and Scouts de France)
 Scouts et Guides de France (SGdF) (Scouts and Guides of France)
Scouts Musulmans de France (SMdF) (Muslim Scouts of France)
Gabon
Fédération Gabonaise du Scoutisme
(Scouting Federation of Gabon)
Eclaireurs et Eclaireuses Unionistes du Gabon (Unionist Scouts of Gabon)
Eclaireuses-Eclaireurs du Gabon (Scouts and Guides of Gabon)
Scouts et Guides Catholiques du Gabon (Catholic Scouts and Guides of Gabon)
Gambia The Gambia Scout Association
Georgia sakartvelos skauturi modzraobis organizatsia
(Georgian Organization of the Scout Movement)
Germany
Ring deutscher Pfadfinderverbände (RdP)
(Scout Federation of Germany)
Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder (BdP) (Guides and Scout Union)
Deutsche Pfadfinderschaft Sankt Georg (DPSG) (German Saint George Scout Association)
Verband Christlicher Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder (VCP) (Christian Guide and Scout Association)
Ghana The Ghana Scout Association
Greece Soma Hellinon Proskopon
(Scout Association of Greece)
Grenada The Scout Association of Grenada
Guatemala Asociación de Scouts de Guatemala
(Scout Association of Guatemala)
Guinea C National Scout Association of Guinea
Guyana The Scout Association of Guyana
Haiti Scouts d'Haïti
(Scouts of Haiti)
Honduras Asociación de Scouts de Honduras
(Scouts Association of Honduras)
Hong Kong The Scout Association of Hong Kong
Hungary Magyar Cserkészszövetség
(Hungarian Scout Association)
Iceland Bandalag íslenskra Skáta
(Icelandic Boy and Girl Scout Association)
India The Bharat Scouts and Guides
Indonesia Gerakan Pramuka
(Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Movement)
Ireland Scouting Ireland
Israel
Hitachdut Hatsofim Ve Hatsofot Be Israel
(Israel Boy and Girl Scouts Federation)
The Arab School Scout Association
The Druze Scouts Association
The Hebrew Scout Association
The Israel Catholic Scouts Association
  • The Israeli Arab Scouts Association
      The Orthodox Scout Association
taly
Federazione Italiana dello Scautismo
(Italian Scout Federation)
Associazione Guide e Scouts Cattolici Italiani (AGESCI) (Association of Catholic Guides and Scouts of Italy)
Corpo Nazionale Giovani Esploratori ed Esploratrici Italiani (CNGEI) (National Corps of Italian Boy Scouts and Girl Guides)
Jamaica The Scout Association of Jamaica
Japan Scout Association of Japan
Jordan Jordanian Association for Boy Scouts and Girl Guides
Kazakhstan Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan (OSMK)
Kenya The Kenya Scouts Association
Kiribati Kiribati Scout Association
Korea, Republic.of Boy Scouts of Korea
Kuwait Kuwait Boy Scouts Association
Latvia Latvijas Skautu un Gaidu Centrala Organizacija
(The Scout and Guide Central Organization of Latvia)
Lebanon Fédération du Scoutisme Libanais
(Lebanese Scout Federation)
One of the associations in the Federation is:
Independence Scouts
Lesotho Lesotho Scouts Association
Liberia Boy Scouts of Liberia
Libyan Arab
Jamahiriya
Public Scout and Girl Guide Movement
Liechtenstein Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Liechtensteins
(Scouts and Guides of Liechtenstein)
Lithuania Lietuvos Skautija (Lithuanian Scouting)
Luxembourg
Lëtzebuerger Guiden a Scouten (LGS) (Guides and Scouts of Luxembourg)
Macedonia, The former Yugoslav
Republic of
Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija
(The Scout Association of The former Yugoslave Republic of Macedonia)
Madagascar
Firaisan'ny Skotisma eto Madagasikara
(Scout Federation of Madagascar)
Tily Eto Madagasikara (Christian Scouts of Madagascar)
Antilin'i Madagasikara (Catholic Scout Association of Madagascar)
Kiadin'i Madagasikara (Scouts of Madagascar)
Malawi Scout Association of Malawi
Malaysia Persekutuan Pengakap Malaysia
(The Scouts Association of Malaysia)
Maldives The Scout Association of Maldives
Malta The Scout Association of Malta
Mauritania Association des Scouts et Guides de Mauritanie
(The Scout and Guide Association of Mauritania)
Mauritius The Mauritius Scout Association
Mexico Asociación de Scouts de México, A.C.
(Scout Association of Mexico)
Moldova, Republic of Organizatia Nationala A Scoutilor Din Moldova
(The National Scout Organization of Moldova)
Monaco Association des Guides et Scouts de Monaco
(Association of Scouts and Guides of Monaco)
Mongolia Mongoliyn Skautiyn Holboo
(The Scout Association of Mongolia)
Montenegro Association of Scouts of Montenegro
Morocco Fédération Nationale du Scoutisme Marocain
(National Federation of Moroccan Scouting)
Mozambique Liga dos Escuteiros de Moçambique
(League of Scouts of Mozambique)
Namibia Scouts of Namibia
Nepal Nepal Scouts
Netherlands Scouting Nederland
(Netherlands Scouting)
New Zealand Scouting New Zealand
Nicaragua Asociación de Scouts de Nicaragua
(Scout Association of Nicaragua)
Niger Association des Scouts du Niger
(Scouts Association of Niger)
Nigeria Boy Scouts of Nigeria
Norway
Speidernes Fellesorganisasjon
(The Guides and Scouts of Norway)
Norges Speiderforbund
(Norwegian Guide & Scout Association)
(YWCA-YMCA Guides and Scouts of Norway)
Oman The National Organisation for Scouts & Guides
Pakistan Pakistan Boy Scouts Association
Palestinian Authority Palestinian Scout Association
Panama Asociación Nacional de Scouts de Panamá
(National Scout Association of Panama)
Papua New Guinea The Scout Association of Papua New Guinea
Paraguay Asociación de Scouts del Paraguay
(Scouts Association of Paraguay)
Peru Asociación de Scouts del Perú
(Scout Association of Peru)
Philippines Boy Scouts of the Philippines
Poland Zwiazek Harcerstwa Polskiego (ZHP)
The Polish Scouting and Guiding Association
Portugal
Federação Escutista de Portugal
(Scout Federation of Portugal)
Associação dos Escoteiros de Portugal (AEP) (The Scout Association of Portugal)
Corpo Nacional de Escutas (CNE) (Escutismo Catolico Portugues) (The Catholic Scout Association of Portugal)
Qatar Qatar Boy Scouts Association
Romania Cercetasii României
(The National Scout Organization of Romania)
Russian Federation Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators (RAS/N)
Rwanda Association des Scouts du Rwanda
(Scout Association of Rwanda)
San Marino Associazione Guide e Esploratori Cattolici Sammarinesi
(The Catholic Guide and Scout Association of San Marino)
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian Boy Scouts Association
Senegal
Confédération Sénégalaise du Scoutisme
(Senegalese Scout Confederation)
Eclaireurs du Sénégal (Scouts of Senegal)
Les Scouts du Sénégal (The Scouts of Senegal)
Serbia Scout Association of Serbia
Seychelles The Scout Association of Seychelles
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Scouts Association
Singapore The Singapore Scout Association
Slovakia Slovensky skauting
(Slovak Scouting)
Slovenia Zveza tabornikov Slovenije
(Scout Association of Slovenia)
South Africa South African Scout Association
Spain
Federación de Escultismo en España (FEE)*
(Scouting Federation in Spain)
Federación de Asociaciones de Scouts de España
(ASDE) (Scouts of Spain)
Movimiento Scout Católico (MSC) (The Catholic Scout Movement) *with which is affilliated:
Federació Catalana d'Escoltisme i Guiatge (FCEG) (The Federation of Scouts and Guides in Catalonia)
Acciò Escolta de Catalunya
Escoltes Catalans
Minyons Escoltes/Guies Sant Jordi de Catalunya
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Scout Association
Saint Lucia The Saint Lucia Scout Association
Saint Vincent and The Grenadines The Scout Association of Saint Vincent & The Grenadines
Sudan Sudan Boy Scouts Association
Suriname Boy Scouts van Suriname
(Boy Scouts of Suriname)
Swaziland Emavulandlela Swaziland Scout Association
Sweden
Svenska Scoutråde t
(The Swedish Guide and Scout Council)
Frälsningsarméns Scoutförbund
(Salvation Army Guide and Scout Association)
KFUK- FKUMs Scoutförbund
(Swedish YWCA-YMCA Guide and Scout Association)
Nykterhetsrörelsens Scoutförbund
(Swedish Temperance Guide and Scout Association)
SMU-Scout
(Guide and Scout Organization of the Swedish Covenant Youth)
Svenska Scoutförbundet
(Swedish Guide and Scout Association)
Switzerland Swiss Guide and Scout Movement
Syrian Arab Republic Scouts of Syria
Tajikistan Ittihodi Scouthoi Tochikiston / Associatsia Skautov Tadjikistana
(Scout Association of Tajikistan)
Tanzania, United Republic of Tanzania Scouts Association
Thailand The National Scout Organization of Thailand
Togo Association Scoute du Togo
(Scout Association of Togo)
Trinidad and Tobago The Scout Association of Trinidad & Tobago
Tunisia Les Scouts Tunisiens
(The Scouts of Tunisia)
Turkey Turkiye Izcilik Federasyonu
(Scouting and Guiding Federation of Turkey)
Uganda The Uganda Scouts Association
Ukraine National Organization of Scouts of Ukraine
          Community Event        
Name * What would you like to invite the community to? (Ballet performance, rugby game, chess tournament, piano recital, etc...) * Wanna give some more details? Date/Time * Where will it be held? * AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBhutanBoliviaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBrazilBruneiBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaColombiComorosCongo (Brazzaville)CongoCosta RicaCote d'IvoireCroatiaCubaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEast Timor (Timor Timur)EcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFijiFinlandFranceGabonGambia, TheGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGreeceGrenadaGuatemalaGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHondurasHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIranIraqIrelandIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, NorthKorea, SouthKuwaitKyrgyzstanLaosLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacedoniaMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMarshall IslandsMauritaniaMauritiusMexicoMicronesiaMoldovaMonacoMongoliaMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepaNetherlandsNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNorwayOmanPakistanPalauPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPolandPortugalQatarRomaniaRussiaRwandaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint VincentSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbia and MontenegroSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyriaTaiwanTajikistanTanzaniaThailandTogoTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVatican CityVenezuelaVietnamYemenZambiaZimbabwe Website Upload Flyer or Photo (optional) Prev Next Submit
          M.NOMIZED - Different Ways - Part 2        
itunes pic
DIFFERENT WAYS - PART 2 FSCD09 - P.2000. Track listing: 01 - SALLE DE CONTROLE (with Fervex - France) - Mp3 02 - Acid Space (with Mr. Moto - Germany) 03 - Siemprevivas Y Socomoros (with I.Q.C.M. - Spain) 04 - Confidence (with Messy - Holland) 05 - Zoomed (with Megatory - England) 06 - Chinese Garden (with Uranium 235 - France) M.NOMIZED: Synthesizers, Loops, Sampler, Tapes, Programming, Treatments, Cds, Percussion, Soundscapes. Recorded and mixed at Fraction Studio (France). Remastering and Sound Re Engeneering by Siegfried Grundmann-Neubert (Germany). Music composed by M.Nomized, Fervex, Mr. Moto, I.Q.C.M., Messy, Megatory and Uranium 235. " Thanks to the labels G-Spot Productions (Holland), Cauldron Music (France), Music & Elsewhere (England), Fraktion Basik (France) and Fraction Studio (France. " P.2000 FRACTION STUDIO.
          Sudafrica Rand(ZAR)/Comoros Franc(KMF)        
1 Sudafrica Rand = 35.19891 Comoros Franc
          Enquête Démographique et de Santé 1996        
Enquête Démographique et de Santé 1996 EDS 1996 / DHS 1996 Demographic and Health Survey 1996 COM_1996_DHS_v01_M, ["Centre National de Documentation et de Recherche Scientifique"] - Comoros
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          Are the conditions in the immigration detention center in Mayotte in violation of article 3 of the Convention ?        
Mayotte (Maore) is one of the 4 main islands of the Comoros. Mayotte is still administrated by France despite several UN General Assembly resolutions calling since 1976 for “France withdrawal” (A/RES/31/4, A/RES/37/65, A/RES/49/18). On January 18th 1995, the French police started requiring all citizens of the other islands of the Comoros to obtain a visa […]
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          Privacy Takes Center Stage in Uruguay        

Last week, the 34th Annual Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners’ Conference was held in Punta del Este, Uruguay. The event brings together international regulators whose mandate is to uphold individuals’ rights to privacy. Preceding the official gathering of data protection authorities was The Public Voice, a daylong event hosted by an international coalition of civil organizations, with the Electronic Privacy Information Center taking the lead on organizing events this year. EFF, a part of this coalition, delivered a presentation during a panel discussion about global developments in privacy standards.

In a digital age marked by ever-increasing advancements in biometric identification, online surveillance, behavioral targeting, geolocation and other emerging technology and practices, there is a new urgency for strong standards that give individuals control over their personal information, particularly since it can be collected, aggregated, and used without their knowledge in the digital realm.

The privacy events featured discussions on the ongoing development of international standards as well as the growing threats to the fundamental right to privacy in the digital age. Below are some highlights from the civil society event and the data protection commissioners’ conference.

Strengthening EU Data Protection Regulation

At the Public Voice Conference, Article 29 Working Party Chair Jacob Kohnstamm, chairman of the Dutch Data Protection Authority, said the draft European Union Data Protection Regulation now under consideration should be strengthened. In particular, he said it was important to ensure that the concept of “explicit consent” – when data collectors get permission from individuals to collect personal information, rather than just assuming that consent is implied – is not weakened. He also said the Article 29 Working Party would issue an opinion early next year regarding a provision on “purpose limitation,” which governs how entities may use the information they collect. Kohnstamm said the draft regulation currently appears to contain a loophole that is too permissive and should be addressed.

Safeguarding Privacy in Countries with Weak Rule of Law

Speaking at the Public Voice event, attorney and human rights advocate Renata Avila, a Global Voices contributor, said the need for data protection regulations is both more acute and more difficult to obtain in Guatemala. With a fragile government that cannot even be counted on to enforce the law effectively in cases of murder, there is a particular need in Guatemala for individuals to have assurance that their personal information is not being misused or collected without their consent, especially by private security companies.

Security measures such as surveillance cameras and collection of biometric information are increasing in response to violence. All of this is occurring in a context where no specific law for the protection of personal data exists, and the dominant mindset is that any move to protect individuals’ personal rights to privacy is contrary to the goals of security.

Yes, Consumers Really Do Care About Privacy

Do consumers really care about privacy? Two speakers, Frank Torres and Brad Smith from Microsoft, addressed this question and concluded that the answer is yes, even if consumers also like the personalization that can be a product of practices like online behavioral advertising. According to a Pew research study referenced by Torres during the Public Voice Conference, 54 percent of consumers decided not to install phone apps because of concerns about sharing of information, while 30 percent uninstalled mobile apps due to privacy concerns. Smith, who spoke at the privacy commissioners’ conference, said Microsoft conducted its own research, too. “We thought it would make sense to go back & learn what consumers want,” he said. “What we found in the United States, the United Kingdom, France and Germany is that most people believe tracking goes too far.”

Surveillance Technology is Big in Africa

During the Public Voice conference, Gus Hosein of Privacy International described how shocked he and colleagues were when they started going to surveillance technology trade shows as part of the Big Brother, Inc. project to learn which governmental agencies were interested in shopping for software that has the capability to be used for repression. One notable attendee was a representative from the government of South Sudan, which became an independent state a mere six months ago. Notably, it was mostly British and German firms that were peddling the surveillance kits, he added. At the privacy commissioners conference, Hosein shared some of his research on vendors of biometric technology, which is increasingly being used in refugee camps. He noted that the UN Democracy Fund had bankrolled biometric voter registration in Benin, Cape Verde, Comoros Islands, The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Sierra Leone. In the DRC, $40 million was spent on biometric kits while $101 million was spent for voter registration – but a leaked report revealed that inaccuracy was a glaring issue, with 700,000 double registrations.

Privacy Implications of Big Data

Security expert and author Bruce Schneier, who spoke at the Public Voice Event, said he thought more attention should be devoted to the privacy implications of big data, which makes it possible for data collectors to identify and classify individuals based on their habits. “As soon as we involve a computer, data is generated,” Schneier explained. “Data is a byproduct of socialization.” He added that the low cost of data storage has helped give rise to big data. It’s cheaper to save everything just in case it might be valuable, he said, than to figure out how to sort and cull valuable information. “That’s why we have big data.”

In all, both The Public Voice and the 34th Annual Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners’ Conference presented a rare and important opportunity for advocates working on privacy issues to convene, share information about developments in privacy standards throughout the world, and get their message across to world governments. At the Public Voice Event, EFF delivered a presentation on U.S. developments on the protection of privacy in the form of the Obama Administration’s proposed Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights framework. As we noted, there is still a long way to go before adequate standards are in place to safeguard individual’s personal information in the digital realm. But with a global coalition of privacy advocates on the case, the voice of the public interest will not go unheard.


          Activating Global Law         

PDF version

A review of Butterfly Politics by Catharine A. MacKinnon (Harvard University Press, 2017).

***

Small actions can have highly complex and large impacts, and Catharine MacKinnon uses this concept, the “butterfly effect,” to explain how critical interventions can produce radical transformation in the gender system. She exposes through 40 years of her legal battles an emerging global normative system confronting sexual inequality. This is my reading of this highly complex book with many possible readings. 

That normative system is global in the sense that there is neither national legislation nor an international treaty fully defining it; connections must be affirmatively established, and national and international boundaries are blurred. The normative system described in the book includes the first U.S. Supreme Court decision on sexual harassment as a legal claim against sex discrimination; the U.S. Attorney General Commission report released the same year connecting the consumption of pornography with sexual abuse and the sexualized denigration of women; the Canadian Supreme Court’s groundbreaking embrace of the theory of substantive equality; and international institutions’ recognition of rape as a form of torture and as an act of genocide. It also extends to MacKinnon’s discussion with prostituted women in India about a Swedish law criminalizing those who buy people for sexual use but that does not criminalize those who are bought and sold in prostitution.

The global normative system MacKinnon describes is emerging because it started just a few decades ago and is still developing in many directions. In some of the cases recounted, MacKinnon was the one who presented for the first time the ideas that have become established; in others she remains one of the many voices of protest and dissent. In her own words: “We start impossible post-revolutionary, so radical we can’t possibly be taken seriously, then suddenly we are post-feminism—always too late or too early, ahead of or behind their curve.”

MacKinnon’s analytical method is unique in the legal arena. She describes an “orderly disorder analysis in complex systems of nonlinear dynamics producing difficult to predict outcomes initiated from unexpected small locales.” She connects some dots and suggests the emergence of a new normative system without pretending to be exhaustive. She is exposing a vision to be followed, not a result to be quantified. She is not just recognizing the complexity of the system but is inviting us to embrace it as the norm.

Last but not least, MacKinnon is a legal activist proposing that the law and its institutions could be a vital, continuing part of women’s empowerment. She is well aware that the legal system normally opposes change, but she also understands that it could, with creativity, serve as a means of legitimizing women’s outrage. She affirms that the law and politics of gender inequality are neither simply deterministic, as much as legal realism would have it, nor cynically despairing, as critical legal theory could lead one to believe.

She is also, however, warning us: challenging the settled distribution of power—especially in the real world and particularly when there are uncomfortable consequences—will be punished by the academy. Paradigm smashers or even paradigm questioners are told that they don’t know what they are talking about. She considers that academic freedom is used paradoxically to silence dissent through exclusion and denigration.

The book illustrates how small actions in a collective context can produce systemic changes, an idea that resonates with me. I witnessed this dynamic in my country, Argentina, when the mothers of those who were secretly abducted transformed a simple walk around a monument into the main form of protest again a brutal military dictatorship. A few years later, in 1985, the generals who had led that dictatorship for seven years were in the dock, and I had the privilege of being one of the prosecutors requesting their conviction.

Later, as chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, I witnessed how Turkey’s activists, challenging the Israeli blockade of the Gaza Strip, provided jurisdiction to the ICC by registering one of the ships that was part of the flotilla—the Mavi Marmara—in the Comoros, a state party to the Rome Statute. So when Israeli Special Forces boarded the Marmara under the Comoros flag on May 31, 2010, the actions were committed under the ICC’s jurisdiction.  Comoros referred the situation to the court and as a consequence the ICC is considering whether to intervene.

The “butterfly” metaphor can animate collective political activism and support advocacy for equality at a crucial time. In the 18th century, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson and other activists transformed humanity; they created new software, the U.S. Constitution, and the hardware to implement it. MacKinnon is a 21st-century thinker, one of the few proposing global software that could run on the old national hardware. She is encouraging multidimensional political thinking, precise engagement, principled creativity, imagination, instinct and adaptability: small actions in a collective context producing systemic changes.


          TRAFFIC CONTROL AREA OF THE WORLD        
TC Area 1
North America
South America
Bermuda
West Indies
Hawaiian Island
All of the North and South American Continents and the Islands adjacent there to Greenland, Bermuda, the West Indies and the islands of the Caribbean sea, the Hawaiian Island (Including Midway and Palmyra)
� TC1 � North Atlantic sub area, (7 Countries)
Canada, Greenland, Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, USA (including Alaska, Hawaii), Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands US
� TC 1 � Mid Atlantic Sub � area (38 Countries) - Area 1
Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda. Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Cayman Island, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, EI Salvador, French Guiana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, St Kitts & Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent & the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, Turks & Caicos Islands, Venezuela, Virgin Islands (British).
� TC1 � South America sub Area (14 Countries)
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela.
� TC1 Mexico sub-area
Between: Canada, USA (excluding Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, US) and Mexico.
� TC1 Caribbean sub-area (see Note 1)
a) Between: USA (excluding Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, US) and Bermuda, Bahamas, The Caribbean Islands, Guyana, Suriname, French, Guiana
b) Between: Canada, Mexico, and Bermuda Bahamas, The Caribbean Islands (including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands) Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana
c) 1) Within the area composed of Bermuda, Bahamas, The Caribbean Island (including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, US)
2) Between the area referred to in (i) above and Guyana, Suriname French Guiana.
TC1 Long haul sub-area (sea Note 1)
� a) Between: Canada, Mexico, USA and Central America, south America,
� b) Between Bermuda, Bahamas, the Caribbean Islands, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana and central America South America.
� c) Between Central America ad South America
 TC2 Area
Europe
Africa
Middle East
Asia (Western Side)
South Asians Sub Continent
TC Area 2
Europe (as defined below), Africa and islands adjacent thereto, Ascension Island and that part of Asia West of Ural Mountain including Iran and the Middle East as defined.
� TC2 within Europe sub-area
Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Armenia Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia, and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faeroe Island, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, (Republic of), Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, From (Yugoslav) Republic of ) Malta, Monaco, Moldova (Republic of),
Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, (including Azores and Madeira), Romania, Russia (in Europe), San Marino, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia) Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, (including Canary Islands), Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom.
� TC2 Within Middle East sub-area
Bahrain Egypt, Iran, (Islamic republic of), Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, United Arab Emirates, (Comprised of Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah, Umm al Qaiwain), Yemen, (Republic of).
� TC2 Within Africa sub-area
Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon (Republic of), Cape Verde (Republic of), Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo(Brazzaville),Congo (Kinshasa).Cote d� lvoire, Djibouti, Equatorial guinea,Eritrea,Ethiopia,Gabon,Gambia,Ghana,Guinea,Guinea-Bissau,Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya Arab Jamahiriya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayetta, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Reunion, Rwanda, Sao Tome and principle, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa. Swaziland, Tanzania, (united Republic of), Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
 TC Area 3
Asia (Eastern Side)
South East Asia
Japan & Korea
Australia New Zealand
 TC area 3
Asia and the Islands adjacent thereto expect the portion included in Area 2, the East Indies, Australia, New Zealand and the Islands of the Pacific Ocean except those included in Area 1
� TC3 South Asian subcontinent sub-area
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, (including Andaman Islands), Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.
� TC3 South East Asia sub-area
Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, (excluding Hong Kong SAR and Macao SAR), Chinese Taipei, Guam, Hong Kong SAR (China), Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia (includes Caroline Island except Palau Island Group), Mongolia, Myanmar, Northern Mariana Island, Palau, Philippines, Russia (in Asia), Singapore, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor Lester, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam.
� TC3 South West Pacific sub-area
American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Kiribati (Canton and Ender bury Islands), Nauru, New Caledonia (including Loyalty Islands), New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Samoa (Independent State of), Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna Islands.
International sale indicators
The sale and ticket issuance are both in the country of commencement of transportation. SITI will also apply to tickets:
SITI

� Sold and issued in Scandinavia for travel originating in Scandinavia
� Sold and issued in the area comprised of Canada and USA for travel originating in Canada or USA
The sale is made in the country of commencement of transportation and the ticket issuance is outside the country of commencement of transportation.
SITO will also apply to tickets:
SITO
� Sold in Scandinavia but issued outside Scandinavia for travel originating in Scandinavia
� Sold in Canada or USA but issued outside Canada or USA for travel originating in Canada or USA

The sale is made outside the country of commencement of transportation and the ticket issuance is in the country of commencement of transportation.
SOTI will also apply to tickets
SOTI
� Sold outside Scandinavia but issued in Scandinavia for travel originating in Scandinavia
� Sold outside Canada or USA but issued in Canada or USA for travel originating in Canada or USA
SOTO
The sale and ticket issuance are both outside the country of commencement of transportation.

by ASFAND TANVEER


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          Cost of clinical trials worries donors        

The more medical successes there are, the more it costs to find the next one, prompting donors to demand more from researchers carrying out large-scale trials of drugs, vaccines and global health impacts.

“As a funder, I hate clinical trial applications,” said Jimmy Whitworth, head of international activities at the science funding division of UK-based Wellcome Trust, which finances health research.

Clinical trial costs have spiralled in recent years - one recent report estimated a 70 percent cost rise per patient between 2008 and 2011 - but without sound evidence of beneficial medicinal effect, regulatory agencies will not approve.

A clinical drug trial can take up to 12 years, enrol thousands of participants across continents, and cost from as much as US$1.3 billion to nearly $12 billion for each new drug before it is approved for public use.

And the costs keep climbing. “We need other ways of funding that are more flexible, quicker,” said Geoff Garnett, deputy director of the HIV Department at the US-based Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

“I think a lot of what we should be doing is public health trials rather than clinical trials,” Garnett commented. “If we bog down our public health trials with clinical trial requirements, then we miss out on some of the important behavioural and organizational interventions that make clinical care and prevention work much better.”

Why so costly?

A greater number of participants must be tested in more settings, including those living where reports of a particular disease are falling, to determine whether improvements are the result of the proposed intervention or are being produced by existing ones.

Bloated trials mean more researchers, institutes and funders, which in turn increases regulatory requirements.

“The reality is, trials are getting steadily larger and more expensive… regulation is becoming ever more complicated,” said Chris Witty, research director at the UK Department for International Development (DFID). “We’re paying more and more for less and less.”

Too ambitious

As researchers compete for dwindling research and development dollars, donors criticize overly ambitious proposals.

“The timetables are often extremely optimistic, so there is a real problem in that funding may run out before the research question is actually answered, said the Wellcome Trust’s Whitworth. “Frankly, very often clinical trials don’t look great value for money.”

HIV research has tended to carry out trials in the most expensive way, Witty said, noting that researchers often make poor correlations between cost and the potential impact of a study.

Donors and researchers are looking at partnerships and other ways to bring down costs, including “adaptive testing”, which uses real-time data to modify an ongoing trial.

New funding

In 2010, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation pledged $10 billion to research and develop vaccines for some of the world’s poorest countries and its grants database shows more than $70 million going to clinical trials since 2004.

In the UK, the Wellcome Trust, the Medical Research Council (MRC) and DFID have committed $57 million to fund late-stage trials of interventions in cash-strapped countries.

“Give us the evidence,” said Wendy Ewart, deputy chief executive and director of strategy at MRC. “Make the case for future funding.”

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95507 200709057.jpg Feature Health Cost of clinical trials worries donors IRIN LONDON Global Afghanistan Africa Armenia Angola Saudi Arabia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Burkina Faso Bahrain Burundi Benin Bhutan Botswana Belarus East Africa DRC Central African Republic Congo Côte d’Ivoire Cameroon Comoros Cape Verde Djibouti Algeria Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Georgia Ghana Great Lakes Gambia Guinea Equatorial Guinea Guinea-Bissau HORN OF AFRICA Haiti Indonesia Israel Inde Iraq Iran Jordan Kenya Kyrgyzstan Cambodia Kuwait Kazakhstan Laos Lebanon Sri Lanka Liberia Lesotho Libya Morocco Middle East and North Africa Madagascar Mali Myanmar Mauritania Mauritius Maldives Malawi Moldova Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Nepal Oman Palestine Papua New Guinea Philippines Pakistan Qatar Russia Rwanda Southern Africa South Africa Seychelles Sudan Sierra Leone Senegal Somalia South Sudan Sao Tome and Principe Syria Swaziland Turkmenistan Chad Togo Thailand Tajikistan Timor-Leste Tunisia Tanzania Ukraine Uganda Uzbekistan Vietnam West Africa Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe
          Where to watch prices        

Against a global background of steadily climbing food prices, IRIN lists a selection of websites that offer some useful insights into how, why and where food is becoming more expensive.



• UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) food price index



This monthly price list consults private sector as well as government sources for prices and export orders. It is officially accepted by countries and used by governments, policy-makers, humanitarian agencies and financial institutions.



In its April edition the index showed that food prices had declined but this was a temporary dip reflecting the crises in North Africa and Japan in March, which delayed cereal purchases.



The FAO food price index includes an average of the trading prices of five essential commodities - cereals, cooking oil, dairy products, meat and sugar. The average value of the export share of each of these commodities between 2000 and 2004 forms the base for making comparisons.



The month-to-month changes in the prices of each of these commodities is shown in graphs based on detailed information on the prices of a broad range of commodities, including 11 kinds of oils, various varieties of rice and kinds of meat.



• FAO Global Food Price Monitor



If you need more details on how global cereal prices are affecting individual countries then consult the FAO Global Food Price Monitor.



Information from markets and FAO offices around the world feed into this information service, which has also created a food price tool. With a few clicks you can access the price of a particular food commodity in any country.



• The World Food Programme (WFP) Market Monitor



If you are a policy maker or a humanitarian aid worker and need to find out how food prices are affecting the purchasing power of people in 63 vulnerable countries, then consult this quarterly bulletin. 



The April edition, covering the first quarter of 2011, reported that in 44 of the 63 countries monitored, the overall basic food basket had increased more than 10 percent above the 5-year average.
























Read more
 EASTERN AFRICA: Consumers, traders feel the burn as prices skyrocket
 UGANDA: As food prices bite, HIV-positive people turn to kitchen gardens
 VIETNAM: Struggling to cope with rising prices
 AFGHANISTAN: Government stockpiling wheat ahead of expected drought
 Biofuels make a comeback as prices rise

In 16 of the countries the cost of the food basket had increased more than 10 percent since the last quarter of 2010, and by more than 20 percent in Ghana, Somalia, Afghanistan, Georgia, and El Salvador.



The market monitor uses information collected by WFP field offices and in the April edition it also examined the impact of fuel prices on essential food commodities. It noted that the highest increases in fuel prices occurred in Ethiopia and Haiti, where fuel subsidies have been scaled back, and in Malawi and Uganda.



• World Bank Food Price Watch



The World Bank has begun producing regular food prices bulletins, using its own food price index based on information drawn from its offices across the world, the FAO food price index, and the US Department of Agriculture, which also regularly produces updates on global supplies of food commodities.



The information is detailed and often contains useful analyses not found on other websites. The current update looks at the projected impact of continued food price increases on poverty.



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92568 2008070416.jpg News Food Health Where to watch prices IRIN JOHANNESBURG Global Afghanistan Africa Armenia Angola Saudi Arabia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Burkina Faso Bahrain Burundi Benin Bhutan Botswana Belarus East Africa DRC Central African Republic Congo Côte d’Ivoire Cameroon Comoros Cape Verde Djibouti Algeria Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Georgia Ghana Great Lakes Gambia Guinea Equatorial Guinea Guinea-Bissau HORN OF AFRICA Haiti Indonesia Israel Inde Iraq Iran Jordan Kenya Kyrgyzstan Cambodia Kuwait Kazakhstan Laos Lebanon Sri Lanka Liberia Lesotho Libya Morocco Middle East and North Africa Madagascar Mali Myanmar Mauritania Mauritius Maldives Malawi Moldova Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Nepal Oman Palestine Papua New Guinea Philippines Pakistan Qatar Russia Rwanda Southern Africa South Africa Seychelles Sudan Sierra Leone Senegal Somalia Sao Tome and Principe Syria Swaziland Turkmenistan Chad Togo Thailand Tajikistan Timor-Leste Tunisia Tanzania Ukraine Uganda Uzbekistan Vietnam West Africa Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe
          Stillbirths "absent from global health agenda"        

The annual number of stillbirths around the world is more than double the number of people who die from HIV-related causes, according to a new report that says this widely overlooked epidemic could be dramatically mitigated with better antenatal care.



Some 2.64 million foetuses die after the 28th week of pregnancy, most of them in low- and middle-income countries, according the report published by The Lancet.



While the number of stillbirths globally has fallen from an estimated three million in 1995, the decline lags behind progress in reducing deaths in children under the age of five. The series authors say the lack of recognition of the issue at a global health level means not enough is being done to prevent more babies from dying.



"Parental groups must join with professional organizations to bring a unified message to UN agencies regarding the need to include stillbirths in global health policy."



The authors report that grieving mothers are often disenfranchised from their communities; stillbirths can also affect future parenting and lead to divorce. In many countries, bereavement counselling is not widely available for families dealing with depression after a stillbirth.



"Behind the statistics are individual stories of families devastated by the loss of their precious child," Janet Scott, research manager at Sands, a British stillbirths and neonatal death charity, said in The Lancet. "A baby who dies before he or she is born is no less loved and cherished, the grief and pain for the parents no less agonizing and enduring, and the guilt at not being able to protect that child no less intense."



According to the UN World Health Organization, the five main causes of stillbirth are childbirth complications, maternal infections in pregnancy, maternal disorders such as hypertension and diabetes, foetal growth restriction and congenital abnormalities.









''A baby who dies before he or she is born is no less loved and cherished, the grief and pain of the parents no less agonizing and enduring''

Health facilities overwhelmed



At Madiany Hospital in Rarieda District in western Kenya's Nyanza Province, doctors and midwives deal with stillbirths on a daily basis; health workers are overwhelmed by expectant mothers from the entire district, even though the number of women who seek antenatal care is a mere fraction of what it should be.



"We are just one hospital serving a whole district with a huge population. To reduce cases of irregular antenatal visits among pregnant mothers - one of the biggest contributing factors to stillbirths - we need to build the capacity of lower level health centres to provide antenatal care," Sylvia Warom, in charge of the hospital's maternity ward, told IRIN.



"Many women come to the hospital when they realize they are pregnant and you never see them again until they are ready to deliver; it is unfortunate because many come to deliver already dead children," she added.



In rural Nyanza, health centres are few and far between, and many women lose their babies on the long journey from home to the hospital, while others lose babies by choosing to deliver at home. More than half of all Kenyan women deliver their babies without the benefit of skilled medical professionals.



According to The Lancet series, an estimated 1.2 million of all stillbirths happen during labour and delivery, highlighting the need to increase the number of women delivering babies with skilled birth attendants present.



Better healthcare, better data



"In Uganda only 42 percent of women receive skilled attended delivery," said Robina Biteyi, national coordinator of the Uganda chapter of The White Ribbon Alliance, an international maternal health NGO. "It is estimated that 15 percent of all pregnancies are likely to develop life-threatening complications and will need emergency obstetric care but in Uganda, only 24 percent have access to it."



The authors of The Lancet series noted that measures to reduce stillbirths often overlapped with those to reduce maternal and child deaths. Some recommended interventions include: skilled care at birth and emergency obstetric care taking priority in settings with the highest burden and the weakest health systems; provision of basic information and service access to health-care users and ensuring health-care providers have skills, knowledge, and resources.





















Read more
 Experts seek WHO nod for postpartum haemorrhage drug
 MDGs: Make the most of the next five years
 RWANDA: Maternal and child health on the right track
 PAKISTAN: Population growth rate adds to problems

Other measures include the provision of folic acid supplements, supplying insecticide-treated nets in malaria-endemic areas and routine syphilis screening during antenatal visits.



"We need to improve access to family planning; there is an unmet need for family planning of 41 percent in Uganda," said Biteyi. "There is also an urgent need to increase the number of health workers and improve their services of employment and ensure retention; currently Uganda is short of 2,000 midwives," said Biteyi.



The authors further noted that there was a dearth of information on the subject of stillbirths, and to effectively tackle the problem it would be necessary to develop mechanisms to monitor stillbirths and better understand their causes.



"To prioritize stillbirth prevention, health professionals need data on rates, causes, and preventive opportunities, as well as global leadership," they said.



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92476 200702263.jpg News Human Rights Health Stillbirths "absent from global health agenda" IRIN NAIROBI Global Afghanistan Africa Armenia Angola Saudi Arabia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Burkina Faso Bahrain Burundi Benin Bhutan Botswana Belarus East Africa DRC Central African Republic Congo Côte d’Ivoire Cameroon Comoros Cape Verde Djibouti Algeria Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Georgia Ghana Great Lakes Gambia Guinea Equatorial Guinea Guinea-Bissau HORN OF AFRICA Haiti Indonesia Israel Inde Iraq Iran Jordan Kenya Kyrgyzstan Cambodia Kuwait Kazakhstan Laos Lebanon Sri Lanka Liberia Lesotho Libya Morocco Middle East and North Africa Madagascar Mali Myanmar Mauritania Mauritius Maldives Malawi Moldova Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Nepal Oman Palestine Papua New Guinea Philippines Pakistan Qatar Russia Rwanda Southern Africa South Africa Seychelles Sudan Sierra Leone Senegal Somalia Sao Tome and Principe Syria Swaziland Turkmenistan Chad Togo Thailand Tajikistan Timor-Leste Tunisia Tanzania Ukraine Uganda Uzbekistan Vietnam West Africa Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe
          Protection takes centre stage in new Sphere guidelines        

Avoiding exposing vulnerable people to further harm, ensuring their access to impartial aid and assisting them to claim their rights and recover from abuse are some of the guidelines given to humanitarian actors in a new edition of the Sphere handbook, a set of common principles and universal standards for aid delivery.



Incorporating a new chapter on protection principles, the third edition of the Sphere Handbook, Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response (2011), stresses that protection is an intrinsic aspect of all humanitarian response.



"The handbook incorporates a stronger focus on protection and safety of affected populations and considers emerging issues like climate change, disaster risk reduction, disasters in an urban setting, education, as well as early recovery of services, livelihoods and governance capacity of affected communities," Maxine Clayton, head of the Inter Agency Working Group (IAWG), said.



Philip Wijmans, Kenya's country representative for the Lutheran World Federation (LWF), said: "This new edition of the Sphere handbook is a lifeline for humanitarian aid workers... it marks the beginning of a roll-out strategy."



Besides the chapter on protection, the handbook incorporates a rewritten Humanitarian Charter and restructured chapters on core standards as well as minimum standards.



According to the Sphere Project, at least 650 experts and more than 300 organizations in 20 countries were involved in the preparation of the 2011 edition, which is aimed at improving the quality of aid given to communities affected by natural disasters and armed conflict.



"The Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards will not of course stop humanitarian crises from happening, nor can they prevent human suffering," the Sphere project said in a statement marking the launch. "What they offer, however, is an opportunity for the enhancement of assistance with the aim of making a difference to the lives of people affected by disaster."



Launched alongside the Sphere handbook was Preventing Corruption in Humanitarian Operations by Transparency International Kenya (TI Kenya), the anti-corruption NGO. It is a practical guide to help aid organizations deal with corruption in their operations.


''This new edition of the Sphere handbook is a lifeline for humanitarian aid workers... it marks the beginning of a roll-out strategy''

"It highlights best practice tools for preventing and detecting corruption in humanitarian organizations," Rachel Mbai, TI Kenya's vice-chairwoman, said. "Transparency International defines corruption as 'abuse of entrusted power for private gain'. This includes financial corruption such as fraud, bribery, nepotism and extortion but also encompasses non-financial forms such as the diversion of humanitarian assistance to benefit non-target group."



Mbai said humanitarian organizations must be accountable, not only to their development partners but also to the people they have the mandate to serve.



"They have the duty to be transparent about their mandate, their scope of work, the eligibility criteria of the relief and services they are providing to communities," she said.



Roslyn Hees, TI senior adviser and co-author of the handbook, said: "The handbook is a menu of good practice tools to help organizations deter, detect and deal with specific corruption risks in their operations. It can also be used by donors as a checklist when looking at the institutional policies of the aid organizations they work with."



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92478 20081127.jpg News Human Rights Conflict Protection takes centre stage in new Sphere guidelines IRIN NAIROBI Global United Nations HQ Afghanistan Africa Armenia Angola Saudi Arabia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Burkina Faso Bahrain Burundi Benin Bhutan Botswana Belarus East Africa DRC Central African Republic Congo Côte d’Ivoire Cameroon Comoros Cape Verde Djibouti Algeria Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Georgia Ghana Great Lakes Gambia Guinea Equatorial Guinea Guinea-Bissau HORN OF AFRICA Haiti Indonesia Israel Inde Iraq Iran Jordan Kenya Kyrgyzstan Cambodia Kuwait Kazakhstan Laos Lebanon Sri Lanka Liberia Lesotho Libya Morocco Middle East and North Africa Madagascar Mali Myanmar Mauritania Mauritius Maldives Malawi Moldova Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Nepal Oman Palestine Papua New Guinea Philippines Pakistan Qatar Russia Rwanda Southern Africa South Africa Seychelles Sudan Sierra Leone Senegal Somalia Sao Tome and Principe Syria Swaziland Turkmenistan Chad Togo Thailand Tajikistan Timor-Leste Tunisia Tanzania Ukraine Uganda Uzbekistan Vietnam West Africa Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe
          Invest in adolescents' education and training, urges UNICEF        

With the majority (88 percent) of the world's 1.2 billion adolescents living in developing countries, investing in their education and training could break entrenched cycles of poverty and inequality, says the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) 2011 State of the World’s Children report.



“We need to focus more attention now on reaching adolescents - especially adolescent girls - investing in education, health and other measures to engage them in the process of improving their own lives,” Anthony Lake, UNICEF executive director, said in a statement issued at the launch of the report, Adolescence: An Age of Opportunity, on 25 February.



Lake said: "Adolescence is a pivot point – an opportunity to consolidate the gains we have made in early childhood or risk seeing those gains wiped out."



In Nairobi, UNICEF's regional director for eastern and southern Africa, Elhadj As Sy, told IRIN: "Africa has the largest proportion of children, adolescents and young people in the world. Almost half its population is younger than 18 years and almost two-thirds are younger than 25 years.



"As the gap between rich and poor, men and women, urban and rural keeps widening, and inequality generates a 'nothing to lose' generation, paying more attention to adolescents and young people is especially critical for the African nations."



According to UNICEF, strong investments during the last two decades have resulted in "enormous gains" for young children up to the age of 10, with a 33 percent drop in the global under-five mortality rate.



"On the other hand, there have been fewer gains in areas critically affecting adolescents. More than 70 million adolescents of lower secondary [school] age are currently out of school, and on a global level, girls still lag behind boys in secondary school participation," UNICEF said in a statement. "Without education, adolescents cannot develop the knowledge and skills they need to navigate the risks of exploitation, abuse and violence that are at their height during the second decade of life."



Among the challenges facing today's adolescents, UNICEF said, are health risks such as injury, eating disorders, substance abuse and mental health issues - "it is estimated that around one in every five adolescents suffers from a mental health or behavioural problem".










''Today's investment will lay the foundation for a generation of active agents of change for a better future''

Challenges



The agency said global challenges facing adolescents include the current bout of economic turmoil, climate change and environmental degradation, explosive urbanization and migration, ageing societies, the rising costs of healthcare and escalating humanitarian crises.



To enable adolescents to effectively deal with these challenges, UNICEF recommends improved data collection to increase the understanding of adolescents’ situation; investing in education and training to lift adolescents out of poverty; expanding opportunities for youth to participate and voice their opinion; promoting laws, policies and programmes that protect the rights of adolescents, and stepping up the fight against poverty and inequality through child-sensitive programmes to prevent adolescents from being prematurely catapulted into adulthood.



Lake said: "Millions of young people around the world are waiting for greater action by all of us. Giving all young people the tools they need to improve their own lives will foster a generation of economically independent citizens who are fully engaged in civic life and able to actively contribute to their communities."



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92041 2006461.jpg News Human Rights Conflict Invest in adolescents' education and training, urges UNICEF IRIN NAIROBI Global Afghanistan Africa Armenia Angola Saudi Arabia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Burkina Faso Bahrain Burundi Benin Bhutan Botswana Belarus East Africa DRC Central African Republic Congo Côte d’Ivoire Cameroon Comoros Cape Verde Djibouti Algeria Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Georgia Ghana Great Lakes Gambia Guinea Equatorial Guinea Guinea-Bissau HORN OF AFRICA Haiti Indonesia Israel Inde Iraq Iran Jordan Kenya Kyrgyzstan Cambodia Kuwait Kazakhstan Laos Lebanon Sri Lanka Liberia Lesotho Libya Morocco Middle East and North Africa Madagascar Mali Myanmar Mauritania Mauritius Maldives Malawi Moldova Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Nepal Oman Palestine Papua New Guinea Philippines Pakistan Qatar Russia Rwanda Southern Africa South Africa Seychelles Sudan Sierra Leone Senegal Somalia Sao Tome and Principe Syria Swaziland Turkmenistan Chad Togo Thailand Tajikistan Timor-Leste Tunisia Tanzania Ukraine Uganda Uzbekistan Vietnam West Africa Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe
          Billions lack access to life-saving surgery        

More than two billion people, mostly in low-income countries, lack adequate access to life-saving surgical procedures, which is a potential obstacle to achieving health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), say specialists.



"It is not news that the poor have worse access to hospital services like surgery. But the size of the population is a shock," said Atul Gawande, associate professor at Harvard School of Public Health and head of the World Health Organization (WHO) initiative, Safe Surgery Saves Lives. 



"Surgery has been a neglected component of public health planning and this clearly needs to change," he added.



Even though a substantial number of diseases worldwide require surgery, residents of higher-income regions undergo 75 percent of surgeries annually, versus the poorest third who account for only 4 percent, according to a 2010 Harvard University School of Public Health study.



Based on profiles of 769 hospitals in 92 countries, wealthier countries had 14 operating theatres per 100,000 people versus two in lower-income regions.



Shortfalls










''Surgery has been a neglected component of public health planning and this clearly needs to change''

A separate February 2010 study of 132 health facilities in eight countries (Sri Lanka, Mongolia, Tanzania, Afghanistan, Sierra Leone, Liberia, The Gambia and São Tomé and Príncipe) revealed infrastructure to be just one of the "enormous shortfalls" in emergency surgical care. 



"Are there staff to assist with surgery? Next, do they have the supplies and equipment necessary to undertake the procedures? . Lastly, do the personnel have the knowledge and capability to treat?" asked Adam Kushner, the study's co-author and founder of the New York City-based NGO, Surgeons OverSeas.



The study highlighted shortages in all those areas. No surveyed centres reported uninterrupted water or electricity (and therefore oxygen supply), with most reporting less than a 50 percent supply of all three.



For MDG 5 (improve maternal health), 44 percent of facilities offered Caesarean sections.



For MDG 6 (combating the spread of HIV/AIDS) 48 percent of the surveyed centres offered male circumcision, recommended by WHO to fight the spread of HIV.



Where are the surgeons?



Specialist surgeons and anaesthetists are scarce where they are most needed, for example, in sub-Saharan Africa, according to a 2010 medical survey published in Plos Medicine of eight district hospitals in Uganda, Mozambique and Tanzania.



In 2008, Uganda had 10 specialist surgeons and 350 anaesthetists for a population of more than 30 million.



In Mali, Mamby Keïta, a surgeon at the country's largest hospital, Gabriel Touré Hospital in the capital Bamako, told IRIN there were three paediatric surgeons nationwide in 2010 to serve an estimated 2.2 million under-five children (2008); four more are in training but not expected to graduate until 2012.



"We also need paediatric anaesthetists. The absence of such technicians limits how many paediatric surgeries we can do," said Keïta.



Stop-gap



To help cover the shortage of local surgeons, there are international doctors serving short-term contracts; NGOs; visiting humanitarian projects such as Operation Smile or the faith-based NGO, Mercy Ships, a hospital at sea that docks for months at a time to offer medical procedures including surgery; or mid-level health workers and nurses.



Non-doctors carried out half of all surgical procedures in the centres surveyed in the Plos Medicine study. Kushner said it was critical to prepare all levels of health workers to carry out emergency surgical procedures - rather than foregoing surgical care.



What next?



A resolution for the next WHO World Health Assembly in May 2011 to create a WHO Department of Surgical Care and Anaesthesia has been circulated to health ministries.



There is still a poor understanding of surgical needs and the cost of foregoing critical care, said Kushner, whose NGO is planning to conduct a study on the overall surgical needs of different communities, rather than focusing only on health facility usage.



"We cannot really understand needs of the population by solely looking at those who actually decide to seek care in hospitals, and survive to receive this care. Our assumption is that more. individuals are dying from a lack of surgical care, but do so before they arrive in hospitals."



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91980 200810149.jpg News Human Rights Health Billions lack access to life-saving surgery IRIN BANGKOK Global Afghanistan Africa Armenia Angola Saudi Arabia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Burkina Faso Bahrain Burundi Benin Bhutan Botswana Belarus East Africa DRC Central African Republic Congo Côte d’Ivoire Cameroon Comoros Cape Verde Djibouti Algeria Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Georgia Ghana Great Lakes Gambia Guinea Equatorial Guinea Guinea-Bissau HORN OF AFRICA Haiti Indonesia Israel Inde Iraq Iran Jordan Kenya Kyrgyzstan Cambodia Kuwait Kazakhstan Laos Lebanon Sri Lanka Liberia Lesotho Libya Morocco Middle East and North Africa Madagascar Mali Myanmar Mauritania Mauritius Maldives Malawi Moldova Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Nepal Oman Palestine Papua New Guinea Philippines Pakistan Qatar Russia Rwanda Southern Africa South Africa Seychelles Sudan Sierra Leone Senegal Somalia Sao Tome and Principe Syria Swaziland Turkmenistan Chad Togo Thailand Tajikistan Timor-Leste Tunisia Tanzania Ukraine Uganda Uzbekistan Vietnam West Africa Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe
          Prepare now for future migration surge, says IOM        

Decisions taken by local authorities on land use, building regulations and access to health services probably affect migrants more than decisions taken nationally, “yet in most countries, migration policy is set at the national level with little attention to capacity-building at the local level, where policy is usually implemented,” says the new World Migration Report 2010. 



The report, published every two years by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), highlights several such gaps, and explores the extent to which countries are prepared for a surge in migration over the coming decades. The current number of 214 million migrants globally, according to IOM, could rise to 405 million by 2050.



It says new trends in migration could be affected by varying rates of population growth (slowing in the developed world and prompting an even greater demand for labour); environmental change; and shifts in the global economy.



The current “lull” in international migration due to economic recession, IOM says, should be used by countries to prepare for larger flows of people: capacity-building and better managed databases could be areas to look at. The report provides a self-evaluation checklist to help countries and organizations assess their preparedness levels.



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91513 201010210751260211.jpg News Human Rights Migration Prepare now for future migration surge, says IOM IRIN JOHANNESBURG Global Afghanistan Africa Armenia Angola Saudi Arabia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Burkina Faso Bahrain Burundi Benin Bhutan Botswana Belarus East Africa DRC Central African Republic Congo Côte d’Ivoire Cameroon Comoros Cape Verde Djibouti Algeria Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Georgia Ghana Great Lakes Gambia Guinea Equatorial Guinea Guinea-Bissau HORN OF AFRICA Haiti Indonesia Israel Inde Iraq Iran Jordan Kenya Kyrgyzstan Cambodia Kuwait Kazakhstan Laos Lebanon Sri Lanka Liberia Lesotho Libya Morocco Middle East and North Africa Madagascar Mali Myanmar Mauritania Mauritius Maldives Malawi Moldova Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Nepal Oman Palestine Papua New Guinea Philippines Pakistan Qatar Russia Rwanda Southern Africa South Africa Seychelles Sudan Sierra Leone Senegal Somalia Sao Tome and Principe Syria Swaziland Turkmenistan Chad Togo Thailand Tajikistan Timor-Leste Tunisia Tanzania Ukraine Uganda Uzbekistan Vietnam West Africa Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe
          NGO probes gaps in tackling anaemia in pregnancy        

Are iron-folic acid tablets difficult to take? Is the packaging appropriate? What are health workers advising? Is the mineral content correct?



These are some of the questions the organization Micronutrient Initiative (MI) is posing in several developing countries – studying women’s use of iron-folic acid supplements to get at why despite widespread coverage “on paper”, anaemia prevalence in pregnant women remains high.



The coverage data does not necessarily reflect how or whether women are taking the supplements, or factors that might deter them.



“We know from efficacy trials that if women take iron-folic acid supplements the prevalence of anaemia in late pregnancy and at delivery is low,” Lynnette Neufeld, MI chief technical adviser, told IRIN.



In most countries where MI works there are high levels of anaemia and folic acid deficiency during pregnancy, despite almost all of the countries having iron-folic acid supplementation for pregnant women in their health policies and including the products in their standard drug procurement lists, she said.



“If these policies and the supplements are in place but we are not seeing improvements, something is amiss.”



Countries’ demographic and health surveys have information about iron-folic acid supplement coverage, but generally the question posed to women is simply whether they received the supplements.



“Our plan is to accumulate specifics from the countries where we work about iron-folic acid supplementation to get a clear understanding of formulation, supply issues, usage and other factors, with the aim of creating programmes more effective in reducing anaemia.”



She noted that so far MI is studying programmes for public distribution of prenatal supplements for the most vulnerable populations.



MI has already done ‘mini situation analyses’ in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Pakistan, Neufeld said. In one case researchers found that the dose of iron in the supplements used was much higher than World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and above the level associated with frequent adverse effects including cramping and heartburn.



Women’s nutrition



Many health experts say in discussions about child malnutrition all too often the importance of women’s nutritional status is overlooked.



“Absolutely the nutritional status of a woman during pregnancy gets neglected,” Neufeld said. “But also if a woman is not well-nourished or is anaemic before she’s pregnant that too will affect her and her child.”



The issue is beginning to get more attention. After consultations in 2007 on anaemia in women, WHO put out a policy statement in 2009 on providing iron-folic acid supplementation to non-pregnant women of child-bearing age.



Improving iron and folate nutrition of women of reproductive age could improve pregnancy outcomes as well as enhance maternal and infant health, WHO says in the policy statement.



“There is growing recognition that you cannot fix [nutritional deficiencies] just once a woman is pregnant,” Neufeld said.



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90722 A mother tends to her baby at a hospital in Bangladesh's northern Siraganj District. Maternal mortality rates in the impoverished nation remain poor and the worst in South Asia. News Human Rights Health NGO probes gaps in tackling anaemia in pregnancy IRIN DAKAR Afghanistan Africa Armenia Angola Saudi Arabia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Burkina Faso Bahrain Burundi Benin Bhutan Botswana Belarus East Africa DRC Central African Republic Congo Côte d’Ivoire Cameroon Comoros Cape Verde Djibouti Algeria Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Georgia Ghana Great Lakes Global Gambia Guinea Equatorial Guinea Guinea-Bissau HORN OF AFRICA Haiti Indonesia Israel Inde Iraq Iran Jordan Kenya Kyrgyzstan Cambodia Kuwait Kazakhstan Laos Lebanon Sri Lanka Liberia Lesotho Libya Morocco Middle East and North Africa Madagascar Mali Myanmar Mauritania Mauritius Maldives Malawi Moldova Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Nepal Oman Palestine Papua New Guinea Philippines Pakistan Qatar Russia Rwanda Southern Africa South Africa Seychelles Sudan Sierra Leone Senegal Somalia Sao Tome and Principe Syria Swaziland Turkmenistan Chad Togo Thailand Tajikistan Timor-Leste Tunisia Tanzania United Arab Emirates Ukraine Uganda Uzbekistan Vietnam West Africa Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe
          Le Royaume-Uni, un modèle pour le financement privé des secours d’urgence         

Le Comité britannique de gestion des urgences liées aux catastrophes (DEC), un organisme fondé il y a plus de 45 ans afin de convaincre les organisations humanitaires de collaborer plutôt que de se livrer concurrence pour récolter des fonds d’urgence, a à ce jour récolté plus de 60 millions de dollars à la suite de son appel de fonds en faveur des crues au Pakistan (indépendamment de l’aide publique britannique).



C’est la deuxième fois cette année, après le séisme en Haïti, que cette machine londonienne bien huilée se met en marche. Et ce modèle est adopté par de plus en plus de pays.



Selon Brendan Gormley, directeur exécutif du comité, les appels de l’organisme s'adressent au grand public, y compris aux personnes qui ne donnent pas régulièrement aux associations caritatives. « Lorsque les gens ont vu quelque chose de terrible à la télévision, ou en ont entendu parler à la radio, quand ils ont vu qu’il est possible de faire quelque chose pour y remédier, nous leur donnons les moyens d’agir facilement. C’est un service centralisé. Nous avons un seul numéro de téléphone, un seul site Internet, les banques reçoivent les fonds sans frais, et notre boîte postale est 999, le numéro des urgences au Royaume-Uni », a-t-il expliqué à IRIN.



En situation d’urgence, les organismes membres, dont Oxfam, la Croix-Rouge britannique, Concern et World Vision, peuvent continuer à recevoir des fonds de leurs propres donateurs, mais ils ne sont pas tenus de faire de la publicité pour obtenir des dons parallèlement à l’appel du DEC.



D’après Jeremie Bodin, directeur de la récolte de fonds d’urgence chez Save the Children Royaume-Uni, les organismes tirent parti d’une campagne publicitaire de grande envergure qu’ils n’auraient pas les moyens d’organiser individuellement. « L’appel télévisé est lancé gratuitement par les opérateurs de télévision. On voit vraiment la différence dans les sommes récoltées et les sommes qui ont dû être dépensées pour récolter ces fonds. Au cours des derniers appels lancés, nous avons constaté que nous recevions normalement entre deux et cinq fois plus que nos revenus normaux ». 



L’inconvénient, pour les organismes, c’est qu’ils perdent leur visibilité auprès du public. « Lorsque les gens donnent, on ne peut pas les recontacter, alors on passe à côté d’une occasion d’obtenir le soutien de nouveaux donateurs », a déploré M. Bodin.



Il n’est pas surprenant que tout organisme dont les campagnes viennent « se greffer » à celles du DEC fasse l’objet d’un ressentiment considérable. Le Fonds des Nations Unies pour l'enfance (UNICEF), par exemple, a lui aussi lancé un appel en faveur du Pakistan en Grande-Bretagne. « Nous perdons notre visibilité au profit d’autres organismes qui ne font pas partie du DEC », a déclaré M. Bodin à IRIN. « L’UNICEF, qui ne fait pas partie du groupe, fait de la publicité en ce moment. Evidemment, il en bénéficie énormément, tandis que nous [chaque organisme] sommes invisibles pendant la période où le DEC lance son appel ». 









« Si la BBC convient que la situation exige de lancer un appel sur le réseau, j’aime à penser que c’est une reconnaissance énorme »

En comparaison, l’appel lancé par Islamic Relief à l’occasion du Ramadan ne fait pas l’objet du même ressentiment ; les organismes reconnaissent que cette campagne avait été planifiée et financée bien avant les crues au Pakistan. Selon M. Gormley, cette campagne est un atout, et non un obstacle à l’appel collectif. « Islamic Relief est membre du DEC et nous l’avons encouragé à collaborer avec d’autres associations caritatives islamiques (Muslim Aid, Muslim Hands) pour assurer que le message sur le Pakistan soit diffusé au plus de monde possible. Chez les musulmans, le Ramadan est une période privilégiée pour donner ».



Rivalités



Compte tenu des rivalités observées au sein de la communauté humanitaire, les « dialogues énergiques », comme les appelle avec diplomatie M. Gormley, sont fréquents au sein du groupe. Ces dialogues portent en partie sur la répartition des fonds récoltés entre les organismes : « C’est probablement, a-t-il indiqué, l’un des éléments délicats de la famille du DEC ». La répartition est réalisée selon une formule fixe, reposant sur les dépenses effectuées par chaque organisme dans le cadre de ses activités humanitaires au cours des trois années précédentes : les sommes allouées vont de 20 pour cent pour les membres les plus importants à un minimum de trois pour cent.



L’autre question délicate porte sur les causes à cibler. Le séisme en Haïti et les crues au Pakistan ont donné lieu à des appels du DEC, mais pas la sécheresse au Niger. Certains organismes membres ont fortement fait pression en faveur d’un appel, mais selon M. Gormley, si le Niger remplissait deux des trois critères imposés par le DEC (les besoins y sont importants et les organismes membres sont en mesure d’y apporter une aide effective), le comité pensait que malgré la couverture efficace de la situation, assurée par la BBC ainsi que d’autres opérateurs, le public britannique n’était pas aussi « réceptif » à la question nigérienne.



Les opérateurs de télévision jouent un rôle essentiel dans le cadre de ces appels, de même que leur crédibilité. « Si la BBC convient que la situation exige de lancer un appel sur le réseau, j’aime à penser que c’est une reconnaissance énorme », explique Paul McCauley, conseiller de la BBC dans le domaine des appels caritatifs. « Bien sûr, ce gendre de drames échappe à tout contrôle, mais généralement ils arrivent à peu près deux fois par an. Lorsque nous lançons un appel au nom du DEC, il doit être tout à fait clair pour le public que nous n’agissons pas à la légère. C’est vraiment quelque chose de très important qui exige une aide immédiate ».



Mais pour lancer un appel télévisé, il faut des images, et des images qui touchent le cœur des spectateurs. Or, malheureusement pour le Niger, la pire famine observée dans le pays survient (inévitablement) après que la dernière graine de la récolte précédente a été semée, et alors que la nouvelle récolte, bien qu’elle soit loin d’être prête, apparaît déjà, verte et luxuriante. Et ce type de « famine verte » est une histoire particulièrement difficile à raconter en images.



En attendant, les images du Pakistan diffusées à la télévision montrent toute l’étendue de la destruction causée par les eaux de crues, à mesure que celles-ci se retirent, et le public britannique continue de donner.



eb/mw/nh/np 90420 News Environment and Disasters Aid and Policy Politics and Economics Le Royaume-Uni, un modèle pour le financement privé des secours d’urgence IRIN DAKAR Afghanistan Africa Armenia Angola Saudi Arabia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Burkina Faso Bahrain Burundi Benin Bhutan Botswana Belarus East Africa DRC Central African Republic Congo Côte d’Ivoire Cameroon Comoros Cape Verde Djibouti Algeria Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Georgia Ghana Great Lakes Global Gambia Guinea Equatorial Guinea Guinea-Bissau HORN OF AFRICA Haiti Indonesia Israel Inde Iraq Iran Jordan Kenya Kyrgyzstan Cambodia Kuwait Kazakhstan Laos Lebanon Sri Lanka Liberia Lesotho Libya Morocco Middle East and North Africa Madagascar Mali Myanmar Mauritania Mauritius Maldives Malawi Moldova Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Nepal Oman Palestine Papua New Guinea Philippines Pakistan Qatar Russia Rwanda Southern Africa South Africa Seychelles Sudan Sierra Leone Senegal Somalia Sao Tome and Principe Syria Swaziland Turkmenistan Chad Togo Thailand Tajikistan Timor-Leste Tunisia Tanzania United Arab Emirates Ukraine Uganda Uzbekistan Vietnam West Africa Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe
          stardate: susan sontag        

Imaginemos un parque con una bella estatua de mujer, no, la estatua de una bella mujer; la estatua, es decir, la mujer, sostiene un arco y una flechas; no está desnuda pero es como si estuviera desnuda (la túnica de mármol se adhiere a sus pechos y a sus caderas); no es Venus sino Diana (las flechas son propias de ésta). Siendo ella misma bella, con su cinta en la cabeza ciñéndole los rizos, está muerta para toda belleza. Ahora, sigue la fábula,imaginemos a alguien capaz de infundirle vida. Imaginemos a un Pigmalión que no es un artista, que no la creó, sólo a encontró en el jardín, sobre su pedestal, un poco más alta de lo normal, y decidió llevar a cabo un experimento con ella: un pedagogo, un científico, entonces. Otra persona la hizo, luego la abandonó. Ahora ella es suya. Y él no está enamorado de ella. Pero tiene una vena didáctica y quiere verla florecer en sus mejores atributos. (Quizás más adelante sí se enamorará, probablemente contra su propia voluntad, y querrá hacer el amor con ella; pero esto ya es otra fábula.) Por tanto, él actúa lenta, solícitamente, según las pautas del experimento. El deseo no le empuja, no hace que lo quiera todo al instante.

¿Cómo procede? ¿Cómo le infunde la vida? Con gran precaución. Quiere que cobre conocimiento y, adicto a la más bien simple teoría de que todo conocimiento proviene de los sentidos, decide estimular sus facultades sensoriales. Lenta, lentamente. Le dará, para empezar, sólo uno de los sentidos. ¿Cuál escogerá? No la vista, el más noble de todos, no el oído... bien, no es necesario recorrer toda la lista, por corta que sea. Apresurémonos a contar que lo primero que le concede, quizás con poca generosidad, es el más primitivo de los sentidos,el del olfato. (Puede que él no quiera ser visto, cuando menos por el momento.) Y cabría añadir que, para que el experimento resulte, debemos suponer que la divina criatura tiene cierta existencia interior o cierta sensibilidad detrás de su impermeable superficie, pero ello es sólo una hipótesis, aunque necesaria. Nada hasta el momento se puede deducir de dicha vida interior. La diosa, siendo la belleza encarnada, no se mueve.

Así que ahora la diosa de la caza puede oler. Sus ovoides y algo saltones ojos de mármol, bajo las pesadas cejas, no ven, sus labios ligeramente abiertos y la delicada lengua no captan ningún sabor, su satinada piel de mármol no sentiría tu piel ni la mía, sus adorables orejas en forma de concha no oyen, pero las cinceladas ventanas de su nariz reciben todos los olores, próximos y lejanos. Huele los sicomoros y los álamos, resinosos, acres; puede oler el minúsculo excremento de los gusanos; huele el betún de las botas de los soldados y las castañas asadas, y el tocino que se quema, puede oler la glicina y el heliotropo y los limoneros, puede oler el rancio olor del venado y jabalíes que huyen de los lebreles reales y de los tres mil batidores empleados por el Rey; la efusiones de una pareja copulando en los arbustos cercanos, el dulce olor del césped recién cortado, el humo de las chimeneas de palacio; desde lejos, al gordo Rey en el retrete; incluso puede oler la erosión que el azote de la lluvia produce en el mármol de que está hecha: el olor de muerte (a pesar de que nada sabe sobre la muerte).

Hay olores que ella no percibe, porque se encuentra en un jardín, o quizá porque está en el pasado. Se evita los olores de la ciudad, como los de los cubos de agua sucia y excrementos vaciados desde las ventanas a la calle durante la noche. Y los de los pequeños vehículos con motores de dos tiempos, y de los ladrillos de lignito marrón (el olor de la Europa del Este en la segunda mitad de nuestro siglo), de las plantas petroquímicas y las papeleras de las afueras de Newark, del humo de cigarrillos... Pero ¿por qué decir que se los evita? Le encantarían también estos olores. Ciertamente, a lo lejos, en la distancia, ella huele el futuro.

Y todos estos olores, en los que pensamos como buenos o malos, gratos o repugnantes, la inundan, bañan cada partícula del mármol de que está hecha. Se estremecería de placer si pudiera, pero no le han otorgado el don del movimiento, ni siquiera el de la respiración. Aquí tenemos a un hombre enseñando, emancipando -decidiendo lo que para ella es mejor- a una mujer y por tanto moviéndose con circunspección, no proclive a llegar hasta el final, conformado con la idea de  crear un ser limitado: lo mejor para ser y permanecer bella. (Imposible imaginar la fábula con una mujer de mentalidad científica y una bella estatua de Hipólito; es decir, una estatua del bello Hipólito.) Decíamos que la deidad de la caza sólo tiene el sentido del olfato, el mundo dentro de ella, ningún espacio; pero ha nacido el tiempo, porque un olor triunfa, domina a otro. Y con el tiempo, la eternidad. Tener olfato, sólo olfato, significa que ella es un ser que huele y por tanto quiere seguir oliendo (el deseo exige su perpetuación ad infinitum). Pero los olores se desvanecen a veces (ciertamente, algunos desaparecieron tan deprisa!), a pesar de que algunos retornan. Y cuando un olor se desvanece, ella se siente -está- disminuida. Empieza a soñar, esta conciencia-que-huele, cómo podría retener olores, a fuerza de almacenarlos dentro de ella, para no perderlos nunca. Y así es como, más tarde, el espacio emerge, sólo el espacio interior, cuando Diana empezó a desear que le fuera posible retener distintos olores en distintas partes de su cuerpo de mármol: la mierda de perro en su pierna derecha, el heliotropo en un codo, la dulzura de la hierba recién cortada en su entrepierna. Los mimaba, los quería todos. Siente dolor, no el dolor (más concretamente, desagrado) por un mal olor, puesto que nada sabe de lo bueno o lo malo, no puede permitirse hacer esta lujuriosa distinción (todo olor es bueno, porque cualquier olor es mejor que ningún olor, que el olvido), sino el dolor de la pérdida. Todo placer -y oler, no importa lo que huela, es puro placer- pasa a ser una experiencia de pérdida anticipada. Ella quiere, si sólo supiera cómo, convertirse en coleccionista.
          Comoros - National Anthem        

          Greek fishing village welcomes migrants, while others turn them away        

Watch Video | Listen to the Audio

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Eighteen months into Europe’s refugee crisis, tensions have surfaced on the Greek island of Lesbos.

It wasn’t so long ago that the islanders there were being considered for the Nobel Peace Prize for their welcoming of refugees. But income from tourism, on which many islanders depend, has plummeted this year, and hostility towards refugees, and to the volunteers helping them, has only grown.

From Lesbos, special correspondent Malcolm Brabant reports.

MALCOLM BRABANT: Skala Sikaminia, a small fishing village in northern Lesbos. A tranquil dawn is about to get busy.

The first raft of the day has been spotted about five miles away. Volunteers from Refugee Rescue, an Irish charity, are scrambling to help. The raft is intercepted by a coast guard cutter after leaving Turkey’s shore and entering Greek waters.

FATHER CHRISTOFOROS, Orthodox Priest: When it comes to the fact that many of these people arriving are Muslims, we are supposed to love everyone.

MALCOLM BRABANT: Waiting for them is Californian orthodox priest father Christoforos, who has lived in Lesbos for 15 years.

At a time when Europe is becoming increasingly anxious about the influx of Muslim refugees and economic migrants, Christoforos doesn’t waver from his creed.

FATHER CHRISTOFOROS: Theologically, we are supposed to see every human being as God. And how we treat that person is how we treat God. This a sacred ideal to love the foreigner. It is the exact opposite of xenophobia. This is something which is sacred.

MALCOLM BRABANT: Mission accomplished, 55 souls saved, including 15 women and seven children, most from sub-Saharan Africa.

MAN: I thank God I’m here. I’m so afraid.

MAN: We spent like four hours to reach Greece territory. Right now, I’m feeling cold.

MAN: Right now, I’m feeling cold. I’m not feeling right now.

WOMAN: I’m feeling proud of the people I meet. I’m proud of them. Thank you plenty, plenty.

MAN: My life is in danger. That’s why I come here. My life is at risk. I’m running for my life.

MAN: You warming up now? We will get you in 10 minutes. We will get you into the camp and you will get some dry clothes.

MALCOLM BRABANT: Where are you from?

MAN: Comoros.

MALCOLM BRABANT: The Comoros Islands?

MAN: Yes, Comoros Island.

MALCOLM BRABANT: But that’s a paradise.

MAN: Yes.

MALCOLM BRABANT: Why have you left a paradise?

MAN: It is a paradise, but it’s very poor. It’s very poor.

MALCOLM BRABANT: Like most other Greek communities, Skala Sikaminia has endured seven years of economic hardship, but the selflessness of the Nobel-nominated villagers is one of the reasons why Refugee Rescue is based here.

Coordinator Baz Fischer.

BAZ FISCHER, Coordinator: There have been tensions in other places, definitely. And if we can, we’d always like to bring them here. If every village down the coast was like here, it would make things a lot easier.

MALCOLM BRABANT: This footage was shot by activists at the nearby port of Petra in the summer, as local people blockaded the jetty in an attempt to stop the coast guard from transferring refugees in front of their tourist beaches.

As a result of alleged intimidation, including vandalism of their vehicles, volunteer groups avoid Petra and Molyvos five miles away. With its magnificent 15th century citadel, Molyvos is the architectural jewel of Lesbos and is almost entirely dependent on tourism.

But according to Mayor Athanasios Andriotis, income was down by 70 percent this year, as vacationers stayed away because of the refugee crisis. He acknowledged there was some tension.

ATHANASIOS ANDRIOTIS, Mayor of Molyvos (through translator): The people are annoyed and worried about the future because this situation seems to be becoming permanent. And it’s one which is no good for the people of Molyvos, nor, unfortunately, for the refugee migrants who come here.

MALCOLM BRABANT: There are some people who say that the coast guard has not been allowed to drop people in Molyvos because there is such hostility.

ATHANASIOS ANDRIOTIS (through translator): The figures here for tourism have dropped to almost zero because of the refugee issue. This can’t go on. They have to understand that, OK, they have arrived here, but they have to go somewhere else more secluded to disembark.

MALCOLM BRABANT: The consequence is that it takes longer for the coast guard or volunteers to take migrants to ports where they will be accepted.

This angers British volunteer and Lesbos resident Eric Kempson, who we first met 18 months ago and have since encountered on several occasions. He and his family have repeatedly been threatened because of his outspoken pro-refugee stance.

ERIC KEMPSON, Volunteer: This is very dangerous. We are going to lose people. You could see, it took so long to come here, and they’re sitting on the boat, they’re soaking wet, they’re freezing cold. The temperature is close to zero.

When you have a few people holding two towns to ransom because they don’t want refugees in there, this is absolutely disgusting, absolutely disgusting. People are going to die here this winter because of these few people.

MALCOLM BRABANT: Dimitris Drakolias has been on the receiving end of anti-migrant hostility. He runs a hotel in the small resort of Petra. Local hard-liners blockaded the village and whipped up an Internet campaign after he agreed to provide temporary accommodation for 22 refugee children.

DIMITRIS DRAKOLIAS, Clara Hotel Petra: People got afraid that we were supposed to bring refugees here and stay for three — two, three, four months. It’s a very uncomfortable situation. Nobody came up to me and do anything, but I can understand that they didn’t like that that I hosted 20 kids inside the hotel.

MALCOLM BRABANT: Did you feel intimidated?

DIMITRIS DRAKOLIAS: A little bit. A little bit.

MALCOLM BRABANT: The hotelier says the Internet campaign was orchestrated by a tourist organization called The Other Aegean.

We arranged an interview with The Other Aegean’s chairman, Nikos Molvalis, who only wanted to discuss the tourist industry’s 70 percent losses and other problems.

We have been talking to the owner of the Clara Hotel, who says that your organization was responsible for blockading the place to make sure that refugees didn’t turn up there. Can you explain that, please?

WOMAN: He doesn’t want to talk about that.

MALCOLM BRABANT: Why don’t you want to talk about that?

WOMAN: Because he’s already answered the question.

MALCOLM BRABANT: Off-camera, Molvalis claimed to have intervened on behalf of the refugee children. Otherwise, he said there would have been bloodshed.

FATHER CHRISTOFOROS: This is not true.

MALCOLM BRABANT: The tension troubles Father Christoforos, who believes some of the volunteers don’t fully understand the plight of the islanders.

FATHER CHRISTOFOROS: I see people are affected. And I understand why they are affected. Their pocketbooks hurting and they want to find somewhere to put the blame.

But at the same time, a lot of these same people will not only blame the refugees or the organizations, but they also blame the government just as much for not doing more.

MALCOLM BRABANT: The numbers of people arriving on the islands are just a fraction of the thousands that were landing daily when the crisis was at its peak.

But there is a steady trickle, and, slowly, slowly, the islands are filling up again. There’s a serious shortage of accommodation for these people. And there’s genuine concern here that Europe’s deal with Turkey will break down, and once again the islands will be inundated with refugees and migrants.

The influx increases the pressure in Moria, the overcrowded and tense camp in the south of the island visited by the pope earlier in the year. Frustrated migrants, angry at conditions and the time it takes to process asylum claims, have, on occasions, set fires inside the camp.

A Muslim charity has established a feeding station just outside Moria, claiming the camp caterers are cheating the residents.

MAN: Food in Moria, they recook it three times, two to three times. This is what they say. It’s not eatable. And they say it’s dirty.

MAN: Moria, no good. Here, good. We want freedom. Here, the food delicious, and Moria not delicious.

MAN: Moria is like a jail. Not good. And the situation is really bad, really a lot of problems, calls — every day fight, every night fight.

MAN: Fire. Fight.

MAN: Fire. A lot of problems.

MALCOLM BRABANT: Not everyone is enduring spartan conditions. Along with 200 other vulnerable people, five members of the Nikzad family are living in a holiday hotel run by the Catholic charity Caritas. Sahil is desperately missing regular school. But in three months, he has made good progress with English.

SAHIL NIKZAD, Afghan Refugee: In Afghanistan, the Taliban, I can’t go to school because explosions, a bomb. We want to go to some good place, good country, because,there, we learned — we go to school. We have a good home.

MALCOLM BRABANT: Every new arrival who survives the perilous crossing shares the same ambition. As the numbers mount, their chances of success diminish.

The warm welcome of Skala Sikaminia goes cold as soon as they leave the village. The buzzword in Europe is deportation, especially after an Islamist terrorist used a truck to kill 12 people in Berlin.

This year, more migrants than ever before died trying to cross the Mediterranean to Europe. Yet still they come. Father Christoforos may be a lighthouse, but much of Europe wishes that his beam would be extinguished.

For the PBS NewsHour, I’m Malcolm Brabant in Lesbos.

The post Greek fishing village welcomes migrants, while others turn them away appeared first on PBS NewsHour.


          Comment on Download driver Canon Pixma MP180 printer by BADRANE IBRAHIM        
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          Memorising the countries and capitals of the world - my reflection        


Earlier this year I set myself the goal of being able to recall the names of all the countries of the world and their capitals. There are two parts of this project.  The first is to be able to recite the names of the countries in sequence, and the second is to recall the capital of a given country. In addition, I should be able to recall the country when given a capital city.

My approach to memorising this project and the lessons learnt are described in this article.

1. I created a list of country names and capitals in an Excel spreadsheet. This information was sourced from the World Guide reference book.

2. I made a rough division of the world into continents and regions. This created problems as not every reference book classifies the counties so neatly. What are the borders of Europe?  Which countries are in Asia?  I made some mistakes on my virtual journey around Africa as I missed some islands in both the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic ocean.

3. Using a map, I worked out a journey starting in the United Kingom, and hopping from country to country in turn. I then assigned each country a sequence number for the order of memorisation.

4. I used the number peg system to associate a number to a country. Because there are over 200 countries, and my peg system consists of 100 pegs, I added colour to my pegs to create a new set of number pegs from 100 to 999. The first 100 pegs are red, the second 100 are green, the third hundred are blue.

In hindsight, the colours were sometimes difficult to recall and I should have used more action or involving the senses for example, icy cold, windy, and burning hot.

5. Now I had a list of coloured peg numbers, countries and capitals to learn. The list begins with the United Kingdom:
  • 101    United Kingdom - London
  • 102    Ireland - Dublin
  • 103    Portugal - Lisbon
  • 104    Spain - Madrid
  • 105    Andorra - Andorra la Vella
  • 106    France - Paris
  • 107    Luxembourg - Luxembourg
  • 108    Monaco - Monaco
  • 109    Belgium - Brussels
  • 110    Netherlands - Amsterdam
6. The memorisation process involves creating a strong mental image between the coloured peg word and the country. In addition I needed to create an association between the country and the capital.

I made small cardboard flashcards with the number on one side and the country and capital on the back. I took around 20 cards and a pencil with me on my daily walk to create vivid images.  Some of my early images were not too good but I got better as my imagination became wilder with practice.

Here are my first ten peg numbers (based on the Major System).
  1. tie
  2. Noah
  3. ma
  4. Ra
  5. law
  6. shoe
  7. key
  8. ivy
  9. bee
  10. toes
Mental images and associations can be wild, sexy, and maybe offensive to some people. Let your imagination go wild as you are under no obligation to explain your images to other people.  These are my images:

1 red tie -> United Kingdom - London A group of three KINGS have been tied up with a RED TIE but they are puffing up their lungs/chests (LONDON)

2 red Noah -> Ireland - Dublin a red faced Noah is drinking double-sized (DUBLIN) Guinness with a short leprechaun.  (This image is sufficient to prompt my recall of Ireland since I know that Dublin is the capital of Ireland)

3 red ma -> Portugal - Lisbon - a large black woman (Mama) is sitting on the Porch (PORTUGAL) of her house and cuddling her Lesbian (LISBON) lover.

4 red Ra -> Spain - Madrid. A red Pharaoh (my image of Ra) is sailing down the Nile waving a Spanner (SPAIN) and shouting loudly because he is MAD.

5 red law -> Andorra - Andorra la Vella. A red faced lawyer is banging the door (ANDORRA) which bursts open onto a large valley (Andorra La Vella)

6 red shoe -> France - Paris - a red shoe is kicking a soccer ball into the Arc de Triophe in Paris and hitting the red, white and blue French flag.

7 red key -> Luxembourg - Luxembourg. A large red key is pushed into a large cake of LUX soap (an Australian brand of soap) which is between two large hamburger buns (LUX + HAMBURGER). Because I didn't add any more imagery, I know that the capital city is the same name.

8 red ivy -> Monaco - Monaco. A large piece of red ivy is draped around the neck of a MONK.

9 red bee -> Belgium - Brussels. An enormous red bee is stinging a luscious Belgiuan chocolate which is surrounded by Brussel Sprouts (BRUSSELS).

10 red toes -> Netherlands - Amsterdam. A foot with red painted toes is pushing into a wooden clog which in turn is kicking a hamster (Amsterdam) into a large net (Netherlands) draped over water (next to a dyke).

7. Testing and Review

I used the Mnemosyne Spaced Repetion flashcard software (Mnemosyne is free software and runs on Windows, Mac and Linux) to test my recall. The program displays a card with the number, I recall the country and capital, then show the answer.  The program schedules the card for future review based on how I rated my recall.

Once I remembered a country I removed the card from the paper card collection and added more cards.

8. Countries and Territories.

As I memorised the islands of Africa and South America I encounted territories of other countries. Do I memorise these or not?  I decided to remember most of the territories and to identify them I included the image of a terrier dog.  For example, Montserrat is a British Territory with capital of Plymouth. The peg number is 302 which is a Blue Noah. My memory image is a blue-faced Noah chasing a Monster Rat (Montserrat) who is also being chased by a terrier dog with a plum in its mouth (Plymouth).

9. Continents to Country link

Towards the end of my memorisation project I realised I didn't have a means to recall the first country in my sequence for a particular continent.

I created a list of continents with the peg number for the first country in sequence. I converted the number into an image using the Major system then built an association.

Europe - 100 - Daisies
Eastern Europe - 145 - Trolley / Trowel
Middle East - 150 Tiles
Asia - 164 Teacher (in an indian classroom)
SE Asia 177 - hat cock (rooster)
ASia Pacific - 194  - toe bar
Africa - 216 - Ant - Ouch! bitten by ants
North and Central America - 269 -  nacho bee
South America - 279 - knee cap 
Caribbean - 293 - napalm

If I want to recall the countries of Africa, I think of the ants biting (ouch!), convert this to 216 which is green tissue. My key image is the pyramids (Egypt) covered in green tissue paper with cars (Cairo) driving down the sides of the pyramids. I can now continue in sequence, recalling the country associated with 217, 218 and so on.

10. Mistakes

After I memorised the countries of Africa it was pointed out to me I had omitted two islands. I had to add these countries on to the existing peg. For example, I omitted Seychelle (capital Victoria) so I added it to the peg for Comoros (Moroni). Now my mental image was a cormorant with a green mace (key word for 230) in its beak with a moron hanging on to mace. The moron is wearing a necklace of sea-shells with a picture of Queen Victoria.

11. Capitals to Countries.

Since I had the country and capital information in a spreadsheet, I imported the capital to country data into Mnemosyne for additional testing. I found this is a good way to confim my knowledge of the countries.

12. Lessons learnt

I use Mnemosyne daily to review my Country/Capital cards. My recall of some countries is still weak but I do know the information and Mnemosyne is helping me push the information into long term memory. It is important to review daily and Mnemosyne is the most time efficient method.

When preparing to memorise a large amount of information, I learnt how important it is to compile and check all the details. Then the memorising process can proceed.

Some of my 100 peg words didnt have strong images and these got changed during the course of this project. For example, ball is not a strong image for 95, but bull is more memorable. I used to use FAB (the washing powder) for 89 but I also use vibe (vibraphone). I have found it is possible to remember multiple keywords for the number pegs without becoming confusing.

Mnemosyne (when used daily) is a great way to assess how fast it is possible to memorise a lot of information. I only worked on creating associations on my weekends or an occasional lunchbreak, but I used Mnemosyne almost daily for review. Often I would be frustrated at how I had forgotten things, and sometimes I would refine the image to help my recall.

I also learnt how to convert very difficult words into something memorable. For example:
  • Equatorial Guinea - A guinea pig running around the Earth's equator
  • Burkina Farso - a fat lady wearing a bikini (Bikini Fatso)
  • Liberia (capital Monrovia) used the image of a group of choir boys from Libera driving the Moon Rover. 
  • Senegal (Dakar) - a man waving his pants ("Daks") at a flock of seagulls.
Click on the picture below to show the information I have memorised.

More information:

          Tell Netflix to Nix DRM on original productions        

Through the creation of original work, Netflix can no longer hide behind the excuse that they only use DRM due to requirements from the film and television industries. Netflix needs to work for their subscribers, and their subscribers are mistreated by DRM. Please sign the petition below, insisting that Netflix respect the rights of its subscribers!

If you'd like to read more about the issue first, scroll past the letter.

To: Reed Hastings, Netflix Founder and CEO, and Officers and Directors of the Board

Please Drop DRM on Netflix Originals

Please drop DRM on Netflix Originals.

For years you've said Hollywood production companies and other studios have demanded videos be restricted with DRM before they can be streamed on Netflix. Now that you're producing a large volume of original movies and shows, no one is holding you back from releasing them DRM-free.

You have transformed how people engage with media, but now you need to think bigger. We believe you know that DRM is harmful, that it is simply not right to demand deep control over Netflix watchers' computers just because they might do something wrong.

We're asking you to make Netflix Originals available without DRM. We respect your creative efforts. Respect us by making it possible to enjoy these movies and shows without installing dangerous, restrictive, unethical software. Netflix fancies itself an innovative company. We can't have innovation without freedom, and we can't have freedom with DRM.

Sincerely, the undersigned



TO SIGN

Please create an account below while you sign the petition. If you have an account, please follow this link to log-in and sign. Sorry for the inconvenience.

 Check if you use Netflix
 Check to receive updates on our anti-DRM work



We won't share your information. See our privacy policy.


Why you should sign

DRM is the practice of imposing technological restrictions that control what users can do with digital media. This concentrates control over production and distribution of media, giving DRM peddlers the power to carry out massive digital book (or movie!) burnings and large scale surveillance over people's media viewing habits.

Why does Netflix have Digital Restrictions Management (DRM) on their original productions? In the past, they have excused their use of DRM by claiming that the film and television industries made them do it.

That was an unacceptable excuse to begin with, but now that they make their own movies and shows, it's also a blatant falsehood.

More on Netflix & their relationship to DRM

We have been urging people to cancel their Netflix subscriptions-- and not only because the videos are locked down with DRM.

Netflix was an early supporter of efforts to get DRM (via "Encrypted Media Extensions") into Web standards (along with companies like Microsoft, Google, Comcast, and even the BBC). Netflix's DRM requirements pushed Mozilla to add it Firefox. Subscriber fees have paid for this lobbying and activity.

DRM proponents talk about the security provided by DRM, but while it may "protect" video files by limiting your access to them, it also opens you up to risks. The Electronic Frontier Foundation rightly points out that "DRM creates a massive security hole by requiring users to give up some control of their own computers." This weakness in DRM is one example of the security threat it poses to your devices: by being easy to break, it is easy to break into and use to do things like taking advantage of backdoors DRM programs install in your devices.

Contrary to public statements that restrictive technologies like DRM are a requirement in obtaining a license, artists have asked Netflix to provide their work DRM-free. When cartoonist and animator Nina Paley asked them to stream her film "Sita Sings the Blues"DRM-free, they told her it wasn't possible with their electronic delivery system. They also refused to allow her to add a notice telling viewers where they could find and download the film.

In addition to Paley, Aziz Ansari, Jim Gaffigan, and Louis CK all sell DRM-free videos from their own sites. However, Netflix made their Netflix Specials come with DRM. We've been asking ourselves if they really required Netflix to add it in order to make and stream these videos.

We're always working to keep you informed about DRM. To learn more, read:


          Tell Netflix to Nix DRM on original productions        

Through the creation of original work, Netflix can no longer hide behind the excuse that they only use DRM due to requirements from the film and television industries. Netflix needs to work for their subscribers, and their subscribers are mistreated by DRM. Please sign the petition below, insisting that Netflix respect the rights of its subscribers!

If you'd like to read more about the issue first, scroll past the letter.

To: Reed Hastings, Netflix Founder and CEO, and Officers and Directors of the Board

Please Drop DRM on Netflix Originals

Please drop DRM on Netflix Originals.

For years you've said Hollywood production companies and other studios have demanded videos be restricted with DRM before they can be streamed on Netflix. Now that you're producing a large volume of original movies and shows, no one is holding you back from releasing them DRM-free.

You have transformed how people engage with media, but now you need to think bigger. We believe you know that DRM is harmful, that it is simply not right to demand deep control over Netflix watchers' computers just because they might do something wrong.

We're asking you to make Netflix Originals available without DRM. We respect your creative efforts. Respect us by making it possible to enjoy these movies and shows without installing dangerous, restrictive, unethical software. Netflix fancies itself an innovative company. We can't have innovation without freedom, and we can't have freedom with DRM.

Sincerely, the undersigned



TO SIGN

Please create an account below while you sign the petition. If you have an account, please follow this link to log-in and sign. Sorry for the inconvenience.

 Check if you use Netflix
 Check to receive updates on our anti-DRM work



We won't share your information. See our privacy policy.


Why you should sign

DRM is the practice of imposing technological restrictions that control what users can do with digital media. This concentrates control over production and distribution of media, giving DRM peddlers the power to carry out massive digital book (or movie!) burnings and large scale surveillance over people's media viewing habits.

Why does Netflix have Digital Restrictions Management (DRM) on their original productions? In the past, they have excused their use of DRM by claiming that the film and television industries made them do it.

That was an unacceptable excuse to begin with, but now that they make their own movies and shows, it's also a blatant falsehood.

More on Netflix & their relationship to DRM

We have been urging people to cancel their Netflix subscriptions-- and not only because the videos are locked down with DRM.

Netflix was an early supporter of efforts to get DRM (via "Encrypted Media Extensions") into Web standards (along with companies like Microsoft, Google, Comcast, and even the BBC). Netflix's DRM requirements pushed Mozilla to add it Firefox. Subscriber fees have paid for this lobbying and activity.

DRM proponents talk about the security provided by DRM, but while it may "protect" video files by limiting your access to them, it also opens you up to risks. The Electronic Frontier Foundation rightly points out that "DRM creates a massive security hole by requiring users to give up some control of their own computers." This weakness in DRM is one example of the security threat it poses to your devices: by being easy to break, it is easy to break into and use to do things like taking advantage of backdoors DRM programs install in your devices.

Contrary to public statements that restrictive technologies like DRM are a requirement in obtaining a license, artists have asked Netflix to provide their work DRM-free. When cartoonist and animator Nina Paley asked them to stream her film "Sita Sings the Blues"DRM-free, they told her it wasn't possible with their electronic delivery system. They also refused to allow her to add a notice telling viewers where they could find and download the film.

In addition to Paley, Aziz Ansari, Jim Gaffigan, and Louis CK all sell DRM-free videos from their own sites. However, Netflix made their Netflix Specials come with DRM. We've been asking ourselves if they really required Netflix to add it in order to make and stream these videos.

We're always working to keep you informed about DRM. To learn more, read:


          Bayerische Creme ( Bavarian cream with Raspberry jelly )        
Bayerische Creme is a classic rich and creamy German dessert. It is basically vanilla cream, thickened with gelatine, whipped cream, and egg yolks. It is similar to flour or cornstarch thickened crème pâtissière but thickened with gelatin instead. It is lightened with whipped cream when on the edge of setting up, before being molded, for a true Bavarian cream is usually filled into a fluted mold chilled until firm, then turned out onto a serving plate.



Little about Vanilla : The name vanilla derives from the Spanish word "vainilla", little pod. Vanilla is an Evergreen annual creeper plant from genus of orchid plants which flourish in tropical and subtropical climate. Vanilla is the only type of Orchid which contributes to the human diet. The plant originally comes from Mexico and Central America. Today's areas of vanilla are situated in the tropical Island Madagascar, the Comoros, Reunion and other tropical areas along the Indian Ocean. From over one hundred Types of vanilla, only fifteen are interestingly aromatic and only three are suitable for the manufacture of vanilla. The special aroma of vanilla is formed from 35 other substances along with vanillin and glucose. This aroma is achieved only after a very intensive working process where a fermentation is achieved by drying and sweating. And finally, the pods contain a maximum of just 3 % of vanillin.

Vanilla is the second most expensive spice after saffron, due to the extensive labor required to grow the vanilla seed pods. Despite the expense, it is highly valued for its flavor, which author Frederic Rosengarten, Jr. described in The Book of Spices as "pure, spicy, and delicate" and its complex floral aroma depicted as a "peculiar bouquet." Despite its high cost, vanilla is widely used in both commercial and domestic baking, perfume manufacture and aromatherapy.

Now with the recipe..

Recipe Serves : 6

Ingredients Required:
500 ml milk
100 g sugar
6 egg yolks
1 vanilla pod
200 g whipping cream
4 gelatin sheets

1 packet raspberry jelly (optional)

Directions:
Soak the gelatin sheets in a bowl of cold water for 5 minutes and let it soften.

Cut the vanilla pod lengthwise and scrap the seeds using the sharp end of the knife. In a saucepan, combine milk and the pod along with the seeds and simmer them together over low-to-medium heat for about ten minutes. Don't allow to scald or boil!. Take the pan off the heat and let the vanilla get infused into the milk for a while.

Meanwhile, beat the yolks and sugar together using a hand mixer till pale and fluffy.

Slowly add warm vanilla-milk into the yolk mixture and combine using a whisk. Add this vanilla milk-yolk mixture back into the saucepan and simmer on low heat till the mixture thickens, and cook until the mixture is thick enough to coat the back of a spoon. Take it off the heat.

Now take the gelatin out of the cold water, squeeze and add it to the hot vanilla custard, whisking well to combine. And let this custard cool completely.

Beat the cream along with 3 tablespoons of sugar until stiff and fold this into the cooled custard. Pour this mixture into individual wine glasses and refrigerate until to set.

Use raspberry jelly according to the instructions on the packet and pour it on to the fully set vanilla cream. Or you can simply use any fruit purees on top of the cream.

The cream even tastes delicious with or without any fruits.


So enjoy this awesome dessert.
          What African presidents are paid, and why it matters        
Chadian President Idriss Deby Itno (L) with President Ali Bongo Ondimba Gabon (R) and Cameroon's Paul Biya (C) on April 3, 2014 at the EU headquarters in Brussels. Salaries of some of the best paid African  leaders have been revealed. FILE | NATION MEDIA GROUP When Nigeria's President Muhammadu Buhari recently announced that he and his deputy would take a pay cut, it was not entirely surprising for a man known for his strictness, and who faces a challenge cutting back the excess in the country's finances.
But President Buhari is not the first African  leader to announce a pay-cut. In fact, it is a popular recourse for others trying to shore up their popularity, or facing tough economic times.

In Kenya, President Uhuru Kenyatta and his deputy William Ruto last year announced a voluntary 20 per cent salary cut and  invited other top government officials to follow suit. A few did, reluctantly.

In Tunisia, former President Moncef Marzouki, then facing an economic crisis in the post-revolution period, announced a two-thirds pay cut, slicing his annual pay from around $176,868 to 'just' $58,956.

The Africa Review has compiled and analysed salaries of African leaders to try and see what they tell about the relationship between those in power and the governed.

The data is the best obtainable version that could be found, either through the correspondents, or online.

The search shows that only a few countries make public what they pay their leaders – a key finding itself that suggests a lack of transparency.

In many African countries, the first thing leaders do when they come into power is to increase their pay: In Egypt, for instance, the president's pay shot up from a paltry $280 per month, put in place by the austere Mohammed Morsy administration, to $5,900 per month just before General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi predictably won an election.

In other countries, leaders take a disproportionate share of the national income for their personal use. In Morocco, the Treasury spends, by one account, $1 million a day for King Mohammed VI's 12 royal palaces and 30 private residences. That is on top of $7.7 million spent on an entourage of royal automobiles, and a monthly salary of $40,000 paid to the monarch.

In 2014, King Mswati of Swaziland increased his personal budget, which includes his salary and the welfare of his extensive family, by 10 per cent to $61 million, a significant chunk of the kingdom's overall budget. As the royal budget isn't debated or passed by Parliament, it automatically became law.

Some presidents have deceptively small salaries but have, personally or through family members, massive control over their countries' resources. For example, President Eduardo dos Santos has a modest monthly salary of $5,000 but is widely believed to control a lot of the wealth produced from Angola's oil-industry, and his family members own some of the biggest enterprises in the country.

The Africa Review was unable to establish the official salary for Teodoro Obiang' Nguema Mbasogo, the long-serving president of the oil-rich Equatorial Guinea, but it probably doesn't matter.

With vast oil wealth and a population of less than a million, Equatorial Guinea has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world and should be a first-world nation.

Instead, most of its wealth ends up in the hands of its notoriously corrupt First Family.

As an example, the US Department of Justice, in an indictment of the younger Teodoro Nguema Obiang' Mangue, said the first son had spent about $315 million on property and luxury goods between 2004 and 2011, despite his job as a government minister paying less than $100,000 per year.

However, not all African leaders are money-grabbing, power-hungry brutes. In April 2015 Cape Verde President João Carlos Fonseca vetoed – for the fourth time, no less – a Bill that would, among other things, have increased his salary and that of other political officials.

The Africa Review findings upset a lot of conventional wisdom. For instance, the best-paid leader is not South Africa's Jacob Zuma, who presides over Africa's most advanced and second largest economy.

The highest-paid leader, the research could find, is Paul Biya, whose $610,000 annual salary is almost three times that of President Zuma, despite the South African economy being 10 times bigger than Cameroon’s.

Rather than simply rank the leaders based on absolute figures, The Africa Review decided to compare their gross annual salaries with the Gross National Income of their countries – basically comparing the leader's pay with what their nationals, on average, earn.

Unsurprisingly, President Biya comes out on top again, earning 229 times what an average Cameroonian earns, followed by Liberia where President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf earns 113 times what her average citizen does.

Tanzania, Malawi and Comoros round out the top five countries with the largest difference between presidential pay and average GNI per capita. The five countries with the smallest difference between the two are Mauritius, Botswana, Gabon and Cape Verde, with Tunisia posting the least president-to-citizen inequality among the 35 countries surveyed.

Although Somalia's President Hassan Sheikh Mohamoud makes the top 10 with his annual salary of $120,000, the country is excluded from the comparative study due to the lack of verifiable GNI per capita figures.

Overall, it appears that leaders of poor countries tend to pay themselves more than those in higher-income countries. But salaries, of course, do not tell the whole story and some of the presidents believed to have the highest personal wealth, do not even feature in the top 10.

10 Highest paid – Absolute numbers
1. Paul Biya – Cameroon $601,000
2. King Mohammed VI – Morocco $480,000
3. Jacob Zuma – South Africa $272,000
4. Jakaya Kikwete – Tanzania $192,000
5. Abdel Aziz Bouteflika – Algeria $168,000
6. Teodoro Nguema - Equatorial Guinea $150,000 (Estimate)
7. Uhuru Kenyatta – Kenya $132,000
8. Hassan Sheikh Mohamoud – Somalia $120,000
9. Ikililou Dhoinine – Comoros $115,000
10. Denis Sassou Nguesso – Congo Republic $110,000

10 Highest paid – Relative to GNP
1. Paul Biya (Cameroon - 229 times average income)
2. Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (Liberia – 114x)
3. Jakaya Kikwete (Tanzania – 109x)
4. Peter Mutharika (Malawi – 100x)
5. Joseph Kabila (DR Congo – 77x)
6. Ikililou Dhoinine (Comoros – 74x)
7. Robert Mugabe (Zimbabwe – 69x)
8. King Mohammed VI (Morocco – 68x)
9. Paul Kagame (Rwanda – 59x)
10. Uhuru Kenyatta (Kenya – 59x)

Data sources: Africa Review correspondents, Jeune Afrique, My Wage, Mail & Guardian South Africa, Africa Ranking, Africa Cradle, Middle East Monitor, World Bank Group.

©2017 The Vanguard Cameroon, Bamenda. A publication of Media World. All rights reserved. All are welcome to comment. Leave a comment, speak your mind and take part in any discussion. As exchange of ideas and debates between opinions are fundamental for our democracy. And will push Cameroon forward. Comments with racist, homophobic, sexist, hateful, extreme Christian or extreme Islamic content will be removed. Leave the CAPS-LOCK off, no reason to SHOUT.

          ÐšÐ¾Ð¼Ð¾Ñ€ÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ острова на картах        
Коморские острова - страна в Индийском океане. Расположена рядом с восточным побережьем  ÐÑ„Ñ€Ð¸ÐºÐ¸. Столица и самый большой город - Морони. Самые близкие страны к Коморским островам - Мозамбик, Танзания, Мадагаскар и Сейшельские острова. Ð¡Ñ‚рана официально состоит из четырех островов на вулканическом архипелаге Коморских островов: Ngazidja, Mohéli, Nzwani, Mayotte и небольшого количества более мелких островов.

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          CIA踢爆統媒謊言:台灣民不聊生?        
美國CIA世界事件簿報告,台灣在2007年一月時,貧窮線下人口比例為0.9%,是全球列入統計132個國家中的第一。


資料連結:
http://www.indexmundi.com/g/r.aspx?c=tw&v=69

貧窮線定義:一天只能花不到一美元的人,就是在貧窮線下。

台灣在貧窮線下的人比例全球最少,如果是民不聊生,那麼地球人就是民不聊生了。

我不知道是媒體找不到資訊,被誤導,或是他們刻意忽略,不告訴我們。

他們把「貧富差距大」「不景氣」「民不聊生」當成是國民生活常識。

不希望台灣被全面性唱衰,喜歡台灣這塊土地,甚至只是相信資訊應該中性的朋友,拜託幫幫忙轉寄這個資訊吧。

因為我知道媒體是不會報導的。

摘錄貧窮線下人口比例最低的國家排行:

第1名. 台灣 0.9%
3. 比利時 4%
5. 馬來西亞5.1%
6. 奧地利 5.9%
7. 法國 6.2%
13. 泰國 10%
14. 愛爾蘭 10%
15. 中國 10%
16. 荷蘭 10.5%
19. 美國 12%
23. 南韓 15%
26. 聯合王國(英國)17%
35. 西班牙 19.8%
41. 以色列 21.6%
45. 印度 25%
62. 巴西 31%





1 Zambia 86
2 Zimbabwe 80
3 Chad 80
4 Haiti 80
5 Liberia 80
6 Angola 70
7 Mozambique 70
8 Suriname 70
9 Swaziland 69
10 Sierra Leone 68
11 Burundi 68
12 Bolivia 64
13 Mali 64
14 Tajikistan 64
15 Gaza Strip 63.1
16 Niger 63
17 Nigeria 60
18 Rwanda 60
19 Comoros 60
20 Turkmenistan 58
21 Guatemala 56.2
22 Georgia 54
23 Sao Tome and Principe 54
24 Senegal 54
25 Peru 54
26 Malawi 53
27 Honduras 53
28 Afghanistan 53
29 Djibouti 50
30 Eritrea 50
31 Kenya 50
32 Madagascar 50
33 South Africa 50
34 Colombia 49.2
35 Azerbaijan 49
36 Lesotho 49
37 Cameroon 48
38 Nicaragua 48
39 Guinea 47
40 West Bank 45.7
41 Yemen 45.2
42 Burkina Faso 45
43 Bangladesh 45
44 East Timor 42
45 Ecuador 41
46 Iran 40
47 Kyrgyzstan 40
48 Cambodia 40
49 Philippines 40
50 Sudan 40
51 Mauritania 40
52 Mexico 40
53 Venezuela 37.9
54 Panama 37
55 Papua New Guinea 37
56 Cote d'Ivoire 37
57 Mongolia 36.1
58 Tanzania 36
59 El Salvador 35.2
60 Uganda 35
61 Armenia 34.6
62 Belize 33.5
63 Benin 33
64 Uzbekistan 33
65 Togo 32
66 Paraguay 32
67 Grenada 32
68 Bhutan 31.7
69 Argentina 31.4
70 Ghana 31.4
71 Brazil 31
72 Laos 30.7
73 Botswana 30.3
74 Cape Verde 30
75 Dominica 30
76 Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of 30
77 Moldova 29.5
78 Ukraine 29
79 Lebanon 28
80 Uruguay 27.37
81 Belarus 27.1
82 Micronesia, Federated States of 26.7
83 India 25
84 Burma 25
85 Bosnia and Herzegovina 25
86 Albania 25
87 Algeria 25
88 Romania 25
89 Anguilla 23
90 Guam 23
91 Sri Lanka 22
92 Israel 21.6
93 Slovakia 21
94 Maldives 21
95 Trinidad and Tobago 21
96 Turkey 20
97 Egypt 20
98 Spain 19.8
99 Vietnam 19.5
100 Kazakhstan 19
101 Morocco 19
102 Bermuda 19
103 Chile 18.2
104 Costa Rica 18
105 Indonesia 17.8
106 Russia 17.8
107 Poland 17
108 United Kingdom 17
109 Canada 15.9
110 Korea, South 15
111 Jamaica 14.8
112 Bulgaria 14.1
113 Slovenia 12.9
114 United States 12
115 Syria 11.9
116 Croatia 11
117 Netherlands 10.5
118 Mauritius 10
119 Thailand 10
120 Ireland 10
121 China 10
122 Bahamas, The 9.3
123 Hungary 8.6
124 Libya 7.4
125 Tunisia 7.4
126 France 6.2
127 Austria 5.9
128 Malaysia 5.1
129 Estonia 5
130 Lithuania 4
131 Belgium 4
132 Taiwan 0.9


CIA World Fact Book 連結:
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2046.html
          Paises del G-77 màs China        
 Afganistán Bandera de Angola Angola
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg Antigua y Barbuda
Bandera de Arabia Saudita Arabia Saudí
Bandera de Argelia Argelia
Bandera de Argentina Argentina
Bandera de las Bahamas Bahamas
Bandera de Bangladés Bangladés
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Bandera de Baréin Baréin
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Bandera de Birmania Birmania
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Bandera de Bolivia Bolivia
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Bandera de Brasil Brasil
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Bandera de la República del Congo República del Congo
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Bandera de Ecuador Ecuador
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Bandera de los Emiratos Árabes Unidos Emiratos Árabes Unidos
Bandera de Eritrea Eritrea
Flag of Ethiopia.svg Etiopía
Bandera de las Filipinas Filipinas
Flag of Fiji.svg Fiyi
Flag of Gabon.svg Gabón
Flag of The Gambia.svg Gambia
Bandera de Ghana Ghana
Flag of Grenada.svg Granada
Bandera de Guatemala Guatemala
Bandera de Guinea Guinea
Bandera de Guinea-Bisáu Guinea-Bissau
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg Guinea Ecuatorial
Bandera de Guyana Guyana
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Bandera de Honduras Honduras
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Kiribati
Bandera de Kuwait Kuwait
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Bandera de Malasia Malasia
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Flag of Maldives.svg Maldivas
Bandera de Malí Malí
Bandera de Marruecos Marruecos
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Bandera de los Estados Federados de Micronesia Micronesia
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Flag of Mozambique.svg Mozambique
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 Nauru
Bandera de Nepal Nepal
Bandera de Nicaragua Nicaragua
Flag of Niger.svg Níger
Bandera de Nigeria Nigeria
Flag of Oman.svg Omán
Bandera de Pakistán Pakistán
</noinclude> Palestina
Bandera de Panamá Panamá
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg Papúa Nueva Guinea
Bandera de Paraguay Paraguay
Bandera del Perú Perú
Bandera de Ruanda Ruanda
Bandera de las Islas Salomón Islas Salomón
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg San Cristóbal y Nieves
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg San Vicente y las Granadinas
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg Santa Lucía Bandera de Samoa Samoa
Bandera de Santo Tomé y Príncipe Santo Tomé y Príncipe
Bandera de Senegal Senegal
Bandera de Seychelles Seychelles
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Bandera de Singapur Singapur
Bandera de Siria Siria
Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia
Bandera de Sri Lanka Sri Lanka
Flag of Swaziland.svg Suazilandia
Bandera de Sudáfrica Sudáfrica
Flag of Sudan.svg Sudán
Bandera de Surinam Surinam
Bandera de Tailandia Tailandia
Flag of Tanzania.svg Tanzania
Flag of Tajikistan.svg Tayikistán
Flag of East Timor.svg Timor Oriental
Flag of Togo.svg Togo
Flag of Tonga.svg Tonga
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Trinidad y Tobago
Bandera de Túnez Túnez
Bandera de Turkmenistán Turkmenistán
Bandera de Uganda Uganda
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          Privacy Takes Center Stage in Uruguay        

Last week, the 34th Annual Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners’ Conference was held in Punta del Este, Uruguay. The event brings together international regulators whose mandate is to uphold individuals’ rights to privacy. Preceding the official gathering of data protection authorities was The Public Voice, a daylong event hosted by an international coalition of civil organizations, with the Electronic Privacy Information Center taking the lead on organizing events this year. EFF, a part of this coalition, delivered a presentation during a panel discussion about global developments in privacy standards.

In a digital age marked by ever-increasing advancements in biometric identification, online surveillance, behavioral targeting, geolocation and other emerging technology and practices, there is a new urgency for strong standards that give individuals control over their personal information, particularly since it can be collected, aggregated, and used without their knowledge in the digital realm.

The privacy events featured discussions on the ongoing development of international standards as well as the growing threats to the fundamental right to privacy in the digital age. Below are some highlights from the civil society event and the data protection commissioners’ conference.

Strengthening EU Data Protection Regulation

At the Public Voice Conference, Article 29 Working Party Chair Jacob Kohnstamm, chairman of the Dutch Data Protection Authority, said the draft European Union Data Protection Regulation now under consideration should be strengthened. In particular, he said it was important to ensure that the concept of “explicit consent” – when data collectors get permission from individuals to collect personal information, rather than just assuming that consent is implied – is not weakened. He also said the Article 29 Working Party would issue an opinion early next year regarding a provision on “purpose limitation,” which governs how entities may use the information they collect. Kohnstamm said the draft regulation currently appears to contain a loophole that is too permissive and should be addressed.

Safeguarding Privacy in Countries with Weak Rule of Law

Speaking at the Public Voice event, attorney and human rights advocate Renata Avila, a Global Voices contributor, said the need for data protection regulations is both more acute and more difficult to obtain in Guatemala. With a fragile government that cannot even be counted on to enforce the law effectively in cases of murder, there is a particular need in Guatemala for individuals to have assurance that their personal information is not being misused or collected without their consent, especially by private security companies.

Security measures such as surveillance cameras and collection of biometric information are increasing in response to violence. All of this is occurring in a context where no specific law for the protection of personal data exists, and the dominant mindset is that any move to protect individuals’ personal rights to privacy is contrary to the goals of security.

Yes, Consumers Really Do Care About Privacy

Do consumers really care about privacy? Two speakers, Frank Torres and Brad Smith from Microsoft, addressed this question and concluded that the answer is yes, even if consumers also like the personalization that can be a product of practices like online behavioral advertising. According to a Pew research study referenced by Torres during the Public Voice Conference, 54 percent of consumers decided not to install phone apps because of concerns about sharing of information, while 30 percent uninstalled mobile apps due to privacy concerns. Smith, who spoke at the privacy commissioners’ conference, said Microsoft conducted its own research, too. “We thought it would make sense to go back & learn what consumers want,” he said. “What we found in the United States, the United Kingdom, France and Germany is that most people believe tracking goes too far.”

Surveillance Technology is Big in Africa

During the Public Voice conference, Gus Hosein of Privacy International described how shocked he and colleagues were when they started going to surveillance technology trade shows as part of the Big Brother, Inc. project to learn which governmental agencies were interested in shopping for software that has the capability to be used for repression. One notable attendee was a representative from the government of South Sudan, which became an independent state a mere six months ago. Notably, it was mostly British and German firms that were peddling the surveillance kits, he added. At the privacy commissioners conference, Hosein shared some of his research on vendors of biometric technology, which is increasingly being used in refugee camps. He noted that the UN Democracy Fund had bankrolled biometric voter registration in Benin, Cape Verde, Comoros Islands, The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Sierra Leone. In the DRC, $40 million was spent on biometric kits while $101 million was spent for voter registration – but a leaked report revealed that inaccuracy was a glaring issue, with 700,000 double registrations.

Privacy Implications of Big Data

Security expert and author Bruce Schneier, who spoke at the Public Voice Event, said he thought more attention should be devoted to the privacy implications of big data, which makes it possible for data collectors to identify and classify individuals based on their habits. “As soon as we involve a computer, data is generated,” Schneier explained. “Data is a byproduct of socialization.” He added that the low cost of data storage has helped give rise to big data. It’s cheaper to save everything just in case it might be valuable, he said, than to figure out how to sort and cull valuable information. “That’s why we have big data.”

In all, both The Public Voice and the 34th Annual Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners’ Conference presented a rare and important opportunity for advocates working on privacy issues to convene, share information about developments in privacy standards throughout the world, and get their message across to world governments. At the Public Voice Event, EFF delivered a presentation on U.S. developments on the protection of privacy in the form of the Obama Administration’s proposed Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights framework. As we noted, there is still a long way to go before adequate standards are in place to safeguard individual’s personal information in the digital realm. But with a global coalition of privacy advocates on the case, the voice of the public interest will not go unheard.


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          The Biggest Monty Python Fans in the World        

...by country.
If you feel you deserve to be included in this list, click here.

Australia

Afghanistan

Albania

Algeria

American Samoa

Andorra

Angola

Anguilla

Antigua and Barbuda

Argentina

Armenia

Aruba

Austria

Azerbaijan

Bahamas

Bahrain

Bangladesh

Barbados

Belarus

Belgium

Belize

Benin

Bermuda

Bhutan

Bolivia

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Botswana

Brazil

British Virgin Islands

Brunei

Bulgaria

Burkina Faso

Burundi

Cambodia

Cameroon

Canada

Cape Verde

Cayman Islands

Central African Republic

Chad

Chile

China

Christmas Island

Cocos Islands

Colombia

Comoros

Congo

Cook Islands

Costa Rica

Cote d'Ivoire

Croatia

Cuba

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Denmark

Djibouti

Dominica

Dominican Republic

East Timor

Ecuador

Egypt

El Salvador

Equitorial Guinea

Eritrea

Estonia

Ethiopia

Falkland Islands

Faroe Islands

Fiji

Finland

France

French Guyana

French Polynesia

Gabon

Gambia

Georgia

Germany

Ghana

Gibraltar

Greece

  • Ina Alba: I am 17 years old (as at 17/06/10) and I believe I am the biggest Python fan in my country, if not in the world! I live in Greece where Python is relatively unknown because of the dictatorship during the 60s and early 70s. Pythons have changed my life for the best. I live for their films, shows etc almost every moment and I laugh without people knowing the reason! I have every Terry Gilliam film, the whole flying circus, fawlty towers, the human face, medieval lives. The 1948 Show, how to irritate people, do not adjust your set, full python films, 3 lives and mike's documentaries...oh and two books! The Pythons' autobiography by the Pythons and Michael's diaries, volume 1! I had to travel to London so as to buy these because no python books are available here! I am a dedicated fan, celebrating their anniversary each october and I think I am the only Greek on Pythonline.com and palinstravels.com Hmm I said too much so I'll shut up now!
  • Annie Terz: I own loads of Python merchandise (posters, books, DVD's etc), and I have seen every single thing Monty Python and the Pythons on their own have made. I haven't met any one of them (as at 24/07/11), not even indirectly but we live and hope! Monty Python urged me to grow up and formed not only my personality but my lifestyle too. It helped me through a few unpleasant years and is still making my world go round! We all find our motivation to live through different forces, and there's always someone we turn to when we are in a dead end. Monty Python is my God; and what if this is offensive, Monty wouldn't really care now would he?
Greenland

Grenada

Guadeloupe

Guam

Guatemala

Guinea

Guinea-Bissau

Guyana

Haiti

Honduras

Hong Kong

Hungary

Iceland

India

Indonesia

  • Annisa Alina Putri: Hi, my name is Annisa Alina Putri, my internet name is Ade Siregar. Well, Ade is my nickname and i like my nickname because it sounds so cool heheh. Anyway i'm a girl who is crazy about Monty Python. Why do i call myself the Biggest Python Fan in my country? (i live in Indonesia, know where that is? no one knows where that is heheh) Because i think i am the only 15-year-old girl in my country who would drool over Michael Palin and not Justin Bieber. And my friends know nothing about Monty Python before i tell em about how awesome and influential Monty Python is to the world. I tell em about how the junk messages were named after their sketch, and their reactions were 'oh..' And i'm always mumbling about Monty Python on twitter, without no one responding it, that's how lonely i am as a fan. My favorite pythons are John or Graham. and Michael, and The Terrys... Did i miss someone? oh yeah, EWIC. heheh. Which Terry is the first one? Maybe Jones, or Gilliam, or Jones, or Gilliam, anyway i love em. Anyway i hope you can post my name on your blog so people know that there is a country named Indonesia, kiss kiss.
Iran

Iraq

Ireland

Israel

Italy

Jamaica

Japan

Jordan

Kazakhstan

Kenya

Kiribati

Kuwait

Kyrgyzstan

Laos

Latvia

Lebanon

Lesotho

Liberia

Libya

Liechtenstein

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Macau

Macedonia

Madagascar

Malawi

Malaysia

Maldives

Mali

Malta

Marshall Islands

Martinique

Mauritania

Mauritius

Mayotte

Mexico

Micronesia

Moldova

Monaco

Mongolia

Montenegro

Montserrat

Morocco

Mozambique

Myanmar

Namibia

Nauru

Nepal

Netherlands

Netherlands Antilles

New Caledonia

New Zealand

Nicaragua

Niger

Nigeria

Niue

Norfolk Island

North Korea

Northern Mariana Islands

Norway

  • My name is Henning, I am 23 years old at the moment (March 2012) and if you want to make contact leave a comment on my blog (the link is further down). I am not only the finest breeder of the Norwegian Blue parrot (which I feed exclusively with Norwegian Jarlsberg, whenever its in stock at my local cheese shop (not often)), but also quite a fan of Monty Python, though with no more personal experience then the series, the movies, the documentaries, and whatever the hell Not the Messiah was. I also guvern a blog with an iron fist, www.DetMagiskeKongeriket.blogg.no (primarily in Norwegian), which sporadically mentions Monty Python. Photo caption: This is a friend and myself outside of the Norwegian Parliament, clowns on the inside, clowns on the outside.
Oman

Pakistan

Palau

Panama

Papua New Guinea

Paraguay

Peru

Philippines

Pitcairn Islands

Poland

Portugal

Puerto Rico

Qatar

Reunion

Romania

Russia

  • Kate: (don't know her surname) who lives in St Petersberg
Rwanda

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Saint Lucia

Saint Vincent and Grenadines

Samoa

San Marino

Sao Tome and Principe

Saudi Arabia

Senegal

Serbia and Montenegro

Seychelles

Sierra Leone

Singapore

Slovakia

Slovenia

Solomon Islands

Somalia

South Africa

South Korea

Spain

Sri Lanka

St Helena

St Pierre and Miquelon

Sudan

Suriname

Swaziland

Sweden

  • Thina Hederstedt: Can blabber a whole bunch of useless information or recite holy grail from beginning to end - became a python fan at the age of 10 (the first time I saw a grown up man in full frontal, that might be the reason I went gay. haha) then a fan of neil when I was about 14, but with youtube at our fingertips I have become a HUGE-neil-fan. I have been known to break out in hysterical giggling over random things like tennis on the tv, someone saying "burma", someone bragging over how rich he/she is, liberty bell being played on the radio and ANYONE in a kilt. I am also one of those people who makes odd references that no one gets all the time, or just say "lemon curry?" (or in swedish "citron curry?") now and again just to see the looks on people's faces. favourite sketch: penguin on the televison. favourite movie: holy grail. favourite song: at the moment "eric the half a bee" favourite python: depends on when you ask me. but most of the time, I would say graham or eric. who is the 7th?: I have decided there were 9! so neil, carol AND connie count! ME: thina hederstedt twitter: @thina82 pythonline: the_thina youtube: kyrastube msn: estet_kikka@hotmail.com (but say "python" in the subject line)
Switzerland

Syria

Taiwan

Tajikistan

Tanzania

Thailand

Togo

Tokelau

Tonga

Trinidad and Tobago

Tunisia

Turkey

  • Hi my name is Selcuk Umur from Turkey .
    i a wared of Pythons first with 'Philosophy Football' .Then i searched of them and watched 'The Holly Grail'' that was the absurd type of humor which i was looking for all my life . Following days i watched 'Life Of Brain' and that was the second shock for me .I think that they were still PERFECT ..then i dedicated myself to inform people who didn't meet Pythons yet.I can say that i am little bit failed because many people who watches the Python films with me they never can laugh because i start to laugh to the scenes a minute before it starts forwhy i watched films so many times plus in my spare time i read the scripts of the films on internet .However i have success on internet to inform people .In september 2007 i opened the first ''MONTY PYTHON'' named and dedicated group on facebook and that group reached 4.879 members.In that group me and other members say to each others 'NÄ°''many times and dignify The Pythons all around the world.Unfortunately Facebook Admins Migrated the group to the archive now there is 17 members but i believe that i will reach bigger numbers of people to inform again. In all these things i watch 'The Flying Circus' sketches on youtube and following Michael Palins 'New Europa' documentary on BBC HD,collecting Python members Personal Best DVD s ,and i am waiting for the day that i will avert my eyes from GOD:) at he end in of a life which is full with PYTHON knowledge.

    P.S. I still watch the series of Suddenly Susan Tv series to see Eric Idle as Ian Maxtone-Graham :)
Turkmenistan

Turks and Caicos Islands

Tuvalu

Uganda

Ukraine

United Arab Emirates

United Kingdom

  • Becky Freeman: I've been a big Monty Python fan for about 2 years now (as at 15/06/10) and have collected nearly 100 Python or Python-related things which have come to the sum of over £500, which is a lot for me as I'm only 16 years old! I love Monty Python so much and Michael Palin is my favourite. I must have seen/heard/read everything he has ever done (almost) and I have written to him too! For my 16th birthday, I had a Python costume party. That's me (above) dressed as a Gumby with the Monty Python Live book I got for my birthday. I think I am a huge Monty Python and I would like to be included within the United Kingdom as that is my home and the birthplace of Python. Thank you very much :)
  • Dan from Scotland
United States
  • Laura Vorgias: can quote most of the sketches and movies word for word... not like anyone would want to hear that. @lvorgias
  • Holly Perry: My name is Holly Perry, I've loved Monty Python for about 15 years (as at 17/06/10). In the past few years, I've come to love them even more. Not a day goes by where something doesn't happen that reminds me of something Python related. I recently had a silly walk tattooed on my shoulder and I'd love to get more python tattoos. I own every movie, have a couple posters, have the collector's box set on Flying Circus, and if you ask my seven year old son what rule #1 one is on any random occasion, he'll tell you "No Pooftahs". I'm on Facebook as Holly Johnston Perry and I'm a member of Pythonline.com as "Holly" I like to think I'm one of the biggest fans in America, and if I'm not, well, then I'm the biggest fan in Florida.
  • TheRealGilliamFan: Hi! Here's my story. I'm American. Too young to have grown up watching Monty Python's Flying Circus when it was broadcast, but I love it now! I own the Monty Python's Flying Circus complete box set and all of the Monty Python films on DVD. The Meaning of Life is my favorite Python film.I'm a member of Pythonline. And while I must admit Terry Gilliam is my favorite Python alumnus… http://therealgilliamfan.blogspot.com, http://www.youtube.com/therealgilliamfan, @realgilliamfan… I do love ALL the guys :)
Virgin Islands

Uruguay

Uzbekistan

Vanuatu

Vatican City

Venezuela

Vietnam

Wallis and Futuna

Yemen

Zambia

Zimbabwe
.

          2017 Piano Teacher Workshops        






















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          Comment on Android and Vimeo by Anonymous        
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          HS and DX Prefixes        
There are three types of users on the HamSphere system.

1. Licensed amateur radio operators.
2. HamSphere licensed users called HS (Hotel Sierra). These callsigns are made from the 11m three part convention. Such as:

Prefix HS Suffix.
Such as 2HS101 (That would be a HamSphere user from the United States carrying the suffix 101)

You might also check the HamSphere DX-Zone


Pfx Division HAM WAZ ITU
1 ITALY I,IK 15,33 28,37
2 USA W-K 3,4,5 6,7,8
3 BRAZIL PY 11 12,13,15
4 ARGENTINA LU 13 14,16
5 VENEZUELA YV 9 12
6 COLOMBIA HK 9 12
7 NETHERLANDS ANTILLES PJ 9 11
8 PERU OA 10 12
9 CANADA VE 1,2,3,4,5 2,3,4,9,75
10 MEXICO XE 6 10
11 PUERTO RICO KP4 8 11
12 URUGUAY CX 13 14
13 GERMANY DL,DJ 14 28
14 FRANCE F 14 27
15 SWITZERLAND HB,HE 14 28
16 BELGIUM ON 14 27
17 HAWAIIAN ISLANDS KH6 31 61
18 GREECE SV 20 28
19 NETHERLANDS PA 14 27
20 NORWAY LA 14 18
21 SWEDEN SM 14 18
22 FRENCH GUYANA FY 9 12
23 JAMAICA 6Y 8 11
24 PANAMA HP 7 11
25 JAPAN JA 25 45
26 ENGLAND G 14 27
27 ICELAND TF 40 17
28 HONDURAS HR 7 11
29 IRELAND EI 14 27
30 SPAIN EA 14 37
31 PORTUGAL CT 14 37
32 CHILE CE 12 14,16
33 ALASKA KL7 1 1,2
34 CANARY ISLANDS EA8 33 36
35 AUSTRIA OE 15 28
36 SAN MARINO T7-9A1 15 28
37 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC HI 8 11
38 GREENLAND OX 40 5,75
39 ANGOLA D2 35 52
40 LIECHTENSTEIN HB0 14 28
41 NEW ZEALAND ZL 32 60
42 LIBERIA EL 35 46
43 AUSTRALIA VK 29,3 55,58,59
44 SOUTH AFRICA ZS 38 57
45 YUGOSLAVIA YU 15 28
46 EAST GERMANY Y2 14 28
47 DENMARK OZ 14 18
48 SAUDI ARABIA HZ 20 39
49 BALEARIC ISLANDS EA6 14 37
50 EUROPEAN RUSSIA UA1-6 16 19,20,29,30
51 ANDORRA C3 14 27
52 FAROE ISLANDS OY 14 18
53 EL SALVADOR YS 7 11
54 LUXEMBOURG LX 14 27
55 GIBRALTAR ZB 14 37
56 FINLAND OH 15 18
57 INDIA VU 22 41
58 EAST MALAYSIA 9M6,9M8 28 54
59 DODECANESE ISLANDS SV9 20 28
60 HONG KONG VS6 24 44
61 ECUADOR HC 10 12
62 GUAM ISLAND KH2 27 64
63 ST. HELENA ISLAND ZD7 36 66
64 SENEGAL 6W 35 46
65 SIERRA LEONE 9L 35 46
66 MAURITANIA 5T 35 46
67 PARAGUAY ZP 11 14
68 NORTHERN IRELAND GI 14 27
69 COSTA RICA TI 7 11
70 AMERICAN SAMOA KH8 32 62
71 MIDWAY ISLANDS KH4 31 61
72 GUATEMALA TG 7 11
73 SURINAME PZ 9 12
74 NAMIBIA V51 38 57
75 AZORES ISLANDS CT2 14 36
76 MOROCCO CN 33 37
77 GHANA 9G 35 46
78 ZAMBIA 9J 36 53
79 PHILIPPINE ISLANDS DU 27 50
80 BOLIVIA CP 10 12,14
81 SAN ANDRES & PROVIDENCIA HK0 7 11
82 GUANTANAMO BAY KG4 8 11
83 TANZANIA 5H 37 53
84 IVORY COAST TU 35 46
85 ZIMBABWE Z2 38 53
86 NEPAL 9N 22 32
87 YEMEN 4W 21 3949
88 CUBA CO 8 11
89 NIGERIA 5N 35 46
90 CRETE ISLAND SV5 20 28
91 INDONESIA YB 28 51,54
92 LIBYA 5A 34 38
93 MALTA 9H 15 28
94 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES A6 21 39
95 MONGOLIA JT 23 32
96 TONGA ISLANDS A3 32 62
97 ISRAEL 4X,4Z 20 39
98 SINGAPORE 9V 28 54
99 FIJI ISLANDS 3D2 32 56
100 KOREA HL 25 44
101 PAPUA - NEW GUINEA P2 28 51
102 KUWAIT 9K 21 39
103 HAITI HH 8 11
104 CORSICA TK 15 28
105 BOTSWANA A2 38 57
106 CEUTA & MELILLA EA9 33 37
107 MONACO 3A 14 27
108 SCOTLAND GM 14 27
109 HUNGARY HA 15 28
110 CYPRUS 5B 20 39
111 JORDAN JY 20 39
112 LEBANON OD 20 39
113 WEST MALAYSIA 9M2 28 54
114 PAKISTAN AP 21 41
115 QATAR A7 21 39
116 TURKEY TA 20 39
117 EGYPT SU 34 38
118 THE GAMBIA C5 35 46
119 MADEIRA ISLAND CT3 33 36
120 ANTIGUA & BARBUDA V2 8 11
121 THE BAHAMAS C6 8 11
122 BARBADOS 8P 8 11
123 BERMUDA VP9 5 11
124 AMSTERDAM & ST. PAUL FB8Z 39 68
125 CAYMAN ISLANDS ZF 8 11
126 NICARAGUA YN 7 11
127 VIRGIN ISLANDS KV4,KP2 8 11
128 BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS VP2V 8 11
129 MACQUARIE ISLANDS VKO 30 60
130 NORFOLK ISLANDS VK9N 32 60
131 GUYANA 8R 9 12
132 MARSHALL ISLANDS KX6 30 65
133 MARIANAS ISLANDS KHO 27 64
134 REPUBLIC OF BELAU V63 27 64
135 SOLOMON ISLANDS H4 28 51
136 MARTINIQUE ISLAND FM 8 11
137 ISLE OF MAN GD 14 27
138 VATICAN CITY STATE HV 15 28
139 SOUTHERN YEMEN 7O 21 39
140 ANTARCTICA FB8Y 12,13,29,30,32 67,69,70,71,72
141 ST. PIERRE & MIQUELON FP 5 9
142 LESOTHO 7P 38 57
143 ST. LUCIA ISLAND J6 8 11
144 EASTER ISLAND CE0A 12 63
145 GALAPAGOS ISLANDS HC8 10 12
146 ALGERIA 7X 33 37
147 TUNISIA 3V 33 37
148 ASCENSION ISLAND ZD8 36 66
149 LACCADIVE ISLANDS VU7 22 41
150 BAHREIN A9 21 39
151 IRAQ YI 22 39
152 MALDIVE ISLANDS 8Q 22 41
153 THAILAND HS 26 49
154 IRAN EP 21 40
155 TAIWAN BV 24 44
156 CAMEROON TJ 36 47
157 MONTSERRAT VP2M 8 11
158 TRINIDAD & TOBAGO 9Y 9 11
159 SOMALI REPUBLIC T5-60 37 48
160 SUDAN ST 34 47,48
161 POLAND SP 15 28
162 REPUBLIC OF ZAIRE 9Q 36 52
163 WALES W 14 27
164 TOGO REPUBLIC 5V 35 46
165 SARDINIA IS0 15 28
166 ST. MAARTEN, SABA & ST.EUSTATIUS PJ7-8 8 11
167 JERSEY GJ 14 27
168 MAURITIUS ISLANDS 3B8 39 53
169 GUERNSEY GU 14 27
170 BURKINA FASO ZT 35 46
171 SVALBARD ISLANDS JW 40 18
172 NEW CALEDONIA FK 32 56
173 REUNION ISLAND FR 39 53
174 UGANDA 5X 37 48
175 CHAD REPUBLIC TT 36 47
176 CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC TL 36 47
177 SRI LANKA 4S 22 41
178 BULGARIA LZ 20 28
179 CZECHOSLOVAKIA OK 15 28
180 OMAN A4 21 39
181 SYRIA YK 20 39
182 REPUBLIC OF GUINEA 3X 35 46
183 BENIN TY 35 46
184 BURUNDI 9U 36 52
185 COMOROS ISLANDS D6 39 53
186 DJIBOUTI J2 37 48
187 KENYA 5Z 37 48
188 MALAGASY REPUBLIC 5R 39 53
189 MAYOTTE ISLAND FH 39 53
190 SEYCHELLES ISLANDS S7 39 53
191 SWAZILAND 3D6 38 57
192 COCOS ISLANDS TI9 7 12
193 COCOS - KEELING ISLANDS VK9Y 29 54
194 DOMINICA ISLAND J7 8 11
195 GRENADA J3 8 11
196 GUADALOUPE ISLANDS FG 8 11
197 VANUATU ISLANDS YJ 32 56
198 FALKLAND ISLANDS VP8 13 16
199 EQUATORIAL GUINEA 3C 36 47
200 SOUTH SHETLAND ISLANDS VP8 13 73
201 FRENCH POLYNESIA FO 32 63
202 BHUTAN A5 22 41
203 CHINA BY 23 44
204 MOZAMBIQUE C9 37 53
205 REPUBLIC OF CAPE VERDE D4 35 46
206 ETHIOPIA ET 37 48
207 ST. MARTIN ISLAND FS 8 11
208 GLORIOSO ISLANDS FR/G 39 53
209 JUAN DE NOVA ISLAND FR/J 39 53
210 WALLIS & FUTUNA ISLANDS FW 32 62
211 JAN MAYEN ISLAND JX 40 18
212 ALAND ISLANDS OH0 15 18
213 MARKET REEF OJO 15 18
214 CONGO REPUBLIC TN 36 52
215 GABON REPUBLIC TR 36 52
216 MALI TZ 35 46
217 CHRISTMAS ISLAND VK9X 29 54
218 BELIZE V3 7 11
219 ANGUILLA ISLAND VP2E 8 11
220 ST. VINCENT J8 8 11
221 SOUTH ORKNEY ISLANDS VP8 13 73
222 SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS PV8 13 73
223 WESTERN SAMOA 5W 32 62
224 WESTERN KIRIBATI T30 31 65
225 BRUNEI V85 28 54
226 MALAWI 7Q 37 53
227 RWANDA 9X 36 52
228 CHAGOS ISLANDS VQ9 39 41
229 HEARD ISLAND VK0 39 68
230 FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA KC6 27 65
231 ST. PETER & ST. PAUL PY0 11 13
232 ARUBA ISLAND P4 9 11
233 ROMANIA YO 20 28
234 AFGHANISTAN YA 22 40
235 I.T.U. GENEVA 4U 14 28
236 BANGLADESH S2 22 41
237 UNION OF MYANMAR XZ 24 49
238 CAMBODIA XU 26 49
239 LAOS XW 26 49
240 MACAO XX9 24 44
241 SPRATLY ISLAND 1S 26 50
242 VIETNAM XV 26 49
243 AGALEGA & ST.BRANDON ISL 3B6 39 53
244 PAGALU ISLAND 3C0 36 52
245 NIGER REPUBLIC 5U 35 46
246 SAO TOME' & PRINCIPE S9 36 47
247 NAVASSA ISLAND KP1 8 11
248 TURKS & CAICOS ISLANDS VP5 8 11
249 NORTHERN COOK ISLANDS ZK1 32 62
250 COOK ISLANDS ZK1 32 63
251 ALBANIA ZA 15 28
252 REVILLAGIGEDO XF 6 10
253 ANDAMAN & NICOBAR ISLANDS VU7-4 26 49
254 MOUNT ATHOS SY 20 28
255 KERGUELEN ISLANDS FB8X 13 68
256 PRINCE EDWARD & MARION ISLANDS ZS8 38 57
257 RODRIGUEZ ISLAND 3B9 39 53
258 TRISTAN DA CUNHA & GOUGH ISLANDS ZD9 38 66
259 TROMELIN ISLAND FR/T 39 53
260 BAKER & HOWLAND ISLANDS KH1 31 61
261 CHATHAM ISLANDS ZL/7 32 60
262 JOHNSTON ISLAND KH3 31 61
263 KERMADEC ISLANDS ZL/K8 32 60
264 KINGMAN REEF KH5K 31 61
265 CENTRAL KIRIBATI T31 31 62
266 EASTERN KIRIBATI T32 31 61,63
267 KURE ISLAND KH7 31 61
268 LORD HOWE ISLANDS VK9 30 60
269 MELLISH REEF VK9 30 56
270 MINAMI TORISHIMA ISLAND JD 27 64
271 REPUBLIC OF NAURU C2 31 65
272 NIUE ISLAND ZK2 32 62
273 JARVIS & PALMYRA ISLANDS KH5 31 61,62
274 PITCAIRN ISLAND VR6 32 63
275 TOKELAU ISLANDS ZK3 31 62
276 TUVALU ISLANDS T2 31 65
277 SABLE ISLAND VE1 5 9
278 WAKE ISLAND KH9 31 65
279 WILLIS ISLETS VK9Z 30 55
280 AVES ISLAND HV0 9 11
281 OGASAWARA ISLANDS JD 27 45
282 AUCKLAND & CAMPBELL ISLANDS ZL/9 32 60
283 ST. KITTS & NEVIS ISLANDS V4 8 11
284 ST. PAUL ISLAND VE1 5 9
285 FERNANDO DE NORONHA ISLANDS PY0 11 13
286 JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS CEOZ 12 14
287 MALPELO ISLAND HK0 10 12
288 SAN FELIX & SAN AMBROSIO CE0X 12 14
289 SOUTH GEORGIA ISLANDS VP8 13 73
290 TRINDADE & MARTIM VAZ ISLANDS PY0 11 15
291 DHEKELIA & AKROTIRI ZC4 20 39
292 ABU-AIL & JABAL-AT-TAIR A1 21 39
293 GUINEA BISSAU J5 35 46
294 PETER 1ST ISLAND 3Y 12 72
295 SOUTHERN SUDAN ST0 34 47,48
296 CLIPPERTON ISLAND FO 7 10
297 BOUVET ISLAND 3Y 38 67
298 CROZET ISLANDS FB8W 39 68
299 DESECHEO ISLAND KP5 8 11
300 WEST SAHARA S0 33 46
301 ARMENIA UG 21 29
302 ASIATIC RUSSIA UA9-UA0 16,17,18,19,23 19-26,29-37,75
303 AZERBAIJAN UD 21 29
304 ESTONIA UR 15 29
305 FRANZ JOSEF LAND UA1 40 75
306 GEORGIA UF 21 29
307 KALININGRADSK UA2 16 29
308 KAZAKH UL7 17 29,30,31,
309 KIRGHIZ UM 17 30,31
310 LATVIA UQ 15 29
311 LITHUANIA UP 15 29
312 MOLDAVIA UO 16 29
313 TADZHIK UJ 17 30
314 TURKOMAN UH 17 30
315 UKRAINE UB 16 29
316 UZBEK UI 17 30
317 WHITE RUSSIA UC 16 29
318 SURVEY MILITARY OF MALTA 1A 15 28
319 UNITED NATIONS NEW YORK 4U 5 8
320 BANABA ISLAND T33 31 65
321 CONWAY REEF 3D2 32 56
322 WALVIS BAY ZS9-1 38 57
323 YEMEN REPUBLIC 7O 21,37 39,48
324 PENGUIN ISLANDS ZS9/0 30 57
325 ROTUMA ISLAND 3D2 32 56
326 MALYJ VYTSOTSKJ 4J 16 29
327 SLOVENJA S5 15 28
328 CROATIA 9A 15 28
329 CZECH REPUBLIC OK 15 28
330 SLOVAK REPUBLIC OM 15 28
331 BOSNIA & HERCEGOVINIA 4N4 15 28
332 MACEDONIA 4N5 15 28
333 ERITREA E3 15 48
334 NORTH KOREA P5 37 14
335 PRATAS ISLAND BS7 25 50
336 SCARBOROUGH REEF BV9 27 44
337 AUSTRAL ISLANDS FO0A 32 63
338 MARQUESAS ISLANDS FO0M 32 63
339 TEMOTU H40 28 51
340 PALESTINE E4 20 39
341 EAST TIMOR 4W 28 54
342 CHESTERFIELD ISLAND FK/C 30 56
343 DUCIE ISLAND VP6/D 32 63
344 REPUBLIC OF MONTENEGRO 4O 15 28
345 SWAIN"S ISLAND KH8/S 32 62
346 ST BARTHELEMY FJ 8 11
347 CURACAO PJ2 9 11
348 ST MAARTEN PJ7 8 11
349 ST EUSTATIUS / SABA PJ6 8 11
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