Autumn Impression by Mevludin Sejmenovic        


Autumn Impression by Mevludin Sejmenovic


Stojcevac, Sarajevo, Bosnia


Mevludin Sejmenovic: Photos


          " Back to home " by Mevludin Sejmenovic        


" Back to home " by Mevludin Sejmenovic


( Compact camera Olympus C5050 ) Village View, Vogosca, Bosnia


Mevludin Sejmenovic: Photos


          Donald Trump says media playing down terrorist threat posed by ISIS        

Washington: US President Trump has said that the news media was playing down the terrorist threat posed by the Islamic State (IS) and journalists were reluctant to report on the militant groups attacks in Europe and "have their reasons" for failing to cover them, the media reported.

Trump initially did not provide examples of a news media conspiracy to underplay terrorist attacks. The White House on Monday released a list of what it said were 78 attacks from September 2014 to December 2016 that were carried out or inspired by the IS. It said that "most have not received the media attention they deserved", the New York Times reported.

The list included the major attacks in Paris, Brussels, San Bernardino (California) and Orlando (Florida) that dominated the news for weeks. 

Other attacks overseas, lesser known to Americans, received extensive local coverage, like a shooting in Zvornik, Bosnia, in April 2015 in which one police officer was killed and two others were wounded, the White House said.

"Radical Islamic terrorists are determined to strike our homeland, as they did on 9/11, as they did from Boston to Orlando to San Bernardino and all across Europe," Trump said at MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa, Florida. 

"All over Europe, it's happening. It's gotten to a point where it's not even being reported, and in many cases, the very, very dishonest press doesn't want to report it," he said.

"They have their reasons," Trump added, "and you understand that."

The President made similar comments about the US media during a January visit to the headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in Langley, Virginia, that the news media had fabricated his feud with the intelligence community. 

Those remarks came only days after he likened American intelligence officials to Nazis, after several weeks in which he had denigrated their work, the New York Times said.

White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer said that the President had been referring in Tampa to "several instances" in which the news media had not devoted sufficient attention to terrorism. 

Trump, Spicer said, believed that journalists pay more attention to public protests than they do to terrorist attacks or plots.

During his 12-minute speech on Monday, Trump promised to make "a historic financial investment in the armed forces", in an effort to maintain peace in "our troubled, troubled times". 

He also vowed to give the military the tools necessary to prevail against the Islamic State and thwart its attempts to strike America.

At a luncheon with enlisted soldiers, sailors, airmen and Marines, Trump went around his table asking who would remain in the military, and told them their experience would improve during his presidency.

On NATO, Trump, who had earlier called it "obsolete," tempered his message, arguing that he was focused on ensuring that it is well funded.

"We strongly support NATO. We only ask that all of the NATO members make their full and proper contributions to the NATO alliance, which many of them have not been doing -- many of them have not been even close," he said.

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          Europe Summit Aims to Revive Lost Momentum Toward Unity         

WITH public opinion soured on the merits of European unity, European Community leaders hope to ``relaunch Europe'' with a special summit tomorrow celebrating ratification of the long-awaited Maastricht Treaty.

``It's important to get the public thinking in terms of Europe again,'' says one Belgian Foreign Ministry official.

But the celebration risks being seen as irrelevant by much of the public it targets, as Europeans worry about record-high unemployment, challenges to their infant-to-elder social-welfare system, and instability on the continent's eastern borders.

``In Germany, at least, people are thinking about their job security, while published opinion is wondering about the future course of Russia, and neither one sees how the EC can have a major impact on those concerns,'' says Josef Janning, deputy director of the research group on Europe at the University of Mainz in Germany. ``People are seeing such issues less in European and more in national terms.''

The Maastricht Treaty, an ambitious blueprint for providing the EC with a monetary union and a common foreign and security policy by the latter part of the decade, was supposed to have been ratified and the process of its implementation begun in January 1992. That the treaty was not fully ratified until this month, when the German constitutional court finally approved it, provides a measure of the public doubt about Maastricht's goals.

In the two-year delay, Maastricht was battered by an initial outright rejection by Danish voters in a referendum, plus rough ratification battles in Britain and France. The European currency crises of October 1992 and this past summer mocked the monetary union goal, while the EC's weak and disjointed response to the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina posed deep questions about the feasibility of a common foreign policy. Operation `restore stature'

Tomorrow's summit, held in Brussels, is a German-French initiative to try to restore both Maastricht's and Europe's public stature. But even in France, where regard for the Community runs high, doubts are strong about what this summit can accomplish.

``No one should expect much of anything concrete out of this summit,'' says Phillipe Moreau-Defarges, an EC specialist at the French Institute of International Relations in Paris. ``There's too much division among the EC countries for decisions to be made.''

One possible area of action that Mr. Moreau-Defarges cites provides a good example of the Community's current lack of a common vision. The summit could give a new boost to earlier economic ``growth initiatives'' that have had trouble getting off the ground, he says.

Elsewhere in Europe, where public spending is already causing record debts, and where skepticism is strong over the actual impact of large public-works programs, enthusiasm for such proposals is slight.

``The German public is definitely not in favor of this kind of centralized program to rebuild Europe's economic strength,'' Dr. Janning says. ``People in Ireland or Portugal may see Brussels [EC headquarters] as a guarantor or creator of jobs,'' he adds, since those countries receive substantial EC development funds, ``but they certainly don't in Germany.''

Germany and France also had wanted to take up another issue at the summit: Community institutional reforms. The larger countries feel their power is too limited by the generally equal rights of smaller members, and concern is growing that the Community's enlargement to include three or four new small members by 1995 will further tilt the balance and generally render the Community more bureaucratic and plodding. Putting off reform

German proposals for streamlining the EC administration met with staunch resistance from small members, and reform will likely be put on hold until the next EC treaty review in 1996.

To demonstrate that Maastricht is now in force, EC leaders are expected to prepare the next stage of economic and monetary union by launching the European Monetary Institute, ``embryo'' of a future European central bank. The institute's location in Germany is likely to be approved, a move that could open the way for decisions on the placement of several other new EC institutions, including a patent office and environmental agency.

Still, there is a lingering feeling that Maastricht, negotiated in 1990, is a treaty already left behind by European events. ``By spring of next year we may very well have a new imperial Russia to contend with, something never imagined when Maastricht was written,'' Janning says. ``Economies are seen more in national terms. [Community] leaders will have to work hard,'' he adds, ``to demonstrate that Maastricht is relevant in these conditions.''

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          Comment on The Future of Good Food Starts with Good Ideas: Help Support BK Farmyards’ Youth Farm by This is why this video will make you like Indie Euro Rock again!        
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          Said Topalović i Aida Tuhčić u posjeti Institutu        

31. juli – Said Topalović, profesor religijske pedagogije sa Instituta za islamsku religiju na PedagoÅ¡kom fakultetu u Beču i  Aida Tuhčić na  PedagoÅ¡kog fakulteta Univerziteta Salzburg. Tokom posjete Institutu razgovarali su sa direktoricom dr.Dževadom Å uÅ¡ko o umrežavanju i akademskoj saradnji.

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          Preporod pita: Koji su projekti Instituta u 2017. godini?        

Prema članu 3 Ustava Islamske zajednice ustrojstvo njenih organa i ustanova kao i njene djelatnosti „temelje se na Kur’an-i kerimu i Sunnetu Muhammeda, alejhi-s-selam, islamskoj tradiciji Bošnjaka i zahtjevima vremena“. Konstitutivnost islamske tradicije Bošnjaka u ustrojstvu i djelatnostima Islamske zajednice...

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          ODRŽAN RADNI SASTANAK NA TEMU “ZLOČINI NAD BOÅ NJACIMA JAJCA, JEZERA I Å IPOVA 1992-1995”        

U četvrtak, 20. jula 2017, u prostorijama Instituta za istraživanje zločina protiv čovječnosti i međunarodnog prava Univerziteta u Sarajevu upriličen je radni sastanak u vezi s projektom “Zločini nad Bošnjacima Jajca, Jezera i Šipova 1992-1995”. Sastanku su prisustvovali naučni saradnici Instituta za istraživanje...

The post ODRŽAN RADNI SASTANAK NA TEMU “ZLOČINI NAD BOŠNJACIMA JAJCA, JEZERA I ŠIPOVA 1992-1995” appeared first on Institute for the Bosniak Islamic tradition | www.iitb.ba.


          Delegacija PedagoÅ¡kog fakulteta iz Linz-a, Austrija, u posjeti Institutu        

21.7.2017. – Delegacija PedagoÅ¡kog fakulteta iz Linz-a, Austrija, na čelu sa dr. Christoph Mülleder boravila je u posjeti Institutu za islamsku tradiciju BoÅ¡njaka. Članovi delegacije su činili profesori  katoličke teologije koji su željeli  saznati viÅ¡e o Islamskoj zajednici u Bosni...

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          Učešće Instituta na manifestaciji “Dani Ajvatovice”        

Naučni saradnici Instituta za islamsku tradiciju Bošnjaka i ove godine su aktivno učestvovali u programima manifestacije “507. Dani Ajvatovice”. Subota, 10. juni 2017. 21:00 – VITEZ, Sala Vatrogasnog doma. Dr. Dževada Šuško održala je predavanje “Vakufi u islamskoj tradiciji Bošnjaka”. Predavanju je...

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          Doktorant Amina Selimović u posjeti Institutu        

Doktorant sa Univerziteta u Oslu, Amina Selimović, posjetila je Institut za islamsku tradiciju Bošnjaka gdje se sastala sa direktoricom dr. Dževadom Šuško.

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          Institut na manifestaciji 507. “Dani Ajvatovice 2017”        

Institut za islamsku tradiciju BoÅ¡njaka i ove godine učestvuje na manifestaciji 507. “Dani Ajvatovice 2017” sa četiri sadržaja: Subota, 10. juni 2017. 21:00 – VITEZ, Sala Vatrogasnog doma, Prezentacija naučno-istraživačkog rada, Značaj vakufa kod BoÅ¡njaka, Institut za islamsku tradiciju BoÅ¡njaka,...

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          Najbolji studenti Univerziteta u Bostonu u posjeti Institutu        

24.05.2017. – Grupa studenata sa Univerziteta u Bostonu na čelu sa Prof. James Keenan sa Odsjeka za moralnu teologiju a u sklopu programa Gabelli Presidential Scholars Program posjetili su Institut za islamsku tradiciju BoÅ¡njaka gdje im je direktorica dr. Dževada...

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          Grupa iz Njemačke u posjeti Institutu        

20.5.2017. – Grupa od 50 njemačkih muslimana studenata, akademika, socijalnih radnika, psihologa, profesora, uposlenih u gradskim upravama na čelu sa Sejfuddinom Dizdarevićem posjetili su Institut za islamsku tradiciju BoÅ¡njaka gdje im je direktorica dr. Dževada Å uÅ¡ko održala predavanje na njemačkom jeziku...

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          Direktorica dr.Dževada Å uÅ¡ko posjetila Medžlis IZ Gornji vakuf        

U okviru Dani Ajvatovice 2017. godine, direktorica Instituta dr. Dževada Šuško posjetila je Medžlis Islamske zajednice Gornji vakuf na čelu sa glavnim imamom mr. Enes ef. Omerovićem. Tokom sastanak razgovarali su o budućoj saradnji na zajedničkim projektima.

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          Fostul jucător al Politehnicii Iași, Nikola Perovic, a ajuns la vicecampioana Bosniei        
Adus în sezonul trecut la Poli Iași pentru a pune umărul la promovarea echipei în Liga Națională, obiectiv realizat în final de altfel de gruparea moldavă, sârbul Nikola Perovic părăsește România. Fostul internațional de tineret va evolua în noul sezon în Bosnia&Herzegovina, la vicecampioana RK Izvidac. RK Izvidac a pierdut titlul în Bosnia&Herzegovina la mare
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          10 Questions on the Conflict in Syria        
A potential military strike by Western powers on Syria now appears to be a fait accompli and is being touted as long overdue. Given the spiralling humanitarian disaster that has overtaken the country during the last two years of conflict, continued inaction appears to be an untenable reality. The death toll is now well over 100,000 (although the proportion of civilians to combatants is unclear). There are 2 million refugees, half of whom are children, and over 4 million more internally displaced persons (IDPs), amounting to a quarter of the country's overall population. Yet, it was the apparent chemical weapons attack in the suburbs around Damascus known as Ghouta last week that has served as the impetus for international military intervention into the conflict. Amidst the rhetoric and war rehearsals, clarity on what is really happening seems to be cast aside in the media, in favor of faux-spontaneous leaks, retired generals, and trumpeters of past wars. Here are ten questions to try to set the record straight.


1. Were chemical weapons used in Syria?

When the initial attack unfolded last Wednesday, August 21 in the suburbs in Damascus known as Ghouta (near the town/suburb of Jobar), news quickly spread to local, regional and international media. Claims were made of hundreds of deaths, with some activists claiming the death toll was 1,300. Moreover, the Government of Syria immediately denied responsibility and has continued to do so. However, the attack did unfold amidst a series of army strikes on Jobar, which is a rebel-held area, and has been for quite some time. The Government conversely claimed to find chemical weapons supplies in tunnels in the same area, and it is alleged that some Hezbollah fighters were also exposed to chemical toxins.

A week on, it appears incontrovertible that chemical weapons were used, not just from YouTube videos but also from visits by independent journalists, and of course by a report by Médecins Sans Frontières that has documented at least 355 deaths from local hospitals. It is likely that the chemical agent used was a neurotoxin or nerve gas, most likely sarin gas. What is still not clear, is how they were delivered (i.e. in what form and carried on what type of weapon) and from where.

It should also be kept in mind that this was not the first attack that has been alleged. There have been numerous claims by rebels, and counter-claims by the government on the use of chemical weapons in the conflict. Here's a map of those events. In fact, this is precisely why the team of UN inspectors had arrived in the country, the day before this latest incident (and massacre) took place. In fact, what is interesting is that their investigation of other sites has now been put on the back-burner due to the latest developments.

2. Do we know who actually used the chemical weapons? 

The United States, United Kingdom, and France have all stated they are certain that the Government of Syria has undertaken the attack last week. On the U.S. side, at the forefront of the rhetoric has been Vice President Biden - who has said there is 'no doubt' - and Secretary of State John Kerry, who made an evocative plea for action several days ago. Of course, the next speech is the most important, and it would be one made by President Barack Obama. In light of this certainty, it would be difficult to question the attribution of blame. A leak from the US government also claims to have intercepted a murky call between commanders in the Syrian army that supposedly is evidence of culpability on the Syrian side.

There is tremendous reason to doubt U.S. claims. Firstly, it should not be forgotten that then Secretary of State Colin Powell presented ironclad evidence to the United Nations Security Council of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) that Saddam Hussein possessed, a finding that was later proven to be utterly false, but which was the basis of a war that continues until today. Secondly, the U.S. claimed that there was incontrovertible proof that the Government of Syria was responsible for earlier chemical attacks this year, but that finding has been contested, and some experts apportioned blame to the rebels fighting the government. And finally, in this case, no evidence has been presented, as of yet to make such a determination, at least not conclusively.

Does that mean the Assad and his regime are not responsible? No. It is very likely given the ongoing military operations in the same area that the Syrian government launched such an attack. Yet, more evidence needs to be presented to make a definitive conclusion. The other scenarios that could be possible are:

- Extremists groups like Jubhat al-Nusra, who have previously seized advanced weaponry and possibly chemical weapons from Syrian army bases and positions, were attempting to use them on Syrian soldiers (or conversely to cast blame on the Syrian army);

- The Government of Syria inadvertently hit a stockpile of sarin gas releasing the toxins (although unclear if this would lead to the effects that we've seen); or

- Rogue elements within the chain of command used chemical weapons intentionally or inadvertently.

Russia, Iran and China have of course cast doubt on western claims but that is to be expected.

3. What would be the basis or justification for US intervention?

The U.S. intervention would likely be on the basis of Obama's previously stated red line on Syria, which would be the mass use/movement of chemical weapons. It is not in fact about humanitarian intervention and the Responsibility to Protect framework, developed in the 1990s to prevent genocide and mass civilian deaths. If it was, then the humanitarian case for intervention has been present for some time, and other massacres by the Syrian regime, such as in Houla in 2012, would have provided sufficient pretext. Obviously, the U.S. and other Western powers, and regional countries, have their own interests at play that are much more geopolitical in nature, but the justification or casus belli being offered is around the issue of chemical weapons, and chemical weapons alone.

4. Will anybody else be involved in the military strikes besides the US and will this affect whether they are 'legal'?

Given Russian and Chinese opposition, and a likely veto of any resolution by the United Nations Security Council supporting such a military strike on Syria - especially in light of the intervention in Libya, which Russia regretted supporting - a 'coalition of the willing' will need to be developed. This coalition would be broader than the Iraq War in 2003, and would be similar to the coalition carrying out the strikes against Serb positions vis-a-vis Kosovo in 1999. While the U.S., U.K. and France will likely lead an effort, Turkey would also be critical as a staging ground (as it borders Syria from the North), and thus there will be an attempt to launch such an attack under the auspices of NATO. Despite its reluctance, Jordan, given its reliance on the U.S. and Saudi Arabia politically and economically, will have no choice but to support . The two other neighbours of Syria, Iraq and Lebanon are squarely against any military strike. And of course, the other neighbor - Israel - would sit this one out but would provide intelligence to the U.S. and other parties on Syrian positions, given that it has already undertaken a number of air strikes on Syria in the past two years.

Further afield, it is likely the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) will support military intervention, with Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates possibly sending fighter jets to participate in a strike to give it regional cover and credibility. Finally, while many groups within the Arab and Muslim world, and the 'left' of the West, will oppose military intervention, many others will support it, because of the spiralling humanitarian situation in Syria.

Technically speaking if the military intervention is not sanctioned by the United Nations Security Council, and there is no imminent threat that the U.S. and other parties can point to towards its own territory or its assets, it would be illegal under international law. However, that has not stopped NATO or other countries (i.e. Russia in Georgia) form undertaking military action in the past. And before the Iraq War, some scholars claimed that while such an attack would be illegal it would be legitimate, and demonstrated retroactively to be legal. Given the state of world affairs, 'legality' is likely not a determining factor for a strike on Syria.

5. Are we seeing a repeat of Iraq in 2003? 

No. The situation today with Syria is different than it was in 2003 in Iraq, for many reasons, despite some passing similarities. In Iraq, the U.S. claimed that Saddam Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction while in Syria, we already know Bashar al-Assad possesses chemical weapons, and the question is whether he used them (small aside, it was released this week that thirty years ago, the U.S. obstructed a UN investigation when it knew Saddam Hussein had used chemical weapons). In Iraq, the U.S. alleged that Saddam Hussein had links with Al Qaeda (and related groups), while in Syria, Bashar al Assad is widely acknowledged to be fighting Al Qaeda (and related groups) in addition to the 'Free Syrian Army' (and in addition to crushing peaceful demonstrators). In Iraq, there was no active state of conflict that was leading to a spiralling humanitarian catastrophe (and the potential use of WMDs), while in Syria there is not just a violent conflict, but also WMDs have been used by somebody (even if the culprit is not yet clear).

What should be noted, however, is that both Iraq in 2003 and Syria in 2013, are in complex environments, and any removal of government or sustained military intervention would have dramatic unforeseen consequences. It seems like the media debate in the U.S. is also similarly anaemic (but slightly better) this time around.

6. What is the real motivation for the United States and other powers?

As with all things in this world when it comes to international relations, the primary interest is not humanitarian but geopolitical. This is not absolute, however, and it could be argued that Turkey has been insisting on humanitarian intervention from an early stage. However, the regimes (not peoples) in the Gulf, most notably Saudi Arabia, are exclusively concerned with dislodging Syria from the Iranian orbit, and severing connections between Syria and Hezbollah. Humanitarian concerns are a by-product. And for the United States, something similar is at play. As noted above, if this was about humanitarian concerns, action would have been taken long before 100,000 deaths had occurred.

For the U.S. it has been looking for regime change in Syria for a while. However, these strikes if they occur, will be about sending a message and asserting America's position in the Middle East, given the red line that Obama drew. Ultimately, it may tip the scales in the rebels favour or improve the U.S.'s negotiating position vis-a-vis Iran. The chemical weapons attack in a morbid way, opened a door of opportunity for Western powers (with GCC support) to do something limited without a full-scale intervention.

7. Will military intervention solve the Syrian conflict?

No. Military intervention no matter how small or how big will not solve the Syrian conflict. In fact, it could very much exacerbate the situation on the ground even further (if that can be imagined). What is being reported currently is that the U.S. and allies will undertake a series of 'surgical strikes', a euphemism for a large-scale assault on key military and strategic installations, such as army positions, air bases, radar installations, communications infrastructure, supply routes, and, where appropriate, power stations (among other targets). More than anything this will be intended to send a message to the regime and weaken its capabilities. Yet, it would not be a fatal blow. And it would not necessarily tip the scales in favor of the rebels. It may in fact mobilize certain parties to support the regime, if there are civilian casualties from the intervention.

The solution to the Syrian situation has to be political, if it is going to lead to stability or peace. Yet, if the military intervention escalated and led to the removal of the Syrian regime, that would still not be the end of the conflict. After the Soviets were booted out of Afghanistan, the country devolved into a civil war for five years until the rise of the Taliban in 1996. Somalia has only recently stabilised (somewhat), more than 20 years after the assassination of its leader, President Siad Barre. And neighboring Lebanon, took 15 years of conflict (1975-1990) to reach an end, which was brought about by ironically Syrian military intervention (which committed its own crimes), that produced a - audible gasp - political settlement.

8. What could potentially go wrong?

Everything. The potential for disaster following military intervention in any country is great (see Black Hawk Down, Iraq, Afghanistan and the list goes on). Yet, in Syria it could be apocalyptic. Here is a list of what that could entail:

- Chemical weapons are used by Syria against its neighbors such as Jordan and Turkey, or U.S. military positions in those countries;
- U.S. planes/helicopters are shot down leading to an escalation of U.S. involvement requiring boots on the ground;
- Syria sends a volley of missiles into Tel Aviv and other places in Israel, leading to a regional war;
- Proxy forces of Iran, Hamas and Hezbollah, launch a sustained campaign against Israel/U.S. interests, including attacks embassies within Lebanon/Palestine/Israel but also in other countries, in the short and medium-term;
- Al Qaeda forces in the region, while opposing the Assad regime, oppose U.S. intervention especially if there are masses of civilian casualties, and use it as a pretext for attacks in places such as Yemen;
- Russia objects to the U.S. strike, and mobilizes warships to the Mediterranean, leading to a standoff with Europe and the U.S.;
- Negotiations with Iran, still in embryonic stages are suspended irrevocably;
- Six party talks with North Korea are suspended by Russia, China, and North Korea irrevocably;
- The Syrian regime goes all out in its conflict and begins to bomb with even more abandon civilian areas controlled by rebels, leading to thousands of casualties, and counter-massacres by enraged rebel fighters;
- The Syrian regime is removed by force from power by the intervention, leading to a power vacuum sinking the country further into civil war for over a decade of even more violent strife and a possible Al Qaeda style government;
- Tensions rise in the Middle East, especially in places of sectarian division (i.e. Lebanon, Yemen, Bahrain, Eastern Province in Saudi Arabia, and Iraq) leading to civil strife and attacks on governments, and counter-attacks on populations; and
- World War 3.

9. What could potentially go right?

It may seem that what is written above is slightly alarmist and that's true. Many things can go wrong (most of which, to be honest, are hard to predict as they will be unforeseen consequences or as Donald Rumsfeld, ironically calls them, unknown unknowns). However, the U.S.-led strikes could be quite effective. Firstly, if they are limited in scope, they can be completed in one day, reducing the risk for a military entanglement and civilian casualties. Secondly, if they are from the air, there is limited risk for casualties on the side of the intervening forces. Thirdly, an attack that is forceful and hits Syrian military positions, will send a message to Assad that there is a limit to what he can do, which thus far has not been the case, and may entice him to reach a political settlement. Fourthly, it is unlikely that the Syrian regime would retaliate, for a short strike on positions, against Israel, knowing that they cannot afford to fight a war on so many fronts (and thus far they have yet to retaliate to any Israel air strike). Finally, the systematic destruction of Assad's air capabilities could be instrumental in limiting civilian casualties by the regime in the future.

All of this is one possibility of what could occur.

10. Let's cut to the chase - should I support or not support military intervention?

There is no clearcut answer. Ultimately, military intervention should not be supported as a solution to the Syrian conflict. It is not, and whether we like it or not, a political solution/settlement is the only way the current situation moves towards peace and stability. The U.S. is negotiating with the Taliban. The Vietnamese negotiated with the U.S. The Lebanese negotiated with each other. The Dayton Accords to end the Bosnian War were signed with Slobodan Milosevic. It may not be easy, it may be unlikely, and it will not work perfectly, but political discussions involving all parties is the only way to find a real solution.

That being said, if a case is made with overwhelming evidence by independent parties (not U.S. conjecture) that chemical weapons were used by the Syrian regime, then military intervention on a limited scale, and for a period of 1-2 days only, should be undertaken, ideally with UN support - and if not with broad support of half of the members, i.e. 90, of the UN General Assembly to demonstrate legitimacy - against military targets only, which will both send a message about the use of these weapons and damage the capabilities of Assad.

What is clear is that whatever happens, there are no clear answers with regards to the conflict in Syria.

          Geography Bits        
Geography was always a subject of disinterest for me. Except for some amount of "Australia - Flora and Fauna" and "The South West Monsoon", I don't remember much from the geography classes of school. But God has been great in working out my travel calendar and has provided a good bit of opportunity to see places. This has increased my interest in the world and the different cultures. Of late this interest has still been increased by.... a game! The Travelers IQ challenge game has been interesting and educating to me. It hasn't thought me too many new things, but has served as a refresher, a sort of catalyst that helped fill the void.

My increased inquisitiveness made me research a bit on things that have confused me for years. Here are few things I learnt in geography recently, but which had known earlier
1) Crotia is a country that came out of the erstwhile Yugoslavia. I had somehow thought that it came from USSR. Frederick Forsyth's "Avenger" helped me understand that Yugoslavia split into Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia
2) West Indies is not a country! It is an ensemble of countries like Jamaica and Barbados that play as a single cricket team
3) If someone had asked me for the countries in the Australian continent, I would have probably said Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania and Papa New Guinea. Well, I am not sure of New Zealand anymore. Wiki says that New Zealand belongs to a continent called Zealandia. I get a bit confused in these kinds of trivia since I studied in school that there were only 7 continents and Zealandia is not one of them.
4) There are several countries that belong to multiple continents. My ex-colleagues from Alcatel who have traveled to Turkey have told me that Turkey is transcontinental. But I got to know of few more countries like Indonesia, Russia (though we all associate it with Europe, it is actually 71% in Asia!) and Egypt. Did you know that a part of Italy, Spain and Portugal are in Africa?

          Berlinner Zimmer / Εγκαίνια: Παρασκευή 1 Απριλίου 2011, 20.00        

ΔΕΛΤΙΟ ΤΥΠΟΥ

Berliner Zimmer

Καλλιτέχνες από τη Νοτιοανατολική Ευρώπη που ζουν στο Βερολίνο

Καλλιτέχνες: Silva Agostini (Αλβανία), Χάρις Επαμεινώνδα (Κύπρος), Šejla Kamerić (Βοσνία-Ερζεγοβίνη), Kristina Leko (Κροατία), Dan Mihaltianu (Ρουμανία), Tanja Ostojić (Σερβία), Γιώργος Σαπουντζής (Ελλάδα), Ευανθία Τσαντίλα (Ελλάδα), Nasan Tur (Τουρκία), Mariana Vassileva (Βουλγαρία)

Οργάνωση: Μακεδονικό Μουσείο Σύγχρονης Τέχνης & Goethe Institut

Επιμέλεια: Birgit Hoffmeister

Εγκαίνια: Παρασκευή 1 Απριλίου 2011, 20.00

Η έκθεση “Berliner Zimmer” παρουσιάζει έργα καλλιτεχνών από τη Νοτιοανατολική Ευρώπη που ζουν και εργάζονται στο Βερολίνο.

Όπως σημειώνει η Πρόεδρος του ΜΜΣΤ, Ξανθίππη Σκαρπιά-Χόιπελ: «Tο Βερολίνο ήταν και είναι ένα από τα πιο σημαντικά πολιτιστικά κέντρα διεθνούς πολιτιστικής αναφοράς και ενδιαφέροντος. Αποτελώντας ένα εξέχον παράδειγμα πολιτιστικής πολιτικής και υποδομών, καθιερώνεται ως σύγχρονη προστάτιδα των τεχνών, προσφέροντας και εξασφαλίζοντας δυνατότητες καλλιτεχνικής δημιουργίας και προβολής σε πολλούς νέους καλλιτέχνες από άλλες χώρες. Γίνεται, κατά κάποιο τρόπο, τόπος ευρείας υποδοχής και λειτουργεί ως συνδετικός κρίκος με τη χώρα προέλευσής τους. Έτσι αναπτύσσεται μέσω αυτής της πόλης και δι’ αυτών των καλλιτεχνών, ένα νοητό δικό τους βερολινέζικο δωμάτιο, αυτό ακριβώς που προσκαλείται να δει ο επισκέπτης της συγκεκριμένης έκθεσης.»

Η Birgit Hoffmeister, επιμελήτρια της έκθεσης, σχολιάζει: «Η έκθεση συνενώνει δέκα καλλιτέχνες από εννιά χώρες της Νοτιοανατολικής Ευρώπης, που έχουν βρει στο Βερολίνο μια πλατφόρμα ζωής. … Κάποιοι από αυτούς έχουν τραυματικές εμπειρίες, άφησαν πίσω τους καταστάσεις πολέμου και διωγμού, για άλλους η καλλιτεχνική σκηνή στην περιοχή των Βαλκανίων ήταν πολύ περιορισμένη. Όμως μαζί τους έφεραν κάτι που τους ενώνει: στις αποσκευές τους κουβαλούν την πατρίδα που εγκατέλειψαν, μια ταυτότητα ανάμεσα στους πολιτισμούς, την ανάμνηση του παρελθόντος, την αναζήτηση μιας νέας μορφής ύπαρξης. Όλα αυτά αναπαρίστανται στα έργα τους έστω και με πολύ διαφορετικό τρόπο. Η στρατηγική κάθε καλλιτέχνη είναι διαφορετική. Για να την αντιληφθούμε καλύτερα, η έκθεση παρουσιάζει μια χαρακτηριστική πρόταση του κάθε καλλιτέχνη, μια πρόταση που δείχνει τον προσωπικό τρόπο εργασίας του και προσπαθεί να ερμηνεύσει τους κώδικές του. Οι καλλιτέχνες εργάζονται σε διάφορα μέσα, π.χ. εγκατάσταση, φωτογραφία, αντικείμενο, βίντεο, γλυπτό, κολάζ, σχέδιο.»

Μετά την υλοποίησή της στη Θεσσαλονίκη, η έκθεση θα ταξιδέψει σε άλλες πόλεις της Νοτιοανατολικής Ευρώπης, όπου θα διαμορφώνεται και θα εξελίσσεται. Ενδεχομένως να προστίθενται σ’ αυτήν νέα έργα και καλλιτέχνες, ανάλογα με τις περιστάσεις. Στο πέρας του ταξιδιού της, οι διάφορες εκδοχές της και το σύνολο των έργων και των συμμετεχόντων καλλιτεχνών θα έχουν πλέον συγκεντρωθεί σε μια σπονδυλωτή έκδοση.



ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΕΣ:
Διοργάνωση: Μακεδονικό Μουσείο Σύγχρονης Τέχνης και Goethe Institut
Εγκαίνια: Παρασκευή 1 Απριλίου, 20.00
Διάρκεια: 2 Απριλίου – 26 Μαΐου 2011
Επιμέλεια: Birgit Hoffmeister
Καλλιτεχνική οργάνωση: Χρήστος Σαββίδης (Μακεδονικό Μουσείο Σύγχρονης Τέχνης)

Μακεδονικό Μουσείο Σύγχρονης Τέχνης
Εγνατία 154 (εντός ΔΕΘ), 546 36 Θεσσαλονίκη
Τ: 2310 240002 & 2310 281212, Φ: 2310 281567
http://www.mmca.org.gr/, http://mmcart.blogspot.com/
mmcart@mmca.org.gr

Ώρες λειτουργίας: Τρίτη-Πέμπτη-Σάββατο, 10.00-18.00
Τετάρτη, 10.00-22.00, Παρασκευή, 10.00-19.00
Κυριακή, 11.00-15.00, Δευτέρα κλειστά


Ο τίτλος και το σκεπτικό της έκθεσης βασίζονται στην ομώνυμη δράση με έργα Ελλήνων καλλιτεχνών που πραγματοποιήθηκε το 2004 στο ετήσιο εικαστικό φεστιβάλ “Πεδίο Δράσης Κόδρα”. Η δράση εκείνη είχε σχεδιαστεί από τον Καλλιτεχνικό Διευθυντή του φεστιβάλ Χρήστο Σαββίδη, σε συνεργασία με μια ομάδα Ελλήνων καλλιτεχνών που ζούσαν και εργάζονταν στο Βερολίνο. Οι καλλιτέχνες ήταν οι: Χριστίνα Δημητριάδη –που μάλιστα συντόνισε το project και εμπνεύστηκε τον τίτλο-, Λίλα Πολενάκη, Γιώργος Σαπουντζής, Βασιλεία Στυλιανίδου, Δημήτρης Τζαμουράνης και Ευανθία Τσαντίλα.







Το Βερολινέζικο δωμάτιο αποτελεί χαρακτηριστικό της μεγαλοαστικής κατοικίας του Βερολίνου στο τέλος του 19ου - αρχές του 20ού αιώνα. Πρόκειται για ένα μακρόστενο δωμάτιο που συνδέει το μπροστινό τμήμα του σπιτιού, με την πλαϊνή ή πίσω πτέρυγα. Χρησιμοποιείται ως χώρος υποδοχής καλεσμένων, ως σαλόνι ή κεντρικό δωμάτιο, καθώς επίσης και ως πέρασμα προς τα υπόλοιπα δωμάτια του σπιτιού. Σταδιακά, η χρήση του μεταβάλλεται, “εκδημοκρατίζεται” κατά κάποιον τρόπο, παρότι διατηρείται το χαρακτηριστικό του ως χώρος συνάντησης των κατοίκων του σπιτιού.


          Bosnia        
Loesje Bosnia

Welcome to Loesje Bosnia


          jadwal pertandingan sepak bola seluruh liga luar negri        

updated every 1 min., don't refresh Last Update: 25/04/2010 15:12:46
LiveScores - Live Scores and Results
25 April
ENGLAND: Barclays PremiershipStats
14:0055Aston Villa0 : 0Birmingham
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ITALY: Serie AStats
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ITALY: Prima divisione BStats
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GERMANY: BundesligaStats
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GERMANY: 2. BundesligaStats
14:3042Arminia Bielefeld0 : 1Fortuna Dusseldorf
14:30FTFSV Frankfurt0 : 0Augsburg
14:30FT1860 Munchen2 : 1Oberhausen
GERMANY: 3. LigaStats
15:0012Ingolstadt0 : 1Stuttgart Am
GERMANY: Regionalliga NordStats
14:0060Hamburger Am0 : 1Hertha Am
14:3042Plauen1 : 0Hallescher FC
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14:3042Magdeburg1 : 0Chemnitzer
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SCOTLAND: Premier LeagueStats
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PORTUGAL: Liga SagresStats
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22:15Leiria- : -Sporting
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13:15FTTrofense5 : 2Santa Clara
17:00Freamunde- : -Gil Vicente
18:00Chaves- : -Carregado
18:00Beira Mar- : -Penafiel
18:00Oliveirense- : -Sp. Covilha
18:00Varzim- : -Fatima
NETHERLANDS: Gatorade Cup
19:00Ajax- : -Feyenoord
BELGIUM: Jupiler LeagueStats
19:00Genk- : -Germinal Beerschot
19:00Charleroi- : -Standard
21:30Anderlecht- : -Gent
BELGIUM: EXQI LeagueStats
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16:00RC Tournai- : -Tubize
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16:00FC Liege- : -Boussu Dour Borinage
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ALBANIA: Kategoria SuperioreStats
15:0011Apolonia0 : 0Kastrioti
15:0011Vllaznia0 : 0Flamurtari
15:0011Teuta0 : 0Skenderbeu
15:0011Shkumbini0 : 0Dinamo Tirana
15:0011Tirana0 : 0KS Gramozi Erseke
15:0011Laci0 : 0Besa
ARMENIA: Premier LeagueStats
15:0012Ulisses0 : 0Kilikia
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15:0012Mika0 : 0Gandzasar
15:0011Impuls0 : 0Shirak
AUSTRIA: tipp3-BundesligaStats
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BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA: Premier LigaStats
15:0011Slavija0 : 0Velez M.
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17:00Sliven- : -Sportist Svoge
19:30Liteks- : -Chernomorets Burgas
CYPRUS: 1. DivisionStats
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CZECH REP.: Gambrinus LigaStats
18:00Kladno- : -Slovacko
18:00Olomouc- : -Slavia Praha
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CZECH REP.: Druha LeagueStats
18:00Karvina- : -Sparta Prague B
18:00Hradec Kralove- : -Trinec
DENMARK: SAS LigaenStats
15:0011AGF Aarhus0 : 0Koge
17:00FC Kobenhavn- : -AaB Aalborg
17:00FC Nordsjaelland- : -Sonderjylland
19:00Esbjerg- : -Brondby
DENMARK: Viasat Sport DivisionenStats
14:5022Vejle0 : 0FC Vestsjaelland
16:00Frem- : -Thisted
16:00Viborg- : -Hvidovre IF
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17:00Horsens- : -Skive IK
20:00FC Fyn- : -FC Roskilde
FINLAND: VeikkausliigaStats
18:30KuPS- : -Lahti
18:30Jaro- : -Inter Turku
19:00Mariehamn- : -Vaasan PS
FINLAND: YkkonenStats
14:00HTHameenlinna1 : 1PoPa
18:30
          How To Get World Cup Tickets -- AND Be Fashionable        
Some people use the FIFA website. Some people use StubHub. And some people destroy their clothes. That's Leonardo Rabelo, a Brazilian who lives in Dallas and who flew to Rio hoping to attend two World Cup games: Argentina vs. Bosnia, and Spain vs. Chile. He didn't have tickets, so he scrawled the [...]
          Dorset heroes bearing the torch        
A BOVINGTON war veteran of three tours of Iraq and three to Bosnia will also carry his country’s flame through Dorset in the Olympic relay this summer.
          The Abraham Lincoln Logs #151        
Abe joins Cheney and Clinton for a night of legitimate theatre...

Links


Cheney: They Volunteered

Cheney: So?

Chart showing relative national debt by administration. You'll like this...

I thought I was running from bullet fire when actually I was meeting a little Bosnian girl because I was sleep deprived.

          Negara-negara Asal Sepakbola Deg-degan Menunggu Pengundian        

Pengundian babak kualifikasi Piala Dunia 2018 akan dilakukan Sabtu malam, sekitar pukul 23.00 WIB. Di bawah ini adalah daftar unggulan dan berbagai skenario buruk maupun baik yang bisa menimpa negara-negara asal sepakbola: Inggris, Wales, Skotlandia dan Irlandia Utara.

Berita Bola: Negara-negara Asal Sepakbola Deg-degan Menunggu Pengundian
Pot 1: Jerman, Belgia, Belanda, Portugal, Romania, Inggris, Wales, Spanyol, Kroasia
Pot 2: Slovakia, Austria, Italia, Swiss, Republik Ceko, Prancis, Islandia, Denmark, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Pot 3: Ukraina, Skotlandia, Polandia, Hungaria, Swedia, Albania, Irlandia Utara, Serbia, Yunani
Pot 4: Turki, Slovenia, Israel, Republik Irlandia, Norwegia, Bulgaria, Kepulauan Faroe, Montenegro, Estonia
Pot 5: Siprus, Latvia, Armenia, Finlandia, Belarusia, Makedonia, Azerbaijan, Lithuania, Moldova
Pot 6: Kazakhstan, Luksemburg, Liechtenstein, Georgia, Malta, San Marino, Andorra
Inggris dan Wales tidak mungkin bertemu dalam satu grup karena mereka sama-sama tim unggulan yang masuk dalam Pot 1.
Namun, mereka masih bisa ketemu dengan negara tertentu dari Pot 2 seperti Italia (saat ini peringkat 17 di dunia) atau Perancis (peringkat 22), sementara tandang ke negara-negara tertentu seperti Swedia, Polandia atau Ukraina bisa menjadi laga yang sulit.
Wales, Irlandia Utara dan Skotlandia bisa saja masuk ke dalam grup yang berisikan lima tim, bukan enam – yang dapat membantu peluang mereka lolos ke putaran final di Rusia.
Tim-tim Eropa akan dibagi ke dalam sembilan kelompok – tujuh grup dengan enam tim dan dua grup hanya beranggotakan lima tim.
Berikut adalah skenario terbaik dan terburuk dari empat negara asal sepakbola itu.
Inggris
Tiket impian:
Inggris, Islandia, Albania, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova, Andorra
Skenario terburuk:
Inggris, Italia, Swedia, Turki, Finlandia, Kazakhstan
Wales
Tiket impian:
Wales, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Albania, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova
Skenario terburuk:
Wales, Prancis, Ukraina, Turki, Siprus, Georgia
Skotlandia
Tiket impian:
Skotlandia, Wales, Islandia, Estonia, Lithuania
Skenario terburuk:
Skotlandia, Jerman, Italia, Turki, Makedonia, Kazakhstan
Irlandia Utara
Tiket impian:
Irlandia Utara, Rumania, Islandia, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova
Skenario terburuk:
Irlandia Utara, Spanyol, Prancis, Republik Irlandia, Belarusia, Malta

          Certificado EUR 1        

¿Qué es el EUR 1?
El certificado de circulación EUR1 es un documento  otorgado por la UE que acredita el origen  preferencial de las mercancías ante las autoridades aduaneras del país importador.  Este documento justifica la aplicación del régimen arancelario preferencial, es decir,  permite al importador beneficiarse de la reducción en los derechos de aduana sobre la mercancía importada.

¿Qué países pueden beneficiarse del EUR1?

El EUR1 es otorgado a aquellos países con los cuales la UE mantiene un Acuerdo Preferencial:  Marruecos, Argelia, Túnez, Egipto, Jordania, Siria, Líbano, Israel, Serbia, Bosnia, Macedonia y Croacia; Países ACP  (África, Caribe y Pacífico); países EFTA (Suiza, Islandia, Noruega y Liechtenstein); Países y Territorios de Ultramar y otros países con los que la UE tiene suscritos Acuerdos Preferenciales.

¿En qué momento debe ser expedido el EUR1?

El EUR1  debe ser expedido en el momento de la exportación, puesto que,  en términos generales,  no puede tener una fecha posterior al embarque porque el importador perdería los beneficios  fiscales. De modo excepcional, se puede expedir “a posteriori” si no se hubiera expedido en el momento de la exportación debido a un error u omisión involuntaria o por circunstancias especiales, o si se demuestra que la Secretaría expidió un certificado de circulación EUR.1 y no fue aceptado al efectuar la importación en el territorio de la Comunidad por motivos técnicos.

          READING COMPREHENSION        

1.HATES CRIMES

            The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.

            Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes

            The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.

  1. How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
  2. How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
  3. Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
  4. How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
  5. How many hate groups are there nationwide?
  6. What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
  7. How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
  8. Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
  9. What was the increase in hate groups last year?
  10. Who is Hillary Shelton?         

2.PILOT  ACCUSED

            Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .

            Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"

            Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.

            Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"

  1. When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
  2. How long has he been held in jail?
  3. Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
  4. What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
  5. What did he hide in 1993?
  6. Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
  7. What are the conditions of his bail?
  8. What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
  9. Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?

3.BOSNIA INJURIES

            On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .

            NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.

            In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"

             And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".

  1. How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
  2. Where were the two American soldiers inured?
  3. Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
  4. Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
  5. How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
  6. Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
  7. What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
  8. Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
  9. Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
  10. Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4. CLONE SYSTEM

            Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?

            Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid . as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .

            After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.

            A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.

  1. What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
  2. What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
  3. What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
  4. Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
  5. What is the main problem of cloning system?
  6. What does Australian scientist claim?
  7. What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
  8. For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
  9. What is the specific with mitochondria??
  10. Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?


5. ARSON IN THE VILLAGE


            On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.

            The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 

            The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.

            The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.

            The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.

            The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.

1.      When did the car stolen?
2.      What was the lost property?
3.      What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.      What was the demand of political party?
5.      What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.      What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.      How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.      En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.      What was the monitor action on the scene?
  10. what action did the local police take ?

6. Authoritarian regime


            President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.

            "We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.

            It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 

            The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.

            The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.

            The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.

             Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

  1. Which countries are called golden triangle country?
  2. Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
  3. What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
  4. Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
  5. What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
  6. Where is the international court of Justice located?
  7. why were the thousands of people jailed ?
  8. What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
  9. How many political prisoners were jailed?
     10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?

7.  GAMBLE

            November 27, 2001 Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.

            Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports. And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.

             Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.  The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.

            The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved.

1.      How may gang members arrested?
2.      What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.      Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.      How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.      How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.      What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.      What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.      What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.      What were weapons confiscated.
          10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?

8.  EBOLA

            Sunday, December 9, 2001 An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in  France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.      What did government request to Media?
2.      Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.      Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.      When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.      What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.      What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.      How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.      What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.      Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    


9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

            US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .

            There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country

            It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.  Who is Taras?


10. THE UNITED NATION

            The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states. After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs
1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat
                                        1. International court of justice.

            The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

            America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

            Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.


1.HATES CRIMES

            The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.

            Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes

            The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.


  1. How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
  2. How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
  3. Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
  4. How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
  5. How many hate groups are there nationwide?
  6. What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
  7. How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
  8. Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
  9. What was the increase in hate groups last year?
  10. Who is Hillary Shelton?         

2.PILOT  ACCUSED

            Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .

            Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"

            Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.

            Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"

  1. When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
  2. How long has he been held in jail?
  3. Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
  4. What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
  5. What did he hide in 1993?
  6. Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
  7. What are the conditions of his bail?
  8. What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
  9. Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?

3.BOSNIA INJURIES

            On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .

            NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.

            In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"

             And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".

  1. How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
  2. Where were the two American soldiers inured?
  3. Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
  4. Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
  5. How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
  6. Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
  7. What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
  8. Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
  9. Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
  10. Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4. CLONE SYSTEM

            Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?

            Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid . as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .

            After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.

            A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.

  1. What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
  2. What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
  3. What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
  4. Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
  5. What is the main problem of cloning system?
  6. What does Australian scientist claim?
  7. What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
  8. For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
  9. What is the specific with mitochondria??
  10. Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?


5. ARSON IN THE VILLAGE

            On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.

            The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 

            The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.

            The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.

            The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.

            The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.

1.      When did the car stolen?
2.      What was the lost property?
3.      What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.      What was the demand of political party?
5.      What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.      What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.      How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.      En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.      What was the monitor action on the scene?
  10. what action did the local police take ?
6. Authoritarian regime

            President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.

            "We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.

            It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 

            The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.

            The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.

            The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.

             Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

  1. Which countries are called golden triangle country?
  2. Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
  3. What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
  4. Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
  5. What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
  6. Where is the international court of Justice located?
  7. why were the thousands of people jailed ?
  8. What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
  9. How many political prisoners were jailed?
     10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?
7.  GAMBLE

            November 27, 2001 Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.

            Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports. And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.

             Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.  The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.

            The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved.

1.      How may gang members arrested?
2.      What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.      Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.      How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.      How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.      What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.      What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.      What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.      What were weapons confiscated.
          10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?

8.  EBOLA

            Sunday, December 9, 2001 An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in  France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.      What did government request to Media?
2.      Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.      Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.      When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.      What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.      What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.      How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.      What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.      Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    


9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

            US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .

            There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country

            It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.  Who is Taras?
  
10. THE UNITED NATION

            The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states. After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs
1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat
        
              1. International court of justice.

            The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

            America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

            Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.



1.    Title of incident/type of incident
Assault/Assassination/Attack/Vandalize/Murder/Property / persecution / Damage/Kidnapping/Demonstration/Slanghter/Homicide/Persection/Harrashment/Intimidation/
Threat/Stalking/Mugging/Extortion/Blackmail/Torture/Mob Justice/Beating/Domestic Violation(HRV)/Robbery/Suicide/Burglary / break in/Theft/Road Accident/Genocide/Massacre Arson/Assault/Blackmail/Fraud/Hijacking/Hooliganism /Mugging
2.    Body structure/looks of suspects.
Heavily built/slim/lean/medium built /muscular built/(slender- willowy- meager) (robust/ /stout/strapping /chunky / stocky /  burly /bold / brawny/ sturdy) ( lanky – leggy - tall and thin) (cocky / overconfident ) shaved head/curly hair/skinny/bony/bald head
3.    Dress of suspects
Camouflage/sneaker/bandana/Turban/ emblem/Denim jean/ Trainer/sleeve-less shirt/ belt/scarf
Boots/cap/coat/dress/gloves/hat/jacket/jeans/pants/raincoat/scarf/shirt/shoes/skirt
Slacks/slippers/socks/stockings/suit/sweater/sweatshirt/t-shirt/tie/trousers/underclothes
Underpants/undershirt/ hooded sweat shirt / black track pants/ track suit/
4.    Kind of fire arms and non fire arms
Machetes /AK-47/mouser rifle/Glock17 /revolver/club/ base ball bat/Browning pistol/knife/Astra pistol/Assault rifle/Smith & Wesson-semi automatic pistol / Compact Assault Rifle /
Automatic Shotgun - 12 gauge / Semi-Auto Carbine / Walther pistol/Beretta pistol/Chinese pistol/


5.    Color types
( Tan/ brown) - Gray - Blue/ navy – Purple – (green/ emerald/ jade/ olive/ lime/ sea green/ bottle green) – (White/ colorless/ pallid/ sallow/ ashen) – Black (Yellow/ fair-haired/ blond /pale/ golden-haired/ blonde / flaxen
(Maroon/ burgundy/ reddish purple/ claret /dark red/ wine-colored)

6.    Action words
Swerve/plant/grab/clutch/punch /stab /strangulate/apprehend – detain / stun /disperse – scatter / dispatch/veer/fell/drown/beat/tie/bind/struck/point/assault/torture/vandalize/abduct/apprehand/arrest/offend/attack/charge/accuse/convict/ arrest/ban/break in/break into/ break the law/burgle/charge/commit a crime/escape/get away/hold up/investigate/rob/steal/veer-turn/
7.    Types of vehicles
Volkswagen/Mercedes/sedan/lada/ land rover/Tata jeep/mini bus/truck/( TL/SD/TB/TY)/Honda civic/Honda Crv/Honda City/Honda Pilot/Honda Hrv/Honda Accord/Honda Fit/Land Rover/
Mercedes-Benz/Mitsubishi/Nissan/Suzuki /Toyota Corolla /Toyota Hilux/ Alfa Romeo / FIAT/ BMW /Hyundai/Ford/
8.    Type of ethnicity
Muslim/Serbian/Albanian/Croat/Bosnian/Kosovar Albanians /Kosovar Serbs/Gorani/Turks/Macedonian/Romanian/orthodox Serb/Timorese/  Morle

9.    Complexion
Caucasian/black/white/fair/dark/ mulattos and whites
10.    Mark/scar/tattoo
  Scar/ blemish/ disfigurement/ wound/ scratch /mark/ pockmark/ stain /spot /blotch/ nick/notch
11.    Position of human/objects
supine/prawn/upside town/downside up/inside out/outside in/squatting - hunkering down/crouching-stoop/kneeling/lying/hanging/
12.    Criminals
Mugger/murderer/robber/shoplifter/smuggler/terrorist/thi
ef/vandal/ offender / assailant/ perpetrator/assailant/miscreant / thugs /intruder/suspect/accused/convict/maniac/
13.    fugitive- renegade-escapee/ deserter-escapee/bandit/ fraudster/
14.    part of body
temple/ abdomen/chin/chick/waist /Ankle/foot/skull/tibia /tummy- stomach //wrist/forehead/
15.    injuries
Wound/ hurt/ lesion / abrasion/ cut/ wound/ gash/ sore/ laceration/ scratch/ Abrasion/Bruising/Burns
Cluster Headaches/Concussions/Congestive Heart Failure/Coronary Artery Disease/Dislocation
Flail Chest/Fracture/ Crush Injury/ Dislocation/Flail Chest/Fracture/Head Trauma/Hypothermia/Lacerations/Pinched Nerve/ Rib Fracture/ Spinal Cord Injury/ Traumatic Brain / massive Trauma / hemorrhage / Injury

16.    kinds of drugs
cannabis/marijuana/beverage/narcotic/Amphetamines
Marijuana / Cannabis/Cocaine/Heroin/Ecstasy/Ketamine/LSD Index/Mushrooms/Drug Types
Marijuana/Antidepressants/Barbiturates/Depressants/Hallucinogens/Inhalants/Narcotics/Steroids
Opium

17.    Justice System
Appeal – request /barrister/caution/Cell/Community service/Court/court case/death penalty/defense/fine/goal-jail/guilty/imprisonment/innocent/judge/jury/justice/lawyer/offence/
Sentence/prison/probation-trial/prosecution/punishment/capital punishment – death penalty/corporal punishment – long term prison/remand home/solicitor/trial/verdict/witness

18.    Extra
Compensation/ ransom/bail/parole/ escape/at large/ abscond/flee/ Hostile/aggressive/
( fugitive-escapee)

          READING COMPREHENSION        



1.HATES CRIMES

The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.
Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes
The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.





1.    How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
2.    How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
3.    Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
4.    How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
5.    How many hate groups are there nationwide?
6.    What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
7.    How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
8.    Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
9.    What was the increase in hate groups last year?
10.    Who is Hillary Shelton?   


2.PILOT  ACCUSED

Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .
 Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"
Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.
Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"
1.    When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
2.    How long has he been held in jail?
3.    Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
4.    What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
5.    What did he hide in 1993?
6.    Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
7.    What are the conditions of his bail?
8.    What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
9.    Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?



3.BOSNIA INJURIES

On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .
NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.
In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"
 And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".


1.    How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
2.    Where were the two American soldiers inured?
3.    Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
4.    Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
5.    How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
6.    Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
7.    What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
8.    Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
9.    Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
10.    Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4.CLONE SYSTEM

Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?
Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid .
as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .
After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.
A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.


1.    What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
2.    What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
3.    What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
4.    Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
5.    What is the main problem of cloning system?
6.    What does Australian scientist claim?
7.    What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
8.    For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
9.    What is the specific with mitochondria??
10.    Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?
5.    ARSON IN THE VILLAGE

On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.
The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 
 The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.
The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.
The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.
 The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.
1.    When did the car stolen?
2.    What was the lost property?
3.    What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.    What was the demand of political party?
5.    What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.    What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.    How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.    En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.    What was the monitor action on the scene?
10. what action did the local police take ?

    

6.    Authoritarian regime

President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.
"We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.
It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 
The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.
The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.
    The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.
      Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

1.    Which countries are called golden triangle country?
2.    Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
3.    What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
4.    Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
5.    What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
6.    Where is the international court of Justice located?
7.    why were the thousands of people jailed ?
8.    What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
9.    How many political prisoners were jailed?
 10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?


7.  GAMBLE

November 27, 2001
Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.
Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested  one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports . And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.
 Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.
 The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.
The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved. 
1.    How may gang members arrested?
2.    What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.    Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.    How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.    How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.    What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.    What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.    What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.    What were weapons confiscated.
        10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?


8.  EBOLA

Sunday, December 9, 2001
An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in
France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.    What did government request to Media?
2.    Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.    Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.    When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.    What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.    What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.    How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.    What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.    Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    

9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

    US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .
    There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country .
    It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.    Who is Taras?

10. THE UNITED NATION

The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states.
    After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs

1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat

                                        1. International court of justice.

    The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

    America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

    Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.


11.  UN FAILURE IN BOSNIA

    A long -awaited report into the failure of a Dutch UN peacekeeping force to prevent the murder of thousands of Muslims in the Bosnian town of Brebrenica will be published on Wednesday. The Netherlands is bracing itself for the results of the inquiry in to the worst massacre in Europe since world War second. The
    BBC's Europe correspondent says Dutch troops are likely to be criticized for their part in event leading up to the 1995 slaughter. In July 1995, Srebrenica was being protected by 110 Dutch troops who were supposed to ensure the safety of the town's mainly Muslim population against surrounding Bosnian Serb forces. The United Nations had declared it a safe area but when it  was attacked, the town fill with out the Dutch UN troops firings shot . Up to 8000 Muslim men and boys were then murdered.

Five years of research

                  While the Dutch troops are likely to be criticized for letting the town fall without a fight , fault is also set to be found with the over all UN commander for failing to order air strikes to protect the enclave. The report is also understood to criticize the Dutch government for showing lack of political will. The 7000-pages report by the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation is the official Dutch history of events in Srebrenica. It has taken more than five years to produce. In a 1999 report, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan blamed the international community for its failure to protect the enclave but insisted that it was impossible " to say whether a more decisive action by the Dutch would have saved lives" .A report two weeks ago by the Interchurch Peace Council ( IKV) in the Netherlands condemned Dutch troops, generals and politicians for failing to evacuate and protect the Muslims.

Scenes from hell

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague has ruled that the massacre was genocide. Last August it sentenced Bosnian Serb General Radisav Krstic, considered a key commander in the episode, to 46 years in prison. The judge in the case said the massacre was characterized by " scenes from hell, written on the darkest pages of human history" Survivors' reports, aerial photography and grisly evidence exhumed from mass graves indicate the most victims in the massacre were summarily executed ,Dutch MPs may now call for a public inquiry. Seven military commanders of Royal Dutch army have been sentenced to seven years jail . Ten army personnel have been fired from the service and 20 have been restricted from the promotion as per the report of the criminal tribunal.   The BBC's correspondent Mr. Havel Eastward has been facilitated by the Dutch Government as a friends of mankind . After the massacre in the Srebrenica the Dutch government begs pardon with the Bosnian people and saying that her troops could not do any thing to save the life of the people and she is responsible to the accident.


1. How many Dutch troops were protecting Srebrenica?
2. What ethnic group were the people of Srebrenica?
3. Why the Dutch government begs pardon with the people of Bosnia ?
4. How many people were killed in Srebrenica?
5. How many army personnel were punished?
6. Who is criticized in the report?
7. Where is the International Criminal Tribunal based?
8. Would more positive action by the Dutch troops have saved lives?
9    What sentence was General Krstic given?
10    Who was facilitated by the Dutch government and why?


12.  SWARM ATTACK

    Six people were hospitalized after they were attacked by a swarm of bees in Singapore, a news report said on Tuesday. The bees attacked contractors who were trying to remove a beehive in the tropical city-state .Two police officers who were on the scene to keep back the public, were among those attacked and hospitalized. Police public affairs officers could not immediately be contacted to confirm the report. The incident occurred at approximately 12:30PM on Tuesday afternoon. Two of the people who were injured in the attack were still in the hospital on Tuesday night at 10:00 PM; however they were in good condition. Such incidents are rare in heavily urbanized Singapore. But two years ago , a 51 years old taxi driver died after he was stung by a swarm bees .The driver was changing his back left tire and he removed the deflated tire , a beehive was in the wheel well . Witnesses said that the swarm covered the man's face and hands and repeatedly sting him as he cried out in pain .He died later that night while being hospitalized. Singapore is a very small country covered by the see in the east of Asia and known as a well industrialized country.
    The big industry installations have many nooks and corners where the swarm bees get shelters. firstly people do not care about it because it seems harmless and small in the beginning but after  a year it  appeared in large scale and bees become escort free so they undermine their stung so they try to destroy their hives and got stung and the result  become very adverse. The same accident happened in The US in 1990 when a farmer had gone to his farmhouse to clean the room , he saw that there is a bee hive in the ceiling of the room he thought it was full of honey , unfortunately it was poisonous  swarm bee's hive.  He collected his two sons and a black servant to take the honey . In the mean time when they lit a fire to fly the bees , the swarm bees started stung them . The younger son who was in the door side escaped from the room after having a look at the victims and called the police . The house got in to the gutter by the fire and three injured had been hospitalize in the city centre . The house owner Mr. Kally died during the medical treatment and two had been discharged after 2 weeks with swollen face and bruises for the whole life.  The same accident happened in Nepal too on 23 September 2002. The Raute , who are famous for honey hunter ,had tried to collect honey from the very steep hill near Manang District. they made rope ladder to climb the hill and with the aid of fire they started collecting the honey .
    It was a documentary program filmed by Scottish Director visualized to broadcast in Britain  by BBC. Al together there were 15 men. When the honey hunter was climbing down from the steep hill after the successful visualization of the film. Unfortunately, one of the hunters touched the bees hive. Due to the finished job, they did not prepare for next attack and they all were on very thin cloths and without cloves . Three among five hunters fall down from the cliff and died. Two were severely bitten by the bees were died on the way to hospital and ten crew members of the visualization  were admitted in the hospital and discharged after 2 weeks .  It is said that the bees seems so calm if they are not hurt and if anyone hurt their queen , they become so terrifying and take revenge from the hunter . The queen is the most powerful among the bees. if the queen of the bees  safely removed from the hive it will be so easy to get the honey from the hive   which is considered as medicine  in eastern countries . The working bees always follow the queen bee , if she abandon the hive silently , all the bees left the hive with out revenge. so if you want to get honey remove the queen tactically and calmly.
         
1.    How many people had been killed according to the passage.?
2.    How many people had been injured according to the passage?
3.    Where was the bees's hive in the taxi?
4.    Who was the authentic person to provide informations about injured police officers according to the passage.
5.    What had happened to the two Americans who escaped from the death?
6.    What is the ideal idea to get honey?
7.    What did the team doing in Manning District?
8.    How did the taxi driver killed?
9.    Where was the bees's hive in the room?
10.    Who is the most powerful in the hive?

13.  ARAFAT POLITICS
    Arafat is not the point. As Israelis and Palestinians use ever more lethal means against each other's civilians, the question being asked in Israel and the US is not how to end the occupation, but whether or not to end the career, or even the life, of Arafat. At the time of writing this coverage trend in early February 2002, in a further escalation Israeli tanks have confined Arafat in an area of 200m square in Ram Allah. And have destroyed the remainder of his helicopter fleet that it began to destroy on the attack of his compound on 3 December 2001.
    If Israel killed Arafat or sent in to exile, nothing would change. It seems almost absurd to have to point out that forcing millions of people to live for decades under hostile military rule with no end on sight inevitably produces violent resistance. Only a mind -set that steadfastly refuses to recognize this can become captivated by a lone figure who's real and imagined failings became a smoke screen that obscures the machinery that actually drives the conflict.
    If Israel truly seeks the moral high ground it invokes in the international arena, it should stop seeking a relative high ground whose only elevation stems from the weakness and failing of its historical enemies. Rather Israel should address the most obvious things it dies to perpetuate the conflict.
    The bottom line is that the single most identifiable factor that perpetuates the Israeli- Palestinian conflict in all its forms, both legitimate, is the Israeli military occupation that exists to protect the continuing Israeli colonization of the Gaza Strip and West Bank, including Jerusalem.
    Comparisons of Arafat with Bin Laden serve to legitimize Israel's continuing repression of the Palestinians and bear no reality to the dynamics that this particular conflicts, dynamics that Israel has played no small part in creating.
    Israel's killing of civilians is a form of terrorism. The United States  tacit support of Israel's so called retaliation in US support of terrorism .Although Israeli officials are occasionally note don record " apologizing" for the latest " accidental" death of a child , there comes a point -- after a year in which one quarter of the 800 Palestinians killed were children and 50 percent of these children were killed for away from clashes- that it becomes imperative to note that Israel could always simply stop killing children , instead of merely apologizing for it.
    Israel's nightly shelling of Palestinian neighborhoods has accounted for one quarter of the 800 Palestinians killed during the first year of the Second Intifada .  Israel's regular killing of innocent civilians including children as a "by product " of its ironically titled" targeted killings " of Palestinian activists most commonly with rockets fired from combat helicopters at these leader's vehicles while in cit streets offer more examples of the indiscriminate violence that characterizes 'terrorism' as most people understand the word.
    Following a series of suicide bomb attacks in February / March 1996, then Israeli President Weizmann bluntly described Israel's practice of using closure to turn Palestinian towns in to prisons for the entire population: "Sometimes, when you are searching for a needle in a haystack, you have to burn the haystack".
    Israel has been encouraged to carry out similar "retaliation" as in the case of the December 2001bombing, by the knowledge that the United States would not condemn it. America must refrain from "understanding" Israel's violence. This can only have the effect of encouraging the continued Israeli killing of innocent Palestinian civilians.

1.    How many Palestinian children have been killed this year?
2.    How many Palestinians have been killed during nightly shelling?
3.    Are children targeted by the Israelis?
4.    Who is Arafat compared to and why?
5.    Where is Arafat confined, and what size of area?
6.    How many people live under hostile military rule in Palestine?
7.    What is the question being asked in Israel and the US?
8.    Why is Israel not afraid to carry out retaliation attacks on Palestinians?
9.    What happened in 1996?
10.    What dies Israel do when it is faced with suicide bomb attacks?








14.  BUS LOOTED
    A bus, which started off in Kathmandu , at 5:30 PM , traveling to Biratnagar , was looted by some Indian dacoits, which had crossed the boarder in order to escape the authorities there. They had been in Nepal for at least a month and had been regularly stopping night buses and robbing the passengers of all their belongings as well as money.
    When the bus number Ba Ga 3987, first started off from Gongabu Bus Park there was a total of 30 passengers. Just near Thankot 3 more passengers got on. The journey was uneventful until they reached Muggling, where they stopped for dinner. Here, the bus conductor managed to find 4 more people wanting to travel to Biratnagar . After about half an hour stop for dinner, they set off again. At Bharatpur 2 of the passengers got off as they had only booked up to this point. The bus had to wait for about one hour as the engine had trouble and the driver had to fix it .After this they started  of again and had a short tea break at Hetauda where another 2 people got off and one got on.
    At about 2:00 PM in the morning, when most of the passengers were asleep, the driver suddenly stopped as there was a tree across the main road. The passengers all wake up as the bus had come to a sudden stop, and were all looking out of the windows. Two Indian men dressed in black were behind the fallen tree with country made rifles; at the same time 2 also came from the back and two on each side of the bus. At once they told all the passengers to come out of the bus and line up in front of the bus, even though it as a moonlight night, no body could make out the faces of the dacoits, and could tell only by the way they spoke that they were from India. Everybody was told to remove their watches, jewelries and to empty out their pockets and moneybags. One of the men colleted all this while the others told all the passengers to lie down with their faces facing down. During this time the dacoits all disappeared, as nobody wanted to follow them as they might get shot

1.    How many passengers were on the bus when it was robbed?

2.    How many dacoits were there in total?

3.    How long did they stop for dinner?

4.    Why did they stop a second time before the robbery?

5.    How did the passengers know that the dacoits were not Nepali?

5.    Where did the bus start first?

6.    How many got in the Baratpur?

7.    Why did the bus have to stop suddenly?

8.    How many we on the bus at Muggling?

9.    Although it was night time how could the passengers make out how many dacoits there were?  
15.    KOSOVO POLICE

    On Monday 17 March 2003 , at 0745 hours , two Kosovo Police Officers were on patrol duty in a police vehicle when they observed a white van type vehicle , license 496KS858 driving very fast. The officers stopped the white van type vehicle for questioning using their blue flash lights. When the driver stopped, the patrol team stopped five meters behind his vehicle, however the van did not turn off its engine. As the officers exited their vehicle, the drivers of the white van type vehicle sped away very quickly. The officers ran back to their vehicle and chased the white vehicle .They were driving on the road to the airport. The police vehicle was driving at almost 120 km/hour but was unable to catch up to the van. Suddenly, the van turned north on to an unpaved roadway. The officers continued the pursuit. The van drove for approximately a hundred meters more. There was a big hole by the side of the road which the van fell into as the driver had lost control of the van, then it rolled upside down into a deep ditch on the south side of the roadway at grid reference 184-846. The officers stopped their vehicle on the opposite side of the roadway and proceeded cautiously toward the offender's vehicle. When they were approximately two meters away form the white van type vehicle they could see that the offender was still in his vehicle but was not moving. There were no sign of blood or injury  to the offender .As the officers got closer they could see three bundles, approximately 35 cm by 20cm by 25cm in the rare cargo area of the vehicle . One of the bundles was ripped open and a dark green plant material was showing, the officers assumed that it was marijuana. The first officer proceeded to the front of the vehicle to check the physical condition to the driver. The offender was breathing but didn't respond to any of the officer's verbal commands.  The officer radioed for an ambulance and the offender was taken to the local hospital. The second officer searched the offender's vehicle and found another bundle under the front seat with a knife. The Knife was 20 cm long with old blood stains. There were no papers or registration found in the vehicle. All material were seized as evidence and taken to police station.

1.    What were the 2 officers doing at 0745 Hrs?
2.    Why did they ask the van to stop?
3.    What was their reason for stopping the van?
4.    At what distance behind did the police stop?
5.    How many bundles were seen?
6.    Approximately what speed was the van traveling when in pursuit?
7.    What did the officers assume it to be?
8.    Was the knife found before or after the suspect was taken to hospital?
9.    What distance did the van travel on the dirt road?
10.    How did the man crash the vehicle?
16.    GERMANY SOOTING

Germany was in shock yesterday after 19 years old, masked gunman shot 17 people, including two female students, before killing himself in a school massacre in the eastern city of Erfurt.
The black -clad gunman a recently - expelled student of the Gutenberg secondary school, burst into a classroom during an exam yesterday morning around 11 AM and started shooting with a pump action rifle mounted on his back. "He passed us in the corridor with out paying any attention and walked straight into the secretary's office and started shooting." He said. Witnesses said the gunman walked through the building, opening classroom doors and targeting staff, killing nine male teachers, four female teachers, a secretary and two female students all within minutes. Caretakers heard the shots and notified the local police. Two officers arrived on the scene and discovered two dead bodies in the entrance hall. Moments later the gunman appeared and opened fire, shooting dead one of the policemen. A special commando unit immediately surrounded the school, which has nearly 700 students. As the shooting continued, around 180 students were still trapped in the building. Commandos stormed the building shortly before noon and came upon what was described as terrible scenes. 'Bodies lay in the halls, in bathrooms and classrooms' said Mr.Rainer Grube, a police spokesman. The gunman, who had barricaded himself into a room, shot himself as officers approached. 'The gunman killed himself when he saw that there was no way out for him' said Mr., Grube.
    For the students trapped inside the building, their ordeals ended nearly three hours later when they were led, pale and shaking, out of the school to worried parents at the gate. They were all receiving counseling yesterday evening, while four people injured in the attack were brought to hospital. Police were last night still investigating students reports that there was a second gunman. They had no motive for the shootings yesterday evening. Friends of the as yet unidentified gunman described him as an intelligent student who was ' full of life' and often spoke of his wish to become famous. The massacre is one of the most violent attacks in German post -war history, and ranks alongside the 1996 school shooting in Dunblane and the 1999 massacre in Columbine , Arkansas. Yesterday evening Erfurt residents were in shock and German politicians speechless .
'We are stunned at this horrific crime. No explanation we could give would go far enough right now ' said the Chancellor, Mr. Gerhard Schroeder, expressing his sympathy for the families of the victims and the students who witnessed the attack. He ordered the German flag on the Reichstag in Berlin to flown to be flown at half mast. 'We are all in one room .One teacher is dead, we are crying.



1.    Which two other massacres are mentioned?
2.    How many people were injured in the attack?
3.    What time did the shooting start?
4.    What weapons were used?
5.    How many teachers were killed?
6.    Did the gunman target students?
7.     Who notified the police about the shooting?
8.    Who stormed the building and when?
9.    How many police men entered the building initially?
10.    How long it take to gunman to kill the people and was there only one gunman?



17.  DEAD BODY FOUND

Mr. John Edwards lives alone in his cottage in the southern part of Cambridge, UK. He was a retired officer who previously worked for the finance office which was based in London. He had been retired for 5 years now and spent most of his time in Cambridge. He had worked for 34 years and during that time lived in London. By the sides of his cottage, there was a husband and wife living who used to work for Mr. Edwards. The woman would cook his meals and the man would attend to the garden. Mr. Edwards had no close family or friends who would come to visit him regularly .On December 15 , 2002 ,Mr. Edwards was found dead in his study at 0700 hrs. His body was fund by the woman who did his cooking. She had informed the police when she had seen him lying on his desk at 0700hrs. All the doors were closed from the inside so the woman thought in quite suspicious so she looked through the window. This is when she saw Mr. Edwards at his desk. When the police arrived at 0730 hrs. They broke open the door and checked the body. Mr. Edwards was confirmed dead and his body sent for post mortem. By the side of the table there was a bottle and a letter which said that he was taking his life as he was fed up and didn't see any future in continuing. All these materials were sent to the police lab for the necessary testing. The reports all confirmed that Mr. Edwards did take the poison, traces of which were found in his blood and on his lips. On the latter, apart from Mr. Edward's finger prints, there were other prints found as well. When the police checked up they found that it belonged to the husband the woman who cooked for Mr. Edwards. The police found this very suspicious as the husband had said that he never came into the study at any time. The police brought the man in for questioning and under interrogation he at first denied that he had gone to the house ant any time. After 2 hours, he changed his story and said that he
          Reading Comprehension        
                          Reading Comprehension-03
Name:                                                                               Time: 15 Minutes                           Marks: 10
Mr. Emir Mikaev comes to the IPTF station Srebrenik and introduces himself as the local leader of the JNA political party. He is also a candidate for the forthcoming parliamentary election. According to his version, he was coming to Srebrenik from Gracantca after attending an election meeting. He was drivein his own car. When he drove about 30 kms away from Srerenik, one police car started chasing his car and forced him to stop. 2 policemen came out of the patrol car and asked him to show the driving license and other car documents. Mr. Emir did accordingly. Policemen took the documents and to his surprise, they refused to return those. Mr. Emir told the policemen that they had no right to take away the documents. Two of his party members who were accompanying him in his car also supported him. The policemen became annoyed with them and told that they would seize the documents. Mr. Emir wanted to know the reason for that. The policemen didn’t pay any attention rather they called another police patrol by radio. Within few minutes another patrol car appeared with 03 policemen. They also supported their colleagues. Later both the police cars left the scene with his driving license and car documents.
After a short discussion, Mr. Emir and his supporters went to the local police station and sought permission to meet the Police Chief. He was told to wait for some time. After about ten minutes, Secretary to the Police Chief told Mr. Emir that the Chief would not meet him. During his stay at the police station, Mr. Emir came to know that Mr. Evan Omolic, His political rival was inside the Police Chief’s room. Mr. Evan is a candidate of SDA party. Mr. Emir believes that his political opponent is behind this police harassment.
Now Mr. Emir requests the IPGTF station to contact the local police immediately so that he can get back his documents immediately. IPTF Duty officer assures him that he will do that. The Duty officer further tells that if the allegation is true he will serve a non-compliance report against the responsible police officers.
                                         Question of Reading Comprehension-03

Name:
Q1:      Which political parties are contesting in the coming election?
Q2:      Why Mr. Emir was in Gracanica?
Q3:      Where Mr. Emir was stopped by police?
Q4:      How many persons were there inside Mr. Emir’s car?
Q5:      Whom Mr. Emir makes responsible for the harassment?
Q6:      What the IPTF officer will do immediately?
Q7:      How many policemen came to the scene?
Q8:      What action will be taken against the police officers?
Q9:      What is the distance between Srebrenik and Gracanica?
Q10:   Which political party held election campaign meeting at Granica?
 
                                                           Reading Comprehension-04

Name:                                                                               Time: 15 Minutes                           Marks: 10
In Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bnajaluka is a regional HQ town and believed to be the capital city of RS, which stands for Republeca Serpska. Majority people in this city are Serb. UN police duty officer at about 1900 hrs received information from the UN Telephone switchboard that an attack and injury incident was in progress in the house of Mr. Ivan Babic, a Serb, house no # 35, on Titovska road. Ms. Bjliana babic was on duty in the switchboard on 18th of October 1999. As per as she stated that the attackers attacked at 1845 hrs, her father a former community leader had been threatening by the current community leader Mr. Ruian Ivo. They told him to leave the area as because they believe that IVAN Babic was actring a role against their community during the war between Serbs and Croats, in the Year 1995. Muslims were in favor of the Croats as well. There were some more Muslims in Banjaluka but very few Croats. Presently almost every Muslim family has left the area except few families in a minority community area. Now Serbs are dominating this area.
UN Police Duty Officer sent a patrol to the scene without delay. UN Police patrol comprising of 2 UN Police one language assistant and two other local Police attended the scene after half an hour from the time of incident. While they were approaching in front of Babic’s house, a Blue colored Jeep had left the place before they reached. Police learned from the victim Ivan Babic that RUIAN IVO the current Serbian Leader along with 3 persons with 2 long barreled and one short arm came to their house and start shooting. They shot anonymous rounds in their living room, no body was injured but furniture and other household were damaged in the incident. Police confiscated four empty cartridges and one black jacket left by the suspects.
 

Question of  Reading Comprehension-04
Name:
Q1:      Who received the information and what action has he taken?
Q2:      Who was injured in the incident?
Q3:      At what time did police attend the scene?
Q4:      How many persons were involved in attacked and what type of arms did they use?
Q5:      When and where did the incident take place?
Q6:      Who is the house owner, give his details?
Q7:      Total how many persons attended the scene?
Q8:      Who were involved in the war and in which year?
Q9:      Who informed the incident to UN police?
Q10:   What is Banjaluka believed to be?
 
                            Reading Comprehension-05
Name:                                                                               Time: 15 Minutes                           Marks: 10

Slobodan Ahamadia a Bosnian Muslim. He lives in a village named Plavska house #32 at Timara Sai road. During the war in 1995 he along with his wife Ms. Batina Ahmadia and two sons left their house that was owned by his wife. He was brought up in this area since he was born. He was a trader used to buy spare parts of Zastava car and sold in the market in the city center. He was a prominent businessman in the area. He never did anything harmful to his opponent ethnic group.
His son Ibdan Ahmadia was involved in organizing the Muslims to protect themselves during the ethnic conflicts in Bosnia & Herzegovina, but never hurt anyone. While the conflict was intensified and Muslims were leaving the area due to his son’s act, he along with his family members was compelled to leave the area.
They went to Austria for shelter and came back after four years when the situation became normal. While checking their house they found that one family occupied their house. He spoke with the present occupant who stated that they would not vacate the house in any case. Slobodan went to meet and negotiate with the present occupant again but in vain. Instead of a favor he was threatened and was told not to come to him any more.
In January 2000 he went to the Municipality and made a complaint about his housing problem. The officer responsible for refugees and housing problem advised him not to worry. He was waiting for a result from the municipality. He along with his family members took shelter with one of his relatives in a small house. After few days he went to see the municipality officer but did not get any result. Advised by his relative, he went to UN police station and asked help for getting his house back. UN police officer Steven along with the complainant went to municipality and spoke with the housing officer. Housing officer assured the UN police officer that the problem will be solved and a decision in favor of the complainant would be made by the next week.
 

                                              Question of Reading Comprehension-05
Name:
Q1:      What did Mr. Slobodan deal with?
Q2:      What compelled the complainant to leave his house?
Q3:      What is the name of the house owner?
Q4:      When did the complainant leave their house?
Q5:      What was the outcome of the complainant’s visit and negotiation with the current house        occupant?
Q6:      In which year did the complainant come back to their area?
Q7:      What is the address of the house in problem?
Q8:      When did the complainant leave the house and where did he take shelter?
Q9:      How many times did the complainant visit the municipality?
Q10:   Was the complainant harmful to his opponent ethnic group?
 
                                                     Reading Comprehension-06

Name:                                                                               Time: 15 Minutes                           Marks: 10
Housing department of the Municipality is responsible for taking care of housing problems in GORAZDE Municipal area. The Minister for refugees is supervising the rehabilitation program as over Bosnia and Herzegovina. Mr. ADLIZ HOMARIA left his house during the war in 1995 due to a threatening and shooting incident occurred at his house in October 1995. He is a Serb by ethnic. His wife and 2 children together with him left GORAZDE for BELGRADE for shelter after they were declared refugees from GORAZDE.
On October the 13th 1995, at about 1900 hrs Mr. ADLIZ with his ass-family members were enjoying television in his living room. All on a sudden 4-masked persons armed with 2 long barreled guns attacked his house. Their motive was to compel Mr. ADLIZ to leave that house, which was at 35, Bosanski Road, GORAZDE. They shot 4/5 rounds around their living room and shouted why ADLIZ did not leave the house as they told him 2 weeks ago. After a few minuets they left the place with a blue-colored jeep. Police was informed and they visited the scene. They found 5 used empty cartridges of caliber 7.65 mm weapon. Nobody was injured in the incident but their TV, CD player and some furniture were damaged in the shooting.
Follow up-01:
As they were busy in some other jobs police revisited the scene after two days and taken statement of 3 witnesses. Furthermore they found 2 more used empty cartridges. Police learnt from the victim that those culprits had threatened them a few days back to leave the house and the area otherwise they would burn their house and would kill them. So, they had to leave the house and went to Belgrade for shelter.
Follow up-02:
Mr. ADLIZ came back after the war. Now the situation is calm and he thinks it is safe to leave in this area now. But he found that some Muslim family occupies his house. He went to Municipality for seeking help to reoccupy or get his house back in his possession.
                                          Question of Reading Comprehension-06

Name:
Q1:      How many persons of victim family were present at the time of incident?
Q2:      On what date and time did the incident take place?
Q3:      How many used empty cartridges were found in the scene?
Q4:      How many people were injured in the incident?
Q5:      Where did the incident take place?
Q6:      What would happen if the complainant did not leave the house?
Q7:      How many culprits were involved in the incident?
Q8:      What was the caliber of weapon that had been used?
Q9:      What were damaged in the incident?
Q10:   On what date police visited the house again and what action was taken by them?

Reading Comprehension-07
Name:                                                                               Time: 15 Minutes                           Marks: 10
On 15th September 2001 Monday at about 1900 hrs Mr. MOHABIA ABDUL with his all family members were going to shopping at BOSNA PLAZA BANJALUKA. All on a sudden five masked persons armed with long barreled gun and two other of them in the car in a group attacked MOHABIA. Their motive was to compel Mr. MOHABIA to leave that area. He was living in House # 35 PADAGRASKA ROAD BANJA LUKA. He was one of the Muslim minority community leaders in that area. Serb local leaders believe that he was one of the key persons who motivated the Muslims in that area against the Serbs. Serb leaders told him to leave the area 3 weeks ago. MOHABIA was brought up in this area since their born. He did not want to leave the area as because that was his place of born. Further he didn’t have bad relation with any one especially in the Serb community. But while the ethnic problems were in progress between the Muslims and SERV in BNJA LUKA, they warned him to leave the place otherwise he would face trouble even the risk of life. MOHABLIA’S refusal of leaving the area brought him under this attack. They fired 4/5 rounds at MOHAIBIA and his family members. As a result of the shooting MOHAIBIA has got 3 shots on his leg and one on the chest, both his son and wife got one shot on leg. Police was informed and they arrived in the scene immediately. They took the injured persons to the hospital where the victim was under treatment for 5 days. Police has taken his statement at the hospital after 2 days from the incident. Police has informed the victim that they have arrested one of the culprits named GORAN VOIC, a Serb, aged about 24 years.
Follow up:
On 17th September Police Investigation team visited the victim’s house. They have taken statement from victim’s son and wife about the incident. The wife told Police that her husband was threatened by some Serb leaders few weeks back. As the victim was resident of the area by birth he never cares about the ethnic problem. On the date of incident the culprits did not give any opportunity to shout from a short distance and it stopped the culprit from shooting, so that has saved our life.
 
Question of Reading Comprehension-07
Name:
Q1:      What brings the victim under attack?
Q2:      On what date and time did the incident take place?
Q3:      How many shots did victim get on his leg?
Q4:      Where ht victim was going at the time of incident?
Q5:      What properties were damaged at the time of incident?
Q6:      When did the incident take place?
Q7:      When did the investigation unit visit victim’s house?
Q8:      How many shots were fired towards the victim?
Q9:      What is the ethnicity of the arrested person?
Q10:   How many persons were involved in attacking victim, mentioning firearms used?



          (DF) Foreign Minister Zaharieva in Sarajevo: "We Back You in Your Bid for EU Candidate Status"        
August 4 (BTA) - "Bulgaria supports the enlargement [of the EU] into the Western Balkans, and I hope that you will get a candidate country status during our Presidency of the Council of the European Union. To this end, however, you will have to fulfil your tasks," Bulgarian Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Ekaterina Zaharieva said here on Friday, quoted by her Ministry in a press release, addressing the Foreign Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina Igor Crnadak.
          (DF) Foreign Minister Starts Visit to Bosnia and Herzegovina        
August 3 (BTA) - Bulgarian Foreign Minister Ekaterina Zaharieva is visiting Bosnia and Herzegovina between Thursday and Friday, the Foreign Ministry's press office said.
          Ð¯ тебе кохаю        
Afrikaans - Ek is lief vir jou!
Albanian - Te dua!
Amharic - Afekrishalehou!
Arabic - Ohiboke (m to f), Nohiboka (f to m, or m to m)
Armenian - Yes kez si'rumem!
Azerbaijan - Mjan sjan sevirirjam
Basque - Maite zaitut!
Bengali - Ami tomake bahlobashi!
Bosnian - Volim te!
Bulgarian - Obicham te!
Catalan - T'estimo!
Creole - Mi aime jou!
Croatian - Volim te!
Czech - Miluji tev!
Danish - Jeg elsker dig!
Dutch - Ik hou van je!
English - I love you!
Esperanto - Mi amas vin!
Estonian - Mina armastan sind!
Farsi - Tora dost daram!
Filipino - Iniibig kita!
Finnish - (Ma) rakastan sua!
French - Je t'aime!
Frisian - Ik hald fan dei!
Galician - Querote!
German - Ich liebe dich!
Greek - S'ayapo!
Gujarati - Hoon tane pyar karoochhoon! tane chaahuN chhuN!
Hawaiian - Aloha wau ia 'oe!
Hebrew - Anee ohev otakh (m to f), Anee ohevet otkha (f to m), Anee ohev otkha (m to m), Anee ohevet otakh (f to f)
Hindi - Mai tumase pyar karata hun (m to f), Mai tumase pyar karati hun (f to m)
Hungarian - Szeretlek!
Icelandic - Eg elska thig!
Indonesian - Saya cinta padamu!
Irish - t'a gr'a agam dhuit!
Italian - Ti amo!
Japanese - Kimi o ai shiteru!
Korean - Dangsinul saranghee yo!
Latin - Te amo!
Latvian - Es tevi milu!
Lithuanian - As tave myliu!
Malaysian - Saya cintamu!
Mandarin - Wo ai ni!
Marshallese - Yokwe Yuk!
Norwegian - Jeg elsker deg!
Polish - Kocham ciebie!
Portuguese - Eu te amo!
Romanian - Te iubesc!
Russian - Ya tyebya lyublyu!
Sanskrit - twayi snihyaami
Serbian - Volim te!
Sesotho - Kiyahurata!
Slovak - Lubim ta!
Slovenian - Ljubim te!
Spanish - Te quiero!
Swahili - Nakupenda!
Swedish - Jag alskar dig!
Tagalog - Mahal kita!
Thai - Phom rug khun (Male speaker) Chan rug khun (Female speaker)
Turkish - Seni seviyorum!
Ukrainian - Ya tebe kokhayu!
Urdu - Main tumse muhabbat karta hoon!
Vietnamese - Anh yeu em (m to f), Em yeu an (f to m)
Welsh - Rwy'n dy garu di!
Yiddish - Kh'hob dikh lib!
Zulu - Ngiyakuthanda!




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           Power relations in the tourism workplace: Towards a better understanding of the female migrant experience         
Rydzik, Agnieszka (2013) Power relations in the tourism workplace: Towards a better understanding of the female migrant experience. In: V International Critical Tourism Studies Conference, 25-28 June 2013, Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herzegovina.
          Carnival of the Balkans #3!!        
Every time I try to compile the Balkan Carnival, blog.hr goes down! it happened again today, but they seemed to recover fairly quickly. Drax points out that technical reliability is not the service's only problem--they are also worried about acquiring a non-serious image, as blogs are not respected by mainstream media in the Balkans. But we respect one another (yes?), so here is another selection of this month's favorite items from Balkan blogs.

Yakima Gulag realized that it had become a Balkan blog, and explained to readers how and why. At Science and Politics, the variations on identity come together with a religious, political, and scientific reflection on how the heck our kids get so smart. It makes for an interesting reflection on identity and its pleasures and problems, and also at least by implication on ways in which Balkan identity can be chosen.

The issue of identity and its being chosen or rejected came up again in relation to the question of language. Filologanoga offered a linguistic-historical reflection on the new recodification of the Croatian language, contrasting concerns about uniqueness with enthusiasm for creativity and diversity. Meanwhile a completely different take on linguistic diversity is offered by 20-month old David Muir. The final word on the question of identity comes, as it should, from an advertisement by a sweets manufacturer.

Economic conditions remained challenging in the region, as Drax reports that they are threatening even establishments for gambling on sports matches. In Croatia, Seesaw reports that tourists are finding that Serbian agencies offer the best prices for coastal destinations in Croatia. However, there may be an incipient growth market for Bosnian snail farmers.

Not all of the economic and political improvements are moving at a snail's pace, though. Seesaw reports that >Romania and Bulgaria are expected to lead the Balkan charge into the EU. And Serbia-Montenegro was susrprised to get a favorable feasibility study which nobody seems to have got around to translating. The trifecta of developments led to a debate on whether Balkan neighbors are pleased by one anothers' success in dealing with accession to the EU.

While CNN continued a daily osvrt on the scandals of Croatian public life. On scandals elsewhere in the region, Morpheus informs us of the plan for war criminals to be captured by Pierce Brosnan. And East Ethnia followed war-criminal developments on other fronts.

It was a good month for Balkan musicians. The Bosnian supergroup Bijelo Dugme announced reunion plans, a fact which Bosny celebrated with a song translation. And "Crvena jabuka" is now 20 years old. Chuck Berry is older still, but the Partibrejkersi will open for him in Zagreb. In the folk-jazz department, electronic harmonikas Belinda Bedelkovic was featured in an interesting video. In the folk-crime department, Ceca tried to do a foreign tour but was denied visas by Canada and Australia.

The local and global competed in a pro-sljivovica poster provided by Novala, while spring was hailed by dandelion salad recipes from Yakima and from the eastern part of Ethnia. At Gulistan, there was food porn for lovers of squid.

Several Balkan blogs offered new features and changes. "The Glory of Carniola" tried a design change in the spirit of April 1, and then changed the page design anyway, from the touristy to the newspaperish. Kushtrim Xhakli put up a new interactive map of his regular destinations in Prishtine. And quiet for a while, Dvevnik ulice is back. The Burekeaters are also moving to a new home. We hope it will be large enough to hold the creation that breaks the record for the world's largest burek. In the news about bloggers, Mat Savelli is headed to grad school. And Teekay faces the technical and cultural shock of moving from Sarajevo to some distant place. Had he gone to Britain, he may have got some benefit from the advice that was found by URLanje.

A few new blogs made their appearance, including Hamburek and investigative journalism by Zeljko Peratovic. Let's keep seeing more as the blogosfera gets wider and more well rounded.
          Carnival of the Balkans #1: BALKAN ARTS AND MUSIC        
Welcome to the first Carnival of the Balkans! This project grew out of the realization that there are more good sites from Southeastern Europe every day, and that one nice way to follow their development and bring attention to them would be by offering an occasional showcase of some of the best, most interesting and most amusing writing going on. The first edition is on the theme of Balkan music and arts, broadly defined.

Our first edition is smaller than some of the more established blog carnivals, but larger than the average studio apartment. Posts were nominated either by submission or because the editors had seen something wonderful. With any luck, as the Balkan blog sphere grows and more people become aware of it, future carnivals will be bigger, louder, and more diverse.

The world of theatre and film was approached through nostalgia by Science and Politics with a remembrance of a great performance of Fiddler on the Roof at the National Theatre in Belgrade. Balkan-scissors shared with us the observations of stage and screen legend Eva Ras, who has published an autobiography. The Burekeaters let us in on the release of the new Macedonian film Bal Can-Can, while Drax set up a new site to be a repository for his film reviews.

In Balkan television, Burekeaters shared news of the exciting project to link Balkan cities with one another musically through MTV Adria, and let us in on the internet launch of the great Macedonian comedy group K-15. Drax continued to chronicle the spread of “reality TV” in the region, showing again how local patterns make their way into a global commercial form.

The world of music continued to oscillate between joyful nostalgia and willful forgetting. Drax chronicled the misfortunes of Nova TV in Croatia, which thought it could score a commercial coup by broadcasting an interview with turbo-folk diva and political lightning rod Ceca Raznatovic. The Burekeaters appreciated the music of Bojan Zulfikarpasic and the Kocani Orkestar. Balkan-scissors took a trip through earler Balkan rokenrol with a brief history of the New Primitives and of Zabranjeno Pusenje, and an appreciation of the archives of the old pop magazines Ritam and Dzuboks made available by the new pop magazine Popboks. The Glory of Carniola offered glorious and curious old Yugoslav album covers, introduced us to the interesting to look at Slovenian group Atomik Harmonik, and shared with us the worst-ever performance of the Ode to Joy. East Ethnia hoped for the Balkanization of America by noting that Edo Maajka was coming, so no sikiriki.

The basic Balkan source for literature and the visual arts remained quod scripsi, scripsi with its daily features on visual artists, writers, and places, much of it supplemented at the author's new multilingual blog. Visual enjoyment of places also continued to be enhanced by Novalas with their ongoing series of “Postcards from the Past.” Among the painters with notable web presences these past few weeks have been Aghim Muka and Bujar Asllani. The last month also marked the departure of Edo Murtic, noted by Quod. Meanwhile the fate of cultural institutions was observed by Ludost's continued chronicle of Bosnia's Zemaljski muzej.

Balkan cuisine travelled the world as the Burekeaters ate burek (what else?) in Palermo and East Ethnia brought the joy of sour cabbage to benighted and snowed-in western Massachusetts. Rijecanka taught the world to make krostule, and Seesaw offered us first a picture, then a recipe for bosanski lonac.

Some of the best Balkan humor was on the theme of political culture. The Centralni komitet showed the (d)evolution of political culture in Montenegro. Ludost invited addicts to join Ethnoholics anonymous, and the Burekeaters contributed the Glory of Croatia with a stadium wrapped in a necktie --Croat/cravat, you see.

The list of excellent Balkan blog productions also includes many that are not mentioned or linked here. Join in, submit your pieces to the Carnival of the Balkans – what is blogging for but to get the word out?
          News In Brief         

The US

The FBI arrested two men wanted in connection with the Oklahoma City bombing May 2 after raiding a motel in Missouri. Gary Allen Land and Robert Jacks were being held as material witnesses to the April 19 bombing. The FBI said it didn't yet know if Land was ''John Doe 2.'' James Nichols, charged with conspiring to make explosives with McVeigh, was to have a bond hearing the same day. Nichols and his brother Terry are also material witnesses. Search crews, meanwhile, prepared to use machinery to clear away rubble in the federal building. President Clinton urged Americans to denounce antigovernment zealots. Administration law-enforcement officials asked Congress to expand their powers to investigate potentially dangerous groups. (Story, Page 3.)

The White House, rejecting a challenge from House Speaker Gingrich, refused to propose a remedy for Medicare's fiscal woes until the Republicans put their own cards on the table. White House chief of staff Panetta said House Republicans have a responsibility to produce a budget that addresses Medicare's pending bankruptcy. The House Ways and Means Committee was to hear testimony from Health and Human Services Secretary Shalala May 2 regarding the crisis. (Story, Page 1.)

Sales of new homes rose 3 percent in March, reversing direction from February's 12.5 percent plunge, as mortgage rates continued to fall. The market was mixed, however, with sales rising by double-digit figures in the Midwest and West and falling by double-digit figures in the Northeast and South, the Commerce Department said.

The administration said it will allow thousands of Cuban refugees held at Guantanamo Bay to migrate to the US. Officials said the new policy would be announced May 2 as part of an agreement with Cuba. The administration said Cubans trying to reach the US by boats and rafts will be returned to Havana. (Opinion, Page 20.)

The Federal Election Commission said more money was raised and spent in last year's congressional races than ever before. Candidates raised $740.6 million and spent $724 million, breaking records set in both categories during the 1992 election cycle. Candidates raised 12 percent more in the 1994 cycle than they did in 1992 and spent 6 percent more, the FEC said.

The Senate was expected to vote May 2 on extending the proposed cap on punitive damages to health-care providers. The amendment would limit punitive damage awards in malpractice cases to three times the amount of economic damages or $250,000, whichever is greater.

Under a plan released by the Concord Coalition, a balanced-budget lobbying group, 4 out of every 10 Americans who get federal entitlements and earn more than $40,000 a year would have to make sacrifices to help balance the budget. The Concord Coalition said burgeoning federal health-care costs must be addressed or it will be impossible to keep the budget balanced after 2002. The report stopped short of calling for a radical overhaul of the health-care system.

Major League umpires and baseball owners agreed to a new five-year contract May 1, ending a 120-day management lockout. The umpires were due back on the diamond May 3, with raises of 25 percent to 37.5 percent.

A seventh juror in the O. J. Simpson double-murder trial was dismissed, leaving only five alternates. A 28-year-old Hispanic woman was chosen as a replacement. If the number of jurors drops below 12, both sides would have to agree to continue or a mistrial would be declared.

The World

Serb rockets hit the Croatian capital of Zagreb May 2, killing four and wounding up to 70 as Croatia erupted in the worst fighting in two years. Croatia bombed a Serb-held bridge that is the Croatian Serbs' last link to Bosnian Serbs. Croatian armed forces had stormed across a UN cease-fire line May 1, but May 2 the government said the offensive was over. Battlefronts also erupted across Bosnia after a truce expired May 1. (Story, Page 1.)

US trade representative Kantor and Japanese Trade Minister Hashimoto were to meet May 3 in Vancouver to try to break an impasse on sales of US autos and auto parts in Japan. The US, charging unfair practices, has leaked warnings of trade sanctions if talks fail again.

Gaullist Chirac, frontrunner in the French presidential vote May 7, pledged radical budget changes to create jobs and hinted at a higher minimum wage. Rightist Le Pen refused to endorse either Chirac or his opponent, Socialist Jospin. (Story, Page 6.)

Argentine President Menem is no longer assured of victory in a May 14 vote, polls show, since his rival, Frepaso candidate Bordon, could take enough votes to require a runoff. The office of Mexican President Zedillo denied a news report that Colombian drug funds made their way into Zedillo's campaign last year. Peruvian police said two American Maoists are wanted for a meeting they held last year with Shining Path guerrillas in Peru.

Chechen rebels stepped up attacks on Russian troops in Grozny just a week before world leaders arrive in Moscow to celebrate the 50th anniversary of World War II. President Yeltsin has tried to impose a unilateral Russian cease-fire in the war, which is broadly condemned by world opinion.

Leaders of South Asia's seven nations began a conference in New Delhi aimed at building greater economic cooperation and launching a trade bloc. Lowering of tariffs could begin in December. Pakistani Prime Minister Bhutto stayed away because of strained relations with India, but Pakistani President Leghari was to meet with Indian Premier Rao over the dispute in Kashmir.

South Korea welcomed North Korea's decision to restart talks with the US on a major nuclear accord, in which the US wants North Korea to accept South-Korean-made nuclear reactors.

A new Israeli Army plan calls for pulling troops from six Palestinian towns in the West Bank over a 14-month period starting in November, an Israeli daily reported. An Israeli official confirmed the plan but said there is no timetable. The PLO asked the UN to stop planned Israeli land confiscations in East Jerusalem. (Story, Page 7.)

France rejected the unilateral US trade embargo on Iran announced by President Clinton May 1, but Israel welcomed it. Japan, at US urging, cancelled a loan package to Iran. Japan is the only major source of credit to Iran. The US accuses Iran of pursing nuclear weapons and of backing terrorism.

Hundreds of people marched through Kigali, Rwanda, shouting ''UN go home'' and accusing the world of unfairly pointing at Rwanda's Tutsi government for a mass killing at a refugee camp April 22, at which at least 2,000 died. Placards accused UN Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali of ignoring last year's genocide of the nation's Tutsi minority. (Story, Page 7.)

At least 103 journalists were killed in 1994, Paris-based Reporters Without Borders said. Only 50 of the UN's 185 member nations respect freedom of the press, the media-rights group charged.

Etcetera

China began a new 40-hour work week May 2 as millions of workers returned to their jobs after the May Day holiday. Many cheered the new law, which gives them Saturdays off. In the city of Yiwu, meanwhile, more than 1,500 children under 16 reportedly continue to work illegally. A labor law that took effect Jan. 1 bans employment of children under 16.

Britain's Prince Charles joined Hamburg officials to mark the 50th anniversary of the surrender of that German city. Hamburg is often called the most British of German cities. It was also one of the places most ravaged by British bombers. Hamburg surrendered on May 3, 1945 -- early -- rather than face more bombing.

New York City remains among the worst places in the US for mail delivery. The latest quarterly survey by the US Postal Service shows that first-class mail is being delivered on time 76 percent of the time in Manhattan -- up from 52 percent a year ago. Of 96 US postal regions surveyed, service was worse only in Washington, D.C., the Virgin Islands, and San Juan.

Another burning issue is on its way to Texas' governor. A resolution declaring the jalapeno the official state pepper passed the Senate. The House has given its approval, and Gov. George W. Bush reportedly plans to sign the measure.

Top-Grossing Films In the US, April 28-30

(Preliminary figures)

1. ''While You Were Sleeping,'' $10.2 million

2. ''Friday,'' $6.8 million

3. ''Bad Boys,'' $4.4 million

4. ''Rob Roy,'' $3.3 million

5. ''Village of the Damned,'' $3.05 million

6. ''Kiss of Death,'' $2.9 million

7. ''A Goofy Movie,'' $2.8 million

8. ''Top Dog,'' $2.1 million

9. ''Don Juan DeMarco,'' $1.7 million

10. ''Jury Duty,'' $1.4 million

Associated Press

''Now you know how easy it is to make something big little, something little big, something straight twisted, something good look wrong.''

President Clinton on criticism over Henry Foster's nomination for surgeon general

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          Libertarian position on the EU Referendum        
On 23rd June, the UK will vote on whether to remain in or leave the EU.  I'm voting to leave the EU, and believe that, on balance, those who believe in individual liberty including free trade should strongly support leaving the EU.

Bizarrely, Prime Minister David Cameron, having campaigned for a referendum, is now claiming that a vote for the UK to leave would trigger recession, economic catastrophe and even risk future war.  He’s been asked why he bothered putting the UK through such a risk, particularly since only months ago he said the UK would “do ok”.    Now both the Tory Government, most of the Labour Party and virtually all Liberal Democrats, Scottish and Welsh Nationalists and the Greens are all campaigning to remain in the EU, whereas the campaign to leave is led by Boris Johnson,  Michael Gove, nearly half of Conservative MPs, a handful of Labour MPs and UKIP.

The two main planks of the Remain camp are first that leaving the EU Single Market would damage the economy, and they cite many economists, the IMF, World Bank and OECD who all support this, along with some major business leaders and companies.  The second claim is that leaving the EU “lessens Britain” and isolates it, and means the UK loses influence. 

The Leave campaign has a few key messages.  One is that it will save £350m a week from not contributing to the EU (although that excludes receipts from EU programmes to the UK and Thatcher’s rebate, which could be removed at any time).  Secondly, is that leaving the EU will return sovereignty to the British Government, rather than the EU, which passes laws, even if all British MEPs oppose them, imposing them on the UK.  Thirdly, is concern that immigration cannot be effectively controlled whilst there is free movement and full rights for all EU citizens to reside in the UK.

For a libertarian, the EU referendum does mean a trade off.   Indeed, the only two elements of the EU that are pro-freedom are the single market and free movement of people.

EU Membership does provide a single market of over 550 million people, for goods if not for services.  However, it is a customs union that is highly protectionist, and has for decades been one of the biggest objectors to global free trade in agriculture and in many services at the WTO, particularly because France is consistently resistant to trade liberalisation.   Much is made of the EU signing “trade deals” with other countries, but it rarely includes services and never includes agriculture.   Nick Clegg likes to describe the many years and reams of paper needed for the EU to reach trade agreements with the likes of Canada, as if this is the norm (and a burden the UK would have to bear with other countries if outside the EU).  Yet this is quite unnecessary.  New Zealand and Australia agreed on free trade (CER) in less than four years, with a relatively simple agreement.  The only reason free trade agreements become complex is when one of the parties wants exemptions – not actually wanting free trade. 

The second libertarian element of the EU is the free movement of people.  The ability to cross borders virtually unimpeded is of significant value, but it is unconditional.  No EU Member states have the ability to shut out other EU citizens if they have been convicted of any serious offences.   I am not from the camp that believes that free movement within the EU is inherently bad, but I do believe countries should be able to exclude foreign nationals who are proven violent criminals.  The UK's immigration problems are in part, its own fault.  Its health system is the world's biggest civilian bureaucracy that makes feeble attempts to restrict non-national usage and asks nothing of users in terms of financial contributions.  Anyone with legal residency in the UK has access to the welfare state (including generous tax credits for low income workers and child benefits), to taxpayer funded education for their children and access to publicly subsidised housing (indeed there is a "legal right" to housing in the UK, paid for by others).   

In short, the UK has a welfare state edifice that is attractive to migrants with low skills, especially coming from much poorer countries with inferior health, education and housing provision.   If it wants to reduce immigration, it ought to look in the mirror.

Furthermore, as journalist Rod Liddle said at a Spectator hosted event on June 13th, eastern Europeans don't pose an existential threat to western civilisation or to the values of individual freedom that give cause to be concerned about Islamism.  As much as some are concerned about Polish migration to Britain, they integrate, they embrace the values of a developed Western liberal democracy, they set up businesses, they are not demanding media not offend them with threats of violence. Notwithstanding the distortions caused by the UK's wider welfare state, I am not concerned about migration from eastern European, as long as prudent measures are made to exclude convicted violent criminals.

However, the freedom of movement and freedom of trade within the single market do not, for me, outweigh what's wrong with the EU:

- It is a massive exercise in regulation and legal control on almost all areas of the economy.  The EU has over 10,000 Directives on anything from standards for fruit and vegetables, to blowtorches, to light bulbs, to employment.  It is a huge corporatist system that imposes major compliance costs on businesses, restricting new entry and restraining innovation.  Most explicitly, the EU has prohibited the use of genetically modified organisms in agriculture, ensuring that research and development of GM technology outside laboratories is based in the US and Asia, not Europe.

- Its budget is dominated by the protectionist racket known as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).  The CAP inflates the price of food for Europeans by heavily restricting imports from more efficient producers from many countries, including New Zealand, and subsidises overproduction in Europe which is then exported undermining market prices in other countries including poor producers in developing countries.  The CAP impoverishes farmers in poor countries, whilst the EU engages in pious virtue signalling about how much it cares about inequality.  The CAP itself isn't even equal in Europe, as it would have gone bankrupt had eastern European producers been subsidised at the same rates as those in western Europe, so perversely farmers in the EU's poorest countries (e.g. Bulgaria) receive subsidies one-third lower than those in its richest countries (e.g. Luxembourg).

- The EU takes £10 billion a year of British taxpayers' money more than it returns (and most of what it returns is to prop up farmers, to fund research projects or pious regional development projects).  That is money currently borrowed from future taxpayers.  It should end to help balance the budget.  The ludicrous idea that this is the "price for accessing the single market" is absurd.  Free trade does not need to be accompanied by massive subsidy schemes for small parts of the EU economy or politically motivated infrastructure, research or vanity projects (such as Galileo - the EU's complete duplication of the US GPS system, under the nonsensical basis that the US might "shut it down one day").  Furthermore, the majority of EU Member States are not net contributors, and until the past three years neither was France (primarily because it takes so much back in subsidies to prop up its 19th century farming sector).

- The EU is fundamentally authoritarian in instinct, having contempt for the democratically expressed choices of EU Member State voters (the EU President recently said that certain political parties would "not be allowed" to have power if they won elections in EU Member States, such as the Freedom Party in Austria).  The EU's utter failure to provide any discipline on spending in some Euro-member states and contempt for popular revolt at the resulting economic collapse reflects its distance from the concerns of Europeans.  Notably, it has taken few steps to address Hungary's creeping authoritarianism as its government subverts much of its media to support its own propaganda.

- Members of the European Parliament have no powers at all to introduce new legislation including legislation to abolish existing Directives.  Only the European Council can introduce draft legislation into the European Parliament, and the Council is comprised of people appointed by Member State Governments.  The closest the EU gets to accountability is that MEPs can vote to oppose the passage of draft directives, but none can propose their own new legislation.

- The European Commission budget has been found to be materially in error every year for the past 18 years, most recently by 3.9%, or around €5 billion.  This is in part because of the complexities of its spending programs there is considerable scope for fraud and mistake.  Never mind, the EU just keeps asking for more money.

- The EU never cuts its budget, ever.  Every year it asks for more and more, it never ceases to undertake any functions, it never seeks to hand back powers to Member States.  It grows inexorably.  Ten years ago it didn't have a common Foreign Policy, it is now discussing haviuniong an EU Army.  Bear in mind this growth continues in spite of it telling the likes of Greece and Spain that they need to cut spending to balance their budgets.

- The EU falsely claims it is responsible for peace in Europe amongst its Member States, ignoring not only the role of NATO in deterring war with the Soviet Union, but also the more fundamental principle that liberal democracies don't go to war with each other.  The EU got in the way of addressing the war in the Balkans in the 1990s as it opposed letting the Bosnian Muslims arm themselves to respond to the Serbian ultra-nationalist genocide being led by Radovan Karadzic, it has been divided over Ukraine.

- The EU attracts mediocre political appointees to have considerable power over us all.  The UK supplied the second Foreign Minister, Catherine Ashton, a Labour Party member, unionist and former peer (i.e. never elected) who had no foreign policy background.  Failed UK Labour Leader Neil Kinnock built a long career for himself and his family in the EU.  

- The EU has attacked free speech by requiring Google to remove content from searches that EU citizens specifically request as being the "right to be forgotten" .  More recently it has sought to have a common approach to "hate speech", including a call to restrict "disrespectful public discourse".  Fuck off you arseholes.

- The EU project's ultimate end game is a European superstate with power over taxation, national budgets and a massive programme to "harmonise" the regulation of all industries and sectors as one.  This superstate will not be interested in reducing what it does, granting more freedoms to its citizens and reducing its burden on taxpayers, rather the contrary.

Supporters of the Vote Leave campaign have produced this movie below, which is being freely distributed.




I have already cast my postal vote to leave and no, I don't take the views of President Obama, John Key, the IMF, World Bank,  UN Secretary General or others into account.  I don't expect any government or any international organisation to risk their own trade and relationships with the world's largest economy (the EU) by supporting the UK leaving.   Most bizarrely, it is odd that President Obama would ask the UK to stay in a political union that the US itself would never bind itself to even if it could, given the US itself refuses to sign up to many international treaties because it doesn't want its sovereignty restrained.

However, let's be very clear what leaving the UK does not mean:

The campaign to leave the EU is not led by those who want the UK to be isolated and protectionist: Unlike the opposition to the UK's original EEC Membership in 1975, those who lead the campaign to leave the EU now are not primarily socialists who feel threatened by foreign competition.  They are advocates of free and open trade with the rest of the world.   They are dominated by concerns that UK's national sovereignty is eroded by the EU and that the EU is wasteful, sclerotic, inefficient and dismissive of individual freedoms and people's concerns about it.

Leaving the EU is not "ending co-operation": Over 160 countries in the world co-operate on a vast number of matters.   Switzerland, Norway and Iceland are not in the EU, all trade freely with it and work with it and each other and other states, without being tied to the EU project.

Leaving the EU is not racist:  By illiberal-leftwing standards, the EU itself may be deemed racist with its trade policy that harnesses protectionism and European taxpayers' money to harm producers in developing countries.  Those advocating for Brexit want an immigration policy that does not favour EU citizens from non-EU citizens, which would appear to be anything but racist.

Leaving the EU is not "leaving" or "turning our back on Europe":  The EU is not Europe, it is a political-customs union project.  The UK has been at the heart of advocating values of freedom, civil liberties, liberal democracy, rule of law and separation of powers in Europe for much longer than any other countries in Europe.  It is understandable why some countries with recent totalitarian pasts would see the EU as a project that may enable them to move on from unspeakable horrors and oppression, but the UK does not have such a path.  UK outside the EU would trade, travel and work closely with European countries, with continued migration and investment, it simply wouldn't be shackled to how the EU wants Europeans to interact.

Leaving the EU is not seeking a return to a "golden age": Far from it, it is seeking to regain full sovereignty over UK laws to create a more dynamic, outward looking Britain that isn't dependent on the EU for freer trade with the rest of the world.  No one harks back to Empire, some say Brexit will enable trading relationship with the Commonwealth to be revitalised, but few see a future of self-sufficiency and exclusion.

So I have voted to Leave.  I know if it happens, the pound will drop, the FTSE100 will drop and there will be panic.  I also know that there are strong calls for Brexit to mean a significant toughening of immigration policy, which I largely oppose.  I also know there is chance the UK will be blocked from the single market for some time, as the EU and major EU Member States seek to punish the UK for leaving, rather than look at themselves as to why that might be.

However, I am also hopeful and optimistic that the world's 5th largest economy can be more outward looking, can liberalise its economy, can reprioritise its net contribution to the EU by cutting its budget deficit and replacing the subsidy programmes it receives now and phase them out.  I am hopeful that the UK can show the EU that it should be more dynamic, open and prosperous, stimulating the sort of reforms EU Member States desperately need.  I am also hopeful that the charlatan, the PR spin doctor Prime Minister, David Cameron, can finally retire, and the UK can have a government that doesn't look like the Labour Party stayed in power after 2010.

          Mountains of men in the Dinaric Alps-a study worthy of work in several more regions.        
The Dutch, the Bosnians, the Scots, the Poles? Which army of men provided the tallest soldiers in those monotonous bloody battles? That fraught argument provided the grist in the past for discussion and possibly wars, but the genetics (and the food) has improved our knowledge. We now understand a little of what our Neolithic cultures have given us through migrations and the haplotypes that people carried with them.
          Misconceptions about Islam        
Misconception #1: Muslims worship a different God

First of all, there is only One God who created the Universe and all of mankind. Throughout history, people have created false gods in their minds and come up with false ideas about Almighty God, but regardless of this there is still only One True God - and He alone is worthy of worship. Unfortunately, some non-Muslims have come to incorrectly believe that Muslims worship a different God than Jews and Christians. This might be due to the fact that Muslims sometimes refer to God as "Allah", but also because over the centuries there have been many lies and distortions spread by the enemies of Islam. In actuality, Muslims worship the God of Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus --- the same God as Christians and Jews. The word "Allah" is simply the Arabic word for Almighty God and it is the same word that Arabic speaking Christians and Jews use to refer to God. If you pick up an Arabic translation of the Christian Bible, you will see the word "Allah" where "God" is used in English. For more information on the word "Allah", please read: Who is Allah? But even though Muslims, Jews and Christians believe in the same God, their concepts about Him differ quite a bit. For example, Muslims reject the idea of the Trinity or that God has become "incarnate" in the world. Also, the teachings of Islam do not rely on or appeal to "mystery" or "paradox" --- they are straightforward and clear. Islam teaches that God is Merciful, Loving and Compassionate and that He has no need to become man (nor do humans need for Him to). One of the unique aspects of Islam is that it teaches that man can have a personal and fulfilling relationship with Almighty God without compromising the transcendence of God. In Islam there is no ambiguity in Divinity --- God is God and man is man. Muslims believe that God is the "Most Merciful", and that he deals directly with human-beings without the need of any intermediary. Actually, the phrase "In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful" is one of the most repeated verses in the Holy Qur'an. Additionally, the pure and straightforward teachings of Islam demand that Almighty God be approached directly and without intermediaries. This is because Muslims believe that God is completely in control of everything and that He can bestow His Grace and Mercy on His creatures as He pleases - no Atonement, Incarnation or blood sacrifice is necessary. In summary, Islam calls people to submit to the One True God and to worship Him alone.

Misconception #2: Muslims worship Muhammad

According to Islamic belief, the Prophet Muhammad was the last Messenger of God. He, like all of God's prophets and messengers - such as Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus -- was only a human being. Christians came to the mistaken assumption that Muslims worship Muhammad by formulating an incorrect analogy - they worship Jesus so they assumed Muslims worship Muhammad. This is one of the reasons that they called Muslims by the incorrect name "Mohammedans" for so many years! Muhammad, like Jesus, never claimed divine status. He called people to worship only Almighty God, and he continually emphasized his humanity so that people would not fall into the same errors as Christians did in regards to Jesus. In order to prevent his deification, the Prophet Muhammad always said to refer to him as "the Messenger of God and His slave". Muhammad was chosen to be God's final messenger --- to communicate the message not only in words but to be a living example of the message. Muslims love and respect him because he was of the highest moral character and he brought the Truth from God - which is the Pure Monotheism of Islam. Even when Islam was in its very early stages, God revealed that Muhammad "was sent as a mercy to all of mankind" - thus informing us that the message of Islam would become very widespread. Muslims strive to follow the great example of Muhammad, peace be upon him, but they do not worship him in any way. Additionally, Islam teaches Muslims to respect all of God's prophets and messengers - but respecting and loving them does not mean worshipping them. All true Muslims realize that all worship and prayer must be directed to Almighty God alone. Suffice it to say that worshipping Muhammad --- or anyone else --- along with Almighty God is considered to be the worst sin in Islam. Even if a person claims to be Muslim, but they worship and pray to other than Almighty God, this cancels and nullifies their Islam. The Declaration of Faith of Islam makes it clear that Muslims are taught only to worship God. This declaration is as follows: "There is nothing divine or worthy of being worshipped except for Almighty God, and Muhammad is the Messenger and Servant of God".

Misconception #3: Islam is a religion only for Arabs

The fastest way to prove that this is completely false is to state the fact that only about 15% to 20% of the Muslims in the world are Arabs. There are more Indian Muslims than Arab Muslims, and more Indonesian Muslims than Indian Muslims! Believing that Islam is only a religion for Arabs is a myth that was spread by the enemies of Islam early in its history. This mistaken assumption is possibly based on the fact that most of the first generation of Muslims were Arabs, the Qur'an is in Arabic and the Prophet Muhammad was an Arab. However, both the teachings of Islam and the history of its spread show that the early Muslims made every effort to spread their message of Truth to all nations, races and peoples. Furthermore, it should be clarified that not all Arabs are Muslims and not all Muslims are Arabs. An Arab can be a Muslim, Christian, Jew, atheist - or of any other religion or ideology. Also, many countries that some people consider to be "Arab" are not "Arab" at all -- such as Turkey and Iran (Persia). The people who live in these countries speak languages other than Arabic as their native tongues and are of a different ethnic heritage than the Arabs. It is important to realize that from the very beginning of the mission of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, his followers came from a wide spectrum of individuals -- there was Bilal, the African slave; Suhaib, the Byzantine Roman; Ibn Salam, the Jewish Rabbi; and Salman, the Persian. Since religious truth is eternal and unchanging, and mankind is one universal brotherhood, Islam teaches that Almighty God's revelations to mankind have always been consistent, clear and universal. The Truth of Islam is meant for all people regardless of race, nationality or linguistic background. Taking a look at the Muslim World, from Nigeria to Bosnia and from Malaysia to Afghanistan is enough to prove that Islam is a Universal message for all of mankind --- not to mention the fact that significant numbers of Europeans and Americans of all races and ethnic backgrounds are coming into Islam.


Misconception #4: Islam degrades women

Even though many aspects of Islam are misunderstood by non-Muslims, the ignorance, misinformation and incorrect assumptions that are made in regards to Islam's treatment of women are probably the most severe. Numerous verses of the Qur'an make it clear that men and women are equal in the site of God. According to the teachings of Islam, the only thing that distinguishes people in the site of God is their level of God-consciousness. Due to this, many people are surprised to find out that Islamic Law guaranteed rights to women over 1400 years ago that women in the Europe and America only obtained recently. For example, Islam clearly teaches that a woman is a full-person under the law, and is the spiritual equal of a male. Also, according to Islamic Law, women have the right to own property, operate a business and receive equal pay for equal work. Women are allowed total control of their wealth, they cannot be married against their will and they are allowed to keep their own name when married. Additionally, they have the right to inherit property and to have their marriage dissolved in the case of neglect or mistreatment. Also, Islam does not consider woman an "evil temptress", and thus does not blame woman for the "original sin". Women in Islam participate in all forms of worship that men participate in. Actually, the rights that Islam gave to women over 1400 years ago were almost unheard of in the West until the 1900s. Less than fifty years ago in England and America, a woman could not buy a house or car without the co-signature of her father or husband! Additionally, Islam gives great respect to women and their role in society --- it gives them the right to own property, marry who they want and many other rights. Also, it should be mentioned that the Prophet Muhammad's mission stopped many of the horrible practices in regards to women that were present in the society of his time. For example, the Qur'an put an end to the pagan Arab practice of killing their baby daughters when they were born. Additionally, Islam put restrictions on the unrestricted polygamy of the Arabs of the time, and put many laws in place to protect the well-being of women. Today, most of the so-called reforms in the status of women came about after the West abandoned religion for secularism. Even those in the West who claim to follow the so-called "Judeo-Christian tradition" really follow the values of Western liberalism --- but just to a lesser degree than their more liberal countrymen. For more on this subject, please read: Women in Islam versus Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition --- The Myth and The Reality. If women in the Muslim World today don't have their rights, it is not because Islam did not give them to them. The problem is that in many places alien traditions have come to overshadow the teachings of Islam, either through ignorance or the impact of Colonialization.


Misconception #5: Muhammad wrote the Qur'an

In addressing this misconception, it is interesting to not that no other religious scripture claims to the direct word of Almighty in toto as clear and as often as the Holy Qur'an. As the Qur'an clearly says: "if had been written by man, you would have found many discrepancies therein". At the time the Qur'an was revealed, the Arabs recognized that the language of the Qur'an was unique and that it was distinctly different from the language normally used by the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. The Arabs of that time, by the way, were known for their beautiful poetry and Muhammad was known to be an illiterate man! The Qur'an clearly says that Muhammad was unable to read and write, so if this wasn't true, certainly his contemporaries would have protested and rejected him. However, there are no reports of this. Certainly there were people who rejected Muhammad's message, just like other prophets were rejected, but none for this reason. On the contrary, Muhammad, peace be upon him, had thousands of loyal followers and the results of their efforts spread Islam from Spain to China in just over a century! It is also interesting to note that even though the Qur'an is not poetry, the Arabs more or less gave up writing poetry after it was revealed. It could be said that the Qur'an is the piece of Arabic literature par excellence - and Muhammad's contemporaries realized that they couldn't out do it. Additionally, it is easy to prove that Muhammad did not possess a great deal of the knowledge which is expounded in the Qur'an: such as knowledge of historical events, previous prophets and natural phenomenon. The Qur'an says in several places that Muhammad and his people did not know these things - so, again, if this wasn't true, certainly his contemporaries would have rejected his claims. Suffice it to say that not only is the Qur'an the most memorized and well preserved scripture on earth, it is also unequaled in eloquence, spiritual impact, clarity of message and the purity of its truth.


Misconception #6: Islam was spread by the sword

Many non-Muslims, when they think about Islam, picture religious fanatics on camels with a sword in one hand and a Qur'an in the other. This myth, which was made popular in Europe during the Crusades, is totally baseless. First of all, the Holy Qur'an clearly says "Let there be no compulsion in religion". In addition to this, Islam teaches that a person's faith must be pure and sincere, so it is certainly not something that can be forced on someone. In debunking the myth that Islam was "spread by the sword", the (non-Muslim) historian De Lacy O' Leary wrote: "History makes it clear, however, that the legend of fanatical Muslims sweeping through the world and forcing Islam at the point of the sword upon conquered races is one of the most fantastically absurd myths that historians have ever accepted." (Islam at the Crossroads, London, 1923, p. 8.). It should also be known that Muslims ruled Spain for roughly 800 years. During this time, and up to when they were finally forced out, the non-Muslims there were alive and flourishing. Additionally, Christian and Jewish minorities have survived in the Muslim lands of the Middle East for centuries. Countries such as Egypt, Morocco, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan all have Christian and/or Jewish populations. If Islam taught that all people are supposed to be killed or forced to become Muslims, how did all of these non-Muslims survive for so long in the middle of the Islamic Empire? Additionally, if one considers the small number of Muslims who initially spread Islam from Spain and Morocco in the West to India and China in the East, one would realize that they were far too few to force people to be members of a religion against their will. Additionally, the great empire and civilization established by the Muslims had great staying power -- its citizens were proud to be part of it. The spread of Islam stands in contrast to the actions of the followers of Christianity, who since the time of the Emperor Constantine have made liberal use of the sword - often basing their conduct on Biblical verses. This was especially true of the colonization of South America and Africa, where native peoples were systematically wiped-out or forced to convert. It is also interesting to note that when the Mongols invaded and conquered large portions of the Islamic Empire, instead of destroying the religion, they adopted it. This is a unique occurrence in history - the conquerors adopting the religion of the conquered! Since they were the victors, they certainly could not have been forced to become Muslims! Ask any of the over one billion Muslims alive in the world today whether they were forced! The largest Muslim country in the world today is Indonesia --- and there were never any battles fought there! So where was the sword? How could someone be forced to adhere to a spiritually rewarding and demanding religion like Islam?


Misconception #7: Muslims hate Jesus

Many non-Muslims are surprised to find out that according to Muslim belief, Jesus, the son of Mary, is one of the greatest messengers of God. Muslims are taught to love Jesus, and a person cannot be a Muslim without believing in the virgin birth and miracles of Jesus Christ, peace be upon him. Muslims believe these things about Jesus not because of the Bible or any other religion, but simply because the Holy Qur'an says these things about him. However, Muslims always emphasize that the miracles of Jesus, and all other prophets, were by "God's permission". This having been said, many Christians feel to not believe that Jesus is the "Son of God", "God Incarnate" or the "Second Person" of the Trinity. This is because the Qur'an clearly says that Almighty God does not have a "Son" --- neither allegorically, physically, metaphorically or metaphysically. The Pure Monotheism of Islam rejects the notion of "defining" God (which is basically what the "Doctrine of the Trinity" does), saying that someone is "like" God or equal to him, or praying to someone else besides God. Also, Islam teaches that titles such as "Lord" and "Savior" are due to God alone. In order to avoid misunderstanding, it should be clarified that when Muslims criticize the Bible or the teachings of Christianity, they are not attacking "God's Word" or Jesus Christ, peace be upon him. From the Muslim point of view, they are defending Jesus and God's Word --- which they have in the form of the Qur'an. Muslim criticism is targeted at writings that some people claim are God's word, but Muslim's simply don't accept their claim that they are really God's word in toto. Additionally, Christian doctrines such as the Trinity and the Atonement are criticized by Muslims precisely because they did not originate from Jesus, peace be upon him. In this way, Muslims are the true followers of Jesus, peace be upon him, because they defend him from the exaggerations of the Christians and teach the Pure Monotheism that Jesus himself followed.


Misconception #8: Islam is fatalistic

Most Muslims find it rather odd that their religion, which strikes a beautiful balance between faith and action, could be accused of being "fatalistic". Perhaps this misconception came about because Muslims are taught to say "Praise be to God!" whenever anything good or bad happens. This is because Muslims know that everything comes from Almighty God, who is the All-Knowing Sustainer of the Universe, and that since a Muslim should rely completely on God, whatever happened must have been for the better. However, this does not mean that Muslims are not taught to take action in life --- just the opposite is true. Islam requires not only faith, but action --- such as regular prayer, fasting and charity. To be more precise, in Islam actions are part of one's faith. Islam total rejects the extreme beliefs of some religions that teach that you shouldn't go to a doctor when sick, but only pray for God to heal you. Islam's outlook is very positive, since it teaches that human beings can take positive action in this life. This was certainly what was taught by Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, to his followers --- since they obviously took the action of spreading Islam from Spain to Morocco in a very short period of time. Even though Islam teaches that God knows what human beings will do before they do it, human beings still have free will. Certainly God, who is All-Knowing and All-Wise, knows what is going to happen to everyone before it happens -- to deny this would be a denial of God Himself. However, if human-beings did not have free will, it would be ridiculous and un-just for God to demand that they do certain things and believe certain things. Far from being "fatalistic", Islam teaches that a human-being's main purpose in life is to be God-conscious. Due to this, Muslims worry less about material matters and view their earthly life in a proper perspective. This is due to the fact that Islam clearly teaches that if people worship and depend on Almighty God alone, then they have nothing to worry about - since God wants what is best for them. True freedom, from the Islamic perspective, does not mean aimlessly following all of your human desires for food, drink, wealth and sex. On the contrary, freedom means being able to control one's base desires and fulfilling them in a proper and legal way. This brings one's desires in tune with what God wants for us --- only then is a person truly free!


Misconception #9: The Islamic Threat

In recent years, a great deal of attention in the media have been given to the threat of "Islamic Fundamentalism". Unfortunately, due to a twisted mixture of biased reporting in the Western media and the actions of some ignorant Muslims, the word "Islam" has become almost synonymous with "terrorism". However, when one analyzes the situation, the question that should come to mind is: Do the teachings of Islam encourage terrorism? The answer: Certainly not! Islam totally forbids the terrorist acts that are carried out by some misguided people. It should be remembered that all religions have cults and misguided followers, so it is their teachings that should be looked at, not the actions of a few individuals. Unfortunately, in the media, whenever a Muslim commits a heinous act, he is labeled a "Muslim terrorist". However, when Serbs murder and rape innocent women in Bosnia, they are not called "Christian terrorists", nor are the activities in Northern Ireland labeled "Christian terrorism". Also, when right-wing Christians in the U. S. bomb abortion clinics, they are not called "Christian terrorists". Reflecting on these facts, one could certainly conclude that there is a double-standard in the media! Although religious feelings play a significant role in the previously mentioned "Christian" conflicts, the media does not apply religious labels because they assume that such barbarous acts have nothing to do with the teachings of Christianity. However, when something happens involving a Muslim, they often try to put the blame on Islam itself -- and not the misguided individual. Certainly, Islamic Law allows war --- any religion or civilization that did not would never survive --- but it certainly does not condone attacks against innocent people, women or children. The Arabic word "jihad", which is often translated as "Holy War", simply means "to struggle". The word for "war" in Arabic is "harb", not "jihad". "Struggling", i.e. "making jihad", to defend Islam, Muslims or to liberate a land where Muslims are oppressed is certainly allowed (and even encouraged) in Islam. However, any such activities must be done according to the teachings of Islam. Islam also clearly forbids "taking the law into your own hands", which means that individual Muslims cannot go around deciding who they want to kill, punish or torture. Trial and punishment must be carried out by a lawful authority and a knowledgeable judge. Also, when looking at events in the Muslim World, it should be kept in mind that a long period of colonialism ended fairly recently in most Muslim countries. During this time, the peoples in this countries were culturally, materially and religiously exploited - mostly by the so-called "Christian" nations of the West. This painful period has not really come to an end in many Muslim countries, where people are still under the control of foreign powers or puppet regimes supported by foreign powers. Also, through the media, people in the West are made to believe that tyrants like Saddam Hussein in Iraq and Moamar Qaddafi in Libya are "Islamic" leaders -- when just the opposite is true. Neither of these rulers even profess Islam as an ideology, but only use Islamic slogans to manipulate their powerless populations. They have about as much to do with Islam as Hitler had to do with Christianity! In reality, many Middle Eastern regimes which people think of as being "Islamic" oppress the practice of Islam in their countries. So suffice it to say that "terrorism" and killing innocent people directly contradicts the teachings of Islam.
          Roma International Scholarship Program (RISP), 2014-2015        

This scholarship has been extracted from the BEST SCHOLARSHIP WEB: Scholarships 2017 - 2017 =)

Roma Education Fund is inviting application for international scholarship program for pursuing bachelor, master, doctoral or postdoctoral program at a state accredited university in other than applicant’s home country. The Program is designed to provide partial support to Roma students who are citizens of one of the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Turkey and Ukraine. REF can support under RISP scholarship scheme the same applicant throughout his/her studies for maximum 5 years.. Roma Education Fund’s Scholarship Program (REF SP) announces the opening of its yearly scholarship cycle of the Roma International Scholar

All the complete information in Roma International Scholarship Program (RISP), 2014-2015 !


          Menulis Ayat Al-Qur'an di MS Word        
Apabila Anda ingin membuat artikel dengan Microsoft Word yang memuat ayat-ayat Al-Quran, maka Anda bisa menginstal sebuah aplikasi add on yang bernama Al-Quran In Word. Add on buatan Indonesia ini dapat terintegrasi dengan baik dalam Microsoft Word versi 2000 keatas, sehingga dapat memudahkan pekerjaan Anda.

Untuk mendownload silahkan kunjungi website Al-Quran In Word yaitu



Atau bisa mendownload langsung dari link dibawah ini:

Ada juga terjemahan bahasa lain:

File Terjemahan saja (extract file ke direktori dimana menginstal Quran in Word misalnya c:\Program Files\quran_in_word\)

Cara penggunaan:

Quran in word
  1. Setelah selesai diinstal, jalankan Microsoft Word.
  2. Akan ada menu baru yaitu “Al-Quran” di deret menu paling kanan (sebelah help – gambar 1).
  3. Klik menu Al-Quran tersebut, maka akan ada pilihan:
    • Get Arabic+Translation : Apabila menginginkan tulisan Arab dan terjemahan
    • Get Arabic: Hanya Arabnya saja
    • Get Translation: Hanya terjemahan saja
    • Automatic Replace eg [QS2:1-2A] : Mengaktifkan sistem pengganti otomatis. Cara detilnya ada dibagian lain tulisan ini.
  4. Pilih salah satu, setelah diklik maka akan muncul kotak dialog “Choose Surah & Ayah” (Gambar 2)
    • Surat: Pilihan surat yang dikehendaki
    • Ayat: Ayat yang dikehendaki, apabila hanya sebuah ayat saja maka ditulis misalnya 2 s/d 2.
    • Font Size: Ukuran huruf
    • Unicode: mengatur mengenai fontnya, tapi lebih bagus jika tidak usah dicentang
    • New line: apabila dicentang maka setiap ganti ayat akan dimulai dari baris baru. Apabila tidak dicentang maka akan akan diteruskan dalam baris tersebut
    • Switch: apabila dicentang maka terjemahan akan ada dibawah masing-masing ayat. apabila tidak dicentang terjemahan semua ayat akan menjadi 1 kelompok
    • Translation: Terjemahan Al-Quran, pilih Indonesia
  5. Pilih sesuai keinginan Anda kemudian klik OK, maka ayat Al-Quran baik arab dan/atau terjemahannya akan tertulis di halaman Ms Word. (Gambar 3)

Automatic Replace
Anda bisa menggunakan fasilitas pengganti otomatis. Sehingga dengan menuliskan kode tertentu maka kode tersebut berubah menjadi tulisan ayat Al-Quran baik arab maupun terjemahannya. Untuk mengaktifkan caranya dengan mengklik “Automatic Replace eg [QS2:1-2A]” di menu Al-Quran. Untuk menonaktifkan klik “Disable Auto Replace”. Format penulisan Automatic Replace adalah [QS2:1-2ATNS] dimana:

  • QS2 : nama surat dalam hal ini surat kedua adalah Al Baqarah
  • 1-2 : ayat yang dikehendaki
  • ATNS: setingan yang dikehendaki. A: Arab, T: Terjemahan, N: New Line, S: Switch

Contohnya sebagai berikut:

  • Al Baqarah ayat 1-2 arab saja, maka ketiklah [QS2:1-2A]
  • Al Faatihah ayat 1-7 arab dan terjemahan dan tiap ayat dimulai dalam baris baru, maka ketiklah [QS2:1-2ATN]
Semoga bermanfaat.


          Euro 2016 playoffs        
Republic of Ireland v Bosnia – Monday 16th November Bosnia rescued a draw with a late equaliser on Friday night after Edin Dzeko cancelled out Robbie Brady’s 82 minute opener in thick fog. Republic of Ireland manager Martin O’Neill suggested that they are not going to play for an edgy 0-0 to capitalise on the away goal. He said: “We have to try and win the game. If we set out with any other sort of mindset, we could be in trouble. The ultimate goal does not change and is […]
          Just under a month ago, 32 teams started out on a path to join the eli in Ajutor și asistență tehnică : Instalare, dezinstalare, actualizare, update. upgrade ...        
Topic: Just under a month ago, 32 teams started out on a path to join the eli Message: Just under a month ago, 32 teams started out on a path to join the elite club of World Cup Champions. Two teams remain in pursuit of that goal, but both nations – Germany and Argentina – have multiple titles to their credit. Germany reached the Final with the most unpredictable of performances, piling goal after goal on a stunned Brazilian team en route to a 7-1 thrashing. The Argentinian team, meanwhile, snuck by a powerful Dutch side by the slimmest of margins: waiting out 120 minutes of cautious, scoreless play and settling things in penalty kicks. So, with the Final looming on the horizon, which nation do you like to capture its first title in over two decades? Germany started their campaign in Brazil with authority, drubbing Portugal 4-0 in their group stage opening and providing the margin of victory that would inevitably send Cristiano Ronaldo and his compatriots home before the knockout stage. A 2-2 draw to Ghana would provide the only blemish on Germanys record thus far but the team would clinch the top of Group G by edging out former coach and World Cup hero Jurgen Klinsmann and his American side 1-0 in their opening round finale. The Algerians would give Germany a scare in the round of 16, forcing extra time before Andre Schurrle and Mesut Ozil put away what would stand as a 2-1 victory. They would then ride an early header from defender Mats Hummels past a high-scoring French side in the quarters to set up their drubbing of the host Brazilians in the semis. Along the way the Germans have seen one man write his name in the annals of World Cup history and another serve notice that he may be next in line. Miroslav Kloses mark in the semifinal thrashing put him in sole possession of the all-time World Cup goal scoring record, one ahead of Brazilian great Ronaldo with 16. Not to be outdone, however, is 24-year-old Bayern Munich striker Thomas Müller. After earning a share of the Golden Boot in South Africa with five goals, Müller has piled on another five and enters the Final one shy of an unprecedented second straight. Argentinas performance has been a study in doing just enough to win. Though they have won all six of their contests in Brazil, they have done so by just a single goal in each match. The team emerged from a group devoid of titanic opposition, edging out Bosnia and Herzegovina in part thanks to a third-minute own-goal and Iran thanks to an unforgettable Lionel Messi free kick in second half stoppage-time. With the group hanging in the balance, the Argentines went back and forth with Nigeria in the opening round finale, eventually outlasting their African opposition in a 3-2 victory. In the knockout round, however, the Argentinians have used lone goals to get past highly-ranked European opposition. Switzerland – the top seed in Group E entering the tournament – held them scoreless through nearly two hours before Angel di Maria broke through in the 188th minute. Against Belgium it was the opposite, with Gonzalo Higuain finding the back of the net eight minutes in to provide the matchs lone goal. The question begs whether the team can find the firepower to match the German machine. Messi enters the Final tied for third in the competition with four goals and all eyes will be on the Little Magician to see if he can step up and add to his “Best Player in the World” argument when it matters most for his country. A double-sided historical note to help you make up your mind: Germany has lost just once to Argentina at the World Cup and has ended Argentinas tournament at each of the last two. However, Germanys one loss came in the 1986 Final, the last time the nation was crowned World Champions. So, who do you like? Will the balanced German attack find its way through the Argentine defence to earn a first World title as a unified nation? Or, will Messi heed Diego Maradonas claims as the future of Argentinian football and continue the trend of European World Cup futility in the Americas? As always, its Your! Call. Adidas Shoes Clearance .J. -- The New York Jets have promoted Tony Sparano Jr. Adidas Shoes Online . -- Aaron Rodgers isnt out for revenge in Green Bays season opener. http://www.originaladidasshoe.com/ . Harrison Barnes had 15 points and Reggie Bullock scored 11 for the Tar Heels (17-3, 4-1 ACC), who took the court for the first time without starter Dexter Strickland. The junior guard tore his right ACL last Thursday at Virginia Tech and will miss the rest of the season.(SportsNetwork.com) - The Miami Heat stopped a four-game losing streak last time out and thats the same length slide their opponents Wednesday night, the Denver Nuggets, will try to halt when the two teams meet at the Pepsi Center. The Heat marched into Phoenix on Tuesday night and left with a 103-97 victory. That ended a four-game slide, a three-game road losing streak and got the Heat a win on this five-game trek, which ends Friday against the Utah Jazz. Chris Boshs personal seven-point run late in regulation carried the Heat to victory. Miami, which had lost four in a row all by double digits, trailed 91-90 after Marcus Morris drained a 3-pointer with 3:17 left in the fourth quarter. Bosh, though, hit a 14-footer, scored in the lane and drained a dagger 3-pointer on consecutive possessions to give the Heat the lead for good. I wanted to win really bad tonight, said Bosh. We played together and things worked out great. After being limited to 12 points in Sundays loss to Memphis, Bosh poured in 34 on 14-of-21 shooting. Luol Deng chipped in with 23 points and Dwyane Wade netted 16 for Miami, which shot 53.8 percent from the floor and forced 23 turnovers. The Nuggets have dropped four in a row, inccluding three straight on the road.dddddddddddd. They had the Toronto Raptors on the ropes Monday night, but fell in overtime, 112-107. Denver led in the fourth quarter after it overcame a 16-point deficit. The 35-point first quarter set us back, Nuggets head coach Brian Shaw said. Thats been our problem, not only on this trip, but this entire season. We dig a hole for ourselves. Arron Afflalo and Ty Lawson combined to score 47 points for the Nuggets. Lawson had 12 assists to go with his 22 points. Wilson Chandler scored 18 in the loss and Timofey Mozgov had 15 points and 12 rebounds. Denver had a chance to win in regulation but turned the ball over on a shot- clock violation, giving Toronto possession with 4.3 seconds left, but Lowry missed a 3-pointer at the buzzer. Chandler knocked down a 3 for Denver to start overtime, but the Nuggets didnt score again until Alonzo Gees bucket in the final seconds. The Nuggets visit the Houston Rockets on Saturday, then play four straight at home. The Nuggets ended a three-game series losing streak with a win in March, but the Heat have won two in a row in Denver. Prior to that mini streak, the Nuggets were 10-0 as the host against Miami. Cheap NFL Jerseys Wholesale Jerseys Wholesale NFL Jerseys Jerseys From China Wholesale NFL Jerseys Cheap NFL Jerseys Cheap Jerseys ' ' '
          2017 Webby Awards – Honoring the Best of the Internet         
By Heather Truitt

The internet has come a long way since the Webby Awards started in 1997. According to the Webby Awards website, in 1997 there were just over a million websites and 14 Webby Awards. For anyone who remembers surfing the internet back then, on a dial-up connection, the internet was in its infancy. Some of my favorite examples from the 1997 Webby Awards include Travelocitye!Online and Fortune Magazine. A lot of the websites have a similar theme, columns with navigation on the left side, elementary color schemes, and rudimentary designs.

Fast-forward 20 years. The Webby Awards estimates that there are now more than one billion websites and they have given 407 awards this year alone to honor the best the internet has to offer.
Below are five of my favorite 2017 award winners:

Best User Experience
What I love: What’s not to love about space exploration? I love the graphics and the way the timeline is treated and how visitors can interact. The music and space talking in the background adds to the “feeling” of the website, which conveys an important message to website visitors. The mood and tone is determined by the visitor within three seconds of landing on the page. The “feeling” the visitor gets should be just one of many of the take-aways the website owner wishes to convey.

Best Visual Design – Aesthetic
What I love: iFly 50 is the anniversary edition of iFly KLM Magazine brought to you by KLM Royal Dutch Airlines. The special edition of this magazine features 50 great travel locations. It includes breathtaking photographs and videos that sell the travel experience. Striking visuals are a way to make your visitors remember your website. I especially like the “extra” features – for example, when you hold the spacebar down on #46 the Stari Most bridge, a16th-century Ottoman bridge in the city of Mostar in Bosnia, you see an image of a bridge dive. On the next screen, you can learn more about the bridge and the 450-year dive tradition. This specialized user experience creates brand awareness and engagement for KLM Royal Dutch Airlines. 


Best Shopping Website
What I love:The vintage photo at the top of the website creates a nostalgia of going to the candy store as a child.  The limited color palette makes the photographs of the products stand out. It’s easy to navigate and shop, and even to create a custom box of chocolates with many options. Each photograph entices the visitor to make a purchase which is the goal of an eCommerce business. 

Best Home Page 
Milwaukee Ballet 
What I love: The movement of the website and the way the camera continuously moves provides excellent visual appeal to the website visitor. The navigation is also different, which provides the visitor with a unique experience, just like the Milwaukee Ballet does with its performances. This is an excellent example of a website that marries the experience it is selling to the visual experience on its website. 



Best User Interface
A Bear’s-Eye View of Yellowstone 
What I love: Have you ever wondered what bears eat or how they travel through Yellowstone Park? If so, this is the perfect website for you. It is packed with information and engaging bear’s-eye view video. The interactive map allows viewers to go from one area to the next by scrolling to see what the bears are eating and how they are traveling. On the left side of the site, visitors can see how far they’ve traveled with a particular bear on its path.

The annual Webby Awards provide useful information for businesses and designers alike to see what is new, different and trending in website design and development. Sometimes, you see websites showcased that you wouldn’t normally see like Bear’s-Eye View of Yellowstone. But most importantly, it provides a plethora of ideas and experiences that can be adapted to similar audiences when companies need to launch new or redo existing websites.

Want to see more award winners? Check out the list of winners here. If you like what you see, be sure you check out the 21st award show live on May 16th on YouTube.


          Lemmons by Grbic Is a New South City Classic        
Growing up in St. Louis, the Grbic siblings — Senada, Erna and Ermin — were spoiled by home-cooked Bosnian cuisine, lovingly prepared by their mother. It wasn't that she just knew how to cook well; every Saturday morning, she would rise at 4 a.m. to begin preparing a feast that would last them throughout the week.…
          Ronald A. Brand        
Ronald A. Brand
First Name: 
Ronald
Middle Name / Initial: 
A.
Last Name: 
Brand
Academic Director, CILE
Chancellor Mark A. Nordenberg University Professor and John E. Murray Faculty Scholar
Room: 
(412) 648-1307
rbrand@pitt.edu
Degrees: 
Degree: 
JD, Cornell University
Degree: 
BA, University of Nebraska

Ronald A. Brand was the driving force behind the creation of the University of Pittsburgh's Center for International Legal Education (CILE) and its Master of Laws Program for Foreign Law Graduates. His reputation as a scholar on international and comparative law has helped the University of Pittsburgh School of Law attract prominent visiting scholars and lecturers from around the world and enhance opportunities for students to study and work abroad.

Professor Brand's scholarship includes a number of books and many articles in major journals. His books include: Transaction Planning Using Rules of Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments (Hague Academy of International Law, Pocketbook Series, 2014); Fundamentals of International Business Transactions, Vols I and II (4th edition, CILE, 2013); International Civil Dispute Resolution (with Charles Baldwin, David Epstein, and Michael Gordon, West Group, 2d edition, 2008); The 2005 Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements: Commentary and Documents (with Paul M. Herrup, Cambridge University Press, 2008); The CISG and the Business Lawyer: The UNCITRAL Digest as a Contract Drafting Tool, (with Mark Walter and Harry Flechtner, Oxford University Press, 2008); Forum Non Conveniens: Past, Present and Future, 3 CILE Studies (with Scott Jablonski, Oxford University Press, 2008); and Private Law, Private International Law, and Judicial Cooperation in the EU-US Relationship, (West 2005).

Professor Brand has been a Fulbright Scholar at the Universiteit Brussel, a Research Scholar at the Institute for Advanced Studies at the University of Bologna, and a visiting professor at the University of Augsburg. He has lectured on international trade and business law matters at universities in the U.S. and abroad. His excellence in the classroom has earned Professor Brand both the Chancellor's Distinguished Teaching Award, a University-wide honor, and the Law School's Excellence-in-Teaching Award. He has also received the Chancellor's Distinguished Public Service Award.

Professor Brand represented the United States at Special Commissions and the Diplomatic Conference of the Hague Conference on Private International Law that produced the 2005 Convention on Choice of Court Agreements.

Courses Previously Taught: 
Course Name: 
International Trade Law Seminar
Course Name: 
Transnational Litigation
old_person_id: 
1486
Key/Recent Publications: 

Books:

  • Transaction Planning Using Rules Of Jurisdiction And The Recognition And Enforcement Of Judgments, Hague Academy Collected Courses (Hague Academy of International Law, Pocketbook Series)
  • Transaction Planning Using Rules Of Jurisdiction And The Recognition And Enforcement Of Judgments, 358 Hague Academy Collected Courses (Recueil des cours) (2013)
  • Fundamentals Of International Business Transactions Vols I and II (4th edition, CILE, 2013), (3rd edition, CILE, 2012); (2nd edition, CILE, 2011)
  • Fundamentals Of International Business Transactions: Documents Supplement (4th edition, CILE, 2013), (3rd edition, CILE, 2012); (2nd edition, CILE, 2011)
  • Recognition And Enforcement Of Foreign Judgments (Federal Judicial Center International Litigation Guide 2012) available from FJC.gov.
  • The Export Of Legal Education: Its Promise And Impact In Transition Countries (with D. Wes Rist, Ashgate Press 2009)
  • International Civil Dispute Resolution (with Charles Baldwin, David Epstein, and Michael Gordon, West Group, 2d edition 2008) (with Documents Supplement and Teacher’s Manual)
  • The 2005 Hague Convention On Choice Of Court Agreements (with Paul M. Herrup, Cambridge University Press 2008)
  • Drafting Contracts Under The CISG, 4 CILE Studies (with Harry Flechtner and Mark Walter, Oxford University Press 2008)
  • Forum Non Conveniens:  History, Global Practice And Future Under The Hague Convention On Choice Of Court Agreements, 3 CILE Studies (with Scott Jablonski, Oxford University Press 2007)
  • Private Law, Private International Law, And Judicial Cooperation In The EU-US Relationship, 2 CILE Studies (West 2005)
  • The Draft Uncitral Digest And Beyond – Cases, Analysis And Unresolved Issues In The U.N. Sales Convention, 1 CILE Studies (with Franco Ferrari and Harry Flechtner, 2005) (reissue of the original work published by Sellier European Law Publishers in 2004)
  • International Civil Dispute Resolution (with Charles Baldwin, David Epstein, and Michael Gordon, West Group, 2004) (with Documents Supplement and Teacher’s Manual)
  • The Draft Uncitral Digest And Beyond – Cases, Analysis And Unresolved Issues In The U.N. Sales Convention (with Franco Ferrari and Harry Flechtner, Sellier European Law Publishers, 2004)
  • Fundamentals Of International Business Transactions (Kluwer Law International, 2000)
  • Fundamentals Of International Business Transactions: Documents (Kluwer Law International, 2000)
  • Enforcing Foreign Judgments In The United States And United States Judgments Abroad (American Bar Association Section of International Law and Practice, 1992)
  • Basic Documents Of International Economic Law (with Stephen Zamora, Commerce Clearing House, Inc. 1990)
  • Disclaimers In Estate Planning:  A Guide To Their Effective Use (with William P. LaPiana, American Bar Association Section on Real Property, Probate and Trust Law 1990)

Books (Series Editor):

  • Michael Karayanni, Conflicts In A Conflict: A Conflict Of Laws Case Study On Israel And The Palestinian Territories, 5 CILE Studies (Oxford University Press, 2014)

Articles and Chapters:

  • State Recognition, Private International Law, and Kosovo, __ Review Of Central And East European Law (RCEEL) (forthcoming 2014)
  • The Unfriendly Intrusion of Consumer Legislation into Freedom to Contract for Effective ODR, Liber Amicorum Johan Erauw 365-380 (Maud Piers, Henri Storm, Jinske Verhellen, eds., Intersentia 2014)
  • Federal Judicial Center International Litigation Guide: Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 74 University Of Pittsburgh Law Review 491-548 (2013)
  • The Evolving Private International Law/Substantive Law Overlap in the European Union, Festschrift Für Ulrich Magnus Zum 70. Geburtstag 371-384 (Peter Mankowski & Wolfgang Wurmnest, eds.,  Sellier European Law Publishers, 2014)
  • Special Report: Kosovo After the ICJ Opinion, Introduction, 74 University Of Pittsburgh Law Review 593-597 (2013)
  • Cooperation in Legal Education and Legal Reform, 74 University Of Pittsburgh Law Review 650-657 (2013)
  • Shaping the Rule of Law Through Legal Education, 75 Augsburger Rechtsstudien: Gerechtigkeitsfragen In Gesellschaft Und Wirtschaft, 40 Jahre Juristische Facultät Augsburg 11 (Arnd Koch & Matthias Rossi, eds. 2013)
  • Challenges to Forum Non Conveniens, 45 NYU Journal Of International Law And Politics 1003-1035 (2013)
  • Implementing the 2005 Hague Convention: The EU Magnet and the US Centrifuge, Liber Amicorum Alegria Borrás 267-76 (Forner Delaygua-González Beilfuss-Vinñas Farré, ed. 2013)
  • Forum Non Conveniens, Max Planck Encyclopaedia Of Public International Law (updated version 2013)
  • Jurisdictional Developments and the New Hague Judgments Project, A Commitment To Private International Law: Essays In Honour Of Hans Van Loon 89-99 (2013)
  • Party Autonomy and Access to Justice in the UNCITRAL Online Dispute Resolution Project, 10 Loyola University Chicago International Law Review 11-36 (2012)
  • Access-to-Justice Analysis on a Due Process Platform, review of Christopher A. Whytock and Cassandra Burke Robertson, Forum Non Conveniens and The Enforcement of Foreign Judgments, 112 Columbia Law Review Sidebar 76-82 (2012).
  • Recognition Jurisdiction and the Hague Choice of Court Convention, Liber Amicorum Kresimir Sajko 155-187 (Hrvoje Sikirič, Vilim Bouček & Davor Babič, eds., 2012)
  • The Rome I Regulation Rules on Party Autonomy for Choice of Law: A U.S. Perspective, (Dec. 2011).
  • Mr. Bergsten’s Neighborhood: The Vis Moot, Legal Education, and Rule of Law, International Arbitration and International Commercial Law, Convergence and Evolution, Liber Amicorum Eric Bergsten 687-696 (Stefan Kröll, Loukas Mistelis, Pilar Perales Viscasillas & Vikki Rogers, eds., 2011)
  • U.S. Implementation vel non of the 2005 Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements, 2010 Yearbook of Private International Law 107-122 (2011)
  • Promoting the Rule of Law: Cooperation and Competition in the EU-US Relationship, 72 University of Pittsburgh Law Review 163-169 (2010)
  • Exporting Legal Education: Lessons Learned from Efforts in Transition Countries, 32 Harvard International Review 43-47 (Issue 2, Summer 2010)
  • Arbitration or Litigation? Choice of Forum After the 2005 Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements, LVII Belgrade Law Review 23-35 (Issue No. 3, 2009), also reprinted at 7 Transnational Dispute Management (Issue 1, April 2010).  
  • Effective Techniques for Teaching About Other Cultures and Legal Systems, International Association of Law Schools Educational Program, Effective Teaching Techniques About Other Cultures and Legal Systems 209, May 30, 2008.
  • Consent, Validity, and Choice of Forum Agreements in International Contracts, Liber Amicorum Hubert Bocken 541-553 (I Boone, I. Claeys, & L. Lavrysen, eds., Die Keure, 2009). On SSRN.
  • Treaties and the Separation of Powers in the United States: A Reassessment after Medillín v. Texas, 47 Duquesne Law Review 707-729 (2009). 
  • The European Magnet and the U.S. Centrifuge: Ten Selected Private International Law Developments of 2008, 15 ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law 367- 393 (2009).
  • The Export of Legal Education: Its Promise and Impact in Transition Countries, The Export of Legal Education: Its Promise and Impact In Transition Countries, chapter 1 (Ronald A. Brand & D. Wes Rist, eds., Ashgate, 2009).
  • Competition in and from the Harmonization of Private International Law, Economic Law as an Economic Good, Its Rule Function and Its Tool Function in the Competition of Systems 353-368 (Karl M. Meessen, Marc Bungenberg and Adelheid Puttler, eds. Sellier European Law Publishers, Munich, 2009). 
  • An American Perspective on the New Japanese Act on General Rules for Application of Laws, Japanese Yearbook of International Law 298-313 (2009) (with Tabitha Fish). 
  • External Effects of Internal Developments: A US Perspective on Changing Competence for Private International Law in Europe, Liber Fausto Pocar: New Instruments of Private International Law 163-179 (Stefania Bariatti and Gabriella Venturini eds. 2009).
  • Forum Non Conveniens, Max Planck Encyclopaedia of Public International Law (2008).
  • The Road to Vindabona: Preparing for the Moot, The VIS Book: A Participant's Guide to the Willem C. VIS International Commercial Arbitration Moot, Chapter 3 (Janet Walker, ed. 2008). 
  • A New Role for Litigation in CISG Contracts: The 2005 Hague Choice of Court Convention, Drafting Contracts Under the CISG 149-166 (Harry Flechtner, Ronald A. Brand and Mark Walter eds., 2007).
  • Judicial Review and United States Supreme Court Citations to Foreign and International Law, 46 Duquesne Law Review 423-437 (2007).
  • Balancing Sovereignty and Party Autonomy in Private International Law: Regression at the European Court of Justice, in Universalism, Tradition and the Individual, Liber amicorum dedicated to Professor Petar Å arèiviè 35 (Johan Erauw, Vesna Tomljenovic, and Paul Volken, eds., 2006)
  • Federalism and the Allocation of Sovereignty Beyond the State in the European Union, 44 Duquesne Law Review 71-79 (2005)
  • CISG Article 31: When Substantive Law Rules Affect Jurisdictional Results, 25 Journal of Law and Commerce 181-202 (2005).
  • The European Union’s New Role in International Private Litigation, 2 Loyola University Chicago School of Law International Law Review 277-293 (2005)
  • Punitive Damages Revisited: Taking the Rationale for Non-Recognition of Foreign Judgments Too Far, 24 Journal of Law and Commerce 181-196 (2005)
  • The 1999 Hague Preliminary Draft Convention Text on Jurisdiction and Judgments: A View From the United States, The Hague Preliminary Draft Convention on Jurisdiction and Judgments 3-40 (Fausto Pocar and Constanza Honorati, editors, 2005)
  • Private Law, Private International Law, and Judicial Cooperation in the EU-US Relationship (West, 2005). Abstract available on SSRN.
  • ASIL Insight: The New Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements ASIL Insight, July 26, 2005
  • Community Competence for Matters of Judicial Cooperation at the Hague Conference on Private International Law: A View from the United States, 21 Journal of Law and Commerce 191-208 (2002)
  • Sovereignty: The State, the Individual, and the International Legal System in the Twenty-First Century, 25 Hastings International & Comparative Law Review 279-295 (2002)
  • Forum Selection and Forum Rejection in US Courts: One Rationale for a Global Choice of Court Convention, in Reform and Development of Private International Law: Festschrift for Sir Peter North 51-87 (James Fawcett, ed., 2002)
  • Comparative Forum Non Conveniens and the Hague Judgments Convention, 37 Texas International Law Journal 467-498 (2002)

Selected Presentations:

  • “Understanding Judgments Recognition,” Symposium on “The Changing Relationship Between International Law and U.S. Law,” sponsored by the North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, University of North Carolina School of Law, January 30, 2015
  • Comments on “When U.S. Treaty Powers and State Law Collide — The Controversy over Implementing the 2005 Hague Convention” by Peter D. Trooboff.  New York University Law School Center for Transnational Litigation, Arbitration and Commercial Law Program, November 24, 2015.
  • “Kosovo Accession to International Organizations: Private International Law,” Workshop on “Kosovo as a Member of the International Community – Accession to International Organisations,” University of Graz, Austria, March 21, 2014
  • “Protecting Consumers in Online Transactions:  Why EU Consumer Protection Rules Should be Replaced with Rules from ‘the Titanic of Worst Decisions’ by the U.S. Supreme Court,” Foreign Chair Lecture at the University of Ghent Faculty of Law, Ghent, Belgium, March 13, 2014
  • “The Recognition of Foreign Judgments in the U.S. and Europe and the Hague Conference Judgments Project,” Institute for European Studies (IES), Brussels, Belgium, March 11, 2014
  • Moderator, panel “Private International Law: The Year in Review” at the International Law Weekend hosted by the American Branch of the International Law Association, New York, Oct. 25, 2013
  • “Contract Drafting Lessons From Rules on Jurisdiction and Choice of Forum in Europe,” at the 2013 International Law Weekend-Midwest, held at Washington University School of Law in St. Louis, Missouri, Sept. 20, 2013
  • “Making U.S. Judgments Recognition Law: A Three-dimensional Chess Game,” presented as part of a panel on “Responsible Enforcement of Foreign Judgments,” at a symposium on “Transnational Forum Shopping,” at Pepperdine University School of Law, Sept. 19, 2013
  • “The European Court of Justice and Private International Law: An American Perspective,” lecture at the University of Prishtina Faculty of Law, Kosovo, June 7, 2013
  • “An Introduction to U.S. Law” and “U.S. Legal Education,” lectures at Moi University School of Law, Eldoret, Kenya, January 14-15, 2013
  • “A Comparative Law Perspective on Forum Non Conveniens,” panel discussion titled “Regulating Forum Shopping: Courts’ Use of Forum Non Conveniens in Transnational Litigation” at the 18th Annual Herbert Rubin and Justice Rose Luttan Rubin International Law Symposium at the New York University School of Law, On October 25, 2012
  • “Legal Education and Legal Reform,” Conference on “Kosovo After the ICJ Opinion,” Center for International Legal Education, University of Pittsburgh School of Law, October 24, 2012
  • “International Law, Diplomacy, and National Politics: Reflections on the Negotiation and Implementation of the 2005 Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements,” combined meeting of the Honorable Amy Reynolds Hay Chapter and the W. Edward Sell Chapter of The American Inns of Court, May 17, 2012
  • “Improving the World of Electronic Commerce:  Synthesizing Online Dispute Resolution, Consumer Protection, Private International Law, and International Arbitration,” at the Loyola Chicago University Law School conference on “U.S. Impact On International Commercial Arbitration:  Positive or Negative?” February 10, 2012
  • “What is the Effect of an International Arbitration Agreement?”  Teach-in on International Arbitration, Ramallah, West Bank, Palestinian Territories, December 7, 2011
  • “Shaping Rule of Law Through Legal Education,” Symposium on “The Shaping of Society and Economy Through Law” at the University of Augsburg Faculty of Law, November 18, 2011
  • “Private International Law in Action,” panel at the International Law Weekend, American Branch of the International Law Association, New York, NY, October 21, 2011 
old_room_id: 
1312
Awards: 
  • 2011 Doctor Juris Honoris Causa, University of Augsburg
  • 2011 ABA Section of International Law, Leonard J. Theberge Award for Private International Law
  • 2003 Chancellor’s Distinguished Public Service Award
  • 1990 University Center for International Studies Senior Research Fellowship
  • 1989 Fulbright Fellowship for Research in Belgium
  • 1989 Chancellor’s Distinguished Teaching Award
  • 1988 Student Bar Association Excellence in Teaching Award
Other Activities: 
  • Member, Inaugural Advisory Committee, Global Studies Center, University of Pittsburgh, 2012-present
  • Invited Expert Observer, United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, Working Group III on Online Dispute Resolution, 2010-present
  • Member, Advisory Committee, Center for Russian and East European Studies, University of Pittsburgh, 2010-present
  • Member, Advisory Board, Sultan Qaboos University College of Law, Muscat, Oman. 2010-present
  • Member, ASIL Working Group on Implementation of the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements, Washington, D.C..
  • Observer, National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL) Drafting Committee for the International Choice of Court Agreements Implementation Act, 2009-2012
  • Member, Executive Committee, American Branch of the International Law Association, 2006‑present (Chair, Nominating Committee, 2009-11), (Member, Committee on ABILA Committee Rules of Procedure, 2011)
  • Member, American Law Institute 2000‑present; Member Consultative Groups: International Jurisdiction and Judgments Project; Intellectual Property:  Principles Governing Jurisdiction, Choice of Law, and Judgments in Transnational Disputes; International Arbitration Restatement; Principles of World Trade Law
  • Member, U.S. Delegation to Special Commission of The Hague Conference on Private International Law negotiation of convention on jurisdiction and effects of foreign judgments in civil and commercial matters, and concluding the Hague Choice of Court Convention 1993‑2005
  • Associate Member, International Academy of Comparative Law, 2008-present
  • Member, Editorial Advisory Board, The Journal of Private International Law, 2003-present
  • Member, Board of Editors, American Journal of Comparative Law
  • Member, American Society of International Law, 1977-present
  • Chairman, Ad hoc Committee to study international economic law programs, 1994‑1995; Member, Interest Group on International Economic Law, 1983-present (Chairman 1987‑1989; Vice-Chairman 1985‑1987; Member, Advisory Committee, 2007-present)
  • Special Master, appointed by Federal District Judge Robert Cindrich, in Dow Chemical Co. v. Federal Ins. Co., C.A. No. 94‑0649, Western District of Pennsylvania
  • Member, Advisory Committee, EU Center of Excellence, University of Pittsburgh
  • Member, University Center for International Studies Global Studies Faculty Advisory Committee, 2003-present
  • Open Society Institute Academic Fellows Program International Scholar to support Kyiv-Mohyla Faculty of Law, 2007-08
  • Member, Open Society Institute selection committee for 2000‑2001 Muskie/FSA Graduate Fellows in Law; selection committee for Palestinian Rule of Law Fellows 2007
  • Reviewer, ABA Central and East European Law Initiative Draft Law on Foreign Investment for the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Report issued June 1, 1995
  • Member, ABA Central and East European Law Initiative Working Group for Concept Paper on International Trade for Bulgaria, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova and Poland, 1994‑1995
  • Member, Nominating Committee, American Society of International Law, 1992‑1993
Program(s): 

Director, Center for International Legal Education

Director, LL.M. and S.J.D. Programs for Foreign Law Graduates

Program Director, International and Comparative Law Certificate Program

Areas of Specialization: 

International Business|International Trade|Transnational Litigation

Hi-Res Photo: 

          Comment #1        
Type 1 diabetes is highly associated with celiac disease unfortunately -but as you say, living with both is not so bad. I've traveled a fair amount since my diagnoses - including to Mostar, Bosnia where I didn't know a lick of Srpsky (the local language). Yet I was able to find everything I need - fruits, veggies, meats mostly. I was worried about lows and not having gluten free options available, so I packed a few things of my own that would last - smarties and rice noodles were the easiest. I'd venture to say, though frustrating, you live a much healthier life by eating a much more balanced diet. Most of the gluten-free alternatives out on the market (thank goodness for these things that I didn't have when I was first diagnosed) aren't really supposed to be the staples of your diet. Really consider them - breads, cookies, cakes, cereals, pastas, etc. And you might note when reading the labels that most of these products contain much more fat and sugar than normal products to make them taste better. But this can really affect blood sugars. While in moderation these are fine for everyone and maybe even part of a full diet, there needs to be a lot more to your every day meals. Round them out with the food groups that are naturally gluten free - dairy, fruits, veggies, meat. Not only are these the foods you need to eat, but they control your blood sugar, they keep you healthy, and they are CHEAPER than most gluten free products. They are available anywhere you go. It's not so hard once you try it. Sometimes frustrating. And you might have to think a bit to solve a few problems, but there are tons of resources online to help you and many Celiac/Diabetics who are willing to guide you.

(Comment posted by Health as a Human Right at 2:13 pm, Mon 9th May 2011)
          Alemania se impuso a Austria en el clásico.        

Mario Gomez le dio el triunfo a Alemania sobre Austria, en Viena, por las clasificatorias a la Eurocopa 2012. La visita se puso en ventaja poco antes de terminar el primer tiempo, a través de su delantero Gomez. Austria pudo conseguir el empate en el minuto 50, tras autogol de Arne Friedrich. Cuando el empate parecía definitivo, Gomez apareció nuevamente, y en el minuto 90, le dio la victoria a los dirigidos por Joachim Löw. Con este resultado, Alemania sigue imparable en su grupo y es líder con 18 puntos. Austria por su parte está cada vez más lejos de una posible clasificación, ya que queda cuarta con 7 unidades. 



Grupo A:

Alemania  18 pts.
Bélgica     11 pts.
Turquía     10 pts.
Austria      7 pts.
Azerbaiyán  3 pts.
Kazajstán    3 pts. 

*Datos:
  • Alemania ha ganado los 4 partidos por clasificatorias a la Eurocopa, en los que anotó un autogol, por 2 a 1. 
  • Mario Gomez lleva 46 goles con la selección de su país. 


Otros resultados de hoy:


Rossi anotó para Italia



Kazajstán 2 - Azerbaiyán 1
Islas Feroe 0 - Eslovenia 2

Rumanía 3 - Bosnia y Herzegovina 0
Croacia 2 - Georgia 1
San Marino 0 - Finlandia 1
Moldavia 1 - Suecia 4
Bélgica 1 - Turquía 1
Italia 3 - Estonia 0 (*líder del grupo C con 16 pts)







Don Elías. 
          No tuvo ambición.        

Francia viajó a Minsk para enfrentar a Bielorrusia por las clasificatorias para la Eurocopa 2012. Los "galos" llegaron como líderes del grupo D, con 12 puntos, 4 más que su rival, que llegó tercero en el grupo. Los locales presentaron un equipo con 8 bajas importantes, ya sea por lesión o sanción. Francia no supo aprovechar esa ventaja y solo consiguió un pobre empate 1 a 1. 

El equipo de L. Blanc  intentó presionar desde el primer minuto, pero la iniciativa le duró poco y el equipo local logró manejar bien el balón. Shitov fue el primero en probar a Lloris, en el minuto 14, con tiro diagonal de larga distancia. El portero francés estuvo atento y salvó a su equipo mandando la pelota al tiro de esquina. En el minuto 20, Rami cometió una falta innecesaria cerca del área. Tras el tiro libre, Abidal marcó en propio arco y Bielorrusia se puso en ventaja. 

Pero esa ventaja no duró mucho, porque dos minutos después, Malouda, tras combinación con Benzema, anotó el 1 a 1 con zurdazo impecable. Luego, el partido se hizo trabado. Bielorrusia tenía más la pelota, pero en propio terreno, porque cuando se acercaba al área rival, su ataque se desvanecía. Francia fue más directa, pero sin mostrar un fútbol brillante. Ribery remató desde fuera del área en el minuto 38, pero la pelota se fue por la última línea. 

En la segunda mitad, la tendencia no cambió. El encuentro seguía siendo trabado, con ambos equipos imprecisos y aveces mezquinos. Daba la impresión de que si alguien desequilibraba la balanza, sería gracias a una pelota detenida. Malouda no aprovechó una buena habilitación de Benzema en el minuto 68, cuando se demoró en definir solo frente al portero y lo alcanzaron a trabar. El público comenzó a hacer sentir su disgusto por el mal juego mostrado por ambos equipos. 

En los últimos minutos Bielorrusia aguantó el empate. Benzema marcó en el 85', pero la jugada fue bien anulada por posición de adelanto. Se agregaron 2 minutos que no sirvieron para cambiar la historia. El empate se mantuvo y Francia llega a las 13 unidades y se mantiene líder del grupo. 

Grupo D:

Francia  13 pts.
Rumania  9 pts.
Bielorrusia  8 pts.
Albania   8 pts.
Bosnia y Herzegovina 7  pts
Luxemburgo  1 pts. 


Don Elías. 


          Responsibility of the UN        
THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL SHUOLD RECONSIDER ITS NON-INTERVENTIONIST POLICY TO PREVENT GENOCIDES:

At the end of the Second World War, world leaders decided to resurrect the League of Nations with a new name- The United Nations- to avoid further conflicts that might devastate the world as it entered the nuclear era. The Security Council of the UN is responsible for trying to resolve these inter-state and intra-state conflicts. So far, the Security Council has been successful as a mediator in preventing a major world war, but it has witnessed countless conflicts – often, but not always, proxy wars of the two super powers entangled in a ‘cold-war’ and genocides resulting in the death of millions. Since the primary reason for the inability of the Security Council to prevent genocides is its non-interventionist policy, time has come for the UN to reconsider this policy.

The Security Council considers military intervention a violation of international law – despite tolerating numerous such violations by its powerful members, irrespective of a UN mandate- and is reluctant to use force to prevent any atrocity committed by a sovereign state, especially within its own borders. It prefers conflict prevention as the key strategy. And when this strategy fails to prevent conflicts, the Security Council issues warnings to the countries concerned and then imposes arms embargos and economic sanctions. In case of any cease fire agreement between the belligerents, it forms irregular peace-keeping forces- comprising both lightly armed troops and unarmed observers- for particular conflict zones. Although the bulk of the peacekeepers are supplied by poor countries to earn foreign currency, rich and powerful countries also provide manpower. These peacekeepers are usually deployed, when a cease-fire has already been established between the warring parties, to supervise the cease-fire as impartial observers. They are not allowed to use weapons unless they themselves are under attack. But the warring parties are seldom intimidated by warnings and sanctions or even lightly armed peacekeepers. The central African state of Rwanda has paid horribly as a consequence of the failure of this UN policy of non-intervention.

During the 1994 Rwandan civil war, the majority tribe, the Hutus, slaughtered nearly a million civilian Tutsis, within a hundred days, in order to create a “pure Hutu state”. The UN decided not to intervene and prevent the genocide. Moreover, after the killing of ten UN peacekeepers - who had been overseeing a peace treaty between the government and rebel forces - by Rwandan government forces, out of fear for the safety of the peacekeepers, the UN decided to withdraw all of its diplomats and 3000 peacekeeping troops despite repeated warnings from the UN commander in Rwanda, General Romeo Dallaire, about probable consequences. The result is vividly depicted in The Guardian report on April 12, 1994: “A few yards from the French troops, a Rwandan woman was being hauled along the road by a young man with a machete. He pulled at her clothes as she looked at the foreign soldiers in the desperate, terrified hope that they could save her from death. But none of the troops moved. ‘It’s not our mandate,’ said one …The Belgian and French troops are here to get foreigners out…Rwandans, including staff of international organizations, are left to their fate” (Huband). Furthermore, Linda Melvern of The Guardian commented on the 10th anniversary of the genocide, “What we know now is that a corrupt, vicious and violent oligarchy in Rwanda planned and perpetrated the crime of genocide, testing the UN each step of the way. It was convinced that whatever it did, the UN would fail to act. It would also seem that France’s intimate involvement with the Hutu regime only worsened the situation” (2004).

Similarly, the UN failed to prevent the 1995 genocide of Bosnian Muslims by the Serbs in the UN declared ‘safe haven’, Srebrenica, during the Bosnian War. Today, in Sudan, government-sponsored Muslim Arab militias are in the process of ‘cleansing’ a Muslim black minority in the western Darfur area, resulting in a thousand deaths daily. The Sudanese government has also been waging a separate war with Christian rebels from the southern part of the country for the last two decades, which has already caused the deaths of two million people. Although Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary General, “called on the UN Security Council to issue ‘the strongest warning’ to forces fighting in Sudan to bring an end to the civil war in the south and the crisis in the western Darfur region” (Olivier, 2004), the UN is reluctant to intervene militarily and prevent such a catastrophe. Appalled by the UN reaction to the crisis in Darfur, Gregory Stanton of Genocide Watch commented, “The norm of international law is still against intervention, even when a government has forfeited its own claim to legitimacy by committing genocide or ethnic cleansing against its own people…We need military forces that can intervene with heavy infantry to prevent or stop genocides when they begin…we need a world movement to prevent genocide and ethnic cleansing, an effort as great as the anti-slavery movement” (2004). Therefore, it has become essential that the UN reconsider its non-interventionist policy to prevent genocide.

Despite repeated UN failures to stop genocide, some observers comment that the UN should continue its current peacekeeping policy of consent of the warring parties, neutrality, and the use of force only in self-defense against any proposals of intervention by multi-lateral forces. A former UN Secretary General, Perez de Cuellar, has characterized peacekeeping “as the opposite of military action against aggression, and non-fighting soldiers of peace as a symbol of international authority providing an honourable alternative to war and a useful pretext for peace” (Currier, 2003). Critics also emphasize conflict prevention strategies since they are less costly options for the international community than military action and reconstruction after a war.

Undoubtedly, conflict prevention by diplomatic means is the best solution; but it requires a consensus among all parties involved, and often reaching a settlement becomes impossible because of adherence to inflexible and unjust demands by the parties. Moreover, according to Stanton, “In Sudan, as in Rwanda, diplomats see their job as ‘conflict resolution.’ Genocide isn’t conflict; it’s one-sided mass murder. Jews had no conflict with the Nazis. Armenians posed no threat to Turks. Tutsis did not advocate mass murder of Rwandan Hutus. Conflict resolution isn’t genocide prevention” (2004). In many such cases, governments themselves are reluctant to save their citizens. As a result, they receive condemnation from the UN Secretary General: “When crimes on such a scale are being committed, and a sovereign state appears unable or unwilling to protect its own citizens, a grave responsibility falls on the international community…” (Olivier, 2004).

However, in many cases, threats of arms embargos and later economic sanctions fail to force such parties to refrain from committing atrocities. In such cases, the UN becomes unable to save innocent civilians despite ‘feeling a grave responsibility’. Therefore, the UN should reconsider its current policy of non-intervention. It should stress saving lives instead of endorsement by the warring factions or oppressive governments. It should be bold enough to intervene militarily when all other options fail.

Some critics argue that interventions could escalate the war, as the UN could appear to take sides. Discussing the future of the UN, Tasos Papadimitriou comments, “I would also argue that we need it (the UN) to be able and willing to intervene - and that does not necessarily or primarily mean the use of armed force - when humanitarian principles are at stake. If we accept that gross and systematic infringement of citizens’ well-being can not be tolerated in the name of national sovereignty, the right to intervene is the logical consequence” (2004). Thus, the UN needs to risk taking the side of the victims of genocide. Such a step will make the UN a target of the oppressors, and will result in loss of UN military personnel, but if the UN wishes to espouse universal human rights, it needs to prove that it is serious in its efforts, even at the cost of the lives of its soldiers.

Nevertheless, some observers think that the UN will still be ineffective even with an interventionist doctrine because of the vested interests of powerful nations. This argument cannot be entirely ruled out. Unfortunately, we do not live in an ideal world; powerful nations will never give up their influence. And since they possess the right to veto any Security Council resolution, hardly any military intervention by the UN will be sanctioned which conflicts with the interests of these nations and their allies. As Papadimitriou comments in his article, “Its (Security Council’s) resolutions quite often have nothing much to do with principle or international law but everything to do with the balance of power within it, being results of intimidation, coercion, bribing and horse-trading” (2004). Therefore, some people advocate abolishing the veto power of the five permanent members. It is a fair proposal, but not compatible with realpolitik. As a pragmatic UN official argued, “the UN, at its best, is a mirror of the world…it is far better to have a world organization anchored in geopolitical reality than one too detached from the verities of global power to be effective (Papadimitriou, 2004).” The war in Iraq has proved that powerful nations will act according to their wishes, with or without any UN mandate, with or without veto power. But on the other hand, not all conflicts are the result of power games between powerful nations. Many are caused by hatred of the ethnicity and religion of others without provocation from foreigners. As Emmanuel Dongola commented in the New York Times, “The genocide happened in Rwanda, but it could have taken place in any of the many pseudo-nation-states that are the legacy of colonialism- states in which the people are more loyal to their ethnic communities than to a faraway central government…” (2004). In such cases, a UN-mandated armed force should intervene and save people from genocide.
It is true that the UN is not a panacea. It is unable to end conflicts where major powers are involved, but it should try to intervene where they are not, where they are merely disinterested because of the strategic unimportance of the conflict area. For such interventions, the UN must form a properly equipped armed force under direct command of the Secretary General of the UN by recruiting volunteer soldiers from member nations.

Because of its non interventionist policy, the UN has lost respect from many member nations, especially from civil-war-torn Africa. One Senegalese commentator lamented in Le Quotidien, “As soon as it was understood that this savagery (in Rwanda) was African, it allowed (Europeans) to pontificate at leisure. How else can one explain the infamous phrase, said to have been uttered by François Mitterrand (then French President) that ‘in those countries, genocide is not very important’” (Diop, 2004). While Stanton commented, “Why, 10 years after Rwanda, has the world reacted so slowly to ethnic cleansing in Darfur? Racism is one reason. African lives still are not seen to equal the value of the lives of Kosovars and other white people, who are inside our circle of moral concern” (2004). Unless this kind of resentment is not mitigated by proper action to prevent genocides, the result might be the demise of the UN, or at least of its Security Council, rendering it irrelevant just like its predecessor, the League of Nations, which was accused of being powerless and restricted only to the discussion of trivial issues like the European railway system even on the very day the Germans attacked Poland and started one of the most devastating wars in history: the Second World War.

Fortunately, Kofi Annan’s ‘strongest warning’ of embargos and sanctions resulted in a peace agreement between the government and the rebels in Sudan. The belligerents agreed to end their conflict by December 31, 2004. However, they have made many such agreements in the last two decades and failed to respect them. There is no guarantee that they will not fail this time. Unless the UN adopts the policy of military intervention to save people, instead of the current policy of only keeping the peace after a cease-fire, it will not gain respect and fear from dogmatic armed groups indifferent to mass murder. A decade after the Rwandan genocide, the crisis at Darfur has presented another opportunity for the UN to make the necessary policy shift. The UN must utilize the opportunity this time and regain respect from its member states, all peace-loving people and the victims of genocides.


References:


Currier, N. (2003). 1988 UN peacekeeping forces: ‘the impartial soldiers.’ UN Chronicle. [online serial], 3. Available: http://www.un.org/Pubs/chronicle/2003/issue3/0303p45.asp (November 30, 2004).

Diop, B. B. (April 8, 2004). The world stood by for too long (press review- Le Quotidien, April 6, 2004). The Guardian. [online]. Available: http://www.guardian.co.uk/rwanda/story/0,14451,1187931,00.html (November 30, 2004).

Dongala, E. (April 8, 2004). The world stood by for too long (press review- New York Times, April 6, 2004). The Guardian. [online]. Available: http://www.guardian.co.uk/rwanda/story/0,14451,1187931,00.html (November 30, 2004).

Huband, M. (April 12, 1994). UN troops stand by and watch carnage. The Guardian. [online]. Available: http://www.guardian.co.uk/rwanda/story/0,14451,1186807,00.html (November 30, 2004).

Melvern, L. (April 5, 2004). The west did intervene in Rwanda, on the wrong side. The Guardian. [online]. Available: http://www.guardian.co.uk/rwanda/story/0,14451,1185980,00.html (November 30, 2004).


Olivier, M. & Agencies. (November 18, 2004). Annan urges security council warning on Sudan. The Guardian. [online]. Available: http://www.guardian.co.uk/sudan/story/0,14658,1354293,00.html (November 30, 2004).

Papadimitriou, T. (2004). A radical vision for the future of the UN. [online]. Available: http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/reform/cluster1/2004/1024radical.htm (November 30, 2004).

Stanton, G. (2004). Bloodbath in the making. [online]. Available: http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/sudan/2004/0402bloodbath.htm (November 30, 2004).
          Ashis Nandy        
Freud, modernity and postcolonial violence:
Analytic attitude, dissent and the boundaries of the self

by Ashis Nandy [The Little Magazine: vol iv: issue 5 & 6]

http://www.littlemag.com/looking/ashisnandy.html

We live in an intellectual edifice primarily built by the European Enlightenment. It is not very old, having been given its final shape less than three hundred years ago, and our concepts of an ideal society and meaningful social criticism are coloured by this heritage. However, this said, we also have to confront the uncomfortable reality that these concepts of a desirable society and desirable forms of social criticism invoke altogether different associations in other parts of the world. These other associations have acquired new play in recent years because the Enlightenment vision itself has, finally, come under scrutiny in North America and Western Europe. Indeed, the rumours about its complicity with the violence of our times have been given a certain edge by a whole range of work.

Take for example the crisis in the Middle East. Jerusalem is on the one hand an ancient city of spiritual and moral grace, and on the other, a city of violence, uprooting and divided selves. Simone Weil and Martin Buber, I suspect, lived with the first Jerusalem, the modern Israelis live with the second. For the former, Jerusalem not only had secular and sacred geographies, but also moral and psychological ones. The latter seem to oscillate between their passion for an Israeli nation-state delicately perched on the desperate denial of a West Asian identity and a fierce commitment to a secular, modern European identity, precariously balanced on memories of massive suffering and projects of annihilation, once so lovingly designed by Europe for its Jewish population. The denial goes with a refusal to acknowledge that the Arabs and the Jews are often not divided by distance but by proximity. The commitment goes with the search for a magical remedy for remembered discrimination and genocide in the values of the European Enlightenment, presum ably in the belief that a European disease requires European therapy. The search reaffirms an identity that many can neither disown nor fully own up to.

I shall use as my baseline what one of the greatest ever products of the Jewish tradition, Sigmund Freud, who lived much of his life with an ambivalent aware ness of his cultural-religious status, might have said about the bitterness that has come to surround Jerusalem. Namely, that the narcissism of small differences and familiarity is often a better predictor of ethnic discontents and violence in our age than distance and ignorance. I am told that in the late nineteenth century a Belgian anthropologist, finding it difficult to ethnographically distinguish between the Hutus and the Tutsis, ultimately decided to distinguish between the two tribes by the number of heads of cattle they owned. When the Rwandan genocide took place, that story became one of the ways of acknowledging what many anthropologists always knew, that the Hutus and Tutsis were two tribes that, apart from being neighbours, were closest to each other ethnographically. There is a parallel to this in the Bosnian situation too. About 30 per cent of the Bosnian Muslims, one hears, are related to the Serbs by marriage.

I simultaneously want to use as my baseline some of the popular forms that the Enlightenment values have taken in the global middle-class culture to serve as the heart of a global structure of common sense. This is important because these values now shape our concepts of the normal, the rational and the sane, both within and outside the clinic. I shall also lay my cards on the table and confess that I am suspicious of the claim that Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries answered all basic questions of humankind once and for all, that all it left for the other civilisations to do is to write a few polite footnotes and useful appendices to these answers.

The body of work that challenges the Enlighten ment vision, when not directly dependent on psychoanalytic insights, has borrowed heavily from clinical work and therapeutic visions. Why?

One reason could be that the first psychoanalyst was a rebellious child of the Enlighten ment. He did not reject the Enlightenment vision, but the social critique he offered was not from the vantage ground of the Enlightenment’s standard ideas of a desirable society and knowledge. He tried to supply a critique of the Enlightenment reason from within its perimeters but while doing so, often accidentally strayed into strange territories. Indeed, his crypto-Platonic worldview was more open-ended than it had seemed at one time. Scholars have located in Freud’s work a whole range of new elements — from German romanticism and Naturphilosophie and the more open-ended concept of science associated with that tradition, to the East European, Hassidic-Jewish culture and mystical tradition that occasionally broke through his public self and overdone conformity to the model of the positive sciences.[1] As he gained confidence in his middle years, he returned to some of the philosophical and civilisational questions that had always haunted him. Books like Civilisation and its Discontents, The Future of an Illusion, Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego, Moses and Monotheism and Thoughts for the Times on War and Death could be read as ‘regressions’ to a more defiant and daring mode of psychological theorisation. These works are more Dostoyevskyan and more informed by his tragic vision of life. They show that Freud was no intellectual kin of Francis Bacon, though sometimes, in his cultural and intellectual insecurity, he appeared or pretended to be so. At least one commentator has felt compelled to say that Freud’s tragic vision implied a rejection of ‘the simplest Anglo-American belief in the virtues of progress.’[2]

Unfortunately, despite the rediscovery of psychoanalysis by literary theory and cultural studies in the last decade, this other Freud, a product of multiple cultural traditions who tries to negotiate cultural borders, remains a stranger to many. The limited cultural sensitivities of some of the mainstream schools of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis partly derive from this. These schools seem to be unaware that even modernity is no longer what it was, that four hundred years is a long time in human history; even the Dark Ages in Europe did not last that long. Today modernity, to qualify as such, requires an element of self-criticism or at least a sense of loss. The problem is compounded by the various schools of post-Freudian psychology, which are mostly progenies of the theoretical frames that crystallised as forms of dissent within the Enlighten ment. Even when they defy the modern, the defiance is primarily addressed to and remains confined within the citadels of modernity. The ones that try to break out of the grid often turn out to be transient fashions of brief shelf life. A culture not only produces its own ideas of conformity but also its distinctive concepts of valid or sane dissent. Worse, what looks like dissent in one culture at one time may not appear so in another culture at another time. Let me give an example.

When Freud’s ideas first came to India in the first decade of the last century, it was remarkable how little protest they aroused.[3] There was no frenzied opposition to them as there was in Victorian Europe. (I am using the term ‘Victorian’ here in the wider sense in which Carl Jung used it, to capture the flavour of the middle-class culture in all of Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.) What offended Victorian sensibilities in Freud’s work did not evidently offend the middle classes in India. Elsewhere, I have mentioned Rangin Halder, a pioneering Indian psychoanalyst who did a classical Freudian interpretation of the Oedipal imagery in Rabindranath Tagore’s poetry in the 1920s, when Tagore was already being regarded as a national poet and had become a revered figure in Indian public life. Such interpretations at the time primarily meant a heavy-handed exploration of psycho sexuality. Almost no one was offended, not even Tagore. And Halder, who first presented the paper to a small group of psychoanalysts, subsequently translated it into English and presented it at the annual meeting of the Indian Science Congress. It was a hit there, too.

What seems to be defiant in one cultural context may not seem so in another. A colleague once told me how her great-aunt — a seemingly house-bound, puritanical widow who had limited education and always wore white to conform to the traditional image of an austere widow in east India — helped her brother Sarasilal Sarkar, a first-generation psychoanalyst, to translate some of Freud’s works into Bengali. She was not at all shocked by the newly imported European theory of human nature, tinged with ideas of infantile sexuality and incestual fantasies. I remember in this context a number of Indian folk tales about the Oedipal situation collected by the poet and scholar A.K. Ramanujan. Many of them end rather tamely with the hero learning to live with the knowledge that he has unknowingly married or slept with his mother. There is moral anguish in them, but not usually of the fierce, self-destructive kind found in the Greek myth. In one story that carries a touch of moral agony, the mother is the one who commits suicide.[4]

Contemporary Indian middle-class culture, however, has more in common with the global culture of common sense than with the folk tales Ramanujan had collected. We have to come to these alternative formulations in a different way, by examining the status of the post-Galilean world itself. Let me, therefore, look more closely at some elements in the critical apparatus of Enlightenment reason that the global triumph of rationality, sanity and progress (encased in an expanding global culture of common sense and conventionality) should have given us the confidence to re-examine. Victory should have brought with it a new sense of self-confidence and responsibility, but evidently it has not.

The stalwarts who contributed to the Enlightenment vision tended to nurture one particular kind of critical attitude. That attitude used as its pivot, often creatively, the idea of demystification or unmasking. From Giambattista Vico to Sir Francis Bacon to Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, it was the creation and unfolding of a new tradition of social criticism that sought to rid the world of the sacred and the magical. That was the tradition on which the great critical theorists like Freud and Marx were to build. This tradition of demystification usually assumes that manifest reality, after a point, is not trustworthy. If one tears the mask off that reality, one is closer to the truth, or to more justifiable certitudes. After the demystification, the certitudes that sustain the manifest reality and supply its standardised interpretations are shown to be unsustainable. Indeed, through this exegesis, one constructs a new reality closer to truth, and that second-order reality provides one with a fresh bedrock of certitudes. It was the hope of the protagonists of this tradition that a new society, a new social vision, and even a new human personality could be built based on this new hermeneutics.

The model, of course, was borrowed from modern science. There, too, the assumption is that once someone like Galileo dismantles common sense and everyday reality by proposing the idea of a heliocentric universe in place of the geocentric one, he demystifies or demagicalises the universe and comes closer to truth. Likewise, the emergence of modern medicine can also be viewed as the emergence of a new narrative that sheds the earlier mystification of illness and explains all diseases solely in the language of the body, as formalised in the science of biology. The assumption is that once one reaches the hard realities encrypted in the language of the body, one acquires greater mastery over ill health. Similarly with the Marxist concept of production relations and Freud’s concept of psychosexuality.

There is another tacit assumption here. Namely, that there can be competing theories of knowledge, but not two truths. Ultimately, one of the theories is expected to supersede the rest. Take the case of the Galilean discovery itself, which has served as a foundational myth of modern knowledge systems for nearly two centuries. Only two years ago the Catholic Church recanted and apologised for prosecuting Galileo, a little too late in the day, some might say. Yet, a whole range of works which rely on the actual arguments and exchanges between the two sides make us suspect that the Church was not clear about the position it should take on Galileo’s cosmology. Galileo was influential and had powerful friends in the Church. During his trial, he stayed in an abbey with a Church dignitary. The Catholic Church, never insensitive to political realities, was willing to compromise. In any case, it was probably less hostile to Galileo’s heliocentric universe than to his belief that the Church should repudiate geocentricism and make heliocentricism a part of official Christian dogma. In other words, the Church was willing to keep things vague and open and live with both the heliocentric and geocentric theories as contestants for the status of truth. But the idea that there could be two coexisting, contesting versions of truth was not acceptable to Galileo. In his world, one of the two theories had to win at the end.

Today, in the age of supercomputers, it is possible to argue that in a relativistic universe, conceiving the sun as the epicentre is not that striking an improvement over conceiving the earth as the epicentre, if one chooses to confine oneself solely to the issue of truth. A reasonably good computer can calculate the co-ordinates of the geocentric universe clumsily and inelegantly, but nonethe less truthfully. I emphasise the word truthfully, because Galileo’s battle with the Church is described in school texts as a battle for truth. I admit that the computations in the case of a geocentric universe will be more complicated; they will certainly not be aesthetic or efficient. But they will not be false. For heliocentricism and geocentricism are only two possible ways of viewing a relativistic universe. There could be other ways. Any modern physicist will agree with you on this as long as you do not bring in Galileo. He or she will be uncomfort able the moment you propose that Galileo was as right or as wrong as the dignitaries of the Church were. Galileo’s dissent is a major myth of modernity, on which we have been brought up. To disown it is to disown a part of our selves.

The moral of the story is clear. What looks like radical dissent at one time may look like a lesser innovation at another, or become a lovely little story of dissent that has lost some of its edge. However, this also has a dangerous corollary: many ideas that were once instruments of liberation or parts of an emancipatory theory, which for decades came in handy for those battling social injustice or inequality, have ceased to be emancipatory. Perhaps for the simple reason that human beings, given enough time, are perfectly capable of converting even the most radical theories of emancipation into sanctions for new forms of violence and oppression. It is probably better to be suspicious of all theories of emancipation after a point. Indeed, I believe that the coming generations may seriously demand that any significant psychological or political theory, to be so recognised, must have either an element of self-destructiveness or a subsystem of self-criticism built in. It may not be good for the theorists, but it will certainly be good for the rest of the world. There is no harm in viewing all theories of liberation as transient instruments that retain the potentiality of becoming oppressive in the end.

Everyone knows of the demise of Leninism; few have noticed the demise of classical liberalism. Nothing reveals this twin defeat more poignantly than the changing language of the winners of the world. The new slogans of the victorious have gradually become those that the likes of Marx and Freud thought emancipatory. I have in mind the various theories of progress, science, rationality, social evolutionism and development. The Nazis killed in the name of eugenics, the Soviet communists in the name of scientific history. The Khmer Rouge in Cambodia virtually acted out the dissertations that some of its leaders wrote for prestigious French universities. Values that at one time were associated with or indicated the defiance of authority are the values of the authorities today. Values that at one time looked authoritative and dominant have become the values of the marginalised and the powerless. We are moving into a world where the nature of authority is different. People at the heart of the Establishment today talk of the end of history, poverty and human rights. Obviously because the end history has reached is not the one for which generations of dissenting intellectuals have worked. Poverty has become a billion-dollar multinational enterprise and the idea of human rights is being exported by countries that have the shoddiest human rights record in the southern world. Nothing lasts forever; even dissent does not remain dissent after a point.

For us, who deal with human subjectivities, there is a more serious development in the wake of the crisis in modernity. The visions that presumed that individuality should provide the basic unit of social analysis and psychological intervention are themselves under severe stress. With individualism increasingly taking quasi pathological forms, strengthening individuality no longer looks like a foolproof recipe for health. A few years ago, I was told that in large apartment complexes in some Scandinavian cities, electronic devices were fitted in the toilets of lonely, elderly people. If a toilet was not flushed for a long stretch of time, the janitor came and broke into the apartment to check if the householder was alive. This was a response to instances of lonely senior citizens, deprived of community life, dying in their flats and the neighbours finding out only after the bodies began to decompose and smell. This is individualism taken to its logical conclusion. It is my suspicion that all theories of consciousness — and unconsciousness — will have to learn to look at the individual from a different point of view.

We do not have to give up the concept of individualism. We have seen what reified, overdone concepts of aggregates — such as race, class, nationality and ethnicity — can do. In the last century, mostly deriving sanction from deified or demonised concepts of groups, we killed 200 million of our fellow human beings. Their ghosts haunt all contemporary ideas of collectivity. I suggest that we re-examine individualism in societies where, in the name of individualism, certain basic dimensions of individuality have themselves been subverted. For most practical purposes, individualism has been reinterpreted as self-interest and consumer ism. The Internet now threatens to reinterpret it as solipsism. The advertisement-driven individual ism associated with consumer choice would have frightened even Sigmund Freud, whose individualism always had a Shakespearean dimension.

I once tried to calculate the number of shades of lipsticks on the world market. Within a short time, I arrived at a figure that ran into thousands. It is doubtful if the human retina is physiologically capable of registering that many shades of colour. I presume the width of this choice is partly bogus; it creates an illusion of wider choice than there actually is. It would have been a perfectly innocent illusion if the total cosmetics bill of American women had not over-stripped the total budgets of all the African countries taken together. For the moment, I am ignoring the quarter of a million animals sacrificed every year in US laboratories alone for scientific experiments, a significant proportion of them conducted for the cosmetics industry.[5] This is not a plea to abridge choice across the board; it is a plea to recognise that certain forms of absurd multiplication of choices can have psychosocial costs and can be considered puerile. I am merely taking seriously the activist-scholar R.L. Kumar’s proposition that the rhetoric of wider choice often hides the fact that in modern societies, an individual is increasing ly left with only three substantive choices: to be a tourist, a voter or a consumer. Other choices are usually either secondary or illusory. I am inviting you to extend to the favourite slogans of our times what Philip Rieff considers the heart of the Freudian enterprise, the analytic attitude.[6]

The very idea of the disenchantment of the world, so closely associated with the idea of demystification, is itself reaching the end of its tether. The world is getting so thoroughly secularised that the idea of a fully secular world has ceased to be an attractive dream, except to those still living in the nineteenth century. Two factors have contributed to the growing scepticism towards secularism. First, there is the growing environmental crisis, which to many seems intertwined with the secularisation of the cosmos and the desacralisation of nature and nonhuman life forms. If nothing is transcendent or sacred, the final word on social morality becomes the aphorism of John Maynard Keynes, who crucially shaped some of the major economic institutions with which we live: "In the long run we are all dead." If that is so, in a fully secularised, fully individualistic world, there is no reason why we should leave anything behind for the future. Certainly, institutions structured around self-interest, rationality and hard realism have even less reason to do so. A conventional wit, W.C. Fields puts it more directly and honestly: "Why should I think about the future? What has the future done for me?"

That is why many of the social formations that look like rebellions against secularism turn out to be, on closer scrutiny, the offspring of secularisation. Disoriented by a changing world, they desperately seek meaning in the packaged versions of faith vended by charlatans, gurus and bloodthirsty religious fanatics. I have been studying ethnic and religious violence during the last two decades. One of the most remarkable features of such violence, I find, is the element of secularisation that has crept into it. Religious fanaticism now has little to do with faith, tradition or community. It is a product of uprooting, breakdown of community ties and weakening of faith. Thus, expatriate Indians in the First World reportedly financed — almost entirely — the Ram Janmabhoomi movement that demolished the Babri mosque in India in 1992 and triggered countrywide violence. Likewise, expatriate Tamils have largely bankrolled Tamil militancy in Sri Lanka and the IRA has consistently received funding during the last seven decades from Irish Americans. It was almost as if individuals, feeling increasingly deracinated and uprooted, have taken up causes to battle their own sense of loss of tradition and community ties, and to create what Hannah Arendt used to call pseudo-communities.

If this explanation looks too facile, there is the fact that in all of South Asia, communal riots are becoming a kind of expertise, even a profession. You can organise ethnic or communal violence anytime you like, provided someone gives you enough cash and political protection. You can order a designer riot to bring down a regime or change voting patterns or advance the cause of a political faction. The activists are known, so are their fees and their political patrons. The leaders who deploy these activists are also increasingly blatant about their profession. Organised religious and ethnic violence itself has become one of the most secular spheres of our public life. That is why Mr L.K. Advani, the leader of what many consider the world’s biggest revivalist formation, the BJP Hindu nationalist forces in India, the man who headed the movement that led to the demolition of the Babri mosque, could openly say in an interview with The Times of India, a national newspaper, that he is not much of a believer. As for his own religious sentiments, he added for good measure, he feels closer to Sikhism than to Hinduism.

Advani is no exception. The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh or the RSS, the steel frame of Hindu nationalism, was established in 1925. It supposedly has a million members now. Many of them are believers. Yet, for most of its existence and throughout all its formative years, the RSS has not had as its head persons who could be called believers. The first time the RSS chose a believing Hindu as its head was when M.S. Golwalkar took over in 1940. The earlier leaders were not diffident non-believers; they openly flaunted their disbelief, often trying to show how scientifically minded they were by attacking Hindu rituals and idolatry. They believed that they were fighting for the political cause of the Hindus, not defending Hindu religious traditions. Thus V.D. Savarkar, who coined the term Hindutva and authored what has become the Bible of Hindu revivalism, Hindutva, declares himself an atheist in the same book. Evidently, the violent and venomous furies of religious fanaticism are not always associated with theories of transcendence in our time. They have been direct products of the modern, secular world and the time has come for us to re-examine such fanaticism as the pathology of a modern ideology rather than that of a faith.

At the end, very briefly, I offer two theoretical proposals that might serve as possible baselines for reconceptualising forms of contemporary subjectivity, especially as they are reflected in the idea of individuality. I choose them because both are indirectly relevant to theories of the healthy personality and psychotherapeutic practice.

First, healthy, normal individualism is also possible when the boundaries of the self are not as sharply demarcated in terms of belief, faith or identity, categories that the moderns feel comfortable with. Our deepening cross-cultural experiences demand that we redefine health to accommodate a different concept of the boundaries of the self. Let me give two examples, one of them my favourite. I can confidently predict that there will never be religious conflict between the Shintos and the Buddhists in Japan, for the simple reason that a huge majority of the Japanese are Shintos and a huge majority of them are Buddhists. A similar prediction can be made about the Confucians and the Buddhists in China. Whereas in a country like India, where a periodic modern, scientific census has been conducted since colonial times, the percentages of different religious communities are so meticulously calculated that they always add up to exactly 100 per cent. The Hindus constitute 82.0 per cent of India, the Muslims 12.1 per cent, the Christians 2.3 per cent, the Sikhs 1.9 per cent, and so on.

Yet, when the Indian Anthropological Survey did a comprehensive survey in the early 1990s, not of individuals but of communities, it discovered that roughly 15 per cent of the 2,800 communities studied had more than one faith. That does not only mean that these communities consist of people from different faiths; it also means that the communities include individuals who can be classified as belonging to more than one faith. This is not new for us. I have mentioned Japan and China. Even Christianity and Islam — faiths that have shed enormous volumes of blood to deter mine the fate of Jerusalem over the last two millennia — evidently have other incarnations in the tropics. The Indian survey mentions 116 communities that are simultaneously Christian and Hindu, 94 that follow both Christianity and the various ‘tribal religions’, and 35 that are Hindu and Muslim. Seventeen communities are followers of three religions simultaneously — 11 can be classified as Hindu, Muslim and Sikh, six as Hindu, Muslim and Christian.[7] A colleague of mine has studied the Meos, one of the largest Muslim communities in northern India. They are devoutly Muslim, but also trace their origins to the Mahabharata clans. They have their own Mahabharata that they perform ritually. Even now, some elderly Meos have both Hindu and Muslim names, the way a huge majority of the Indonesians do.[8]

It is possible to re-envision individualism, self-identity, and even the borders of the self. Some points of departure are available and it is our responsibility to confront the violence of our age by pursuing these possibilities. We also have to remember that the communities that have kept alive these possibilities, despite enormous pressures to change or conform, are a beleaguer ed lot. The forces of globalisation and cultural homogenis ation threaten their lifestyles. Take the case of the Meos. Muslim fundamentalists, Islamic nationalists and many modern Muslims have not been comfortable with Meo religious culture. Many Meos, too, having been victims of religious violence on and off during the last fifty years, now feel that their Islam is flawed. Indeed, Professor K. Suresh Singh, who headed the Indian Anthropolog ical Survey’s study of communities, tells me that the multi-religious communities revealed by his survey are the last remnants of a phenomenon that was once much more widespread in the region. They have ceased to be the norm in India, as in other parts of South and Southeast Asia. The official, enumerative world in which we live has no respect for such traditions. It works with a more Cartesian concept of the individual self.

I reaffirm that there are possible ways of looking at the person to which the modern world has few clues. These possible ways cannot be explained away as mystificat ions or as romantic invocations of the past. Indeed, it is we who have been living in a make-believe world that ignores other concepts of the boundaries of the self with which a huge proportion, perhaps even a majority of the world, still lives. The new slave trade flourishing in our times, with the full support of a large cross-section of the intellectual community, exports such people from our neighbourhoods to history. We talk about them in the past tense and accuse anyone concerned about them of incurable romanticism.

Secondly, not only can the self be seen as being in dialogue with others, as most currently fashionable theories of multiculturalism have come to acknowledge, the self can also be seen in the other and the other as telescoped in the self. This is not unheard of in clinical literature. There are studies that explain homicidal hatred towards outgroups as an attempt to exorcise alien parts of the self, the ghosts within. From the beginning, projection and displacement have been important defences in psychological studies of racism and ethnophobia. However, the healthier, more integrative possibilities in the story have not been explored The same defences of projection and displacement can sometimes bond diverse communities within a shared cultural space.[9] As I have already said, the Enlightenment’s tradition of demystification bares the material, the corporeal, the unhealthy and the ‘ugly’. It undervalues forms of second-order demystification that might reveal the sources of creativity and psychological health that underlie manifest ill health.

Recently, I studied a city in South India, Cochin, where at least fourteen major communities have lived for centuries. It is a small city which was cosmopolitan and international much before the present idea of cosmopolitanism was imported into India in colonial times. The communities range from two Jewish communities, one of which claims to have been in the region for more than two millennia, to Yemeni Arabs, who claim that they were in touch with Cochin even in pre-Islamic times, to the Eurasian Parangis who came into being as a community only in the last four hundred-odd years. These communities live there and have lived there in peace. I studied the city to learn how.[10]

It took me some time to find out that their co-existence was not dependent on brotherly love. The communities were often ambivalent towards each other; sometimes they positively disliked the other. But while they did so, no person or community considered itself complete without the others. Cochin lives in what I have elsewhere called an epic culture, not a linear, empirical, historical concept of culture and community. In that epic vision of life, you need villains to complete the picture, though these villains are usually fashioned out of the same defensive structures that students of ethnic and religious violence have come to fear.[11] Such a vision has to reaffirm, ritually and regularly, the existing configur ation of the contests between the godly and the ungodly. You simply cannot do without the demons because you cannot even represent the gods without the demons. They are symbiotic al ly related and are an unavoidable part of each other and your self. You do not have to love the demons, but you cannot nurture annihilatory fantasies about them either. It is a bit like the story of the Jewish Robinson Crusoe who, I am told, had to build two synagogues, one to pray in and the other to set up as the one into which he would never step. The second synagogue was important to him. He might have hated it, but his self-definition was not complete without it

During the last two centuries, in the area of social knowledge and knowledge of self, we have managed to destroy such visions by bringing in a peculiar evolutionary perspective on the relation between space and time. That perspective has drawn upon the various nineteenth-century theories of progress to convert geographies into histories, histories into geographies. At one time, one had the right to dislike other communities because they did not conform to one’s ideas of morality and propriety. However, usually one was forced to yield to the others, even if unwilling ly, the same right to dislike one. It is no longer fashionable to exercise such rights or to own up to such prejudices. The triumphant culture of globalised cosmopolitanism has convinced us that we must pretend, even if we do not believe so, that everyone is the same. Yet, the same cosmo politan ism allows us to classify cultures according to the distance they have traversed on the time-scale of history. So, I may not detest you — as representing a culture, a religion, nationality or ethnic group — but I retain the right to believe that you are what I was yesterday or in the last century. And if you behave well, if you obey the textbooks I have produced on self-improvement — through economic development, technological growth, acquisition of scientific rationality or ‘proper’ political education — you could be like me tomorrow. It is like Albert Schweitzer’s idea of fraternity, as recalled by Chinua Achebe. "The African is my brother," Schweitzer appears to have said, "but a younger brother." Only this idea, which today infects virtually all liberal and radical theories of social change, is apparently an improvement on Immanuel Kant’s or David Hume’s belief in the natural inferiority of the blacks, browns and yellows.

For in Schweitzer’s view, some cultures are only living out the pasts of others and are, to that extent, obsolete and redundant. A few cynics may claim that this is a way of pre-empting the future of some of the oldest civilisations of the world and annihilating the present of hundreds of humble micro-cultures that keep open our options by acting like cultural gene banks of alternative, dissenting or even fantastic concepts of selfhood. But that is certainly not a popular view in the mainstream global culture of common sense.

I am optimistic enough to believe that the new century will define the capacity to listen to others as a major human virtue. An earlier generation of psychotherapists spoke of the need to listen with a third ear. Perhaps the next generation, less burdened by the ghosts of yesteryear, will not be embarrassed to speak of the need to listen with a second heart.

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Notes:

This essay draws on the author’s keynote address at the International Congress of the International Association of Group Psychotherapy, Jerusalem, 2000

1. See a more detailed discussion in Ashis Nandy, ‘The Savage Freud: The First Non-Western Psychoanalyst and the Politics of Secret Selves in Colonial India’, in The Savage Freud and Other Essays in Possible and Retrievable Selves (New Delhi: OUP, 1995).

2. Friedrich Heer, ‘Freud, the Viennese Jew’, tr W. A. Littlewood, in Jonathan Miller (ed.), Freud, The Man, His World, His Influence (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1972).

3. Christiane Hartnack, ‘Psychoanalysis and Colonialism in British India’, PhD dissertation, Berlin, Freie Universität, 1988; Ashis Nandy, ‘The Savage Freud’ (see above).

4. A. K. Ramanujan, ‘The Indian Oedipus’, in T. G. Vaidyanathan and Jeffrey Kripal (eds.), Vishnu on Freud’s Desk: A Reader in Psychoanalysis and Hinduism (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999). See also Gananath Obeysekere, ‘Further Steps in Relativisation: The Indian Oedipus Revisited’, Ibid.

5. Shiv Visvanathan, ‘Annals of a Laboratory State’, A. Nandy,
Science, Hegemony and Violence: A Requiem for Modernity (New Delhi: Oxford University Press and Tokyo: UN University Press).

6. Philip Rieff, The Triumph of the Therapeutic: Uses of Faith After Freud (New York: Harper, 1968).

7. K. S. Singh, People of India: An Introduction (New Delhi: Anthropological Survey of India, 1994), Vol. 1.

8. Shail Mayaram, Resisting Regimes: Myth and Memory in a Muslim Community (New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1997).

9. Shail Mayaram, ‘Living Together: Ajmer as a Paradigm of the Asiatic City’, in Kayoko Tatsumi (ed.), Multiculturalism: Modes of Coexistence in South and Southeast Asia (Washington: SPF, 1998), mimeo. This paper unwittingly and, therefore, unselfconsciously shows the involvement of two of the classical concerns of psychoanalytic anthropology — possession and psychic healing — in an Islamic mosque shared by Muslims and Hindus, and presided over by an unlikely Imam, a woman called Sushila Rohatgi.

10. See Ashis Nandy, ‘Time Travel to a Possible Self: Searching for the Alternative Cosmopolitanism of Cochin’, The Japanese Journal of Political Science, December 2000, 1(2).

11. Cf. Vamik D. Volkan, The Need to Have Enemies and Allies (New York: Jason Aronson, 1988).
          Eliminatorias Eurobásquet 2009: Bosnia Herzegovina 77 – Israel 71.        
Partido flojo de la selección hebrea que dirige Tzvika Scherf, que no pudo frente al caldeado ambiente del gimnasio de Tulsa con 3.000 personas que abarrotaron las tribunas y que festejaron ruidosamente el triunfo local. El cotejo se disputó en el marco de la 2da. fecha de la serie D de las eliminatorias del Eurobásquet […]
          Ne Kvari Mi Bolan Ceif Bosnian Homemade Anal        
Enjoy Ne Kvari Mi Bolan Ceif Bosnian Homemade Anal at PornoTube.rs - best free hardcore pornotube videos and homemade sex movies.
          Cruise - Dubrovnik, Croatia        


Jeremy and I both think Dubrovnik is one of the most beautiful places we have ever visited. It is basically an old city built within a fortress on the crystal blue and green Mediterranean waters. We spent a good part of the morning walking the fortress walls and wandering the narrow and tight streets within the castle grounds. The water was so beautiful I had to pull up my pant legs and wade right into it at the bottom of the castle walls. We ran into a taxi driver who offered us a private tour of the cliffs behind the city at a reasonable rate. It was the most stunning scenery ever. We also got a good look into Bosnia â€“ not a place I’d love to visit but certainly an interesting place to get a sneak peak at. They film the show Game of Thrones here and so everyone on the cruise ship was hardcore about seeing everything related to it.













Look, Pam -- a cat on the balcony without a leash. Can you believe it?





The highlight of our trip was having our guide tell us about his experience living in Dubrovnik when it was under attack from the Bosnian Serbs in ‘91. He had to live for three months in his home without electricity, running water, or food. The city itself was bombed to near destruction and was basically built from scratch over the past 20 years. Most of the fortress was damaged but salvageable; all the surrounding housing was built new but created to keep the old look and feel of the beautiful city that once stood there. Hearing our guide talk about the courageous and valiant (and incredibly young) Croatian people armed with hand grenades as the Serbs came over the mountain, pushing the Croatians down into the water and into hiding was heartbreaking. 






Bosnia


Yup, I'd live here.


          Ismet Prcic: Shards        
Ismet Prcic reads a passage from SHARDS, his debut novel about a young Bosnian who flees his war-torn homeland.
          South East Europe Six: From Double-Dip Recession to Accelerated Reforms         
This note discusses the external environment, economic outlook, and key policy challenges for the six South East European Countries (SEE6) -- Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH), Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia -- as they seek to reignite economic recovery. After two years of fragile recovery from the global recession, as a group, SEE6 countries experienced a double-dip recession in 2012. Deteriorating external conditions, the impact of the severe winter on economic activity, and a continuing rise in unemployment early in the year took a toll on consumption, investments, and exports. The rise in unemployment continues to threaten the social fabric. Credit recovery and fiscal consolidation are under threat. Nonperforming loans (NPLs) -- thought to be stabilizing only a few months ago -- are again on the rise. As a result, both within and outside the region, the environment has become much more difficult to navigate, and the policy trade-offs necessary to stabilize economies and reignite growth have become more difficult to make. To overcome these challenges, SEE6 countries need more intensive policy reform to reduce public debt and accelerate structural reforms, especially in fiscal consolidation and the financial sector, labor markets, and business environment. Additional external financing from international financial institutions (IFIs) for growth and jobs could prove effective, but only if accompanied by intensified fiscal and structural reforms.
          The Summer Before the War        
The Summer Before the War
author: Helen Simonson
name: Lawyer
average rating: 3.91
book published: 2016
rating: 5
read at: 2016/05/01
date added: 2016/05/04
shelves: 1914, 2016, first-world-war, historical-fiction, helen-simonson, war-poets, favorites
review:
The Summer Before the War: An Exaltation of Larks

By whatever means necessary get hold of a copy of The Summer Before the War by Helen Simonson and read it. Obtain it legally if possible. However, should you read it, praise it, press it into the hands of your book loving friends, don't expect it to be returned. It's that good.

I found I loved Ms. Simonson's writing in Major Pettigrew's Last Stand. This novel gives me even more cause to appreciate Simonson as an author.

The Summer Before the War is an ambitious and finely wrought work of historical fiction set in the East Sussex village of Rye during the summer of 1914. Although Archduke Ferdinand of Austria has been assassinated in Bosnia, few outside the halls of government expect England will find itself embroiled in a war over the troublesome Balkans. In fact, Agatha Kent, one of the indomitable women of Rye has decreed that there shall be no war. Agatha is more concerned with filling the position of Latin teacher at the village school. With a woman. On the Board of Governors of the School, along with Lady Emily Wheaton, they just may do it.

Agatha Kent's candidate to be the new Latin Mistress is Beatrice Nash, an independent young woman who served as her scholarly father's secretary until his recent death. Bereaved and penniless, Miss Nash has resigned herself to making her way in the world with a teaching position and life as a spinster.

However, Beatrice Nash is much younger and far more attractive than even Agatha Kent anticipated. Agatha's village rival, Bettina Fothergill, who lost a suitor to Agatha in their youth, is opposed to Miss Nash achieving the position. She pushes her nephew, appropriately named Mr. Poot, forward for the position.

Agatha married John Kent, a civil servant of long standing in London. Alas, they were never blessed with children. However, they had the benefit of two nephews: Hugh Grange, studying to be a surgeon; and, Daniel Bookham, who intended on spending the next year in France, starting a poetry journal. The two cousins had grown up spending summers and school holidays in the Kent household. John considered the boys the equivalent of the bestowing of fatherhood upon him without the expense of it.

Of course, the chosen professions of the two cousins is fine bit of foreshadowing. However, beforehand, it is essential that Miss Nash's position be secured. Enter Harry Wheaton, the son of Lady Emily. The clown, the prankster. The perfect co-conspirator to lead Mr. Poot astray causing poor Poot to hoist himself on his own petard.

Ms. Simonson creates a wonderful cast of village characters from Romany to Nobles. From that perspective consider this one of those books to love for those who mourn the absence of Downton Abby.

Especially delightful is the insertion of a Henry Jamesian character who resides in Rye. Oh, yes. Henry James, in fact, did live in East Susssex. The American author who would have preferred to have his nation of origin forgotten, having become the true Anglophile, is in full literary bloom. Alternately he speaks with wisdom. At others with arrogance and pomposity. Simonson slyly inserts wonderful little bits of James characater into the figure of "Twillingham" who joys in the adulation of his English reading public and little gems of anecdotes such as visits by Edith Wharton who squired the great man around the Shire in her gauchely large motor car.

With the coming of the Great War, Simonson keeps the reader on the edge of the seat while showing life at the home front and life on the Western Front. Here the cast of characters grows to include heroes for whom to cheer and villains who are devoid of competence and honor worthy of contempt.

The earliest impact on Rye is the reception of Belgian refugees fleeing the invasion of the Kaiser's Prussian troops. While their acts fall far short of the horrendous acts made subject of British propaganda in early days of the war in 1914, atrocities do occur.

And what of those residents who have ties to family in Germany? Consider that the heads of the British Realm, Russia, and Germany were all cousins, referring to one another by first names as they attempted to avoid the conflagration that erupted with the guns of August. While such connections may be acceptable for royalty, further down the social ranks, they are not. Lady Emily's daughter is married to a German Baron who has been called to his home for military service. Though the couple share a child, the couple is separated by war.

Helen Simonson has done her research before putting these words to paper. Rarely have I come across a work of fiction dealing with the War to End All Wars that so adequately reflects the coming changes this devestating war will bring about on an England that will be changed forever. This is a masterful work.

By all means, oh readers who are prone to pass over an author's acknowledgments and notes following the final page of narrative. This is a section not to be missed. For those interested in reading more about the Great War, there are referenced works here I can also recommend. I also give Ms. Simonson a tip of the hat for acknowledging that for her the poetry generated by the First World War lies at the heart of the story told in The Summer Before the War.

This one comes with my highest recommendation. A solid five star read with a heart rending ending. Hankie consumption will vary according to reader.

Extras

Soundtrack

Ralph Vaughn Williams was older by ten years than Britains younger composers who served during the First World War. He interrupted his musical career to serve in the Royal Army Medical Corps. Here is his Symphony No. 3, The Pastoral. First performed in 1922, the Symphony was considered a remembrance for those who died in service during the war.

Ivor Gurney was not only a composer but also a poet. Gurney served on the Western front beginning in 1915. After being shot and gassed and made a prisoner of war, he ultimately was returned to England. Here are three of his most famous war songs composed in the trenches while under fire. "Blood of Heroes" Presentation with "In Flanders" and "Severn Meadows" performances.

Gustav Holst who will forever be remembered for "The Planets" best known composition for the Great War is "Ode to Death." It has always been held to have been underperformed. However, you can listen to it Here. It will move you, as will each of these pieces.

And, one final note. What is an exaltation of larks? It is a poetic comment on the climb of the skylark high into the sky while uttering its twittering song As I used it in the title to this review it represents the resilient human spirit to endure the withering and winnowing of life, particularly of the young, which always survives and resurges to carry forward the abundance of life even in the face of sorrow.

It is fitting to return to Ralph Vaughn Williams. Here is The Lark Ascending.



          BITACORA OLIMPICA        
Por: Julio Arturo Couoh

Los Juegos de Beijing 2008 formarán parte de la Generación Youtube, al difundirse a través de este servicio de descarga de videos por Internet, al contar con un canal en la dirección youtube.com/Beijing2008, según informó a principios de la semana el Comité Olímpico Internacional, a través de un comunicado.
Ya se habían dado algunos antecedentes en Atenas y en Torino, aunque en esta ocasión, la principal interrogante tiene mucho que ver con la cuestión de censura o control a cargo del gobierno chino.
Por primera vez en casi 30 años, los juegos tienen como sede una nación bajo un régimen socialista, tal y como sucedió en Moscú 1980, en el apogeo de la Unión Soviética, al igual que los Juegos de Invierno de Sarajevo 1984 en la entonces República Yugoslava de Bosnia y Herzegovina.
Irónicamente al cabo de los años, después de la década de los 80’ y a principios de los 90’, el bloque socialista europeo acabaría por desmoronarse.

La cortina del dragón
Hoy, en China, los tiempos y circunstancias son otras, aunque tal y como lo han señalado algunas de las grandes cadenas televisivas, la sociedad china aún se mantiene celosa respecto a la apertura al mundo.
Muchos no habían estado tan acostumbrados a recibir al turista, ahora el flujo será impresionante desde esta semana, con la llegada de visitantes a la nación más poblada del mundo y que se encuentra perfilada prácticamente, a convertirse en la primera potencia del mundo tanto económica como industrial.
El gobierno de izquierda coexiste con una economía de libre mercado y con la presencia de innumerables inversiones extranjeras.
Pese a que dentro del movimiento olímpico una de las prioridades se encuentra en mantener una tendencia apolítica, a través de la historia se han dado situaciones a manera de reflejo de diversas circunstancias.
La competencia por el medallero entre Estados Unidos y la Ex-Unión Soviética, así como los bloqueos o boicots a los Juegos de Moscú y de Los Ángeles, por ejemplo eran otras proyecciones de la Guerra Fría.
Pero ahora, la lucha será entre el Dragón y el Águila Calva, por si puede definirse simbólicamente a China y a Estados Unidos, tal y como sucedía antes con el inmenso Oso Ruso.

Experiencia a modo
China busca que los Juegos Olímpicos de Beijing sean una conquista a modo reflejando también su cara progresista.
La interrogante se dará después de lo que suceda con la justa veraniega ante el siguiente cuestionamiento: ¿Estará el gigante asiático listo para seguir recibiendo visitantes, en la etapa posterior a los Juegos Olímpicos?
Sedes como Montreal o Atenas terminaron con una larga deuda, por nombrar algunas. Pero para Barcelona hubo un renacimiento impresionante al convertirse en uno de los destinos más socorridos en el ámbito turístico y ahora también en un polo de atracción dentro del terreno empresarial y de negocios.
De Atlanta, cuyo principal handicap en contra fue la transportación hubo también algunas transformaciones como el hecho de que el Estadio Olímpico se empleó para convertirse en el hogar de los Bravos en las Ligas Mayores de Béisbol.
Este deporte se despedirá del programa olímpico al menos para Londres 2012. En Beijing, la máxima gloria la buscan los cubanos, a quienes la revista especializada Sports Illustrated, les pronostica la medalla de oro.
La plata, menciona Bryan Cazanevue, en un exhaustivo análisis de disciplina por disciplina, será para los japoneses, en un duelo que simbolizará quizás la revancha del pasado Clásico Mundial de Béisbol de 2006, en el que los nipones derrotaron a los caribeños en aquella final llevada a cabo en el Parque Petco.
El bronce, de acuerdo con Cazaneuve, sería para Estados Unidos, equipo que tendrá como manejador al ex piloto de los Dodgers, Davey Johnson, quien también fuera el encargado de dirigir a Holanda en los Juegos Olímpicos de Atenas 2004.
SI pronostica también que la diferencia entre el primer y segundo lugar del medallero general será de tan sólo de cuatro preseas de oro favorable a China.
Los norteamericanos ganarán 45 títulos olímpicos, mientras que los asiáticos ganarán 49. Lo curioso es que la publicación estadounidense pone al deporte de las barras y las estrellas en el lugar uno de la competencia bajo el criterio de medallas totales con 121 contra las 102 de China, asegurando también q4e habrá más segundos lugares ganados por EEUU con 44 medallas de plata.

Reflejos y espejismos
La imagen de la ciudad de Tijuana se proyectó a través de la televisión nacional por cable, con la cartelera boxística del fin de semana pasado. Al mismo tiempo, desde Guadalajara, también se llevó a cabo otra transmisión a cargo de Televisa.
Al mismo tiempo que en la cartelera de Tijuana, fue notoria la promoción a cargo del XX Ayuntamiento, en la cartelera desde tierras tapatías, se dejó notar, aunque discretamente la imagen del Consejo para el Fomento del Deporte (CODE) de Jalisco bajo la campaña “Jal1sco es UNO”, empleada desde 2007 con motivo del entonces octa-campeonato de la Olimpiada Nacional.
Esta campaña ha continuado su rumbo en el 2009, al ligar el noveno campeonato para el estado, ubicado en una de las zonas geográficas con el mayor contraste en cuanto al nivel de competencia entre el estado campeón y aquellas entidades que le rodean como Michoacán y Colima, por ejemplo.
No obstante, no se puede demeritar el crédito del campeonato obtenido por la delegación tapatía a punto de cumplir una década hegemónica dentro del deporte juvenil e infantil amateur.
Sin embargo igual que el resto de los estados que han sido partícipes en el proceso de la Olimpiada Nacional, la verdadera prueba de fuego para dicho proceso deberá darse con la proyección de los mejores atletas en escenarios internacionales.
Los Juegos Olímpicos Juveniles de Singapur en 2010, serán el primer parámetro comparativo y evaluatorio.

Predicciones para México
Para el deporte mexicano en Beijing hay pocas posibilidades de medallas, aunque de acuerdo con Sports Illustrated, las más concretas se encuentran en el Taekwondo, donde Cazeneuve asegura que habrán dos.
Una de esas medallas podría sería un bronce para el michoacano Guillermo Pérez en los 58 kilogramos, división que sería dominada por el español Juan Antonio Ramos, inclusive por encima del aún campeón taiwanés Chu Mu Yen, quien ganó el oro en Atenas 2004.
En la rama femenil, la otra medalla pronosticada para México es para la sinaloense María del Rosario Espinoza, en la categoría de más de 67 kilogramos.
Los expertos como Cazeneuve aseguran que el oro sería para la china Chen Zhong y el subcampeonato, o sea la plata, para Espinoza.
Curiosamente, ni Espinoza ni Pérez son tapatíos, aunque el segundo es originario de un estado perteneciente a la región en la que también se encuentra la primera potencia deportiva del país.
No obstante, el mejor prospecto originario de Jalisco y que ya se encuentra en Beijing, es Yahel Castillo, a quien no le pronostican medalla, pero seguramente vivirá una gran experiencia dentro de sus primeros Juegos Olímpicos.
En los clavados la bola de cristal de SI asegura que en la rama femenil Paola Espinosa terminará con el bronce en la prueba de la plataforma, donde también podría obtener una segunda medalla con Tatiana Ortiz en los clavados sincronizados. No obstante, este solo es un análisis hipotético.

¿Y el golf?
En este momento la mejor deportista de origen tapatío en el plano internacional es Lorena Ochoa, quien se pulió en la NCAA al formar parte del programa de la Universidad de Arizona, plantel del que han egresado otras figuras como Tedy Bruschi, apoyador de los Patriotas de Nueva Inglaterra, con quienes obtuvo tres campeonatos y estuvo cerca del cuarto a principios de este año.
Al hablar brevemente del caso de Lorena Ochoa, viene a colación la consideración hecha por los practicantes y cuerpos colegiados del golf ante la propuesta de incluir este deporte en el programa olímpico.
Tal vez en los tiempos actuales y con respecto a la alta popularidad de esta disciplina entre las grandes cadenas como las del grupo de la ABC-Espn, Foz Sports, NBC y USA Network, por nombrar algunas, el Golf representaría un codiciado botín.
Uno de los más grandes atractivos para este verano en Beijing, se dará con el tennis, en el que participarán Roger Federer y Rafael Nadal dentro del mejor cartel varonil.
Otros nombres que se incluyen en la lista de participantes serán la rusa María Sharapova, la balcánica Ana Ivanovic y por Estados Unidos, las hermanas Venus y Serena Williams.
Muy pronto subiremos nuestras columnas al blog de www.elnoterio.blogspot.com, del mismo modo, preparamos ya nuestra direccion de correo:
bitacoraolimpica@gmail.com
          SL/Ol' McDonald's        

My first chance to talk to a Serbian in roughly two weeks...

I remember Milo telling me there was a McDonald's in Serbia (which has since burned down due to rioting). I wanted to ask about the McDonald's as soon as I could.

Patric Styrian: How is Serbia?
Konza Roundabout*: like always...bad
Patric Styrian: are you there right now?
Konza Roundabout: yes, im in Belgrade
Patric Styrian: is the mcDonalds back up yet?
Konza Roundabout: hahahahahaha
Konza Roundabout: i hate them
Konza Roundabout: i mean not McD
Konza Roundabout: hypoctrites
Konza Roundabout: they're destroying and tomorrow will eat big mac
Patric Styrian: true
Konza Roundabout: they didn't destroy pizza hut
Patric Styrian: i wonder why not
Konza Roundabout: i dont know
Konza Roundabout: stupid Serbs didnt know that hut is also american
Patric Styrian: poor things
Konza Roundabout: yea it's kinda..i feel sorry coz of ppl
Patric Styrian: as an American, i can't show my face there right now
Konza Roundabout: lol
Patric Styrian: i dodged milo earlier today
Konza Roundabout: we will say that you r from Kosovo
Konza Roundabout: :)
Patric Styrian: i like spelling Kosovo
Konza Roundabout: ahhh
Konza Roundabout: why must it be so complicated here
Patric Styrian: according to milo, serbia is surrounded by countries it dislikes and distrusts
Konza Roundabout: not really
Konza Roundabout: dont trust milo
Konza Roundabout: he's radical
Patric Styrian: milo and i share a house, and i remember coming home and seeing portrait of slobodan milosevic on wall
Konza Roundabout: pih
Konza Roundabout: i was in prison 1998
Konza Roundabout: political dissident
Patric Styrian: did they treat you well?
Konza Roundabout: what u think?
Patric Styrian: well, we have some prisons over here that are considered white collar
Konza Roundabout: ppl in america don't go to prison because of their political opinions
Patric Styrian: well, some do for not paying taxes
Konza Roundabout: hahaha
Konza Roundabout: yea
Konza Roundabout: you can even find hundreds of pages about our situation on net
Patric Styrian: one day and night, i'm going to do nothing but read about serbia
Patric Styrian: better yet, i think i'll give serbia an entire weekend
Konza Roundabout: ahh you dont have enough time for it in your life
Patric Styrian: i want serbia monday-tuesday, albania tuesday-wednesday, Bosnia wed-th...
Patric Styrian: i never will have time for america
Konza Roundabout: well you will finish albania in one week
Patric Styrian: lol
Konza Roundabout: Serbia is toooo old
Patric Styrian: Serbia is very young in our eyes
Patric Styrian: they haven't caught up to our technology yet, so they are young
Konza Roundabout: ahhh
Konza Roundabout: we don't have many kids
Patric Styrian: no?
Konza Roundabout: nope
Konza Roundabout: we r duying
Patric Styrian: awwww
Patric Styrian: i hope serbia can hang in there
Konza Roundabout: i dont know...first time since shit started i cant handle it anymore
Patric Styrian: conflict gets old
Patric Styrian: boring
Patric Styrian: predictable
Konza Roundabout: i want to come to usa
Patric Styrian: i want to go to holland
Patric Styrian: holland is full of nice people on here
Konza Roundabout: my best friend is living in amsterdam
Konza Roundabout: they all get high
Patric Styrian: mmm
Patric Styrian: country seems to run itself
Patric Styrian: everyone can get high there and country gets away with it
Konza Roundabout: And you can buy weed when you r not sick
Konza Roundabout: ;)
Patric Styrian: they allow weed there for when you're perfectly "well"
Patric Styrian: and it makes you "weller"
Konza Roundabout: yapo

*a pseudonym


          Dan Fesperman to talk on drones at Park Road Books Friday         
Fesperman

Drones. The very word sounds invasive.

On Friday, at 5:30 p.m., at Park Road Books, Dan Fesperman, a Charlotte native and a 1972 graduate of Olympic High School, will talk about his new thriller -- his ninth -- called "Unmanned" (Knopf, $26.95).

A former reporter for the Baltimore Sun, Fesperman draws his plots from his own  international assignments to Pakistan, Germany, Bosnia, Afghanistan and the Middle East.

Reviewing the novel for the Wall Street Journal, Howard Gordon says:

Dan Fesperman's excellent and timely ninth thriller, Unmanned, "...explores the ethical conundrums of the most potent new weapon in the American arsenal: the unmanned aerial drone. Watching our enemy from the sky is one thing, but what if those same eyes are looking down at us? And who is watching the watchers? Unmanned is a smart and thoughtful exploration of the unintended consequences of waging war by remote control."


WHAT: Dan Fesperman reads and answers questions about his new novel.
WHEN: 5:30 p.m. Friday
WHERE: Park Road Books, 4139 Park Road, Park Road Shopping Center, Charlotte, 28209
COST: Free and open to the public.

          War In Bosnia Porn        
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          Belgium pursues justice without borders         

Justice may be blind, but her reach is getting longer.

When a panel of Belgian jurors convicted four Rwandans of participating in the 1994 genocide in their country, they pioneered a new brand of "universal justice" that knows no borders.

The verdict, handed down early Friday morning after 11 hours of deliberation in the gloomy granite Palace of Justice in Brussels, marked the first time that a civilian jury - not a judge - in one country had judged crimes against humanity committed elsewhere.

"Every citizen of the world is concerned by a crime against humanity," said Michele Hirsch, a lawyer for relatives of victims of the genocide, in which as many as 800,000 ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutus were killed. "That makes every citizen competent to sit in judgment of such crimes."

"I hope that this is going to push the idea of universal justice, that it will be a springboard for other such cases," said Reed Brody, advocacy director of Human Rights Watch in New York.

The jury found the defendants, including two Roman Catholic nuns, guilty on most of the 55 counts against them, including murder and incitement to genocide. Witnesses called during the seven-week trial testified that the nuns had encouraged and collaborated with Hutu extremists who butchered and burned several thousand Tutsi refugees who had sought shelter in their convent. The nuns, a former government minister, and a former university professor were sentenced to between 12 and 20 years in prison.

The case was brought by Rwandan Tutsi exiles in Belgium, who had recognized on the streets of Brussels some of the Hutu extremists who carried out the genocide. They made use of a 1993 Belgian law that allows courts here to try cases of atrocities regardless of where they were committed. The defendant does not even have to be in Belgium to stand trial.

That law proved an embarrassment to the Belgian government last week, when it emerged that a private group had filed charges with judicial authorities here against Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, for his role in the massacre of Palestinians by Christian militia in the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps in Lebanon in 1982, when Mr. Sharon was defense minister.

The law does not offer immunity to serving heads of state or government, or to other officials accused of genocide, war crimes, or other crimes against humanity.

Belgian Foreign Minister Louis Michel said on Wednesday his government would "try to correct" aspects of the law. Diplomats said the law as it stands could hobble Belgian international relations. Brussels could not hope to mediate the Middle East conflict, for example, if Belgian courts were investigating the Israeli prime minister's alleged involvement in war crimes.

Mr. Michel added, however, that he remained committed to the principle behind the law, giving Belgian courts the right to try foreigners for foreign atrocities.

In fact, countries that ratify the 1949 Geneva Convention are bound to try such cases, but few actually do so. "We are unusual and ordinary at the same time," says Gerard Dive, the Belgian Justice Ministry's head of international criminal law. "We simply do in practice what everybody should be doing, but there is a habit of shutting ones' eyes."

A Belgian magistrate is currently investigating former Chadian dictator Hissene Habre, under whose 1982-90 rule some 40,000 political killings are said to have occurred. Private citizens have filed a complaint against former Iranian President Hashemi Rafsanjani for alleged torture of political prisoners.

A number of other countries have begun to take similar action to apply "universal justice." Most famously, Britain detained former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet for more than a year while the courts heard an extradition case against him filed by a Spanish judge who was investigating the disappearance of Spanish citizens in Chile during General Pinochet's rule.

Courts in Germany, Holland, and Denmark are prosecuting or have sentenced Bosnian Serbs and Muslims to jail for crimes during the Balkan wars; Mexico has agreed to extradite to Spain an alleged Argentinian torturer; and France began to prosecute an alleged torturer from Mali before he slipped out of the country last year.

Other countries have preferred not to prosecute such cases: Austria let a top aide to Iraq's Saddam Hussein leave Vienna in 1999 even though a criminal complaint had been filed against him with a local court. South African police did not arrest former Ethiopian tyrant Mengistu Haile Mariam when he visited South Africa two years ago, even though he is wanted in his home country for crimes against humanity. And in the United States, when the Justice Department detained an alleged Peruvian torturer last year, the State Department intervened to ensure his safe return home.

"Belgium is setting an example, and I hope it is a precedent other countries will follow," says Alain Destexhe, a Belgian senator who led a parliamentary inquiry into the genocide in Rwanda, a former Belgian colony. "It makes sense only if other countries follow suit" to ensure there is no haven for war criminals.

Though some observers had wondered whether a jury of 12 ordinary Belgians - they included a hairdresser, a truck driver, a university teacher, and a journalist - would be able to understand enough about the extraordinary, unfamiliar, and horrific events they were judging to reach an informed verdict, the result appeared to quell such doubts.

They picked their way carefully through the accusations, confirming some and rejecting others by votes that often split the jury 7 to 5.

The trial, says Mr. Brody, "showed it can be done. You can ask citizens to determine right and wrong in a lot of different circumstances. This is a major step forward for the principle that justice has no borders."

(c) Copyright 2001. The Christian Science Monitor

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          Casino Brango Exclusive $120 Freeroll Tournament        

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          Emily Chappell: Transcontinental Race Day 9        
9 days from Belgium, Emily crosses the border from Croatia into Bosnia-Herzegovina. She's built up a strong lead over other women in the race and has broken into the top 30 in the overall. But the tiredness, the tiredness.... #tcrno4 #transcontinental @emilychappell http://thatemilychappell.com via http://thebikeshow.net
           ‘Nesporazum je pravilo, razumevanje je izuzetak i čudo: Travnička hronika Ive Andrića’(Serbian/Croatian translation of ‘Misunderstanding is a Rule, Understanding is a Miracle: Ivo Andrić’s Bosnian Chronicle’)         
Milutinovic, Z; (2009) ‘Nesporazum je pravilo, razumevanje je izuzetak i čudo: Travnička hronika Ive Andrića’(Serbian/Croatian translation of ‘Misunderstanding is a Rule, Understanding is a Miracle: Ivo Andrić’s Bosnian Chronicle’). Sveske Zaduzbine Ive Andrica (26) 119 - 159. Green open access
           Taming Balkan Nationalism: The Habsburg 'Civilizing Mission' in Bosnia, 1878-1914         
Aleksov, B; (2009) Taming Balkan Nationalism: The Habsburg 'Civilizing Mission' in Bosnia, 1878-1914. SLAVON E EUR REV , 87 (3) 561 - 563.
          Bella Sicilia!        
Pasta con lo Sarde

I just returned from two weeks on the beautiful island of Sicily, a trip in the making for almost a year. A year that I’ve been calling a “milestone” year for several reasons:

  • a “decade” birthday for me
  • a trip to awesome Alaska in May (on my husband’s wishlist for at least 20 years)
  • visiting Sicily as an opportunity to explore the land of my maternal ancestors
  • and, finally, the impending retirement at the end of the year from my pharmaceutical career

I hesitate to use the word “retirement” because I’m not retiring in the traditional sense. But I am retiring from this part of my working life. Many people have asked me “what will you do now?” The honest answer is, I don’t know. Travel is certainly on the list. Perhaps expand my passion for writing about food, baking, and travel. The slate will be wiped clean and ready for a new chapter!

About halfway through every long trip, I get this overwhelming feeling that I don’t want to go home. I want to keep going - I want to keep walking through the ancient streets, through the bustling cities and quiet hill towns, rolling past the beautiful countryside. This sense first came over me during our 2015 Croatia/Slovenia/Bosnia-Herzgovinia trip. I know many people have experienced this. I guess it’s the definition of “wanderlust.” 
Monreale Cathedral

Listening to our trip leader and bus driver speak to each other in Italian (or Sicilian) with Italian folk music playing in the background as we traversed the island, this trip was a true cultural immersion.

We flew into Palermo a day early and after settling into our hotel, we had dinner at a nice restaurant close by. The photo at the top of the post is of the famous Sicilian dish -- pasta with sardines and fennel (both plentiful in Sicily). Made with fresh sardines and anchovies, and topped with toasted breadcrumbs, it is absolutely delicious and was the perfect first meal for our trip.

The next day we kicked off with a street food tour in the Sicilian capital. Run by Streat Palermo (not a typo, that is the name of the tour), this fun four hour tour walks in, around, and through the busy outdoor markets, all the while sampling delicacies (some of which are unique to Palermo), and learning about the sights along the way. Did you know that Palermo has 365 churches (for a population of 60 million)?! One for each day our tour guide told us. 
Arancino

Arancino
Not unique to Palermo (I’ve had them here in the US) are the wonderful little “arancino,” otherwise known as rice balls. These delicious treats can be stuffed with ground beef, peas, and cheese. You may notice the absence of tomato sauce from that description. That’s because authentic Sicilian rice balls omit it. And, interestingly, they can be referred to in two different ways: “arancina” (female), or “arancino” (male, from the Arab influence prominent in Sicily’s history).

BTW: Palermo has the third largest concentration of street food in the world (after China and India). Who knew?

Chickpea Fritters
On our way to our next taste destination (addictive chickpea fritters), we stopped at Monreale Cathedral, built in the 12th century by King William. The cathedral took 30 years to complete and includes 4,000 pounds of mosaics! In fact, this is the largest display of Byzantine mosaics in the world. 

Sfingone
Another delicious legacy from the early Arabs, is “sfingone,” roughly translated means “sponge.” Here on the East coast of the US, we would recognize this vaguely as Sicilian pizza. Thick, soft squares of tomato, caciocavallo cheese, breadcrumbs, and onions. There is one producer in all of Palermo who makes the dough and then individual vendors season it and toss it on a flattop griddle to warm it. 


Pane ca' Meusa cooking
If you’re doing a street food tour in Palermo, eventually you are going to come across a sandwich known as “pane ca’ meusa,” (bread with spleen), or “frittola” (butcher waste). Not a very appetizing description. Developed ages ago by enterprising Palermitanos (who waste nothing) after Kosher Jews discarded certain organ meats (spleen and lung), this is one of those things I think you either love or hate. The cooks slice the meat paper thin, fry it with olive oil, bay leaves, and cheese, season with salt and pepper, and serve it on a brioche roll. Well, I was there so I had to try it. Let’s suffice it to say, I am not in the “love” camp. I can’t even describe the taste. It was so unappealing to me, I didn't even take a picture. Enough said, let’s move on, shall we?

After our adventures with animal organ meats, we were in desperate need of a “digestivo.” Luckily, our guide, Francesca, had just the ticket. At a kiosk, the handsome man behind the counter makes fun drinks (alcoholic or non) for people on the go. He mixes orange or lime syrups, water, and just before you drink it, adds a fizzy tablet to make it bubble up. The trick is to drink the whole thing before the fizz evaporates (and without it exploding all over your clothes) - no easy feat! But it definitely gives your stomach a much-needed break. And, as Francesca told us, it is not considered bad manners to burp out loud after drinking it!
Digestivo Man!
Drink fast!

From there, we headed directly to the crown jewel of this tour: cannolo! Again, not a typo. A singular pastry is known as a cannolo, more than one is cannoli. This is now the cannolo by which all cannoli shall be judged! With a shell so crisp, it shattered into a million pieces when I bit into it, and filled with fresh, fragrant ricotta sprinkled with crushed pistachios, candied orange zest, and chocolate chips, it was magic!

All this history and food and our actual two week tour had not even begun yet. I had a feeling this vacation was going to be epic, for many reasons.

Tomorrow, part two, in which I’ll take you with us as we start the official trip and visit the beautiful towns of Castelbuono, Cefalu, Erice, and more! And you won't want to miss reading about our lunch at the fabulous (two Michelin star) Duomo in Ragusa!

 Ciao for now!



       

          Música para las mujeres en guerra        
No fueron fáciles los tres años de rodaje del documental “La guerra contra las mujeres”, como en este blog os fui contando día a día desde la República Democrática del Congo, Kenia, Sudán, Uganda, Bosnia y EEUU. Hubo momentos, como los vividos en uno de los tantos viajes a la provincia de Kivu, en que […]
          Programa del 23 Festival de Sarajevo        

Son of Sofia, de Elina Psykou, Grecia.

Siete películas lucharán por el Corazón de Sarajevo del festival de la capital bosnia, el evento cinematográfico más importante del sureste europeo. El SFF sigue fortaleciendo cada año su infraestructura y añadiendo atractivos a cada entrega. Para su 23ª edición contará, entre otros, con la presencia de Joshua Oppenheimer, Oliver Stone y John Cleese –a los que se condecorará con el Corazón Honorífico—, y Michel Franco, integrante del jurado de la sección oficial. Una competición que este año se presenta más abierta que nunca ya que, salvo la cinta búlgara Directions, que pasó por Un Certain Regard de Cannes, el resto de integrantes han tenido una trayectoria anónima por el circuito de festivales. Un hecho que podría etiquetar a la película de Stephan Komandarev como favorita, aunque hay que recordar que en Sarajevo optaron al máximo galardón filmes como El hijo de Saúl o Mustang en años anteriores y tuvieron que conformarse con el Gran Premio del Jurado. De Directions justamente nos habló nuestro compañero Alberto Saéz en la pasada entrega del evento galo: «...Una cámara hiperactiva irá transportándonos a varios vehículos, con diferentes conductores, gracias a los que podremos conocer, tanto a los pasajeros como a los propios taxistas. Con esta premisa entraremos en un mundo de violencia horizontal en el que se juzgará a todos con igual imparcialidad, tanto al empresario aburguesado arrogante que desprecia a todos los que no llegan a su nivel económico, como al propio trabajador pluriempleado que se aprovecha de la ingenuidad de las personas y hace uso de la estafa como recurso habitual. El realizador se mostrará indolente con todos ellos, tanto en la inicial crítica idiosincrática, como en la respuesta vengativa final, una dinámica de acción-reacción presente a lo largo de todo el metraje y que vendrá introducida por ese prólogo homicida que expone, con certeza, la dinámica fundacional del filme en cuanto al tratamiento de la justicia, la violencia y la venganza». La propuesta búlgara nos traslada a la realidad nocturna de la capital búlgara a través de este transporte público, un universo de corrupción y violencia.

En esa misma línea se mueve la georgiana Hostages, que se estrenará en España el próximo septiembre gracias a Karma Films: «Georgia soviética, 1983. Los preparativos de la boda de Nika y de Ana están en marcha; es un gran día para ambos, miembros de familias de la élite local. Para los recién casados y sus amigos, sin embargo, las celebraciones son en realidad parte de un encubrimiento, que tiene como objetivo abandonar el Telón de Acero». Es la quinta película del realizador Rezo Gigineishvili y la primera oportunidad de este de exhibirse en las carteleras occidentales. Algo a lo que aspira Elina Psykou con su segunda película –ya ganó en los premios helénicos con su ópera prima I aionia epistrofi tou Antoni Paraskeva en 2013—, Son of Sofia (que ya pasó por Tribeca), retrato de los albores de la crisis económica griega allá por 2004, durante la celebración de los Juegos Olímpicos de Atenas. Una coyuntura personificada en Misha, ruso de diez años que se reúne con su madre en la urbe helena. Un cambio que quebrará las concepciones familiares con las que se crio el joven. Precisamente sobre la familia trata Scary Mother: «Manana, es un ama de casa de 50 años de edad que lucha contra un dilema: tiene que elegir entre su vida familiar y su pasión por la escritura, que ha reprimido durante años. Ella decide seguir su pasión y se sumerge en las letras, sacrificando todo, tanto mental como físicamente». Nata Murvanidze encabeza este primer largometraje de Ana Urushadze. Un nombre más dentro del momento de despegue del cine georgiano. Un auge todavía no sellado para la industria rumana. Emanuel Pârvu se suma a esa Nueva Ola trufada de grandes nombres con The Not So Bright Side of Things, un drama sobre la vida de un leñador que recientemente perdió a su esposa y se enfrenta a la difícil labor de criar a Meda, una niña de la que se encargaba su mujer, mientras mantiene el negocio. Şerban Pavlu y Adrian Titieni encarnan los roles principales. Una vez más, la crisis es el leitmotiv de la propuesta albana Daybreak: «Leta se encuentra en una situación económica difícil ya que no ha sido capaz de pagar el alquiler de varios meses. Cuando ella y su hijo de un año de edad son expulsados de su apartamento, se mudan con Sophie, una mujer inmóvil cuya hija ha empleado a Leta como cuidadora. Con el fin de mantener su trabajo y su nuevo techo, Leta tiene que mantener con vida a Sophie a cualquier precio». Daybreak es el estreno en la ficción de Gentian Koçi. Como cierre de la sección más relevante, el otomano Semih Kaplanoğlu presentará Grain, tragedia sobre los flujos migratorios en la península turca protagonizada por Jean-Marc Barr. Otra muesca sobre una temática con muchas vías por recorrer. Pero no solo de la competición vive el festival balcánico. En otras secciones se proyectarán filmes como A Ghost Story (David Lowery), Happy End (Michael Haneke), Loveless (Andréi Zvyagintsev), Nocturama (Bertrand Bonello), The Rider (Chloé Zhao), The Square (Ruben Östlund), Palma de Oro de Cannes, Verano 1993 (Carla Simón) y la sensacional Western (Valeska Grisebach). El Festival de Sarajevo se desarrollará del 11 al 18 de agosto.

Competición

- Daybreak, de Gentian Koçi, Albania.
- Directions, de  Stephan Komandarev, Bulgaria.
- Grain, de Semih Kaplanoğlu, Turquía.
- Hostages, de Rezo Gigineishvili, Georgia.
- MEDA or The Not So Bright Side of Things, de Emanuel Pârvu, Rumanía.
- Scary Mother, de Ana Urushadze, Georgia.
- Son of Sofia, de Elina Psykou, Grecia.

Pueden consultar el resto del programa en la web oficial del SFF.

          ANEXOS        
Artículo Enciclopedia encarta:




Constitución

Constitución (ciencia política), ley fundamental, escrita o no, de un Estado soberano, establecida o aceptada como guía para su gobernación. La constitución fija los límites y define las relaciones entre los poderes legislativo, ejecutivo y judicial del Estado, estableciendo así las bases para su gobierno. También garantiza al pueblo determinados derechos. La mayoría de los países tienen una constitución escrita. La de Gran Bretaña, encarnada en numerosos documentos (por ejemplo, la Carta Magna) y el derecho consuetudinario que definen las relaciones de los ciudadanos con la Corona, el Parlamento y los tribunales, no está escrita, pese a que, en muchas ocasiones, se ha postulado su redacción para que Gran Bretaña disponga de un texto análogo al de la gran mayoría de estados.


Las constituciones pueden clasificarse mediante varios criterios: si están protegidas contra enmiendas (constituciones blindadas), si presentan una clara separación de poderes, si las disposiciones pueden ponerse en vigor mediante revisión de la actuación del ejecutivo o del legislativo, si establecen un Estado unitario o federado, etc. Las constituciones escritas están asociadas históricamente al liberalismo político y a la Ilustración. Tal es el caso de la historia del constitucionalismo español. Muchos estados autoritarios y totalitarios poseen unas elaboradas constituciones, pero, en la práctica, no tienen vigor para ser respetadas por el gobierno en el poder, que siempre puede no acatarlas, suspenderlas o invalidarlas.


Constituciones en el mundo
Constituciones vigentes en el mundo





1. Afganistán: 1987 .suspendía tras el golpe fundamentalista al gobierno marxista en 1992
2. Albania : 39 de abril de 1991
3. Alemania: ley fundamental. promulgada en 1949
4. Andorra : 1983
5. Angola: noviembre de 1975. modifica en 1976,1980,1991
6. antigua y barbuda: noviembre de 1981
7. Arabia saudita: desde el 1 de marzo de 1992 , el gobierno monárquico absolutista se rige por intermedio del sistema básico gubernamental
8. Argelia : febrero de 1989
9. argentina : 1853. modificada en 1860,1866,1898y 1994
10. Armenia: en 1993 entro en vigencia una nueva constitución
11. Australia : 1 de enero de 1901
12. Austria:1920 .enmendada en 1929
13. Azerbaiján: se prepara una constitución dentro del sistema autoritario que impera en el es país islámico
Bahamas : 10 de julio de 1973.
14. Bahrein : 1973, bajo la monarquía absolutista
15. Bangla Desh: es enmendada e 1973,74,75,77,79,81.88.89 y 91
16. barbados : 30 de noviembre de 1966
17. belarus: se redacta una nueva constitución
18. Bélgica: 1831.enmendada varias veces y revisadas en 1949 y 1971
19. Belice: 21 de septiembre de 1981
20. Benín: el dictador Kereskou al abandonar el marxismo establece una constitución el 2 de diciembre de 1990 .propiciando el multipartidismo por primera vez
21. bhutan : 1953
22. Bolivia 1967
23. bophuthatswana : se rige por la constitución de Sudáfrica
24. Bosnia-Herzegovina: 1974.Modifica en 1989,90,91
25. Botswana: 30 de septiembre de 1966.En una de las pocas democracias del África
26. brasil: 5 de octubre de 1988.la primera constitución , en un gobierno civil en 24 años
27. Brunei darussalam :1959. algunos preceptos fueron suspendidos en 1962 , por el reino absolutista mas rico del mundo
28. Bulgaria :13 de junio de 1991 , ante la caída del viejo régimen marxista pro soviético y la instauración del pluripartidismo
29. burkina faso: con el establecimiento del multipartidismo se consolida una nueva constitución el 11 de junio de 1991
30. Burundi : 13 de marzo de 1992.suspendida por el golpe militar de 1993 que derroco al primer presidente civil .Melchior Ndadaye en plena vigencia
31. cabo verde : 7 de septiembre de 1980 modificada en septiembre de 1990
32. Camboya : 27 de junio de 1981. modificada por el régimen pro soviético de Samrin en 1989
33. Camerún : aprobada en 1996
34. canada : acta constitucional de 1982
35. ciskei : suspendida por el nuevo régimen militar en 1990
36. Colombia : 6 de julio de 1991
37. congo: al establecerse e nuevo sistema multipartidista , se redacto una nueva constitución en 1992
38. corea del norte : la constitución del 27 de diciembre de 1972
39. corea del sur: 25 de febrero de 1988
40. costa rica : 7 de noviembre 1949
41. cote d” Ivoire: (antes costa de marfil ) 31 de octubre de 1960. modificada por el presidente vitalicio Houphoner
43.Croacia: Diciembre de 1990
44. Cuba: 1976
45. Chad: Aprobada en 1996
46. Chile: 1980, Enmendada en 1989
47. Chipre Septentrional: 5 de mayo de 1985, aprobada por referéndum
48. Chipre, 16 de Agosto de 1960
49. Dinamarca, 5 de junio de 1953
50. Djibouti, 1991 y 1984. Leyes constitucionales realizadas pro la dictadura de Aptidón.
51. Dominica: 3 de noviembre de 1978
52. Ecuador: 10 de Agosto de 1978
53. Egipto: 11 de Septiembre de 1971
54. El Salvador: 20 de Diciembre de 1983, modificada en 1991.
55. Emiratos Árabes unidos: Siembre de 1971, en provisional establecido por la monarquía absolutista.
56. Eritrea: El país más joven de la tierra esta redactando su primera constitución bajo el gobierno provisional de Osaías Afwerki, Ex líder de la guerrilla del Frente de Liberación popular de la Eritrea (FLPE).
57. Eslovaquia: El país más joven de Europa se rige bajo la misma constitución de la Republica Checa creada el primero de enero de 1993, ambos estados pertenecían a la antigua Checoslovaquia
58. Eslovenia, Diciembre de 1991
59. España, 29 de diciembre de 1978
60. Estado Vaticano, no hay constitución,(Ley fundamental) 2001
61. Estados unidos, 1787, tiene 26 enmiendas
62. Estonia, una nueva constitución fue sometida a referéndum el 28 de junio de 1992, el país Báltico fue uno de los primeros en independizarse y establecer el sistema multipartidista.
63. Etiopía, promulgada en 1994
64. Fiji: 25 de julio de 1990
65. filipinas: El régimen democrática Corazón Aquino estableció una nueva constitución el 2 de febrero de 1987, que fue sometida a referéndum.
66. Finlandia: 17 de Julio de 1979
67. Francia: 6 de octubre de 1958
68. Gabón: 21 de febrero de 1961, modificada por Omar Gongo, uno de los dictadores mas antiguos del mundo en 1967-1975-1981-1986-1990.
69. Gambia: 24 de abril de 1990 , enmendada en 1982 por el régimen democrático de Dawda K. Jawara.
70. Georgia: Aprobada en 1995
71. Ghana: Marzo de 1992, el nuevo régimen democrático somete a referéndum la nueva constitución.
72. Granada: 1974 fue suspendida por el golpe marxista de 1979 y reestablecida en 1984, luego de la invasión norteamericana.
73. Grecia: Válida desde 1986
74.Guatemala: 14 de enero de 1985
75. Guinea Bissau: 16 de mayo de 1984, bajo la dictadura izquierdista de Luis Cabral y modificada en 1991 por su seguidor Joao Vieira.
76. Guinea Ecuatorial: Obiang Nguema establece una nueva constitución en noviembre de 1991 y es sometida a consulta popular.
77. Guinea: 23 de diciembre de 1991
78. Guyana: El régimen izquierdista de Forbes Burham establece una nueva constitución el 6 de octubre de 1980 y modificada en 1988 por sucesor Desmond Hoyte
79. Haiti. 1987
80. Honduras: Noviembre de 1982,
81. Hungría: 18 de Agosto de 1989. Modificada en 1972, 1983, 1989.
82. India: 26 de Enero de 1950, Modificada en 1975, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1986, 1988, 1992 en la democracia más grande del mundo.
83. Indonesia, agosto de 1945, modificada en 1969 por régimen autoritario más antiguo del mundo del dictador Suharto.
84. Irak: 22 de septiembre de 1968, enmendada en 1969,1970, 1973, y 1974 de manera provisional.
85. Iran: Creada por el gobierno fundamentalista islámico del desaparecido Ayatollah Khomeini en diciembre de 1979, enmendada en 1989.
86. Irlanda del Sur: 29 de Diciembre de 1937
87. Islandia: 17 de junio de 1944
88. Islas Camoras: 7 de junio 1992
89. Islas Marianas del norte: 1986
90. Islas Marshall: 1 de mayo de 1979
91. Islas Micronesia: 10 de mayo de 1979
92. Islas Palau: 1 de enero de 1981
93. Islas Salomón: 7 de julio de 1978
94. Israel: No existe constitución política como tal sino un conjunto de leyes; desde 1950 se han incorporado durante un periodo no específico.
95. Italia: 1 de enero de 1948
96. Jamaica: 6 de Agosto de 1962, conjuntamente con la independencia nacional
97. Japón: 3 de noviembre de 1946. En vigor en mayo de 1947.
98. Jordania: 1 de enero de 1952, enmendada en 1974, 1976 y 1984.
99. Katar: 2 de abril de 1970, creada por la monarquía Absolutista con carácter provisional.
100. Kazajstán: Aprobada en 1995
101. Kenya : 12 de diciembre de 1963, enmendada en 1982, 1986, 1991 durante los gobiernos autoritarios de Jommo Kenyata y Danieal Arap Moi.





Las 10 Constituciones mas jóvenes del mundo

1) Chad: 1996
2) Camerún: 1996
3) Sudáfrica: 1996
4) Georgia: 1995
5) Armenia: 1995
6) Kazajstan:1995
7) Malwi:1994
8) Bielorusia:1994
9) Lusemburgo: 1994
10) Rusia: 1993








No Existen constituciones en los siguientes países

1) Israel
2) Nueva Zelanda
3) Reino Unido (Escocia, Inglaterra, Gales, Irlanda del Norte)
4) San Marino
5) Vaticano
6) Bhutan
7) Omán
8) Somalia




Se han suspendido las funciones de la Constitución en los siguientes países

1) Afganistán: Tras el derrumbe del gobierno marxista en 1992.
2) Togo: El régimen autoritario de Eyadema la suspendió en 1991, tras los disturbios políticos que reclaman mayor para el multipartidismo al igual que otros países africanos.
3) Sudán: El nuevo régimen fundamentalista, que llegó vía golpe militar en 1989, suspendió la constitución de 1985 y ahora se rige a base de leyes coránicas.
4) Venda: El nuevo régimen castrense de 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la constitución.
5) Ciskei: Los golpistas militares que asumieron el gobierno en 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la Constitución.
6) Myanmar: El régimen castrense que asumió el poder en 1998 prohibió la constitución de 1974.
7) Burundi: Los golpistas que llegaron al poder a finales de 1993 y derrocaron la primera democracia del país, suspendieron la constitución de marzo de 1992
8) Transkei: Los golpistas encabezados por el general Bantu Holomisa suspendieron la constitución de 1987.
          The Blazers' Bosnian Beast With John Gonzalez (Ep. 92)        
The Ringer's Chris Vernon and John Gonzalez discuss the curious case of the Cleveland Cavs (02:00), the ascent of Nikola Jokic and the Denver Nuggets (06:30), Jusuf Nurkic flourishing with the Trail Blazers (10:30), and the NBA experience in Portland (31:00).
          Euro 2016 Qualifying Upsets         
Upset wins (10+ FIFA ranking difference) in UEFA EURO 2016 Qualifying games between September 7-9

Format:
FIFA Ranking Difference
Score - Nation (Current FIFA Ranking)
Score - Nation (Current FIFA Ranking)


121
2 - Cyprus (140)
1 - Bosnia/Herzegovina (19)

61
2 - Northern Ireland (95)
1 - Hungary (34)

59
1 - Albania (70)
0 - Portugal (11)

54
1 - Estonia (93)
0 - Slovenia (39)

32
2 - Czech Republic (35)
1 - Netherlands (3)

23
1 - Slovakia (45)
0 - Ukraine (22)

14
1 - Romania (27)
0 - Greece (13)

14
3 - Iceland (46)
0 - Turkey (32)

          2014 World Cup 1st Group Phase: Players Distance Covered         
Players who covered a distance of 11,500 meters (≈7.15 miles) or more in their first 2014 World Cup game.

12,734 - Saphir Taider (Algeria)
12,730 - Michael Bradley (USA)
12,718 - Marcelo Diaz (Chile)
12,341 - Charles Aránguiz (Chile)
12,271 - Muhamed Besic (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
12,182 - Miralem Pjanic (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
11,747 - Luis Garrido (Honduras)
11,720 - Mile Jedinak (Australia)
11,701 - Toni Kroos (Germany)
11,687 - Kevin De Bruyne (Belgium)
11,622 - Viktor Fayzulin (Russia)
11,611 - Mario Götze (Germany)
11,577 - Khosro Heydari (Iran)
11,515 - Aleksandr Kokorin (Russia)

          2014 World Cup: Highest Top Speed in 1st Group Phase        
The players with the highest top speed (kph) in their 1st game of the World Cup group stage.

32.33 - Raphael Varane (France)
32.29 - Mats Hummels (Germany)
32.15 - Fabio Coentrao (Portugal)
31.93 - Pablo Armero (Colombia)
31.79 - Marcos Rojo (Argentina)
31.61 - Juan Cadrado (Colombia)
31.61 - Jordi Alba (Spain)
31.61 - Andy Najar (Honduras)
31.43 - Mathew Leckie (Australia)
31.43 - Victor Moses (Nigeria)

31.39 - Jermaine Jones (USA)
31.21 - Muhamed Besic (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
31.07 - Angel Di Maria (Argentina)
31.07 - Ramires (Brazil)
31.07 - Alexis Sanchez (Chile)
31.07 - Yuto Nagatomo (Japan)
31.07 - Paul Aguilar (Mexico)
31.03 - Arjen Robben (Netherlands)
31.03 - Ron Vlaar (Netherlands)
31.03 - Souleymane Bamba (Cote d'Ivoire)

31.03 - Mesut Ozil (Germany)
30.89 - Kevin-Prince Boateng (Ghana)
30.85 - Jason Davidson (Australia)
30.85 - Martin Caceres (Uruguay)
30.71 - Yaya Toure (Cote d'Ivoire)
30.71 - Die Serey (Cote d'Ivoire)
30.71 - Georgios Samaras (Greece)
30.67 - Gervinho (Cote d'Ivoire)
30.64 - Eugenio Mena (Chile)
30.49 - Jose Cholevas (Greece)

30.49 - Faouzi Ghoulam (Algeria)
30.49 - Benedikt Hoewedes (Germany)
30.35 - Khosro Heydari (Iran)
30.31 - Victor Ibarbo (Colombia)
30.17 - John Boye (Ghana)
30.17 - Wesley Sneijder (Netherlands)
30.17 - AndranikTimotian (Iran)
30.13 - Divock Origi (Belgium)
30.13 - Gamboa (Costa Rica)


Source: Official FIFA Documents

          2014 World Cup: Player Representation by League         
League systems with players represented at the 2014 World Cup.


GROUP A

Brazil
6 - England
4 - Brazil
3 - Italy
3 - Spain
2 - France
2 - Germany
1 - Russia
1 - Ukraine
1 - United States (1: Canada)

Cameroon
7 - France
6 - Turkey
3 - Spain
2 - Cameroon
2 - England
2 - Germany
1 - Belgium

Croatia
4 - Ukraine
3 - Croatia
3 - Germany
3 - Italy
3 - Spain
2 - England
2 - Greece
2 - Russia
1 - France (1: Monaco)

Mexico
15 - Mexico
3 - Spain
2 - Portugal
1 - England
1 - France
1 - Germany



GROUP B

Australia
6 - Australia
3 - England
3 - Germany
2 - Netherlands
2 - Switzerland
1 - Austria
1 - Belgium
1 - China
1 - Italy
1 - Qatar
1 - South Korea
1 - United States

Chile
5 - Chile
5 - Spain
4 - Italy
3 - Brazil
3 - England (1: Wales)
1 - Netherlands
1 - Sweden
1 - Switzerland

Netherlands
10 - Netherlands
6 - England (2: Wales)
3 - Germany
2 - Turkey
1 - Italy
1 - Ukraine

Spain
14 - Spain
6 - England
2 - Italy
1 - Germany



GROUP C

Colombia
6 - Italy
3 - Argentina
3 - Colombia
3 - France (1: Monaco)
2 - Portugal
2 - Spain
1 - England
1 - Germany
1 - Mexico
1 - Netherlands

Greece
9 - Greece
6 - Italy
2 - England
2 - Spain
2 - Turkey
1 - Germany
1 - Scotland

Cote d'Ivoire
5 - France
4 - Germany
4 - Turkey
4 - England (1: Wales)
2 - Switzerland
1 - Belgium
1 - Cote d'Ivoire
1 - Italy
1 - Norway

Japan
11 - Japan
7 - Germany
2 - England
2 - Italy
1 - Belgium



GROUP D

Costa Rica
9 - Costa Rica
3 - Norway
3 - United States
1 - Belgium
1 - Denmark
1 - Germany
1 - Greece
1 - Netherlands
1 - Russia
1 - Spain
1 - Sweden

England
22 - England
1 - Scotland

Italy
20 - Italy
3 - France

Uruguay
5 - Italy
4 - Spain
3 - Brazil
3 - England
2 - Portugal
1 - France
1 - Japan
1 - Mexico
1 - Paraguay
1 - Turkey
1 - Uruguay


GROUP E

Ecuador
8 - Ecuador
7 - Mexico
1 - Brazil
1 - Colombia
1 - England
1 - Germany
1 - Netherlands
1 - Russia
1 - Saudi Arabia
1 - UAE

France
9 - England
8 - France
3 - Spain
1 - Germany
1 - Italy
1 - Portugal

Honduras
11 - Honduras
4 - England
4 - United States
1 - Belgium
1 - China
1 - Costa Rica
1 - Scotland

Switzerland
9 - Germany
7 - Switzerland
5 - Italy
2 - Spain


GROUP F

Argentina
7 - Italy
4 - Spain
3 - Argentina
3 - England
3 - Portugal
2 - France
1 - Mexico

Bosnia and Herzegovina
7 - Germany
5 - Turkey
2 - Croatia
2 - England
2 - Italy
1 - Austria
1 - Bosnia and Herzegovina
1 - China
1 - Hungary
1 - Ukraine

Iran
14 - Iran
2 - England
1 - Germany
1 - Kuwait
1 - Netherlands
1 - Portugal
1 - Qatar
1 - Spain
1 - United States (1: Canada)

Nigeria
6 - England
3 - Nigeria
2 - Belgium
2 - France
2 - Israel
2 - Turkey
1 - Italy
1 - Netherlands
1 - Russia
1 - Scotland
1 - Spain
1 - Ukraine


GROUP G

Germany
17 - Germany
4 - England
1 - Italy
1 - Spain

Ghana
5 - Italy
5 - France
2 - Russia
2 - South Africa
1 - Belgium
1 - England
1 - Germany
1 - Ghana
1 - Greece
1 - Netherlands
1 - Norway
1 - Tunisia
1 - UAE

Portugal
8 - Portugal
6 - Spain
3 - Turkey
1 - England
1 - France
1 - Germany
1 - Italy
1 - Russia
1 - Ukraine

United States
10 - United States (1: Canada)
4 - England
4 - Germany
1 - France
1 - Mexico
1 - Netherlands
1 - Norway
1 - Turkey


GROUP H

Algeria
4 - Italy
4 - Spain
3 - England
3 - France
3 - Portugal
2 - Algeria
1 - Bulgaria
1 - Croatia
1 - Qatar
1 - Tunisia

Belgium
11 - England
3 - Belgium
2 - Germany
2 - Russia
2 - Spain
1 - France
1 - Italy
1 - Portugal

Russia
23 - Russia

South Korea
6 - South Korea
6 - Germany
4 - England
3 - Japan
3 - China
1 - Saudi Arabia


Player Representation by League System

119 - England (4: Wales)
82 - Italy
79 - Germany
65 - Spain
46 - France (2: Monaco)
34 - Russia
26 - Mexico
26 - Turkey
22 - Portugal
21 - United States (3: Canada)
20 - Netherlands

15 - Japan
14 - Iran
13 - Greece
12 - Belgium
12 - Switzerland
11 - Brazil
11 - Honduras
10 - Costa Rica
9 - Ukraine
8 - Ecuador

7 - South Korea
6 - Argentina
6 - Australia
6 - China
6 - Croatia
6 - Norway
5 - Chile
4 - Colombia
4 - Scotland
3 - Qatar

2 - Algeria
2 - Austria
2 - Cameroon
2 - Saudi Arabia
2 - Sweden
2 - Tunisia
2 - UAE

1 - Bosnia and Herzegovina
1 - Bulgaria
1 - Cote d'Ivoire
1 - Denmark
1 - Hungary
1 - Kuwait
1 - Paraguay
1 - Uruguay


          2014 World Cup: Foreign Born Players        
Players in the final 2014 World Cup squads that were born outside of the country they are representing.


GROUP A

Brazil
NONE

Cameroon
Charles Itandje (France)
Benoît Assou-Ekotto (France)
Allan Nyom (France)
Joël Matip (Germany)
Maxim Choupo-Moting (Germany)

Croatia
Dejan Lovren (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
Vedran Ćorluka (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
Nikica Jelavić (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
Ivan Rakitić (Switzerland)
Mateo Kovačić (Austria)
Sammir (Brazil)
Eduardo (Brazil)

Mexico
Miguel Ángel Ponce (USA)
Isaác Brizuela (USA)



GROUP B

Australia
Dario Vidošić (Croatia)

Chile
Miiko Albornoz (Sweden)
Jorge Valdívia (Venezuela)

Netherlands
Bruno Martins Indi (Portugal)
Jonathan de Guzmán (Canada)

Spain
Diego Costa (Brazil)



GROUP C

Colombia
NONE

Cote d'Ivoire
Sol Bamba (France)
Jean-Daniel Akpa-Akpro (France)
Giovanni Sio (France)
Mathis Bolly (Norway)

Greece
Loukas Vyntra (Czech Republic)
José Holebas (Germany)
Panagiotis Kone (Albania)

Japan
Gōtoku Sakai (USA)


GROUP D

Costa Rica
Óscar Duarte (Nicaragua)

England
Raheem Sterling (Jamaica)

Italy
Gabriel Paletta (Argentina)
Thiago Motta (Brazil)

Uruguay
Fernando Muslera (Argentina)


GROUP E

Ecuador
NONE

France
Patrice Evra (Senegal)
Rio Mavuba (Born at Sea; link)

Honduras
NONE

Switzerland
Valon Behrami (Kosovo)
Xherdan Shaqiri (Kosovo)
Blerim Džemaili (Macedonia)
Admir Mehmedi (Macedonia)
Gelson Fernandes (Cape Verde)
Johan Djourou (Cote d'Ivoire)


GROUP F

Argentina
Gonzalo Higuaín (France)

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Emir Spahić (Croatia)
Mensur Mujdža (Croatia)
Sead Kolašinac (Germany)
Zvjezdan Misimović (Germany)
Muhamed Bešić (Germany)
Izet Hajrović (Switzerland)

Iran
Daniel Davari (Germany)
Steven Beitashour (USA)

Nigeria
Peter Odemwingie (Uzbekistan)



GROUP G

Germany
Miroslav Klose (Poland)
Lukas Podolski (Poland)

Ghana
Adam Kwarasey (Norway)
Kevin-Prince Boateng (Germany)
André Ayew (France)
Jordan Ayew (France)
Albert Adomah (England)

Portugal
Pepe (Brazil)
Nani (Cape Verde)
William Carvalho (Angola)
Éder (Guinea-Bissau)

United States
Fabian Johnson (Germany)
Timothy Chandler (Germany)
John Brooks (Germany)
Jermaine Jones (Germany)
Mix Diskerud (Norway)



GROUP H

Algeria
Raïs M'Bolhi (France)
Cédric Si Mohamed (France)
Carl Medjani (France)
Liassine Cadamuro-Bentaïba (France)
Faouzi Ghoulam (France)
Aïssa Mandi (France)
Medhi Lacen (France)
Hassan Yebda (France)
Mehdi Mostefa (France)
Sofiane Feghouli (France)
Saphir Taïder (France)
Yacine Brahimi (France)
Nabil Bentaleb (France)
Riyad Mahrez (France)
Nabil Ghilas (France)

Belgium
Anthony Vanden Borre (DR Congo)

Russia
NONE

South Korea
NONE

          2014 World Cup: Oldest Players        
32+ year old players at the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

GROUP A

Brazil
DF - Maxwell (32)
DF - Maicon (32)

Cameroon
FW - Samuel Eto'o (33)
FW - Pierre Webó (32)

Croatia
GK - Stipe Pletikosa (35)
DF - Darijo Srna (32)
DF - Danijel Pranjić (32)
FW - Ivica Olić (34)

Mexico
GK - José de Jesús Corona (33)
DF - Carlos Salcido (34)
DF - Rafael Marquez (35)
DF - Francisco Javier Rodriguez (32)


GROUP B

Australia
GK - Eugene Galeković (33)
MF - Mark Bresciano (34)
FW - Tim Cahill (34)

Chile
GK - Johnny Herrera (33)
FW - Esteban Paredes (33)

Netherlands
FW - Dirk Kuyt (33)

Spain
GK - Iker Casillas (33)
MF - Xavi (34)
MF - Xavi Alonso (32)
FW - David Villa (32)


GROUP C

Colombia
GK - Faryd Mondragón (42)
DF - Mario Yepes (38)
MF - Aldo Leão Ramírez (33)

Cote d'Ivoire
GK - Boubacar Barry (34)
DF - Didier Zokora (33)
DF - Kolo Toure (33)
FW - Didier Drogba (36)

Greece
DF - Loukas Vyntra (33)
DF - Vangelis Moras (32)
MF - Giorgos Karagounis (37)
MF - Kostas Katsouranis (34)
FW - Thoeofanis Gekas (34)
FW - Dimitris Salpingidis (32)

Japan
MF - Yasuhito Endo (34)
FW - Yoshito Okubo (32)


GROUP D

Costa Rica
GK - Patrick Pemberton (32)

England
MF - Steven Gerrard (34)
MF - Frank Lampard (35)
FW - Rickie Lambert (32)

Italy
GK - Gianluigi Buffon (36)
DF - Andrea Barzagli (33)
MF - Andrea Pirlo (35)

Uruguay
GK - Rodrigo Muñoz (32)
DF - Diego Lugano (33)
MF - Diego Perez (34)
MF - Egidio Arevalo Rios (32)
FW - Diego Forlan (35)


GROUP E

Ecuador
DF - Walter Ayovi (34)
DF - Jorge Guagua (32)
MF - Edison Mendez (35)
MF - Segundo Castillo (32)

France
GK - Mickaël Landreau (35)
DF - Patrice Evra (33)

Honduras
GK - Noel Valladares (37)
GK - Donis Escober (34)
DF - Victor Bernardez (32)
FW - Jerry Palacios (32)

Switzerland
NONE


GROUP F

Argentina
GK - Agustin Orion (32)
DF - Martin Demichelis (33)
DF - Hugo Campagnaro (33)
MF - Maxi Rodriguez (33)
FW - Rodrigo Palacio (32)

Bosnia and Herzegovina
GK - Asmir Avdukić (33)
DF - Emir Spahić (33)
MF - Zvjezdan Misimović (32)

Iran
GK - Rahman Ahmadi (33)
DF - Jalal Hosseini (32)
DF - Amir Hossein Sadeghi (32)
MF - Javad Nekounam (33)

Nigeria
DF - Joseph Yobo (33)
FW - Shola Ameobi (32)
FW - Peter Odemwingie (32)


GROUP G

Germany
GK - Roman Weidenfeller (33)
FW - Miroslav Klose (36)

Ghana
NONE

Portugal
GK - Beto (32)
DF - Bruno Alves (32)
DF - Ricardo Costa (33)

United States
GK - Tim Howard (35)
GK - Nick Rimando (34)
DF - DaMarcus Beasley (32)
MF - Jermaine Jones (32)
MF - Brad Davis (32)
MF - Kyle Beckerman (32)



GROUP H

Algeria
NONE

Belgium
DF - Daniel Van Buyten (36)

Russia
GK - Sergey Ryzhikov (33)
DF - Sergei Ignashevich (34)
MF - Roman Shirokov (32)

South Korea
DF - Kwak Tae-Hwi (32)




OLDEST GK
Faryd Mondragón (Colombia: 42)

OLDEST DF
Mario Yepes (Colombia: 38)

OLDEST MF
Giorgos Karagounis (Greece: 37)

OLDEST FW
Didier Drogba (Cote d'Ivoire: 36)


TOP 5 OLDEST AVERAGE TEAM AGE
28.4 - Argentina
28.2 - Portugal
28.0 - Uruguay
28.0 - Spain
27.9 - Iran

          All-time FIFA World Cup Rankings        
The all-time FIFA World Cup Rankings (based on results in previous WC appearances) of the 32 teams participating in the 2014 World Cup in Brazil.

All-time FIFA World Cup Rankings

1 - Brazil
2 - Germany
3 - Italy
4 - Argentina
5 - England

6 - Spain
7 - France
8 - Netherlands
9 - Uruguay
12 - Russia

14 - Mexico
18 - Portugal
19 - Belgium
20 - Chile
21 - Switzerland

25 - USA
26 - South Korea
27 - Croatia
28 - Cameroon
32 - Japan

34 - Ghana
37 - Nigeria
38 - Colombia
40 - Costa Rica
42 - Ecuador

44 - Australia
47 - Algeria
50 - Cote d'Ivoire
53 - Iran
59 - Honduras

61 - Greece
n/a - Bosnia and Herzegovina



Teams in the All-Time top 30 not participating in the 2014 World Cup:

10 - Sweden
11 - Serbia
13 - Poland
15 - Hungary
16 - Czech Republic
17 - Austria
22 - Paraguay
23 - Romania
24 - Denmark
29 - Scotland
30 - Bulgaria

          2014 World Cup: Foreign-Born Players        
Players in the provisional 2014 World Cup squads that were born outside of the country they are representing.


GROUP A

Brazil
NONE

Cameroon
Charles Itandje (France)
Benoît Assou-Ekotto (France)
Allan Nyom (France)
Jean-Armel Kana-Biyik (France)
Raoul Loé (France)
Joël Matip (Germany)
Maxim Choupo-Moting (Germany)

Croatia
Dejan Lovren (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
Vedran Ćorluka (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
Nikica Jelavić (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
Ivan Rakitić (Switzerland)
Mateo Kovačić (Austria)
Sammir (Brazil)
Eduardo (Brazil)
Mario Pašalić (Germany)

Mexico
Miguel Ángel Ponce (USA)
Isaác Brizuela (USA)



GROUP B

Australia
Dario Vidošić (Croatia)

Chile
Marcos González (Brazil)
Miiko Albornoz (Sweden)
Jorge Valdívia (Venezuela)
Pablo Hernández (Argentina)

Netherlands
Bruno Martins Indi (Portugal)
Jonathan de Guzmán (Canada)

Spain
Diego Costa (Brazil)



GROUP C

Colombia
NONE

Cote d'Ivoire
Sol Bamba (France)
Jean-Daniel Akpa-Akpro (France)
Giovanni Sio (France)
Mathis Bolly (Norway)

Greece
Loukas Vyntra (Czech Republic)
José Holebas (Germany)
Panagiotis Kone (Albania)

Japan
Gōtoku Sakai (USA)


GROUP D

Costa Rica
Óscar Duarte (Nicaragua)

England
Raheem Sterling (Jamaica)

Italy
Gabriel Paletta (Argentina)
Thiago Motta (Brazil)
Rômulo (Brazil)
Giuseppe Rossi (USA)

Uruguay
Fernando Muslera (Argentina)


GROUP E

Ecuador
NONE

France
Patrice Evra (Senegal)
Rio Mavuba (Born at Sea; link)

Honduras
NONE

Switzerland
Valon Behrami (Kosovo)
Xherdan Shaqiri (Kosovo)
Blerim Džemaili (Macedonia)
Admir Mehmedi (Macedonia)
Gelson Fernandes (Cape Verde)
Johan Djourou (Cote d'Ivoire)


GROUP F

Argentina
Gonzalo Higuaín (France)

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Emir Spahić (Croatia)
Mensur Mujdža (Croatia)
Sead Kolašinac (Germany)
Zvjezdan Misimović (Germany)
Muhamed Bešić (Germany)
Izet Hajrović (Switzerland)

Iran
Daniel Davari (Germany)
Steven Beitashour (USA)

Nigeria
Peter Odemwingie (Uzbekistan)


GROUP G

Germany
Miroslav Klose (Poland)
Lukas Podolski (Poland)

Ghana
Adam Kwarasey (Norway)
Jeff Schlupp (Germany)
Kevin-Prince Boateng (Germany)
André Ayew (France)
Jordan Ayew (France)
Albert Adomah (England)

Portugal
Pepe (Brazil)
Nani (Cape Verde)
William Carvalho (Angola)
Éder (Guinea-Bissau)

United States
Fabian Johnson (Germany)
Timothy Chandler (Germany)
John Brooks (Germany)
Jermaine Jones (Germany)
Terrence Boyd (Germany)
Mix Diskerud (Norway)


GROUP H

Algeria
Raïs M'Bolhi (France)
Cédric Si Mohamed (France)
Carl Medjani (France)
Liassine Cadamuro-Bentaïba (France)
Faouzi Ghoulam (France)
Aïssa Mandi (France)
Medhi Lacen (France)
Adlène Guedioura (France)
Hassan Yebda (France)
Foued Kadir (France)
Mehdi Mostefa (France)
Sofiane Feghouli (France)
Ryad Boudebouz (France)
Saphir Taïder (France)
Yacine Brahimi (France)
Nabil Bentaleb (France)
Amir Karaoui (France)
Riyad Mahrez (France)
Rafik Djebbour (France)
Nabil Ghilas (France)

Belgium
Anthony Vanden Borre (DR Congo)

Russia
NONE

South Korea
NONE

          Brazil 2014 World Cup Groups - April FIFA Rankings        
GROUP A - 23.75 
6  Brazil
19 Mexico
20 Croatia
50 Cameroon

GROUP B - 22.25
1 Spain
14 Chile
15 Netherlands
59 Australia

GROUP C - 20.50
4 Colombia
10 Greece
21 Cote d'Ivoire
47 Japan

GROUP D - 14.75
5 Uruguay
9 Italy
11 England
34 Costa Rica

GROUP E - 21.00
8 Switzerland
16 France
28 Ecuador
32 Honduras

GROUP F - 28.25
6 Argentina
25 Bosnia and Herzegovina
37 Iran
45 Nigeria

GROUP G  - 14.00
2 Germany
3 Portugal
13 USA
38 Ghana

GROUP H - 27.75
12 Belgium
18 Russia
25 Algeria
56 South Korea


2014 World Cup Nations - April 2014 FIFA Rankings
1 Spain
2 Germany
3 Portugal
4 Colombia
5 Uruguay
6 Argentina
6 Brazil
8 Switzerland
9 Italy
10 Greece

11 England
12 Belgium
13 USA
14 Chile
15 Netherlands
16 France
18 Russia
19 Mexico
20 Croatia

21 Cote d'Ivoire
25 Bosnia and Herzegovina
25 Algeria
28 Ecuador

32 Honduras
34 Costa Rica
37 Iran
38 Ghana

45 Nigeria
47 Japan

50 Cameroon
56 South Korea
59 Australia

          071 - Jose R. Lopez - Photo Brigade Podcast        

On this episode Robert Caplin chats with his friend, veteran New York Times staff photojournalist and editor, Jose R. Lopez. They talk about Jose's 31-year-long career at The Times covering major news events as a photographer and supporting many amazing staff and freelance photographers as an editor on various picture desks over the years!  So sit back, relax, and enjoy this episode of the Photo Brigade Podcast. 

Jose R. Lopez recently took early retirement from The New York Times as one of the 100 journalists that were offered the buyout from the Times company. In his 31 years as a journalist at The Times, he was a staff photographer for the newspaper for 16 years, which included an 8.5 year stint in the Washington bureau and covered the last three years of the Reagan administration, all four years of the Bush (41) administration and the first 1.5 years of the Clinton Administration. He returned to New York and continued to shoot a variety of assignments including 2 Olympics- 88 Winter Games in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and the 96 Summer Games in Atlanta, GA, 5 Super Bowls, a couple of World Series, NCAA final four tournaments as well as other national and metro assignments. In December of 1995, he was sent to Bosnia Herzgovina to cover the end of the war there and the peace keeping duties that the American Military were going to take up as part of the Dayton Peace Accords. Lopez decided to become a picture editor as he felt he could better use his wisdom and talent in advocating for photographers work in the daily newspaper. He was a picture editor for the last 15 years of his career and worked on a variety of news desks. He was part of the team that won both Pulitzer Prizes in 2002 for the newspapers coverage of the Terrorist attacks of 9-11. His most recent assignment was picture editor of the digital platform, NYTNOW, the app of The New York Times. Over the course of his career, he was also an instructor in the New York Times Student Journalism Institute and taught the photojournalism aspect of this two week intensive in which 24 college journalism students, which include 4 photographers, are taught what it takes to perform at the level of a New York Times journalist. Many of his former students have gone to newspaper careers of their own as well as successful freelance careers. His time in the industry has provided him with a front row seat of the changes that the overall industry has gone through and continues to do. A native of Santa Fe, NM, he attended New Mexico State University where he holds a BA degree in journalism with a special emphasis in photojournalism. 

 


          â€˜Of pity, superiority, disgust’: Laura Jean McKay’s Holiday In Cambodia        

Guest Post by Paul Donoughue It was on a long bus ride toward Sarajevo, past shells of houses full of grass and dirt, that I first became aware of the idea of atrocity tourism. The capital of Bosnia Herzegovina is a lovely place. Apart from being visually stunning — a collection of low-set buildings and […]

The post ‘Of pity, superiority, disgust’: Laura Jean McKay’s Holiday In Cambodia appeared first on Liticism.


          A Solution From Hell        

The following essay is excerpted from the latest issue of n+1 magazine. It is available online only in Slate. To read the complete version, click here to purchase n+1 in print.

The current age is uncommonly preoccupied with human rights. The story of how we got here can be traced from various points, whether from the Enlightenment and its great American spokesman Thomas Jefferson, or from the interventions and non-interventions following the European upheavals of 1848, or from the founding of the United Nations after World War II and the Holocaust, or from 1977, the year when post-'60s dismay, Jimmy Carter, and the Cold War intersected to place a commitment to "human rights" at the center of Western consciousness. Whichever way, for whatever reason, or for half a dozen reasons, human rights have at least rhetorically come to the fore of American and European foreign policy, with the result that it is now possible for the U.S. to wage war for humanitarian purposes in campaigns that seem otherwise irrelevant to the national interest. In this telling of the story of the "rights revolution," as the philosopher and Iraq war proponent Michael Ignatieff has called it, the end of the Cold War has opened up new vistas for the enforcement of human rights across the globe.

There is another way to tell the story, however. In this telling, the march of rights took a wrong turn as early as 1948, when the U.N. adopted its Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The U.N. Charter had established state sovereignty as the basis for international law. This meant that weaker states would be protected against stronger states by the international community—and for all its flaws, the U.N. was instrumental in helping postwar, post-colonial states get on their feet. At the same time, the Universal Declaration promoted the principle of human rights in general, independent of sovereignty. Writing in the wake of World War II and the founding of the U.N., Hannah Arendt in The Origins of Totalitarianism echoed Edmund Burke's famous critique of the French revolutionaries' Declaration of the Rights of Man. "The calamity of the rightless," wrote Arendt, "is not that they are deprived of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, or of equality before the law and freedom of opinion—formulas which were designed to solve problems within given communities—but that they no longer belong to any community whatsoever. Their plight is not that they are not equal before the law, but that no law exists for them." Surveying the history of refugees and other stateless people over the prior 30 years, Arendt found that "not only did the loss of national rights in all instances entail the loss of human rights; the restoration of human rights, as the recent example of the State of Israel proves, has been achieved so far only through the restoration of national rights." There could be no rights without belonging to a sovereign jurisdiction; the U.N., by enshrining sovereignty on the one hand and "universal rights" on the other, had tried to solve the problems revealed in the interwar period, but ended up simply restating them.

The contradiction in the U.N. founding documents between inviolable human rights and inviolable state sovereignty remained essentially obscured throughout the Cold War, when neither the Americans nor the Soviets could seriously claim to believe in either. Even when the U.S. championed human rights under Carter, it retained its priorities: Forced to choose between socialists (or just serious land reformers) and human rights abusers, the U.S. always sided with the abusers. Suddenly in 1991, the choice became unnecessary. You no longer had to decide between leftists and rightists, since everywhere you looked there were only capitalists. And by the end of the Cold War, aerial weapons systems had advanced to the point where the military could conduct basically gratuitous wars, with little risk to soldiers' lives, at comparatively low cost—and without raining explosives indiscriminately on foreign populations. The new precision-guided weaponry offered the hope of truly distinguishing the good guys from the bad guys, as long as they stayed far enough apart.

In the '90s, the language of human rights came into its own. The people of Kuwait, when a U.S.-led, U.N.-approved coalition drove Iraq out of their country, were the citizens of a sovereign state invaded by Saddam Hussein—but not so the Iraqi Kurds, who were Saddam's own citizens when he invaded their lands. Nevertheless the U.S., Britain, and France established a no-fly zone to protect the Iraqi Kurds from their internationally recognized head of state. Likewise, the Tutsis of Rwanda and the Albanians in Yugoslav Kosovo were victims of the state in which they lived, and their rights, insofar as they had any, could only be defended by an international community. In one case those rights were defended, in the other they were not. What were the U.S.'s principles, and what was its practice, when it came to human rights? Neither seemed clear, and the debate about them was equally confusing and confused.

The only people who seemed consistent about intervention were too far right or left to get much of a hearing. Throughout the 1990s, the right opposed intervention from a "realist" perspective, arguing that it was not in the national interest to go on humanitarian adventures abroad. The left, which was in the process of forming a powerful movement against the "structural adjustment" policies of the giant international financial institutions, and also promoting a humane globalization (carelessly labeled "anti-globalization" by the mainstream press), opposed the interventions on anti-imperialist grounds. In the end, neither view had much effect, as a strong hawkish core emerged: Bob Dole, the Republican leader in the Senate and 1996 presidential candidate, was a strong proponent of intervention in Bosnia; so too, eventually, was Bill Clinton. Among respectable pundits, the right-leaning hawks were neoconservative, the left-leaning hawks neoliberal. If there was a real distinction it was in their attitudes toward international institutions like the U.N. Neoconservatives loathed the U.N.; neoliberals liked it. But it was the Kosovo intervention, which most egregiously circumvented international institutions (in the name of a good cause), that was the final Clinton intervention. Thus at the end of the '90s neoconservatives and neoliberals had reached the same place, disdainful of seeking "multilateral" permission for their wars.

Perhaps the liberals would soon have returned to their more traditional interest in international institutions; perhaps the conservatives would have gotten out of the human rights business altogether; perhaps not. In any case the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11 altered—or scrambled—people's thinking. The next American war was an unusual operation: a mission to overthrow a government (the Taliban) that almost nobody recognized as legitimate, in order to deprive a belligerent non-state actor (al-Qaida) of a staging ground. Realists on the left—few remained on the right—argued for a narrowly defined police action to root out al-Qaida. Supporters of all-out war, soon the only respectable position, invoked the liberation of Afghan women as a bonus legitimation. And a year and a half later came Iraq. The war was sold to the public under many pretexts, but for liberal hawks the dominant reason to invade was Saddam Hussein's former crimes (and potential future crimes) against his people. There was no question that from a humanitarian perspective a world without Saddam would be a better world. And we were going to take him out.

In retrospect, it's easy to see that the argument over humanitarian intervention that should have taken place in the years after Kosovo was replaced and muddled by an argument over the Bush doctrine of pre-emptive war. In 2000–01, a high-powered international commission convened to discuss what the international community should do in the event of a human rights crisis in a failing state; one of their recommendations was that the concept of "humanitarian intervention" be scrapped, as being needlessly prejudicial (like "pro-life"), and replaced with the more capacious, less necessarily violent "responsibility to protect." The group's report was humane and intelligent, though not without problems; it was also presented before the U.N. Security Council in December 2001, at which point it had been "OBE," as they say in Washington—overtaken by events. The same happened with Samantha Power's "A Problem From Hell": America and the Age of Genocide, the summa theologica of liberal interventionist historiography, which was published in 2002. The book immediately became part of the debate over Iraq, with George W. Bush famously scribbling NOMW ("not on my watch") in a memo outlining its arguments. Not long after, he launched Operation Iraqi Freedom.

The argument over pre-emptive war was decided, resoundingly, against, though not because Stephen Holmes wrote essays in the London Review of Books or Jacques Rancière contributed an elegant elaboration of Hannah Arendt's argument about rights in the South Atlantic Quarterly (subscription required). The argument was decided by the 126,000 or so Iraqis killed during the U.S. invasion and in the civil war that followed. No one will be invading a terrible but stable regime to hang its leader anytime soon; at least we won't. Now, in 2011, we are bringing the troops gradually home from Afghanistan and Iraq, the results mixed. Neither war was waged for human rights, and it seems clear that humanitarianism shouldn't have been part of the discussion, not in the way it was. How humanitarian is it to unleash one civil war and reignite another?

In Libya, we find ourselves faced with a more classic, '90s-style intervention. The background could not be more stark: A courageous rebellion against a brutal and unbalanced 40-year dictatorship was inspired by the nearby uprisings in Egypt and Tunisia. Unlike the dictators of those countries, Muammar Qaddafi gave no thought to stepping down. The rebels armed themselves and began to march toward Tripoli, capturing several towns on the way. They carried Kalashnikovs and RPGs. Qaddafi's days were numbered! But his army had jets, and tanks, and heavy artillery. Once it began a counteroffensive, the rebels proved powerless. They retreated and retreated, until Qaddafi's forces reached the outskirts of Benghazi, the largest city in the Libyan east and the heart of the rebellion. Qaddafi took to the radio. "It's over," he told the rebels. "We are coming tonight. Prepare yourselves. We will find you in your closets. We will show no mercy and no pity." People on the ground began to predict the massacre of Benghazi. They even used the word genocide, if only to disclaim it: "Not a slaughter amounting to genocide," clarified the New York Review of Books, "but almost certainly a bloodbath." (And what was the exact word these exquisite splitters of hairs had in mind for the killing resulting from NATO bombardment?) TheNew Yorker's understated Jon Lee Anderson was in Benghazi as Qaddafi's army approached. He had been watching the hapless rebels for weeks, growing increasingly alarmed at their inadequate arms and training. Now artillery could be heard on the edge of town; in the city's lone functioning Internet cafe the young people updated their Facebook profiles. Social media weren't going to help them now. "The war was finally coming to Benghazi," Anderson wrote.

And then it didn't. NATO jets swooped in, forcing Qaddafi's army back. Benghazi was saved. Nor was it a unilateral mission. The Arab League had sought the intervention; none other than Lebanon, home of Hezbollah (still furious at Qaddafi for the "disappearing" of a Lebanese Shiite chief in the late '70s), sponsored the resolution in the U.N. Security Council. The White House had the finesse to "lead from behind," as they put it. And the rebels, having taken several cities in the first weeks of the uprising, had established what international law calls "belligerent rights"—they were a force that could claim some legitimacy both inside and outside the country. Many of the arguments that should have given pause to American policymakers before the Iraq war, and to some extent during the Kosovo bombing, were moot here. This intervention was U.N.-approved, and seemed to emerge from a genuine concern for the casualties that would have ensued had Qaddafi's forces been allowed to proceed into Benghazi. (A more realpolitik consideration was to place the U.S., belatedly, on the side of the Arab Spring; we would be less resented as the old enabler of Mubarak if we were also the newfoe of Qaddafi.) Ryan Lizza's New Yorker article describing the days leading up to Obama's decision for war singled out Samantha Power, senior director for multilateral affairs on Obama's National Security Council, as one of the motors for the intervention. America was finally choosing values over money.

And yet somehow it gave one a toothache—like the toothache Vronsky had at the end of Anna Karenina, when he went off to Belgrade to humanitarianly aid the Orthodox Christians in their uprising against the Turks. Wars waged by the U.S. are inevitably imperialist; that is part of the toothache. But are they also irredeemably so? Can the local good—the protection of these people or that city—never outweigh the global problem that human rights are, at best, invoked inconsistently and hypocritically, and at worst to excuse any and every war? Humanitarian warfare, clearly bad in principle, often looks good from the standpoint of a particular people at a particular moment, when they are threatened with death. And so the temperamental opponent of intervention can come to feel that while in general he opposes this kind of thing, well, in this case he guesses he supports it—and in that case too, and the next one. He can come to feel like somebody who has principles only for the sake of suspending them. This was the real cause of the toothache—it was déjà vu all over again. In general, you reject humanitarian war—but have you ever met one you didn't initially like? For liberals or leftists who neither automatically support nor automatically oppose all interventions, the Libya war has prompted something paradoxical: mixed feelings in especially pure form. Here the humanitarian motive for intervening has seemed more genuine and decisive than in any prior case. And the chances of doing real good looked favorable. Yet we've got to stop doing these things!

What has been the result? NATO almost immediately expanded the concept of "civilian protection" granted in the U.N. resolution to include regime change—what safety could there be for the rebels if Qaddafi stayed in power? Again, it was hard to argue: Qaddafi was a maniac and a murderer. But Qaddafi held on. One of his residences was bombed, killing a son and several grandchildren, and still he held on. The rebels, while increasing in number and confidence, did not suddenly transform themselves into a well-armed, well-trained fighting force, and militarily a stalemate ensued. Here we were again: An idea that on the face of it was reasonable, and in a certain way "humane," was leading to further deaths, further damage to a country's infrastructure, and a political situation in which the rebels, emboldened by the NATO jets (and, eventually, attack helicopters), refused to negotiate until Qaddafi was gone. Meanwhile the International Criminal Court, the pride and joy of the liberal interventionists, filed suit against Qaddafi for crimes against humanity, thereby putting him beyond the pale. How could you negotiate with someone with nothing to lose? So a nonmilitary solution to a conflict that, Obama said, would be a matter of "days, not weeks," is, as of this writing, further away than ever, even after five months of bombing.

All this could simply be regretted as a well-intentioned plan not working well enough. But that issue of abrogated sovereignty cuts both ways—the American people are supposed to be sovereign, too. The Obama White House's attitude in this has been telling. Not only has Obama failed to seek congressional approval; his lawyers filed a laughable legal brief that argued that America was not even at war. As congressional Republicans correctly pointed out, the administration could not be serious! What could explain this fealty to the letter of international law, and utter contempt for the president's duty to get his wars through Congress?

The answer, it seems to us, can be found in the work of the humanitarian hawks; they have turned the world into a morality play, a ceaseless battle of good versus evil. In Power and the Idealists, his ambivalent farewell to the moralism of the generation of 1968, Paul Berman traced this worldview to the 1960s student left. Born too late to fight Nazis the way their parents did, idealistic young leftists in the prosperous countries of the West looked for Nazis where they could: in university administrations, in American carpet bombers, in the colonialist Israeli state. Even as they grew older and wiser, the hunt for Nazis continued, and continued; in 1999, it led them into Kosovo, and in 2003 it led some of them into the catastrophic invasion of Iraq. Berman was the most perceptive analyst of the humanitarian hawk mindset; Samantha Power was its most compelling exemplar. There are only three kinds of people in her A Problem From Hell: evildoers (Hitler, Pol Pot, Milosevic); saints (Raphael Lemkin, Jan Karski, George McGovern, Peter Galbraith); and cowards (everyone else). You're either with Power or with Pol Pot. The word evil is sprinkled liberally throughout the text (35 appearances), as are slaughter (65), mass murder (25), bloodbath (13), and massacre (99). The function of these words—as well as the word genocide, to whose propagation the book is partly devoted—is to place the evil people beyond the pale of politics, of negotiation, of human intercourse. Would you shake hands with a mass murderer? With the invocation of the word genocide, we move into some other sphere of human relations. Thought, strategy, negotiation shut down; there is only right and wrong, only fight or flight. Which is precisely, in fact, the point.

A politics this morally coercive may explain why a president who is a former law professor, and who came to power with the mandate to restore the rule of law, would so brazenly ignore the Constitution. But a politics this morally coercive is not a politics at all.

What has happened to human rights in the last 20 years is a hijacking, of the sort Napoleon managed with the Declaration of the Rights of Man when he turned Europe into a bloodbath, as Power would put it, under its banner. The search around the globe for genocides to eradicate is the ultimate rights perversion, for it reduces human rights to the right not to be brutally murdered in a particular way that fits the definition of genocide given in the Genocide Convention. This cannot be anyone's idea of a robust human rights. If human rights are to be reclaimed they need first of all to be restored to the realm of politics. Not the realm of morality, which is always and ever a discussion of good versus evil, but politics, a discussion and argument over competing legitimate aims—e.g., the aim of honoring sovereignty and not waging war, versus the aim of protecting the defenseless and ensuring their rights. Morally, it would clearly be better to be a democracy liberated by George W. Bush than a tyranny under Saddam Hussein. Politically, it may be better to bide your time under Saddam than be plunged into a civil war that will kill 100,000 or twice that many. A political rather than moral discussion of human rights might even lead us to acknowledge that a mass murderer like Muammar Qaddafi or George W. Bush has a legitimate constituency whose rights must also be kept in mind.

Meantime the historical record grows long enough for us to ask: Has there ever been a truly successful, truly humanitarian humanitarian intervention? Not of the Vietnamese in Cambodia, who deposed the Khmer Rouge for their own reasons (the Khmer kept crossing the border, and also murdered their entire Vietnamese population), and then replaced them with Hun Sen, who has been ruling Cambodia with an iron fist for more than 30 years. Not the Indian intervention in Bangladesh, under whose cover the Indian government arrested all student protesters in India. And not NATO in Kosovo, which, while it stopped Milosevic and ensured the safety of Kosovo, could not make it a viable state (it is now a failing state likely to be swallowed by Albania), and also led to the ethnic cleansing of the Serb population. Too bad for the Serbs, to be sure; but the creation of a safe space for the expulsion of a civilian population cannot be what anyone had in mind when they launched the planes. That there has never been a successful humanitarian intervention does not mean that there cannot be one in the future. But the evidence is piling up.


                  
Detik-detik Kejatuhan Khalifah Terakhir Malam itu, Sultan Abdul Hamid dan keluarganya dikunjungi oleh sekumpulan manusia yang tidak akan dilupakan oleh sejarah. Emmanuel Carasso, seorang Yahudi warga Itali dan wakil rakyat Salonika (Thessaloniki) di Parlimen Othmaniyyah (Meclis-i Mebusan) melangkah masuk ke istana Yildiz. Turut bersama beliau adalah Aram Efendi, wakil rakyat Armenia, Laz Arif Hikmet Pasha, anggota Dewan Senat yang juga pemimpin Armada Othmaniyyah, serta Arnavut Esat Toptani, wakil rakyat bandar Daraj di Meclis-i Mebusan. “Bukankah waktu seperti ini adalah waktu khalifah menunaikan kewajipannya terhadap keluarga. Tidak bolehkah kalian berbincang dengan aku pagi esok?”, Sultan Abdul Hamid tidak selesa menerima kedatangan mereka yang kelihatannya begitu tergesa-gesa. Tiada simpati di wajah mereka.“Ummah telah memecat kamu”, Esat Pasha memberitahu. Angkuh benar bunyinya.Satu persatu wajah ahli rombongan itu diperhati oleh Sultan Abdul Hamid. “Apakah mereka ini sedar dengan apa yang mereka lakukan?”, baginda berfikir. “Jika benar Ummah yang menurunkan aku, mengapa kamu datang dengan lelaki ini?”, Sultan Abdul Hamid menundingkan jarinya kepada Emmanuel Carasso. “Apa kena mengenanya Yahudi ini dengan Ummah?”, wajah baginda kemerah-merahan menahan marah. Sultan Abdul Hamid memang kenal benar siapa Emmanuel Carasso itu. Dia jugalah yang bersekongkol bersama Theodor Herzl ketika mahu mendapatkan izin menempatkan Yahudi di Palestin dengan penuh licik lebih sedekad yang lalu (1898). Mereka menawarkan pembelian ladang milik Sultan Abdul Hamid di Sancak Palestin sebagai tapak penempatan Yahudi di Tanah Suci itu. Sultan Abdul Hamid menolaknya dengan tegas, termasuk alternatif mereka yang mahu menyewa tanah itu selama 99 tahun. Pendirian tegas Sultan Abdul Hamid untuk tidak mengizinkan Yahudi bermastautin di Palestin, telah menyebabkan Yahudi sedunia mengamuk. Harganya terlalu mahal. Sultan Abdul Hamid kehilangan takhta, dan Khilafah disembelih agar tamat nyawanya. “Sesungguhnya aku sendiri tidak tahu, siapakah sebenarnya yang memilih mereka ini untuk menghantar berita penggulinganku malam itu”, Sultan Abdul Hamid meluahkan derita hatinya di dalam diari baginda. Perancangan untuk menggulingkan baginda sudah dimulakan lama sebelum malam itu. Beberapa Jumaat kebelakangan ini, nama baginda sudah tidak disebut di dalam khutbah. “Walaupun engkau dipecat, nyawamu berada di dalam jaminan kami”, Esat Pasha menyambung katanya. Sultan Abdul Hamid memandang wajah puteranya Abdul Rahim, serta puteri baginda yang seorang lagi. Malang sungguh anak-anak ini terpaksa menyaksikan kejadian malam itu. “Bawa adik-adik kamu ke dalam”, Sultan Abdul Hamid mengarahkan Amir Abdul Rahim membawa adik beradiknya ke dalam bilik. “Aku tidak membantah keputusanmu. Cuma seperkara yang kuharapkan. Izinkanlah aku bersama keluargaku tinggal di istana Caragan. Anak-anakku ramai. Mereka masih kecil dan aku sebagai bapa perlu menyekolahkan mereka”, Sultan Abdul Hamid meminta pertimbangan. Baginda sudah tahu yang tiada gunanya untuk keputusan yang dibawa oleh rombongan itu dibantah. Itulah kerisauan terakhir baginda. Mengenangkan masa depan anak-anaknya yang ramai. Sembilan lelaki dan tujuh perempuan adalah jumlah yang besar.Permintaan Sultan Abdul Hamid ditolak mentah-mentah oleh keempat-empat lelaki pengkhianat Ummah itu. Malam itu juga, baginda bersama ahli keluarganya hanya dibenarkan membawa sehelai dua pakaian, dan mereka diangkut di dalam gelap menuju ke Stesyen Keretapi Sirkeci. Khalifah terakhir umat Islam, dan ahli keluarganya dibuang negara ke Salonika, Greece. (Khalifah terakhir Sultan Abdul Hamed II meninggalkan istana atas arahan Presiden Turki pertama Mustafa Kamal Atartuk pada 3 Mac 1922. Dengan sokongan dan kekuatan dari British dan Zionis, Mustafa Kamal Atarturk telah mengumumkan penghapusan Khilafah dan pemisahan agama Islam daripada negara tepat pada pagi 3 Mac 1924.) Gerombolan tentera kedengaran melangkah penuh derap ke istana. Meriam diletupkan sebagai petanda Sultan Mehmed V Resad ditabal menjadi raja boneka. Rasmilah malam itu Sultan Mehmed V Resad menjadi Khalifah ke 99 umat Islam semenjak Abu Bakr al-Siddiq r.a. Tetapi khalifah yang satu ini sudah tiada kuasa. Hanya boneka umpan menahan pemberontakan masyarakat terhadap pembubaran Khilafah Othmaniyyah. “Entahlah, di saat hidup dan matiku tidak menentu, aku terasa begitu tenang dan aman. Seperti sebuah gunung besar yang selama ini menghempap dadaku, diangkat penuh kelegaan” kata Sultan Abdul Hamid di dalam diarinya. Sultan Abdul Hamid mengusap kepala anaknya Abdul Rahim yang menangis ketakutan. Anak-anaknya yang lain turut menangis sama. Perjalanan dari Sirkeci Istanbul menuju ke Salonika di Greece penuh misteri. “Sabarlah anak-anakku. Jika Allah mengkehendaki kematian bagi kita, bukankah kematian itu kesudahan untuk semua”, kata Sultan Abdul Hamid kepada sekalian kaum kerabat baginda. Kereta api meluncur laju. Bumi khilafah ditinggalkan di belakang. Sejarah kegemilangan 600 tahun Bani Osman, berakhir malam itu. Palitan hitam yang mustahil untuk diputihkan kembali. Dalam suasana malam yang sejuk, Sultan Abdul Hamid II melunjurkan kakinya di atas kerusi kereta api sambil dipicit oleh anaknya Fatimah. “Sabarlah anakku, Ummah tidak tahu apa yang telah mereka lakukan kepada umat Muhammad ini”, baginda mengusap wajahnya dengan linangan air mata. Lama benar baginda dan ahli keluarganya dikurung di istana Yahudi yang buruk itu. Mereka dikurung di dalam bilik tanpa perabot. Pintu dan tingkap istana, dilarang daripada dibuka. Hari demi hari, adalah kematian sebelum mati bagi baginda sekeluarga. Akhirnya pada tahun 1912, Sultan Abdul Hamid dibawa pulang ke Istanbul, dan anak-anaknya bercerai berai, dibuang ke Perancis sebagai pengemis dan pelarian yang merempat di jalanan. Sultan Abdul Hamid dikurung di Istana Beylerbeyi selama 6 tahun. “Maafkan patik, Tuanku. Mereka tidak mengizinkan saya untuk hadir lebih awal”, doktor yang merawat Sultan Abdul Hamid berbisik ke telinga baginda. Nafas Sultan Abdul Hamid turun naik. Penyakit asthma baginda semakin serius. Doktor sudah tidak dapat berbuat apa-apa. Renungan Sultan Abdul Hamid menghancurkan hati doktor tersebut. Bagaimana seorang khalifah umat ini harus menemui ajalnya di tangan beliau. “Ampunkan aku ya Allah. Tiada upaya bagi hamba-Mu yang lemah ini”, seorang doktor sudah hilang upaya. Baginda Sultan Abdul Hamid II telah menghembuskan nafasnya yang terakhir di dalam kurungan di Istana Beylerbeyi pada 10 Februari, 1918. Pemergiannya diratapi oleh seluruh penduduk Istanbul kerana mereka sudah sedar, apakah harga kebodohan mereka membiarkan Khilafah Othmaniyyah dilumpuhkan selepas penggulingan Sultan Abdul Hamid, 10 tahun yang lalu. Menangislah… tiada sejarah yang mampu memadamkan penyesalan itu. *Nukilan dari muzakirat/diari Sultan Abdul Hamid ——————————————————————————————————- Kejatuhan Empayar Othmaniah sebenarnya bermula sejak dari pemerintahan Sultan Mahmud II (1808 -1839) lagi. Kita boleh melihat puncanya dari dua sudut : Pertama : Pemodenan mengikut arus barat. Kedua : Meninggalkan amalan Islam. Ada agenda tersembunyi yang perlu kita fahami. Sepanjang kurun ke 19 berlaku proses perindustrian dan elektronik di Eropah, ianya bukan satu proses semulajadi bahkan satu perancangan pihak tertentu untuk mengaut keuntungan. Apa yang terjadi ? Kemajuan teknoloji membawa saudara kembarnya yang menjadi protokol atau prosedur bersama – samanya iaitu bon – bon, sekuriti, wang kertas dan lain – lain instrument kewangan. Bermula dari projek pembinaan keretapi yang memerlukan modal yang besar, cara pembayaran Islam tidak boleh dipakai. Mereka menumpu di Turki sebagai pusat pemerintahan dan Mesir sebagai pusat intelektual Islam. Cara perniagaan atau muamalat Islam mesti diketepikan, maknanya keputusan para Ulamak dalam hal – hal perniagaan tidak diperlukan lagi. Selama ini umat Islam menguasai bidang perniagaan dan perdagangan sementara masyarakat Yahudi dan Kristian membayar jizyah bagi keselamatan mereka dan membenarkan mereka tidak ikut serta dalam kewajipan ketenteraan. Malangnya selepas tugasan penyusunan semula masyarakat diserahkan kepada Bankers Yahudi atas nama untuk memodenkan Khilafah Othmaniah , perkara yang sebaliknya berlaku orang Yahudi dan Kristian menjadi TUAN/Masters kaya raya sedangkan rakyat Khilafah pulak menjadi miskin. Sultan Mahmud II membentuk tentera diraja bermodelkan tentera British. Tentera jihad diganti dengan tentera makan gaji. Sistem demokrasi diperkenalkan, jawatan wazir besar diganti dengan Perdana Menteri. Cukai dinaikkan. Tanzimat (reformasi) diperkenalkan pada tahun 1839 oleh Sultan Abdul Mecit . Sistem kerajaan tempatan digantikan dengan model Perancis. Ini menyebabkabkan sistem perniagaan Bazaar, khidmat masyarakat melalui waqaf yang dipanggil imaret dan millet (majlis perlindungan bagi golongan minoriti ) tidak lagi berfungsi . Pendidikan dua aliran diperkenalkan , tradisional dan sekular yang bertulang belakangkan stok, bon dan lain – lain institusi kewangan moden. Ini berlaku secara tidak sedar atas nama ‘memodenkan empayar’. Undang – undang Islam ke atas status ahlu Zhimmah dihapuskan. Reformasi Tanzimat memfokuskan kepada pemusatan pentadbiran ( administrative centralization) menggantikan sistem autonomi amiriah tempatan. Tiga wazir yang menjayakan tanzimat ialah Rechid, Ali dan Fuad Pasha. Mereka bersahabat baik dengan banker Yahudi bernama Camondo. Mereka menghabiskan banyak masa mereka di Paris mempelajari teknik permodenan barat. Nasihat dari financial planner Yahudi diperlukan bagi memodenkan empayar. Kebanyakan orang Yahudi di Istanbul tinggal di Galata. Isaac Camondo menubuhkan Bank Camondo pada tahun 1802. Saudaranya Abraham-Salomon Camondo menggantikannya pada tahun 1832. Kerana sumbangannya yang besar kepada tanzimat beliau dianugerahkan Nishan-I Iftihar dan menjadi Komander Mejidiye pada tahun 1849. Pada tahun 1842 wang kertas KAIMA diperkenalkan menggantikan dinar dan dirham , ini membawa kepada penguasan banker YAHUDI keatas kedaulatan khilafah. Secara tidak sedar, banker – banker ini dijemput untuk mencipta sistem kewangan moden dengan sistem riba mereka melalui bon, kredit, saham dan pengeluaran wang kertas yang dikuasai banker Yahudi. Reformasi kewangan memberi mereka peluang untuk membuka bank – bank baru. Pada tahun 1845 Kerajaan Othmaniah bersama Mm. Alleon dan Theodore Baltazzi menubuhkan Bank of Constantinople bagi tujuan memberi pinjaman kepada kerajaan. Perang Krimea memberi peluang kepada banker Yahudi berkembang dalam empayar Othmaniah. Kerajaan memerlukan dana untuk peperangan. Bank memberi pinjaman dengan interest. Ottoman Bank ditubuhkan pada tahun 1856, ia menjadi satu langkah kepada penubuhan bank pusat dengan dana dari luar dengan jumlah 500,00 pound sterling. Transformasi modal persendirian kepada Bank Pusat akan membawa kepada system kuasa berada ditangan pemilknya banker – banker Yahudi Antarabangsa. Keluarga Rothschilds yang terlibat dalam penubuhan Federal Reserve USA juga turut terlibat atas nama pelaburan melalui Alphonse de Rothchilds dan bapaknya James Rothschilds membuka cawangan French Rothchilds Bank di Istanbul. Kerja – kerja untuk penubuhan bank pusat akhirnya berjaya dengan tertubuhnya La Bank Imperiale Ottomane pada tahun 1863 dengan bantuan Yahudi bernama Emil dan Isaac Pereire. Ini model yang menjadi superbank seterusnya dari Bank pusat kepada Bank Dunia dan International Monetary Fund. Bank ini menjadi bankers bank, dengan deposit dan pengumpul dan pengedaran kredit. Ia akan menentukan kadar antara Bank, memberi pinjaman, jual dan beli, membincangkan pembelian komoditi, memberi dana dan melibatkan diri dalam projek pelaburan dan mengeluarkan dan mencetak wang baru. Bank Camondo hanyalah bank biasa, Ottoman bank ialah bank dengan dana tempatan seterusnya bank baru Imperial Ottoman bank menjadi Bank Pusat dengan dana antarabangsa. Satu system penguasaan kewangan telah diletakkan batu asasnya. Bank ini akan menyerap masuk dalam setiap aktiviti masyarakat bermula dari kedai runcit. Tidak ada aktiviti masyarakat yang dapat lepas dari Bank. Dari aktiviti jual beli, simpanan seterusnya dana kewangan dan pelaburan , semuanya melibatkan bank. Mereka menjadi Tuan kepada dunia. Masters of the Worlds. Pada tahun 1858 bankers Yahudi telah meletakkan syarat pinjaman dengan jaminan tranformasi sosial kepada Kerajaan Othmaniah. Ini menunjukkan sistem ekonomi hutang berkait rapat dengan kejuruteraan sosial. Pada waktu itu jizyah sudah berkubur. Bank Yahudi bertapak, sistem politik Nasrani Kristian menjadi penggerak empayar Othmaniah ! Hak menandatangani kerajaan tergadai kepada peminjam wang. Tahun itu juga , undang – undang tanah baru menafikan hak Sultan. Seterusnya tahun 1867 , orang asing dibenarkan membeli tanah. Projek keretapi menghubungkan Istanbul ke Vienna , Austria dikatakan akan menghubungkan dunia Islam dan Eropah. Oleh kerana projek ini begitu besar, begitu jugalah peranan penipuan besar oleh bank – bank Yahud di London, Paris dan Brussel dalam membiayai projek ini dengan bon – bon kerajaan Othmaniah. Pada tahun 1873 , berlaku ‘ crash 1873 ‘ yang membawa kepada kejatuhan nilai bon – bon tersebut. Projek ini bukan sahaja pembanggunan fizikal dalam bentuk konkrit bangunan semata – mata. Bahkan suatu gerakan yang mengatasi ruang lingkup sempadan nasional dan bangsa tetapi didalangi dengan angka – angka pada dokumen kewangan yang dipanggil saham dan bon. Pada tahun 1875 Kerajaan Othmaniah diistiharkan muflis kerana tidak mampu membayar hutang. Suruhanjaya Asing dilantik mewakil pemegang saham asing. Kerajaan terpaksa mengenakan cukai terhadap rakyat. Serbia memberotak. Bosnia diserahkan kepada Austria dibawah bendera Othmani. Jalan keretapi tidak siap tetapi separuh dari perniagaan laut telah jatuh ke tangan British. Kesan mengurangkan perjalanan dari Vienna ke Istanbul dari seminggu ke 40 jam ialah kejatuhan Khilafah Othmaniah. Sultan Abdul Hamid menjadi Khalifah pada tahun 1876. Beliau mahu kembali kepada pemerintahan asal Othmaniah sebelum tanzimat. Beliau menolak sistem hiraki barat dan mahukan sistem topkapi dan imaret diperintah oleh keluarga diraja Othmaniah semula. Beliau tidak percaya kepada pegawai – pegawai yang berkhidmat sebelumnya. Secara beransur – ansur beliau mengurangkan peranan mereka dalam kerajaan. Beliau berjaya mengurangkan hutang kerajaan. Pada tahun 1896, perwakilan Zionis telah menemui beliau. Sebagai tawaran untuk mendapatkan Palestin mereka memberi tawaran untuk memperbaiki keadaan krisis kewangan yang dihadapi oleh kerajaan Othmaniah. Bagaimana seorang yang tidak mempunyai tanahairnya sendiri boleh membuat tawaran kepada pewaris salah satu empayar terbesar di dunia. Jawapannya ialah satu bentuk kuasa baru telah muncul, kuasa bank telah mengatasi kuasa kerajaan atau kuasa politik. Kuasa tidak lagi dalam bentuk ketenteraan tetapi dalam bentuk jumlah nombor wang dalam bank. Politik dijadikan alat untuk mengawal masyarakat. Kuasa politik pulak dijadikan alat bank ntuk menjalankan projeknya. Sultan Abdul Hamid telah mengungkapkan kata-kata bersejarah yang ditujukan kepada Herzl melalui utusan yang dihantar untuk perundingan tersebut : “Saya menganjurkan supaya dia (Hezrl) tidak meneruskan perkara ini (usaha mendapatkan tanah Palestin). Saya tidak dapat menjualkan walaupun satu kaki persegi daripada tanah ini kerana ianya bukan milik saya, tetapi milik rakyat saya. Rakyat saya telah membentuk serta mengekalkan Empayar ini dengan pengorbanan dan darah, dan kami akan mempertahankannya dengan darah kami sebelum menyerahkannya kepada sesiapapun. Biarlah yahudi-yahudi itu menyimpan sahaja wang mereka yang berbilion-bilion itu. Jika sekiranya Empayar ini berpecah, maka mereka boleh mengambil Palestin secara percuma. Tetapi mestilah dilangkah mayat kami dahulu, dan saya tidak akan membenarkan ianya berlaku atas sebab apapun..“ Sultan Abdul Hamid digulingkan pada tahun 1908. Pada tahun itu juga , pejabat pertama zionis di buka di Palestin dibawah firma Rothschilds. Maka berakhirlah empayar Othmaniah walaupun ia masih belum secara rasmi sehingga tahun 1924.
          IPPF Round of Top 64 Underway! See You in New York!        


We are pleased to report that the IPPF’s “Top 64” round is underway! As a reminder, you can see a full list of the IPPF teams here.

The “Top 64” represent 17 international teams from 15 foreign countries:

•             Bosnia and Herzegovina (1);
•             Canada (2);
•             China (2);
•             Croatia (1);
•             Czech Republic (1);
•             Ghana (1);
•             India (1);
•             Japan (1);
•             Nepal (1);
•             The Netherlands (1);
•             Singapore (1);
•             Slovakia (1); 
•             Slovenia (1);
•             South Africa (1); and
•             Switzerland (1).

The “Top 64” represent 47 U.S. teams from 24 states:

•             Alabama (1);
•             Arizona (3);
•             California (4);
•             Connecticut (1);
•             Florida (1);
•             Georgia (3);
•             Indiana (1);
•             Louisiana (1);
•             Maryland (1);
•             Massachusetts (1);
•             Minnesota (2);
•             Missouri (4);
•             Montana (1);
•             Nevada (2);
•             New Jersey (2);
•             New Mexico (2);
•             New York (2);
•             North Carolina (1);
•             Ohio (1);
•             Pennsylvania (3);
•             Texas (6);
•             Utah (2);
•             Virginia (1); and
•             Washington (1).

Four of the schools that have previously won the IPPF advanced this year:

•             Hamilton High School (2013-14), Chandler, Arizona;
•             Plano Senior High School (2010-11), Plano, Texas;
•             Bellaire High School (2007-09), Bellaire, Texas; and
•             Woodward Academy (2001-02), College Park, Georgia.
  
Teams will exchange essays until December 7, at which time the judges will begin their evaluation process. The judging period is December 7-14. Please let me know if you would like to judge – or if you have friends or colleagues who might be interested in participating.  

As a reminder, this year’s IPPF Finals will be held April 1-3, 2016. We hope to see you all in New York!

Have a wonderful Thanksgiving!

Sincerely,


Andrea Sadberry | Executive Director
International Public Policy Forum
1717 Main Street, Suite 5900
Dallas, Texas 75201
214.653.4026

          BBC: Darkode hacking forum forced offline        
By Leo KelionTechnology desk editor  BBC

15 July 2015
From the sectionTechnology
The Darkode forum, which was created about six years ago, can no longer be accessed
Darkode - a notorious hacking forum used by Lizard Squad and other cybercriminals - has been shut down after an investigation carried out by authorities in 20 countries.
"We have dismantled a cyber-hornets' nest... which was believed by many, including the hackers themselves, to be impenetrable," said one of the US state attorneys involved.

Twenty-eight people have been arrested.

They include a 26-year-old man from Coventry, England.

In addition, the UK's National Crime Agency said an address in Paisley, Scotland, had been searched and material removed for examination. It said that five other suspected members of the site had previously been arrested.

The FBI added that dozens of other people linked to the site had been charged or had their property searched as part of the inquiry.
Restricted access
Darkode's members allegedly used the site to trade and to share hacking tools and information, including details of zero-day attacks - techniques that exploited flaws in products that neither their creators nor the wider security industry were aware of, and thus could not be protected against.

This information was password-protected.

"Only those proposed for membership by an existing user could join, but not until they posted a resume of the skills and achievements that could contribute to the criminal community," explained the NCA.

"There was a hierarchical membership structure, and the status of users determined who they could communicate with, and their access to the commodities and services on offer."

Although the site was not accessible to the general public, it was profiledextensively by the security blogger Brian Krebs, who posted several screenshots on his site.

Botnets - networks of hijacked computers used to mount co-ordinated attacks - were promoted on the site
"Most of the cybercrime forums are in Russian or some other language that's not English, but this was an English-language forum," he told the BBC.

"And it was a sort of meeting ground for cybercriminals from different nationalities and languages.

"A fairly significant number of people were selling botnet services there, and there were also services for deploying malware and phishing."

He added that the forum's visitors included members of Lizard Squad - a group of hackers which has carried out high-profile attacks on Sony, Microsoft and others.

"The guy that was most recently the admin of the forum used the nickname Sp3c," Mr Krebs recalled.

"He was a leading member of the Lizard Squad. What's interesting is that you don't see his name in the lists of those that were apprehended or charged as part of this.

"I don't really know what that means, but there was a definite connection between the Lizard Squad and this forum, at least in the last year or so."

The FBI said that Operation Shrouded Horizon had indicated up to 300 people had used the forum.

"During the investigation, the bureau focused primarily on the Darkode members responsible for developing, distributing, facilitating and supporting the most egregious and complex cybercriminal schemes targeting victims and financial systems," it said.

It added that its counterparts in Australia, Bosnia, Brazil, Israel, Colombia and Nigeria were among those involved in the international crackdown, and that efforts to trace other suspects were "ongoing".

          Croatia wasn't aggressor in Bosnia, says retired general        

Croatia only protected its national interests during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and its goal was neither military aggression nor annexation of its territory, retired general Pavao Miljavac said on Thursday.


          Bombs Over Bosnia: The Role of Airpower in Bosnia-Herzegovina - NATO Operation Deny Flight, Serbs and the Death of Yugoslavia, Deterrent Use of Airpower, Deliberate Force, Dayton Peace Accord        
By Progressive Management. Price: Free. Category: Nonfiction / History / Military / Military / Aviation / Nonfiction / History / European / Europe / Former Soviet Republics.
          the most beautiful baked dessert: sachertorte        
What: The Original Sachertorte, a rich cake made from Belgian and German chocolate interlaced with apricot filling and served with unsweetened whipped cream, made in its original form at the Hotel Sacher in Vienna. Here's a picture I took of one today.

Why: In the United States, we call a piece of cake melted down, osso buco-style, to the rich essence of pure chocolate a "decadence" or a "death by chocolate." In Austria, they call it "cake." There is no point in making it, the Austrians think, unless it reduces you to moaning as you eat it. Probably half the world's best cakes are made in Austria, but the unrivaled king of all it surveys is the sachertorte. The dessert is a triumph of working class knowhow in extremis. In 1832, Austria's Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich demanded that his chef make him a special dessert for important guests. The chef had taken ill, so his 16-year-old assistant, Franz Sacher, came up with this recipe on the spot. The Prince's guests were delighted with Franz's torte, and when Franz's son Eduard completed his chef's training, he perfected the recipe that stands seventeen decades later. Eduard established the Hotel Sacher, possibly the only hotel whose identity was formed around a dessert. The torte itself was the subject of a vicious lawsuit last century, so that now there are two versions of the recipe—the Original at the Hotel Sacher, and Demel's Sacher Torte, whose recipe is held by Sacher's heirs—competing for Austria's top culinary attraction.

Impact: The Hotel Sacher, and its signature dish, remain among Vienna's most popular tourist attractions. Over 350,000 cakes are sold per year. It owns a day of the year, as December 5th in Austria is National Sachertorte Day. If it is possible to make Belgians weep with jealousy over a chocolate creation, the sachertorte does it.

Personal Connection: My father and I stopped at the Hotel Sacher for sachertorte on our way to Sarajevo today. This was his first visit to Vienna, but it was my second visit to the hotel. My first was in 1990 with future Pulitzer-winning journalist Lisa Grace Lednicer. Now, we are both chatty people, Lisa and me. Over dessert that day, we said nothing. The sachertorte spoke for both of us.

Other Contenders: the Thin Mint, America's greatest contribution to the cookie landscape, available every February from eight-year-old sash-bedecked street peddlers; Chinese egg tarts, brought in by cart at the end of a dim sum feast; the red velvet cupcake, the one great use for beets; gulab jamun, an Indian donut hole drenched in honey for hours; hurmašice, a Bosnian walnut pastry drowned in syrup; apple pie, which is as American as America.
          PROFIL GURU MULIA AL-HABIB ALI BIN ABDURRAHMAN AL-JUFRI         


PROFIL GURU MULIA AL-HABIB ALI BIN ABDURRAHMAN AL-JUFRI

 

Penampilan Fisik Al-Habib Ali Al-Jufri

Penampilan fisiknya mengagumkan: tampan, berkulit putih, tinggi, besar, berjenggot tebal dan rapi tanpa kumis. Wajar jika kehadirannya di suatu majelis selalu menonjol dan menyita perhatian orang.

Tetapi kelebihannya bukan hanya itu. Kalau sudah berbicara di forum, orang akan terkagum-kagum lagi dengan kelebihan-kelebihannya yang lain. Intonasi suaranya membuat orang tak ingin berhenti mengikuti pembicaraannya. Pada saat tertentu, suara dan ungkapan-ungkapannya menyejukkan hati pendengarnya. Tapi pada saat yang lain, suaranya meninggi, menggelegar, bergetar, membuat mereka tertunduk, lalu mengoreksi diri sendiri.

Namun jangan dikira kelebihannya hanya pada penampilan fisik dan kemampuan bicara. Materi yang dibawakannya bukan bahan biasa yang hanya mengandalkan retorika, melainkan penuh dengan pemahaman-pemahaman baru, sarat dengan informasi penting, dan ditopang argumentasi-argumentasi yang kukuh.

Wajar, karena ia memang memiliki penguasaan ilmu agama yang mendalam dalam berbagai cabang keilmuan, ditambah pengetahuannya yang tak kalah luas dalam ilmu-ilmu modern, juga kemampuannya menyentuh hati orang, membuat para pendengarnya bukan hanya memperoleh tambahan ilmu dan wawasan, melainkan juga mendapatkan semangat dan tekad yang baru untuk mengoreksi diri dan melakukan perubahan.

Itulah sebagian gambaran al-Habib Ali bin Abdurrahman al-Jufri, sosok ulama dan dai muda yang nama dan kiprahnya sangat dikenal di berbagai negeri muslim, bahkan juga di dunia Barat. Ia memang sosok yang istimewa. Pribadinya memancarkan daya tarik yang kuat. Siapa yang duduk dengannya sebentar saja akan tertarik hatinya dan terkesan dengan keadaannya. Bukan hanya kalangan awam, para ulama pun mencintainya. Siapa sesungguhnya tokoh ini dan dari mana ia berasal? 


Kelahiran dan Nasab Al-Habib Ali Al-Jufri

Al-Habib Ali al-Jufri lahir di kota Jeddah, Arab Saudi, menjelang Fajar, pada hari Jum’at 16 April 1971 (20 Shafar 1391 H). Ayahnya adalah al-Habib Abdurrahman bin Ali bin Muhammad bin Alwi al-Jufri, sedangkan ibundanya Syarifah Marumah binti Hasan bin Alwi binti Hasan bin Alwi bin Ali al-Jufri.

Di masa kecil, ia mulai menimba ilmu kepada bibi dari ibundanya, seorang alimah dan arifah billah, Hababah Shafiyah binti Alwi bin Hasan al-Jufri. Wanita shalihah ini memberikan pengaruh yang sangat besar dalam mengarahkannya ke jalur ilmu dan perjalanan menuju Allah.


Pendidikan dan Guru-guru Al-Habib Ali Al-Jufri

Setelah itu ia tak henti-hentinya menimba ilmu dari para tokoh besar. Al-Quthb al-Habib Abdul Qadir bin Ahmad Assegaf adalah salah seorang guru utamanya. Kepadanya ia membaca dan mendengarkan pembacaan kitab Shahih al-Bukhari dan Shahih Muslim, Tajrid al-Bukhari, Ihya’ Ulumiddin, dan kitab-kitab penting lainnya. Cukup lama al-Habib Ali belajar kepadanya, sejak usia 10 tahun hingga berusia 21 tahun.

Ia juga berguru kepada al-Habib Ahmad Masyhur bin Thaha al-Haddad, ulama terkemuka dan penulis karya-karya terkenal. Diantara kitab yang dibacanya kepadanya adalah Idhah Asrar `Ulum al-Muqarrabin.

Prof. Dr. As-Sayyid Muhammad bin Alwi al-Maliki juga salah seorang gurunya. Kepadanya ia mempelajari kitab-kitab musthalah hadits, ushul, dan sirah. Sedangkan kepada al-Habib Hamid bin Alwi bin Thahir al-Haddad, ia membaca al-Mukhtashar al-Lathifdan Bidayah al-Hidayah.

Ia pun selama lebih dari empat tahun menimba ilmu kepada al-Habib Abu Bakar al-`Adni bin Ali al-Masyhur, dengan membaca dan mendengarkan kitab Sunan Ibnu Majah, ar-Risalah al-Jami`ah, Bidayah al-Hidayah, al-Muqaddimah al-Hadhramiyyah, Tafsir al-Jalalain, Tanwir al-Aghlas, Lathaif al-Isyarat, Tafsir Ayat al-Ahkam, dan Tafsir al-Baghawi.

Pada tahun 1412 H (1991 M) al-Habib Ali mengikuti kuliah di Fakultas Dirasat Islamiyyah Universitas Shan`a, Yaman, hingga tahun 1414 H (1993 M). Kemudian ia menetap di Tarim, Hadhramaut. Di sini ia belajar dan juga mendampingi al-Habib Umar bin Hafidz sejak tahun 1993 hingga 2003. Kepadanya, al-Habib Ali membaca dan menghadiri pembacaan kitab-kitab Shahih al-Bukhari, Ihya’ Ulumiddin, Adab Suluk al-Murid, Risalah al-Mu`awanah, Minhaj al-`Abidin, al-`Iqd an-Nabawi, ar-Risalah al-Qusyairiyyah, al-Hikam, dan sebagainya.

Selain kepada mereka, ia pun menimba ilmu kepada para tokoh ulama lainnya, seperti asy-Syaikh Umar bin Husain al-Khathib, asy-Syaikh as-Sayyid Mutawalli asy-Sya`rawi, asy-Syaikh Ismail bin Shadiq al-Adawi di al-Jami` al-Husaini dan di al-Azhar asy-Syarif, Mesir, juga asy-Syaikh Muhammad Zakiyuddin Ibrahim. Disamping itu, al-Habib Ali juga mengambil ijazah dari 300-an orang syaikh dalam berbagai cabang ilmu.    


Dakwah Al-Habib Ali Al-Jufriy

Berbekal berbagai ilmu yang diperolehnya, ditambah pengalaman berkat tempaan para gurunya, ia pun mulai menjalankan misi dakwahnya. Aktivitas dakwahnya dimulai pada tahun 1412 H/1991 di kota-kota dan desa-desa di negeri Yaman. Ia kemudian berkelana dari satu negeri ke negeri lain. Perjalanannya ke mancanegara dimulai pada tahun 1414 H/1993 dan terus berlangsung hingga kini.

Berbagai kawasan negara dikunjunginya. Misalnya negara-negara Arab, yakni Uni Emirat Arab, Yordania, Bahrain, Arab Saudi, Sudan, Suriah, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mesir, Maroko, Mauritania, Jibouti.

Negara-negara non-Arab di Asia, diantaranya Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapura, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka. Di Afrika, diantaranya ia mengunjungi Kenya dan Tanzania. Sedangkan di Eropa, dakwahnya telah merambah Inggris, Jerman, Prancis, Belgia, Belanda, Irlandia, Denmark, Bosnia Herzegovina, dan Turki.

Ia pun setidaknya telah empat kali mengadakan perjalanan dakwah ke Amerika Serikat; pertama tahun 1998, kedua tahun 2001, ketiga tahun 2002, dan keempat tahun 2008. Disamping juga mengunjungi Kanada

Perjalanan dakwahnya ke berbagai negeri membawa kesan tersendiri di hati para jama’ah yang mendengarkan penjelasan dan pesan-pesannya. Di Jerman, ia membuat jama’ah masjid sebanyak tiga lantai menangis tersedu-sedu mendengar taushiyahnya. Orang-orang yang tinggal di Barat, yang cenderung keras hatinya, ternyata bisa lunak di tangan al-Habib Ali.

Di Amerika ada yang merasa bahwa memandang dan berkumpul bersama al-Habib Ali al-Jufri selama satu malam cukup untuk memberinya tenaga dan semangat untuk beribadah selama tiga bulan. Di Inggris ia terlibat pelaksanaan Maulid Nabi di stadion Wembley. Di Denmark ia  mengadakan jumpa pers dengan kalangan media massa.

Di Darul Musthafa, Tarim, Hadhramaut setiap tahun, bulan Rajab-Sya`ban, ia menjadi pembicara rutin Daurah Internasional. Ia pun merangkul para dai muda di Timur Tengah, serta membimbing dan memberikan petunjuk kepada para pemuda yang berbakat. Ia suka duduk bersama para pemuda dan mengadakan dialog terbuka secara bebas.

Dalam berdakwah, ia aktif menjalin hubungan dengan berbagai kalangan masyarakat. Ia memasuki kalangan yang paling bawah, seperti suku-suku di Afrika, hingga kalangan paling atas, seperti keluarga keamiran Abu Dhabi. Ia berhubungan dengan kalangan awam hingga kalangan yang paling alim, seperti asy-Syaikh Muhammad Said Ramadhan al-Buthi (mufti de facto negeri Syria), asy-Syaikh Ali Jum`ah (mufti Mesir), dan ulama-ulama besar lainnya.

Banyak sekali bintang film, artis dan aktris, para seniman, di Mesir yang bertaubat di tangannya. Artis yang sebelumnya “terbuka” jadi berhijab, yang dulunya aktor jadi berdakwah.

Kini ia pun secara rutin tampil di televisi. Penyampaian dakwahnya menyentuh akal dan hati. Cara dakwahnya yang sejuk dan simpatik, pandangan-pandangannya yang cerdas dan tajam, pembawaannya yang menarik hati, membuatnya semakin berpengaruh dari waktu ke waktu.

Kemunculan al-Habib Ali di dunia dakwah membawa angin segar bagi kaum muslimin, terutama kalangan Sunni. Cara dakwahnya berbeda dengan dakwah kalangan yang cenderung keras, kasar, dan kering dari nilai-nilai ruhani, serta cenderung menyerang orang lain, dan banyak menekankan pada model konflik ketimbang harmoni dengan kalangan non-muslim. Bahkan mereka memandang masyarakat muslim sekarang sebagai reinkarnasi dari masyarakat Jahiliyah.


Tragedi Kartun Nabi

Beberapa waktu lalu koran Denmark kembali menampilkan kartun Nabi. Berbeda dengan reaksi sebagian kalangan muslim yang penuh amarah dan tindak kekerasan di dalam menanggapinya, al-Habib Ali al-Jufri dengan kesejukan hatinya serta ketajaman pandangan, pikiran, akal, dan mata batinnya telah melakukan serangkaian langkah yang bervisi jauh ke depan. Ia berharap, langkah-langkahnya akan berdampak positif bagi kaum muslimin, terutama yang tinggal di negara-negara Barat, serta akan menguntungkan dakwah Islam di masa kini dan akan datang.

Bukannya melihat kasus ini sebagai ancaman dan bahaya terhadap Islam dan muslimin, al-Habib Ali justru secara cerdas melihat hal ini sebagai peluang dakwah yang besar untuk masuk ke negeri Eropa secara terbuka, untuk menjelaskan secara bebas tentang Rasulullah Saw. dan berdialog dengan penduduk serta kalangan pers di sana tentang agama ini dan tentang fenomena muslimin. Singkatnya, ia justru melihat ini sebagai peluang dakwah yang besar.

Tentu saja cara pandang al-Habib Ali juga disebabkan pemahamannya yang sangat dalam tentang karakter masyarakat Barat. Salah satu karakter terbesar mereka adalah mempunyai rasa ingin tahu yang besar, berpikir rasional, dan memiliki sikap siap mendengarkan. Karakter-karakter umum ini, ditambah sorotan perhatian kepada Rasulullah Saw., merupakan peluang besar untuk memberikan penjelasan. Mereka ingin tahu tentang Nabi Saw., berarti mereka dalam kondisi siap mendengarkan. Mereka rasional, berarti siap untuk mendapatkan penjelasan yang logis.

Apabila kita bisa menjelaskan tentang Nabi Saw. dan agama ini kepada mereka dengan cara yang menyentuh akal dan hati mereka, maka kita justru akan bisa mengubah mereka. Dari yang anti menjadi netral, yang netral menjadi pro, yang pro menjadi muslim, yang antipati menjadi simpati, yang keras menjadi lembut, yang marah menjadi dingin, yang acu menjadi penasaran. Sekaligus pula mencegah simpatisan menjadi oposan, pro menjadi anti dan seterusnya.

Karena karakter masyarakat Barat yang terbuka, toleran, lebih bisa menerima keanekaragaman budaya, maka peluang dakwah terbuka bebas. Inilah ranah ideal untuk dakwah Islamiyah. Tentu saja ini bagi para da`i yang berfikiran terbuka, berakal lurus dan tajam, cerdas memahami situasi kondisi, dan memiliki dada yang cukup lapang dalam menerima tanggapan negatif, serta giat melakukan pendekatan yang konstruktif dan positif, serta memiliki akhlak yang mulia. Di sinilah al-Habib Ali al-Jufri masuk dengan dakwahnya yang dialogis. 


Terjalinnya Silaturahim dan Bersatu dalam Mahabbah

Tentu saja untuk berani melakukan dialog dengan pers Barat dibutuhkan kecerdasan dan keluasan berpikir serta pemahaman atas pola berpikir masyarakat Barat. Al-Habib Ali dan para dai ini, selain sangat memahami masyarakat Barat, juga memiliki tim khusus yang melakukan penelitian-penelitian secara ilmiah dan mendetail tentang subyek apapun yang dibutuhkan.

Ketika melihat berbagai reaksi yang ada atas kasus kartun Nabi, al-Habib Ali menemukan satu benang merah: “Semua kelompok dalam masyarakat Islam marah”. Kemarahan yang mencerminkan masih adanya sisa-sisa mahabbah kepada Nabi Saw. ini bersifat lintas madzhab, lintas thariqah, lintas jama’ah, bahkan lintas aqidah.

Al-Habib Ali melihat ini sebagai peluang pula untuk menyatukan visi kaum muslimin dan menyatukan barisan mereka. Kalau kaum muslimin tak bisa bersatu dalam madzhab, thariqah, bahkan aqidah, mereka ternyata bisa disatukan dalam mahabbah dan pembelaan terhadap Nabi Saw.

Langkah al-Habib Ali tidak berhenti di sini. Ia membentuk sekelompok dai yang dikenal dengan akhlaqnya, keterbukaan pikiran dan keluasan dadanya, serta kesiapannya untuk melakukan dialog secara intensif dan bebas dengan masyarakat Barat. Kemudian ia bersama kelompok dai ini mengadakan safari intensif keliling Eropa bertemu dengan kalangan pers dan berbagai kalangan lainnya untuk memberikan penjelasan.

Al-Habib Ali dan para dai tersebut mengambil momen ini untuk memupuk cinta muslimin kepada Rasulullah Saw., untuk menghidupkan lagi tradisi-tradisi yang lama mati, dan untuk mengajak muslim berakhlaq mulia sebagaimana akhlaq Nabinya, sambil mengingatkan kaum muslimin yang berdemo agar menjaga adab dan akhlaq Nabi Saw.

Ia juga menyeru kepada kaum muslimin untuk memanfaatkan momen ini dengan menghadiahkan buku-buku tentang Nabi Muhammad Saw. kepada para tetangga dan kawan-kawan mereka yang non-muslim, serta untuk membuka topik untuk menjelaskan kepada mereka tentang Rasulullah dan kedudukan beliau di lubuk hati kaum muslimin.

Bukan hanya itu. Ia pun memanfaatkan momen ini untuk menyatukan dai-dai sedunia dalam satu shaf dan mempelopori berdirinya organisasi dai sedunia. Yang menarik, dalam semua tindakan dan langkahnya ini, ia senantiasa menggandeng, berkoordinasi, dan bermusyawarah serta melibatkan para ulama besar dunia, seperti asy-Syaikh Muhammad Sa`id Ramadhan al-Buthi, asy-Syaikh Ali Jum`ah (mufti Mesir), dan ulama-ulama besar lainnya. Sehingga gerakan ini menjadi gerakan kolektif, milik bersama, bukan milik al-Habib Ali saja.

Sebagai salah satu dampak dari gerakan ini adalah terjalinnya silaturahim dan tersambungnya komunikasi yang sebelumnya terputus atau kurang intensif di antara para ulama dan dai muslimin karena mereka menjadi giat berkomunikasi lintas madzhab, pemikiran, kecenderungan pribadi, bahkan lintas aqidah.

Gerakan yang dipelopori al-Habib Ali ternyata mampu mengikat sejumlah besar pemuka Islam dari berbagai latar belakang yang berbeda ke dalam satu shaf lurus yang panjang untuk bersama-sama menanggapi sebuah isu internasional dengan satu suara bulat yang tidak terpecah-pecah.  Kita berharap, ini tidak akan berakhir, bahkan justru menjadi sebuah awal dari persatuan ulama dan dai-dai muslimin. Aamiin yaa Ilaahanaa Ilaahal Ma’buud.

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Mostar Sevdah Reunion - Cafe Sevdah (2007, Bosnia & Herzegovina)
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          The Truth is Funny .....shift happens! with Host Colette Marie Stefan: Mystery Of The Bosnian Pyramids with filmmaker Vinko Totic        
GuestAn interview with moviemaker and director Vinko Totic regarding his recently released feature documentary; Mystery Of The Bosnian Pyramids.
          Bosnia marks 20 years since Princess Diana’s visit        
Bosnia is marking the 20th anniversary of Princess Diana's visit, her last overseas tour before she died in a car crash in Paris.
          Public discussion “The Future of the Bosnia and Herzegovina” held in Zagreb        
The last in the series of three public discussions “The Future of Bosnia and Herzegovina” took place in Zagreb on May 24, co-organized by the European Fund for the Balkans and “Vreme” weekly. Senada Å elo-Å abić, research associate at the Institute for Development and International Relations, Zagreb; Muharem Bazdulj, writer and journalist; Zlatko Dizdarević, journalist and diplomat and Ivica Đikić, journalist were the key…
          Public discussion “The Future of Bosnia and Herzegovina”, May 24, Zagreb        
Public discussion “The Future of Bosnia and Herzegovina” will be organised in Zagreb, Croatia, on May 24. This will be the final event in series of three debates co-organised by European Fund for the Balkans and “Vreme” weekly. The key speakers will be Senada Å elo-Å abić, research associate at Institute for Development and International Relations, Zagreb; Muharem…
          AN OVERDUE UPDATE        

         I am almost embarrassed that it has been so long since my last farm update (last November I think).  Better late than never.  Hard to know where to begin though. Check out on the latest photos I have posted in the Gallery.

            THE NEW

            We added a new housedog in March – as if we really needed another dog?  This one was for DH.  Her name is SASHA and she is a Landseer Newfoundland.  What a devil she is.  We are still working on potty training and she knows that when she goes (outside of course) she gets a treat.  So she runs outside and squats for a second just so something dribbles out and she runs for her treat.  She could keep this up all day! good girlSasha and Solomon

Day 1 at airport Finding her spot

            Welcome to SIMON and PETER – two new Nigerian Dwarf goats that I just “had to have.”  DH is about ready to move me to the barn with all the animals.  But they are sooooooo cute.  Especial Simon who is a runt.  Both are about 8 weeks old.  Right now, they are being acclimated in the “holding pen” where everyone can get a good whiff of them and they can get used to seeing the giants in the pasture (the cows that is). 

 PeterSimon

 

           

 

 

 

 

        We have two new chicks – had four but one drowned and the other just disappeared.  I think it might have been a midnight snack for an owl or a snake.  DH is attaching hardware cloth (rat wire) around the chicken area as I write this.  No snake will be able to slither through.  One hen is still setting so more may be on the way and I understand that the hens will continue to lay fertilized eggs for about two weeks so Roody will have offspring to carry on his name!

 

New peepA new peep

            I do not think I formally introduced BRONISLAV to my farm fans.  Bro is a Bosnian Tornjak Shepherd – closely related to the Anatolian Shepherd.  I rescued him when he was 5 months old from Arizona knowing that Bongo did not have long to live.  Bro is going to surpass Elka’s weight (140) if he has not already.  I sure hope he stops growing soon!  He collects balls of all kinds and his favorite plaything is Patti LaBelle – yes a cow.  They chase each other and she sometimes plays keep away with his ball.  You have to see it to believe it! 

 Bro with pumpkin

Bro

         

 

 

 

 

 

 Bro and Golda

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

         Finally, I do not think I formally introduced BATMAN and SMUDGE – beautiful offspring of our house cat MISS KITTY.  This was definitely an unplanned pregnancy!  In Virginia vets will not spay/neuter until an animal is at least 5 months old.  When we got Miss Kitty we had no idea how old she was because she was so little and she has not grown that much.  So we obviously messed up.  Although Batman and Smudge look nothing like Miss Kitty (in fact I think they each have a different father!), they definitely have her personality.  They LOVE to be kissed and hugged and rubbed.  And they groom humans the same way they groom themselves or each other.  Unique kitties indeed. 

 smudge

 Batman primping

         

 

 

 

 

 

 Batman and Smudge

 

 

 

 

 

  GOODBYE

            We said goodbye to BONGO in December – he fought a valiant battle against the bone cancer but the cancer won out.  We miss him but I know he is running pain free with Bailey, Samson, Delilah, Winston, Beau, and Nevada. If you loook closely at the photo on the right, you will see that Bongo is giving one of his signature smiles to Jim.

 

Bongo - last photos Bongo - last photos

        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

          We also just lost our beloved ROODY – I am not even sure that I introduced him to everyone.  He was a Faverolle and the most beautiful rooster I had ever seen.  Something got into the pen the other night and beat him up pretty bad.  I tried to save him but could not.  Chickens are like sheep - they often just give up.  I ordered a new cockerel but he will not arrive until August and then of course he must grow up.

 

 Roody

            We finally had to set our first ram PEPPER free.  He had been lame for a long time due to being “rammed” once too many times by his pasture mates.  Animals have a way of letting you know when the time has come and we have an obligation as their caretakers to listen.  Here is the last picture I took of him and Elka together.  Elka was his guardian angel – never saw a guard dog so devoted to one of its charges – but she knew he had special needs. 

 last pic of Pepper with Elka

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

       UPDATES

            I say this is an update, but old age prevents me from remembering if I even wrote about this before.  ELKA has Degenerative Myelopathy, which is similar to Lou Gehrig’s disease in humans.  There is no cure.  She quickly lost the use of her back legs late Fall, but continues to drag herself all over the pasture.  Her chest and front legs are like those of a prizefighter!  This girl is in shape.  It is hard to watch but she continues to do her job and maintains the same spirit she always had.  Time is her enemy but only God knows how much time she has - so we appreciate her every single day. The picture on the left is the last one with her standng on 4 legs around November 2012.  

 Elka - last pic on 4 legsElka and her hunting duds

 

            REBEKAH continues to bring smiles to nursing home residents twice a week.  She is an amazing animal.  She does not even mind when I dress her up in stupid costumes! 

Rebekah Christmas

       Sharon and Rebekah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

   SOLOMON has matured into quite the handsome Newf.  Except for a small problem with his hair, (we’ve thought about gel or braiding it) – he is the picture of a perfect Newf.  Goofy as ever, Solly is trying to be a good big brother to Sasha but she really tries his patience.  It’s like having a shark attached to your leg all the time. 

 

Solomon Solomon

          

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PATTI and ANNABELLE have a new suitor.  His name is Gordon and he is a handsome Belted Galloway who lives about an hour from the farm.  His references are clean – no jail time, no drug use, no gang involvement (well, I heard he likes hanging with the goats – but he’s not considered an insider to their club).  I did hear that his mom was a real heifer and his dad chewed tobacco – but hey, we cannot choose our parents can we?  The girls will meet their suitor in October or November.  I originally thought to breed only Patti but then I have heard stories about what cows can do when separated from a pasture buddy – and we know they can jump fences – soooooo.  Besides, they will have their babies at the same time and will be able to help each other through the difficulties of nursing, weaning, and instruction on proper cud chewing and harassment of the guard dogs.  Expect the nursery to open next Fall. 

 

Bro - standoff with Annabelle 

         Bro - standoff with Patti

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

      No sheep breeding this year.  I think I’m through with that.  Looking forward to calves though/  The goats continut to be a hoot - here are a couple of pictures of them mugging for the camera.

more mugging

 Mugging for the camera

       

 

 

 

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

Let’s see we have some serious birthdays this year – I turned 60; DH turns 70, and our very first cat ELIJAH Turns 19.  I don’t know if I am more amazed that I am that old or that Elijah is as old as he is.  I understand how he feels though.

            I will make a concerted effort to be current in my blogs.  As always, we welcome visitors to the farm so if you are in the area – please call and come by. I'll leave you with some great pictures of the farm in the one and only snow of the year.

farm in snow 1373367224_e94f5e91c32c.jpg


          Overcoming the Middle Income Trap         

The Western Balkans Case

ZM-SE003 World Bank The Western Balkans have a lot going for them: ideal location next to the world’s largest economic bloc, a well-educated workforce, relatively low wages and decent infrastructure. FDI and investors should be rushing in … but are they?

Southeast Europe is the next frontier of EU expansion and includes six countries: Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia. These countries have a lot in common and an equal amount of differences. They are all relatively small open economies, with a growth strategy premised on deeper international integration. Some, especially Macedonia, are more advanced in attracting international investors but as a whole, the region seems to be stuck in a classical Middle Income Trap: they are too rich to compete on low-cost manufacturing but are too poor to be global innovators. After a strong recovery following war and conflicts in the 1990s, the growth momentum has stalled over the last five years and the region has been particularly vulnerable to external shocks.


          Louis Berger to Provide Water and Wastewater Management Consulting Services to Bosnia-Herzegovina        

Louis Berger International (Louis Berger) has been awarded a 48-month contract to provide consulting services to Bosnia-Herzegovina’s Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Water Management and Forestry.

(PRWeb January 27, 2014)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2014/01/prweb11525909.htm


          Esteri di gio 24/03        
1-Radovan Karadzic condannato a 40 anni di carcere...L'ex leader serbo bosniaco riconosciuto colpevole di genocidio a Srebrenica. ( Andrea Rossini - Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso) ..2-Belgio: la procura conferma che Najim Lachraoui è il secondo kamikaze dell'aeroporto. Il terrorista aveva confezionato l'esplosivo per gli attentati di Parigi. ..( Maria Maggiore ) ..3-Era il calcio: è morto il campione olandese johan Cruyf. Fu adottato dai catalani per le sue posizione politiche coraggiose. ( Claudio Agostoni ) ..4-Argentina: 24 marzo 1976: 40 anni fa il golpe militare. L'esercito sperimentò la desapariciòn, la nuova tecnica di terrore.( Alfredo Somoza ) ..5-La Gazzetta del Danubio: Una cattiva notizia per Orban. In Ungheria un pediatra yemenita eletto medico dell'anno...( Massimo Congiu https://osmepress.wordpress.com/)..6-Romanzo a fumetti: Lady Snow Blood J-Pop la graphic novell che ha ispirato Kill Bill il film Tarantino.  ..( Maurizio Principato )
          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauList of Currencies of the World and their Currency Symbols

There are 179 currencies in the world.
List of Currencies of the World
Currencies of the World

Currency Symbols

CurrencySymbol
Afghan afghani؋
Albanian lekL
Alderney pound£
Algerian dinarد.ج
Angolan kwanzaKz
Argentine peso$
Armenian dramդր.
Aruban florinƒ
Ascension pound£
Australian dollar$
Bahamian dollar$
Bahraini dinar.د.ب
Bangladeshi taka৳
Barbadian dollar$
Belarusian rubleBr
Belize dollar$
Bermudian dollar$
Bhutanese ngultrumNu.
Bolivian bolivianoBs.
Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible markKM or КМ
Botswana pulaP
Brazilian realR$
British pound£
British Virgin Islands dollar$
Brunei dollar$
Bulgarian levлв
Burundian francFr
Cambodian riel៛
Canadian dollar$
Cape Verdean escudoEsc or $
Cayman Islands dollar$
Central African CFA francFr
CFP francFr
Chilean peso$
Chinese yuan¥ or 元
Cocos (Keeling) Islands dollar$
Colombian peso$
Comorian francFr
Congolese francFr
Cook Islands dollar$
Costa Rican colón₡
Croatian kunakn
Cuban convertible peso$
Cuban peso$
Czech korunaKč
Danish kronekr
Djiboutian francFr
Dominican peso$
East Caribbean dollar$
Egyptian pound£ or ج.م
Eritrean nakfaNfk
Ethiopian birrBr
Euro€
Falkland Islands pound£
Faroese krónakr
Fijian dollar$
Gambian dalasiD
Georgian lariლ
Ghanaian cedi₵
Gibraltar pound£
Guatemalan quetzalQ
Guernsey pound£
Guinean francFr
Guyanese dollar$
Haitian gourdeG
Honduran lempiraL
Hong Kong dollar$
Hungarian forint