Pregones y crónicas coloniales...        
Pregones y crónicas coloniales

Por Edgardo Civallero

Escucho, de mi colección de discos de folklore latinoamericano, un tema del grupo argentino Los Trovadores, renombrado por sus cuidados arreglos vocales. Se llama "Pregones coloniales": empiezan por el pregón del aceitunero –"Aceituna, una..."– y siguen por el del velero y el aguatero. De esa canción salto a otra del mismo grupo: los "Pregones del altiplano". Allí, los que suenan son los gritos del vendedor de mantas, del de mazamorra y del platero...

Cuando era niño, la estampa de los pregones era una de las más me gustaba cuando me enseñaban la (deformada) historia colonial de mi país. Quizás aquellos anuncios callejeros tenían algo que ver con la música, elemento que siempre me pareció un maravilloso lenguaje universal. La costumbre de pregonar había llegado de España, en los mismos barcos que trajeron muchos de los productos que se pregonaban.

Hace poco, leyendo las páginas de las inigualables "Tradiciones peruanas" de Ricardo Palma, me encontré con un fragmento que quiero compartir con ustedes por recuperar esta partecita del espíritu colonial americano, un espíritu que no ha desaparecido: simplemente ha adquirido otra forma. Viajen, si no, en algún transporte público en Argentina, en Ecuador, en Bolivia, y esperen a que suba algún vendedor ambulante...

El fragmento que quiero compartirles es un tanto complejo. Se refiere a la historia colonial peruana. Muchos de los personajes y productos pregonados son poco conocidos en otros ámbitos. Sin embargo, creo que un par de explicaciones posteriores bastarán para aclarar algunas dudas...

Palma explica como los pregones en las calles del barrio de su niñez servían de reloj no–oficial...

La lechera indicaba las seis de la mañana.
La tisanera y la chichera de Terranova daban su pregón a las siete en punto.
El bizcochero y la vendedora de leche–vinagre, que gritaba "¡a la cuajadita!", designaban las ocho, ni minuto más ni minuto menos.
La vendedora de zanguito de ñajú y choncholíes marcaba las nueve, hora de canónigos.
La tamalera era anuncio de las diez.
A las once pasaban la melonera y la mulata del convento vendiendo ranfañote, cocada, bocado de rey, chancaquitas de cancha y de maní, y fréjoles colados.
A las doce aparecían el frutero de canasta llena y el proveedor de empanadillas de picadillo.
La una era indefectiblemente señalada por el vendedor de ante con ante, la arrocera y el alfajorero.
A las dos de la tarde, la picaronera, el humitero y el de la rica "causa de Trujillo" atronaban con sus pregones.
A las tres, el melcochero, la turronera y el anticuchero o vendedor de bisteque en palito clamoreaban con más puntualidad que la Mari–Angola de la Catedral.
A las cuatro gritaban la picantera y el de la piñita de nuez.
A las cinco chillaban el jazminero, el de las caramanducas y el vendedor de flores de trapo, que gritaba: "¡Jardín, jardín! Muchacha, ¿no hueles?".
A las seis canturreaban el raicero y el galletero.
A las siete de la noche pregonaban el caramelero, la mazamorrera y la champucera.
A las ocho, el heladero y el barquillero.
Aún a las nueve de la noche, junto con el toque de cubrefuego, el animero o sacristán de la parroquia salía con capa colorada y farolito en mano pidiendo para las ánimas benditas del purgatorio o para la cera de Nuestro Amo. Este prójimo era el terror de los niños rebeldes para acostarse.
Después de esa hora, era el sereno del barrio quien reemplazaba a los relojes ambulantes, cantando entre pitea y pitea: –¡Ave María Purísima! ¡Las diez han dado! ¡Viva el Perú, y sereno!


Para los desconocedores, vayan las siguientes anotaciones.

La tisanera vendía hierbas medicinales, y la chichera, chicha, bebida fresca hecha a base de maíz, muy consumida en la actualidad en el área andina, tanto en su versión no fermentada como en la otra, que tiene alcohol y equivale a una cerveza.

La leche-vinagre es cuajada, producto lácteo típicamente hispano. El zango de ñajú es un guiso de un fruto ya olvidado, que era de la forma de un pimiento y con una sustancia viscosa o gomosa en su interior.

La tamalera vendía tamales, pastelillos a base de pasta de maíz rellena de carne o verduras y envuelto, todo ello, en "chala" (hoja de la mazorca). Los productos de la "mulata del convento" eran dulces, obras maestras de repostería típicas de claustros de monjas.

Al "ante con ante" era el clásico arroz con leche. El alfajorero vendía una variedad de dulces hispanos, los alfajores, aún muy consumidos en América Latina. Los picarones, choncholíes y la "causa de Trujillo" son dulces peruanos parecidos. Los primeros eran especies de buñuelos de zapallo y harina, fritos y bañados en miel.

Las melcochas eran especies de caramelos de azúcar y mantequilla. El humitero vendía humitas, muy parecidas a los tamales. Los anticuchos son especies de "pinchos morunos" hechos con lascas de corazón de vaca, aún hoy muy apreciados en Bolivia y Perú.

El jazminero y demás vendedores de flores las vendían para que las mozas se engalanaran para sus paseos de media tarde, una costumbre explicada por Palma en su libro. Para arreglo de las damas también existía el raicero, que despachaba unas raíces blandas que equivalían al cepillo y pasta dental antiguos.

La mazamorra –vigente hasta hoy en media Sudamérica– es una especie de cocido de granos de maíz blanco, usualmente dulce, al que se le agrega distintos aditamentos para darle un sabor característico, y es, generalmente, un delicioso postre.

Finalmente, el sereno era una especie de vigilante nocturno, y el animero, un monje que, en procesión, salía a pedir limosnas para las ánimas del purgatorio.

El libro de Palma recoge muchas otras historias, y recomiendo su lectura para los ávidos curiosos de las costumbres y tradiciones de antaño. Entre las incluidas en la obra del insigne peruano se encuentran la tradición del Manchaypuyto; la de la partida de ajedrez del inca Atahuallpa; la historia de Aguirre el traidor; la llegada del primer ratón, el primer gato y el primer melón a tierras peruanas; las crónicas del tabaco; numerosas historias sobre dichos y refranes americanos; reseñas sobre hechos históricos relacionados con la Conquista y la Independencia de Perú; y numerosas reseñas de distintos lances y anécdotas que tienen como actores a religiosos, virreyes, nobles y ciudadanos bien conocidos.

Así como los volúmenes de nuestras bibliotecas pueden darnos la fuerza para que nuestras ramas crezcan y fructifiquen, también proporcionan la tierra en la que nuestras raíces deben afirmarse para que el ramaje pueda seguir creciendo. Porque sin raíces, el menor ventarrón tumba a un árbol. Y ventarrones, en el mundo moderno, es lo que sobra.

Con un puñado de estas lecturas, uno se sonreirá –sobre todo si es latinoamericano– cuando, en el metro o en el bus, escuche el pregón de los modernos vendedores ambulantes. Y se dará cuenta de que, a pesar de todo, muchas cosas sólo cambian la fachada, pero jamás mueren.

Ilustración.

          Caminos de pastores        
Caminos de pastores

Por Edgardo Civallero

Estamos parando, durante este mes de marzo, en un pequeño pueblo de la llamada "sierra pobre" de Madrid, que en su día perteneció a la provincia de Segovia. El pueblo en cuestión se llama Bustarviejo, y es un lugar en el que todavía –a pesar del avance de "lo moderno"– se conserva bastante de la vida tranquila de las villas del interior castellano.

Por aquí, por Bustarviejo, desde donde les escribo hoy, pasaba la Cañada Real, una de las rutas de los pastores trashumantes. En tiempos pasados –y aún hoy, aunque sólo sea una débil sombra de lo que fue– los rebaños de ovejas (una de las principales fuentes de riqueza de la antigua Castilla, que a veces contaban con millares de cabezas) debían moverse de sur a norte y viceversa en busca de zonas de invernada y de pastos para comer en verano. Así se formaban caravanas que, desde la Edad Media, fueron conducidas por las "cañadas", caminos especiales que evitaban el destrozo de campos sembrados y permitían a la corona recaudar los "debidos" y consabidos impuestos.

La vida de los pastores trashumantes estaba asociada a una cultura particular: a instrumentos musicales determinados, que hoy apenas si sobreviven en las manos de algunos ancianos memoriosos y en la de algunos jóvenes que quieren rescatar esos recuerdos tan bellos; a unos tipos determinados de comida, usualmente vinculadas a chacinados, quesos, pan y frutos de estación; a unos cantos y unos cuentos muy particulares; a unas costumbres y hábitos tradicionales (relativos a la vida nómada que llevaban esos individuos); y, en fin, a toda una serie de costumbres, refranes, técnicas y actitudes.

Esa misma cultura –salvando todas las distancias– se encuentra entre los caravaneros de llamas que cruzan el altiplano boliviano llevando papas desde la puna a los lagos salados, para cambiarlas allí por bloques de sal y transportar ese preciado bien blanco a los valles cálidos para trocarlos por hojas de coca, verduras, frutas, queso... Esa cultura incluye ritos ancestrales de propiciación y protección de viajeros y animales; incluye instrumentos musicales únicos, decires, ceremonias, costumbres...

Y encontrarán rasgos similares entre los camelleros del África subsahariana; y entre los conductores de las recuas de yaks que cruzan el Himalaya entre India y Nepal o Pakistán; y entre los Saami (lapones) que mueven sus renos a través de Escandinavia; y entre los Masai que pastorean sus preciados rebaños de vacas a través del África oriental...

Son patrones y características que conforman el inmenso mosaico humano del que formamos parte. Algo de ellos está plasmado en los documentos que habitan los estantes de nuestras bibliotecas. Pero es sólo una parte mínima, el saber que ha sido escrito. La mayor parte de esa cultura sigue mostrando su cara y dejando sus marcas sobre la superficie de nuestro planeta. Viviendo, cambiando, evolucionando, desapareciendo a veces. Es cuestión de no olvidar que todo el conocimiento no está en nuestras manos: muchas cosas siguen latiendo fuera de los muros de las bibliotecas, lejos de catálogos, bases de datos e Internet. Y ese conocimiento es muy importante: son los últimos restos de una época en la que el hombre todavía (re)conocía los ritmos de la naturaleza.

Como les decía, mucha de esa cultura tradicional sigue viva en algunos rincones de nuestro mundo. Como aquí, en Bustarviejo, donde todavía se recuerdan las nubes de polvo que levantaba el paso de las grandes majadas ovinas, camino a los pastos.

Ilustración.

          En cada bandera de combate, flamean los sueños de El Ché Crónica Vick Gómez Miller        
En Cada Bandera de Combate Flamean los Sueños de El Ché
Crónica. Vick Gómez Miller

Cada octubre que se inicia trae la huella querida y profunda de Ernesto Guevara
De la Serna.: El Ché de Nuestra América, que compulsa las transformaciones
De puño y fuego que en Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia…Cuba enrumban el camino
Mejor, en el que siempre avisoraron su suerte echar los humildes, para convertir
Los latidos tremendos de los Heroes caidos en victoria., por la que jamás pidieron nada
A cambio..
En los mástiles gigantescos, convertidos en astas para todas las banderas que idearon
O idearán los que siguen yendo hacia el combate por sus pueblos, rompiendo las
Cadenas opresoras con que el imperio pretende aherrojarlos, utilizando a las burguesías
Nativas, enriquecidas con el hambre sufrida por los desposeídos como a sus guardianes
Corrompidos y desnaturalizados, comprados por el dólar sin respaldo con que les paga.
Ahora los que dieron y siguen dando la vida por sus pueblos, serán quienes izen las
Banderas amanecidas en cada victoria contra quienes jamás se preocuparon por las
Angustias y sufrimientos de los pobres de la tierra.. Porque con cada derrota que los
desposeidos les inflinjan, andará siempre formidable el rostro de El Ché.
          Z. LA CIUDAD PERDIDA        

TÍTULO ORIGINAL:The Lost City of Z
PAÍS:EE.UU.
AÑO:2017
DURACIÓN:141 minutos
GUIÓN:James Gray sobre la novela de David Grann
FOTOGRAFÍA:Darius Khondji
MÚSICA:Christopher Spelman


En 1906 la Royal Geographical Society encarga al militar Percy Fawcett la investigación y cartografía de la zona fronteriza entre Bolivia y Brasil. Esa primera expedición al continente sudamericano cambiaría la vida de Fawcett para siempre.


Notable regreso del cine de aventuras a la cartelera con un buen despliegue de recursos y actores.
Más cerca de Las montañas de la luna (Bob Rafelson, 1990) que de clásicos como La reina de África (John Huston, 1951) o El hombre que pudo reinar (John Huston, 1975), pero indudablemente merecedora de figurar en la lista de lo más interesante que vamos a ver este año en el cine, Z, la ciudad perdida, no era un proyecto nada fácil de llevar a la pantalla. Principalmente porque al basarse en hechos reales queda atada a todo aquello que la realidad impone a la carga mitificadora y épica del género de aventuras. Pero a pesar de esa carga inicial, la película encuentra la manera de salir adelante como una de las visiones más maduras del género de aventuras que bien necesitado está de este tipo de propuesta, visto el ninguneo a que lo ha venido sometiendo el oportunismo y la hibridación a que es adicto el cine estadounidense cuando aborda este tipo de historias. Pongo un ejemplo para que quede más claro a qué me refiero: Los demonios de la noche (Stephen Hopkins, 1996), una excelente historia real de partida que al pasar al cine resulta entretenida y que me gustó por mi afición al asunto que aborda, pero sobre la que inevitablemente tengo que reconocer que perdió mucha personalidad y energía intentando ser “Tiburón en la selva, con leones”. Tampoco es que Z, la ciudad perdida, sea Aguirre, la cólera de Dios (Werner Herzog, 1972), una de las visiones más perturbadoras del género de aventuras que recuerdo haber visto en un cine. Y ciertamente su personaje protagonista –un miembro de la clase pija alta intentando recuperar fuelle social a base de arribismo por la vía del descubrimiento de ruinas y mundos perdidos en la selva- no me resulta tan simpático como los pícaros supervivientes y alucinados que nos propuso John Huston en El hombre que pudo reinar, basada en ese Rudyard Kipling que cita el diálogo de Z, la ciudad perdida, pero al que en mi opinión no acaba de adherirse o rendir homenaje. Pero la ventaja de esta película es que sí cuenta con un actor, Charlie Hunnam, que tiene toda la eficacia de una estrella tan clásica como Steve McQueen a la hora de ponerse ante la cámara para defender la parte aventurera del largometraje, y además, asociado a Sienna Miller con buena química, resuelve con brillantez la parte de más privada e íntima de la trama.(REVISTA ACCIÓN).

....Sobre el reparto de “Z” sólo caben elogíos. Para empezar tenemos al protagonista, un gran Charlie Hunnam que avanza en esto de la interpretación a pasos agigantados… y llena por completo el traje y carisma de Percy Fawcett, tanto como militar, como esposo y padre, y como explorador. Un hombre tremendamente educado, abierto, responsable, con ganas de triunfar y obsesionado con la selva. Atención a su discurso en la Royal Geographical Society, y a su muy estimable pronunciación del español cuando le toca hablar en nuestro idioma con algunos de los nativos.

Por su parte, Sienna Miller hace una no menos fantástica labor como Nina Fawcett, la esposa de Percy. Sienna recrea una mujer con mucha personalidad y al nivel de su esposo, si bien, la sociedad de la época juega en su contra… De quien poco se puede decir es de Tom Holland pues aparece ya en el tramo final de la película como el Jack Fawcett crecidito y entusiasta....(CINE Y CINE)-
En su persistente redefinición de qué signifca ser un cineasta clásico en el siglo XXI, James Gray se enfrenta al cine de aventuras exóticas para jibarizar su épica. Lentamente, como adentrándose en un río sin horizontes, se dedica a describir la conradiana obsesión de su heroico explorador humanizando su experiencia. Es tan importante su progresiva fascinación por una naturaleza que le hace entrar en estado de trance como sus dificultades para conciliar su pasión con la vida familiar que le espera al otro lado del Paraíso. Es admirable el modo en que Gray convierte un viaje que dura toda una vida en el reencuentro entre un padre y un hijo, y en la materialización de un sueño que es, a la vez, la crónica de un fracaso.
Gracias a su elegante, hipnótica puesta en escena, lo que parecía un relato realista se transforma en fantasmagórico, como si el objetivo final de la aventura fuera que el cine clásico aceptara su condición espectral, y sus héroes convivieran con sus sombras, misterios y locura.(FOTOGRAMAS).

          Tipnis: Más que un progreso, una amenaza para los indígenas        
La Iglesia boliviana respondió a las últimas acusaciones hechas desde el gobierno de Evo Morales“Una carretera que cruce este territorio representa una seria amenaza a la naturaleza más que un progreso para los pueblos indígenas”. Así se expresó a través de un comunicado la Conferencia Episcopal Boliviana (CEB) luego del debate instalado en el país Leer más…
          â€œIchapekene Piesta”, un homenaje a San Ignacio con sabor indígena        
Esta festividad boliviana quiere seguir siendo Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial de la HumanidadSan Ignacio de Moxos es una localidad del departamento boliviano de Beni (centronorte del país) y es epicentro de una de una fiesta muy particular en América Latina: “Ichapekene Piesta”. Se trata de una celebración especial y fuertemente vinculada a la figura de San Leer más…
          Cheers & Jeers: The Weekender Edition        
In this thrilling new column, Rickey shall award “cheers” to those exemplary parties deserving laudable mention, and “jeers” to those despicable individuals who have garnered his unfettered scorn. It’s a helluva lot like the weekly Daily Kos 'Cheers & Jeers' column, but minus the shallow and pedantic political diatribes. Enjoy our inaugural edition.

Update: oh hey, look! Rickey's sneering caused the loquacious libs at Daily Kos to actually feature this post! Awww, shucks Billy, Rickey thanks you from THE MODERATELY DECENT STATE OF NEW YORK!

We now return you to your regularly scheduled post:

Cheers to… John Favreau for filming "Iron Man 2," the most enjoyable superhero flick Rickey has seen to date. And don’t worry, as much as he wants to, Rickey promises he won't reach for a tenuous political allegory in this installment in the Iron Man franchise like he did last time. Free of all the burdens of the formulaic origin story that the first Iron Man movie was mired down in, this flick is a rollicking good time. As you may have heard, the plot isn’t all that great, but the brilliant dialogue and acting make up for it and the action scenes are mercifully sparse yet actually discernible. The film kicks off with our cocky prick of a superhero Tony Stark plummeting out of a whizzing plane in full red and gold metallic regalia, doing a bit of snazzy midair maneuvering, and landing prominently in the rejuvenated 1965 Queens World’s Fair grounds with a thunderous metal CLANG to a massive applauding crowd. Amazingly enough, the movie goes exponentially uphill from there. (Although Rickey would’ve loved to see Iron Man overshoot his landing zone and accidentally land in Citi Field to lukewarm applause and grumbles of “well, he can’t possibly be any worse than Oliver Perez” from sullen Mets fans). The people at the helm of this flick really nailed the tone of the Iron Man property. One day they're going to run out of raucous AC\DC songs to loop over the film's soundtrack. Happily, that day is far, far away. Rickey strongly urges you to go forth and enjoy Iron Man 2 this weekend in a heavily packed theater. Take the missus. It'll be serious fun.

Jeers to… 2K Sports for finding new and unique ways to rub it in to Mets fans. 2K Sports, publisher of a popular baseball video game franchise, offered a $1,000,000 prize to the gamer who could throw a perfect game in their new title MLB 2K10. And sure enough, somebody pulled it off and claimed the prize. The pitcher they used to win was Kenshin Kawakami. The team he pitched against? Ladies and gentlemen… your 2010 New York Mets!!!

Cheers to... Homeless people. Given the stock market's performance this week, Rickey is starting to suspect that you fellows are really ahead of the curve here. Rickey himself looks forward to his days as a homeless person and really making a good run of it. Why not have some fun with the experience? If Rickey was homeless, he'd breathe some life into this honored pastime by going into jewelery stores, picking out the most expensive necklaces, then reaching for his wallet only to loudly exclaim: "oh wait, I forgot, I'm fucking homless! Goddammit!" Rickey would also panhandle to pay for admission to museums so he could hop over the velvet rope and eat a famous painting such as a Monet. Rickey would totally scarf down that Water Lillies painting. He'd be the most expensive homeless person in the world!

Jeers to... Lawrence Taylor. Seriously, what the hell, dude? But hey, on the bright side, at least Rickey doesn't need to search as hard to get your signature on a football. He can just look up your name and address on a sex offender registry!

Cheers to… The good folks at BP Energy for making Rickey rich beyond measure. Now we all know that what’s happening in the Gulf Coast right now is a complete catastrophe, but that doesn’t mean somebody shouldn’t profit from it, right? That somebody is Rickey. You see, Rickey estimates that by the end of next week, the price of gulf coast shrimp will rival that of Bolivian nose candy. Rickey’s brilliant plan is to purchase up 10 metric tons of frozen shrimp from Costco tonight at discount prices and store it in a massive freezer in his basement and wait patiently. When the time is right and the public hungers for affordable shrimp, Rickey will spring into action and sell discount shrimp out of the back of his Saab 9-3 off the New Jersey Turnpike. Rickey’s gonna be rich, he tells you, rich!

Jeers to... The entire state of Massachusetts for continuing their proud tradition of wondrous incompetency. Rickey and Mrs. Henderson were in the greater Boston area last weekend when news flashes emerged that a major water main had ruptured nearby, leaving 2 million residents with no potable drinking water. (Why is it that wherever the Hendersons go, catastrophe follows them?) You know your weekend getaway has gone terribly awry when you witness Massholes in camouflage shorts and Red Sox hats lining up outside the local Kmart at 7AM to purchase cases of Poland Spring bottled water like the zombie apocalypse is upon them. The reason the Hendersons were up in the Boston was for a baptism for a friend’s newborn child. Were Rickey and Mrs. Henderson cracking jokes during the ceremony about the quality of the water the priest was dunking the kid in? Oh, you betcha.

Cheers to… Mothers everywhere. You gals are doing a heckuva job. Just stellar work all around. On this Mother’s Day weekend, Rickey just wanted you to know that.
          Comment on Banners Design for Mobile Unlock Base by MichaelImmed        
Our team is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. To get the additional information and place the order just visit our website: http://www.salepassportsfake.cc www. salepassportsfake.cc >> Contact e-mails: General support: support@salepassportsfake.cc Technical support: admin@salepassportsfake.cc ----------------------------- Keywords: buy fake passport of Afghanistan buy fake passport of Albania buy fake passport of Algeria buy fake passport of Andorra buy fake passport of Angola buy fake passport of Antigua & Deps buy fake passport of Argentina buy fake passport of Armenia buy fake passport of Australia buy fake passport of Austria buy fake passport of Azerbaijan buy fake passport of Bahamas buy fake passport of Bahrain buy fake passport of Bangladesh buy fake passport of Barbados buy fake passport of Belarus buy fake passport of Belgium buy fake passport of Belize buy fake passport of Benin buy fake passport of Bhutan buy fake passport of Bolivia buy fake passport of Bosnia Herzegovina buy fake passport of Botswana buy fake passport of Brazil buy fake passport of Brunei buy fake passport of Bulgaria buy fake passport of Burkina buy fake passport of Burundi buy fake passport of Cambodia buy fake passport of Cameroon buy fake passport of Canada buy fake passport of Cape Verde buy fake passport of Central African Rep buy fake passport of Chad buy fake passport of Chile buy fake passport of China buy fake passport of Colombia buy fake passport of Comoros buy fake passport of Congo buy fake passport of Congo Democratic Rep buy fake passport of Costa Rica buy fake passport of Croatia buy fake passport of Cuba buy fake passport of Cyprus buy fake passport of Czech Republic buy fake passport of Denmark buy fake passport of Djibouti buy fake passport of Dominica buy fake passport of Dominican Republic buy fake passport of East Timor buy fake passport of Ecuador buy fake passport of Egypt buy fake passport of El Salvador buy fake passport of Equatorial Guinea buy fake passport of Eritrea buy fake passport of Estonia buy fake passport of Ethiopia buy fake passport of Fiji buy fake passport of Finland buy fake passport of France buy fake passport of Gabon buy fake passport of Gambia buy fake passport of Georgia buy fake passport of Germany buy fake passport of Ghana buy fake passport of Greece buy fake passport of Grenada buy fake passport of Guatemala buy fake passport of Guinea buy fake passport of Guinea-Bissau buy fake passport of Guyana buy fake passport of Haiti buy fake passport of Honduras buy fake passport of Hungary buy fake passport of Iceland buy fake passport of India buy fake passport of Indonesia buy fake passport of Iran buy fake passport of Iraq buy fake passport of Ireland Republic buy fake passport of Israel buy fake passport of Italy buy fake passport of Ivory Coast buy fake passport of Jamaica buy fake passport of Japan buy fake passport of Jordan buy fake passport of Kazakhstan buy fake passport of Kenya buy fake passport of Kiribati buy fake passport of Korea North buy fake passport of Korea South buy fake passport of Kosovo buy fake passport of Kuwait buy fake passport of Kyrgyzstan buy fake passport of Laos buy fake passport of Latvia buy fake passport of Lebanon buy fake passport of Lesotho buy fake passport of Liberia buy fake passport of Libya buy fake passport of Liechtenstein buy fake passport of Lithuania buy fake passport of Luxembourg buy fake passport of Macedonia buy fake passport of Madagascar buy fake passport of Malawi buy fake passport of Malaysia buy fake passport of Maldives buy fake passport of Mali buy fake passport of Malta buy fake passport of Marshall Islands buy fake passport of Mauritania buy fake passport of Mauritius buy fake passport of Mexico buy fake passport of Micronesia buy fake passport of Moldova buy fake passport of Monaco buy fake passport of Mongolia buy fake passport of Montenegro buy fake passport of Morocco buy fake passport of Mozambique buy fake passport of Myanmar, Burma buy fake passport of Namibia buy fake passport of Nauru buy fake passport of Nepal buy fake passport of Netherlands buy fake passport of New Zealand buy fake passport of Nicaragua buy fake passport of Niger buy fake passport of Nigeria buy fake passport of Norway buy fake passport of Oman buy fake passport of Pakistan buy fake passport of Palau buy fake passport of Panama buy fake passport of Papua New Guinea buy fake passport of Paraguay buy fake passport of Peru buy fake passport of Philippines buy fake passport of Poland buy fake passport of Portugal buy fake passport of Qatar buy fake passport of Romania buy fake passport of Russian Federation buy fake passport of Rwanda buy fake passport of St Kitts & Nevis buy fake passport of St Lucia buy fake passport of Saint Vincent & the Grenadines buy fake passport of Samoa buy fake passport of San Marino buy fake passport of Sao Tome & Principe buy fake passport of Saudi Arabia buy fake passport of Senegal buy fake passport of Serbia buy fake passport of Seychelles buy fake passport of Sierra Leone buy fake passport of Singapore buy fake passport of Slovakia buy fake passport of Slovenia buy fake passport of Solomon Islands buy fake passport of Somalia buy fake passport of South Africa buy fake passport of Spain buy fake passport of Sri Lanka buy fake passport of Sudan buy fake passport of Suriname buy fake passport of Swaziland buy fake passport of Sweden buy fake passport of Switzerland buy fake passport of Syria buy fake passport of Taiwan buy fake passport of Tajikistan
          Renewal of tourist visa for Bolivia        
Hi everyone,

does anybody of you have any reliable information if it is still possible to leave
Bolivia after 3 month of tourist visa, to enter the country again and to
get another 90 days of turist visa? As far as I have heard it is not
possible anymore. Has anybody made some experience with this recently? Thank you very much in advance for a short notice!
          30 day visa to enter Bolivia        
I noticed on another travel website that I might be able to purchase a visiting/tourist visa to enter Bolivia at the airport should I have not had one issued in my country of departure. How and where in/at the airport would this be done?
          Bolivia and Credit Cards        
My daughter if off to Bolivia soon and I have given her a credit card (in case of emergencies!) Does anyone know if Bolivia operates a chip and pin system or does the old fashioned signature still work there? She also intends to travel to both Brazil and Argentina and I would like to know what system operates in these countries as well.

Many thanks

Pf
          World: FPMA Bulletin #7, 10 August 2017        
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burundi, Cambodia, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia

Key messages

  • International prices of wheat rose further in July on quality concerns, particularly for higher protein wheat, although upward pressure was limited by prospects of ample global supplies. Export prices of maize remained generally unchanged, while a slowdown in demand capped gains in rice quotations.
  • In East Africa, prices of cereals in most countries declined signi cantly for the second consecutive month in July with the new harvests, but remained generally higher than a year earlier. However, in Ethiopia, prices of maize surged further and reached record levels, underpinned by uncertain prospects for the 2017 crops.
  • In the CIS, prices of staple potatoes declined sharply from the record or near-record highs of June in most countries of the subregion with the beginning of the new harvest. Prices, however, remained higher than in July last year after the sharp increases of the past months.

           Differential population history in the migratory catfishes Brachyplatystoma flavicans and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum(Pimelodidae) from the Bolivian Amazon assessed with nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers         
Coronel, J.S., Maes, G.E., Claus, S., Van Damme, P.A., and Volckaert, F.A.M. (2004) Differential population history in the migratory catfishes Brachyplatystoma flavicans and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum(Pimelodidae) from the Bolivian Amazon assessed with nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers. Journal of Fish Biology, 65 (3). pp. 859-868.
          Día de Los Muertos Pan de Guaguas Recipe        

Gracias, General Mills, for partnering with me on this post to share about our family’s traditions for Día de Los Muertos. Like always, all opinions are mine. Día de Los Muertos, or Day of the Dead, is not a day we normally observed in my house growing up. My parents are Bolivian, and my mother...

Read More »

The post Día de Los Muertos Pan de Guaguas Recipe appeared first on Lola Lambchops.


          The Diversity of MOOCs and the Dangers of Over-Generalization        
A lot of academic criticism of MOOCs derives from the fear that small, private online courses (SPOCs) open only to fee paying students, but based on MOOCs offered by “superstar” online professors, will replace local faculty, especially in lower tier institutions. Low-paid contingent faculty and teaching assistants (or worse, software programs and auto-graders) will then handle the heuristic teaching and grading, leaving fee paying students without expert human guidance. This is the "MOOCs will Destroy Higher Education as we Know It" argument. 
If you carry the hierarchical, every-student-for-themselves assumptions inherent in an xMOOC into the future you will never escape the reasons why so many caring educators oppose MOOCs in the first place. . . The problem with MOOCs isn’t the name. It’s not even the components of the acronym. The problem with MOOCs is that they’re being designed to create low-quality, hierarchical courses that can be championed by unscrupulous administrators to fire caring professors and leave unsuspecting students to fend entirely for themselves.
 Rees appears to be arguing here against SPOCs, not MOOCs. But let’s take up that part of his argument directed nominally against MOOCs. Rees says:
Cosmetic changes will not solve (MOOC quality) problems. Only re-thinking the entire xMOOC experience from the ground up will have even the slightest chance of creating something worthwhile.
The initial bother here is Rees’s false choice between merely “cosmetic” changes vs. “rethinking MOOCs from the ground up”. Rees’s dualism neglects that middle ground of actual or potential positive developments within the existing x-MOOC framework. Rees would almost certainly know about these if he took a break from general critique to explore particular MOOCs.  I’ll turn to this task below.
We can dismiss Rees’ unsupported claim about what MOOC designers intend.  Have x-MOOCs been “designed to create low quality courses”. On the contrary, their designers seek to create high quality courses, as they understand them, with instruction better than they perceive to be today’s norm. Indeed Anant Agarwal has made it the highest priority of edX to use the huge data sets available in computerized courses with tens or hundreds of thousands of students to improve instruction and learning. MOOCs may nonetheless be low quality courses, of course, but that is another question and would have to be addressed on the basis of relevant criteria of value.   
Have MOOCs been “designed to suit the needs of unscrupulous administrators?”  This ids another unsupported claim. Agarwal, Koller, Ng and the other platform executive have had quite different aims – to scale up instruction and make quality higher education globally available. While this may also result in substitution of technology for labor in the university, it hardly follows that that was the intended result, and in any case is not a critique of MOOC instruction itself. It is no critique of a hammer that an imbecile can use it to bash in someone’s head. It might nonetheless be a very good hammer.
Evaluating Particular MOOCs
So let’s consider the tasks of instruction in actual MOOCs. 
Instruction in courses typically involves three inter-acting dimensions: didactic, discursive and heuristic. The didactic dimension conveys knowledge through lectures and textbook readings; the discursive facilitates understandingthrough discussion and critical feedback; the heuristic shapes skills through drill and practice.  
In a geometry unit, for example, the didactic component may present basic concepts such as line, plane, axiom or proof; the discursive component may provide opportunities for discussion of e.g., proof strategies; the heuristic component may provide multiple opportunities to e.g., determine the area or perimeter of figures, to invent proofs, or to construct bi-sections of line segments.  In a literature unit, the didactic may convey background knowledge on the author, genre or period, the discursive may provide opportunities for guided interpretive and critical discussions of a selected story, and the heuristic may provide opportunities to use strategies of analysis, e.g., to locate the protagonist, the central conflict, and the dénouement.  
Good instruction, whether in a classroom or a MOOC, provides for the development and integration of knowledge, understanding and skill. It aims to engage students into worthwhile activities and practices by melding “I know,” and “I understand,” with “I can do.” When we think in general terms about the evaluation of particular MOOCs, we want to ask how well these instructional dimensions can be handled through computer software. 
Rees and other academic critics have condemned MOOCs as in effect using the best of 21stcentury technology to deliver the worst of 19th century instruction. The lectures, they claim, consist of videotaped talking heads. The discussion boards are useless and riddled with spam and flame wars. The problem sets are repetitive, trivial, and exhausting. In short, MOOCs are poor tools for didactic, discursive, and heuristic dimensions of instruction.
But is this critique justified? I will consider each of the three dimensions of instruction, with specific examples from well-known MOOCs.
(1) Didactic Instruction. While MOOC critics may wish to portray live classroom instruction as akin to Mark Hopkins dialoguing with a few students on a log, the reality is generally quite different: faculty members serving up uninspiring lectures to halls full of disengaged students. If talking heads are the problem, academic critics are in no position to pin the blame on MOOCs.
MOOC presentations, however, are not in general talking heads. On the contrary, MOOC presentations are an entirely new form of pedagogical experience. The large data sets and the rich data trails of computerized instruction have enabled researchers to explore new questions, such as the optimum length for lecture segments, and the most effective way of articulating them with readings and problem sets. Research suggests that 6 minutes is optimal. MOOCs now typically break up brief lecture segments with problem sets and free-response questions. Lecture segments are supplemented with interviews, clips from panels at research conferences, interviews with other scholars, research presentations by graduate students, and on-site videos of knowledge use in ‘real-world’ settings. While a single instructor inevitably gives his course subject matters a personal twist, MOOCs offer unique opportunities for presenting multiple points of view.
JonathanHaber, who constructed a complete college education in the humanities– in asingle year - from MOOCs, and thus knows as much about actual MOOCs as any commentator, states:  
MOOCs are often criticized for just transferring a “sage on stage” pedagogy from the lectern to the computer screen, scaling up the worst aspects of oversized lecture classes. But as my year of MOOCs went on, I saw a new visual language developing, as single talking heads were supplemented (or replaced entirely) with conversations among colleagues (the visual style of one of my favorite courses: HarvardX’s   "The Ancient Greek Hero") interviews with experts, on-location shots, and even on-screen performances. Such creativity helped to make lectures one of the most engaging and, ironically, intimate components of massive online courses, while also raising the bar for all other forms of online learning (most of it far duller than your average MOOC).
At their best, MOOC presentations are as engaging as the best television news magazine programs. And this is not surprising, as the universities providing the best MOOCs are investing in cutting-edge production studios and hiring media professionals. The best MOOC presentations are more like segments of “60 minutes” than talking heads.  We may question whether producing “edutainment” of this sort is the best use of scarce institutional funds, but that is another question entirely, and one that completely undercuts the “talking head” line of attack.
(2) Discussion and Feedback. Let’s acknowledge that the MOOC discussion boards are far from adequate substitutes for live discussion.  Even some of the most supportive MOOC commentators have found them to have little value. The good news is that the discursive segments of many MOOCs have moved well beyond the discussion boards to live conversations in physical or virtual spaces.  
Coursera has sponsored “meet-ups” – where students in their MOOCs can get together for course discussion - in dozens of cities. Coursera has also teamed up with the U. S. State Department to run MOOC camps for college age students in many countries. The city of Boston has teamed up with edX to initiate Boston-x, a project providing Internet computers and meeting places for MOOC learners. Other cities have emulated Boston-x, dedicating space in libraries and other public buildings for MOOC study. These efforts parallel those of the Library 2.0 movement; librarians around the world are now re-thinking optimal uses for their brick and mortar building spaces in the age of web 2.0 technologies and digital books, and one answer is meeting spaces for online learners.  C-MOOCs, and now many x-MOOCs well, make extensive use of video-conferencing – e.g., via Skype - to connect group members. MOOCs offering nothing more than discussion boards are simply behind the MOOC curve.
(3) Heuristic Instruction. Academic critics claim that the “can do” element of MOOCs is restricted to monitoring auto-or- peer graded problem sets.
Many actual MOOCs, however, have moved way beyond such mechanized problem sets, making project-based authentic learning central to the MOOC experience. Here are two examples:
(1) At the University of Virginia’s Darden School of Business, Professor Michael Lenox has offered several iterations of his “Foundations of Business Strategy” MOOC on the Coursera platform. Lenox uses “Coursolve,” a crowdsourcing software program, to connect his course with partner organizations where students work to solve real-life challenges. He says:
 â€œEntrepreneurs don’t always have the resources to hire external support to address their needs, but we’ve seen firsthand that students are hungry for the chance to apply their knowledge to real-world problems,” Lenox says.  â€œBy collaborating with organizations, students can strengthen their skills development while potentially providing businesses and nonprofits with valuable insights.”
                In the final course project, Lenox invited students to undertake complete a strategic analysis of one of the partner organizations. More than 400 students completed analyses in partnership with 100 different organizations, including established businesses, startups, resource-strapped nonprofits and social enterprises. 78% of those students ended up participating directly with senior managers in the strategic decision-making of their organizations. Reporting on the second iteration of the MOOC, Lenox added, “Hundreds of in-person study groups formed in over 50 countries. Students included young entrepreneurs and mature small business owners; non-profit organizers; a study group of Mongolia students led by a Peace Corps volunteer; a group of  unemployed women in Ohio looking to improve their job prospects; a group of students ijn Bolivia led under a program from the U.S. State Department; and a group of Arab and Israeli students participating through the YaLa Young Leaders program building détente through education.”
(2) Cathy Davidson of Duke University is now offering a Coursera MOOC on 'thehistory and future of higher education'. Davidson has been a national leader in pushing the x-MOOC format in creative directions. Because her MOOC has many thousands of students, the student group can take on projects not possible within a classroom context. In one project, her students are collectively creating a rich, multi-media trans-national timeline of higher education since 1800. Each student is contributing reports on significant historical events in higher education in their geographic locations - countries, states, municipalities. The students are learning historical research methods and skills in reporting historical events. Many higher education institutions previously neglected by historians of education, including those long closed, are in this way being entered for the first time in an accessible historical record. The student group is now collaborating on editing and coordinating the information and producing the final online product. [5]
One does not need to love either of these particular skill development efforts to recognize that they go way beyond auto-graded problem sets.
6. Conclusion
My point in the above remarks has been to show that academic critics of MOOCs have relied on a stick-figure caricature. Real MOOCs, even x-MOOCs, are diverse, and many MOOC leaders have addressed the didactic, discursive and heuristic dimensions of instruction in creative ways. The best MOOCs replace the ‘sage on the stage’ stalking head with presentations employing a “new visual language” of instruction; they build in group experiences, whether physical or virtual, with opportunities for interpersonal student dialogue; they make project-based learning the centerpiece of the educational experience.
Of course, not all MOOCs do this. Some do, some don’t. And that is precisely the point I am making. If we want to assess the pedagogical value of MOOCs, we will have to turn our attention to particular courses to see how they handle instructional tasks. The most important dimensions of instruction, the didactic, discursive and heuristic, provide useful pegs upon which to hang such particular evaluative judgments.  






          Comentario en ¿Qué es y para qué sirve el MMS (Dióxido de Cloro)? por OMAR        
me parece muy interesante el MMS. en Bolivia, donde se puede comprar y cual sería el costo?
          2015 Copa America quarters predictions: Back Chile & Bolivia        

Bookies.com give their score predictions for the four 2015 Copa America quarter-finals, featuring hosts Chile against holders Uruguay and Bolivia v Peru.

The post 2015 Copa America quarters predictions: Back Chile & Bolivia appeared first on Bookies.com.


          First Argentinian chikungunya outbreak confirmed         

Chikungunya was identified in Argentina for the first time on March 7 by the National IHR Focal Point of Argentina, which then relayed the information to PAHO/WHO. 

The laboratory confirmations were found by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, or RT-PCR.

Tests included 1,281 people who were thought to have chikungunya between Jan. 1 and Dec. 31, 2015, with 21 people confirmed to have contracted it, and 22 thought to be likely. Beginning on Jan. 1 of this year, up to the week of Feb. 21-27, another 1,030 people were tested for chikungunya; 55 were confirmed to have been infected; and four more were thought to probably have contracted it. 

Most of the identified cases have been from Argentina's cities Tartagal and Apolinario Saravia, both located in the Salta province, while the rest were from the province of Jujuy in the city of San Pedro. Health figures in Argentina are attempting to control the outbreak and heal the infected, through higher surveillance of infected and symptomatic patients, performing tasks that will control more heavily affected areas and by communicating with the public and other health officials.

All of the confirmed infections in Argentina lie close to the Bolivian border, which has been infected with chikungunya for many years. It is possible it may continue spreading throughout the country and to neighboring nations. 

The WHO has issued a warning about the Aedes mosquito population and suggests that decreasing the mosquito breeding will limit the infection numbers, by means of limiting their habitats, using mosquito nets, using repellant, shutting doors and windows, and dressing in long-sleeved garments.


          FIDE Newsletter July 2017        

official logo

FIDE Grand Prix Series was held in Geneva, Switzerland from 5th to 16th of July 2017

Teimour Radjabov emerged clear winner of the FIDE World Chess Grand Prix in Geneva after sharing the point with his nearest follower Ian Nepomniachtchi in the final round. Radjabov earned 20.000 EUR and 170 Grand Prix points for the clear first place. Nepomniachtchi and Grischuk took 13.500 EUR and 105 GP points each.

Radjabov gp2017

In the overall Grand Prix standings Shakhriyar Mamedyarov is leading with 340 points, while Grischuk is second with 316,4. They have completed three events each and will cautiously await the results from the final 4th leg.

kosteniuk

Radjabov jumped through to the third place with 241,4 points. Ding Liren on 240 and Maxime Vachier-Lagrave on 211,4 can also hope to earn one of the two qualifying spots for the Candidates Tournament.

Official website

Photo gallery


European Senior Team Chess Championship 2017 took place in Novi Sad, Serbia from 24th of June till 4th of July 2017.

The Serbian team became European champion in the "50+" section European Championships for seniors. The title was brought by the grandmasters Miloš Pavlović, Goran M. Todorović, Siniša Dražić and Nenad Ristić and international master Zoran Arsović.

European Senior Team Chess Championship

Second place get to the team of Italy, which had three grandmasters in their team composition, and the third place went to team of Sweden. Particularly interesting is the fact that for the Swedish team successfully played the Swedish ambassador in Serbia, His Excellency Jan Lundin.

In the 65+ section the team of Russia, for which are playing the legendary grandmasters Sveshnikov, Vasyukov and Balashov made amazing result of all eight victories, and took the first place. The Danish team was the second, and Belgium, after they lost match in the last round against Russia, took third place.

Official website


Panamerican Youth Championship 2017 took place in Costa Rica from 30 June 2017 till 7th of July 2017.

Panamerican Youth Championship 2017

Total medal counts at PanAm Youth Championships:

USA 4 Gold, 5 Silver, 6 Bronze = 15 medals
Peru 2 Gold, 3 Silver, 2 Bronze = 7 medals
Canada 2 Gold, 2 Silver, 1 Bronze = 5 medals
Venezuela 1 Gold, 1 Silver, 1 Bronze = 3 medals
Colombia 1 Gold, 1 Bronze = 2 medals
Argentina 1 Gold
Chile 1 Gold
Mexico 1 Silver
Bolivia 1 Bronze

U8
Lopez Rayo Santiago COL
Mishra Abhimanyu USA
Prestia Sebastian USA

U8 girls
Vidyarthi Omya USA
Maravi Ceron Ayme PER
Qu Greta CAN

U10
Li Eric USA
Atanasov Anthony CAN
Gao Marvin USA

U10 Girls
Contreras Fiorella PER
Wong Allyson USA
Wang Ellen USA

U12
Chasin Nico Werner USA
Galaviz Medina Sion Radam MEX
Flores Quillas Diego Saul Rod PER

U12 Girls
Perez Hernandez Vicmary C. VEN
Yellamraju Ambica USA
Matute Escobar Roxanny VEN

U14
Liu Aristo S USA
Nakada Akira W USA
Titichoca Daza Daniel BOL

U14 Girls
He Emma CAN
Zeng Sheena USA
Ehsani Yassamin L USA

U16
Varacalli Francisco ARG
Ramirez Gonzalez Mauricio VEN
Liang Albert USA

U16 Girls
Gomez Barrera Javiera Belen CHI
Mostacero Velarde Isabella PER
Caballero Quijano Mitzy Mishe PER

U18
Song Michael CAN
Cori Quispe Kevin Joel PER
Quinonez Garcia Santiago COL

U18 Girls
Cosme Contreras Trilce PER
Wang Constance CAN
Cervantes Landeiro Thalia USA

Panamerican Youth Championship 2017 2

Official website

Results


North American Youth Championship 2017 was held in Morristown, NJ, USA from 12th to 16th of July 2017.

North American Youth Championship 2017 2

A record-breaking 357 players from the United States, Canada and Mexico descended on the historic American Revolution town of Morristown, NJ, to compete in the North American Youth Chess Championships from July 12th to 16th. Sponsored by the Chess Tech, Continental Chess Association’s Darcy Lima, the International Chess School’s Michael Khodarkovsky and in Association with New Jersey Chess Federation and United States Chess Federation, the tournament had 12 sections with girls and open sections from under 8 to under 18. International Arbiters Steve Doyle, Eduard Duchovny and Ken Ballou have a staff of New Jersey State Chess Federation officers and staff: Hal Sprechman, Jim Mullanaphy, Jabari McGreen and Noreen Davisson. IA Steve Doyle, a legend on the chess scene, former President of USCF and Vice President of FIDE conducted the Tournament together with Tournament Directors GM Darcy Lima and Michael Khodarkovsky.

Final Standings 


Asian Zonal 3.1 took place in Tehran, Iran from 29th of June till 8th of July 2017

20 players (18 from Iran, 1 from Syria, 1 from Iraq) took part in the women`s section. Mobina Alinasab, a youth player from North of Iran, won the golden medal; Sarasadat Khademalsharieh and Mitra Hejazipour were second and third.

Asian Zonal 3.1

30 players (28 from Iran, 1 from Syria, 1 from Iraq) took part in the Open section. GM Amirreza Pourramezanali achieved Gold Medal. IM Aryan Gholami and GM Pouya Idani took silver and bronze medals.

Sponsor of Federation and this championship is MCI (Mobile Telecommunication Company).

Official website


African Individual Chess Championships 2017, African Rapid and Blitz Championships took place in Oran, Algeria from 1st till 13th of July 2017

45 players (and 18 players) among which the best African players, including a member of the top 100 the Egyptian GM Bassem Amin (Elo 2684) and Ahmed Adly, ex-junior world champion Elo on 2598. All the participants representing 8 countries (Algeria, Egypt, Zambia, Angola, Tunisia, Republic Centers African, Tunisia, Zimbabwe, Ivory Coast) greeted the perfect organization and the good conditions of play in the international hotel "Assala" situated in the city center.

African Individual Chess Championships 2017

GM Amin Bassem from Egypt won the African Individual Championship. Daniel Cawdery from South Africa shared the first place but came second on the tie-break. Adly Ahmed from Egypt finished on the third place. 3 Egyptian players occupied the stage in women's section: WGM Mona Khaled won the championship, while Wafa Shrook and Wafa Shahenda took silver and bronze medals.

Amin Bassem

Rapid Championships: Amin Bassem (Egypt) won another golden medal, Adly Ahmed (Egypt) came second and Hesham Abdelrahman (Egypt) was third.

Amin Bassem 2

Wafa Shahenda (Egypt) was the best one in blitz, Esperance Caxita (Angola) and Amina Mezioud (Algeria) came third.

Blitz championships:
Adly Ahmed (Egypt) won blitz championship, Mohamed Haddouche (Algeria) was second and Phiri Richmond from Zambia was third.
Wafa Shrook (Egypt) was the strongest in blitz. Amina Mezioud (Algeria) took the silver medal, while Mona Khaled (Egypt) came third.


Commonwealth Chess Championship 2017 took place in New Delhi, India from 2nd till 10th of July 2017.

Commonwealth Chess Championship 2017 2

Grandmaster and former world junior champion Abhijeet Gupta (india) came up with an inspired performance in the final round to crush Aleksander Wohl of Australia and annexed the gold medal in the Commonwealth Chess Championship 2017. GM Vaibhav Suri (India) won the silver while the bronze medal went to GM Tejas Bakre (India). WGM Swati Ghate (India) became the Women Champion.

Commonwealth Chess Championship 2017 3

Players from 15 countries including some from South Africa and Kenya have registered for the nine-day long events. The championship had over 550 registered players in various categories spanning from under-8 till open. There were 16 Grandmasters and 13 International Masters in the fray apart from five more Woman Grandmasters.

Official website


Asian Schools Chess Championship 2017 and Asian Schools Rapid and Blitz Chess Championships were held in Panjin Lianoing, China from 20th till 30th of July 2017.

Chinese Chess Association under the auspices of the Asian Chess Federation and World Chess Federation, organized the event in high-standard playing hall and hotel, earning unanimous acclaims from more than 700 participants from 23 countries and regions in Asia.

Asian Schools Chess Championship 2017 3

China won 10 gold medals, Uzbekistan won 8 gold medals and Philippines won 7 gold medals.

U7
Yuruultei Batbaatar MGL
Nurgaliyev Sauat KAZ
Kiaan Agrawal IND

U7 Girls
Tselmuun Dorjsuren MGL
Ruzimatova Afruzabonu UZB
Zhumagali Raian KAZ

U9
Xie Kaifan CHN
Chen Muye CHN
Huang Yishi CHN

U9 Girls
Chen Yining CHN
Dela Cruz Daren PHI
Azzaya Amarbat MGL

U11
Wei Yaqing CHN
Rakhmatullaev Almas UZB
Zhou Xiangru CHN

U11 Girls
Omonova Umida UZB
Kriti Mayur Patel IND
Withanarachchi W A Vinoli One SRI

U13
Peng Shunkai CHN
Wang Zideng CHN
Arfan Aditya Bagus INA

U13 Girls
Cai Boheng CHN
Khegay Yuliya UZB
Liuviann Cecilia Natalie INA

U15
Nanayakkara J A K Saranath SRI
Lin Yi CHN
Tan Jun Ying MAS

U15 Girls
Rasyid Nur Aini INA
Mordido Kylen Joy PHI
Saparova Sitora UZB

U17
Pangilinan Stephen Rome PHI
Sagita Catur Adi INA
Min Po-Yen TRE

U17 Girls
Doroy Allaney Jia G PHI
Edithso Samantha INA
Men JiaYi CHN

All results


          Personajes Disponibles        
Muy bien esta es una lista de Los personajes que están disponibles tienen que pedir por aquí uno de cualquiera nada mas solo uno. Los paises señalados con ROJO son los que ya estan ocupados. Los paises señalados con VERDE son los libres. Y los señalados con AZUL son los apartados. América del Norte Alaska [NYO] Canada [NYO] Estados Unidos [NYO] Groenlandia [NYO] México [NYO] Latinoamerica Argentina [NYO] Belice [NYO] Bolivia [NYO] Brasil [NYO] Chile [NYO] Colombia [NYO] Costa ...
          18.11.17 17:00 Uhr - Erlangen - Die Anden        
Tickets erhältlich unter: http://www.frankentipps.de/veranstaltung201514-tickets

Sie gelten als das Rückgrat des südamerikanischen Subkontinents und gleichzeitig als eines der mächtigsten Gebirge dieser Erde: Die Anden. Ein eigener Kosmos. Urwüchsig, voller Kontraste und von unvergleichlicher Wildheit!

Vergletscherte Berge ragen in den tiefblauen Himmel, während nicht weit davon entfernt Nebelschwaden den Bergregenwald durchziehen. Unter ihrem dichten Grün verbergen sich die mystischen Stätten der Inka, stumme steinerne Zeugen einer längst vergangenen Zeit.

Der Fotojournalist und Südamerikaexperte Heiko Beyer hat diese Welt wiederholt besucht. Für sein neues Projekt stellte er sich aber die Frage, wie es wohl sein würde, die kompletten Anden der Länge nach zu bereisen. Dabei die unterschiedlichen Landschaften, Berge, Natur und Bevölkerung zu erleben. Insgesamt über sieben Jahre hinweg war er voller Begeisterung und Elan im Westen Südamerikas unterwegs und vermochte es, zwischen dem Pico Humboldt und Kap Hoorn ein weitgehend vollständiges Bild dieser Bergregion zu erfassen.







Seine Wege waren abenteuerlich, manchmal nicht ungefährlich, aber immer lohnend. Oft kämpfte sich der Fotojournalist wochenlang durch die absolute Einsamkeit der Berge, wobei er immer wieder auf deren Bewohner traf: Er schlief in Kolumbien in den Hütten der Kogi, sah die Aymara, die im bolivianischen Altiplano der von der Sonne zusammengebackenen Erde die Ähren des Quinoa-Getreides abringen, begleitete die peruanischen Quechua auf den steinigen Inkapfaden und folgte dem Weg der Gauchos hinunter in den tiefen Süden.

Begleitet Heiko auf seinen langen und abenteuerlichen Reisen durch Venezuela, Kolumbien, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivien, Argentinien und Chile!
          Crisis aérea de Venezuela se amplía: Avianca y Delta suspenden indefinidamente vuelos a Caracas; Air France e Iberia de manera temporal        
Por Ricardo J. Delpiano

Avión neutro wingview nubes negras (S.Díaz)
Foto: Santiago Díaz
De la misma forma como se acentúa la crisis política y económica, moverse entrar y salir de Venezuela cada vez es más difícil. A la reducción de capacidad desde 2014, producto de la eliminación de frecuencias y la salida de operadores que encarecieron significativamente los precios de los pasajes, se agrega una nueva ola de retiro de líneas aéreas del país producto de la creciente inseguridad que se vive por estos días.

La pasada semana Avianca en una drástica decisión decidió poner fin a los 60 años de operaciones ininterrumpidas en el país desde el 27 de julio. Si bien inicialmente informó que la cancelación indefinida de operaciones se concretaría en agosto, determinó suspenderlos en forma inmediata aludiendo razones de seguridad y limitaciones operativas que se estaban registrando.

“Debido a limitaciones operativas registradas en las últimas horas, Avianca se ve en la obligación de suspender a partir de hoy sus operaciones a Venezuela, y NO desde el 16 de agosto como estaba previsto. Esto incluye el cierre de la venta de pasajes en las rutas que conectan a Caracas con Bogotá y Lima”, declaró la compañía el día 27 de julio actualizando una información anterior.

Avianca también tomó la drástica decisión de modificar las rutas aéreas que utilizan los vuelos hacia el Caribe y Europa que en operaciones normales deben cruzar el espacio aéreo venezolano, lo que representará un incremento en los tiempos de vuelo en un promedio de 10 minutos dependiendo de las condiciones.

Entre las razones que permiten entender la decisión anticipada de la firma colombiana están la deficiente infraestructura en el aeropuerto de Maiquetía, la falta de internet, los sucesivos cortes de luz que impiden elaborar y trasmitir los planes de vuelos, deterioro y falta de repuestos para los servicios de handling entre otras razones que afectan la seguridad operacional de los vuelos y de los pasajeros.

Avianca si bien reconoce una cierta incapacidad para trasladar a los viajeros afectados está recomendando a los residentes en Venezuela regresar a sus casas debido a la falta de disponibilidad hasta que exista oportunidad de transporte. Avianca está colaborando con Wingo (la filial LCC de Copa Airlines, que aún mantiene operaciones entre Colombia y Venezuela) y TAME de Ecuador para movilizar a los viajeros afectados en la medida de lo posible. Asimismo está coordinando las devoluciones de dineros para aquellos viajeros que lo soliciten. La ruta más afectada es Bogotá, por el número de conexiones que la compañía realiza. En Lima, no se han registrado mayores inconvenientes.

En represalia, la Autoridad Aeronáutica de Venezuela (INAC) ha negado permisos para que las líneas aéreas contactadas por Avianca puedan incrementar vuelos a ese país para el traslado de los viajeros, decisión que afecta los principios del libre tránsito. Paralelamente, la estatal Conviasa también decidió poner fin a los vuelos a Bogotá.

Hernán Rincón, CEO de Avianca dijo que “luego de más de 60 años de servicios continuos en Venezuela, en Avianca lamentamos haber tenido que llegar a esta difícil decisión, pero nuestra obligación es garantizar la seguridad de la operación. Como compañía tenemos toda la disposición y voluntad para retomar los vuelos, una vez se cuente con las condiciones requeridas para hacerlo.”

Aunque todavía no lo hace oficial, ya es de público conocimiento que Delta también pone fin a sus vuelos a Caracas. La compañía podrá término y de manera indefinida a su único vuelo semanal entre Atlanta y Caracas desde el 16 de septiembre, sumándose al retiro reciente de United. En las redes sociales, la aerolínea con base en Atlanta ha confirmado la decisión y señala que próximamente anunciará medidas compensaciones a los afectados.

Desde Europa, Air France e Iberia también han decidido suspender sus vuelos a la capital venezolana. A diferencia de Avianca, Delta y United, las suspensiones son temporales. En ambas la suspensión rige entre el 30 de julio y 1 de agosto, por razones de seguridad debido a las violentas protestas en distintos puntos de Venezuela y por las represalias existentes, lo que sumado a la ola de violencia, no dan garantías de seguridad para los viajeros ni para las tripulaciones.

Para hoy 30 de julio, están convocados los comicios que permitirán elegir a los miembros de la Asamblea Constituyente quienes se encargarán de redactar una nueva Constitución que reemplace a la impuesta por Hugo Chávez. La propuesta ha generado una ola de violencia en las protestas ya que los opositores al gobierno de Nicolás Madura indican que â€œconsolidará la dictadura del Presidente”.

Desde 2014, la salida de las compañías aéreas de Venezuela es una realidad constante. Primero se deben a la demora o no retorno de los dineros generados por las ventas en ese país al tipo de cambio adecuado y posteriormente, por el agravamiento de la situación política y el constante deterioro de la inseguridad. La primera en retirarse fue Air Canada y posteriormente, le siguieron Alitalia, Lufthansa, LATAM, Aeroméxico, GOL, Tiara Air y United.

Al comienzos de la crisis, el Gobierno de Venezuela ha señalado que las compañías que se retiren de su país no tendrán derecho a volver, por lo que se infiere que la recuperación de la conectividad sólo será posible una vez que las condiciones políticas mejoren o decididamente exista un cambio de gobierno. En el periodo, sólo dos operadores han ingresado a Venezuela. Turkish Airlines en la ruta Estambul – La Habana – Caracas y Latin American Wings (LAW), desde Santiago de Chile.

La estatal Conviasa tampoco ha sido capaz de atender la reducción de capacidad por sus problemas internos y la no renovación de contratos con terceros para atender sus vuelos internacionales hacia Buenos Aires (EZE) y Madrid, por las deudas no pagadas con sus contratistas como la española Wamos Air.

Las compañías venezolanas tampoco lo están pasando de lo mejor ni pueden aprovechar los vacíos dejados por sus competidores extranjeros, debido a la falta de equipos y recursos para sustentar sus operaciones. SBA por ejemplo, ha tenido que reducir frecuencias a Miami por falta de aviones operativos para sustentar las rutas que mantenía (hasta cuatro vuelos diarios) mientras que Albatross explora otros mercados como Costa Rica como alternativa a sus operaciones, situación compartida en su momento por LAMIA, que terminó sus días operando irregularmente en Bolivia. 

          World Vision Garden Update        
As well as being Star Wars Day (May the fourth be with you) Friday is day one of The World Vision Garden’s RHS Chelsea build. The big attraction will be Lupinus mutabilis. Not included in the original brief, the designers discovered the Andean Lupin on a recent trip to Bolivia, where they went to learn […]
                  
14 de Abril
Día de las Américas
 Esta fecha conmemora la fundación de la Unión de las Repúblicas Americanas, posteriormente llamada Unión Panamericana y a partir de 1948 Organización de los Estados Americanos (OEA).
Fue celebrada por primera vez el 14 de abril de 1931 como símbolo de la unión voluntaria de distintos países del continente americano.
Actualmente, la OEA está integrada por más de treinta y cinco Estados que buscan consolidar una agenda con temas comunes. El espíritu de esta unión responde a la consolidación de relaciones diplomáticas para velar por los estados de paz en el continente.

¿Qué países celebran el día de las Américas?
Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, República Dominicana, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haití, Honduras, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, Estados Unidos, Uruguay y Venezuela
Fuente: Organización de los Estados Americanos


          Property For Sale In Bolivia.        
For sale properties and businesses in Bolivia. For more information ...
                  

Los caudillos en Perú

Principales caudillos entre 1824 (independencia de Perú) y 1841 (muerte de Gamarra):
Principales caudillos durante la anarquía posterior a la muerte de Gamarra:
  • Juan Crisóstomo Torrico: enemigo de Gamarra, tras la muerte de éste volvió de su exilio combatiendo en la guerra entre Perú y Bolivia, después de firmarse la paz derrocó a Manuel Menéndez, sucesor constitucional de Gamarra. Fue depuesto por Vidal.
  • Juan Francisco de Vidal: militar peruano, se sublevo en Cusco venciendo en Agua Santa a Torrico tomando el poder hasta que la rebelión de Vivanco lo obligó a dimitir y exiliarse (1842-1843). Posteriormente regresó, como aliado de Castilla.
  • Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco: tras morir Gamarra Vivanco se apoderó del poder marchando desde Arequipa a Lima derrocando al gobierno de Vidal. Finalmente fue vencido por Castilla y Nieto en labatalla de Carmen Alto (1844) teniendo que retirarse a la vida privada (1845).
  • Domingo Nieto: general exiliado por Vivanco, regresó en 1843 proclamando su lealtad a la Constitución de 1839. Con Manuel de Mendiburu inició en Tacna una sublevación contra Vivanco que fue derrotado y depuesto. Murió poco después en 1844, posiblemente envenenado.
  • Ramón Castilla: general peruano, aliado de Nieto se sublevó en Tarapacá contra Vivanco a quien depuso, siendo elegido presidente en 1845.
Caudillos durante y después de la guerra del Pacífico:
  • Nicolás de Piérola: presidente del Perú durante dicha guerra, al entrar las tropas chilenas a Limahuyó a la sierra dimitiendo a fines de 1881 por varios pronunciamientos en su contra, posteriormente partió a Europa, tras volver a Perú venció y derrocó a Cáceres (1895-1896) asumiendo el poder hasta 1899.
  • Andrés Avelino Cáceres: principal líder de la resistencia guerrillera a la ocupación chilena, reuniendo unos 4.000 soldados y más de 2.000 montoneros en el Valle del Mantaro y Ayacucho, tras la firma del Tratado de Ancón por Iglesias se enfrentó al gobierno de éste, derrocándole. En1894 fue electo presidente pero fue depuesto por Piérola.
  • Miguel Iglesias: presidente peruano desde 1883 con base en Lima negoció con las fuerzas chilenas firmando la paz en Ancón, tras la retirada de sus aliados se enfrentó a Cáceres con 3.000 a 4.000 hombres, siendo vencido y derrocado (1885).
  • Lizardo Montero Flores: presidente entre 1881 y 1883, tras ser depuesto Francisco García Calderón por las autoridades chilenas Montero estableció en Arequipa un gobierno propio y aliado de Cáceres, armando un ejército de 3.000-4.000 soldados y 8.000-10.000 milicianos, en 1883cuando las tropas chilenas lanzaron una gran ofensiva contra él huyó al exilio.

                  

Causas

Las causas de la llegada del caudillismo en América Latina fueron principalmente la ausencia de consenso político y las teorías de gobierno utópicas de los aristócratas. Para acceder al poder, los caudillos se rebelaban con sus aliados militares, deponían al gobernante actual, disolvían el Congresoy se autoproclamaban presidentes provisionales. Después de un corto plazo, se elegía a un nuevo congreso y se convocaba a elecciones presidenciales. En las elecciones, salía elegido el caudillo que había presidido anteriormente la revolución y deposición del antiguo gobernante o diputados.
Los principales partidarios de los caudillos, aparte de sus hombres de armas de confianza, fueron los miembros de las clase enriquecidas. Así, estos aseguraban un flujo de dinero para el Estado del caudillo de turno y este se comprometía a darles beneficios.
El caudillismo se desarrolló principalmente en México pero no completamente ya que sufrio ciertos detalles a partir de su desarrollo que no fueron siempre positivos (donde hubo una gran cantidad de presidentes militares en 50 años); en Chile con el gobierno de José Miguel Carrera a comienzos de la república;1 en Perú, donde hubo tres grandes "periodos de militarismo": a los inicios de la república, durante la reconstrucción nacional después de la guerra con Chile, y tras el oncenio de Leguía; enArgentina con el gobierno de Juan Manuel de Rosas; en Colombia con el gobierno de Pedro Alcántara Herrán que promovió a la vez la constitución de 1843; y también en BoliviaParaguayEcuador yVenezuela.


                  

Política caudillista

Los caudillos expresaron intereses regionales combinados con sus ambiciones personales. Agustín Gamarra, por ejemplo, representó los intereses del sur andino, especialmente del Cuzco, mientras que Andrés de Santa Cruz, los de Bolivia y Arequipa. Para tener una mejor comunicación en un país mal comunicado establecieron alianzas con hacendados. Eran una posición debajo de los Feudales. Los caudillistas se formaron a partir de ver la desigualdad que estaba ocurriendo en el momento de que los españoles llegaron a su territorio imponiendo sus reglas. Además de los grandes líderes en Colombia como Gaitán.

          Episode 44 - Bolivia        
Alto sax and baritone sax duet featuring Doug Angelaccio on alto and Kevin Pike on bari.
          Resultado Final – Atlético Mineiro 0 Jorge Wilstermann 0 – Copa Libertadores 2017 Octavos de Final        

No hubo goles en el partido. Miércoles 9 de Agosto de 2017. Atlético Mineiro de Brasil recibirá a Jorge Wilstermann de Bolivia en la vuelta en los octavos de final de la Copa Libertadores. En el partido de ida, el equipo boliviano ganó 1 a 0. El encuentro se llevará a cabo en el estadio […]

La entrada Resultado Final РAtl̩tico Mineiro 0 Jorge Wilstermann 0 РCopa Libertadores 2017 Octavos de Final aparece primero en Ver San Lorenzo vs Emelec en VIVO ONLINE F̼tbol en DIRECTO Copa Libertadores 2017 Gratis Celular Movil Streaming.


          Se estrella el avión en el que viajaba el Chapecoense        
Terribles noticias las que nos llegan desde Colombia, donde el avión en el que viajaba el Chapecoense se estrelló con 81 personas a bordo (9 eran miembros de la tripulación). Volaban desde Bolivia rumbo a Medellín para disputar la final de la Copa Sudamericana contra el Atlético Nacional, pero los pilotos han perdido el control [...]
          RELEASE: 1.2 Billion People Living in Cities Lack Access to Affordable and Secure Housing        

RELEASE: 1.2 Billion People Living in Cities Lack Access to Affordable and Secure Housing

WASHINGTON (July 12, 2017) — According to a new report from World Resources Institute Ross Center for Sustainable Cities, 330 million households in cities around the world, equivalent to 1.2 billion people, do not have access to affordable and secure housing. Without immediate action, the problem will become even more critical, as this housing gap is projected to grow by 30 percent to 1.6 billion people by 2025.

“Cities are the engines of economic growth and policymakers need help prioritizing solutions,” said Ani Dasgupta, Global Director of WRI Ross Center for Sustainable Cities. “Supporting affordable housing is one of the best ways to help fast-growing cities in the global south run smoother and provide benefits to all residents.

“Two and half billion additional people will be living in urban areas worldwide by 2050, with Asia and Africa seeing nearly 90 percent of this growth. The housing gap has a human cost and is a major drag on the economy and the environment. We need to take immediate action to avoid creating cities that are less productive, less efficient and less inclusive—something that would truly impact everyone.”

The latest installment of WRI’s flagship World Resources Report “Towards a More Equitable City,” which examines whether prioritizing access to core urban services for the underserved will create cities that are prosperous and sustainable for all people, emphasizes housing as one such critical core need.

“Housing is often seen as falling into discrete categories such as public or private, formal or informal,” said Robin King, lead author and WRI Ross Center Director of Knowledge Capture and Collaboration. “But we view housing options on a spectrum that combines different elements of ownership, space, services and finance. In some cases, land may be public while the dwellings on it are private. This spectrum allows a more nuanced analysis of the reality of housing markets in the global south and consideration of a wider range of possibilities.”

“The paper is coming out at a very important time, when the discussion about affordability, adequacy and issues of secure tenure have become very critical in global cities of the south,” said Sheela Patel, founding member and Chairperson of Slum/Shack Dwellers International. “Cities produce aspirations. If you don’t fulfill those aspirations, which start with safe neighborhoods, a good environment, a good education—these are all settlement and neighborhood related amenities and services—you produce discontent.”

The study focuses on three actionable approaches city officials can use to address the housing crisis, while highlighting specific examples from around the world:

  1. Participatory approaches to improving housing without relocating residents to the urban periphery (_in situ_upgrading) Demand for housing has outstripped supply, leading to a proliferation of informal and substandard settlements. “Slum-free cities” is often code for displacement of people to the periphery. Finding ways to accommodate people where they are, rather than displacing them to far corners of a city, taps into community knowledge and energy while retaining links to existing social and livelihood networks. This approach is harmful to the city at large. An example of success: Thailand’s Baan Mankong program directs government infrastructure subsidies, soft housing and land loans to poor communities who then negotiate with land owners for formal tenure and use the funds to upgrade their housing. By 2016, 1,903 poor communities in 345 cities had been fully upgraded under the program; 101,224 poor families had secure land decent houses and healthy living environments.
  2. Expand rental markets for people across all income levels. Home ownership is over-emphasized in urban development, which hurts those who lack the resources to buy a home and those who need flexibility such as those working in the informal sector. Expanded rental markets for people of all income levels, with legal protection for landlords and renters, can help meet the housing needs of the urban poor while maintaining flexibility and encouraging market-driven development. Gauteng Province, South Africa, which includes Johannesburg, tackled a housing shortage of 687,000 units by making it legal to rent out formally illegal informal backyard apartments. This made it easier for low-income people to find places to live and encouraged development of services without government subsidies.
  3. Convert under-utilized, centrally located urban land into affordable housing in cities. Policies that drive the poor to the periphery leaves prime locations under-utilized or totally unused, even as new residents seeking housing come into the city. Political will to address housing needs is critical. By converting this land, especially publicly held land, into affordable housing, cities can avoid sprawl, take advantage of existing resources, and spur economic growth. In Cochabamba, Bolivia, 420 families live in the María Auxiliadora Community on land purchased and held in trust as community-owned property, an approach commonly referred to as a Community Land Trust. Its unique governance structure rotates leadership among women in two-year terms, rejects men who engage in domestic violence and provides community-managed support to families. The land cannot be sold for profit, which keeps the housing affordable.

“These solutions will help urban policymakers in fast-growing cities meet the demand for housing while encouraging economic development and cleaner, safer environments,” said King. “Closing the housing gap by providing access to affordable, adequate and secure housing will benefit everyone, not just the poor and underserved, as cities become more productive, environmentally sustainable, and truly places for all.”

Contact

Press Event

Blog Posts


          Confronting the Urban Housing Gap        

Confronting the Urban Housing Gap

More than 1.2 billion city dwellers―one of every three people living in urban areas―lack access to affordable and secure housing. This housing gap is a major drag on the economy and the environment. The impact is severe in Asia and Africa, where 2.25 billion people are expected to be added to urban populations between now and 2050. If business continues as usual, slums will grow across the developing world, exacerbating inequality and threatening cities’ traditional role as drivers of economic growth.

The latest working paper of WRI’s flagship World Resources Report (WRR), “Towards a More Equal City,” draws on the knowledge of dozens of urban experts to examine whether meeting the needs of the urban underserved can improve the economy and environment.

Sheela Patel on “Confronting the Urban Housing Crisis in the Global South: Adequate, Secure and Affordable Housing.”


Housing is often seen as falling into discrete categories such as public or private, formal or informal, individual or collective. Instead, we view housing options on a spectrum that combines different elements of ownership, space, services and finance. In some cases, land may be public while the dwellings on it are private. This spectrum allows a more nuanced analysis of the reality of housing markets in the global south and consideration of a wider range of possibilities.

While many challenges emerged, we focused on three that city officials can act upon and scale up.

Issue 1: The Growth of Informal or Substandard Settlements

As demand for housing has outstripped supply, informal and substandard settlements have proliferated. Since 1990, even as the proportion of global urban populations living in slums has declined, there has been an increase in the absolute number of people living in these areas.

Solution: Find ways to accommodate people where they are

While some call for “slum-free” cities, this is often code for displacement of people to the edge of town, which disrupts labor markets, social networks and lives and harms the city at large. Instead we suggest finding ways to upgrade existing slum areas, tapping into community knowledge and energy while retaining links to social and livelihood networks. This option is best for cities with large slum populations, except in locations with environmental or geographic risks.

An example is Thailand’s Baan Mankong program, which directs government infrastructure subsidies, soft housing and land loans to poor communities who then negotiate with land owners for formal tenure and use the funds to upgrade their housing. By 2016, 101,224 poor families in 345 cities had been fully upgraded under the program with secure land, decent houses and healthy living environments.

Issue 2: Overemphasis on Ownership

Home ownership is over-emphasized in urban development, which hurts those who lack the resources to buy a home or who need flexibility. People who work in the informal economy are particularly affected. Subsidies meant to encourage home ownership are geared to those with regular, documented incomes, not those who work in activities like recycling, domestic help and construction that do not produce a paper trail in many parts of the world. Moreover, rentals are often not available to the urban poor, or are subject to great uncertainty about rights and responsibilities for both landlords and renters, with unclear processes for dispute resolution.

Solution: Expand rental markets for people of all income levels

Establishing legal protection for landlords and renters, while acknowledging informal sector activity, can help meet the housing needs of the urban poor while maintaining flexibility and encouraging market-driven development. This includes non-standard payment patterns and cooperative housing where tenants collectively purchase land and rent small plots within it. Vibrant rental markets foster a fluid labor market, a necessary prerequisite for economic prosperity in any city.

For example, authorities in Gauteng Province, South Africa, which includes Johannesburg, tackled a housing shortage of 687,000 units by making it legal to rent out formerly illegal informal backyard apartments. This made it easier for low-income people to find places to live and encouraged development of services without government subsidies.

Issue 3: Policies That Drive the Poor to the Periphery

In many cities, land is often tangled up in legal disputes, leaving it under-utilized or unused, even as new residents seek housing in the city. Building and land use regulations often impose costs and limit creative use of incremental improvements and innovative land management tools.

Solution: Convert under-utilized land, especially publicly held land, into affordable housing

Political will to address housing needs is critical. Rather than encouraging sprawl, existing urban land should be used for housing. City officials and real estate developers should revise rules and building standards to expand the availability of housing on under-used land.

For instance, in Cochabamba, Bolivia, 420 families live in the María Auxiliadora community land trust on land purchased and held in trust as community-owned property. The community’s unique governance structure rotates leadership among women in two-year terms, rejects men who engage in domestic violence and provides support to families. The land cannot be sold for profit, which keeps the housing affordable.

These solutions will help urban policymakers in fast-growing cities meet the demand for housing while encouraging economic development and cleaner, safer environments. Closing the housing gap by providing access to affordable, adequate and secure housing will benefit everyone, not just the poor and underserved, as cities become more productive, environmentally sustainable and truly places for all.


          Â¿Cómo sobrevivir a la hiperinflación?. 12 consejos. Por Asdrúbal Oliveros y Carlos Miguel Álvarez        

Este es un Artículo del 2015 que compartimos por ser pertinente con la realidad actual del país

Por Asdrúbal Oliveros / Prodavinci 0. ¿Hiperinflación en Venezuela? Durante los primeros seis meses de este año Venezuela ha vivido una inflación promedio mensual de 9,7% y una acumulada de 74,4%, lo que implica una variación interanual de 128,8%, según nuestras estimaciones. Si bien es cierto que Venezuela todavía no vive una hiperinflación, es importante entender que estamos tocando a la puerta. En este post queremos presentar cómo hicieron los empresarios de Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil y Perú para sobrevivir a los años de hiperinflación que vivieron estos países, que alcanzaron tasas anuales de 2.697,0%, 6.515,5%, 2.189,2% y 7.485,8%, respectivamente. CLIC AQUI para seguir leyendo...


Recibe nuestras actualizaciones por E-Mail. SUSCRÍBETE GRATIS AQUI


Qué Opinas?


          Bill Dana        
We just want to be remembered before something is set in stone.
-Bill Dana
Bill Dana
October 5, 1924 – June 15, 2017
Dana was born as William Szathmary in Quincy, Massachusetts. He was of Hungarian-Jewish descent. He took his stage name "Dana" after his mother's first name "Dena" as he felt "Szathmary" was unpronounceable. The youngest of six children born to Joseph and Dena Szathmary, Dana benefited from the expertise of an older brother, Arthur, who was fluent in several languages and gave his sibling his second entry into foreign languages. The first was growing up in a polyglot neighborhood where Spanish and Italian were among the languages spoken and having a Hungarian immigrant for a father. His older brother was Irving Szathmary, composer of the Get Smart theme.
During World War II he served in the United States Army with the 263rd Infantry Regiment, 66th Infantry Division as a 60mm mortarman and machine gunner, as well as an unofficial interpreter.
Dana began his career as a page at NBC's famous Studio 6B while performing comedy in nightclubs around New York with partner Gene Wood. In the 1950s, he performed on The Imogene Coca ShowThe Danny Thomas Show and The Martha Raye Show, as well as writing for and producing The Spike Jones Show.
Dana's career took a major turn when he began writing stand-up routines for the young comedian Don Adams, including the now well-known "Would you believe?" jokes popularized by Get Smart. From there, he was brought in as a writer for The Steve Allen Show, where he created the José Jiménez character for the show's "Man in the Street" segments.
On an Ed Sullivan Show appearance, Dana related a story of how a woman recognized him on the street, but knew him only as José Jiménez, and asked what his real name was. Instead of his stage name, "Bill Dana", he gave her his real name, "William Szathmary". The woman rejoined: "Wow, no wonder you changed it to Jiménez!"
Dana had several comedy albums but only one that strictly featured the Jose Jimenez character. One of the cuts; "The Astronaut (Part 1 and 2)"...an interview from news reporter, writer and producer Don Hinkley...made it to the Billboard Top 40 charts at #19 in September 1961. Hinkley and Dana met as writers for the Allen show.

Before appearing in front of a television camera for the first time on The Steve Allen Show in 1959, Dana had been a prolific comedy writer, an activity he continued into the 1980s, producing material for other actors on stage and screen. Dana co-wrote the script for the Get Smart theatrical film The Nude Bomb. His brother, Irving Szathmary, wrote the famous theme for the Get Smart television series. In 1961, Dana made the first of eight appearances on The Danny Thomas Show, playing Jimenez as a bumbling but endearing bellhop. The character was so well-received that it was spun off into his own NBC sitcom, The Bill Dana Show (1963–1965). Jiménez was still a bellhop, but now at a posh New York hotel. His snooty, irritable boss was played by Jonathan Harris. The cast also included Don Adams as a hopelessly inept house detective named Byron Glick; when the show was cancelled, Adams quickly used the Glick characterization as the basis for Maxwell Smart, and Get Smart premiered on NBC that fall.

In 1966, Dana appeared uncredited in episode 48 of Batman playing Jose Jimenez, opening the window in the wall Batman was climbing and talking with him.In 1966, Dana wrote the animated TV-movie Alice in Wonderland (or What’s a Nice Kid Like You Doing in a Place Like This?), in which he also supplied the voice of The White Knight (using his José Jiménez voice). That same year, the Jiménez character was animated for the Paramount cartoon I Want My Mummy, written by Dana in collaboration with Howard Post.
In May 1967, Dana hosted his own late-night talk show, The Las Vegas Show, on the new United Network. Originated live from the Hotel Hacienda in Las Vegas, Nevada, the program was cancelled by the end of May when the United Network folded.
Joey Forman's 1968 parody album about Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, called The Mashuganishi Yogi("mashugana" meaning crazy or bizarre in Yiddish), was produced by Dana, and includes a cameo of Dana as Jiménez, as well as a cover appearance. The album is a mock news conference, an extended question-and-answer session. The ersatz Bolivian–accented Jiménez asks the ersatz Indian-accented Yogi: "Why do you talk so funny?"

In 1970, responding to changing times and sensitivities, Dana stopped portraying the José Jiménez character; however, he played the character again on the 1988 revival of The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour. Dana wrote the script for possibly the best known episode of the hit situation comedy All in the Family, entitled "Sammy's Visit", which featured Sammy Davis Jr. In 1976, he appeared in the "A Doctor's Doctor" episode of the NBC situation comedy The Practice as the hospital roommate of Danny Thomas's character Dr. Jules Bedford.
The José Jiménez character was part of several scenes in the 1983 film The Right Stuff. The government officials watch The Ed Sullivan Show before recruiting the Navy pilots. Sullivan is talking to Jiménez. ("Is that your crash helmet?" "Oh, I hope not!") Later during medical testing, a large, Hispanic worker (played by NFL offensive tackle Anthony Muñoz) takes offense to Alan Shepard (Scott Glenn) mimicking the Jiménez character. The hospital worker gets a measure of revenge later on when it comes time for Shepard to receive an enema.
Although his film appearances were few, Dana had roles in a few movies including The Busy Body (1967), Harrad Summer (1974), I Wonder Who's Killing Her Now? (1975), and the aforementioned The Nude Bomb (1980). Dana would also have a recurring role on The Golden Girls as Sophia Petrillo's brother Angelo. He also played her father in a flashback. In addition, he played Wendell Balaban on Too Close for Comfort, as well as Howie Mandel's father on the series St. Elsewhere.
Dana reprised the role of Bernardo the servant on the CBS TV series Zorro and Son, but his performance was different from Gene Sheldon's silence on the 1950s live-action show. Both series were produced by Walt Disney Productions.
Bill Dana was integral in creating the American Comedy Archives, a series of audiovisual interviews with such luminaries in the comedy world as Phyllis DillerDick GregoryDon KnottsNorman LearBob NewhartTom PostonPaul RodriguezDick Van DykeBetty White, and Jonathan Winters. The American Comedy Archives are housed at the Iwasaki Library at Emerson College, but transcripts of some interviews (Dana's included) have been made available on the library website.

Good Night Mr. Dana
Buenas Noches Jose

Stay Tuned
Tony Figueroa

          Dinamita, un souvenir boliviano.        

Diffusing the situation.
JoeD"Aquila.
Aparecido en: www.zwire.com
Traducción robótica de Google: X
Es exacerbado celo con que la aviación viene controlando el contenido de el equipaje de los pasajeros viene provocando grandes dramas y pequeñas anécdotas.  No estoy seguro de dónde enmarcar la historia que trae esta noticia.
En el aeropuerto intercontinental GeorgeBush de Houston, HowardMcFarland fue detenido por llevar dinamita en su equipaje, su alegato, en palabras de su padre puesto que es menor de edad, fue que se trataba de un recuerdo de su viaje, que no lo transportaba con ninguna intención específica y que en todo caso se trataba de un error de juicio.  La dinamita fue adquirida durante una visita a alguna mina de Bolivia
, el muchacho la transportó con familiaridad durante el resto de su viaje lo que demostraría que no creía que fuera especialmente peligrosa o podría explotar.


          Las rutas del Ché.        

Bolivia sees glint of gold
in Che Guevara's footsteps.

BerndDebusmann.
Aparecido en: news.scotsman.com
Traducción robótica de Google: X
Ya habíamos comentado sobre 'La ruta de el Ché' en este blog, es un importante destino temático que a diferencia de otros no tiene una infraestructura optimizada.  Con esfuerzos como el que reseña la nota se va llenando ese vacío y aprovechando de el interés que la figura de el Ché concita.
La nota juega un poco con la contraposición de los ideales políticos de el Ché con la explotación capitalista de su imagen.


          La ruta de el Ché.        

Following Che through Bolivia.
DavidAtkinson.
Aparecido en: www.chicagotribune.com
Traducción robótica de WorldLingo: X
El ChicagoTribune publica una nota de DavidAtkinson, periodista viajero de LonelyPlanet (su página aquí: X, o aquí: X, en castellano), una empresa dedicada a editar guías de viajero basadas en la experiencia de los autores de las mismas.  La nota da cuenta de la ruta turística que se organiza en torno a el Ché y su incursión y muerte en Bolivia, ademas de proporcionar datos concretos útiles para el viajero que decida tomarla:
Las autoridades bolivianas tradicionalmente han carecido de recursos para promocionar su naciente industria turística. Este proyecto, sin embargo, fue concebido y ejecutado por el pueblo guaraní, una comunidad indígena que vive en una región de Bolivia donde la probreza rural alcanza un 74 por ciento. Fundada por organizaciones no gubernamentales internacionales y la empresa privada local, la Ruta del Che Guevara intenta probar que el turismo puede ser manejado resposablemente y usado para beneficiar directamente a las comunidades indígenas locales.
Dado que el ChicagoTribune restringe contenidos exclusivos para sus suscriptores, tal vez sea útil este vínculo que preserva el contenido de el texto: X.



          Turismo católico.        

Archdiocese plans tour of Bolivia apostolate.
JenniferBrinker.
Aparecido en: www.stlouisreview.com
Traducción robótica de Google: X
La Arquidiócesis de St.Louis (Missouri - EUNA) está organizando un viaje a Bolivia con motivo de el quincuagésimo aniversario de el apostolado boliviano, serán ocho días para visitar LaPaz, Calamarca, Riberalta y SantaCruz, el costo total por persona: 1800 dólares americanos y el cupo  es ilimitado aunque...:
...  Monseñor Blood observó que hay un sólo vuelo al día a Riberalta en Amazonas Airlines, en el que caben sólo 19 personas.
Un eslabón debil en la infraestructura turística oriental.  Por lo demás el anuncio de este tour resalta encomiablemente puntos turísticos y datos referenciales de este viaje.


          Chris Blattman on Chickens, Cash, and Development Economics        

poverty%20chickens.jpg Chris Blattman of the University of Chicago talks with EconTalk host Russ Roberts about whether it's better to give poor Africans cash or chickens and the role of experiments in helping us figure out the answer. Along the way he discusses the importance of growth vs. smaller interventions and the state of development economics.

Size:29.2 MB
Right-click or Option-click, and select "Save Link/Target As MP3.

Readings and Links related to this podcast episode

Related Readings
HIDE READINGS
This week's guest: This week's focus: Additional ideas and people mentioned in this podcast episode: A few more readings and background resources: A few more EconTalk podcast episodes:

Highlights

Time
Podcast Episode Highlights
HIDE HIGHLIGHTS
0:33

Intro. [Recording date: June 12, 2017.]

Russ Roberts: Today's episode is a little strange. It starts with the fact that a while back you wrote--not so long ago--you wrote an open letter to Bill Gates, a very wealthy man, reacting to his idea of giving poor people chickens--poor people in Africa--as a way to escape poverty. That open letter of yours to Bill Gates prompted a response from Lant Pritchett. And so, I interviewed Lant about the topic of how do we help the poor. And inevitably some of your arguments and points came into the conversation. So, I want to get your side of the story today on some of those issues and more broadly and more generally on how we should think about development. Let's start with Bill Gates's original idea. What was he suggesting, and how did you respond to it?

Chris Blattman: So, Gates and the Gates Foundation have a lot of big ideas; and this includes driving down financial transaction costs and tackling serious diseases. And generally terrific programs. One idea that Bill Gates has floated a few times in the last year is the idea that chickens are the future for Africa: basically, that they are very poor people who don't have a lot of income, and they are basically scrounging around a subsistence [?]. And, if we could give them chickens, they they'd be able to raise them. They could eat them, of course. But more importantly, they could sell them or they could sell the eggs, and make some extra money. And, this would make them much less poor: maybe they earned $2/day; maybe now they'll earn $4/day. Who really knows? And he called this one of the best investments we could make. Which is probably true to some extent, except what was unusual about his idea is that he envisioned perhaps 30% of Africans. So, this would be 300 million people raising these chickens rather than the existing number, which is maybe 5% of Africans--so, maybe 15 million people, for argument's sake.

Russ Roberts: And, you wrote this open letter. What did you say in that letter?

Chris Blattman: Well, I mean, so, you know, we share a common premise is that one of the reasons people are very poor is that they don't have the opportunity to engage in business: that it's actually not so hard for a lot of people to go from earning $1 a day to earning $2 a day or $2-$4 a day, or $5-$10 a day by starting up a small enterprise; and that the main thing stopping them from doing this is they don't have any capital. If they had capital, they wouldn't be poor. So, they don't have a lot of cash; they don't have a lot of assets; they don't have productive assets. And that could be tools, it could be buildings to build things in; that could be the raw materials, and the skills to build these things. It could be animals. A cow is an asset, or a form of capital; a chicken, or a bunch of chickens is. So, they don't have these things; and they generally don't have access to borrowing. And so, if they get access to capital, you often see people leap ahead and start businesses. So, I think we share this idea. And chickens probably aren't a bad--they aren't a terrible investment. I guess I--before Bill Gates, who is one of the most influential people in development--writes influential development letters--I think it's important to try to correct some possible problems. One is that it's not clear that anyone's going to actually make money if you suddenly go from 15 million to 300 million Africans producing--I think I've actually got my numbers wrong, actually: I'm not doing division and multiplication in my head.

Russ Roberts: It doesn't matter. It's a big [?] increase. And we're pretty sure that--

Chris Blattman: Yeah, 33%--a third of Africa.

Russ Roberts: That could affect the price of eggs. You know. Hypothetically.

Chris Blattman: Yeah. You know. I was surprised he made this argument because he's a very smart guy and he understands economics. So, this isn't a crazy idea: If a third of Africans start producing chickens and eggs, that the price of chickens and eggs are going to fall pretty fast. And there's probably limits to how many chickens and eggs people can eat. So, that's--it just struck me as an odd idea. And if it was some other organization saying, 'We're going to do this,' then I sort of roll my eyes. But when Bill Gates says he's going to do it, there's a good chance he's really going to try, and maybe succeed. So, it's not the best--not everyone should invest in the same thing. And then, of all the things people could invest in, it's not clear to me--and I think there's a lot of evidence pointing to the idea that: Chickens are a fine investment. But they are not necessarily a great investment. And so, why were folks [?] on giving people chickens? I don't know.

6:01

Russ Roberts: But, I thought your real point was: If we gave them money, they'd be free to buy chickens if they wanted; or they could buy a piece of a cow [i.e., a share of a jointly-owned cow--Econlib Ed.]; or they could buy a hammer; or they could buy access to electricity--or whatever it is. And presumably, people have a pretty good idea of what they need relative to what you think they need. And, chickens just obviously--to me--we're going to get more deeply into the economics of this--but it's obvious that chickens is the wrong answer. Whatever the virtues of chickens are, it can't be the case that giving 300 million something is--it's going to be better to give them money. I'm pretty confident about that. Now, you could argue that if you give them money they are going to use it on gambling, or drinking, or partying, or whatever you think is the wrong use of the money; but, 'They can sell the chicken, come on! They can convert it into money.' So, this romance, I think, 'Chickens are the key to the future,' like plastics are in the movie, The Graduate--it's just--or computers in 1978--it does seem a bit naive for someone who is clearly not a naive person. You could think of it as symbolic. But I think your point was: We've had these debates--which is what I think we talked about in a previous episode about different ways to help people with small amounts. Obviously, if you give them 1000 chickens--one person a thousand chickens, and one person a thousand of something else, and another person a thousand of something else, maybe it would really change their lives. But if we're going to give micro-amounts, like 5 chickens, or 1 chicken, cash might be even better. And you and I are both kind of fans of cash. There are problems with cash. That's a different episode. That's not what we're talking about today. We all understand that cash has drawbacks, too. But, I think you proposed--what was interesting about your response to Gates was: 'Let's have a horse race,' to add another animal to the metaphor mix. 'Let's see whether chickens outperform cash.' Right? Wasn't that the thrust of your point?

Chris Blattman: Yeah. And the reason is, is because it may be like a deeper point. It's not about whether--there's lots of reasons cash could be better than chickens, and for the reasons you've just mentioned; and there's some risks, as well. Those are all--and we don't have to talk about--I think generally the picture looks pretty good for cash, and we don't have to talk about the details today. But, the deeper point is the problem with a lot of programs--given that we're already giving--a lot of aid is donor agencies and governments giving very poor people stuff. It's giving them skills-training. It's giving them chickens. It's giving them cash. It's giving them other forms of capital. It's giving them productive assets. Right? And I'm excluding all the stuff that's about public goods, and water, and health--these are huge and they are important. And we're going to set them aside because they are just a different kind of thing. A lot of assistance is giving poor people stuff to either eat or to turn into something they can eat. Meaning, they can start a small business with it. And that's what the training and the cows and the [?] and some of the cash are mainly for. So, the problem with most of these programs is everyone thinks about the numerator: What's the impact of this program? And nobody thinks about the denominator, which is: What's the cost of providing this program? And then, we sort of divide that to get some sort of return. And when we compare those things, if you ignore the fact that some of these programs are dramatically more costly than others to deliver, then even if one is more effective in terms of its impact, in terms of how big a business someone can grow, if it's also 10 times as costly, that's a problem. And this is the problem with chickens, in some sense, is: Somebody has to go and buy the chickens; and then deliver them to the people. Or, somebody has to go and hire a trainer and bring them to the village, to train people in whatever it is you want to train. Maybe it's raising chickens--this is often a big part of these chicken programs. But maybe it's something that's standalone, like how to start a business. Or something. So, this is a problem, because those people--all that labor and all that transport is really, really, really expensive. And these people are often in remote areas. They are very poor. Even if they are in an urban area and not that remote, they are earning so little that giving some reasonably middle-class person in that country to go off and buy the chickens and then deliver them, or deliver the training, or even get the training to go and deliver the chicken, is so costly that it totally outweighs any potential benefits that--maybe not totally, but it grossly outweighs a lot of the benefits. Such that, some of these programs--the studies that have looked at chickens and giving people chickens and cows and goats randomly pay off, but it takes something like 15 or 20 years before they cover the costs. Basically, the impact is as much as the program costs. And that's a lot.

11:02

Russ Roberts: But I also thought your main--and that's a great point. Those are great point. And they raise a separate issue we may come back to, which is: 'Hey, I know what you need. Here.' I alluded to that earlier. It's like, 'You need to learn how to make butter. Here, let me teach you. I'll give you some butter machinery.' There's a certain lack of appreciation for knowledge and how hard it is to understand how to impact a person's life, and the material versus spiritual, and [?]--

Chris Blattman: Well, one of the other things that's going on--I have a lot of friends in these organizations. My wife works for an international rescue committee. I've spent a lot of time working with these organizations. And one of the--if you put yourself in their shoes--first of all, you don't always know. And the thing is that you've seen a lot of programs where people get chickens without the training--because that seemed like a good idea. Or they just get cash. Like, you see a lot of examples where people fail. You don't know if everyone fails. You don't know how many people succeed. You know a lot of people fail. And we know this is true. Like, the big cash experiments I've done, others have done--at least half the people don't really move ahead as a result of this cash. They start a small enterprise and it fails. This is what business is. And that's hard to--you don't know if on balance people are succeeding or failing, especially when you just give them cash. At least with the chickens you can see something there. And you are really hesitant to let people fail. So, you want to do, you want to invest as much as possible in people to minimize the risk of failure, because they are in your circle. You see them, you care about them, you are responsible, you've done something to their lives and in some ways you are responsible. And you have the ability to continue to help them. And you don't see all these other people you are not helping. So, doubling or tripling or quadrupling or even further increasing the cost of a program--not to make them dramatically more successful but just to reduce their costs of failure--is really natural human instinct. Some people would say that's their responsibility; you could make a moral argument that that's appropriate. But I think that's what drives this cost up. So, it's easy for me to sort of, from afar, say, 'Well, I don't know any of these people. They are all strangers to me, and I'd rather see more people helped for less; and if some fail, that's going to happen anyways,' rather than just investing in a small number of people and trying to keep them from failing. But, if I were in their position--certainly when I raise my children I don't take that approach. And that's another extreme example, right? So, you know, I'm sympathetic. But as a small NGO--a small Non-Governmental Organization--you can afford to make your own moral choice about whether you help a lot of people a little bit and let them fail sometimes, or if you help just a few people and really foster them through. But if you are the U.S. Government Aid agency, or you are the Ugandan Bureau of blah-blah-blah that's in charge of this, in some sense you don't get to make that choice. In some sense, your responsibility, I think, is to help the most people.

Russ Roberts: But I also thought you are making a methodological point with Gates which is really interesting, which is: Well, maybe it will have a good impact; maybe it won't. Obviously if you sat down, if you and I had 30 minutes with Mr. Gates we'd say, 'Gee, 300 million is a big increase. Maybe that's going to have an unexpected effect on--you wouldn't want to generalize from the 5% who have chickens now to the 30% you'd like to have them.' And he'd nod, say that's a good point. But I think you are trying to say, 'Let's try to actually measure this. Let's try to actually see--let's learn something. Before we launch this enormous, grandiose experiment, let's do a pre-experiment where we try to see which is better. And we'd learn so much that we would be able to help people much more down the road, not just with your venture.' Is that a fair summary?

Chris Blattman: Yeah. This is actually--I make [?] this point sort of in general: If I go to--pick a country--if I go to Uganda or like Uruguay[?] or Colombia which are all places where I spend a lot of time or have spent a lot of time, you'll see that the government or the World Bank or somebody saying, 'All right, we have this $5 million, or $100 million, or $500 million dollar program that we're going to roll out over the next 5 years; and we've written the program manual and we [?] spend all that money doing x.' And x is quite specific. It might be like chickens. It might be job training. And then they just launch into it. And inevitably it fails, because, what are the chances that you ever get that formula right from the outset when you implement it? And so, 2 or 3 years in they redesign and they start figuring it out; and, they don't have a lot of sense of what's going on. Maybe then they run some evaluations or they turn to more of the evidence. And let's say they get a slightly better program for the last half of that 5-year program. Then, that's a lot of money wasted. And if it's a credit to that country, meaning it's a loan to that country, then some future taxpayer of that country has to pay that back. Which seems kind of tragic. Or it has to be forgiven--some future taxpayer of this country has to pay that back. And that just was all money that--you know, that could have been averted. And I, so every time I'm there, I'm saying, 'Listen, instead of doing this, I'm saying: Why don't you do 5 or 10 things on a small scale for the first year? You have to scale up, you have to get moving. I understand the political pressure. So get moving; but why don't you just try 5 or 10 things? And maybe you then really rigorously study what you're going to do?' That would be fine. Sometimes we should do that. But even if you don't, it will probably be obvious which of those 5 or 10 things seems to be more successful than the others. Certainly the ones that are failures will be more obvious. And then you'll know with more precision, if you invest some money in studying it. So, as a general principle, this is just something that's not done with aid--the sort of trial and error and with some rigorous testing. And we've managed in the last 10 years to introduce the idea of randomized testing with randomized trials without introducing this idea of trial and error and moving ahead and trying many ideas. And that's a problem. I would like to see both. So, that's kind of what I'm saying--this is just another case. Instead of just scaling up your crazily specific program that's only been a little bit tested, why don't you try a few different things and then push ahead with the thing that's most successful? And in this case, I think we've got enough evidence to say, 'Actually, we're doing a lot of this chicken stuff, regardless of what Gates is doing. We're doing a lot of handing out of chickens and cows. And--I don't know if it's $1 billion, or $10 billion, or $100 million dollars a year, but it's somewhere in that range. And if we could spend $10 million dollars just to, like, tweak the direction of that, to sort of kill a bad idea and replace it with a less bad idea'--that's kind of what I want to see. I want to see us rigorously evaluate, like, run a horse race between these different things that we could do, these different varieties, kind of like trial and error but in a structured way. And then just replace the bad things with less-bad things. And thereby make a lot of very, very unfortunate people a bit better off. That's basically it.

18:05

Russ Roberts: So, I have a lot of things to say to that. It's a fantastic summary of, I think, the position you are taking. I just have to mention in passing, though: you said, 'Well, of course it fails.' And I think a lot of people would say, 'How could it fail? You are injecting all this money into these sectors, regions, poor people, whatever. It's got to have some effect--some overwhelmingly good effect. You're putting--you are going to add $100 million into this community?' And it's really, I think, a sobering reality that it often doesn't work very well. So I just want to mention that to the point where you say, 'Well, of course it doesn't work.' But I think most intuitive, everyday people would say it would work, akin to their natural inclination to inject money into the U.S. school system. 'Because the more you spend, the more education you get.' Which of course isn't true. It might be true. But it need not be true. And, if the incentives--

Chris Blattman: Right. And I would say, even if you are more optimistic--and I think if you put in more input you are going to get more output. You put in more money to the educational system, I think probably you are going to get more education, or better outcomes--not always, you are right. Same with this aid, chickens. The chickens are not going to be a bad idea. They are not going to all fail. It's just: We're putting so much money into this that--not only is someone going to have to pay back in future, but it's such a missed opportunity. Like, it's really desperate to--if you were making $1 or $2 a day, this means like, your child is probably going to--the chance your child dies in infancy or of some disease or that some crisis hits and really terrible things happen to someone in your family is just so high. And that's also true at any level of poverty. And it's just more dire and risky, the poorer you are. So, to sort of callously and irresponsibly, in my mind, not try to use the sort of trial-and-error approach and try to do the right thing, and rather than just have 33% of Africans or something producing chickens--they might be a bit better off, they'd probably be better off. What if--that's such a missed opportunity to really change some people's lives? One of the rare instances where I really think aid can have a big impact. It really is an area where we can be super-effective; and I don't say that about a lot of things. And so, it's such a sad, tragic thing not to do this more responsibly.

20:34

Russ Roberts: Well, I want to challenge the premise that underlies that, even though I'm sympathetic to it and it sounds great. We had on the program a while back, Adam Cifu, author of a very provocative book, co-author of a book, Ending Medical Reversal, where he shows that so many times a study will be done, a cross-sectional, longitudinal study, a statistical analysis of some device or some dietary change, some relationship in epidemiology, is alarming or effective, whatever it is. And people start doing this technique or avoiding this technique. And then, 15 years later, there's an actual randomized control trial where people are put into two different groups: You're not using statistical techniques to try to hold things constant; you are actually using a real experiment, not a pseudo-experiment. And you find out that the original finding doesn't hold up under the randomized control trial. So, this is why--we can call it the gold standard of experimental science. It's what scientists do: They see if things can be replicated; they try to actually test things directly. It's a really nice thing. And, there's a huge--I don't want to call it a fad--a trend, we'll call it a trend--it could be a fad--in Development Economics to do randomized control trials. Which is what you're talking about: Wouldn't it be great, do 5 or 10 experiments to see what works and what doesn't work? But, the problem it seems to me is that unlike epidemiology or medical things where a trial could actually often illuminate what does and doesn't work, it strikes me that in human societies, that's a lot more difficult. So, an example we've mentioned before on the program is deworming. Deworming, a lot of excitement about it because some experiments had showed it to be very effective in helping children--if you took the worms and parasites out of their system, they could sit in school longer, make more money, etc.--have better lives. But, it's not obvious that it scales. It's not obvious that it worked in other villages. It's not obviously--etc. So, isn't [?] part of the problem here--and is this a reality or am I being too skeptical?--that, the kind of knowledge that you would like to produce with those trials in the early stages of a large-scale rollout of a program--they are not necessarily going to be as reliable as a true scientific experiment would be?

Chris Blattman: Right. Well, yes. So, this is basically right. But the question is--I guess, my argument would be, I guess I think is a pretty basic premise: Through the accumulation of lots and lots of empirical evidence and theoretical thinking and then using that empirical evidence to sort of understand our theory of poverty--why are people poor and what kinds of things make them less poor? The accumulation of lots of evidence from lots of places is how we get a better theory. This is just how it works; and it will be harder than in physics or medicine for exactly the reasons you say. But, there's a big difference here. So, the deworming excitement is coming off of--I don't know if you know this: I worked on this experiment when I was a graduate student. This was like one of my first jobs in development: I ran one of the followup surveys.

Russ Roberts: I did not know that.

Chris Blattman: Yeah. So, I ran the 5-year followup survey. So, I spent a lot of time with these kids who got this deworming medicine. It's a very incestuous group, a small, incestuous group, development economics. So, listen: There was one big trial showing big effects, and it was on the shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya, which is the birthplace of humanity, and then not coincidentally the birthplace of human parasites. So, an impact of deworming medicine there is going to be not surprisingly quite impactful; and if you go somewhere else, where you are not on the shores of a parasite-filled lake, then maybe it's going to be different. And that doesn't surprise me. And we don't actually have a lot of trials of deworming medicine elsewhere. And, the other ones haven't been very good, or they haven't been very long term, or they haven't measured economic outcomes and educational outcomes. So, we just don't know. Whereas, when it comes to policy, we have dozens and dozens and dozens and dozens and dozens. So, it's not just randomized control trials but all sorts of evidence. A great book is Poor Economics, by Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo, who sort of pulled together all the descriptive and observational and qualitative, and experimental data. And just a lot of it points to a particular view of poverty--that people have constraints; that from little access to credit and to capital and little access to insurance; and overwhelming evidence that just one of those constraints is relieved, maybe cash, maybe by a chicken, that people leap ahead. That you can make improvements on the margin. And it's not some magic formula. And you can also improve the way financial markets function; and then people get more access to insurance and credit and capital and things. So, it's just a totally different story. And everything I'm saying about both chickens and cash are very consistent with that theory. And now, the randomized trials which I was proposing we do, on large numbers of people and large numbers of countries in different parts of the world, in a way that we could get at what you're saying is sort of getting at the finer details: saying, okay--not knowing if we can make any general statements but, do we see a general pattern across many types of people in many types of places that chickens tend to be lower return than cash? That, people tend to use cash wisely in many places. And then also, very importantly, to figure out what we call the general equilibrium effects. Or the spillover effects. Like, what happens to the whole local economy when you get this giant influx of chickens, or cash? Like it's good? Bad? And it could go either way. We don't really know. So, there's a really different evidence base. And then, the kind of experiment I was proposing, which costs $15 million dollars or some number like that because it's much bigger than anything that's ever been run, is in some sense designed to get around exactly this concern.

26:48

Russ Roberts: So, that's a nice defense. In fact, you are kind of channeling your inner Lant Pritchett there. When you talked about the accumulation of knowledge, he made this similar argument, which I found unpersuasive. But, I find it a little more persuasive in your case. He was talking about general economic theory that's small--any one piece of economic research may not be that informative but it eventually creates this great base of knowledge. And I think that's romanticizing what economic research does, somewhat inaccurately. But let's put that to the side--

Chris Blattman: Well, if I could just interrupt--one thing is: I don't think that knowledge is accumulated to a consistent understanding of how something works across lots of different areas. I also study--I mean, I'm a professor of global conflict studies. In principle, I spend most of my time studying violence, as well. And, we don't really have a good understanding of what reduces violence. Like the things have not accumulated to a coherent answer. Or if you take the macro study of aid, and whether aid is good or bad, and what its good or bad affects our economics or politics--we don't have a coherent answer. It's sort of cumulated into a mess. That was my--

Russ Roberts: Yeah, that was my--it's my, it's close to my view.

Chris Blattman: But there's--but, right. But, other things have turned out--sometimes in certain medical research, and in this case, I think [?] our micro-understanding of poverty turns out, 'Oh, this thing seems to work pretty much similar ways'--you know, we're wrong in lots of details I'm sure. But, more than other things I've understood. And this is why I come on podcasts, you're right, about we should act on this and I don't come on and talk about violence. I don't have a coherent message about what we should do to reduce violence. I don't know that we've accumulated a coherent answer. But, in this case the world works in a simple or straightforward-enough way to have enough evidence, or something about, something the situation is just, I think, points us to more confidence than a lot of other areas. And so, great. And the wonderful thing is it can, like, a lot of people who are in a really, really, really terrible place can benefit from that, in a relatively simple way. This is one of the things that aid does well. Like, just logistically, like just get a lot of stuff out there that seems to work on its own.

29:04

Russ Roberts: This isn't where I thought we'd end up. But let's stay here for a while, because it's so interesting. You are telling me that the aid literature is indecisive--imperfect. Which I think is true. Many people would disagree with you, by the way. I think some people would say, 'Oh, we know exactly what works.' In fact, Lant Pritchett said so: we know it's property rights and free markets and prices. And, while I'm sympathetic to that, I think it actually is more complicated than that. Other people would say, 'We know what works.' Jeffrey Sachs, on the program, 'We just need to give a lot more money. We need to spend it well.' And he thinks he knows how to spend it well. But you are skeptical. Okay. Fine.

Chris Blattman: Well, you know, but Jeffrey Sachs--if you want to say, like an African nation--how do we help an African nation go from $1500 a head to $3000 a head? That's not necessarily a hard problem. Or, you know, that's a hard problem. But it's a much different problem to say, how does that nation, what could we do as outsiders or what could that government do as insiders to get to $20,--- a head? Some sort of like middle-income status. And then nobody has a good answer to that. So, sometimes they are just talking about different changes. When you are talking about development, they can be talking to different things.

Russ Roberts: That's a great point. Just what I was going to say, actually. So, what I was going to say is that, if you are telling me that at the micro level, we know that it's good to give people more access to financial markets--the ability to borrow--because they are often financially constrained. Or, we know that if we give them things they will be better off--it's not so interesting, really. But it really comes to what I think is the crux of the matter. Which is, the, what I would call, the real essential point that Pritchett was upset about in that previous episode, which is the following. He is claiming that--and I have mixed feelings about this, but I don't care, it doesn't matter; whatever you have to say--he's claiming that the real problem isn't poor people. It's poor countries. These people are in places with bad economies: Bad government, bad economies. And to put a band aid on their economies with a chicken is the wrong thing to be spending time on. We ought to be spending time on [?] we ought to figure out how to liberate their economy, liberate the skills to cooperate together in a market setting--which is how we know, that's [?] how you get to $20,000. When you get to $20,000, you've got to have a vibrant labor market. You've got to have a vibrant skills market. You've got to have people trade and exchange with each other within a country and outside of a country. And, we know all that already. And so that's what we ought to be spending our time on, not whether 5 chickens are going to improve somebody's life. Of course they would. They'd improve mine, too. I'd eat them. I like chicken. My wife, she's a vegetarian, but she'd be happy to see me happy. We know all that. So, what's the--what is the defense of the approach that you are suggesting of these micro-experiments to get people truly out of poverty? We understand--what you're saying is all true. It's not important.

Chris Blattman: So, you know, these things aren't in complete contradiction. So, if you want to make--I think Lant's larger--he's got two big points. Lant--I think I've mentioned to you in the past--Lant is, I mean, Lant was one of my first teachers in Development, and still remains sort of one of my idols in Development. And everything of his I can read, I do read, because I think he's got--you know, he has a really, he says a lot of original things and he has his finger on the pulse of these things. And he's made two points here that I think are true. One is that the Development community at large has tended to focus on sort of this weird, extreme form of poverty rather than just thinking of other people who are vey poor instead of extremely poor. So, there's this artificial threshold of $1, $2 a day that distorts a lot of policy. That's fine; I agree with that; and a lot of things--all the chickens and cash stuff I'm talking about, you can ignore that concern. You could say, 'Well, I think the chickens and cash could help someone who is extremely poor and very poor and just a little bit poor.' All these people have limited access to capital. I think that's what we would, what we are learning from the evidence, what we would learn from my experiment. His bigger point is that there is maybe a misallocation of time and policy in academia: That, a lot of people are just focused on the small stuff; that there are these bright, shiny [?]s that come along; it's very appealing to get an answer that a lot of people--there's all this data and computer technology that lets us do, answer a lot of small questions while [?]--

Russ Roberts: You get an article real quick; you get an article on your CV (Curriculum Vitae).

Chris Blattman: Yeah. And so there's two--with a profession--the world would be a better place if more smart policy-makers and more smart economists and political scientists were spending more sweat and brains and money on big questions about growth in this case[?]. And then, and so--and I think that's probably right. I think we probably do have a slight misallocation--I think you could make a good argument. But that doesn't mean--it doesn't mean--he sort of made a--he sort of exaggerates as some do and say, 'We should only focus on growth. Most people should focus on growth.' And I think that's wrong for two reasons. One is, I think it's wrong big thing to focus on. And we could get to that. But I think more immediately, I think you can't ignore the poverty. Because, what this says--so listen: If I say, 'I'm going to--everyone needs to be focused on growth.' If we just dedicate all this time, even if he's right, and we were able to make future unborn generations better off, because we're spending all this time and money and brains and energy, on growth, the fact is that there's still a lot of horribly-off people today. Now, if you, if you sort of--some people make that tradeoff. They'll say, 'Listen. Better make 20 generations much better off than trade off making them slightly better off just to make these people less poor.' That's just--someone who is, say, a utilitarian who wants to make the most good for the most people, would say we need to sacrifice today's generation and help these future generations. That's the way to maximize the good. But if you have sort of a different moral calculus--that if you think, for example, that we're only as good as, say, the least among us; or that we have a responsibility to help the very, very least among us even if that means we wealthy people or future wealthy people who are not yet born will be substantially worse off--that's also a defensible claim. And I guess I would say I'm willing to make that tradeoff, to some degree. And I think a lot of--I think that's fundamentally why so much policy is dedicated toward alleviating poverty. That, even if we knew how to make future generations off with certainty, it would still make sense to spend a lot of time worrying about poverty today. That's a--not everyone is going to feel that way, but it's a totally justifiable way. And that's how I feel.

36:03

Russ Roberts: So, I'm not a utilitarian. But I do think we should improve future generations at the expense of the current one--for a different reason. So, let me lay that out. And you can respond. The people themselves who are alive today would want us to do that, because they love their children and their grandchildren. And if I said to them, 'I'm going to give you a choice. I'm going to give you a bunch of chickens and I'm going to make your suffering less dire,' or, 'You're not going to get any chickens. You're going to lead a miserable life, but your children and grandchildren are going to lead very, very greatly improved, materially improved lives,' I think most, if not all people would jump at the chance. And we see that people do that all the time. They take risks, and they impoverish themselves. They risk death to come to richer countries. So, that would be my argument there. But I think, to me, the real issue is just the severity of the poverty. For people who are, you know, near death, that, yes, we need to do something for those people now. For people who are just having a hard time--if we can, I add that proviso of course, if we know how. And I think people should choose morally to do that. But for people who are just uncomfortable, I think they'd be thrilled to live with that discomfort and have their children thrive.

Chris Blattman: Right. So, I mean, we can debate this. On some level it's a moot point to--yeah, I mean, it's a moot--sort of the defense of my argument--where we should--and I want--I'm, personally in my life, I agree with Lant[?]; I spend too much time on stupid randomized control trials and on poverty alleviation. It's important, but this is not what I think is really important or really where I can, you know, contribute in some way. So, in some sense I'm unbalanced. I fundamentally agree. But still I think this experiment, this grand thing that I pitched to Bill, Bill Gates, is important. And I would even work on it. The last thing I really want to do--it's really miserable to run these--it's really, really hard and miserable. I hate running these things. It's so logistically and managerially intensive. And you don't think. You just sort of make things happen. And I'm okay at that, I'm pretty good at that. But I don't enjoy it. And I would rather spend my time on something else. But I will do it, if I have to. Because nobody else seems to be doing it. I will do it, because we live in a world not where we are making these grand, philosophical choices, but how to orient aid--and we live in a world where the rich countries and poor countries have made the decision that we are going to spend $10 or $100 billion a year giving the very poorest people stuff. And if I can do a little thing, spend, like 10% of my time for 3 years and $15 million dollars, somebody else's money, to sort of say, 'Guess what? You could be twice as effective and really make an impact on people's lives if you just killed this bad idea and did something less bad,'--that's a huge thing. There's a way to just sort of--given the world we live in, on the margin, there's a handful of studies that I think could really reallocate how this giving people stuff is done. And, and that would be a big thing. And I think that's actually what--I think because I look back at the last 10 years and the cash-transfer work that's been done, including my own experiments--and I say, 'That's the impact this had.' Despite the fact that I wasn't working on what I really wanted to work on, it was important to work on and I actually think that had a lot more immediate impact, precisely because we live in a world where there's just buckets of money, pipelines of money going to these places, being spent poorly. And that can be improved, on the margin.

Russ Roberts: Superbly said. I salute that. Beautiful.

39:41

Russ Roberts: Has Bill Gates responded?

Chris Blattman: No. And, you know what? Someone pointed out to me--

Russ Roberts: Sound of crickets--

Chris Blattman: Well, I even--I got a chance to--so, someone pointed out to me after I wrote this letter that, 'Do you know that Bill Gates follows your Twitter?' Then it turns out he only follows, like, 300 people; and a number of them are development people, for obvious reasons; and one of them, it turns out, was me. So, I thought--I had no idea. I'm going to direct-message Bill Gates. Maybe he reads his Twitter feed. Like, why else would he only follow it, 2-300 people? So I even direct-messaged him on Twitter--politely, saying, 'With all due respect, this was my [?]; I'd love to have a conversation about this, if you're interested.' And then: Crickets.

Russ Roberts: Well, I don't know that he listens to EconTalk; but this could put him over the edge, if he does. You may be getting--when this comes out, you'll probably get a summons. And I'd be happy to interview Mr. Gates, by the way.

Chris Blattman: I'm a marginalist, right? I think that every little bit matters.

Russ Roberts: Definitely raised the probability. And I want to just say publicly I would love to interview Bill Gates for EconTalk. So, Bill, if you are listening, or if someone who knows you is listening and thinks that would also be a good idea, please get in touch. But it is an interesting question. By the way--this is a sub-point; and you're sort of--I think you have feet in all the various camps: The academic world--there's the academic world; there's the money world--which would be the Gates foundation--and then there's this weird, nether-region of international organizations like the World Bank that has academic people in it, in and out of it--they come and go. So, that whole thing is--they all have their own rules. I'd like to hear you react to the idea that the incentives are what ruin where development economists spend their time. Of course, people have written not-so-nice things about the appeal of traveling to exotic places and having nice meals and Range Rovers to carry you around, and all that. But, talk about the incentives that you experience as an academic, but also as somebody who is in these different worlds, even if you're not--you don't get calls from Bill Gates's cellphone.

Chris Blattman: Mmmhmmm. The incentives to go do these kinds of--

Russ Roberts: Whatever it is. I mean, they are incentives that encourage some people to just do all kinds of things--articles on this or that, spend time in a particular country because the World Bank funds it. And all of the--we do what we like, and we also care, most of us do, about what makes the world a better place. As you point out. And you confessed a minute ago that you wish you'd maybe spent a little less time on some of these things and more on the bigger things. So, just reflect on that.

Chris Blattman: Well, answering the bigger questions would still put me firmly, even more often, in foreign places. Like, right now, I'm really interested in, I happen to be studying a lot of gangs in Latin America and also in Chicago. And, the thing that's holding me back from being more effective is my lack of tie-in to go and spend time in these places. One of the fundamental incentives is that, I think that to answer important questions about other parts of the world, you have to spend a lot of time in other parts of the world. And you also--not just talking to people and collecting data, but also building relationships with other academics who are there or other policymakers. Because it's not an individual production function. So, that's--answering the question requires be there, big or small question, whatever if you are going to do this right. The incentives in the economics profession, for a long time, and to a lesser extent now, were always against young economists and especially graduate students going and spending lots of time in the field. And in some sense, there is still a discouragement to spend a lot of time often in other countries: still spend relatively little time compared to other academic disciplines. And it used to be zero. There's--an interesting set of people to bring on would be people like Michael Kremer, Chris Utry, who are development economists who broke the path in the, maybe the 1980s and 1990s by spending a lot of time in places like Ghana in Chris's case, and Kenya in Michael's case, doing this kind of work, pioneering it. There are others as well. They sort of stand out in my mind. And showing that you could do important work, and making development economics credible again in the profession. And showing--and sending their students to Ghana--like, this is why--why was I in Busia[?], Kenya running this deworming experiment? Because Michael's student, Ted Miguel [?], he sent to run some experiments and collect data. And Ted did his dissertation there; and he started his own studies in Busia[?], Kenya. And then I showed up at Berkeley, and Ted was this young prof, maybe just one or two years in, who became my dissertation adviser. And he sent me to Kenya, my first semester. And then, why did I end up working on violence in northern Uganda? Because the second time I got sent to Kenya, I was sitting in a cafe, and I met a woman--because it takes 20 minutes or 30 minutes for the Hotmail page to load up, which should tell you what year it was. And so I struck up a conversation with a woman next to me who was doing this qualitative study of children affected by conflict and child soldiers in northern Uganda. And then a year later I was landing by plane in northern Uganda to run a survey that looked a lot like what Ted was doing in deworming except I was studying the effects of violence. And that became my dissertation. And it also so happens that we produced several papers and a marriage, and now two children. Because they're more important than the papers.

Russ Roberts: Yeah; of course it is. But the best part about that story is--most unintended consequences are negative. But here we have the positive unintended consequence of a lousy internet access. That you were sitting there for 20 to 30 minutes waiting for your page to load, and you meet your future wife. What a great--

Chris Blattman: Right. But my--then I've sent my students to go work on my project in northern Uganda, and later Liberia; and now, Colombia. And now, they are graduating, they're Ph.Ds., they're getting jobs; and they are doing amazing research; and they are sending their students to these--or wherever they happen to work. And so, this has been this amazing thing that has happened: You talk about the incentives. It's against the grain, against the incentives to go and invest all this time really understanding a place. All the inputs required for all these experiments, or any big study, data--you have to collect your own data in a place like Africa. Most of the time. And so, the incentives are all against that. So, why are people doing it? I think they are really passionate about the questions. And, of course, now there's its own set of esteem[?], and you have your own dysfunctions as a profession; and we're doing a lot of the wrong things; and so on, and so on. But, nonetheless, like, this is still a big, positive change. And I've always said that the most important thing about randomized control trials is not the causal effect that lots of people, we've identified. The effect of like--the important part about the deworming experiment in all this time in Kenya by all these people is not--it's now[?] the fact that Ted Miguel and Michael Kremer could lecture you for hours on Kenyan politics and development in a very sophisticated way that has nothing to do with the causal estimate. Economists now have a much richer understanding of the way world works, how the aid sector works, what the political and social and organizational dysfunctions are from everything from USAID (United States Agency for International Development) to some government in some far corner of the world. There's this rich knowledge that was just not there before that I think is really affecting the way the theories were developing. It's affecting the cognitive teaching; it's affecting the questions we're asking; it's affecting the advice. And I think that's been so much more important than any stupid little causal effect.

Russ Roberts: That's great. And I think Adam Smith would be happy about it. Maybe I'm wrong. I like to think of Adam Smith--maybe I'm romanticizing, which I am prone to--but I do think of him as open to the richer understanding of human activity than our sort of blackboard theories; and obviously was a student of many aspects of human life, not just the financial and monetary side.

Chris Blattman: Right, right.

Russ Roberts: What you are really arguing is that it's good that we've become more like sociology. Which could be true.

48:37

Russ Roberts: I would have argued that the reason we shouldn't work on big picture issues and big picture questions is because we don't know much about them. So, I think most people would argue that governance, political institutions are a big problem. I suggested recently that what we should do with that $15 million dollars, say, is pay a leader to leave, and replace him with someone more--of course, obviously, replace him with another dictator is the problem. But if you could change a political system, that would be the way you'd spend your money. We don't know how to do that. And the idea that we should be spending more time understanding that doesn't necessarily follow; the idea that that's the most important thing. If we can't figure out the levers to improve it, it really doesn't matter. So, what are your thoughts on that?

Chris Blattman: I'm more hopeful. I think we don't know a lot about it. I think we also--I think that--I actually teach a class on this, and it turns out Lant Pritchett has just written a book on this as well, with two co-authors. He's focused more on building, on something a bit narrower, which is building state capabilities--which is basically making states more effective. And that includes public sectors and governments. It's actually a free book online, and I think it's actually one of my favorite books I've read this year. So, he didn't talk about that, but--

Russ Roberts: What's it called?

Chris Blattman: I think it's called Building State Capabilities.

Russ Roberts: We'll put a link up to it, for this episode.

Chris Blattman: Exactly. And he even negotiated to be able to get this free online. And I think he has a course, as well, where you can go along this as well. And so, there's both a book and a free course online. And I teach a class. Sometimes I call it "Order and Violence." Sometimes I call it "Political Economy Development." But, it's really about these big questions about saying: You know what? What doesn't--I think Lant would agree with this: Growth is the wrong way to think about this. We don't need more people focused on economic growth. I think we need more people focused on understanding state capabilities, and democratization, and politics in these countries. There's a fair amount already: most other political science--there's a lot of bad research; there's a lot of good research. And I--by spending a lot of the last 10 years reading that research and trying to teach it, and learning it; and when I say I want to reorient what I do, in some ways, I--this is the book I would like to write. Probably I won't write it for 10 years. But one day I will write this book about this kind of political development, if you will. And I think that's fundamentally the problem. And it's hard for me to believe, partly because I've read so much that really has changed the way I think about how the world works; and I think if it could be translated into terms, sort of messages that people could absorb and understand in a less academic way, I think it would be really impactful. So, one, I think we could translate more; two, I think we could do more of it. But it kind of a big--it's a big risk. It's hard to see immediate payoffs. Yet, I guess the reason I think it can't be ignored is, maybe you could put it simply like this: That, China and Brazil and Russia and Vietnam and a whole host of countries that are currently like middle income, or a little poorer or a little richer, are generally growing, you know, at a reasonably quick pace--like, say, I don't know, maybe it's 5% a year. In some years that will be higher; in some years that will be lower. But they are basically on their way to being high-middle, or upper-middle--or even upper-income countries. So, they are growing. And as long as there is no major world cataclysm, then in 20 years, those are going to be basically rich countries. And that's going to be most of the population of the world. And that's probably most countries in the world. But there's a bunch of countries, a couple in, you know, Central and South America, maybe Bolivia, certainly Guatemala, and maybe like a Honduras or Jamaica, and much of sub-Saharan Africa, and some parts of Central Asia that are just not growing at all, or they are growing a little bit but not very fast. Or, they are growing a little bit but there is a lot of inherent political instability and it's hard to imagine that growth lasting for long before there's some tanking[?]. So, it's possible that in 15 or 20 years there will be about 20 or 30 countries in the world that are still enormously poor and unstable, next to what are generally a relatively homogenous group of middle- and high-income countries. And that's going to be a bad situation. It's not--it's a better situation than today, where we've got a lot of poor people. But there's going to be this growing inequality; and these are going to be places of instability. And there's going to be a lot of negative spillovers for the

          Militares y movimientos fortalecen soberanía en Bolivia        
El MAS de Bolivia destacó la unión que existe entre los movimientos sociales y los militares para desarrollar la economía y la soberanía del país. 
          Jun 23, Filipina married to a Bolivian - Need Requirements for Moving to Bolivia        
Hi, I am a Filipina (Philippines) married to a Bolivian and we have a son born here in Philippines.I would like to ask what are the requirements for me
          Jun 23, Spanish School Juntucha        
I had such a great experience learning Spanish in Cochabamba (Bolivia) that I wanted to share it with you all. If you are volunteering or traveling in
          Jun 22, Pasankalla        
Para los que viven en USA, Global Foods tiene Pasankalla en bolsas. Sabe alguien donde comprar café Boliviano y Api.
          Jun 22, Leaving Bolivia with our Bolivian pet dog. What do we need to do?        
My partner and I have adopted a pet pup while here in Bolivia (he is between 3 - 4 months old). He has been vaccinated by the local vet here in Yacuiba.
          Jun 11, Single mom relocating to Tarija Bolivia        
Hi everyone, So ive lived in the USA for over 20 years and I cannot get accustomed. I love Bolivia and life Style. Im a single mother looking to relocate
          Jun 11, Bolivia visa for dual nationals        
Hi, I am travelling to bolivia for a 10 day trip. I am a national of both unites states and united kingdom and have passports of both countries. #1 If
          Jun 3, jungle or pampas        
Hi i am coming to bolivia in september and am planning my trip as we speak. I would really like to visit the amazon and alot of trips are based out of
          May 8, Santa Cruz - Solar cafe & bistro --more than a cafe        
Solar is a full venue restaurant, not just a café/bistro as of April 2017. Its menu is extensive and varied, with emphasis on Bolivian fare. Our group
          May 3, Visa de objeto determinado - how many times can you leave Bolivia once you're a resident?        
We are planning to go to Bolivia for 2 years on a missions trip. How often can you leave Bolivia and for how long once you get the visa.
          May 3, The Bolivia visa requires hotel reservation (or invitation) but I don't know exact date. What to do?        
Hi. I'm a US citizen. I'm applying for a tourist visa; I'd like to travel by land. I'm not sure exactly where I will enter or on what date. The requirements
          May 3, How to get Bolivia working visa for a citizen of India?        
I'm living in India. I'm diploma holder in mechanical engineer. i have 13 years work experience. I would like to go for Bolivia. I need working visa for
          May 3, U.S. Citizen Can I get a visa upon arrival in Bolivia?        
Do U.S. citizens need to have a visa before arriving in Bolivia, or can I get my visa once I arrive there in Santa Cruz?
          May 3, Viajando con un bebe a bolivia?        
Hola, mi esposa es de La Paz Bolivia, yo soy americano, y las veces que yo he ido a la paz yo me he enfermado y no mi esposa por la alta altitud, tenemos
          May 3, Moving my used car to Bolivia        
I want to get information on moving my used car to Bolivia, I plan to visit Bolivia every year and stay over there for 3-6 months at a time. I am a US
          May 3, Bolivia Club de Aventura        
Grupo de Amigos que realizan caminatas y viajes
          May 3, Indian engineering consultant looking for business in Bolivia        
I am an engineering consultant based in Bangalore, India specialised in metal coatings with twenty five plus years of exposure in the engineering,hospitality,and
          May 3, Bolivia tourist visa requirements for Singapore citizens?        
I've heard visas can be issued overland when travelling into Bolivia but can it be issued at the airports as well? I'm planning to fly into La Paz. I'm
          May 3, Cost to open a restaurant in Bolivia?        
Im thinking seriously to move in to bolivia with my wife and littel daughter, and open arabic restirantbor cafe, what is the budget for such an investment
          May 3, La Paz - A great spot for travelers        
La Paz is the largest city in Bolivia. It is a great spot for travelers that is well known for its unique markets, a very unusual topography and a traditional
          May 3, Bolivian Citizenship if Married to a Bolivian        
I am moving to Cochabamba later this year. I would like to know what the policy is for me as I am married to a Bolivian citizen, to become a citizen of
          May 3, Leyendas Bolivianas: Leyenda de El Condenado         
Primero quiero aclararles que es un condenado. El condenado es un alma que no puede ir al cielo su alma se queda en su cuerpo y vaga en el mundo como alma
          May 3, Leyendas Bolivianas: El Monstruo del Lago Titicaca        
Cuenta la leyenda que había una lagartija que se metió al lago y con las aguas sagradas creció mas de 30 metros. Como se sentía triste y sola se mete al
          May 3, How to get from Peru to Bolivia to see the Sun Door        
we are looking to take a trip to Peru and the sacred valley. While there we would love to go and see the Sun Door in Bolivia. In reading it seems that
          May 3, Project about Bolivia        
I'm doing a project about Bolivia! Thank you for the resources.
          Dec 20, Canadian Looking to Invest in Bolivia        
I am a Canadian born citizen, looking to move to Bolivia for investment purposes. I know there are other countries in which you can purchase your citizenship
          Dec 20, How can I find apartments in Santa Cruz?        
I am planning on traveling to Bolivia and spending about two month in Santa Cruz. What are the current apartment rental prices? Also are there any good
          Dec 20, Looking for an amazing Bolivian cake recipe        
My husband lived in Bolivia for 2 years near Cochabamba and loved the cakes that he had there. He speaks of their moist dense texture and how much better
          Dec 12, How much do bricks cost in Santa Cruz, Bolivia?        
Does anyone know the current cost of bricks and ceramic roof tiles right now in Santa Cruz??
          Nov 26, Bolivia visa for Indonesian Citizen ( Group 3)        
Hi, We are Indonesian citizens who currently reside in Australia and are holding Australia Permanent Residency visas. We were just wondering what to process
          Nov 26, Overstaying in bolivia more than 4months?        
We came here with family for health related emergency but we overstay more than 4 months is any problems with that? The bolivian visa is for 10 years.
          Nov 26, Job Advert - Volunteer Project Co-ordinator        
Hi Everyone, I work for a British based expedition company which sends groups of students to Bolivia to do volunteer work. We are currently looking for
          Nov 26, Leyendas Bolivianas: El Jucumari        
Cuentan que en el monte de Chapare se perdió una cholita y un hombre que más que un hombre era un mono, un hombre mono, que la encontró y la llevó a una
          Nov 26, Street Robbery in La Paz - Tourists Beware        
A tourist couple was robbed yesterday in La Paz and shared their story on our site. We encourage all tourists to share their experiences in Bolivia. If
          Nov 26, Cursillos de baile flamenco        
Hola buenas tardes. soy profesora de danza espanola. tengo pensado viajar a Bolivia, me gustaria impartir cursillos de flamenco. busco academias interesadas
          Nov 24, Looking for somewhere to volunteer in Santa Cruz de la Sierra!        
Hello everyone! I'm a 16 year old exchange student from Canada, currently living in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. I'll be here until July or August
          Nov 19, Starting a US-based business while living in Bolivia        
Hello! My wife accepted a job in La Paz and we'll be moving down in January 2017. I'm going to be both consulting part time for a US Based company and
          Nov 19, How to seek asylum in Bolivia        
Hello, I need to seek protection and residence in Bolivia for my family and I. I come from another country. Can people please advice on legal help (lawyers?),
          Nov 19, Need info on studying medicine in Bolivia and university vacations        
Hi, I'm looking to possibly study medicine in Bolivia. I love the country and would like to return to school. I was just wondering what the schedule is
          Nov 19, Everything about Sucre Bolivia sounds ideal except internet        
I've been researching Sucre as a possible expat destination and every thing I'm seeing looks great except for internet access. However the newest reports
          Nov 19, Fines for over stay and residency visa process        
Just completed process for 3 yr visa. My advocate got it through just before daily fines were applied they are 77 bolivianos per person per day workthat
          Nov 19, Searching for a person in Santa Cruz        
I was in Bolivia during 1997-78 and met an incredible women. I'm searching for assistance in locating her. Her name is Ingrid Tellez. Her family is from
          Nov 19, I need a recipe for Aymara no-bake bread        
Does anyone know what the bolivian (aymara) Bread is called that is made from Quinoa flour and pressed into a handprint and does not need baking?
          Aug 2, Tourist visa during new year?        
My husband and I want to go to Bolivia for about 4 months and it would probably be November 2016- February 2017. I know it's 90 days per year so does the
          Jul 29, Leyendas Bolivianas: Mitos sobre el Illimani        
El gran imponente Illimani tiene infinidades de mitos como que el Illimani tiene una fuerza magnetica y atrae a aviones y helicopteros...etc. Y ademas
          Jul 9, What is the best way to access money in Bolivia?        
What is the best way to access money in Bolivia with an emphasis on long term? Are ATMs common other than in large cities? What sort of fees can be expected
          Jul 9, Is it easier to migrate to Bolivia as an American or as a Canadian?        
Is it difficult/complicated to immigrate to Bolivia? Is it better as an American or Canadian? Any difference?
          Jul 9, Interested in Work Opportunities - Moving to Bolivia after June 1st        
Hello. I've wanted to go to Bolivia for the past few years. A few months ago, I met a lovely Bolivian young lady and we became friends. Her dad is going
          Jul 9, We would like to know how life and healthcare are different between Bolivia and the US        
Hi, I am a student at Georgia Tech and am part of a program called Grand Challenges. We are looking to make an impact on Bolivian health and would like
          Jul 9, Want to Move to Bolivia        
Hello! I am Mark Desouza an resident of the Republic of India and currently based out of Delhi. I am married and have my wife and two sons , who are aged
          Jul 8, Leyendas Bolivianas: El Diablo del Corregidor (leyenda de Potosí)        
Endiablada es la tradición que voy a contar, pero ella es la purísima verdad, y el que la ponga en duda puede consultar las crónicas de Potosí*, y acaso
          Jul 8, Volunteer and Learn Spanish in Bolivia with Sustainable Bolivia in Cochabamba!        
Sustainable Bolivia offers you the opportunity to volunteer in Bolivia and take Spanish classes while helping others! Located in Cochabamba, Bolivia this a non-profit organization.
          Jul 7, TAJMAHAL INDIAN RESTAURANT        
INDIAN TAJMAHAL RESTAURANT IN AV SAN MARTIN CALLE 8 ESTE EQUIPETROL SANTA CRUZ, BOLIVIA PLEASE WELCOME TAJMAHAL
          Jul 7, Leyendas Bolivianas: La Carroza del Diablo        
Cuentan que en la zona norte de la calle Antofagasta en Quillacollo pasó una carroza ardiendo en fuego que llevaba un cadáver. Desde entonces la gente
          Jul 7, Leyendas Bolivianas: La Mujer de las Sombras        
En lo mas profundo de las montañas que rodean la ciudad de Oruro, en un oscuro y tenebroso lugar abierto dentro las montañas,vive una chica de cabello
          Jul 7, Bolivia Volunteer Stories: The Artificial Limbs Center in La Paz is Life-changing        
I came to Bolivia for two months immediately following my graduation with a bachelor's degree in bioengineering. It was an easy choice to delay beginning
          Jul 7, Detective/investigator in Cochabamba        
Can anyone recommend a detective or private investigator in Bolivia, especially in Cochabamba? Trying to find half-siblings of my husband. We both speak
          Jul 7, Bolivian Sweet Bread?        
MY GRANDMOTHER WAS A NATIVE BOLIVIAN. SHE USED TO MAKE ROUND 4 INCH SWEET BREAD(ABOUT AN INCH THICK). THE BREAD KIND OF HAD A PEELING LAYER EFFECT TO THEM.
          Mark your calendars!        
Unbound’s Global Insight Series: Latin America Join us at our Kansas City headquarters on September 13 for an evening of discovery with Unbound’s program coordinators from Bolivia, Guatemala and Honduras. They’ll share insights on our programs, with stories on the challenges families in their regions face and how sponsorship benefits are customized for each family. Global Insight Series: Latin America […]
          Sponsoring elders gives us wisdom and perspective        
Over the past weeks we’ve heard phenomenal stories of Unbound sponsored elders and their wisdom, joy and love. We learned about Cristina in Guatemala, who returned to school at age 59, and Julia in Bolivia, who embodies love in how she cares for her husband. Eusebio in Guatemala shared his wisdom about embracing life, while Eustaquia in Mexico provided a […]
          â€˜My work keeps me alive’        
Every day, as the sun begins to rise in Bolivia, 69-year-old Enrique wakes up, eats an early breakfast and makes his way to his workshop where he cuts logs into smaller pieces — carving, sanding and drying the wood as spoons, bowls and cups take shape. Sophisticated handiwork like Enrique’s can be challenging and time-consuming for anyone to learn. For […]
          Dedicated to education and helping others        
For Brayan, an 11-year-old boy in Bolivia, sponsorship through Unbound could not have come at a better time. After his father left three years ago, Brayan and his family were in a tough situation. His mother, Lucretia, had to leave then 8-year-old Brayan at home with his older sister for long periods while she worked far away to pay off […]
          Youth use music to better their worlds        
From traditional folkloric music to hip-hop, sponsored friends around the world are practicing their favorite forms of music and using music to better their worlds and bring peace of mind. In Bolivia, 22-year-old Griselda has a passion for traditional instruments, and has learned to play as a means to teach others about traditional Bolivian culture. Griselda can play four different […]
          Special Olympics gymnast finds her rhythm        
Miriam is a 22-year-old sponsored youth in Bolivia — and a big medal winner in the Bolivian National Special Olympics. Miriam has been sponsored by Dan and Maureen in Oregon since 2006. She has an intellectual disability that affects her speech and learning. One day in 2008, she saw a video at school about rhythmic gymnastics. “I liked it! I […]
          To serve and protect        
Luis has spent his whole life in La Paz, Bolivia. And for 15 of his 26 years, he has been sponsored by Anna from Ohio. Being part of the Unbound program has had a big impact on his life, and the values he learned from the organization helped shape his desire to serve others through police work. “I have this […]
          BOLETÍN Nº111: ABRIL 2017        

Espacio de Literatura Infantil y Juvenil

Actualización:


BOLETÍN Nº111:  ABRIL  2017





RESEÑAS LIJ



La abuela grilloLiliana De la Quintana
Ilustraciones de Antonieta Medeiros
Nº de páginas: s/n
Editorial: Nicobis
Colección: Mitología Indígena de Bolivia. No. 6
La Paz, 2000.
Lista de Honor del IBby, 2004.

Por Silvina Juri

Presentamos La abuela grillo, libro que dio lugar al cortometraje con el mismo nombre, realizado en el 2010 con variantes en el relato pero esenciales en la estructura temática.
El libro comienza mediante la voz de un abuelo (ayoreo) que -como en muchas comunidades indígenas- son ellos quienes reúnen a los niños y niñas para contarles historias de la tradición oral. En esta oportunidad el abuelo contará el mito del grillo y su relación al convocar el agua en tiempos de sequía.
En los tiempos antiguos, los ayoreos llamaban abuela grillo o Direjná al grillo más grande, quien fuera el dueño de las aguas…. Cierta vez, la abuela hizo llover demasiado y los habitantes del pueblo le pidieron que abandonara el lugar… No sin dolor, la abuela marchará de la comarca, dejando su rastro acuático en cada paso… Pero ese rastro no durará mucho y los habitantes ayoreos empiezan a padecer la sequía… ¿Qué ocurrirá finalmente? Podrán rastrear a la abuela grillo?  De ser así, la convencerán de volver al poblado? …. Una historia que refleja el poder de la palabra, los ayoréodes (sig. "gente verdadera") afirman que este mito debe ser contado sólo en tiempos de sequía. Las ilustraciones de Antonieta Medeiros dan cuenta del estudio de la etnia reflejando personajes fantásticos que irán mutando a lo largo de la historia para encontrar el lugar de pertenencia.   (fuente: www.ablij.com)


Compartimos el corto basado en el libro reseñado, en donde participaron dibujantes bolivianos en unión con dibujantes daneses.  


NOTICIAS LIJ

Se ha actualizado el apartado de LIBROS INGRESADOS a la BIBLIOTECA DE EDELIJ en el mes de ABRIL de 2017. ¡Te invitamos a pasar, ojearlos y llevarlos prestados!
Miralos en: Libros ingresados (abril 2017)
http://librosrecibidos-edelij.blogspot.com.ar/2017/04/libros-ingresados-marzo-abril-2017.html



Este mes tenemos la emoción de contarles que la Academia Boliviana de Literatura Infantil y Juvenil nos ha hecho llegar la colección completa de “Mitología Indígena Boliviana”. La recopiladora, Liliana De la Quintana, compila los mitos indígenas “in situ”, es decir que los escucha y recoge de la propia voz de los habitantes del lugar, tal acción se refleja en cada una de las historias cargadas de gran autenticidad. Les invitamos a pasar por la biblioteca EDELIJ para disfrutar y adentrarse en las creencias de nuestros pueblos indígenas.


ENCUENTROS LIJ

CAPACITACIÓN GRATUITA PARA AUXILIARES DE BIBLIOTECAS
CABA


El Programa Bibliotecas para armar anuncia una nueva Capacitación gratuita para Auxiliares de bibliotecas y espacios de lectura que iniciará el viernes 21 de abril a las 17:30 hs., en la biblioteca Ricardo Güiraldes, Talcahuano 1261.

---------------------------------------

Palabras en juego (presencial y online)


¿Querés escribir para chicos y/o jóvenes y no sabés por dónde empezar? ¿Qué es eso de libros para bebés? ¿Cómo se trabaja con un ilustrador? ¿Tenés algo escrito y no sabés si está para mostrar y a quién? ¿Cómo se "escribe" un libro sin texto? ¿Cómo se inventa un personaje? ¿Cuáles fueron los primeros libros para chicos? ¿Por qué un diálogo funciona? ¿Qué hay de nuevo en el mundo de la historieta? ¿Cómo es que hay tantas versiones de los cuentos maravillosos?
A lo largo del año en Palabras en juego vamos a tratar de responder un montón de preguntas como estas y a compartir lecturas de autores de distintos lugares y diversas épocas.

Modalidad presencial y online
Duración: 1 año
Presencial: organizado en 2 cuatrimestres de 15 encuentros de 3 horas cada uno, los miércoles de 18.30 a 21.30 hs.
Online: organizado en 15 módulos de trabajo en plataforma de e-learning.
Inscripción e información: Casa de Letras
Perú 375 - Piso 8 (1067) Buenos Aires - Argentina
(54 11) 5352 3355


----------------------------------
Clubes de Lectura en CABA
-EDELIJ-

¡YA COMENZARON!




Más informes en: charlandouncuento@gmail.com 


-------------------------------

TALLERES PARA CHICOS Y CHICAS

Talleres 2017
CENTRO CULTURAL Antisopa & Edelij Lij

"TALLERES PARA CHICOS Y CHICAS a partir de 2 AÑOS EN ADELANTE….
-MENDOZA-

ROQUE SAENZ PEÑA 878 – CDAD DE MZA – 

Se han actualizado los talleres para chicos y chicas A PARTIR DE DOS años….
Estás a tiempo de sumarte y participar…

Talleres 2017:

Propuestas, horarios y fechas de inscripción
El Centro Cultural ANTISOPA - EDELIJ acercan una propuesta integral desde diversos lenguajes artísticos que proponen una gran variedad de espacios como lo son la música, el teatro, la literatura, la plástica, el movimiento: psicomotricidad, yoga, la arquitectura, la construcción de muñecos, entre muchos otros. Esos espacios dialogarán entre sí para estimular los procesos creativos e individuales de cada uno de los chicos y chicas que participen.

LOS GRUPOS SON REDUCIDOS.

Inscripciones ABIERTAS en 
Centro Cultural ANTISOPA & EDELIJ :

EN ROQUE SAENZ PEÑA 878 - CDAD DE MENDOZA 
-TEL: 4233312-

MAYOR INFORMACIÓN ACERCA DE CADA TALLER EN:


http://talleresmundosimaginarios.blogspot.com.ar/2017/02/talleres-2017-para-ninos-y-ninas.html



VISITAS EDELIJ

Estudiantes de 2do año del Profesorado de Nivel Inicial del Instituto Pompella visitaron la sede de EDELIJ en un encuentro sobre “El libro álbum, una introducción al género” , no faltó el momento de exploración café mediante, el frío se avecina por el sur de los sures… 
¡Las esperamos nuevamente!  Agradecemos la invitación propuesta por la profesora Pilar Martínez.

CAPACITACIONES EN EDELIJ - ANTISOPA:
A- LA POESÍA EN LA ESCUELA
B- EL LIBRO ÁLBUM, UNA APROXIMACIÓN AL GÉNERO
C- RECURSOS PARA “LEER Y ESCRIBIR CREATIVAMENTE” 
D- CRITERIOS DE SELECCIÓN DE LIBROS PARA CHICOS
E- LA IMPORTANCIA DE LA LECTURA EN LA PRIMER INFANCIA
· Solicitar más cursos disponibles en: info@edelij.com.ar 


FERIAS EDELIJ

Ferias de Literatura Infantil y Juvenil

Ya podés inscribir a tu escuela!

-MENDOZA-

EDELIJ (SEDE Mendoza) organiza ferias de libros en diversas instituciones que la solicitan. El propósito de estos espacios es acercar a niños, docentes y familias nuevas propuestas literarias y recreativas, con la intención  que conozcan una abanico de diversas lecturas y puedan seleccionar según sus intereses lectores.
Las ferias proponen una variedad de material editorial. De manera opcional  en el marco de la feria EDELIJ ofrece cursos para los docentes (y/o familias) acerca de cómo colaborar en la selección de libros, acompañamiento de proyectos y acciones concretas de promoción de la lectura; Cuentacuentos y/o talleres recreativos. Al cierre de las ferias se realizan actividades de animación a la lectura, invitando a toda la comunidad educativa a participar del evento. Visitas de autores locales y mucho más…
Para inscribirse y conocer los requisitos y beneficios de las Ferias, solicita el instructivo. Más datos de contacto en el flyer (imagen adjunta).
Contacto:  espaciodelij@gmail.com

----------------------------------
EDELIJ
-Mendoza-
*EDELIJ biblioteca y librería especializada en la literatura destinada a niños, niñas y jóvenes. Con un catálogo de calidad que incluyen las mejores editoriales argentinas e importadas. Autores y autoras de todo el globo terráqueo. Cuentos, novelas, libros álbum, historietas, libros de imágenes, etc.
¡Te invitamos a que pases a conocer y llevarte estos y otros hermosos libros de la Librería de Edelij! 
https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1279473888754306&set=pcb.1279209522114076&type=3&theater

•CONTACTO:
SEDE EN MENDOZA:
ROQUE SÁENZ PEÑA 878. 6ta Sección, Ciudad de Mendoza
Atención al público:
-DE MARTES A VIERNES de 17 a 20hs y
-VIERNES Y SÁBADOS de 10 a 13hs
Más informes en: espaciodelij@gmail.com / WWW.EDELIJ.COM.AR

CELEBRACIONES LIJ

-2 de Abril-
DÍA INTERNACIONAL DEL LIBRO INFANTIL  2017

El 2 de abril en la biblioteca Liliana Bodoc ubicada en LA ESTACIÓN del Parque Benegas, Mendoza, celebraremos al libro junto a Soledad Nadalich… Niños, niñas y familias disfrutaron de los cuentos del escritor danés mediante juegos y libros…
Organizaron: Dllo Social de la Municipalidad de Godoy Cruz, Fundación Antisopa y Asociación Edelij




Fichas para socios EDELIJ 2017: Â· Información en: http://biblioteca-edelij.blogspot.com.ar )
-----------------------------------------------------
-Asociarse a EDELIJ: más información en: BIBLIOTECA
Para mayor información ingrese a la web: www.edelij.com.ar


Para envíos de materiales:
Sede central Mendoza
      ROQUE SÁENZ PEÑA 878
- Ciudad de Mendoza
      (6ta sección) Mendoza - Argentina
      CP: 5500 - te: 0261-156644661
A la At: Silvina Juri

Sede en Capital Federal
      11 de Septiembre 1639, 8vo piso
      C.A.B.A. -República Argentina
      CP:1426
A la At: Verónica Lichtman
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-Puede enviarnos sus comentarios, colaboraciones y/ o sugerencias a: espaciodelij@gmail.com 

Publicado por Blogger para EDELIJ: Espacio de Literatura Infantil y Juvenil el 29/4/2017 09:08:00 p. m.


                  



          Nosotros, los ciborgs        
            Hace algunos meses estuve en la región amazónica de Bolivia y vi árboles que me deslumbraron por sus formas retorcidas. Amigos que vivían allí no supieron decirme cómo se llamaban; después de muchos esfuerzos la...
          Good Friday 2013        
Good Friday 2013: when is Good Friday 2013, Good Friday 2013 calendar dates

Good Friday 2013 Australia Dates Yahoo Careers
Asda Opening Times Good Friday Hull Asda News Amp Amp Blogs
Whats Open On Good Friday In Sydney The Breakers At Bondi Kiwis Sheep Rugby And Me
Is There Mail Delivery On Good Friday 2013 Ex Ira Man To Go Free After Serving Under Two Years For Murder Bid
Are Shops Open On Good Friday In Australia Tastes Travels And Thoughts April 2011
Shops Open On Good Friday In Ireland Good Friday 2010 Slideshow Amp Amp Video
Coles Good Friday Opening Times Maya Jane Coles Music The Guardian
Coles Good Friday Opening Hours Maya Jane Coles Music The Guardian
Coles Good Friday Hours Coles Philips Coles Phillips Good Cover October
Are Bottle Shops Open On Good Friday In Perth A Visit To Jack Distillery Lifestyle By
And A Good Friday Was Had By All Bruce Dawe Analysis A Latitude Of Libraries
Ikea Southampton Opening Times Good Friday Manager Nigel Adkins Proud Of Alex
Days Out Good Friday Hampshire Hollycombe Working Steam Museum A Great Family Fun Day Out In
Is Coles Supermarket Open Good Friday
Asda Opening Times Good Friday Tyres Coalville Exhausts Mot Amp Amp Servicing National Tyres And
Asda Opening Hours Good Friday 2013 Asda Lower Earley Superstore Opening Times Amp Amp Facilities
Good Friday Appeal Shop Good Friday At The Hallam Hotel Melbourne Telecaster Guitar Forum
Good Friday Appeal 2013 Australia Race Is On To Beat Good Friday Record Of 15 1m Herald Sun
Good Friday Auction 2013 The
Good Friday South Australia 2013 Nsw Move To Top Of Shield Table
Good Friday Events Auckland Auckland Indian Sweets Amp Amp Snacks
What Does Good Friday Mean In The Catholic Religion Bishops Warn Against Ucanews
Will Bank Of America Be Open On Good Friday 2013 National Wildlife Refuges Rate Highly For Visitors Usgs Survey
Bank Of America Open On Good Friday Are Banks Open On Good Friday Timeline
Is Bank Of America Open Today On Good Friday News Amp Amp Events Business To Arts
Is The Bond Market Open On Good Friday Bond Market Stock World
Nyse Good Friday 2013 Stock Market Update 2 8 2013 Biggest Winners Amp Amp Top
What Is The Meaning Of Good Friday And Easter Sunday Sermons Grand Strategy The View From Oregon
What Is The Definition Of Good Friday Easter Saint Press
Qantas Good Friday Appeal Flights 2013 Qantas Grounding Flights To Resume Fair Work Australia
What Time Is Coles Open On Good Friday Being Thomas Jefferson Reenactors The Past Speak To
Do You Still Get Post On Good Friday Have Your Favorite Deandre Jordan Face Pop
Fasting Every Friday In Lent Blog The Fast That God Requires During Lent And At All
Do You Fast Every Friday In Lent News Letter The Anglophone African Catholic Community Padua Italy
Do Catholics Fast Every Friday In Lent Lenten Practices For Your Marriage
Fasting Every Friday During Lent My Traditions For Lent Que Rica Vida
Why Are Christians Not Allowed To Eat Meat On Good Friday Men Eat Meat Women Eat Chocolate How Food Gets Gendered Salon
Why Do You Not Eat Meat Good Friday Do You Eat Fish On Friday
Can You Eat Meat After 3pm On Good Friday Blondie And Brownie June 2011
Lent No Meat On Fridays Bible Meatless Fridays Can You Take This Food Challenge
Lent No Meat On Friday Rule Passover King Arthur Flour Baking Banter
Fridays During Lent 2013 Photo Gallery During Lent On Staten Island Catholic Tastes Run
Lent Cant Eat Meat On Fridays New Gkg Feature Meat Free Meals For Lent Galley Kitchen Gal
Can Catholics Eat Meat On Friday Lent Easy As Abc June 2011
What Are You Not Allowed To Eat On Good Friday And Now An Crawfish Boil Pop Up This Friday
How Long To Fast On Good Friday The Long Good Friday Trailer On Trailer Theater
How To Fast On Good Friday Catholic Good Friday 2012 Observed Around The World The Washington Post
Should Catholics Abstain From Meat On Good Friday Ash Wednesday The Beginning Of Lenten Season The
Do I Get Post On Good Friday Big Sean Yin Amp Amp Yang
Do We Get Post On Good Friday Feel Good Friday Linky Ladies Only Edition U Mass Football
Do We Get Post Delivered On Good Friday The Cousins Facebook
Do We Have Communion On Good Friday Good Friday Service Grace North County
Tim Hortons Good Friday Open Ryan Kesler A Big Hit At Tim Hortons Serving Coffee Ice Cream
Tim Hortons Store Hours Good Friday Restaurant In The Arena District Has Closed Columbus
Is There Free Parking In London On Good Friday Parking Ticket Breaking News And Photos
Is Parking Free On Good Friday In Manchester The Warehouse Project Manchester Events And Tickets For The
Nyc Parking Rules Good Friday
New York City Parking Good Friday New York City Relieves Many Runners Storm
Coles Supermarket Opening Hours Good Friday
Free Sermons For Good Friday The Day Lord Ahmed Reproached Me For Usama Hasan
Malayalam Sermons For Good Friday Friday Sermon Ways To Gardens Of Paradise
What Can You Not Eat On Good Friday My English Mission Easter In Britain
Good Friday Australia Post Revolver Upstairs Prahran Vic Bar Restaurant Facebook
Open Good Friday Perth 2013 Fruitless Pursuits Oz Comic Con Perth 2013 Day 1
Lcbo Good Friday Hours 2013 Lcbo Toasts Opening Of Its New Store In Brockville Business By
Lcbo Open Good Friday 2013 Beer And Booze With Benefits Local News Brockville Recorder
Pubs Good Friday Sydney Eat And Drink In The Rocks Eating Amp Amp Local
Pubs Good Friday Dublin Netflix Rent The Historic Pubs Of Dublin
Is Woolworths Open On Good Friday Woolworths Lowers Prices By Mistake Herald Sun
Will Woolworths Be Open On Good Friday Aida Edemariam On How The Recession Is Changing The Face Of One
Is Woolworths Closed On Good Friday The Woolworths Thread Page 115
Bottle Shop Open Good Friday Brisbane 50m Towers Planned For South Brisbane
Royal Childrens Hospital Melbourne Good Friday Appeal Caption This Royal Children Of The Corn Vh1 Celebrity
Melbourne Good Friday Shops Open Sometimes Melbourne Theatre Talk April 2009
Is Congestion Charge On Good Friday Is Congestion Charging The Answer To Traffic Problems
Do You Need To Pay Congestion Charge On Good Friday Manchester Says No To Congestion Charging Politics Guardian
Good Friday Shopping Nz The Long Good Friday Bob Hoskins Helen Mirren Region 2 From
Is Kfc Open Good Friday Nz The Kfc Cookbook A Colonel Of Truth Life And Style Guardian
Is Kfc Open On Good Friday 2013 North American Youth Congress 2013 Vendor
Woolworths Open Good Friday Melbourne Royal Melbourne Show
Opening Hours Good Friday Northern Ireland Mail Online Peter Hitchens Blog
Safeway Good Friday Opening Times West Seattle Blog Amp Amp Other Admiral Safeway Grand
Safeway Calgary Store Hours Good Friday Towers Approved For Safeway Site In Marpole
Good Friday Events In Melbourne Melbourne Museums And Galleries
Good Friday Mass Times In Melbourne Best Op Shops Shopping Time Out Melbourne
Is There A Post Delivery On Good Friday 2013 Food A Week In The Life Of Thomas Szymanski Celebrity
Does Go Transit Run On Good Friday Rail Committee Junction Triangle
Are Trains Running On Good Friday 2013
Tesco Open Hours Good Friday News Blog Business News The Guardian
What Time Is Tesco Open Good Friday Kamblog
Is Argos Open Today Good Friday Argos Falls Flat As World Cup Fever Fails To Lift Tv Sales
Restaurants Open Good Friday Toronto Open On Christmas Day Toronto Message Board
Woolworths Town Hall Opening Hours Good Friday August 2008 News Tribune Attic
Northern Ireland Licensing Laws Good Friday Us Works With Russia On Syria But Wants Assad Out Yahoo News
Coles Store Hours Good Friday Our Shop Hours Are A
Good Fridays Kanye West Wikipedia September 2010
Kanye West Good Fridays Wiki Music News Abc News Radio
Kanye West Good Fridays Collection Download Best In New Music November 2010
Kanye West Good Fridays Songs List October 2010 Archives 2 41 That Grape Juice
Good Fridays Mixtape Zip My Beautiful Dark Twisted Dropout Mixtape Hhu
Good Fridays Download Kanye West Good Friday Kanye West F Keri Hilson Pusha T Amp Amp Cyhi The Prynce
Good Friday 2013 Events Pleasant Valley Baptist Church
Good Friday 2103 Super Good Looking Luxurious Yacht Rhythmism
Good Fridays Mixtape Download Ondecks Mixtapes
Good Friday Tracklist Kanye West Tracklist Kanye West My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy Do
Good Friday 2013 Kanye Ffoe Hall Of Fame Early 2013 Happy G O O D
Good Friday 2013 Date Canada University Of Manitoba Department Of Statistics Josie White
Feel Good Friday Songs Wave Good Charlotte All About News
Prayers For Good Friday Catholic Indonesia Good Friday Demotix
Prayer Good Friday 2013 Pineapple Newspaper Delray Beach
Prayer Good Friday Service Easter Has Many Meanings Gladstone Observer
Good Friday Licensing Hours Northern Ireland 2012 Or 1950 Take Your Pick But You Have Both Well Done
Sainsburys Good Friday Open Times New Sainsburys The Greenwich Phantom
What Time Does Asda Close On Good Friday 2013 Mam Ranty Friday Asda
Is Asda Open On Good Friday 2013 Coke Zero Gets Cherry Twist For 2013
What Day Is Good Friday 2013 Usa Holy Week Amp Amp Easter Services St Anglican Church Samford
Good Friday No Meat History Farm To Philly Eat Local
Why Dont Catholics Eat Fish On Good Friday Giving Back Girl April 2010
How Do Catholic Churches Celebrate Good Friday Good Friday In A Catholic Church Picture Stock
How Do Catholics Observe Good Friday The Catholic Connection The Official Of The Diocese
Catholics Eat Meat Good Friday Girls Who Eat Out La Nonna Bella
Why Don Catholics Eat Red Meat On Good Friday Fish Fry
Why Don Catholics Eat Meat Good Friday Good Friday Anybody Going To Eat Meat
Importance Of Friday Prayers In Islam Friday Prayers Leader Islamic Revolution Victory Rallies To
Good Friday Australia 2013 Archibald Wynne And Sulman Prizes 2013 Art Gallery Nsw
Why Do Catholic People Not Eat Meat On Friday Friday In To Eat Fitting It All In
Funny Sayings About Good Friday Quotes Movie Funny Its Friday On Happy Images Good
Funny Quotes About Good Friday You Are Never Alone Welcome To W33k3nd Funni3s Blop
Memorable Quotes From Friday Night Lights Book Friday Night Lights Movie Trailer Heyoghee
Friday Night Lights Book Quotes And Page Numbers Virgo Gumbo September 2010
Inspirational Quotes From Friday Night Lights Movie Top 10 Football Movies
Friday Night Lights Quotes Pilot Episode Update Joe Amp Amp Jason A Comedies
Best Quotes From Friday Night Lights Book Friday Fight Who Should Win The Video Gummys Videogum
Quotes From Friday Night Lights Tv Show Friday Night Best Scenes
Quotes From Friday Night Lights Movie The Bait Shop August 2011
What Day Is Black Friday 2013 Black Friday Shopping Tip Get A Safe Family Hauler Automotive News
What Is Better Black Friday Or Cyber Monday Cyber Monday 2012 How To Get The Best Cyber Monday Deals In 3
Black Friday And Cyber Monday Sales 2013 Holiday Shopping News Photos And Videos Abc News
What Black Friday Yahoo Answers Complete Guide To Setting Up A Wp Answers Site Wplift
Bible Verse Related To Good Friday Seven Last Words Tumblr
Funny Quotes From Friday Night Lights Tv Show Zach Gilford Latest News Photos And Video Popsugar Celebrity
Is Mass On Good Friday Mandatory Vol4iss16
Catholic Meat On Fridays During Lent Photo Gallery During Lent On Staten Island Catholic Tastes Run
Can Catholic Eat Meat On Fridays During Lent Friday Lenten Fish Frys In Cleveland
Catholic Church Eating Meat On Friday What Is Lent Metamora Mennonite Church
Why Do We Not Eat Meat On Fridays In Lent My Husband The Agnostic Busted Halo
Not Eating Meat On Fridays Bible My Husband The Agnostic Busted Halo
Why Do Catholics Eat No Meat On Fridays No Meat On Friday Why What Is Its Deeper Meaning Part 2 Cts
Catholic Church Teaching On Friday Abstinence Vatican And Sin Eagainst
History Meatless Fridays Roman Catholics Southern Fried January 2011
Meatless Good Friday Recipes Struwen Recipe Yeast Pancakes For Good Friday
Eating Meat On Friday Lent Ash Wednesday Marks Start Of Lent Headlines News The
Do Catholics Have To Abstain From Meat Every Friday The Difference Between Sisters And Nuns Canon Law Made Easy
Mass Times Good Friday St James Catholic Church
Is Mass Held On Good Friday Worldly Rise Bolivia Holidays And
What To Get On Black Friday Yahoo Answers
What Is The Black Friday Sale At Best Buy Best Buy Previews Black Friday Ad Pcworld
6th April 2013 Good Friday Bank Holiday Venue Vice Club Good Friday Special Bad Girls The Globe
Bank Of Ireland Opening Times Good Friday Marianne Fashions Terms Amp Amp Conditions
Regions Bank Open Good Friday Wicd 15 News Top Stories Breaking News Bank
Halifax Bank Open Good Friday 2013 Best Foot Forward For Tapathon Local Halifax Courier
Is Pnc Bank Open On Good Friday 2013 Pnc Bank To Acquire 27 Metro Atl Flagstar Branches Atlanta
Friday Happy Quotes For Weekend My Weekend In Review Putting My Best Foot Forward
Funny Happy Friday Ecards The Funniest Easter Ecards
Someecards Friday The 13th Be More Worried About Friday The 13th If My Life
Free Ecards Friday The 13th Oh Look Another Friday The 13th How Novel More Holidays
Someecards Friday Night Lights The Legion Of Decency December 2012
Someecards Good Friday Theberry
Happy Friday Rotten Ecards After 12 Rotten Ecards Party Fails Party Fails
Friday Quotes Smokey And Pastor Welcome To The Old Blog November 2006
Is Capital One Bank Closed On Good Friday 2013 Capital One To Pay Millions After Being Charged With Improper
Good Friday 2013 Bank Hours 2012 December Keeping You Fabulous 24 Hours A Day
Are Banks Open Tomorrow Good Friday 2013 Sloan Medical Centre Doctors Surgery Opening Times And What To
What Is Black Friday Sales At Walmart Wal Mart Turns Back The Clock On Black Friday Hlntv
What Is Black Friday Like At Best Buy Terrifying Black Friday Photos From Eight Cities Cond Nast Traveler
What Rebecca Black Friday Means Today Friday The 13th Is No Accident Or Is It News
What Does Black Friday Mean To You Me My Kid And Life Does Black Friday Shopping Mean Savings
What Is Black Friday Means Why Retail Employees Hate Black Friday Careers Articles
What Does Black Friday Mean After Thanksgiving Is Black Friday Edging Out Cnn
Thank God Its Friday Clipart Free Thank God Friday Fun Gallery
Clip Art Thank God It Friday Thank God Its Friday Cartoons And Comics
Correct Greeting For Good Friday Good Friday Ecards Friday Greeting Cards Postcards And Wishes
Greeting Words For Good Friday Good Greeting Cards Amp Amp Postcards By Phatpuppy Redbubble
Sms Greetings For Good Friday Good Friday Sms Amp Amp Greetings
Poems Good Friday In The Labyrinth Good Friday A Time Of Sorrow And Of Waiting
Fridays Poets Restaurant Corpus Christi Show Off Your Poetic Side At Yin Yang Open Mic Night
Funny Happy Friday Quotes 30 Hilarious Funny Quotes To Make You Laugh
Good Friday Why Not Eat Meat Mixtape Madness Good Friday Mix 2012 Edition Death And Taxes
What Can Catholics Not Eat On Good Friday Prayer Life For Catholic Youth
Infection with hantavirus can progress to Hanta virus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), which can be fatal. People become infected through contact with hantavirus-infected rodents or their urine and droppings. The Sin Nombre hantavirus, first recognized in 1993, is one of several New World hantaviruses circulating in the US. Old World hantaviruses, found in Asia, can cause Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS). Rodent control in and around the home remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus infection. All cases of Hantavirus infection are reported to and researched by the Viral Special Pathogens Branch (VSPB) of the CDC.

How People Get Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

Where HPS is FoundCases of HPS occur sporadically, usually in rural areas where forests, fields, and farms offer suitable habitat for the virus's rodent hosts. The peridomestic setting (for example, barns, outbuildings, and sheds) are potential sites where people may be exposed to the virus. In the US and Canada, the Sin Nombre hantavirus is responsible for the majority of cases of HPS. The host of the Sin Nombre virus is the deer mouse
(Peromyscus maniculatus), present throughout the western and central US and Canada.
Several other hantaviruses are capable of causing HPS in the US. The New York hantavirus, hosted by the white-footed mouse, is associated with HPS cases in the northeastern US. The Black Creek hantavirus, hosted by the cotton rat, is found in the southeastern US.
Cases of HPS have been confirmed elsewhere in the Americas, including Canada, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Panama, Paraguay, and Uruguay.


Signs & Symptoms for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

Due to the small number of HPS cases, the "incubation time" is not positively known. However, on the basis of limited information, it appears that symptoms may develop between 1 and 5 weeks after exposure to fresh urine, droppings, or saliva of infected rodents.

Early symptoms
include fatigue, fever and muscle aches, especially in the large muscle groups—thighs, hips, back, and sometimes shoulders. These symptoms are universal.
There may also be headaches, dizziness, chills, and abdominal problems, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. About half of all HPS patients experience these symptoms.



Late Symptoms

Four to 10 days after the initial phase of illness, the late symptoms of HPS appear. These include coughing and shortness of breath, with the sensation of, as one survivor put it, a "...tight band around my chest and a pillow over my face" as the lungs fill with fluid.

Is the Disease Fatal?

Yes. HPS can be fatal. It has a mortality rate of 38%.




          CONSTITUCIÓN Y UNIDAD NACIONAL         
Luis Britto García

1
Quien conozca las más elementales nociones sobre Derecho sabe que las condiciones existenciales para crear un Estado son: pueblo, territorio y autoridad política. En los artículos 119 al 126 de la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela se sientan las bases para constituir numerosos Estados distintos del Venezolano. En dichas normas son mencionados once veces “pueblos” con derechos distintos y superiores al  resto de la población venezolana. El artículo 119 les reconoce “su organización social, política y económica”. Los artículos 119 y 120 les atribuyen “tierras” y “hábitats” en los cuales el aprovechamiento por el Estado de los recursos naturales está “sujeto a previa información y consulta a las comunidades”. Parecerían referirse a las condiciones para crear Estados distintos de Venezuela. Apenas lo impide el que los territorios sean también definidos como “hábitats”, y que el artículo 126 afirme que el pueblo venezolano es “único, soberano e indivisible” y concluya que “El término pueblo no podrá interpretarse en esta Constitución en el sentido que se le da en el derecho internacional”.
2
   ¿Cree usted que en Venezuela hay  “pueblos” distintos del venezolano, con organización “política” propia y con  “tierras” o “hábitats” cuyos recursos naturales el Estado no puede explotar sin “consulta”? En ese caso, está sentando las bases para que previa declaratoria de independencia, una generosa potencia extranjera los proteja y nos secesione en varias decenas de países. 
3
  Organizaciones no gubernamentales de Estados Unidos, como el International Indian Treaty Councily el Indian Law Resource Center de Washington se han adjudicado una suerte de tutoría sobre las movilizaciones étnicas latinoamericanas: sostienen que los indígenas latinoamericanos son pueblos diferentes del resto de los habitantes de sus respectivos  países, que tienen autonomía y derechos exclusivos sobre los que consideren sus territorios originarios y sobre los recursos del suelo y el subsuelo de éstos, y que pueden prohibir al poder nacional el acceso a dichas áreas. Bajo su inspiración,  los misquitos demandan al Sandinismo; la Confederación de Naciones Indígenas de Ecuador apoya el golpe contra Correa; los tupí guaraníes intentan secesionar la Bolivia de Evo.
4
Así, por ejemplo, el  Indian Law Resource Center (ILRC), desde su fundación en 1987 ha ejercido desde Washington  una activa tutela y dirección sobre las estrategias y proclamas programáticas de gran parte de los movimientos indígenas de América Latina. Fundado en 1978 como ONG,  en 1984 gana un proceso entablado contra la asediada Nicaragua ante la Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. En 1989, conjuntamente con el presidente Carter logra el regreso a Nicaragua de varios dirigentes indígenas, entre otros el “Contra” Brooklyn Rivera. En 1992 ya está interviniendo en la demarcación de territorios indígenas yanomami en la Amazonia. El año siguiente traza el mapa de los territorios de los misquitos en Honduras. En 2004 se atribuye la representación de los mayas de Belice ante la Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, la cual falla que Belice viola los derechos de propiedad indígenas.  En 2007  el Indian Law Resource Centerlogra que la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas adopte la Declaración de los Derechos de los Pueblos Indígenas, cuyo borrador, según confesión propia había sido redactado por el Center (http://www.indianlaw.org/en/about).
5
El International Indian Treaty Council es apenas una de las numerosas organizaciones  estadounidenses vinculadas con organizaciones internacionales que intervienen en los asuntos indígenas latinoamericanos. El ILRC fue fundado en 1974 y reorganizado en 1977 como ONG con estatus de Consultor de la Unesco, y en tal condición trabaja en la relación  de las etnias indígenas con organismos claves de las Naciones Unidas tales como la Comisión de los Derechos Humanos, el Grupo de Trabajo sobre Pueblos Indígenas, la Subcomisión de Prevención de la Discriminación y Protección de Minorías, la Conferencia de las partes de la Convención sobre Diversidad Biológica, la misma Unesco y la Comisión sobre el Desarrollo Sustentable. Participa asimismo en la Organización Internacional del Trabajo (a la cual seguramente aportó el borrador de la Convención sobre Derechos de los Pueblos Indígenas de 1989), en las Conferencias de las Naciones Unidas, la Unión Internacional por la Conservación de la Naturaleza y el Congreso Arqueológico Mundial. Este organismo estadounidense se presenta como “una organización de pueblos indígenas de Norte, Centro y Sur América y el Pacífico, cuya misión es trabajar por la soberanía y autodeterminación de los pueblos indígenas y el reconocimiento y protección de sus derechos indígenas, sus culturas tradicionales y sus sagradas tierras” (http://www.intute.ac.uk/socialsciences/cgi-bin/search.pl?term1=south+america&limit=0).
6
Eva Golinger, especialista en el monitoreo de las subvenciones de los organismos públicos estadounidenses, me confirma en comunicación de 19-7-2009 que tanto la USAID como el National Endowment for Democracy (NED) han financiado organizaciones y proyectos en las comunidades indígenas en América y específicamente en Venezuela. Dichos entes se niegan a identificar a los beneficiarios de sus subsidios, pero, según Golinger, “los dos admiten financiar ONGs que trabajan en las comunidades indígenas, tanto como proyectos y programas dirigidos a las regiones donde habitan las indígenas venezolanas”.  Entre otras, menciona “una organización que fue creada para ese fin, que se llama la Asociación Civil Kapé Kapé, han recibido muchos aportes de la NED y la USAID, e incluso de la alcaldía de Chacao cuando estaba Leopoldo López”. Dicho grupo habría trabajado intensamente en las comunidades indígenas de los estados Delta Amacuro y Bolívar. Las mismas áreas donde operaron las afortunadamente expulsadas “Nuevas Tribus” del Summer Linguistic Institute.
7
En posterior comunicación de fecha 30 de noviembre de 2009, Eva Golinger nos confía el resultado de sus investigaciones relativas a los aportes del National Endowment for Democracy (NED), Organización No Gubernamental fundada por la United States Agency for Developement (USAID), a los movimientos étnicos en Ecuador. Entre dichos grupos subsidiados figura la Corporación Empresarial Indígena del Ecuador (CEIE), la cual, señala Golinger, “es una organización creada en el 2005 con dinero de la NED por los ecuatorianos Ángel Medina, Mariano Curicama, Lourdes Tibán, Fernando Navarro y Raúl Gangotena. CEIE cuenta con un miembro honorario, el Sr. Norman Bailey, quien es un veterano de la Agencia Central de Inteligencia y ocupó el cargo de jefe de la Misión Especial para Venezuela y Cuba de la Dirección Nacional de Inteligencia (DNI) de EEUU de 2006-2007. Bailey también fue miembro del Consejo de Seguridad Nacional (NSC) durante la presidencia de Ronald Reagan”.
8
Vale la pena detenerse en algunos de los integrantes de estas organizaciones subsidiadas por la National Endowment for Democracy y la USAID. Ángel Medina es, según informa Golinger, " …fundador y presidente de la Fundación Qellkaj” (otra organización “indígena” en Ecuador financiada por la NED). Fernando Navarro es  " …Presidente de la Federación de Cámaras de Comercio del Ecuador…". Raúl Gangotena "…Tiene relación con los siguientes organismos internacionales: Reagan-Fascell Democracy Fellow, International Forum for Democratic Studies, National Endowment for Democracy (NED) … Fue Embajador de Ecuador en los Estados Unidos y Consejero para la Subsecretaría de Defensa en 2001 …". Lourdes Tiban es "…Asesora del Consejo Político de la ECUARUNARI y Asesora Jurídica del CONAIE” (ECUARUNARI es uno de los grupos claves de CONAIE). No debe extrañar, entonces, que CONAIE haya declarado la oposición acérrima al gobierno de Correa en cuanto éste se negó a concederle el dominio sobre los recursos naturales de Ecuador, y que haya apoyado el golpe contra el Presidente ecuatoriano.
9
Además de ellos, la Corporación Empresarial Indígena del Ecuador (CEIE), según informa Eva Golinger,  “es una organización creada en el 2005 con dinero de la NED por los ecuatorianos Ángel Medina, Mariano Curicama, Lourdes Tibán, Fernando Navarro y Raúl Gangotena. CEIE cuenta con un miembro honorario, el Sr. Norman Bailey, quien es un veterano de la Agencia Central de Inteligencia y ocupó el cargo de jefe de la Misión Especial para Venezuela y Cuba de la Dirección Nacional de Inteligencia (DNI) de EEUU de 2006-2007. Bailey también fue miembro del Consejo de Seguridad Nacional (NSC) durante la presidencia de Ronald Reagan”.
            10
          El subsidio para estos grupos no es una minucia. Nos informa asimismo Eva Golinger que “El financiamiento de la NED a grupos políticos en Ecuador sube de 333.047 dólares durante el 2007-2008 a 1.372.691 dólares durante el 2008-2009”. Numerosas Organizaciones No Gubernamentales se reparten este botín: entre las directamente relacionadas con los movimientos étnicos  está la  “Fundación Q'ellkaj, que obtiene  $76.170” para  “Fortalecer la juventud indígena y sus capacidades empresariales”. Añade, Golinger, a manera de alerta, que el presupuesto de la USAID para 2009 ascendía a 35 millones de dólares, pero que el previsto para 2010 asciende a 38 millones de dólares. Y resume que los objetivos declarados de la USAID en Ecuador consisten en: “Consolidar territorios indígenas: La consolidación de los  territorios indígenas dentro de la zona del desarrollo alternativo. Fortalecer organizaciones indígenas: organizaciones indígenas más fortalecidas serán más capaces de contribuir a la política y monitorear a los funcionarios públicos electos y el uso de los fondos públicos. Alimentar la capacidad empresarial en las comunidades indígenas”.
11
Vemos así cómo  entes estadounidenses pretenden representar a los “pueblos indígenas de Norte, Centro y Sur América”,  trabajar por su “soberanía y autodeterminación”, y “consolidar territorios indígenas”, no para mantener su tradición cultural comunitaria, sino para “alimentar la capacidad empresarial”. Los bienes y recursos que se les reconocieran entrarían así al mercado capitalista. No es posible confesión más palmaria de que se intenta dirigir tales movimientos en contra de la soberanía y unidad de los Estados Nacionales de la región. Por una de las paradojas de nuestra Historia, la orientación de muchos de las dirigencias de algunos de movimientos indígenas es entonces ejercida desde Estados Unidos por  ONG´s financiadas por la USAID y la NED, exentas de impuestos y con activa influencia sobre la ONU y la OEA, dos organizaciones para nada afectas a los intereses de Nuestra América. No necesariamente opera tal financiamiento en todos los casos, pero lo que sí opera es la identidad entre las orientaciones que tales entes de Estados Unidos imparten y las vindicaciones que los autoproclamados representantes de los indígenas exigen en toda América Latina.
12
Contrasta esto con la actitud del gobierno estadounidense hacia los indígenas en su propio territorio, a quienes mantiene confinados en los campos de concentración llamados reservas, y para nada les reconoce ni remotamente derechos de “soberanía y autodeterminación”, y mucho menos financia ONGs para promoverlos. A principios de noviembre de 2009, el presidente Barack Obama expidió un memorando en el cual prevé un simple mecanismo de consulta no vinculante con las etnias o sus representantes, pero en el cual niega expresamente que dicho memorando o las consultas creen derechos distintos de los del ordenamiento jurídico estadounidense, y sujeta las definiciones de “tribus”, “autoridades” y “políticas que afectan a los pueblos indígenas” a dicho ordenamiento. Además, categóricamente declara que “Este memorándum no pretende crear ni crea derecho o beneficio alguno, sustantivo o procesal, exigible en derecho o en equidad, para parte alguna frente a los Estados Unidos, sus organismos, agencias, funcionarios o funcionarias, empleados o empleados”. Mientras tanto, las ONGs estadounidenses, algunas de ellas financiadas por la USAID y la NED, pretenden imponer a los países latinoamericanos la entrega de su soberanía, sus territorios y sus recursos.
13
Jaime Salvatierra compila algunos datos sobre la forma en que Estados Unidos trata hoy en día a sus indígenas, que revelan de manera elocuente las miras que los animan a asumir la tutoría de los indígenas latinoamericanos. Las reservaciones indígenas en Estados Unidos no son en absoluto “territorios originarios”, sino campos de concentración inhóspitos y sin recursos donde fueron relegados los aborígenes que escaparon del exterminio. En ellos las tasas de desempleo oscilan entre el 50 y 80%, con altos niveles de violencia, delincuencia y tráfico y consumo de drogas. Las minorías étnicas tienen ocho veces más posibilidades de padecer enfermedades como la tuberculosis que otros ciudadanos, y un 37% muere antes de cumplir los 45 años. La tasa de suicidio triplica la nacional,  la mortalidad infantil es un 60%, y se registran elevados porcentajes de alcoholismo y diabetes. En la comunidad indígena de los Lakotas, de la familia Sioux, los hombres tienen una esperanza de vida de menos de 44 años, más baja que en cualquier país del mundo, incluyendo Haití. La mortalidad infantil es  300%, mayor que en el resto de Estados Unidos; el suicidio de los adolescentes llega al 150% del  promedio de ese grupo etáreo en Estados Unidos. Los enfermos de tuberculosis superan en 800%  el promedio nacional, al igual que los enfermos de diabetes. El 97% de esa comunidad vive por debajo de la línea de pobreza, junto con casi 50 millones de estadounidenses. La tasa de desempleo en las reservas es del 80%; el alcoholismo afecta a 9 de cada 10 familias: hay niños indígenas presos en proporción 40% superior a la de los infantes  blancos. En Dakota del Sur el 21% de la población penal es de indios, aunque éstos sólo son el 2% de la población de ese estado. Solo el 14% de la población Lakota habla el mismo idioma; el prisionero político más antiguo del mundo es el activista lakota Leonard Peltier, condenado a dos cadenas perpetuas tras un juicio amañado por el FBI (Jaime Salvatierra: “¿Si estos mensajes no son subversivos, entonces qué son? Lo que EE.UU. vende a los indígenas bolivianos”, La Época, 23-09-2011, http://www.la-epoca.com.bo/#). Sólo la insolencia imperial puede pretender que corresponda a organizaciones subsidiadas o tuteladas por Estados Unidos asumir la tutoría de los indígenas latinoamericanos.
14
    Si usted no propicia la secesión de nuestro país, debe apoyar una reforma constitucional que sustituya la expresión “pueblos” por la de  â€œcomunidades”; sustituya “tierras” por “hábitats” y elimine toda mención que trabe o cuestione la soberana potestad del Estado de explotar los recursos naturales, sobre todo los del subsuelo, en la totalidad  del territorio nacional y en representación y provecho del “único, soberano e indivisible” pueblo venezolano. Somos un solo pueblo “único, soberano e indivisible”: el venezolano. Un solo territorio: el de Venezuela. Un solo cuerpo político: la República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Todo el que quiera dividirnos es nuestro enemigo.
DOMINGO 21 A LAS 8 PM:
EXHIBICIÓN EN CADENA NACIONAL DE LA PELÍCULA
LA PLANTA INSOLENTE
(UN PAÍS CONTRA SEIS IMPERIOS)
DIRECCIÓN: ROMÁN CHALBAUD
GUIÓN: LUIS BRITTO GARCÍA
PROTAGONIZA: ROBERTO MOLL
¡NO SE LA PIERDA!

CONSULTE TAMBIÉN: 

INAUGURAMOS PÁGINA WEB:
COMO MUCHOS DE MIS LIBROS ESTÁN AGOTADOS, CON LA INVALORABLE COLABORACIÓN DE RAFAEL PIRE CORDERO INAUGURAMOS LA  PÁGINA WEB
DONDE EL LECTOR ENCONTRARÁ LOS SIGUIENTES TÍTULOS: 
TODO EL MUNDO ES VENEZUELA/ LA CIENCIA, FUNDAMENTOS Y MÉTODO / CONCIENCIA DE AMÉRICA LATINA/ RAJATABLA/ AMÉRICA NUESTRA, INTEGRACIÓN Y REVOLUCIÓN, TOMOS  I Y 2./ DEMONIOS DEL MAR: PIRATAS Y CORSARIOS EN VENEZUELA, 1528-1727 / DICTADURA MEDIÁTICA EN VENEZUELA / LA MÁSCARA DEL PODER: DEL GENDARME NECESARIO AL DEMÓCRATA NECESARIO / LA MÁSCARA DEL PODER: DE LA CONCERTACIÓN POPULISTA A LA EXPLOSIÓN SOCIAL/ EL IMPERIO CONTRACULTURAL: DEL ROCK A LA POSTMODERNIDAD

DESCARGUE OTROS LIBROS DE LUIS BRITTO EN INTERNET:

Dictadura Mediática en Venezuela:
El Imperio Contracultural: del Rock a la Postmodernidad:
http://lhblog.nuevaradio.org/b2-img/ElImperioContracultural.pdf
La invasión paramilitar: Operación Daktari:
www.minci.gob.ve
Socialismo del Tercer Milenio:
tercer-milenio.pdf
La Ciencia: Fundamentos y Método:
http://editorialubv.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/libro-la-
ciencia-fundamentos-y-mc3a9todo.pdf
El pensamiento del Libertador: Economía y Sociedad:
La máscara del Poder:
La lengua de la Demagogia:
http://www.minci.gob.ve/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2013/01/la_lengua_de_la_demagogiabrit.pdf

          CONSTITUCIÓN Y DOBLE NACIONALIDAD        
Luis Britto García
    
1
Los artículos del 33 al 36 de la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, que admiten la “doble nacionalidad”  plantean un grave problema cuando se considera uno de los principales privilegios del nacional, que es el desempeño de cargos públicos en su país respectivo.

2
De acuerdo con esos artículos de la Constitución de 1999, todos los diputados de la Asamblea Nacional, salvo Presidente y Vicepresidente de dicho cuerpo, podrían tener otra nacionalidad distinta de la venezolana. Todo el ejército venezolano, salvo el Ministro de la Defensa, pudiera estar también integrado por personas con otra nacionalidad distinta de la venezolana. Todo el gabinete, salvo ministros relacionados con seguridad de la nación, finanzas, energía y minas y educación, podría ser foráneo. Aparentemente, todo el ministerio para Relaciones Exteriores, incluido el canciller, podría tener otra nacionalidad; todo el cuerpo diplomático podría estar integrado por nacionales de otros países. Todo el poder judicial, salvo los magistrados del Tribunal Supremo de Justicia, podría estar integrado  por personas con otra nacionalidad distinta de la venezolana.  Todo el Consejo Nacional Electoral, salvo su presidente, toda la administración regional, salvo  gobernadores y alcaldes de estados y municipios fronterizos, podría tener otra nacionalidad diferente de la venezolana, al igual que los casi dos millones  de funcionarios de nuestra administración, salvo la veintena de excepciones ya citadas, pudieran entonces ser nacionales de países  extranjeros,  vinculados por un juramento de lealtad a ellos, y obligados a cumplirles obligaciones tales como  el pago de tributos, la fiel ejecución de sus leyes (distintas de las venezolanas)  la promoción de intereses foráneos, y el servicio militar. Roguemos por la paz. Me pregunto si no debería ser obligatorio que antes de postularse, los candidatos revelaran sus nacionalidades, para que sepamos si como gobernantes estamos eligiendo eslovacos, mongoles, montenegrinos o estadounidenses que quizá estarían mejor haciendo campaña en sus otros países.

3 
Por otra parte, los ciudadanos con doble nacionalidad,  en caso de cometer delitos y huir al exterior podrían hacer valer su otra nacionalidad y reclamar el derecho a no ser extraditados para Venezuela, y a ser sólo juzgados por los tribunales de su país de origen. Los que tengan la nacionalidad de países que hayan suscrito Tratados contra la Doble Tributación con Venezuela, pueden además invocarlos para no pagar impuestos en nuestro país, sino en su país de origen. Tendríamos una ciudadanía con derechos y sin deberes.

4 
¿Qué puede ocurrir en un país  con semejantes principios? Bolivia aceptó en su Cancillería gran cantidad de funcionarios brasileños;  surgió un conflicto con Brasil, y perdieron los bolivianos la tercera parte de su territorio. Fujimori obtuvo los votos para Presidente de Perú diciéndose peruano; cuando se lo quiso enjuiciar por corrupción y genocidio, pretendió ser japonés e inmune a las leyes peruanas. El delincuente financiero Carlo Bordoni, un banquero solicitado por las autoridades europeas que trajo Pedro Tinoco, se refugió en Venezuela e intentó adquirir la nacionalidad para no responder de sus desfalcos en otros países. Vemos que se sobrepasan talanqueras ideológicas, éticas, partidistas. Desde el momento en que ello se hace legal ¿Qué impide que se salte la talanquera nacional?

5
Muchos me dirán que no creen en eso de la nacionalidad. Pues deberían renunciar a la que ostentan, en vez de andar coleccionando pasaportes como si fueran barajitas. Seamos claros: aspiramos a que se reunifique la Gran Colombia, a que América Latina y el Caribe exista en Nación; a que los proletarios del mundo integren una sola Internacional. Cuando tales metas culminen y desaparezcan las fronteras, celebraremos como grancolombianos o latinocaribeños o simplemente como humanos. Mientras tanto, los asediados Estados Nación, fundados en la lealtad exclusiva de sus nacionales, son las unidades de resistencia contra los Imperios. Debemos volver al sistema de nacionalidad única. Disolver la nacionalidad es aniquilar la Nación. 


(FOTO/TEXTO: LUIS BRITTO)


CONSULTE TAMBIÉN: 

INAUGURAMOS PÁGINA WEB:
COMO MUCHOS DE MIS LIBROS ESTÁN AGOTADOS, CON LA INVALORABLE COLABORACIÓN DE RAFAEL PIRE CORDERO INAUGURAMOS LA  PÁGINA WEB
DONDE EL LECTOR ENCONTRARÁ LOS SIGUIENTES TÍTULOS: 
TODO EL MUNDO ES VENEZUELA/ LA CIENCIA, FUNDAMENTOS Y MÉTODO / CONCIENCIA DE AMÉRICA LATINA/ RAJATABLA/ AMÉRICA NUESTRA, INTEGRACIÓN Y REVOLUCIÓN, TOMOS  I Y 2./ DEMONIOS DEL MAR: PIRATAS Y CORSARIOS EN VENEZUELA, 1528-1727 / DICTADURA MEDIÁTICA EN VENEZUELA / LA MÁSCARA DEL PODER: DEL GENDARME NECESARIO AL DEMÓCRATA NECESARIO / LA LENGUA DE LA DEMAGOGIA: DE LA CONCERTACIÓN POPULISTA A LA EXPLOSIÓN SOCIAL/ EL IMPERIO CONTRACULTURAL: DEL ROCK A LA POSTMODERNIDAD

DESCARGUE OTROS LIBROS DE LUIS BRITTO EN INTERNET:

Dictadura Mediática en Venezuela:
El Imperio Contracultural: del Rock a la Postmodernidad:
http://lhblog.nuevaradio.org/b2-img/ElImperioContracultural.pdf
La invasión paramilitar: Operación Daktari:
www.minci.gob.ve
Socialismo del Tercer Milenio:
tercer-milenio.pdf
La Ciencia: Fundamentos y Método:
http://editorialubv.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/libro-la-
ciencia-fundamentos-y-mc3a9todo.pdf
El pensamiento del Libertador: Economía y Sociedad:
La máscara del Poder:
La lengua de la Demagogia:



          PICHINCHA        
Luis Britto García


(Conferencia en Quito, en el aniversario de la batalla)
1
Pichincha: volcán latente. La naturaleza tiene sus tiempos, La Historia los suyos, que parecen tardar  pero que, como la justicia,  llegan. Fuego y  conmoción son las herramientas de la naturaleza. Una cordillera, un paisaje parecen impasibles porque captamos apenas un instante inmóvil  de su batalla infinita.

2
Una erupción poderosa sacude América y hace temblar los Andes. Nace un ser colectivo. Germina una voluntad: América se cansa de no ser. En Haití, en  Caracas, en Quito, en México,  un reguero de pronunciamientos se extiende por el hemisferio como un terremoto. Juntas de ciudadanos, de mantuanos, de casacones, declaran independencias pensando que basta un papel para que los imperios  abandonen sus presas. Los súbditos se bautizan ciudadanos. Hacen constituciones, patrias bobas, repúblicas aéreas. Es la erupción de la conciencia.

3
Las tropas de los imperios contraatacan, usando de carne de cañón a sus propias víctimas. No basta con los sueños.  Las improvisadas milicias de los independentistas son barridas una y otra vez. Una y otra vez vuelven a la carga los vencidos. “El arte de vencer se aprende en las derrotas”, dice Simón Bolívar. Es la erupción de la acción.

4
La campaña del Sur es la clave de la emancipación. Pequeñas independencias serían aplastadas una tras otra por grandes imperios.  “Yo no, yo no quiero republiquitas”, dice Bolívar. Quiere la Patria, pero la Patria Grande. La misma que avizora San Martín en Argentina y Morelos e Hidalgo en México. Arranca Bolívar desde el Caribe y San Martín desde la Pampa argentina. Se encuentren en la mitad del mundo, en Guayaquil, donde ya desde 1820 hubo un pronunciamiento independentista. Llegan con ejércitos exhaustos, maltrechos, casi sin intendencia, diezmados, infinitamente distantes de sus bases. Han extendido la campaña emancipadora más allá de lo que sus respectivos  Congresos le autorizan. Mientras toda América no sea libre, nadie es libre. Es la erupción de la integración.

5
Y así llega el 22 de mayo de 1824 aquél pequeño ejército a las faldas del Pichincha, dirigido por el jovencito Antonio José de Sucre, un cumanés, vale decir, un caribeño. En Pichincha tiritan por el frío quiteños de la costa de Guayaquil y hombres de las serranías. Cierran filas venezolanos y neogranadinos que remite Bolívar. Pero a ellos se incorpora la División peruana organizada por San Martín, con peruanos, alto-peruanos que después se llamarán bolivianos, chilenos y argentinos. Y también hay españoles realistas que se pasan al bando patriota. Y en el momento crucial, decide la batalla la carga del batallón Albión, con voluntarios ingleses, franceses e irlandeses. Casi tres mil hombres nacidos en cunas remotas  alumbran el futuro. Es la erupción de la solidaridad.

6
Llueve, los senderos están enfangados, el Aragón, el batallón de élite de los monárquicos está a punto de caer sobre el centro, cuando arriba el Albión con las esperadas municiones. Tres horas de batalla deshacen tres siglos de servidumbre. Sucre ofrece generosa capitulación, para evitar que los realistas se atrincheren en la fortaleza de El Panecillo. Queda abierto el camino para la liberación del Perú, para Ayacucho, para la creación de Bolivia. Todos los caminos llevan a la Patria Grande.

7
Abdón Calderón sigue combatiendo a pesar de cuatro graves heridas, muere días después, es ascendido póstumamente por Bolívar, y por iniciativa de éste es recordado  por el Batallón Yaguachi, el cual al mencionarse su nombre en las revistas, contestaba, contesta y contestará mientras América exista: “¡Abdón Calderón! ¡Murió gloriosamente en Pichincha, pero vive en nuestros corazones!".
La más poderosa erupción es la de la memoria, que nunca desfallece.  

(FOTO/TEXTO: LUIS BRITTO)

CONSULTE TAMBIÉN:
DESCARGUE LOS LIBROS DE LUIS BRITTO EN INTERNET:
Rajatabla:
www.monteavila.gob.ve
Dictadura Mediática en Venezuela:
El Imperio Contracultural: del Rock a la Postmodernidad:
http://lhblog.nuevaradio.org/b2-img/ElImperioContracultural.pdf
La invasión paramilitar: Operación Daktari:
www.minci.gob.ve
Socialismo del Tercer Milenio:
tercer-milenio.pdf
La Ciencia: Fundamentos y Método:
http://editorialubv.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/libro-la-
ciencia-fundamentos-y-mc3a9todo.pdf
El pensamiento del Libertador: Economía y Sociedad:
La máscara del Poder:
La lengua de la Demagogia:




          Venezuela continues towards full fledged dictatorship. Supported by Russia and China        
Alexander MARTINEZ
Caracas (AFP) - Venezuela's opposition was on Thursday weighing its response to the government's latest crackdown on its politicians, which critics warn will risk making the troubled country a dictatorship.
Overnight, the supreme court for the second time this week sentenced an opposition mayor to 15 months in prison for not preventing anti-government protests in his Carcas district.
And a powerful member of a new loyalist assembly installed last week said would-be candidates from the opposition wanting to contest regional elections in December would need "good conduct" permission from the body to take part.
The moves bolstered claims by the United States and major Latin American nations that President Nicolas Maduro was trashing democracy and ruling through a "dictatorship."
On Wednesday, the United States extended sanctions it had already imposed on Maduro to members of the new Constituent Assembly, which was elected last month amid allegations of fraud and deadly protests.
Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Mexico and other nations in the Americas have said they do not recognize the new assembly, which also sacked a critical attorney general among other steps to quash dissent.
Venezuela has lodged protests with 11 embassies over the international condemnation, and railed against the United States for not respecting "any basic principle of international law."
- Tensions -
The developments fuelled tensions that have been flaring in Venezuela for the past four months, resulting in nearly 130 deaths during protests and increasing isolation for Maduro and his government.
The supreme court's sentencing of the opposition mayor of the Hatillo district in Caracas, David Smolansky, and a bar on him holding public office followed identical punishment it handed down to the mayor of the Chacao district, Ramon Muchacho.
Smolanksy posted a video online in which he called for protests against his jailing "in all the streets" of his municipality. But early Thursday there was little response, beyond a barricade of trash across a road.
The opposition coalition, a grouping of around 30 disparate parties called the Democratic Unity Roundtable, has been struggling about what to do to keep up pressure on Maduro, who it wants to see ousted through early elections.
On Wednesday, after much debate, the coalition said it would contest overdue regional elections in Venezuela's 23 states on December 10, with the aim of holding Maduro to the electoral calendar, which also sees the next presidential election in October 2018.
Polls suggest the opposition would win most of the states, replicating its landslide 2015 victory in taking control of the legislature, the National Assembly.
Maduro has installed the new Constituent Assembly with powers over all branches of government, including the National Assembly.
- US against Venezuelan 'tyranny' -
Maduro and his government are deeply unpopular, as the country's 30 million citizens suffer under a long economic crisis that has resulted in shortages of food and medicine and hyperinflation -- a harsh reality for an oil-rich country that used to be one of the wealthiest in Latin America.
One of the Constituent Assembly's most powerful members, Diosdado Cabello, argued for another obstacle for the opposition before it could take part in the regional elections.
He said they should apply for "certificates of good conduct" from the assembly attesting that they would prevent any violence in the streets.
The election of the new assembly and its campaign against the opposition has drawn fire from Washington.
"President Maduro swore in this illegitimate Constituent Assembly to further entrench his dictatorship, and continues to tighten his grip on the country," US Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said in a statement announcing the latest sanctions.
"This regime's disregard for the will of the Venezuelan people is unacceptable, and the United States will stand with them in opposition to tyranny until Venezuela is restored to a peaceful and prosperous democracy."
Venezuelan Foreign Minister Jorge Arreaza shot back on state television that the US was "making a fool of itself in front of the world."
"Venezuela can't be sanctioned for anything, nor by anybody," he said.
Although broadly criticized, Venezuela is not entirely isolated internationally.
It can count on the support of Russia and China -- which have granted tens of billions of dollars in loans to Venezuela -- as well as leftist allies Cuba, Bolivia and Nicaragua, and small Caribbean nations to which it gives cheap oil.

          Experimental Gardening: Quinoa        
Quinoa is one of the things we like to call Ooh Aah Foods – wonder foods that some of our hippy neighbours consider a cure-all for everything. Originating from the South Americas it really is a wonderful grain, and very healthful; stuffed with essential amino acids, and high in Calcium, Phosphorus and Iron. We really like eating it. Trouble is, its damn expensive.
Back in late Autumn, while I was still largely unable to tackle any serious gardening, I looked at a packet of Quinoa, and, true to form, though to myself, “How hard can it be? I mean, millions of peasant farmers in South America have been growing this stuff for centuries... why shouldn't I Give It A Go?”

So I did. A little research told me that there are many, many strains of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, so quite closely related to the Chickweed that so prolifically sprouts all over our Winter veggie garden) adapted mainly for various altitudes ranging from coastal plains in Chile to the high Andes of Bolivia and Peru. It is a cool-weather species, so definitely something for our usually-sparse Winter garden. On the other hand, we don't get frosts, so we're ahead of the game in that regard.

The packet of Quinoa we had in the grocery cupboard was on we bought off the “health food” shelf of our local supermarket, and originated from Peru, so it looked to me like the odds were stacked against us. I guess that Quinoa from Peru is more likely to be a high-altitude variety, and we are at a decidedly low altitude. Then, too, many imported foodstuffs get irradiated – supposedly to ensure that no produce-borne diseases make it into the country. On the other hand, irradiated foods are usually labelled as such (though not always, since such labelling is not a hard legal requirement) and I would assume that the very reputable health-food packager would be somewhat sensitive to the issues of food irradiation. So my guess was that the Quinoa was not really very likely to have been irradiated, which would naturally kill the germ-plasm, and make germination impossible. There was also some question as to the suitability of our quite heavy soil for Quinoa cultivation.

Nothing daunted, I cleared a small patch in one of the veggie beds, about ½ a metre long, and sowed a handful of the Quinoa “grain” by simply scattering it on the prepared soil surface and raking the grains shallowly into the soil.

Much to my delight, it germinated within about a week or ten days (as my frequently failing memory serves.) It grew away quite happily, though numbers dwindled steadily through the Winter as every bug in the land decided to have a munch on this new, exotic foodstuff. Losses were compounded by my “neglectful” methods of growing things – I tend not to water crops except at critical times. Mainly we lack an adequate source of irrigation water and are forced to rely on rainfall. I suppose you could argue that it is a simple case of bowing to the inevitable, but I call it a “selection pressure” in evolving varieties that grow well under the conditions we have available.

Quinoa Grain HeadsNow it is Springtime, and the 5 or so remaining plants have produced lovely little heads of grain. The plants are a bit spindly and grew to about knee-high before forming flower-heads. As they show clear signs of drying and are beginning to lose of of the grains I pulled the plants out of the ground to finish drying them indoors. The next stage of the experiment will be figuring out how to process the grain further: Quinoa grains are coated in a soapy (saponin) layer that needs to be washed off before the grain is edible. I consider this saponin layer a huge advantage under our growing conditions, as we “suffer” from losing a lot of small seed-crops to birds. The Cabbage tribe are particularly favourite targets for myriad seed-eating birds, as are the (Summer growing) seed Amaranths; the birds have an uncanny knack of stripping out seed pods and heads just a few days before they're truly ripe enough to harvest. I've come to the conclusion that the only solution will be to completely cage such crops if we're determined to grow them. The Quinoa, on the other hand, suffers no such depredations due to its unpalatable soapy coating, so that's a big win!

All in all, I will definitely grow Quinoa again next Winter, and on a much more adventurous scale. This could even be a viable cash crop for us, given the very high prices it commands. I will do things a little differently, though: I believe we will obtain much better yields if we start the plants in seed-trays and transplant them to a more regular spacing in a much better prepared bed. Bug protection will probably be best achieved by interplanting the Quinoa with other trap crops (Buckwheat, perhaps.)

It's been an interesting little experiment, and one that rates as a good success with exciting prospects for our food future, so I am happy to count on it being a regular in our Winter garden.
          DESASTRES        
DESASTRES


1.      Concepto.-

El desastre, es una situación resultante en una sociedad o comunidad, después que ha sido azotada por algún fenómeno natural, llámesele; terremoto, inundación, huracán, vulcanismo, deslizamiento u otro; o por acciones erróneas del hombre, tales pueden ser  los casos de incendios, explosiones etc. En ambos casos, el desastre se puede medir en términos de daños y pérdidas materiales, económicas; o en lesiones y pérdidas de vidas humanas. Estos diversos fenómenos originados por la naturaleza en algunos casos y otros por el hombre, han ocurrido a través de la historia de la humanidad y seguirán ocurriendo en cualquier parte del mundo; tendrán lógicamente efectos sobre el hombre mismo, sobre sus bienes y sobre la naturaleza, según las diversas características geológicas, geográficas, socioeconómicas y culturales de las regiones donde ocurran.
2.       Clasificación de los desastres.-
Los desastres son a menudo clasificados de acuerdo a su velocidad de comienzo (súbita o lenta), su causa (natural o hecha por el hombre) o su escala (mayor o menor).
Existe actualmente un cierto consenso en cuanto a la clasificación de los desastres:

I)                   Desastres naturales:

Los desastres naturales son aquellos debidos a un fenómeno de la naturaleza.
Estos tipos de desastres están íntimamente relacionados con la puesta en peligro de los procesos de desarrollo humano. A su vez, las decisiones en materia de desarrollo tomadas por particulares, comunidades y naciones, pueden generar nuevos riesgos de desastre. Pero esto no tiene que ser necesariamente así. El desarrollo humano también puede contribuir a reducir eficazmente los riesgos de desastre.

a.      Terremotos.

Terrible devastación
Un terremoto, también llamado seísmo o sismo (del griego "σεισμός", temblor) o temblor de tierra[] es una sacudida del terreno que se produce debido al choque de las placas tectónicas y a la liberación de energía en el curso de una reorganización brusca de materiales de la corteza terrestre al superar el estado de equilibrio mecánico. Los más importantes y frecuentes se producen cuando se libera energía potencial elástica acumulada en la deformación gradual de las rocas contiguas al plano de una falla activa.

b.      Erupciones volcánicas.

Erupción de un volcán
Un volcán es aquel lugar donde la roca fundida o fragmentada por el calor y gases calientes emergen a través de una abertura desde las partes internas de la tierra a la superficie. La palabra volcán también se aplica a la estructura en forma de loma o montaña que se forma alrededor de la abertura mencionada por la acumulación de los materiales emitidos. Generalmente los volcanes tienen en su cumbre, o en sus costados, grandes cavidades de forma aproximadamente circular denominadas cráteres, generadas por erupciones anteriores, en cuyas bases puede, en ocasiones, apreciarse la abertura de la chimenea volcánica.
                                            

c.       Tsunamis.

Un tsunami (del japonés Tsu: puerto o bahía y Nami: ola) es una ola o serie de olas que se producen en una masa de agua al ser empujada violentamente por una fuerza que la desplaza verticalmente.
Antiguamente se les denominaba "marejadas", "maremotos" u "ondas sísmica marinas", pero estos términos han quedado obsoletos, ya que no describen adecuadamente el fenómeno.

d.      Inundaciones.

Inundación en la ciudad
Las inundaciones son una de las catástrofes naturales que mayor número de víctimas producen en el mundo. Se ha calculado que en el siglo XX unas 3,2 millones de personas han muerto por este motivo, lo que es más de la mitad de los fallecidos por desastres naturales en el mundo en ese periodo.

 

 

e.       Granizo.

Caída de granizo
Llamamos granizo a la caída de bolitas de hielo de 5 a 50 mm -a veces mayores- que en ocasiones caen formando conglomerados irregulares (pedrisco). No suelen causar víctimas ni grandes destrozos en las construcciones, pero si muy importantes daños en la agricultura.

 

 

 

 

 

f.       Sequía.

Una definición aceptada de sequía puede ser una reducción temporal notable del agua y la humedad disponibles, por debajo de la cantidad normal o esperada para un periodo dado.

 

II)                 Desastres generados por el hombre:

Los desastres de origen humano son consecuencia de la acción del hombre y de su desarrollo. Entre ellos se encuentran los siguientes:
A)    Industrial/tecnológico.-
 (Fallas en los sistemas/accidentes, substancias químicas/radiación, derrames, contaminación, explosiones, incendios, terrorismo).
B)    Transporte. (Vehicular).
C)    Deforestación. (Tala de árboles).  
D)    Escasez de materiales.
E)     Emergencias complejas.
 (Guerras y contiendas civiles, agresión armada, insurgencia y otras acciones que traen como resultado el desplazamiento de personas y refugiados).

Contaminantes físicos

Los contaminantes físicos son caracterizados por un intercambio de energía entre persona y ambiente en una dimensión y/o velocidad tan alta que el organismo no es capaz de soportarlo.
Por varias razones, el contaminante físico que más está relacionado con la geología ambiental es la radiactividad (natural o artificial).

Contaminantes químicos.

Los agentes químicos representan seguramente el grupo de contaminantes más importante debido a su gran número y a la omnipresencia en todos los campos laborales y en el medio ambiente.
Como contaminantes químicos se puede entender toda sustancia orgánica e inorgánica, natural o sintética que tiene probabilidades de lesionar la salud de las personas en alguna forma o causar otro efecto negativo en el medio ambiente.

Incendios.

Los incendios forestales constituyen uno de los principales problemas, relativos a la degradación del medio ambiente. Producen erosión de la superficie arbolada.
Las causas de los incendios forestales son diversas. Entre ellas, destaca la acumulación de la masa total de materia viva –biomasa–, provocada por una mala gestión de las zonas forestales. La inflamabilidad de la materia vegetal varía mucho según la humedad ambiente: en verano el bosque llega a perder hasta la mitad de esa humedad.

Deforestación.

Tala de árboles
Se entiende por deforestación a la destrucción a gran escala del bosque por la acción humana.
La desertificación, definida como la intensificación de las condiciones desérticas y el decrecimiento paulatino de la productividad de los ecosistemas, es generada principalmente por el ser humano, que actúa sobre un medio frágil y lo presiona en exceso para obtener su sustento.





3.       Los desastres más comunes en nuestro país.-
De acuerdo con estudio, Colombia y Perú tienen mayor cantidad de población expuesta a inundaciones y terremotos. El atlas resalta que las inundaciones son los desastres más frecuentes en Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú, donde además existen 60 volcanes activos y 355.000 kilómetros cuadrados de áreas expuestas a heladas. En relación a las inundaciones, el atlas revela que de las más de 13 millones de personas expuestas a inundaciones el 40% de ellas habita en Perú; el 38% en Colombia, el 18% en Ecuador y el 4% en Bolivia. Con 120.000 kilómetros cuadrados (km2), Colombia aparece como el país comunitario con mayor extensión de aréas de uso agropecuario expuestas a inundaciones, seguido de Bolivia con 56.000 km2, Perú con 35.000 kms2 y Ecuador con 14.000 km2. En cuanto a los terremotos, 59 millones de habitantes de la Comunidad Andina residen en zonas de amenaza sísmica alta. Colombia y Perú tienen la mayor cantidad de población expuesta con 22,3 y 18,7 millones de personas. Ecuador, con 13 millones de habitantes, tiene casi toda su población en amenaza sísmica alta; y Bolivia tiene una parte marginal de su territorio, que en población representa menos del 1% de sus 8,1 millones de habitantes. Asimismo, el atlas señala que unos 335.000 kilómetros cuadrados de áreas agropecuarias en la región andina están expuestas a las heladas, de esta superficie el 54% corresponde a Perú; 28% a Bolivia; 10% a Colombia y 7% a Ecuador. En la subregión andina se han registrado hasta 9 fenómenos naturales, como terremotos, maremotos, erupción de volcanes, deslizamientos, inundaciones, heladas, sequías y los fenómenos climáticos de el Niño y la Niña . Los desastres naturales dejaron 125.000 muertos entre 1970 y 2007. Además, dejaron 8,5 millones de personas damnificadas y 28 millones de afectadas, así como 380.000 viviendas destruidas, según el estudio. Durante esos 27 años se han registrado 57.000 desastres de diversa magnitudes.

4.      Desastres más comunes en nuestra localidad.
Los  más comunes son las lluvias torrenciales, las inundaciones, congestión  vehicular, accidentes de tránsito,  Flujos  de agua, caídas de rocas, peligros geológicos.  
Estadisticas:             
Otro dato adicional proporcionado por el inventario de peligros geológicos (INGEMMET 2009) en Comas, registró: 47 peligros geológicos, 40 caídas de rocas y 7 flujos. Además se delimitaron 8 zonas críticas (Zonas en las que se tienen que tomar medidas si o si) y adivinen que: Uno de los flujos registrados, era un flujo antiguo ubicado en la Quebrada Collique, con posibilidades de reactivarse ...... una de la zonas críticas es la 6ta zona de Collique!!!.
5.      Qué solución propones para prevenir el desastre de nuestra localidad.
Propongo que para estos desastres que está pasando hay que tomarlo en serio, tomar medidas para contrarrestar las inclemencias naturales futuras,  porque está costando vidas humanas y eso significa que no se está progresando sino se está retrocediendo;  tenemos que ayudarnos unos a otros para ser mejores personas  y con ayuda de todos se puede dar soluciones. Se han visto el sufrimiento que han padecido estos desastres naturales. Por causa de un terremoto sus hogares han perdido y nunca han recibido la ayuda necesaria.
Defensa Civil



          Presidente de Bolivia pide incorporar ideología anticolonialista en las Fuerzas Armadas        
XINHUA El presidente de Bolivia, Evo Morales, instruyó a los comandantes de las tres fuerzas castrenses de Bolivia a incorporar la ideología “anticolonialista” en la formación de los miembros de las Fuerzas Armadas (FFAA). “Debemos tener unas Fuerzas Armadas con principio anticolonialista”, dijo Morales al afirmar que el colonialismo es la base del imperialismo y […]
          Geoffroys cats at the northern limit of their range activity patterns and density estimates from camera trapping in Bolivian dry forests - Request PDF        
none
          Zaman Dulu, Gurun Misterius Nazca Tempat Alien Mendarat        

Garis-garis Nazca merupakan rangkaian geoglif yang terletak di Gurun Sechura, khususnya di Gurun Nazca, daerah yang panjangnya lebih dari 80 km antara kota Nazca dan Pampa di Peru.
Daratan ini terpencil dari Teluk Peruvian yang terdiri dari Pampas San Jose (Jumana), Socos, El Ingenio dan lain-lainnya di provinsi Nazca, seluas 400km. di selatan Lima, meliputi area sekitar 450km2 padang gurun pasir dan lereng Andes. Geoglif ini diperkirakan dibuat oleh kebudayaan Nazca antara 200 SM dan 700 M.
Terdapat ratusan gambar, dari yang sederhana sampai yang rumit, seperti gambar burung, laba-laba, monyet, ikan, ikan hiu, llama, dan kadal. Juga banyak garis-garis yang lurus walau sudah menjelajah bukit dan lembah. Selain itu juga terdapat runway mirip landasan pesawat terbang sederhana.
Nazca adalah salah satu tempat didunia yang sampai saat ini masih banyak diliputi misteri. Banyak pertanyaan-pertanyaan muncul mengenai asal usulnya.
Garis-garis Nazca sendiri baru mulai marak diperbincangkan pada era tahun 1920-an, bermula dari cerita penumpang pesawat terbang yang melintas daerah Nazca, mengaku seperti melihat garis-garis samar membentuk berbagai macam bentuk makhluk hidup dengan dimensi yang besar. Tahun 1920-an merupakan era baru dalam penerbangan komersial di wilayah Amerika.
Sejak kabar penemuan itu, para arkeolog dari seluruh belahan dunia berbondong-bondong datang ke daerah Nazca untuk melihat dan meneliti lebih lanjut mengenai garis-garis Nazca.
Tidak diketahui dengan pasti siapa yang membuat garis-garis Nazca. Teori utama adalah bahwa peradaban Nazca yang membuatnya, dengan menggunakan peralatan dan teknologi sederhana. Teori ini didukung dengan ditemukannya keramik dan pasak kayu di beberapa ujung garis.
Cahuachi kota yang hilang.
Di Pampa, sebelah selatan dari garis Nazca, para arkeolog menemukan kota dari para pembuat garis yang telah hilang, Cahuachi. Dibangun kurang lebih 2000 tahun lalu, yang secara misterius ditinggalkan 500 tahun kemudian. Penemuan baru pada Cahuachi adalah merupakan awal bagi kita untuk orang-orang Nazca dan mengungkap misteri dari garis Nazca.
Cahuachi muncul sebagai harta karun dari budaya Nazca. Saat Orefici dan timnya menggali, menemukan lukisan-lukisan dari tembikar, teknik-teknik kuno penyulaman yang dikembangkan orang-orang Nazca, memberikan pandangan bagaimana kemungkinan garis itu dibuat, dan fungsinya bagi mereka selama kurang lebih 1500 tahun lalu.
Yang palng menarik adalah penemuan manusia yang tidak ada habisnya. Yang mencengangkan adalah penemuan mumi dari para penduduk Nazca itu sendiri di tanah kering pada gurun Peruvian. Mereka telah mengenal proses mumifikasi sama seperti kebudayaan Mesir Kuno.
Pertamanya Cahuachi dipercaya sebagai tempat militer, tapi sekarang dikenal sebagai tempat untuk upacara-upacara ritual, dan bukti baru dari Orefici juga mengukuhkan pendapat ini. Cahuachi terungkap telah ditinggalkan setelah banyak bencana alam yang menimpa kota itu. Tapi sebelum mereka meninggalkannya, orang-orang Nazca mengubur kotanya dengan tanah gersang, yang sampai sekarang tetap berupa gundukan ditengah gurun.
Komposisi dari Garis Nasca
Batu koral yang menutupi permukaan gurun, mengandung ferrous oxide (belerang). Pembongkaran selama berabad-abad, telah memberikan patina (fragmen) gelap padanya. Ketika batu-batu kerikil ini disingkirkan, warnanya kontras dengan lapisan dibawahnya. Pada tahap ini, garis lebih kelihatan beralur dengan warna yang lebih kelihatan, meskipun di beberapa saat, hanya kelihatan seperti jejak. Di kasus lain, batunya memperjelas garisnya dan gambaran dari gundukan menyamping dengan ukuran berbeda. Beberapa gambaran, misalnya, terutama pada awal-awal, dibuat dengan menghapus semua batu kerikil dari garis luar, dan dengan begini, akan menjadi lebih kelihatan.
Geoglyph Nazca
Berikut adalah ukuran-ukuran dari beberapa bentuk terkenal dari geoglyph Nazca:
  • Laba-laba, sekitar 46 mil


  • Kolibri, 50 mil

  • Paus pembunuh, 65 mil

  • Pelican, paling besar 285 mil



  • The Heron

  • The “Giant” (Astronaut)



  • The Hands

Geoglyph Lainnya
Garis Nazca adalah kumpulan geoglyph paling menakjubkan didunia. Ada juga beberapa geoglyph besar di Mesir, Malta, Mississipi & California, Chili, Bolivia, dll. Tapi geglyph Nazca, dikarenakan jumlah, karakter, dimensi, dan terusan budaya, karena mereka dibuat dan dibuat lagi seiring dengan periode prehispanic, membentuk kumpulan arkeologis yang menakjubkan sekaligus membingungkan.
Dataran Nazca
Dataran Nazca sangatlah unik, dengan kemampuannya mempertahankan tanda-tanda yang ada diatasnya, berdasarkan kombinasi dari iklim (salah satu yg terkering di Bumi, dengan curah hujan 20menit dalam setahun), dan juga tanah datar dan berbatu yang meminimalisasi efek dari angin ditanah.
Dengan tidak adanya debu atau pasir untuk menutupi datarannya, serta hujan yang sedikit untuk mengikisnya, garis-garisnya cenderung tidak berubah ataupun tertutup. Factor-faktor ini, digabungkan dengan adanya lapisan bawah tanah dengan warna yang lebih cerah dari permukaan gurun, memungkinkan lahan yang luas, yang bisa ideal untuk digunakan bagi seniman yang ingin menghilangkan eksistensinya di dunia. Jadi lokasi nya memang sengaja ditentukan agar tidak memperngaruhi kondisi geoglyph tsb.
Konsentrasi dan penjajaran dari garis-garis memastikan bahwa pembuatannya membutuhkan pekerja jangka panjang yang bekerja secara intensif, seperti ditunjukkan dengan gaya dari desain-desain, yang juga berhubungan dengan tingkatan berbeda dari perubahan budaya.
Ada 2 tipe desain : pertama adalah macam-macam benda dan bentuk lain dari garis geometric. Sebelumnya terdiri dari bentuk binatang, tanaman, objek seperti bentuk anthropomorphis dari jaman kolosal yang dibuat dengan garis-garis yang sangat jelas. Dari sekian bentuk-bentuk, yang disimpan oleh Maria Reiche dan beberapa pengoleksi, sudah diketahui sekitar 70 buah.
Teori Erich von Däniken
Banyak garis-garis yang acak dan terkesan tidak memiliki pola. Garis itu terlihat seperti garis berpencar secara acak seperti mengarah ke daerah-daerah terpencil, bersilangan tanpa alasan jelas.
Berikut adalah teori pembentukan Nasca Lines Oleh Erich von Däniken. Meski begitu banyak teori yang dikeluarkan oleh banyak ilmuwan, teori Erich von Däniken adalah salah satu teori yang paling terkenal.
Teori Erich adalah teori dengan pendekatan paling akurat untuk memecahkan misteri Nazca. Dia berpikir bahwa dahulu, ada tamu dari bintang lain yang mengunjungi bumi dan bernama Nazca.
Mereka mendarat ditempat ini , pada saat melandas, batu ini tersapu dengan pesawat bertenaga roket. Semakin dekat, kekuatannya pun bertambah dan meluaskan daerah yang tersapu itu. Pada saat ini, kargo mereka pun muncul.
Selanjutnya, alien itupun menghilang dan membuat orang bingung. Mereka pun mencoba memanggil kembali Tuhannya dengan mulai menggambar garis, bentuk, dan trapezenya. Daniken tak pernah mengatakan kalau alienlah yg membuat formatnya. Dia menemukan zodiak dan formasi kaca, kemudian membandingkan dgn vasis modern atau simbol Papi. (berbagai sumber)

          Bolivia, After the Election        

COCHABAMBA, Bolivia—For an American inclined to think the worst of Bolivian President-elect Evo Morales, his victory celebration offered little in the way of reassurance. Even the choice of venue—the Cochabamba headquarters of the cocalero union, the movement of coca growers that launched Morales into national politics and has been at the forefront of the fight against U.S.-backed drug policy in Bolivia—could be taken as a provocation. Jubilant supporters, along with a bevy of journalists and cameramen, were packed into a narrow meeting hall adorned with black-and-blue banners bearing, as foreign observers never fail to note, the face of Che Guevara.

Before Morales took the stage, an official from Morales' party, the Movement Toward Socialism (known by its Spanish acronym MAS) instructed the crowd "to show a good face to the world." But instead of sounding a conciliatory note, Morales studded his speech with attacks on imperialism and neoliberalism and snide denunciations of his opponents. "To those who waged a dirty war against us, I can only say, 'Thank you,' " he sneered. He finished, in Quechua, with the battle cry of the cocaleros: "¡Kausachun coca, wanyachun yanki!"—"Coca live, Yankee die." The crowd erupted into a raucous "Viva!"

According to preliminary counts, Morales will be the first president in two decades of Bolivian democracy to have won more than 50 percent of the vote. The magnitude of this victory may come as no surprise to Morales or his supporters, who made "50 percent plus one" a campaign slogan. But received opinion among the Bolivian chattering classes in the days before the election was that Morales' rhetoric was driving middle-class voters to the eventual second-place winner: Jorge "Tuto" Quiroga, a Texas-educated and unrepentantly pro-American former president tied closely to the old political elite. The polls—and the predictions of most expert analysts—were off by almost 20 points.

For Morales' most devoted partisans in the poor communities that dot the high Andes and ring Bolivia's cities, the explanation for his sweeping victory is simple: An Aymara Indian who grew up herding llamas before becoming a coca farmer and union leader, Morales will be the first indigenous president in a country that is two-thirds indigenous. "Evo is a campesino. He knows hunger and misery," a potato farmer named Remedios Quispe explained. "The other candidates are the descendants of the Spanish, who have always ruled over us." Morales, playing on this theme, calls himself "just an instrument of the pueblo" and the MAS a "second independence movement."

Indeed, Morales would rather think of himself as a Bolivian Nelson Mandela than as the second coming of Che. (One of his first trips abroad will be to meet with Mandela in South Africa.) He realizes that his victory is less about specific policies than it is about making a symbolic break—from 500 years of indigenous dispossession and 20 years of disappointment with neoliberal economic reforms and a democratic system controlled by elite interests. "This is not just about a change of government," Morales has said. "It is about starting a new history for the Bolivian people, a history free from corruption and discrimination." Bolivian analysts have rushed to note that, after dominating politics since the 1980s, the old parties got almost no support this time around.

But Morales has also clearly been emboldened by his margin of victory. To cast his vote in Sunday's election, Morales traveled into the Chapare, the swath of jungle where he got his start as a coca farmer and cocalero leader. (Coca is the base material for cocaine, of which Bolivia is the world's third-largest producer, but Bolivians also brew coca leaf into tea, chew it as a mild stimulant and appetite suppressant, and use it in a variety of indigenous practices.) Over a breakfast of fried fish, yucca, and nonalcoholic beer in a coca market, he promised to "bury neoliberalism," to "overthrow the capitalist system," and to "nationalize" Bolivia's natural gas resources. He declared his respect for Fidel Castro and his friendship with Hugo Chávez, who has lately replaced Castro as Washington's chief menace in Latin America. After voting, he ran his hand through a pile of coca leaves and pledged to "legalize coca in all of Bolivia."

Americans hear comments like these as taunts. Although Washington has recently refrained from open hostility toward Morales, it has resorted to cool formality interlaced with thinly veiled ultimatums. In the final days of the campaign, a State Department spokesman warned that "the quality, the depth, the breadth, of any relationship with the United States will depend upon the intersection of our common interests." Within Bolivia, almost no one was in doubt about what this meant: Cooperate on coca, or else—a significant threat, since $150 million in U.S. aid to Bolivia is contingent on its being certified as cooperative in the war on drugs.

In reality, Morales' position on coca is less extreme than American drug warriors charge. The vast majority of Bolivians agree with Morales' criticism of U.S. drug policy—that it cruelly and corruptly focuses on poor farmers while ignoring the real roots of the problem and the beneficiaries of the drug trade. At the coca market on Election Day, Morales called his approach "zero cocaine, but not zero coca." The night before, I had asked him if he would be willing to compromise with Washington on drug policy—by, say, helping to prevent trafficking and to control the flow of other chemicals needed to produce cocaine in exchange for American acquiescence on the depenalization of coca cultivation. "Of course, that would be fine," he said. "I am not for drug trafficking." Silvia Rivera, a sociologist who advises Morales on coca-related issues, told me that his plan is to develop a "light industry" in licit coca-based products—everything from tea and baking flour to shampoo and perfume. The policy, she said, is "rational and economically smart, and above all, it will be the most effective way of fighting cocaine trafficking."

At any rate, there is little at this point that Washington can do to make the situation more favorable. When I asked Morales about the possibility of losing U.S. aid, he responded that it doesn't matter; the rest of the world will come to his rescue. His oil-billionaire friend Chávez has promised to help out, and Cuba has already begun issuing invitations to MAS activists for "training" in Havana. Many poor Bolivians are convinced that Castro will soon dispatch thousands of Cuban doctors to their neighborhoods, just as he has to Venezuela.

And the biggest concern right now—for both Bolivia and Washington—is not that Morales will succeed but that he will fail. For the past five years, centrifugal forces have been tearing Bolivia apart. The left has been pressing its demands—for more state control over natural resources, for an end to coca eradication, for indigenous rights and local autonomy—with paralyzing and occasionally violent protests. The more prosperous eastern lowlands, meanwhile, have been threatening de facto secession. When Carlos Mesa abandoned the presidency in June—the second Bolivian president to resign in the face of protests (led by Morales, among others) in two years—he warned of "civil war."

Morales, whatever his flaws, presents the best hope for averting such a fate. The decisiveness of his victory offers him at least a chance to establish effective governance, something recent Bolivian presidents have failed to do. The radical social movements that have been behind much of the recent chaos will likely give him a several-month grace period before heading back into the streets to press their demands.

But Morales has not found a way to mend the basic ruptures in Bolivian society. On the main points of controversy, he has talked out of both sides of his mouth or tried to obscure irreconcilable difference with windy slogans. He has, for example, promised to nationalize Bolivia's abundant natural gas resources, while assuring the private sector that he will respect private property—an attempt to appease the mass of Bolivians who think that they should be benefiting more, without provoking legal action or a complete withdrawal of investment by international energy companies. As a silver bullet, he offers up the constitutional assembly that will happen sometime next year. It is, he says, a chance to "re-found" the country, even though it's not clear what that re-founding will mean. When I asked Morales about all the problems he will face, he shrugged and said, "There are problems, but that's why we need a change. The important thing is to be honest and transparent." Even his close advisers admit that he doesn't really know what he's going to do once he gets into power on Jan. 22.

I met one such adviser a few days before the election. As we rode around Cochabamba in a black hatch-back covered in Morales posters, the white, upper-middle-class former journalist talked about how her friends and family had reacted to her support for Morales: "Another candidate approached me and said, 'You are white, what the hell are you doing with the MAS?' " I asked her why she had decided to work with Morales. "So many different people believe in him for so many different reasons," she replied. "For me, this is the crucial thing: that an Indian will be president of this country."

But she had no illusions about Morales' prospects as president. "Evo has rebellion in his blood, and I am trying desperately to give this rebellion a logic. … He has no idea how he's going to run the country, and I don't either." Later, at Morales' victory celebration, the adviser was gloomy. "I feel sorry for these people," she said, surveying the crowd. "They think everything will suddenly change."


          A Big Drug Party        

In May, Colombian soldiers raided a cave near the Pacific coast and found 15 tons of cocaine ready to be loaded onto a squadron of speedboats for transport north. It was the biggest take ever in Colombia, worth $400 million on the American street, and the latest in a slew of busts this spring and summer. In the past several months, Colombian authorities have stumbled on multi-ton stashes and intercepted drug-loaded speedboats on a weekly basis. Military officials report that they are on pace to seize 60 percent more cocaine than they did last year.

But the increase is hardly cause for drug warriors to celebrate. Seizures are not up because of a new interdiction strategy. They are up because a recent Colombian law, designed to entice right-wing paramilitary forces to lay down their arms, is giving some of the world's biggest drug lords a chance to dump their wares, cash in, and launder their fortunes while avoiding what they fear most: extradition to the United States. The so-called Justice and Peace Law is meant to defuse Colombia's drug-fueled civil war, but it is turning into a windfall for the country's cocaine traffickers and the cocaine market in the United States and around the world.

The biggest players in the Colombian drug industry are right-wing paramilitary commanders—heavily armed thugs, often with ties to the army and the government, who have used drug profits to finance private armies and then used those private armies to protect their business and enrich themselves. The paramilitaries were formed in the 1980s as private armies to protect Colombia's landed elite from the marauding guerrillas of the left-wing Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. But as their ranks swelled toward 20,000, the pull of the drug trade quickly took over from their original mission.

The paramilitaries now control more than half of Colombian drug exports—some $4.5 billion of the almost $10 billion of cocaine that hits the American street every year. (They also account for well more than half of the 10,000 civilian deaths in Colombia the past decade.) Many top commanders are drug lords who have donned an ideological label out of political convenience. The man behind the 15-ton stash seized in May, for example, is a paramilitary commander who goes by the name "Don Diego." He runs the Norte del Valle cartel—Colombia's biggest trafficking organization—and appears a few notches below Osama Bin Laden on the FBI's "10 Most Wanted" list. Several others, including a former Pablo Escobar associate named "Adolfo Paz," have been indicted in U.S. courts for dispatching boatload after boatload of cocaine to American shores. The State Department includes the paramilitaries on its list of foreign terrorist organizations.

Despite all this, President Álvaro Uribe has staked his political fortunes on demobilizing the paramilitaries and bringing them back into the legal fold. Uribe has sold the amnesty offered by his Justice and Peace Law—which recently passed Colombia's congress and is awaiting his signature—as a first step toward ending the civil war. Unfortunately, the law proposes to deliver peace by forgoing justice almost entirely.

The paramilitary leadership has always made it clear that its cooperation with Uribe's plan is contingent on getting off lightly. "If disarming means a humiliating surrender to justice," one commander put it in a barely veiled threat earlier this year, "we will opt to stay out in the heat of the war and will do so to the death." Uribe's government has acquiesced. The law puts little pressure on paramilitary fighters to confess their crimes and does nothing to ensure that their leaders surrender their ill-gotten fortunes. An underfunded and understaffed government investigative unit has only a month to look into thousands of atrocities, and prison sentences are limited to eight years for the worst violations and almost nothing for the rest. Most important, the law classifies paramilitary crimes in a way that shields perpetrators from extradition—which means that American courts will never get a crack at them.

Since justice Colombia-style often means a few years of R&R on a ranch surrounded by gun-slinging associates and beautiful women, a chance to escape American jurisdiction is a huge boon for major traffickers. So, it's no surprise that they're eager to take Uribe up on his offer. A few weeks before he was gunned down outside a supermarket by former allies last year, a paramilitary commander known as Rodrigo 00 told me that drug lords are seizing the opportunity "to achieve impunity for them and their riches" and "turn Colombia into a 'narcodemocracy.' " According to the U.S. ambassador in Bogotá and a classified Colombian government report, many drug lords who were not already affiliated with the paramilitaries "have bought their way into senior paramilitary positions" to take advantage of the amnesty.

In preparation for getting in on the deal, the drug lords seem to be emptying out their warehouses—selling off stockpiles of cocaine so they have enough cash on hand to go legit for a few years without giving up their fabulous wealth and swank lifestyles. These stockpiles, by all accounts, are massive. They have allowed traffickers to insulate their business and maintain a steady flow of imports to the United States and Europe regardless of how many coca plants South American soldiers and American defense contractors are killing with machetes and herbicide at any given time. On a recent visit to Bolivia, the head of South America operations for the U.S. Agency for International Development said that traffickers have so much cocaine on hand they could keep exports constant for a year and a half even if production stopped altogether.

The recent slew of seizures is a good sign of a sell-off: According to a basic law of drug-war economics, every increase in the amount of cocaine seized reflects a more-or-less proportionate increase in the amount of cocaine shipped. An American anthropologist doing fieldwork in southern Colombia reports additional evidence that the cocaine market is glutted: Peasant producers of coca paste (the base material for cocaine) are having trouble finding buyers for their product—an indication that so much cocaine is being shipped from warehouses that traffickers don't need to buy paste to manufacture more. Over the past few months, paste prices in Putumayo, the heart of Colombian coca country, have fallen between 10 percent and 40 percent.

In the past decade, Washington has poured billions of dollars into Colombia with the ostensible purpose of fighting the drug trade. Meanwhile, the street price of cocaine has steadily declined, from around $250 a gram in the late 1980s to well under $100 today. Now Congress is debating whether to help finance Uribe's demobilization effort, despite concerns that it's a lucrative retirement plan for traffickers. Whatever the United States decides, drug lords are already taking advantage of Uribe's amnesty, and their sell-off will mean an even sharper drop in the price of a gram. Cokeheads should stock up now, though. Prices will soon rise again as a new crop of traffickers comes to take the place of the old.


          Football Soccer in Buenos Aires - Calendar of matches August 2017 - May 2018        

The fixture of football (soccer) matches in Buenos Aires for the second half of the year 2017 and the first half of 2018 has been announced. It comprises the matches in the local 1st Division Tournaments, the Qualifiers for Russia World Cup 2018, and the international tournaments "Copa Libertadores" and "Copa Sudamericana".

Don't miss the opportunity of attending one of these exciting games the easiest and safest way, with a service that includes tickets, transfers, and bilingual host, provided the leading companies in football tours. Contact me and make your reservation!

August 2017
Thursday 3: Estudiantes vs Nacional Potosi (Bolivia) - Copa Sudamericana
Saturday 5: San Lorenzo vs Peñarol
Tuesday 8: Lanus vs The Strongest (Bolivia) - Copa Libertadores de América
Tuesday 8: River Plate vs Guarani (Paraguay) - Copa Libertadores de América
Thursday 10: San Lorenzo vs Emelec (Ecuador) - Copa Libertadores de América
Saturday 26: Independiente vs Huracan
Sunday 27: Boca Juniors vs Olimpo

September 2017
Tuesday 5: Argentina vs Venezuela - Qualifiers for Russia World Cup 2018
Saturday 9: Racing Club Vs Temperley
Sunday 10: Lanus Vs Boca Juniors
Sunday 10: River Plate vs Banfield
Saturday 16: Independiente Vs Lanus
Sunday 17: Boca Juniors vs. Godoy Cruz
Thursday 21: Racing Club vs Corinthians - Copa Sudamericana
Saturday 23: Velez Sarfield Vs Boca Juniors
Sunday 24: River Plate Vs Argentinos Juniors
Saturday 30: San Lorenzo Vs Colon

October 2017
Sunday 1: Boca Juniors vs. Chacarita
Thursday 5: Argentina vs Peru - Qualifiers for Russia World Cup 2018
Saturday 14:  River Plate vs Tigre
Sunday 15: River Plate Vs Atlético Tucuman
Saturday 28: Independiente Vs Patronato
Sunday 29: Boca Juniors vs. Belgrano

November 2017
Saturday 4: Racing Club Vs Talleres
Sunday 5: San Lorenzo Vs Banfield
Saturday 18: Independiente Vs River Plate
Sunday 19: Boca Juniors vs. Racing Club
Sunday 26: River Plate Vs Newells Old Boys

December 2017
Saturday 2: Independiente Vs Rosario Central
Sunday 3: Boca Juniors vs. Arsenal de Sarandi
Saturday 9: San Lorenzo Vs Atlético Tucuman
Sunday 10: Estudiantes Lp Vs Boca Juniors
Sunday 10: River Plate Vs Union

January 2018
Saturday 27: Independiente Vs Estudiantes
Sunday 28: Huracan Vs River Plate
Sunday 28: Boca Juniors vs. Colón

February 2018
Saturday 3: Racing Club Vs Huracan
Sunday 4: River Plate Vs Olimpo
Sunday 4: San Lorenzo Vs Boca Juniors
Saturday 10: Independiente Vs San Lorenzo
Sunday 11: Lanus Vs River Plate
Sunday 11: Boca Juniors vs. Temperley
Saturday 17: San Lorenzo Vs Newells Old Boys
Sunday 18: Banfield Vs Boca Juniors
Sunday 18: River Plate Vs Godoy Cruz
Saturday 24: Independiente Vs Banfield
Sunday 25: Velez Sarfield Vs River Plate
Sunday 25: Boca Juniors vs. San Martin de San Juan

March 2018
Saturday 3: Racing Club Vs Velez Sarfield
Sunday 4: River Plate Vs Chacarita
Sunday 4: Argentinos Juniors Vs Boca Juniors
Saturday 10: Independiente Vs Argentinos Juniors
Sunday 11: Boca Juniors vs. Tigre
Saturday 17: San Lorenzo Vs Olimpo
Sunday 18: River Plate Vs Belgrano
Saturday 31: Independiente Vs Atlético Tucuman

April 2018
Sunday 1: Boca Juniors vs. Talleres
Saturday 7: San Lorenzo Vs Godoy Cruz
Sunday 8: Racing Club Vs River Plate
Sunday 8: Boca Juniors vs. Defensa y Justicia
Saturday 14: Velez Sarfield Vs San Lorenzo
Sunday 15: Independiente Vs Boca Juniors
Sunday 15: River Plate Vs Rosario Central
Saturday 21: San Lorenzo Vs Chacarita
Sunday 22: Boca Juniors vs. Newell's Old Boys
Saturday 28: Racing Club Vs Arsenal
Sunday 29: River Plate Vs Estudiantes

May 2018
Saturday 5: San Lorenzo Vs Belgrano
Sunday 6: Boca Juniors vs Union
Saturday 12: Racing Club Vs Colon
Sunday 13: River Plate Vs San Lorenzo

Schedule subject to change of dates and addition of new matches depending on the progress of the tournaments, please check regularly on this post online for updates.

          arteBA 2017 Contemporary Art Fair        

arteBA Contemporary Art Fair, that will take place from May 24 to May 27, 2017, is the most popular cultural event in the city of Buenos Aires and the most important one of its kind in Latin America. arteBA is an art exhibition where art galleries display their best artworks, offering the general public the chance to come face to face with truly unique collectors’ pieces. It is also an opportunity for the newer art centers from all over the region to present their younger artists and reveal the very latest trends, which are simply absent from other art fairs.

This year the fair will showcase the most outstanding works from 91 art galleries from 20 different countries, including Germany, Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Spain, the United States, France, Japan, Kosovo, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela.

The Fair will be divided into several sections, such as, among others:
  • Main Section: Established galleries chosen by a renowned selection committee.
  • Cabinet: A specific area within the galleries booths in the main section of the fair. In Cabinet, one or more works by a single artist are exhibited. The aim of the section is to show important, unique, or emblematic works by modern and contemporary artists.
  • U-TURN Project Rooms by Mercedes Benz: A curator invites galleries to present a specific project featuring up to three artists and selects each work to be exhibited.
  • Solo Show Zurich: this section focuses on Latin American artists who, along with their galleries are developing a critical conversation regarding contemporary art in their own countries.
  • Barrio Joven Chandon: Section for young Argentine and foreign galleries focused mainly on Latin American artists.
  • Isla de Ediciones: sale of individual volumes and collections that provide theoretical support and information on contemporary art.
The OPEN FORUM 2017 will be held with free admission in the fair’s auditorium with conferences by international lecturers. Claudia Fontes, who was chosen to represent our country at the Venice Biennale, Marta Minujín who is presenting her Parthenon of banned books at Documenta 14 in Kassel, and Fernanda Laguna that will be present at LACMA, will all be present at arteBA, participating in the Art Conversations series, part of the Open Forum program.

These are just a few of the many activities programmed for this year's exhibition. For more information, visit arteBA'17 official website.

Location: La Rural Exhibition Center. Blue and Green Pavilions. Av. Sarmiento 2704, Buenos Aires
Dates and hours: May 24 - 27, 2017 / 2:00 pm to 9:00 pm

Admission fees:
General: AR $160
Students and Senior citizens: AR $80
2 day pass: AR$ 250
4 day  pass: AR$ 320

          Wednesday Links        
  • The NSA is recording and storing one billion cellphone calls per day.
  • Wow on the diversion of the Bolivian President's flight so his plane could be searched for Edward Snowden.  Suddenly Julian Assange doesn't sound so paranoid any more.  I think we are all getting an object lesson here in how the world really works, and it's not pretty at all.
  • Glenn Greenwald's speech on meeting Snowden worth reading in full.
  • Morsi government in Egypt overthrown by military.  More unrest in Middle East is not great for the rest of us, but of course the main hope would be for a decent life for the Egyptian people.  I'ts very unfortunate that it has come to this.
  • And the Oil Drum is closing down for new content.  That was where I first started blogging back in 2005.  Sad to see it go (though I confess I haven't been a regular reader in a number of years).
Finally, I mentioned the other day that I was using Vienna to read news.  It turns out that Vienna was in the background relying on Google Reader in ways that I didn't realize.  It totally fell apart and became useless once Google Reader was turned off.  Grrr.  It may take me a while to have a functioning blog reader set-up again.

          Economic and Geo-Political Prognosis for 2015        

Paper No. 5856                                 Dated 12-Jan-2015

Guest Column by Dr. Rajesh Tembarai Krishnamachari and Srividya Kannan Ramachandran

Abstract:

The re-moderation of the world economy set in place over the past few years continues apace. Notwithstanding some lasting damage on the supply side through the 2008 recessionary trough, our outlook for 2015 is bullish weighing more on optimistic data trends than on continued negative sentiment proffered from some analyst quarters.

Around the world in 80 (or more) words:

Treating the ten-year US Treasury bond yield as a proxy indicator for that nation's nominal GDP growth, we anticipate United States to grow around 3% next year.[1] While this does not mark a return to the buoyant 90s, it is better than the secular stagnation hypothesized earlier in 2014.[2] With US acting as an engine to spur growth, the world economy should also expand by more than 3%.[3] Stability across the world will be maintained – as sparks without a concomitant fury will characterize both overt (e.g. Russia-West over Ukraine) and covert (e.g. China-Japan over Senkaku) animosities.[4] European stagnation from debt and unemployment will be counterbalanced through quantitative easing by the European Central Bank.[5] Similar action in Japan will display the limits of Abe-nomics.[6] China will prepare for a structural slowdown emphasizing domestic consumption and de-leveraging an over-heated financial sector; all the while growing at a 7% rate that will amaze rivals around the world.[7] Indian reform, even if inadequate, will boost the middle classes and reinforce confidence in the Modi government.[8] African countries will find their commodity boom dissipate and ease of borrowing decline as commodity prices fall and yields rise in the developed world.[9]

Continental tectonics:

a. North America:

Economic benefits arising from the exploitation of shale gas have not only silenced the anti-fracking environmentalists, they have altered the strategic world-view of Washington politicians.[10] As US aims to overtake even Saudi Arabia in oil/NGL production in 2015 (and the Saudis pull out all stops in preventing it by driving crude prices down), it has markedly reduced its role as a global policeman.[11] Its own economy is on the mend even as a lame-duck president will be boggled down with partisan grid-lock. Markets will fret about the mid-year (or earlier?) hike in interest rates; though Main Street - aided by a strong dollar - will likely shrug it off with a continued upward movement across different sectors.[12]

Mexico and Canada will benefit from their tight coupling with the United States.[13] Enrique Pena Nieto will claim credit for reforming the Mexican economy – across sectors as diverse as energy and telecom.[14] Pemex, dear to the Mexicans, will face some competition, though nothing remotely similar to the American acquisition of Tim Hortons – dear to the Canadians – will happen.[15] Up north, the Canadian elections in 2015 will reveal whether the country has reverted to its liberal propensities or sticks with Harper's conservative agenda.[16]

b. Latin and South America:

The outlook is disappointing across much of the region. Run-away inflation hammers Argentina and Venezuela; milder ill-effects bedevil Brazil, Bolivia and Uruguay.[17] The Maduro regime in Venezuela and the Kirchner government in Argentina continue to flirt with disaster as their GDP growths slip and mass discontent builds up.[18] Dilma Rousseff has stabilized her position electorally, though her policies continue to disappoint investors and have the potential to reignite sudden protests like the 2013 bus-fare protests.[19] Dependence on commodity exports in a time of declining prices does not portend well for any of the South American states, including Brazil.[20] On a positive note, Cuba – already expected by analysts to grow by close to 4% next year – will see a boost to its fortunes accruing from a thaw in relations with US under Obama.[21]

c. Africa:

African nations had a great run in the past few years. This arose not only from the boom in commodity prices but also from the need for yield amongst DM (developed market) investors resulting in investment in both corporate and public African bonds.[22] In 2015, these factors could dissipate which will place pressure on countries like Angola where household spending has risen more than 4000% since the start of the millennium.[23] Ethiopia and Kenya are expected to continue on a robust growth path.[24] Contradictions abound within Africa, and nowhere are they more visible than in Nigeria. While the northern part struggles under the oppression of Boko Haram, the southern part booms under Goodluck Jonathan's president-ship.[25] In neighboring South Sudan, one is reminded of the risk-reward payoff as the nation widely tipped to experience spectacular growth in 2014, got mired in conflict, with the consequent dissipation of growth potential.[26]

American intervention in Libya undermined the Gaddafi-imposed order and has led to a civil war between the Islamist and secularist factions which will hold back that nation in the coming year.[27] A more benign intervention was that of the French in Mali in 2013; we expect more calls for Hollande's assistance in 2015.[28] El Sisi has stabilized Egypt after the Muslim Brotherhood interlude in the post-Mubarak era. Though more brutal than Mubarak, the El Sisi regime is being propped by both the Americans and Saudis, leading us to expect the recent bull run in Egyptian markets to continue.[29] ANC rule in South Africa continues unimpeded. Though atrophied by many scandals, the rule should produce close to 3% growth in the coming year.[30]

d. Middle East:

The region continues to be a cesspool of ethno-sectarian rivalries as the century-old Sykes-Pikot agreement unravels.[31] Recep Erdogan has stabilized Turkey and should reap a growth on par with other emerging economies.[32] Erdogan's external actions driven by AKP's crypto-desire to establish a caliphate will see him prop the Islamic State (IS) just so that it can damage Shia and Kurdish interests; but not enough to threaten his own Sunni hegemonic plans.[33] The Saudi establishment has focused on the removal of the Muslim brotherhood threat; now they will focus on limiting Shia Iranian influence by keeping crude prices low.[34] Western companies made a beeline to Iran in 2014 in hope of an impending thaw; much will depend on the negotiation ability of the Rouhani establishment on the sanction front.[35] Dubai and Israel remain insulated from the turmoil around and could reap the benefit of the uptick in the world economy.[36] The risk of sudden flare-ups like the 2014 Gaza war continue to remain on the Israeli radar.

e. Asia and Australia:

The Asian political scene is remarkably stable with China, Japan and India looking inward to stabilize their economies under the leadership of Xi Jinping, Shinzo Abe and Narendra Modi, respectively. Some events have gone unnoticed by world media – for example, China starts the year of the goat as the world's largest economy when measured in PPP terms and for the first time ever, Chinese outbound investments could exceed those inbound.[37] The establishment of China on the world stage has made Xi stronger than any Chinese leader in recent memory bar Chairman Mao himself. The Abe regime will continue on its reformist route of bringing Japan out of the deflationary zone, while winking at nationalist sentiment calling for a re-interpretation of the country's post-war pacifist role.[38] Down south in India, Modi has surprised both supporters and detractors alike by his middle-path approach to reforming the economy and his zealous interest in foreign policy. While reforming cautiously, he has not removed the populist schemes of the previous government. 2015 will see him act unimpeded by local elections (other than in Bihar) and will prove to be a litmus test of his claims of good governance.[39]

Afghanistan under Ashraf Ghani will face more trouble from Taliban as US adopts the Pakistani classification into good versus bad Taliban.[40] In nearby Pakistan, the wildly popular Imran Khan - with some help, perhaps, from the deep state – will challenge the established parties in their home turfs.[41] In Indonesia, Jake Widodo has come to power with Imran Khan-type support amongst the youth, and he will be hard-pressed to implement his reformist agenda – including reducing fuel subsidies – amidst persistent opposition from entrenched interests.[42] ASEAN will continue to slip on its stated intentions for closer cooperation.[43] Australia will try to balance its strategic partnership with the United States with economic dalliances with the Chinese.[44]

f. Europe and Russia:

Vladimir Putin will be emboldened by the short-term rise in domestic popularity; and hence ignore the longer-term implications of his intervention in Ukraine.[45] Tighter coupling with Kazakhstan and Belarus will not prevent what is likely to be a low-growth and high-inflation year for the Russians.[46] Europe as a whole continues to underperform, and it will be most visible in France and Italy both of whom might record less than 1% growth in GDP. With the Trierweller-Gayet saga behind his back, Francois Hollande will attempt to rein in a deficit running at close to 4% of GDP. Even with help from ECB's quantitative easing program, there is little expectation that Hollande can avoid being the most unpopular leader amongst all western democracies.[47] In Italy, high debt and unemployment – exemplified by the statistic of four-fifths of Italians between the ages of 20-31 living with parents – will hamper any efforts Matteo Renzi might take to pull the economy out of its doldrums.[48]

The Greeks might look forward to a better year, especially when juxtaposed against their recent past. On the back of painful reforms, the Greek economy is widely anticipated to commence its long journey back to health, though there might be recurrent political scares and recalcitrant rumors of a Greek exit.[49] The German government will be buffeted by opposing demands – external calls for a more interventionist role in stabilizing the world economy and internal ones for tempering the same. Cautious progress on the fiscal front will lead to modest GDP growth.[50] Ironically, the European nations with best GDP growth projections are also the ones with the highest exposure to Putin's misadventures, viz. Poland, Latvia and Lithuania.[51]

Sectors and segments:

Having dropped significantly in the past few months, the level of oil prices affects the prospects for many industry sectors in 2015.  Oil is typically expected to revert to the mean because a lower oil price has discernible impact on both supply (by discouraging investment in its production and distribution) and demand (by boosting economic activity) sides.[52] The speed of such mean-reversion remains unclear. Russia, Iran and US shale producers (esp. those who are not based at strategic locations) suffer disproportionally more than the Saudi establishment at current price levels.[53] Lower oil prices will provide a fillip to consumer discretionary industries and airlines; and have an adverse impact on railroad (benefiting from oil transportation) and petrochemical companies. The shale gas boom - apart from increasing housing activity - is also the prime driver behind growth in the US steel and construction material sectors; consequently both the steel and construction sectors will remain susceptible to crude movements.[54]

Low interest rates and low macro-growth prospects will induce companies with excess cash to acquire other companies to report earnings growth. That trend will be apparent in companies transacting in sectors as diverse as healthcare, industrials, semiconductors, software and materials.[55] On another side of investment banks, trading desks will see higher market volatility as major powers pursue divergent paths to monetary policy (e.g. US against EU/Japan).[56] In US, regulatory obligations increasing cost of capital for holding certain securities might lead to decreased broker liquidity.[57] 2015 shall see the big banks grapple with the regulations in Basel III and Volcker; one expects regulatory push towards vanilla deposit-taking and lending to continue.[58] Analysts will hope that stronger balance sheets coupled with a return to profitability lead to increased dividend payout for investors in financial stocks. China will seek to tame its overheated financial sector amidst a structural slowdown[59], and India will see RBI governor Raghuram Rajan continue his battle against political interference in corporate lending.[60] Wealth management services will perform remarkably well not only in China, but also to a lesser extent in US as a rising market creates wealth and a retiring baby-boomer crowd seeks to couple low risk with acceptable return.[61] In the arena of mobile payment, Apple Pay will try to avoid the lackluster performance of earlier attempts like Google Wallet.[62]

Lower gasoline prices and an accompanying increase in disposable income (through wealth creation at the markets, increased home values, reduced unemployment and improved economic activity) creates a positive outlook for the consumer discretionary sector. Companies dealing with organic farming benefit from increased health consciousness; the market for yoga will continue to rise as 2014 saw the UN declare a world yoga day on Modi's initiative.[63] Even as DVDs and Blue-rays fall, digital film subscriptions and on-demand internet steaming will rise to please Hollywood.[64] Bollywood will get over its obsession with INR 100 crore revenues as movies will cross that level more frequently.[65]  With supply level of hotels remaining the same as few years back, revenue per room will rise across the sector.[66] Tighter access to credit continues to hamper the rise in existing house sales, which nevertheless should improve over the past year.[67] Asian apparel manufacturers continue to improve their market share in the fast fashion market.[68]  October 2015 will see Europeans benefit from the eCall service in all their new cars, which allows a car to immediately report details to the base-stations on any accident. New carbon-emission standards also come into force in Europe; even elsewhere the move towards higher efficiency in cars will continue.[69] Widodo will be pleased at the growth in automobile sales in Indonesia, which should exceed those of other major markets.[70] Internet advertising is rising faster than television commercials, though 2015 will still see the latter dominate the former in overall revenue generated.[71] Privacy concerns continue to erode on the social media front.[72] The newspaper industry will see increased number of advertorials re-packaged as "native advertising" by which companies will pay for advertisements to be written as paid newspaper article.[73]

In India, the BJP government is yet to clarify its position on foreign direct investment in retail.[74] Irrespective of its final decision, retail sales should surge sharply upward there as the consummation of pent-up demand of past few years couples with the thriving of 'mall culture' in middle-tier cities. China will also see an increase in retail sales inspite of its investigation in to WalMart.[75] The anti-corruption campaign though will negatively impact luxury good sales as well as those of higher-end automobiles there[76]. A strong dollar will affect US companies with significant operations abroad. Wheat production might match 2014 record volumes in Europe[77]; though more newsprint will probably be devoted to higher prices of cocoa from Ivory Coast.[78] Idiosyncrasies of local markets will shine as Dubai invests in large-scale brick and mortal malls, while Manhattan gets more of its groceries delivered at home steps.[79]

Demand for energy should rise at the same pace as the world GDP next year. Analysts will point at attractive valuations of oil companies.[80] If shale price remains attractive, Sabine Pass in Louisiana will emerge as the first plant in US to export LNG.[81] Four years after the Fukushima incident, Japan will see nuclear reactors back in operation at Sendai.[82]

2014 saw the denizens of the developed world fret about Ebola, breast cancer (through a campaign by actor Angelina Jolie) and ALS (through the ice bucket challenge).[83] Overall, health spending will comfortably outpace the rate of growth of the overall economy. Long-term secular trends driving this are the aging population in the western world (with the population pyramid replaced by a population dome) and an emerging middle class elsewhere with increasing demand for improved access to healthcare.[84] Universal healthcare has been promised for all in India, which should drive up healthcare expenditure by a significant amount there.[85] In 2015, large US companies are mandated under Obama-care to provide insurance to more than 70% of their eligible workforce.[86] Uncertainty on US healthcare reform and debate thereon may cause short-term price volatility. Millennial Development Goals will reviewed by the UN later in the year with a new set of goalposts announced for countries to be met by 2030; different NGOs will campaign vigorously through media to get their pet agendas included in the final list.[87]

Transportation companies will report higher earnings from increased economic activity.[88] Apart from some airlines which have suffered reputation damage through recurring accidents, airline companies will benefit from the reduced oil prices. Defense industry will see robust growth in China, as "Chi-America" remains no more a chimera.[89] Alarmed by this increase, Vietnam with Philippines will move within the US ambit and Australia will seek to join the tripartite naval exercises in the Indian Ocean between US, Japan and India.[90] Tensions in Eastern Europe and the middle-east will favor increases in expenditure across the region. The nationalist government in India will increase defense expenditure sharply even as it moves beyond lip-service on the long-standing issue of indigenization of defense manufacturing.[91]

The mantra of social-local-mobile (SoLoMo in tech jargon) continues to drive the consumer markets division of information technology companies.[92] Expenditure on IT hardware is significantly retarded by the increasing move to cloud computing.[93] The move to cloud computing - along with increasing use of mobile commerce - bodes well for the computer security business.[94] India should see a sharp increase in smart phone adoption; elsewhere tablet computers will rise against laptop and desktops.[95] Embedded systems coupled with rudimentary networking will be marketed as an all-encompassing internet of things as the era of big data continues.[96]  Today, a single family in US places more demands on data flow than the entire planet did a decade back; and even this data rate is expected to increase by a whopping 70% over the next year. Consolidation in the cable sector (e.g Comcast with Time Warner Cable) and the convergence of content with distribution (e.g. AT&T with DirectTV) are two trends that should continue on from 2014.[97] Even as Indians will talk about 3G coverage spanning the nation; Americans will tweet about 4G price warfare and the Chinese will see ZTE unveil a 5G prototype.[98] Facebook will have more users than China has human beings.[99] Analysts will harp about impact of interest-rate hikes on high dividend paying telecom stocks.[100] Apart from the financial industry, telecom will emerge as an industry most impacted by federal regulation across the globe.

The anthropologist Edward Weyer once compared the future to being akin to a "corridor into which we can see only through the light coming from behind".  It is in that sense that we have analyzed the data of the bygone year and tried to extrapolate into the days and months ahead. And when some are falsified - and falsified, some will be - then we shall lay credit for the same at the feet of those responsible - viz. us, the people.

[The authors are based in New York City, and can be contacted through email at tkrajesh@gmail.com and srivi019@gmail.com. The views represented above are personal and do not in any manner reflect those of the institutions affiliated with the authors.]

References


[1] See the graph titled "10 year bond yield: annual change and real GDP: annual % change" at http://www.swcollege.com/bef/econ_data/bond_yield/bond_yield_data.html.

[2] "Secular stagnation: facts, causes and cures", a VoxEU eBook at  http://www.voxeu.org/sites/default/files/Vox_secular_stagnation.pdf.

[4] A brief historical perspective on the Russia-Ukraine conflict is at http://www.summer.harvard.edu/blog-news-events/conflict-ukraine-historical-perspective.

The Economist magazine summarizes the debate over Senkaku islands at http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/12/economist-explains-1.

[5] “The ECB, demigods and eurozone quantitative easing” at http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/c90dd466-7bb4-11e4-a695-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3NIKpG2Fx.

[6] “Bank of Japan announces more quantitative easing: the next chapter in Abenomics” at http://www.forbes.com/sites/jonhartley/2014/11/02/bank-of-japan-announces-more-quantitative-easing-the-next-chapter-in-abenomics/.

[7] “World Bank urges China to cut economic growth target to seven percent in 2015, focus on reforms” at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/10/29/us-china-worldbank-idUSKBN0II05P20141029.

[8] “Reforms by PM Narendra Modi will help India to grow 5.5% this year, 6.3% next year: ADB” at http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2014-12-17/news/57154602_1_cent-the-adb-growth-forecast.

[10] “The experts: how the US oil boom will change the markets and geopolitics”, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324105204578382690249436084

[13] “Economic growth patterns in USA, Canada, Mexico and China” at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dominik-knoll/economic-growth-patterns-_b_5832182.html.

[14] “Mexican president Pena Nieto's ratings slip with economic reform” at http://www.pewglobal.org/2014/08/26/mexican-president-pena-nietos-ratings-slip-with-economic-reform/.

[17] “Andres Oppenheimer: Latin America's forecast for 2015: not good” at http://www.miamiherald.com/news/local/news-columns-blogs/andres-oppenheimer/article2503660.html.

[18] “Maduro blames plunging oil prices on US war vs Russia, Venezuela” at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/12/30/us-venezuela-oil-idUSKBN0K802020141230 and “What's in store for post-Kirchner Argentina” at http://globalriskinsights.com/2014/12/whats-store-post-kirchner-argentina/

[19] “Brazil economists cut 2015 growth forecast to slowest on record” at http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-08-11/brazil-economists-cut-2015-growth-forecast-to-slowest-on-record.html

[20] “Economic snapshot for Latin America” at http://www.focus-economics.com/regions/latin-america.

[21] “Cuba, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico business forecast report Q1 2015” at http://www.marketresearch.com/Business-Monitor-International-v304/Cuba-Dominican-Republic-Puerto-Rico-8538079/ and “Obama's Cuba move is Florida's top story for 2014” at http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/dec/29/obamas-cuba-move-is-floridas-top-story-of-2014/.

[24] “Ethiopia overview” at  http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/ethiopia/overview and “Kenya overview” at http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/kenya/overview.

[26] “Internal violence in South Sudan” at http://www.cfr.org/global/global-conflict-tracker/p32137#!/?marker=33.

[27] “Political instability in Libya” at http://www.cfr.org/global/global-conflict-tracker/p32137#!/?marker=14.

[28] “The regional impact of the armed conflict and French intervention in Mali” at http://www.peacebuilding.no/var/ezflow_site/storage/original/application/f18726c3338e39049bd4d554d4a22c36.pdf.

[29] “EGX head optimistic on equities as Egyptian economy recovers” at http://www.thenational.ae/business/markets/egx-head-optimistic-on-equities-as-egyptian-economy-recovers.

[30] “Economy - outlook for 2015 dismal, despite boost” at http://mg.co.za/article/2014-11-25-economy-outlook-for-2015-not-encouraging-despite-boost.

[31] “Pre-state Israel: The Sykes-Picot agreement” at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/sykes_pico.html.

[32] “Turkey - economic forecast summary (Nov 2014)” at http://www.oecd.org/economy/turkey-economic-forecast-summary.htm.

[34] “Saudi-Iranian relations since the fall of Saddam” at http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG840.html.

[36] “Dubai 2015 cross sector business outlook extremely bullish” at http://ameinfo.com/blog/mentors/c/capital-club/dubai-2015-cross-sector-business-outlook-extremely-bullish/ and “Israel - economic forecast summary (Nov 2014)” at http://www.oecd.org/economy/israel-economic-forecast-summary.htm.

[37] “China's leap forward: overtaking the US as world's biggest economy” at http://blogs.ft.com/ftdata/2014/10/08/chinas-leap-forward-overtaking-the-us-as-worlds-biggest-economy/.

[38] “Understanding Shinzo Abe and Japanese nationalism” at http://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2014/05/26/understanding-shinzo-abe-and-japanese-nationalism/.

[39] Book: “Getting India back on track: an action agenda for reform” edited by B. Debroy, A. J. Tellis and R. Trevor.

[40] “US may not target Mullah Omar after this year" at http://www.dawn.com/news/1152382.

[41] “The rise and rise of Kaptaan” at http://tribune.com.pk/story/800722/the-rise-and-rise-of-kaptaan/.

[42] “Widodo launches reform agenda with fuel price hike” at http://www.focus-economics.com/news/indonesia/fiscal/widodo-launches-reform-agenda-fuel-price-hike.

[43] “ASEAN's elusive integration” at http://opinion.inquirer.net/74164/aseans-elusive-integration.

[46] “Russia's economics ministry downgrades 2015 oil price forecast to $80 per barrel” at http://itar-tass.com/en/economy/764662.

[47] “Hollande popularity plumbs new low in mid-term French poll” at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/06/us-france-hollande-idUSKBN0IQ14R20141106.

          Eudocio Ravines:Martir de la Libertad        

Fue a través de los
editoriales de Ravines que mi padre se involucró con el movimiento liberal de América Latina.  Mi padre fascinado con lo que con lo que Ravines
escribia contra los comunistas y a favor de la libre empresa decidió
invitarlo a dar una charla en Guayaquil en la Cámara de
Industrias al final de los 70's.  Al llegar Ravines al aeropuerto mi padre se asustó al verlo en persona pues
estaba muy viejo y tembloroso en incluso tartamudeaba de vejez.   Sin embargo ni
bien Ravines se paró en el podio, todos aquellos achaques y aparentes impedimentos que lo acompañan a uno en la vejez desaparacieron y dió una conferencia muy elocuente y muy
ovacionada por los presentes en dicha cena de la Cámara.  A su regreso a México una semana despues Ravines muere cobardemente asesinado

Yo descubrí a Ravines cuando a los 11  o 12
años comencé a devorar los libros que mi padre tenía en la biblioteca
dado que estaba interesado en esto que se llamaba capitalismo.  Me
impresionó el libro que lanzó a la fama a Ravines "La gran estafa" y luego lei una biografia de él, El deportado, escrito por Federico Pietro Celi, que la leí como novela y me ayudó a entender porque esto del comunismo y la union soviética era una locura.

Abajo incluyo la brevísima biografía publicada por Alberto Benegas Lynch.  ¿Qué díria Eudocio Ravines al ver estos gobiernos neo-comunistas que nos gobiernan?.





via El Independent by Gabriel Gasave on 4/8/09

Por Alberto Benegas Lynch (h)


Diario de América






Es de gran interés relatar
resumidamente la historia de una persona compenetrada con el marxismo y
vinculada a la elite del aparato soviético, responsable de haber
organizado los movimientos comunistas en España, Chile, Argentina y
Perú por lo que obtuvo los Premios Stalin y Mao. Nos referimos a Eudocio Ravines.





Nació en un pueblito peruano en 1897.
Sus padres querían que fuera fraile de la orden franciscana. Estaba muy
impresionado con la extrema pobreza que su familia padecía y con la que
lo rodeaba. En su primer trabajo fuera de su casa, en Lima, en el
comercio de Albert Kobrick, se hizo de algunas de las obras de Lenin,
Marx, Trotsky y Engles, las cuales leyó con avidez en poco tiempo.


Comenzó a escribir asiduamente en el
periódico “La Razón” e influye en su pensamiento el fogoso orador y
lector empedernido Juan Carlos Mariátegui. En 1919, el mencionado
periódico deja de imprimirse y funda “Rincón Rojo” y escribe en la
revista “Claridad” hasta que el gobierno lo deporta a Chile donde, a su
vez, es deportado a la Argentina. En este país toma contacto con José
Ingenieros, Juan B. Justo, Rodolfo Ghioldi, Nicolás Repetto, Carlos
Sánchez Viamonte y Vittorio Codovila, en esa instancia todos
admiradores de la revolución rusa y con los que participa en la Liga
Anti-Imperialista y ayuda a consolidar el Partido Comunista.


Con lo que pudo ahorrar en su precario
trabajo viaja a París donde colabora en la formación y en la plataforma
de la Alianza Popular Revolucionaria (APRA) en estrecho contacto con
Víctor R. Haya de la Torre que por entonces se encontraba exiliado en
Londres, documentos que enfatizaban la “nacionalización de la tierra y
las industrias”. En Francia lo conoce a Henry Barbusse que dirige
“Monde” donde Ravines comienza a colaborar periódicamente.


En 1927 es designado delegado argentino
del Partido Comunista al Congreso en Bruselas y en 1929 es designado
delegado del grupo socialista-comunista de Perú al Congreso de
Frankfurt. Ese mismo año es invitado a Moscú donde se encuentra con la
primera sorpresa en el tren ruso: las porciones para el desayuno eran
mínimas y a precios varias veces superiores a las raciones suculentas
de los desayunos parisinos. La segunda sorpresa es el estado miserable
de la gente, la mugre y el hacinamiento a medida que el tren iba
recorriendo diferentes lugares, a lo cual los comisarios encargados de
vigilarlo le explicaron que era “la herencia recibida” aún después de
doce años de iniciada la revolución. La tercera sorpresa, fue comprobar
en Moscú la opulencia con que vivían y las comidas y las bebidas que se
servían en las mansiones de los jerarcas del partido, pero aceptó que
se trataba de los dolores del parto provocados por la transición al
nuevo régimen.


Luego forma el Partido Comunista en
Lima y, en 1930, es primero puesto preso en un calabozo y luego
deportado nuevamente por el gobierno, también a Santiago y luego a
Buenos Aires, desde donde es llamado a Montevideo para encargarle la
urgente misión de sacar todos los archivos del Partido Comunista de
Argentina y llevarlos a Perú dado el inminente golpe militar contra
Yrigoyen. Así fue financiado por la Unión Soviética para aparecer como
hombre rico y no despertar sospechas (le hicieron comprarse varios
trajes, muchas corbatas, zapatos y camisas y alojarse en el Plaza
Hotel). A pesar de las múltiples dificultades por las que tuvo que
atravesar, cumplió con el cometido y voló a Lima vía Montevideo y
Bolivia, donde participó activamente en la radicalizada Conferencia
General de Trabajadores en 1932, a raíz de lo cual fue otra vez
detenido y condenado a 25 años de prisión donde enfermó gravemente de
paludismo.


A los pocos años se fugó de la prisión
con ayuda de los soviéticos quienes se encargaron de llevarlo a Rusia
con la idea de aprovechar sus consejos y curarlo. En esa ocasión se
llevó otras tres sorpresas. La primera es que se anotició que nunca vio
un obrero ni un campesino en las deliberaciones del partido a pesar de
que teóricamente todo sería realizado por los proletarios. La segunda
fue como consecuencia de su enfermedad cuando preguntó la razón por la
que faltaban medicamentos: le respondieron que era indispensable gastar
en armamentos debido a los “ataques permanentes de Occidente” y la
tercera fue el comienzo de las terribles purgas de Stalin liquidando a
sus propios camaradas (comenzando por su segundo el otrora poderoso S.
Kirov).


De todos modos, Ravines
prosiguió con sus actividades y mantuvo entrevistas con Satín y con Mao
(en ese momento en Moscú) donde escuchaba sorprendido largas peroratas
sobre “las maravillas del Segundo Plan Quinquenal”. En esas reuniones
planteó la necesidad de organizar Frentes Populares en España y en
Chile como método de penetración y asistió a sesiones con el cuerpo de
asesores de Dimitrov donde se explicaba la importancia decisiva de
ocupar cátedras universitarias e infiltrar diversas manifestaciones
religiosas, en especial a la Iglesia Católica.


Le incomodaba pero pasaba por alto el
hecho de que no pudiera recibir vistas sin que se reporten a la
portería del hotel donde se hospedaba, las preguntas periódicas que le
formulaban agentes de la policía y los seguimientos de que era objeto.
Finalmente viaja a Santiago con documentación falsa y bajo el nombre de
Jorge Montero y organiza el Frente Popular a través de la “Liga de los
Derechos del Hombre” y de “Casa América” y en 1937 comienza a dictar
clases (se enamora de una de sus alumnas- Delia de la Fuente- y se casa
y tiene dos hijas). Es llamado nuevamente a Moscú donde se le encarga
trabajar en un Frente Popular en España  donde funda el periódico
“Frente Rojo”.


Un noche, en un hotel de Madrid, un
camarada y amigo, de origen italiano, de apellido Marcucci -después de
escuchar en la radio las noticias de que el Comité Central del Partido
había ordenado matanzas a quienes operaban en el mercado negro en Rusia
y sus satélites- le habla largamente, muy desilusionado y angustiado
sobre como  había entregado su vida al sistema comunista al que se
refiere como “la gran estafa” (nombre que mucho después Ravines
utilizó para escribir sus memorias, fuente principal de la información
disponible que resume Federico Prieto Celi en su biografía). Esa noche,
Eudocio Ravines escucha
un disparo proveniente de la habitación contigua y encuentra que su
amigo se había suicidado, todo o cual hace que el protagonista de esta
historia termine de indignarse por las conductas de los dirigentes del
partido, pese a lo cual vuelve a Moscú en 1938 con la preocupación de
sentirse rehén del aparato al tiempo que intentaba por todos los medios
que su familia fuera trasladada a Francia desde España donde estaba
pasando hambre. En esos momentos tiene lugar la tercera purga y Hitler
firma el tratado con Stalin (Molotov-von Ribbentrop). Es trasladado a
Chile una vez más y allí decide romper con el círculo soviético pero
mantiene su fe marxista. Consideraba que el problema radicaba en la
irresponsabilidad de los administradores del régimen. De todos modos
varios emisarios le advierten que “dentro del Partido no se toleran las
abjuraciones”por las que sufrió reiteradas amenazas y ataques físicos y
morales a través de su vida.


Vuelve a Perú y es expulsado del
Partido Comunista y funda el periódico “Vanguardia” en 1945 desde donde
continúa defendiendo ideas marxistas. Al poco tiempo lo asesinan a Gaña
-director de “La Prensa”- en cuyo entierro hablan muchos periodistas
entre los que se encontraba José Miró Quesada de “El Comercio” y Pedro
Beltrán de “La Prensa”. Fue esta última persona la responsable de
influir en Ravines para que comprenda las
ventajas de los mercado libres y el liberalismo en general con lo que
abandona el socialismo-marxismo y percibe que no es una cuestión de
hombres sino de sistema y que la sociedad abierta es lo que mejor saca
a los pueblos de la pobreza.


Comienza una intensa campaña
periodística de crítica a los gobiernos intervencionistas y es puesto
en prisión, en 1947 y deportado al año siguiente, en esta ocasión por
los motivos opuestos y a pesar de sus sufrimientos debido a avanzadas
úlceras gástricas. Luego de un nuevo interregno en Lima, vuelve a ser
deportado en 1950 a México, donde en 1952 escribe las antes mencionadas
memorias, obra titulada La gran estafa que fue un éxito editorial y se
tradujo a varios idiomas. Esta historia de retornos y deportaciones no
para allí: en 1956 vuelve a Lima hasta que en 1970 el decreto ley 18309
del general Velasco Alvarado lo expulsa y le quita el pasaporte y la
ciudadanía. Luego de lo cual vivió en Guatemala, Buenos Aires y México
con pasaporte boliviano y nunca más pudo regresar a su país.


Escribe Ravines
en el prólogo a la décima edición de sus memorias: “La economía de
mercado condenaba íntegramente, sin redención posible, al marxismo y al
socialismo, a la economía dirigida, al estatismo y a todas las formas
de New Deal que pululan arrojando pérdidas, frustraciones y miseria
sobre la Tierra [...] La realidad me convenció de que si el comunismo
se arrepintiese de sus crímenes con la más sincera de las contriciones,
si renunciase a sus métodos de opresión y se postrase humildemente ante
la libertad, sería obligatorio seguir combatiéndolo por inepto [...] Se
me anclaron, con ésta, dos firmes conclusiones: el socialismo y la
miseria dolorosa y depravada de las masas, son inseparables. La
opresión y la miseria siguen al socialismo como la sombra al cuerpo”


Personalmente tuve una muy estrecha relación con Eudicio Ravines
y lo presenté en distintas tribunas en Buenos Aires, en Guatemala y en
México. En muchas ocasiones el orador debió sortear incidentes de
diverso calibre. Por ejemplo, cuando en mi calidad de asesor económico
de la Cámara Argentina de Comercio lo presenté ante una audiencia
colmada de gente en la sede de la institución, siendo presidente
Armando Braun, ni bien Ravines comenzó con las
primeras palabras de su disertación un individuo ubicado entre el
público, rodeado de varios compinches, le comenzó a gritar groserías
imposibles de reproducir y secundado por sus adlateres.


Cada vez que mencionaba su conversión
del sistema totalitario al de la libertad se emocionaba vivamente y
decía que era como el camino a Damasco de San Pablo y que escribiendo
todos los días en diferentes periódicos de América latina y Miami y
pronunciando conferencias en todas partes donde lo invitaran intentaba
reparar el inmenso daño que había causado. A partir de su abandono de
las filas comunistas estaba perfectamente al tanto de los riesgos que
corría pero los asumió y se entregó como mártir de la libertad. Fue
asesinado en México el 23 de noviembre de 1978 a los tres meses de
haber recibido su última advertencia en una feroz golpiza que le
propinaron seis sujetos encapuchados.


          Alucinaciones Socialistas        

Pensé no comentar sobre la visita de Rafael Correa a la Isla de Cuba dada la necedad de sus declaraciones y la poca importancia que dicha visita brinda al país (mas allá de sus evidentes intentos de salamería socialista).  Sin embargo no queda duda que pareciera que el compañero Correa sigue sufriendo de alucionaciones, pues se niega a reconocer (como lo hacen todos los socialistas trasnochados) que en Cuba lo que se vive es una dictadura.  Yo me pregunto hasta cuando vamos a escuchar tanta sandez, y si tanto les parece interesante el infierno cubano porque no emigran a Cuba y de una vez por todas experimentan en carne propia el gulag Cubano. 

Para muestra me remito a las pruebas y vean las declaraciones vergonzosas que ha dado en Cuba donde para empezar su idea de una nuevo país incluye el que se larguen los que no están de acuerdo y por supuesto se niega a ver el desastre Cubano.  Seguramente lo llevaron a comer a la casa del abuelito Fidel, chocho y enloquecido y se pasaron tomando vinos de los más finos y fumandose un puro cubano mientras discutían como apoderarse del resto de latinoamerica o como ejercer el control total. 

Ojalá si algún día se acaba esta revolución ciudadana y el compañerito decida irse, que Cuba le de asilo, para que viva en carne propia el paraiso cubano.  Pero seguramente no hará eso, e irá seguramente a establecerse a Belgica, patria de su señora a disfrutar de los beneficios de una sociedad capitalista, libre y próspera.


















‘La burguesía quiere desestabilizarnos’


1/14/2009

Redacción Política

El
presidente Rafael Correa   tiene una creencia: los grupos de poder 
utilizan a la mayoría de los  medios  para desestabilizar su
administración.

Así lo señaló en su reciente visita oficial a
Cuba. Allí ofreció  una entrevista con el diario Granma, el periódico
oficial del Régimen cubano, donde explicó en detalle esa idea de una
supuesta alianza entre la prensa y lo que el Jefe de Estado  denomina
“burguesía”.

En palabras del presidente  Correa,  la  burguesía
cubana salió de la isla e intenta atacar al Gobierno de ese país. En
cambio, a su juicio, la burguesía ecuatoriana prefirió quedarse en el
país para frenar su “revolución ciudadana”.

“En Ecuador, la
burguesía se quedó adentro y trata de torpedear todos los procesos de
cambio desde adentro, a través de una llamada prensa libre que en
verdad es prensa en función de ciertos privilegios e intereses; a
través de supuestas cámaras de producción; a través de ciertos sectores
de la Iglesia; a través de supuestas organizaciones sociales”.

Según
el Primer Mandatario, esa supuesta conjunción entre grupos de poder y
una parte de la  prensa se acentuará en el  proceso electoral,
para afectar al Gobierno y a sus candidatos.

“El panorama es
complejo, será difícil, van a hacer lo imposible por desestabilizarnos,
lo imposible por hacernos perder las elecciones. Ese es el desafío,
pero nuestra respuesta será más democracia. Pondremos nuestros cargos
siempre a consideración del pueblo ecuatoriano cuantas veces sea
necesario”.

El 26 de abril el Ecuador asistirá a las urnas para
elegir a todas sus autoridades de elección popular. El  Régimen y su
movimiento  Acuerdo País se han trazado  tres grandes objetivos
electorales: la reelección del presidente Rafael Correa, obtener la
mayoría en la Asamblea Legislativa (Congreso) y captar la Alcaldía de
Guayaquil.

“Los grupos de poder saben que están siendo
derrotados por sucesivos procesos electorales en Ecuador, y van a poner
toda la carne al asador para tratar de desestabilizar al Gobierno y
hacernos perder las elecciones”.

En su diálogo con el órgano de
información oficial del Gobierno cubano, el Presidente también se
refirió al proceso de integración en América Latina. En ese punto, 
responsabilizó  al modelo económico de libre mercado de la ausencia de
los problemas  que hay en la región.  “En lo social creo que falta
mucho y no se va a lograr ese mucho mientras sigan los mismos modelos
de antes, no es con más capitalismo, con más neoliberalismo, con más
mercados que se van a solucionar esas cosas. A.  Latina necesita un
modelo alternativo y en algunos países, Ecuador, Paraguay, Bolivia,
Venezuela, está tratándose de hacer”.

En sus dos años de
mandato, el  gobierno de Correa ha intensificado sus relaciones con los
países que forman la Alternativa Bolivariana para las Américas (Alba). 
Ese bloque está integrado por Venezuela, Cuba, Bolivia, Nicaragua,
Haití, Honduras y Dominica. La Alba busca ser un contrapeso geopolítico
a la influencia de Estados Unidos en la región y cuenta con Irán como
país observador.

“Los gobiernos neoliberales se derrumbaron como
castillos de naipes, por ahí sobreviven unos que otros, pero en general
ha habido muchas victorias sucesivas de gobiernos de izquierda”.

“Ojalá
pronto podamos construir esa nueva estructura o arquitectura financiera
regional, con un banco de desarrollo, con un fondo de reserva, con una
moneda común incluso”, agregó.

En la entrevista con el rotativo
cubano, el presidente Correa  también formuló ciertos paralelismos
entre la revolución cubana  y el proceso político que él lidera en el
Ecuador. Incluso, dijo que su denominada revolución ciudadana también
es “guevarista”, en referencia a Ernesto Guevara.

“Significa
un símbolo de lo que quiere ser la revolución ciudadana, esa clase de
sacrificio al extremo, darlo todo por los ideales que nos sostienen,
darlo todo por el servicio a los demás, darlo todo por la solidaridad.
Así que es también un símbolo y un mensaje de que nuestra revolución
ciudadana es alfarista, bolivariana, pero también guevarista”.


“Los grupos de poder  van a poner toda la carne al asador para  hacernos perder las elecciones”.



Derechos reservados ® 2001-2009 GRUPO EL COMERCIO C.A.

Prohibida la reproducción total o parcial de este contenido sin autorización de Diario El Comercio





          Â¿El jitomate tiene beneficios?        

El jitomate es originario de la América del Sur, Perú, Ecuador, Bolivia y Chile. Sin embargo, su domesticación fue llevada a cabo en México. El nombre de jitomate procede del náhuatl xictli,  cuyo significado es ombligo. Los aztecas y otros pueblos de  Mesoamérica utilizaban la fruta en su cocina. 500 años antes de Cristo ya estaba […]

La entrada ¿El jitomate tiene beneficios? aparece primero en CyC.


          Peru + Bolivia iPhone video        
During our three weeks in Peru and Bolivia, I recorded small video clips along the way with my phone, which resulted in this video. This was my first time filming a video with my iPhone, and I'm definitely going to be doing it more often. There's something about motion that takes you back to a place in a way photos can't. I wish I could have filmed more, but I was super short on iPhone storage and traveling without a computer ( I have since solved that problem by upgrading my phone from a 16gb to 128gb... such freedom!).

Filmed entirely with an iPhone 5s, pieced together in Final Cut Pro, and edited in Lightroom with VSCO.



In other news, we are absolutely blown away to see our blog nominated for Best Travel Blog of 2015 on the Blog Lovin awards! We don't make money with our blog, don't have a strategy, and don't post super regularly. All content is our own, so we just post when we travel. This blog is a fun personal project we started during our honeymoon almost five years ago (time flies!). We've had so much fun connecting with other like-minded travelers on this blog and in person when we're out and about, and hope to keep it up for awhile. We are so honored to be included among some really solid travel blogs, and among top blogs in other categories that I've been reading and loving for years.

If you care to cast your vote, you can do so HERE, now until September 13, 2015.



          La Paz, Bolivia | Stolen Camera + Passports        
Coming back to La Paz wasn't as bright and happy as the first time, when Zhanna and I had a dance party in the taxi while driving into the city, falling in love with it before we ever stepped out of the the car. 

The second time we drove into La Paz, after our Southwestern Bolivian expedition in Uyuni, we were on the worst bus ride of our lives.  Twelve hours through the night in an old bus on the bumpiest road you can imagine, where for the first few hours, I would fly into the air so high that landing back in my seat felt like getting punched in the stomach. So bumpy that I needed to pee for hours, but didn't think I could walk down the aisle and make it downstairs to the restroom without splitting my head open. So bumpy that things in the overhead compartment would tumble out, like a water bottle that landed in my lap while my eyes were closed, startling me so bad that I jumped up. 

When I finally got some shut eye, I held onto it with all I had. I wanted nothing more than to sleep through the rest of the miserable bus ride and wake up in La Paz. And we did eventually sleep, probably because the roads got better closer to the capitol city. When I woke up, everyone on the bus was standing and shuffling around, packing up their belongings and getting ready to get off the bus. We had a small backpack in the overhead compartment, and when we didn't see it right away, I figured it had just slid forward during that crazy ride. The bus slowly emptied out, along with everyone's belongings, and Yuriy and I were the last ones on the empty bus, looking underneath seats, panic growing. After I realized the backpack wasn't on the bus, I was sure that someone took it by mistake and would bring it back. Eventually reality set in, and I realized that someone most likely intentionally took our backpack, along with our professional camera, a coupe of lenses, a full 32gb card of photos we took during a week in Bolivia, and our passports. I sat down on the curb between buses and cried so hard. 

The worst bus ride ever led to the worst day ever. We circled around the bus terminal, looking for the backpack in people's arms, checking trash cans (in cases someone took the camera and threw everything else away), looking at faces, and wondering what person could do such a horrible thing. If we left the bus terminal, it felt like we were accepting the loss and never seeing it again, so we went around and around. 

We couldn't spend all day mourning our lost camera and photos, because we were planning to leave the country shortly, and had no passports. I always wondered what would happen if you lost a passport in a foreign country, and now we got to find out. On a day when I wanted nothing more than to shower, sleep, and take it easy after roughing it in the wilderness of Bolivia, we got none of those things. 

The following was our series of events to replace our passports: 
- bus terminal police
- bus terminal tourist police 
- La Paz tourist police - must get new passports before we can file a report
- U.S. embassy 
- go take passport photos
- check into a hotel to drop off our bags
- U.S. embassy to get new passports
- immigration
- go take Bolivian passport photos
- La Paz tourist police - file report
- immigration 
- go take more Bolivian passport photos because they were the wrong size
- go to a bank to pay for a visa
- immigration - wait for hours, even after closing, because they ran out of stickers for the passport

This mad dash from one place to another lasted from 7am until about 5 or 6pm, and most of the time we were taking a taxi between locations because the city is massive. Getting the new passport at the U.S. embassy was actually the easy part. Getting a new visa from the Bolivian immigration office was the real hassle. We had already paid $140 for a visa when we entered the country, but we had to buy a new one when we lost our passports. We were in the immigration office after all the workers went home for the day. It was Friday, so if we couldn't get our new passports/visas that day, we couldn't leave the country on Sunday and would have to wait until Monday. Lucky for us, there was another American there who had his passport stolen on the same bus ride from hell (though probably a different bus), and he was a loud and demanding New Yorker, which helped us find one employee at the immigration office who spoke some English and tried hard to help us. Everyone else didn't give a hoot about us. After everything was paid and filled out and ready to go, the office ran out of stickers to put in the passport. Someone had to travel to another office during rush hour traffic to pick up a sticker for us. I felt like I was on a reality show or some sick scavenger hunt. 

Having to spend the day desperately trying to get new passports and visas actually took our minds off of losing all our photos. We ended up getting a nice hotel for a couple nights and bought a plane ticket to Lima instead of taking a bus and traveling a little longer, like we originally planned. We were just done with traveling and ready to be home. 

After the ticket was purchased and the passports replaced, we spent a couple days exploring La Paz again, and documenting it with our Fuji X100s (a much smaller camera which wasn't stolen, but was hardly used throughout the trip).

Biggest lesson learned:
While traveling, take the memory card out of your camera and put it in a safe place. If your gear gets stolen, it's much easier to replace than the photos from your trip.

When we were still traveling, every time I thought of our stolen things, I had to try really hard not to cry. Finally the stuff that happens to other people was catching up to. Once we got home, the pain of losing the photos really melted away. I realized how lucky we were to be happy, healthy, together, and completely spoiled in America. We have everything we need. The camera was easily replaced, the passport was somewhat easily replaced, and the memories associated with the photos are still safely in our minds.

Hope you enjoy these photos of La Paz, the city of endless markets. All images were taken on a Fuji X100s. 

- Julia


Finally, a lovely hotel, after roughing it on the road in the Bolivian desert.
Peace out, Bolivia. Hope you like our camera and passports and cute backpack.


          Bolivian Expedition Part 3: Geysirs + Hotsprings        
On the last day of our Southwestern Bolivian expedition, we drove through an area with a lot of geothermal activity, which was clearly visible above ground with bubbling mud pools and steaming cracks in the earth. Some of the steam was blowing out so forcefully that it sounded like a whistling tea kettle. The sight and sound and rotten egg smell was overwhelming on the senses, especially after driving through barren nothingness to get there. Walking through the steam felt like walking on another planet. It was incredibly captivating and also terrifying, because nothing was fenced off, and it seemed so easy to step into a boiling mud pot and get cooked alive, especially when the steam enveloped you and you couldn't see a thing. Throughout our expedition, we kept thinking this is like Iceland but in the desert. 

One of the best perks of geothermal activity is the natural hot springs we soaked in on our way out. 

This concludes our Bolivian expedition. From here we headed home via La Paz and Lima. We have a couple more posts coming from those two cities. 

- Julia  



          Bolivian Expedition Part 2: Flamingo Lakes        
I didn't think the second day of the expedition could be better than the first day with the salt flats, which seemed like the main attraction, but it was. This time we drove further away from civilization, weaving through the high desert on unmarked dirt trails that cars before us left behind. There's no way you could do this trip without knowing where you're going. We were surrounded by colorful volcanoes on all sides. I kept trying to capture it with my phone but the surreal watercolored looking hues just didn't come across. 

The highlight of the day was coming upon the first lake with flamingos. I wanted to run and shout and swim with them. It was the most amazing feeling to "stumble upon" a lake in the middle of the desert, filled with big pink birds that look like lawn ornaments. I could have sat and watched them all day. It was one of the most unreal sights I've seen. 

Throughout the day, we stopped by three salt water lakes that are homes to flocks of flamingos. The last lake, Laguna Colorada (Red Lagoon), is supposed to be bright red in color, but it wasn't as brilliant as photos we had seen. It must not have been the right season. It was also not the season for flamingos. In high season, there are hundreds if not thousands of them (so we hear). Apparently in the winter, the old and weak are the ones who can't make the trip to warmer climates and stay behind. Well the old and weak ones sure impressed me.

- Julia

Never ending train tracks. 
Inside the salt hotel where we stayed the first night, made of salt bricks and a salty, sandy floor.
Yuriy wandering around an area where we took a break and saw a chinchilla!
Could have sat here all day, watching the flamingos.

          Bolivian Expedition Part 1: Uyuni Salt Flats        
We took a night bus to the town of Uyuni to go on a 3-day expedition around Southwestern Bolivia. Julia and I were crammed into a Land Cruiser with 4 guys from Brazil who spoke no English. And our driver/guide spoke no English. The only reason people come to Uyuni is for the tours; there really is nothing to see or do in this little dusty town, but so much to see around it. 

Our first stop was the 'Great Train Graveyard'. In the early 19th century, Bolivia was planning on building a large network of trains but technical difficulties and tensions with neighboring countries put those plans on a permanent halt. So they just left the British made trains to rust and corrode out in the elements. The flat and empty landscape made the train remains look extra lonely and eery.  

From there, we headed to Salar de Uyuni, the world's largest salt flat at 4,086 sq. miles (10,582 sq. km.), sitting at the crest of the Andes at an elevation of 11,995 ft. (3,656 meters). We stopped a few times to walk on the salt... and to taste it to make sure it was really salt. The salt flat is exceptionally rich in lithium, and contains 50-70% of the world's lithium reserves, as well as many other minerals. Just to give you an idea of how large the salt flats are, look up South America on Google Earth and look for a big white area, close to the Pacific Ocean.

In the middle of the salt flats is a little 'island' called Isla Incahuasi. The island is the top of an ancient volcano, which was submerged in a giant prehistoric lake before it became the salt flats. Now the 'island' is host to hundreds of giant cacti, and a welcome site in the middle of the flat white landscape. We had a great time stretching our legs by climbing to the top and getting 360 degree views of the cacti and salt flats below, stretching out in every direction as far as the eye can see.

- Yuriy

All photos below were taken with our iPhones.



          Coroico, Bolivia        
From La Paz, the country's busy capital, we took a minibus to Coroico, a quaint little town on the outskirts of the jungle. If we kept going in that direction, we would get to the Bolivian part of the Amazon Jungle. We went from roughly 12k feet elevation in La Paz to 5k elevation in Coroico in just a couple of hours, which changes everything—warm weather, moist air, tropical vegetation, no more crusty, bloody noses. Remember, we were here during the winter, so it felt amazing to get a break from the cold, dry air of La Paz (and almost every city before that).

There is only one way to get to Coroico—on the the Yungas Road aka "World's Most Dangerous Road" aka the "Death Road". The Death Road is a single lane, dirt road with no guardrails, that winds along the sides of the mountains with cliffs that drop as much as 2000 feet (the photos will make you feel sick). As many as 200 to 300 people died on the road every year. Luckily, the trip wasn't nearly as dangerous for us. In 2009, a new paved road with guardrails was built to avoid the most dangerous part of the original Death Road. Still, the views from the top were incredible, and I kind of wished we were driving ourselves so we could pull over for photos and stand on the edge. But maybe not. (source)

We stayed in a resort that has a collection of little cabins, completely surrounded by foliage and connected by winding paths. Every part of the resort had amazing views of the valley below and lush green mountains in the distance. We wished so badly we could stay longer. It was the perfect place to chill out and enjoy nature. 

From our cabin, we could walk into town, which was full of things to see, small as it was. Even here, small market stalls adorned the streets, with women selling bananas, cabbage, root vegetables, and Yuriy's favorite, piles of tangerines.  The buildings were colorful, covered in a layer of dirt, and beautifully aged. The roads were either unpaved or covered in cobblestones, which made you feel like you'd traveled back in time. It seemed as if every road was under construction, with piles of bricks laying at intersections, as if nobody was in a hurry to complete any of the construction projects. Even though some of the buildings were shabby and looked like they were uninhabited, every street had people walking, and it felt so alive. 

The only thing that sucked about Coroico is our friend Zhanna got seriously sick there. She looked like she was dying for a little over 24 hours, which included the curvy bus ride back to La Paz, during which she puked in a bag. Traveling in a foreign country can really kick your butt sometimes. 

We came to Coroico thanks to a tip from someone I follow on Instagram, who said it was her favorite spot in all of her South American travels (she was in the area just weeks before us). I love social media for this reason. 

Since we lost all of our photos from this point on, the images in this post are all iPhone photos. So thankful for that little piece of technology. Also, a couple of the images of me were taken by Zhanna (also on an iPhone). Thanks, Z!

- Julia

Our private little cabin in the jungly mountains.
The main lobby/restaurant of the resort was pretty perfect too.
The view from our patio. We should have paid a lot more for this.
Sweet place to nap.
Yuriy, bargaining every chance he gets.
Doesn't this produce look like it was styled for a photoshoot?

          La Paz, Bolivia | Part 1        
From Peru, we crossed the eastern border into Bolivia. First stop: La Paz, the highest capitol city in the world (elevation 11,975 ft / 3,650 m).

We had a heck of a time getting into the country. Once already traveling on the bus headed from Peru to Bolivia, we pulled out our Bolivia guide book (a little too late), and read something about American citizens needing a visa, which we didn't know about and didn't have. Luckily it could be purchased at the border, but the border crossing was in the boonies, and we had no cash to pay for the $140 (per person) visa. We had to catch a taxi into the nearest town, where all the banks were closed, and the ATMs were not working. Finally we struck gold with an ATM, but it wouldn't give us American dollars, which were required for the visa. Cash in hand, we raced back to the border, praying our bus was still there waiting for us, exchanged our money into American dollars, then headed to customs. One of the twenty dollar bills had the tiniest tear and they wouldn't accept it, even though they had just handed that torn bill to us at their currency exchange. Long story short, we made it in, but not without a lot of hassle, adrenaline, and with $280 less in the bank. Apparently Bolivia requires a travel visa for Americans only because America does the same for Bolivians. Maybe we should do more research before visiting a new country, instead of figuring it out on the fly. But where's the fun in that, right?

La Paz was a nice surprise. Driving into the city was amazing. It's an enormous city built into the mountains, with peaks surrounding the city. Some have said La Paz is like one big market. Anywhere you go, there are stands and shops and things for sale. Even though its a huge capitol city, many of the locals wear colorful traditional clothing (unlike Lima in Peru). Women wear pollera (long, full skirts), bombín (bowler hats), and colorful shawls that double as packs for carrying stuff. It was the best place to people watch. Many of the women did not like to have their photo taken, so I had to be sneaky, and used my smaller camera (Fuji X100s) to appear less threatening and often shot at waist level. 

At the end of our trip, our camera was stolen, and along with it, a memory card full of photos of our entire time in Bolivia (the Peru part was on a different memory card). So, all we have left are some photos from the smaller camera, which we used just a little bit in La Paz, and mostly photos from our iPhones. More on that story later, but I just wanted to let you know that the next few posts won't be as full as usual and are mostly iPhone images. 

Isn't La Paz enchanting? I'm glad it was the first city we came to, because we immediately thought, okay, paying for that visa was worth it.

- Julia



Our pastries filled with sweet cheese getting deep fried.
One thing that was constant about Peru and Bolivia... we ate a lot of soup.
Fried fish with rice.
At the Witches' Market, you can buy charms, potions, and dehydrated llama fetuses, which are buried in the foundation of homes for good luck.
Our tour guide assured us that llamas are not killed for the purpose of harvesting llama fetuses, but seeing dozens of them at every stall made us wonder.
Julia in souvenir heaven.
Zhanna getting talked into buying this gorgeous rug. Except she didn't buy it.
Going up the mountain on a fancy new cable car to get a better view of the city (though locals use it as vital transportation to get to and from the city).
La Paz from the cable car.


          Peruvian Mummies, Ancient Environments and the Sahara        
Explaining how science can help us dig up the past is Lawrence Owens, who uses teeth and bones to uncover the life and sometimes gruesome death of mummies in Peru and Bolivia, and Harriet Allen describes how the pollen record and layers of lake sedimentation can reveal what the environment was like 10 000 years ago. Also on the show, Nick Brooks talks about how climate change in the Sahara may have given rise to complex human societies, and taking us back even further in human evolution is Clive Finlayson, who discusses how a new fossil discovery shows that Neanderthals were alive and kicking in Gibraltar well after the arrival of modern humans. Leaving the past behind them in Kitchen Science, Derek and Dave make their very own futuristic forcefield.
          POLÉMICO PASO DE SHAKIRA POR VENEZUELA        

La estrella Shakira tenía programado actuar en la capital venezolana, en la ciudad de Caracas, como parte de su última gira mundial, denominada "Sale el Sol World Tour 2.010 - 2.011", en su tramo por varios países sudamericanos, entre los que se hallan México, Brasil, Bolivia y Perú, para presentar su más reciente lanzamiento discográfico, titulado "Sale el Sol".

El paso de la cantante Shakira, por Venezuela, en el marco de su última gira mundial, llamada "Sale el Sol World Tour 2.010 - 2.011", está dando mucho de qué hablar, pues su actuación, en el Estadio de Fútbol de la "Universidad Simón Bolívar", en la ciudad de Caracas (Venezuela), estaba programada para el pasado Domingo, día 27 de Marzo de este año 2.011.

Primero, sucedió que la artista colombiana Shakira había mandado una solicitud de reunión, con el Presidente de la República de Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, para hablar sobre su fundación "Pies Descalzos", pero, al final, el encuentro no se ha producido, pues la intérprete Shakira ha dado plantón al Presidente de la República de Venezuela, Hugo Chávez.

El Presidente de la República de Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, indicó que tenía previsto reunirse con la cantante Shakira, aprovechando el concierto de la propia artista colombiana Shakira, en la ciudad de Caracas (Venezuela), pero, debido a problemas de agenda, finalmente, el máximo dirigente de Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, y la intérprete Shakira no podrán encontrarse.

De hecho, ha sido el mismo Presidente de la República de Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, quien lo ha comentado, en su programa televisivo dominical, denominado "Aló Presidente", al declarar que, “hoy, llega Shakira, esta gran actriz colombiana, cantante, cantautora... Ella mandó una carta, que quería venir por acá. Habíamos previsto verla hoy, o antes, o terminando el 'Aló', pero, anoche, llegó la información de que salía, hoy, tarde. Nos hubiese gustado mucho saludarla, pero le doy la bienvenida a Venezuela”.

Y, con su particular verborrea, el Presidente de la República de Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, que, durante el pasado Lunes, día 28 de Marzo de este año 2.011, tenía previsto comenzar una gira, por Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia y Colombia, solicitó que "un aplauso para esa colombiana. Ella es la que baila el 'Chaca-Chaca'". Así pues, el Presidente de la República de Venezuela, al hablar sobre la estrella Shakira, se refirió a ella, señalando que "ella es la que baila el 'Chaca-Chaca'".

El máximo responsable del gobierno venezolano, Hugo Chávez, recordó que la estrella colombiana Shakira dirige la "Fundación Pies Descalzos", para ayudar a niños pobres, y mencionó su conocida canción, titulada "Waka, Waka (Esto es África)", incluida en el trabajo discográfico, llamado "Listen Up!: The Official World Cup Championship F.I.F.A. 2.010", como himno oficial de la pasada edición del "Campeonato del Mundo de Fútbol de Selecciones Nacionales F.I.F.A. Sudáfrica 2.010", llamándola "Shaka-Shaka", entre las risas de los ministros y del propio presidente venezolano Hugo Chávez.

Por cierto que el Presidente de la República de Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, también, se refirió a la llegada del músico español Raphael, a Venezuela, durante la siguiente semana, para ofrecer dos conciertos, señalando que es "un cantante español, que yo, desde niño, oigo, con admiración", dijo el máximo responsable del gobierno venezolano, Hugo Chávez, entonando el tema titulado "Estoy Enamorado", del vocalista Raphael.

Por otro lado, y según ha trascendido, el paso de la diva Shakira, por Venezuela, en el marco de su última gira mundial, denominada "Sale el Sol World Tour 2.010 -2.011", porque la vocalista colombiana Shakira ha realizado numerosas exigencias a la empresa productora de su concierto, en la ciudad de Caracas (Venezuela), entre las que destaca, por ejemplo, una habitación con cortinas de color negro, pues, al dormir, no soporta ningún tipo de luz.

Ya, este requerimiento ha sido hecho, por la cantautora Shakira, en otros países, como en Bolivia, donde el hotel, que hospedó a la propia cantante Shakira, tuvo que adecuar una de sus mejores habitaciones, a las condiciones especiales solicitadas.

Igualmente, entre las exigencias de la artista Shakira, famosa por ser la intérprete del famoso tema, titulado "Waka, Waka (Esto es África)", incluido en el álbum, llamado "Listen Up!: The Official World Cup Championship F.I.F.A. 2.010", que fue el himno oficial de la pasada edición del "Campeonato del Mundo de Fútbol de Selecciones Nacionales F.I.F.A. Sudáfrica 2.010", o de la popular canción, titulada "Loca", extraída de su última producción discográfica, denominada "Sale el Sol", e interpretada con la colaboración del músico El Cata, está el hecho de que la tarima, para su escenario, que soportó su actuación en directo, fuera una superficie, absolutamente, lisa y limpia.

Y es que, como era de esperar, por su parte, la estrella Shakira cantó y bailó descalza, durante toda su presentación, en el Estadio de Fútbol de la Universidad estatal "Simón Bolívar" (U.S.B.), de la ciudad de Caracas (Venezuela), durante el pasado Domingo, día 27 de Marzo de este año 2.011.


Pero, además, un grupo de estudiantes universitarios venezolanos declaró que impedirían que el concierto de la diva Shakira, anunciado para el pasado Domingo, día 27 de Marzo de este año 2.011, se celebre en la sede principal, en la ciudad de Caracas (Venezuela), en el Estadio de Fútbol de la Universidad estatal Simón Bolívar (U.S.B.), de forma que, durante unos días, el directo de la solista Shakira corrió peligro.

Una serie de estudiantes del colectivo, pertenecientes a la casa de estudios de la Universidad estatal "Simón Bolívar" (U.S.B.), desde el pasado Viernes, día 18 de Marzo de este año 2.011, están durmiendo en numerosas carpas, situadas a las puertas del recinto deportivo, en el exterior de la instalación del Estadio de Fútbol de la Universidad "Simón Bolívar" (U.S.B.), impidiendo, así, el trabajo de los organizadores del evento, el concierto de la cantautora Shakira.

De esta forma, en medio del clima de protestas, que vive Venezuela, desde hace unas semanas, estudiantes de la Universidad estatal "Simón Bolívar" (U.S.B.) decidían expresar su rechazo, al daño que se produce, en las instalaciones deportivas del recinto universitario, con este tipo de macroeventos musicales, impidiendo el paso de los camiones, cargados con los materiales necesarios para armar las tarimas del concierto de la cantante Shakira.

Uno de los veinte estudiantes del colectivo repitió, al noticiero nocturno de la emisora "V.T.V.", de la red estatal de televisión, que "estamos acá, con una postura clara, de no permitir el concierto de Shakira, en la instalaciones deportivas de la U.S.B.".

La emisora de televisión oficialista "V.T.V." sostuvo que los estudiantes universitarios de esa casa de estudios, la Universidad Simón Bolívar (U.S.B.), que, asimismo, es de carácter estatal, forman parte de un autodenominado "Frente por la Protección de las Instalaciones Deportivas de la U.S.B.", cuyos integrantes impiden el paso a unos camiones, cargados con los materiales necesarios para armar las tarimas del concierto de la solista Shakira.

Los jóvenes estudiantes agregaron que las autoridades de la Universidad estatal Simón Bolívar (U.S.B.), situada a las afueras de la ciudad de Caracas (Venezuela), les informaron de que once de los miembros de su colectivo habían sido suspendidos, mientras se les abre un proceso administrativo por indisciplina, lo que puede derivar en su expulsión definitiva. En teoría, lo que los estudiantes del colectivo "Frente por la Protección de las Instalaciones Deportivas de la U.S.B." quieren impedir es que se destruyan las instalaciones deportivas de la Universidad estatal "Simón Bolívar" (U.S.B.), con este megaconcierto, ofrecido por la cantante Shakira.

El estudiante universitario José Macías, miembro del colectivo autodenominado "Frente por la Protección de las Instalaciones Deportivas de la U.S.B.", realizó unas declaraciones, a la emisora televisiva estatal venezolana "V.T.V.", en las que afirmó que "es una medida para atropellarnos. Buscan que dejemos nuestra lucha. Nos dijeron que, si nos levantábamos, no nos sancionarían", recalcando, además, que la protesta "es pacífica" y busca "impedir que se destruyan nuestras instalaciones deportivas", con conciertos de este tipo.

Las autoridades universitarias y los portavoces de la empresa, que organiza el concierto de la cantante Shakira, habían anunciado que comentarían el hecho y mantendrían informados a los medios de comunicación, durante el transcurso de la semana. La artista colombiana Shakira, por su parte, no se ha manifestado, a este respecto, y continuaba desarrollando su última gira mundial, denominada "Sale el Sol World Tour 2.010 - 2.011", que discurrirá por varios países suramericanos, entre los que se encuentran Brasil, Bolivia, Perú y Venezuela, para presentar su más reciente disco de estudio, titulado "Sale el Sol".

De llegarse a realizar el encuentro, tras cuatro años de espera, en Venezuela, la artista Shakira estaría acompañada, en su concierto, ofrecido en el marco de su última gira mundial, denominada “Sale el Sol World Tour 2.010 - 2.011”, por dos grandes cantautores venezolanos, como son, por un lado, el intérprete Hany Kauam, quien acaba de lanzar al mercado su segundo proyecto discográfico y se ha convertido en el protagonista de la balada, en Venezuela, y, por otro lado, el músico Víctor Drija, que es una estrella, cuya energía sacude el escenario, pues su voz transmite sentimientos y su sencillez cautiva a quienes, desde ya, lo consideran el ídolo de la juventud, en toda América Latina. Tuvimos que esperar a que todo se resolviese, de manera pacífica, para que los espectadores pudieran disfrutar del evento musical, que tanto esperan los "fans" venezolanos, desde hace mucho tiempo.

Por último, se hizo público que, por fín, la diva Shakira se presentaría, en el escenario del Estadio de Fútbol de la Universidad estatal "Simón Bolívar", en la ciudad de Caracas (Venezuela), tal y como estaba previsto, luego de que se levantara la protesta estudiantil en el lugar, que puso en jaque el evento musical programado, según informó la compañía productora del concierto de la vocalista Shakira, durante el pasado Martes, día 22 de Marzo de este año 2.011, pues el colectivo "Frente por la Protección de las Instalaciones Deportivas de la U.S.B." decidió levantar su manifestación, después de alcanzar un acuerdo con las autoridades universitarias.

Antony Durán, uno de los estudiantes de la protesta, miembros del colectivo, autodenominado "Frente para la Protección de las Instalaciones Deportivas de la U.S.B.", declaró que "no tenemos nada en contra de Shakira o de los conciertos, como tal, sino en contra de que se realice en nuestros campos deportivos, por los daños que se generan, pero, anoche, llegamos a un acuerdo, con el rector, y decidimos suspender la protesta".

El joven estudiante de la Universidad estatal "Simón Bolívar" (U.S.B.), Antony Durán, explicó que decidieron suspender su manifestación, luego de que las autoridades universitarias les explicaran que, de llevar su protesta hasta las últimas consecuencias, quedarían suspendidos. Además, según relató el propio estudiante Antony Durán, el rector de la Universidad estatal "Simón Bolívar" (U.S.B.), se comprometió a no usar más los espacios deportivos universitarios, para los grandes eventos musicales, a partir del próximo año 2.012.

Andrea Benavides, portavoz de la empresa "Evenpro", organizadora del concierto de la solista Shakira, en la ciudad de Caracas (Venezuela), explicó que, "ya, todo está listo para el concierto. Debimos iniciar el montaje ayer, pero esto no va a afectar, absolutamente, en nada, al 'show'; empezamos hoy y, ya, lo que queda es descontar los días".

La empresa organizadora del concierto de la artista Shakira, "Evenpro", celebró, durante este pasado Martes, día 22 de Marzo del año 2.011, que el conflicto, con los estudiantes del colectivo, llamado "Frente para la Protección de las Instalaciones Deportivas de la U.S.B.", se solucionara, "de la mejor manera posible, para todas las partes", y subrayó el "buen" cumplimiento de los trabajos de recuperación de espacios, a los que su empresa se compromete, por contrato.

La portavoz de la empresa promotora del concierto de la intérprete Shakira, en la ciudad de Caracas (Venezuela), "Evenpro", Andrea Benavides, consideró que, "a todos, nos conviene tener un sitio, al que poder asistir a conciertos, con seguridad, y la 'U.S.B.' es el único espacio que tenemos, para hacer eventos multitudinarios buenos, en Caracas".

Por último, el paso de la solista Shakira, por Venezuela, en el marco de su última gira mundial, llamada "Sale el Sol World Tour 2.010 - 2.011", está dando que hablar, porque, al parecer, la cantante Shakira escribió, a través de internet, mediante su cuenta personal oficial, en la red social "Twitter", un "tweet", refiriéndose al país de Venezuela, aunque escribiendo "Venuezuela", por error.

Por supuesto, los seguidores de la artista Shakira no han tardado en darle la réplica, por esta errata, escribiendo comentarios, con el "Hashtag" #Chakira, que, ya, es "trending topic", a nivel mundial, en la red social "Twitter", a través de internet. Así pues, una vez más, la intérprete Shakira la ha liado parda, a través de internet, en la red social "Twitter".


Finalmente, la diva Shakira y sus inimitables movimientos hicieron temblar, durante el pasado Domingo, día 27 de Marzo de este año 2.011, al Estadio de Fútbol de la Universidad estatal "Simón Bolivar" (U.S.B.), donde miles de venezolanos se rindieron, desde el primer momento, a las caderas de la vocalista colombiana Shakira, durante su concierto, en la ciudad de Caracas (Venezuela), en el marco de su última gira mundial, denominada "Sale el Sol World Tour 2.010 - 2.011".

La intérprete Shakira se reunió, durante los últimos días del pasado mes de Marzo de este año 2.011, con la Presidenta de Brasil, Dilma Rousseff, a quien pidió apoyo para la obra social de la "Fundación América Latina Solidaria (A.L.A.S.)", que es una organización sin fines de lucro, que tiene, por objetivo, la atención de los niños de hasta seis años de edad.


Durante el pasado Martes, día 1 de Marzo de este año 2.011, la diva Shakira inició la segunda parte de su última gira mundial, llamada "Sale el Sol World Tour 2.010 - 2.011", teniendo previsto ofrecer cuatro conciertos, durante estos próximos meses de Mayo y Junio del año 2.011, en España, con el siguiente detalle de fechas cerradas y de lugares, ya, confirmados oficialmente, recalando en cuatro ciudades españolas:

- Lunes, día 30 de Mayo de 2.011: Auditorio "Marina Sur", en la ciudad de Valencia (Comunidad Valenciana).

- Miércoles, día 1 de Junio de 2.011: Estadio de "Los Juegos del Mediterráneo", en la ciudad de Almería (Andalucía).

- Viernes, día 3 de Junio de 2.011: Estadio "Vicente Calderón", en la ciudad de Madrid (Comunidad de Madrid).

- Sábado, día 4 de Junio de 2.011: Estadio "San Mamés", en la ciudad de Bilbao (Vizcaya, País Vasco).

          Malamud: Y dale con el hiperpresidencialismo        
En esta nota (acá), A. Malamud, el buen provocateur (siempre más interesado en ironizar que en presentar razones), vuelve a la carga (contra mí y otros) para minimizar o ridiculizar las referencias que solemos hacer en crítica al hiperpresidencialismo.

Alguna vez busqué aclararle por qué hablamos de hiperpresidencialismo, y por qué dicha categoría no es, como él dice, una mera "licencia poética". Carlos Nino fundó la categoría, no a partir de una cuestión de gustos o por énfasis retórico (finalmente, Nino era un filósofo analítico, y no un politólogo). Él ponía atención en los poderes formales adicionales que en América Latina, las Constituciones, le concedieron al presidente, vis a vis el modelo que sirvió de ejemplo, el norteamericano. Los presidentes nacieron aquí con facultades especiales, como las de intervención federal que eran negadas en Estados Unidos; fuertes poderes para limitar derechos a través del estado de sitio (también hiper presente en la historia latinoamericana, y ausente en Estados Unidos); capacidad para nombrar y remover a puro gusto a sus ministros; y capacidades legislativas que la práctica (volveré sobre esto) convirtió en extraordinarias. Si a eso le sumamos su capacidad de control sobre el presupuesto, y el hecho de que la coparticipación federal, en países como la Argentina, se decide sobre la mesa presidencial, podemos entender las implicaciones de las diferencias de poderes concedidos de las que hablaba Nino. Insisto entonces, y éste es mi primer punto, no se trata de retórica, sino de funciones concedidas constitucionalmente, y de sus implicaciones prácticas. Si Malamud no entiende lo que implicó la intervención provincial o el estado de sitio en la historia de la Argentina, o Colombia, para decir dos casos notables, tiene un montón de libros de historia a mano que pueden ayudarle a detectar el problema, en lugar de ridiculizarlo (insisto también, lo conversé con él, y se muestra todavía impermeable al hecho, porque prefiere seguir ironizando).

El segundo punto que quiero hacer tiene que ver con el sentido de la nota, que me resulta absurda y fuera de lugar. Porque, aunque es claro a quién(es) ataca A.M., no es claro qué es lo que tiene por decir; ni cuál es el problema que quiere confrontar; o el argumento que quiere controvertir. Esto es:  qué está haciendo A.M.? 

Porque el (en este excepcional caso) aburrido racconto que presenta, nos dice que algunos presidentes latinoamericanos dejaron sus cargos antes de tiempo; o que otros están acosados judicialmente, o viviendo en el exilio. Pero entonces qué? Qué es lo que nos dice o agrega ello? Su escrito resulta realmente curioso, porque, en buena medida, eso era justamente lo que Nino, Linz and co., querían decir cuando atacaban al hiperpresidencialismo que A.M. ridiculiza: al concentrar el poder de decisiones en una persona, se genera una dinámica de no-cooperación y suma cero, que afecta la estabilidad de los presidentes; tornándolos objeto de persecución y ataques. O sea que lo que Malamud cita para refutar aquellos escritos es justamente lo que reafirma el sentido y "éxito" de aquellos.

Ninguna de las críticas hechas al hiperpresidencialismo quiso decir nunca que ellos (los hiperpresidentes) no tienen controles, o que duran para siempre, o que no van a enfrentar procesos judiciales, o que no van a ser impopulares en un momento, o que no van a enfrentar procesos al fin de su mandato. Exactamente todo lo contrario (tales estudios quisieron predecir que los hiperpresidentes estaban destinados, habitualmente, a perder de modo abrupto popularidad, iban a ser perseguidos, y todo ello iba a poner en riesgo la misma gobernabilidad del sistema que con las "facultades del rey" venían a salvar de la anarquía). Entonces, qué quiere afirmar A.M.? Qué argumento desafía o refuta, salvo las caricaturas o espantapájaros que se ha construido?

Citar, por lo demás, algunas decisiones judiciales en Colombia, contra la reelección (aunque debería leer algo más de la jurisprudencia colombiana en torno a los poderes presidenciales), no agrega mucho, sino que más bien resta, porque Colombia es considerada en la materia la excepción y no la regla en la región. Quiere A.M. que cite uno 20 o 50 casos alternativos en Ecuador, Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua o Venezuela, sobre las relaciones entre el poder judicial y el poder ejecutivo, y el sometimiento del primero al segundo? 

Porque ésa es finalmente la cuestión: la práctica del hiperpresidencialismo distorsiona el funcionamiento del sistema de frenos y contrapesos. Típicamente, y esto ha sido una realidad en la historia latinoamericana, esa distorsión ha implicado el sometimiento del poder judicial; la ampliación de la capacidad de impacto del presidente, muchas veces opacando al poder legislativo o convirtiéndolo en mera escribanía; y siempre con recursos económicos y coercitivos infinitos, y beneficios y posiciones también infinitas para repartir que le permiten expandir su capacidad de dominación sobre el resto. Se trata de datos que constituyen ya rasgos definitorios de la historia contemporánea de América Latina, de la que Malamud debiera tomar nota (aunque no es claro que le interese hacerlo). 

Dos últimas cuestiones. Por un lado, la crítica al hiperpresidencialismo no implica un elogio a la "institucionalidad de los países normales." En mi caso, repudio por sus componentes elitistas y contra-mayoritarios a ese tipo de sistemas (escribí mi tesis doctoral sobre/contra ese estilo de democracias constitucionales), y eso es perfectamente consistente con agregar otro tipo de críticas hacia los hiperpresidencialismos regionales.

Finalmente, cito su conclusión: "En síntesis, los presidentes latinoamericanos suelen tener poder limitado, mandato acortado, sucesor renegado y libertad denegada."

Otra vez, A.M. muestra un mayor interés en cerrar con una frase de impacto que en presentar un argumento. La frase es puro fuegos artificiales, incapaz de dañar a nadie, ni aportar nada serio al debate público sobre el tema. Será la próxima, sin dudas.

          GENE SIMMONS ANUNCIA SU CONCIERTO EN LA PAZ (BOLIVIA) 21 OCTUBRE 2017        

          Slaget om arkitekturen i Bolivias yngsta stad El Alto        
I miljonstaden El Alto dominerar ursprungsbefolkningen aymaras. Deras nyvunna status manifesteras i den nästan psykedeliska arkitekturen - som blivit högsta mode i staden. Reportage av Anneli Enqvist.
          Slaget om arkitekturen i Bolivias yngsta stad El Alto        
I miljonstaden El Alto dominerar ursprungsbefolkningen aymaras. Deras nyvunna status manifesteras i den nästan psykedeliska arkitekturen - som blivit högsta mode i staden. Reportage av Anneli Enqvist.
          Artículo de nuestro Amigo Roberto Guerra        

Roberto Guerra Nos envía uno de sus Artículos

Breve Biografía de Roberto Guerra

     Roberto Guerra, es un alumno de Asistente Social,  en  su último año  de la Universidad UAHC de la Ciudad de Santiago, de Chile, Roberto ha estado ligado a todo lo que se refiere a los distintos intercambios Culturales entre los países, chile, bolivia, peru, entre otros, actualmente trabaja en la Escuela de Gestores y Animadores Culturales, en Santiago. Además fue presidente en dos periodos de su centro de estudiantes, y representante de los estudiantes ante el consejo academico. En las ultimas semanas ha lanzado el libro "Primer Encuentro de Gestores y Animadores Sociales", el libro consiste en presentar el proceso de participación ciudadana y asociativo generado por los gestores culturales chilenos durante el año 2009, con ocasión del encuentro, dando cuenta de los encuentros regionales, la jornada inaugural del evento encuentro nacional, sus paneles centrales, y los documentos oficiales emanados de este. En su parte final, el texto incorpora diez ponencias en los ámbitos de identidad y desarrollo, formación, profesionalización de la gestión cultural, animación sociocultural y experiencias, destacando la participación de Héctor Ariel Olmos (Argentina), José Luis Mariscal (México) y Rafael Morales Astola (España).

      También cabe mencionar, que participó y coordinó en el primer Foro Social del año 2006, el cual fue denominado “Encuentro abierto a la participación organizaciones y personas para intercambiar y aportar experiencia en diversas áreas, además de participar en el segundo Foro Social Chileno y Latinoamericano Integración y Unidad Latinoamericana, desafíos del trabajo social, realizado en la UAHC de Santiago de Chile.

AMISTAD CON ROBERTO

Roberto se ha convertido en nuetsro amigo y camarada, con el cultivamos una amistad desde el año 2006, y lo conocimos en VI Coloquio Internacional de Trabajo Social, en la ciudad de Puno, Perú.

Articulo publicado en el Blog de Roberto Guerra que lo comparte con Nosotros.


VII Campus Eroamericano de Cooperación Cultural: En Canarias, agentes culturales de cuatro continentes comparten saberes y experiencias.

     La identidad es raíz que se mueve
      “La ciudad es hoy el lugar para reinventar la democracia, sin la cual –sabemos- no tenemos futuro”. Con estas palabras, Jesús Martín Barbero daba termino a la conferencia inaugural del VII Campus Euroamericano de cooperación cultural, el pasado 30 de noviembre en Palma de Gran Canaria. En su intervención, Barbero realizó una profunda reflexión sobre cultura desde lo local, y las transformaciones experimentadas por la ciudad, señalando que se requieren políticas culturales que tengan en cuenta la memoria, y “las transformaciones de la identidad de los ciudadanos que habitan los barrios donde hacemos intervenciones urbanas”, concluyendo que no es posible una política cultural que no de cuenta de los mapas de las transformaciones de la identidad de los territorios.

      La identidad –añadió- “es raíz, pero una raíz que se mueve. Sin raíces no podemos vivir, pero muchas raíces nos impiden caminar. Yo creo que lo local es raíz, pero a la vez camino. Sino, lo local puede ser la implosión reaccionaria que hoy estamos viendo reaparecer en Europa de manera tan dramática y fascistoide, con la expulsión de los gitanos, nada más ni nada menos que de Francia”. Refiriéndose a la ciudad, Barbero señaló que este es hoy el lugar estratégico en el que “todavía la gente siente arraigo, pero el arraigo no impide el flujo. No impide estar conectado, no impide estar abierto al mundo. Ser cosmopolita. Una cosa es ser provinciano, lugareño. Otra cosa es ser ciudadano. Ser ciudadano es a la vez sentir, relaciones de pertenencia con un lugar, y a la vez estar inserto en las redes. Estar inserto en las comunicaciones con el mundo. Estar generando conocimiento o estar creando rock de punta a punta del mundo”.


Encuentros y reencuentros

      Inaugurado el Campus, se dio inicio a un interesante y diverso programa de actividades que mediante conferencias, ponencias, mesas redondas, talleres, showcases, abordó las temáticas de desarrollo local, ciudadanía, construcción de nuevas identidades en el espacio local, evaluación de políticas culturales, redes sectoriales e internacionales en cultura, entre muchos otros. Como suele suceder en este tipo de eventos, los intermedios y lo que transcurre fuera de los salones, va configurando quizás la trama más singular de las redes culturales, aquellas que se construyen desde el afecto y de complicidad, y que son a no dudar, la llave de muchas puertas.

      Entre conversaciones, debates, preguntas, encuentros y reencuentros, al igual que en su versión pasada, el Campus fue escenario de una serie de intercambios y conexiones que lo convierten a no dudar, en uno de los mayores espacios para el desarrollo de redes en el campo de la cultura.

      ¿Qué se aprecia, cuales los avances? En una primera aproximación, los relatos y experiencias dan cuenta del desarrollo de diversos procesos que en particular desde America Latina, reclaman espacio y atención. Proyectos que abordan la inclusión social desde las artes, los relacionados con la democratización del acceso a la formación de los gestores culturales de base, las redes asociativas, la participación ciudadana en la formulación e implementación de las políticas culturales y el asociacionismo, destacan en este plano. En algunos lugares liderados por instituciones, en otros por asociaciones de la sociedad civil, ya no solo se comparte lo que se hace, sino el como, los porqués, y se trazan desafíos en lo colectivo. Iniciativas que se plantean la concertación social, buscando superar el dejacionismo ciudadano, y el apropiacionismo institucional, en las certeras palabras de José Ramón Insa Alba.

      Así lo pudimos constatar con la delegación de la Red Latinoamericana de Gestión Cultural, con quienes tuvimos ocasión de compartir experiencias y desafíos con antiguos compañeros de ruta y nuevos amigos de los empeños asociacionistas. En este terreno, el encuentro de redes en el Campus, dio importantes pasos hacia la formación del espacio asociativo Euroamericano en el plano de la gestión Cultural, asumiendo los avances registrado en el último año, en particular con la formación de asociaciones regionales y nacionales en Sudamérica, y la voluntad de asociaciones de Francia y Portugal de dar este paso.



          Congresos Nacioanles E internacionales de Trabajo Social segundo SEMESTRE 2010        
29, 30, 31 octubre y 01 de Noviembre Valparaiso.Chile


El II Congreso Nacional de Estudiantes de Trabajo Social busca ser una instancia de reflexión, construcción y vinculación de los y las estudiantes de las diferentes escuelas de Chile para el desarrollo de la carrera, Profesion y del futuro profesional, que tiene su origen en la intención de estos mismos por generar plataformas de trabajo, más allá del desarrollado al interior de las aulas, de modo de incentivar la investigación y desarrollo teórico, complementando así la formación del estudiante.




Valor de la inscripción ZONA NORTE Y ZONA SUR: 16..000 HASTA EL 20 DE Septiembre, después 18.000

Fuente: http://cnets.uv.cl/



TERCER ENCUENTRO SUR ANDINO DE TRABAJO SOCIAL Puno-Perú

En el marco del II Encuentro Regional Sur Andino de Trabajo Social “Intervención e Identidad Profesional en la cuestión social Sur andina contemporánea”, realizado en San Salvador de Jujuy- Jujuy- Argentina el año 2008, se tomó el acuerdo unánime por parte de los asistentes, que la Facultad de Trabajo Social de la UNA-Puno, asuma la organización del presente Encuentro, el mismo que propicia la participación profesional especialmente de la Región Andina : Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Chile y Perú.

Inscripción:

Profesionales: Extranjeros 80.00 soles

Estudiantes: 50 soles

Fuente: http://www.ftrabajosocialunapuno.org/encuentro2010/web/






DIÁLOGOS INTERDISCIPLINARIOS PARA LA RECONSTRUCCIÓN DE SABERES PROFESIONALES: DESAFÍOS INTERCULTURALES, ÉTICOS, POLÍTICOS Y AMBIENTALES

II CONGRESO CIENCIAS, TECNOLOGÍAS Y CULTURAS. Diálogo entre las disciplinas del conocimiento. Mirando al futuro de América Latina y el Caribe

29 de octubre - 01 de noviembre de 2010. SANTIAGO- CHILE
Se convoca a los académicos a presentar ponencias al simposio:

DIÁLOGOS INTERDISCIPLINARIOS PARA LA RECONSTRUCCIÓN DE SABERES PROFESIONALES: DESAFÍOS INTERCULTURALES, ÉTICOS, POLÍTICOS Y AMBIENTALES

Nota: En razón de la importante convocatoria que tuvo esta red ( en el I Congreso Ciencias, Tecnologías y Culturas, se ha optado por organizar un “mega simposio” con dos opciones:

a) Diálogos Interdisciplinarios: Desafíos Interculturales, Estéticos y Éticos.

b) Diálogos Interdisciplinarios: Desafíos Interculturales, Políticos y Ambientales.

COORDINADORES

Coordinadora General (Chile): Cecilia Aguayo, Dra en Filosofia caguayo.congreso.usach@gmail.com
OPCION A: Diálogos Interdisciplinarios: Desafíos Interculturales, Estéticos y Éticos.

Costa Rica:Dr. Marcos Chinchilla Dr Trabajo Social marcos.chinchilla@ucr.ac.cr

Francia: Jean Luis De Ottes Dr en Estética jldeotte@club-internet.fr

Chile: Maria Emilia Tijoux: Dra en Sociología emiliatijoux@gmail.com

España: Monste Feu. Mag en Ciencia Política Paris 8 mfeu@wanadoo.es
OPCION B: Diálogos Interdisciplinarios: Desafíos Interculturales, Políticos y Ambientales.

Chile: Marcel Claude: Dr Economía mclaude@academia.cl

Brasil: Dr. Jovino Pizzi Dr Filosofía jovino.piz@gmail.com

Chile: Mónica Fernandez. Mag Política y Gestión ambiental; mfernandez@academia.cl

Francia: Francisca Salas. Mag en Ciencias Políticas Paris 8 fnsalas@gmail.com

CONVOCATORIA
En la actualidad el bienestar humano, la calidad de vida, la justicia social, y la dignidad humana entre otros, constituyen algunos de los Fines que despliegan los profesionales del mundo social en América latina. Estos fines se realizan en contextos institucionales, culturales, económicos, y políticos, que requieren no solo un trabajo técnico profesional sino también un dialogo ético y político profundo. Desde estas reflexiones, el simposio busca responder a las siguientes preguntas: ¿cuales son las condiciones de este dialogo, respetando cada una de las diversidades profesionales y culturales en que se despliega? ¿cuáles son las condiciones institucionales en que se enmarcan estas acciones? ¿cuáles son las condiciones que deben esclarecerse para una consideración profunda de nuestros pueblos latinoamericanos?, ¿bajo qué modelo político de desarrollo, se logran plataformas integrativas de acción? , Si esto es así ¿cuáles son las características y perfiles necesarios de los actuales profesionales?

TRABAJO SOCIAL CRITICO COLOMBIA-BOGOTA DEL 13 AL 15 DE OCTUBRE



                  















Hace unas semanas la Universidad de Santiago de Guayaquil realizo el XIX Seminario Internacional de Escuelas de Trabajo Social, donde 15 compañeros de nuestra Universidad tuvieron la posibilidad de ir a dicho encuentro:


algunas de las tematicas en las ponencias fueron las siguientes:











Aquella experiencia fue bastante enriquecedora debido a que que se dio un contexto agradabe y se compartio e interactuó con jovenes de otras partes de Latinoamerica, como de colombia, brasil, ecuador, peru, chile (arica, santiago, chillan, antofagasta,), costa rica, cuba, bolivia, uruguay, argentina, españa, todo por la "Coyuntura politica del trabajao social", y sus nuevas de Intervención Profesional.


Hubieron grandes Exponentes, como Teresa Matus (Chile), Carlos Montaño (Brasil), Elizabethe Mota (Presidenta de ALAEITS)(Brasil), Luis Suárez (Cuba),Susana Morales(Argentina), Blanca Gabin( Uruguay), Teresa Ortiz (México), entre otros.

Archivos disponibles en:











          Ð‘оливия с севера на юг : от Ла-Пас через Сукре в сторону Чили        

Винский

Боливия : Самостоятельное путешествие с севера Боливии на юг Эпиграф: Жопа — понятие филосовское Чаще всего по нему/ней оценивают привлекательность Винский Сергей Боливийская виза была сделана в посольстве Боливии в Москве  www.emborus.com Виза действительна в течении 30 дней с момента выдачи. Стоит 30$ Необходимые документы для её открытия: анкета, одно фото, справка с работы (напечатанная […]

Запись Боливия с севера на юг : от Ла-Пас через Сукре в сторону Чили впервые появилась Сайт Винского.


          Plane Crash in Colombia: 71 Dead From Brazil Soccer Team        

Plane Crash in Colombia: 71 Dead From Brazil Soccer Team is a post from The Troll Squad.

Plane crash in Colombia, rescuers combed wreckage for survivors. Outside a stadium in Brazil, fans who thought they’d be cheering for their favorite soccer team came to mourn. These were the somber images Tuesday after a deadly plane crash outside Medellin, Colombia. The Avro RJ85 was en route Monday night from Santa Cruz, Bolivia, to […]


          Paradise Lost, Paradise Found (St Lucia & Tobago Guide)        
Sunset in Castara - Never gets old
That’s it, another chapter and another four countries. Following the bicycle adventure and Canada/US road trip back to Denver, I left in October and made way to Guadalajara, which turned out to be a killer random trip exploring the cultural capital of Mexico. Met some great people, ate amazing food, drank too much tequila, etc. From there I flew down to POS airport in Trinidad. POS being a very appropriate call sign as Port of Spain airport is certainly not my favorite. 

I booked an apartment via AirBnB in Arima. Turns out this isn’t an area I’d recommend. Without transport you’re fairly limited, with transport you’re still fairly limited as there isn’t much to explore. If you know me, you know I’ve experienced some pretty sketchy situations in some of the many countries I’ve visited, but have to point out that Trinidad (Arima specifically) isn’t the safest place. In fact, I didn’t feel comfortable walking around after dark in certain areas. I know I know, sounds like a typical American unnecessarily worrying, and I hope you know that’s not my style, but there are dangerous pockets in Trinidad. Best to hire a guide, or be shown around with local friends. 

No Man's Land - Tobago
The only redeeming part of Arima was that my AirBnB host happened to be very nice and the auntie of Patrice Roberts, a famous Soca star. Soca is a style of upbeat music that dominates the West Indies. In fact, you’re hard pressed to hear anything else these days, especially leading up to Carnival, which is a party like no other starting with J’Ouvert in late February. You do occasionally hear older, lighter music from the likes of Calypso Rose and steel pan groups. 

Patrice, her aunt, their driver Richard, and I did a fair bit of exploring. We did a boat tour to see thousands of beautiful red herring in the Caroni Bird Sanctuary, which I’d highly recommend. We also ate a ton of food. I can’t count how many rotis I had, but doubles turned out to be my favorite. A little hard to explain, but basically a soft dumpling that serves as a ‘carrier’ for a spicy, slow roasted chickpea stew. Fun fact, fried chicken is very popular in Trinidad and the world’s busiest KFC is in Port of Spain. I’m fairly certain it’s the only business open 24/7 on the whole island. 

Argyle Falls - Tobago
From Trinidad I took the ferry over to Tobago for $6 US. The ride is around two hours, but not the Caribbean ‘out at sea’ experience I’d hoped for. The boat was packed with several hundred people, a lot of them moaning and getting sick in the bathrooms and off the back of the boat. However, once I arrived in Tobago I knew I was in an entirely different place. It’s like the super chill, stoned little brother of Trinidad. 

I’d been asked to build a website and do some general business consulting for a small hotel in Castara. One’s first drive in Tobago is a thrilling experience. The roads are narrow, full of blind corners, people drive too fast, and there are cliffs and landslides around every bend. You get used to it though, and soon enough I found myself behind the wheel ripping around the island like a local. The first drive from the port to Castara was a little intimidating however. 

Giving some sailing instruction in St Lucia
Castara itself is a sleepy little fishing village with approximately 600 residents. It’s about 3/4 of the way up the island on the leeward Caribbean (left/west) side. Most typical tourists (i.e. mandals, fanny packs, birdwatching hats, boozed up, all-inclusive loving, etc) choose to stay in the southern half of the island, Crown Point specifically. This is great because the north has been left relatively untouched and unspoiled. The culture, vibe, and cuisine all remains. 

Honestly I didn’t explore very much the first time in Tobago, but would be back soon to the Emerald Isle of the West Indies to explore and fall in love with its beauty and charm. I’m gonna go in chronological order, so will touch on that a bit later. For now let me hop over to the next country, St Lucia. In early November I chose to fly from Tobago to Trinidad to forego another experience on the vomit comet (aka the ferry). From POS, I hopped a Caribbean Airlines flight to St Lucia where Jen, the girl I was seeing had accepted a contract with the ministry of education. Little did I know it would turn out to be equal parts heaven and hell. 

View of the Pitons - St Lucia
St Lucia does have amazing things to see. The Pitons are beautiful and surreal, and the volcanic mud baths nearby are quite nice. Some of the smaller villages like Gros Islet and Soufrierre have amazing old houses and architecture. Speaking of Gros Islet, do NOT miss the weekly fish fry/lime there (lime = party/jump-up). The history, old military structures, and views from Pigeon Island are also a must see. 

For me the beaches of St Lucia are a major highlight. My favorites are Cotton/Plantation Beach, where Amy Winehouse hung out to pickle her liver in isolation. Donkey Beach is a strenuous hike past Cotton Bay, but totally untouched. Marigot Bay is beautiful and definitely worth a visit, but a little overrun with tourism. Anse Chastanet and Sugar Beach are both stunning, but both connected to very expensive all-inclusive resorts. The good news is because of the 'Queen’s Ring’ nobody can own the actual beach, so they’re all accessible. The resorts make it clear that you are second class, but can’t legally stop you from crashing the beach. However, the best part of St Lucia for me was the sailing.

I met a couple named Ben and Vicky who run a sailing training business (First4Sail), so decided to work with them to finally learn and become properly certified to sail. We ended up becoming good friends, so I was invited to several other events and races on Papagayo, the 40ft ‘one tonner’ race yacht that became my second home in St Lucia. We won our class in the Mango Bowl regatta, participated in the celebratory ARC flotilla conclusion, and I was even able to skipper an overnight to/from Martinique to give my passport a much needed stamp. In the end I now hold IYT (Int’l Yacht Training) Competent Crew, Flotilla Skipper, and Bareboat Captain certifications, can charter my own yacht, and have given sailing lessons of my own in Ben’s absence. If in St Lucia and you want to learn to sail or simply take a day trip, I would highly recommend First4Sail.

View from the top - Pigeon Island, St Lucia
So that’s the good, let’s get to the bad and ugly. In my opinion St Lucia is a country that has completely sold its soul. The disparity between rich and poor is blatant and disgusting. Every morning I would leave Ciceron, the neighborhood I was living. I would pass my neighbor Dermot who lives in a clapboard/tin shack. I’d hop a bus and be in Rodney Bay around 45mins later staring at $20mil mega yachts. There are countless all-inclusive resorts on the island (think $500+/night), three of them being the always-predictable and disgusting Sandals. Businesses are shuttered all over the island because tourists don’t leave their fenced retreats. They’d rather get drunk and cook their skin than get out to see the inner workings and culture of the country. From my experience it seems that a very small percentage profit from the larger resorts that dominate the island. The locals are left the scraps of a country that was once theirs. 

Marigot Bay - St Lucia
Although a new government led by Allen Chastanet has been recently put in place, crime is at an all-time high and the capital city (Castries) is a complete dump. The education system is set up in a way that benefits kids who live in better districts, and set up for failure in poorer districts. Private taxis are always filled with white folk, while inexpensive minibuses are filled with locals. A trip that would cost ~$1.25 US in a minibus costs ~$40 US in a taxi (a price set by the government). This means most locals are forced to ride the buses, which I did every single day for two months. I can report back that they are stuffed with people, hot, sweaty, and frequently unreliable. I was also concerned for Jen and glad I was there with her. In Ciceron and the city she was receiving comments and run-ups multiple times daily. I’ve never seen anything like it. Not in Africa, not in South America, not Stateside, nowhere. Furthermore, there aren’t many inexpensive local food options. There are more KFC, Church’s, and Domino’s Pizza choices unfortunately. There are rumblings of a Sandals being built in Tobago at present. I can only hope they don’t follow the poor example set by St Lucia. 

An example of the disparity in St Lucia
Charles Simonyi's $75mil US yacht pictured
When in St Lucia, I received a message from another hotel owner in Castara named Sharon that wanted a website built and some general IT and business assistance. She and I had become friends the last round, so she agreed to have me back as long as I wanted. The girl and I split in December (I’ll certainly take the blame for that - sorry J) and I was effectively done with St Lucia, so I decided to retreat back to the paradise of Tobago for five weeks to clear my head. I’m just wrapping up my time there (actually writing this from the flight out), and am feeling quite melancholy about leaving. I really grew to love Tobago, made a ton of amazing new friends, and felt like I have a second home. I also learned a ton about line fishing, pulling nets, spearfishing, and cleaning/cooking fresh seafood. In my free time I would sometimes help out at the beach bar and I became somewhat of a mainstay there. My smile returned in Castara chatting up folks, pouring drinks, laughing, and exploring. What I’m gonna miss most is waking up to the sound of the ocean, walking one minute from my balcony, and doing my daily yoga/meditation/work-out sessions on the beach followed by a swim with the lovely fish and rays. 

Taking in the mud baths - St Lucia
This round I was also able to fully explore the entire island. I became quite the tour guide and driver actually, and several tourists asked if I’d show them around. I think the moto racing background helped. I began to see the twisty roads as my own personal race circuit around the island. A sample day trip from Castara had us head north on the main road and stop briefly to enjoy Englishman’s Bay, which is a stunning untouched beach. From there on to Parletuvier and stop at Paradise Point, which is a bar owned by a nice older gentleman named Glasgow. The bar overlooks the bay with an amazing view. At the split in Parletuvier you can head up through the rainforest, which is a beautiful drive and will eventually take you to the windward/Atlantic (east/right) side of the island. Argyle Falls is just outside of Roxborough and is absolutely stunning. When there, be sure to hike up multiple levels to distance yourself from the tourists and enjoy the continuing falls.

After bathing under the falls at Argyle, you can continue to head north. Before leaving Roxborough I’ve found it best to fill up with gas at the station there. It’s always reliable, plus an added bonus, they sell peanut punch (my favorite drink on the island). You’ll wind your way through Speyside where you get a view of Goat Island and Little Tobago. Eventually you’ll make way to Charlottesville, which is another sleepy fishing village on the north tip of the island, and this is where it gets a little tricky. At the end of town there’s a sketchy dirt road (seriously, like Bolivian Death Road sketchy) that leads up to Pirate’s Bay, which is my favorite beach on the entire island. Seriously, a must see. There are no permanent structures, just a few sailboats and an old man that sells fresh lobster, coconuts, and beer. It’s what you would envision the perfect Caribbean day-on-a-beach experience would’ve looked like 25 years ago. 

Jay Star keeled over during the Mango Bowl - St Lucia
From Pirate’s Bay/Charlottesville you can head west and back down the other side of the island on a badly kept, but beautiful winding coastal road. This will eventually lead you past Bloody Bay and back to Parletuvier, where you can choose to see a second waterfall. It’s not quite as impressive as Argyle, but there’s never anyone there and a really nice second level pool for wading, swimming, and relaxing. From there it’s a short drive back to Castara where there is yes you guessed it, another waterfall. Warning, all of these things are very romantic and best shared with someone. I met a lovely Canadian girl named Dina and we experienced this on a day trip together. Dina, thanks for the lovely day. It was by far my favorite in Tobago. 

You can definitely spend another day exploring the much more trodden southern half of the island, but in my opinion the magic of Tobago is up north. Both Crown and Pigeon Points are worth seeing, but a bit too touristy for me. However, if locals aren’t your cup of tea, this is where you’ll find all the tourist eye candy. Also some good kite surfing spots and rentals. Mt Irvine beach is worth a visit as it’s the only surfing spot on the island. I only spent time in the capital Scarborough when I needed to do some shopping. Penny Savers is a chain and the best for this in my opinion. A boat trip is another mandatory way to spend a day in Tobago. It’s usually a day trip and typical stops are Buccoo Reef, No Man’s Land, and Nylon Pool. Note, BEWARE the rum punch! Although, it does seem to be a Tobago ‘right of passage’ to have too much rum punch on a boat tour only to spill out of the boat onto the beach at the end of the day. I won’t comment on whether or not this happened to me. 

Anyway, what an amazing, amazing experience I’ve had over the past five weeks. I can’t thank Sharon and Brenton enough for the hospitality. I’d highly recommend their guesthouse in Castara if you make way. The site I built for them, and info about their hotel can be found at www.BoatviewCastara.com. Also thanks to all the new friends that helped make my experience so wonderful this round. Too many too list, but you know who you are. I’m really looking forward to visiting Castara again sometime again in the future with friends to show them around. My guess is not much will have changed. Doesn’t seem like it has for 50 years. 

From here I’m headed to Panama by way of New York. Interestingly, it was cheaper for me to fly to NY then down to Panama, than direct from Tobago. Doesn’t much matter as I’m really looking forward to connecting with friends in NY I haven’t seen since I left on the bicycle to begin this round of travels in early June. Also, a slice from Prince St and haircut from Freeman’s are both sorely needed. I’ll be in Panama yet again for eight days this round. First exploring a small hotel in Bocas, land and the beginnings of an eco lodge in a small village an hour south of Bocas, then a few days down in Playa Venao to catch up with old friends. 

DJ David & Look-up in Parlatuvier, Tobago
After Panama I’m headed to Cali, Colombia for a month to dig in and investigate a boutique hostel/BnB/work/live project that’s for sale. Also, my good friends Paul and Josh are visiting separately to give me a second opinion and to get in some trouble together. Can’t wait to see them. If none of the business opportunities come to fruition then well, who the hell knows?!?! I do have a flight back to Denver on March 9th, which I intend to take. Will be great to see friends and family there as well. Plus, my boy and I Conrad have been kicking around a Denver based business idea. 

I guess that’s enough for now. About to land and be cold for the first time in four months! Catch everyone on the flip, 

Cheers, 

~ D

Little Bay - Castara, Tobago

View from Boathouse Beach Bar - Castara, Tobago

View from Mt. Dillon, Tobago

Caroni Bird Sanctuary - Trinidad

Caroni Bird Sanctuary - Trinidad

About to hop yet another delayed flight on Caribbean Airlines

View from Marie's Beach Bar - Rodney Bay, St Lucia

Pigeon Island, St Lucia

Looking towards Martinique - St Lucia

View of the Pitons - St Lucia

Trying to stay young at the mud baths - STL

Captain David making way to Martinique

Nice hotel pool overlooking Soufrierre, St Lucia

St Anne's Bay - Martinique

Headed into a squall in St Lucia

St Anne's - Martinique

A boy, a boat, and a beer

Jay Star sailing around Rodney Bay for the ARC Flotilla

Donkey Beach - St Lucia

Donkey Beach - St Lucia

One of the boats that got into a collision during the Mango Bowl

The minibuses weren't all that bad sometimes in STL

Looking down on Parletuvier Bay - Tobago

Typical sunset from Boathouse Beach Bar - Tobago

Untouched land just outside of Castara, Tobago

Yet another sunset from Castara, Tobago

And another...

And another...

Steps leading down to Pirate's Bay, Tobago

Argyle Falls - Tobago

Pigeon Point random view - Tobago

Road leading to Pirate's Bay from Charlottesville, Tobago

Freshly speared lunch courtesy of your bartender - Tobago

Friday, July 18, 2014

So I moved into my new apartment and couldn't be happier.  Both Mariana and Diego have been very welcoming.  She being an artist, and he a musician, their flat is very bohemian and stylish.  The location is stellar.  Two blocks from nice parks, and on the outer edges of the very trendy Palermo neighborhood.  Close enough to get involved, yet far enough away to enjoy some rest in a quiet section of the hood.  Lennon, their massive black lab and I have hit it off as well.  Copious amounts of drool aside, he's starting to grow on me.  

Yesterday morning I slept in a bit, due to being tired from hostel livin' the past few nights I suppose.  Immediately I slapped on some shorts and went out for an exploratory run and exercise session to/through the nearby parks and the Cemetario de la Chacarita.  After that and breakfast, Diego let me borrow his bicycle to explore the city.  I ended up riding for miles and was able to see a large swath of BsAs.  After a few highlights like Puerto Madero and Camanito, I ended up in Plaza Dorrego (San Telmo) and found myself sipping an espresso, watching the city pass, all whilst a couple danced beautiful tango directly beside me.  I've heard wonderful things about this city, and I feel like I'm starting to see it, and know I'll really enjoy the next three weeks living here.  

A few questions around my trip have come through recently, so figured I'd hammer those out.  So, here goes... 
  • Would you consider your trip economy, middle of the road, or high end from a budget perspective?  That's a tricky one...  I would consider my trip 'middle of the road'.  I camped a bit, but due to cold weather, ended up in lodging frequently (used CouchSurfing a few times as well).  From a food perspective, I ate mostly at restaurants and hardly cooked for myself.  However, both of those things I'd consider to be on the 'low end' (i.e. hostels when available, local street food vs nice restaurants).  I've heard of people spending as little as $45/day realistically, and I've heard of people exceeding $100/day USD.  I'll come in just under the middle of that, but that includes some hefty expenditures (i.e. Stahlratte crossing from Panama to Colombia, and bike shipping from Bs.As. to California).  Factor in things like tires, fuel, etc, and I think I did fairly well from a budget perspective.  I could have done it MUCH cheaper I think, but then I wouldn't have experienced a lot of the trip (i.e. entertaining chicas, sampling and enjoying grog from all over the world, park/preserve entries, occasional nice meal or hotel, etc).  
  • Can you break down lodging type (i.e. what percentage camping/hostels/other)?  I wish I had kept track of all this, but I'm a slacker and didn't.  I'd say the breakdown most likely looks something like this.  CouchSurfing (or bunking with friends) 15%, hostels 30%, hotels 35%, camping 20%.  That's a rough breakdown, and if you do a trip of your own you could tweak that how you wish.  CouchSurfing is one of the better ways to get to know people and a city/culture intimately.  Hostels can provide the same, but usually end up being a bit more party focused.  Hotels can be found incredibly cheap throughout the majority of LatAm.  My best find was a really nice hotel w/ great parking at Atitlan, Guatemala for $5 USD per night.  I actually stayed in several through Peru and Bolivia for the equivalent of around $2 USD, but those were 'rough around the edges' to put it kindly.  Camping can be found essentially anywhere if you are willing to seek it out.  The best resource for this are blogs maintained by the bicycle touring lot.  Out of necessity, they have to camp it (sometimes takes days to bicycle to next village/town/city).
  • Bike maintenance:  During the past 8 months, how many tires replaced?  Have you had any major repairs?  How close were reliable mechanics if needed?  Again, a total crapshoot if you are planning an adventure of your own.  Some get lucky like me so far with minor issues, others have the opposite with engines grenade'ing into pieces in the middle of F all.  However, I did have my fair share of maintenance.  I changed the oil and filter four or five times I believe.  I've spooned on three new rear and front tires.  I had to replace the battery in Antigua due to a charging issue.  I swapped out the front and rear brake pads once.  Although not necessary, I ended up swapping out the chain and sprockets in Peru (didn't want to chance it and not have parts).  I had a blown fork seal, so replaced both in Peru.  Had a bent rear rim, so hammered that back in shape.  Ended up replacing both sets of wheel bearings (rear preventatively / front out of necessity).  I went through three cans of quality chain lube, and lubed up with used black oil at moto shops when I ran out.  I had four punctures along the way (all rear tire), which required pulling tube and replacing with patched 'extra'.  Finally, I ended up yanking out the charcoal canister due to stalling issues, adding an air filter to fuel vent line, and plugging the other.

    Using recommendations and ride reports through ADVrider, I was able to find able mechanics when needed.  However, sometimes they were few and far between.  While the BMW has been a trusty sidekick and reliable friend, I've noticed people riding KLRs seem to have no issue whatsoever finding parts, even in the middle of nowhere.  I guess ride what you like, or what you have, but if on a more 'modernized' bike, be prepared to potentially have parts sourcing issues in rural areas.  
  •  How did you communicate with people?  Laptop, smartphone, both?  What percent of the time did you have internet?  Ahhh communication, something I've learned that I absolutely SUCK balls at.  However, when I did communicate it was through a number of different means.  First off, T-Mobile allows for free int'l data and text, which makes them the carrier of choice hands down if you travel.  That said, I used my iPhone frequently to stay in touch via e-mail, text, and various other sources like Skype and WhatsApp.  I'm pretty sure they have weekly board meetings discussing how 'this one dude' traveling via moto through South America is absolutely wrecking their profit model.  I've been streaming Google Maps, Spotify, and surfing the net for the past year...  for free.  I also bought and brought along a Macbook Air, which I couldn't be happier with.  I used the laptop for blogging, GPS routing, internet porn (kidding - ummm, sort of...  Sorry mom), and longer messages and communication to people.  Internet is widely available around the world now, even in the most surprising of places.  However, there are still some spots in Peru and Bolivia that I crossed with absolutely no service.  I'd say I had reliable internet 65-70% of the time.  It may have been slow, but it was there.  
  • What are some things you wish you had brought?  Conversely, what would you have left home?  Another great question...  Turns out, I think I'm pretty decent at this moto adventure travel thing (at least the packing portion).  Not a lot stands out on either end.  I feel I packed rather light compared to some I saw on the road.  Yet, I felt I had everything I needed.  In fact, I probably could have left several shirts behind.  I overspent on several 'adventure' branded shirts and undergarments that I haven't really used.  Or if used, wasn't necessary for it to be 'quick drying'.  See here for a layout of my gear.  I ended up leaving behind the water filtration system and MSR stove, and lost a few items during the trip.  I gave away a few items of clothing to needy locals.  And I lost a hat after a steamy affair somewhere in Central America.  That's it.  Everything else I've used and abused accordingly.
  • When did you feel most unprepared?  I don't know if I felt unprepared, but the most helpless I felt was when I woke up in my tent to the thundering sound of two surrounding rivers cresting their banks due to torrential downpours in Mocoa, Colombia.  Chalk it up as yet another near death experience I guess.  Ended up having to drag my tent, bike, and gear to higher ground in a panic at 2am wearing nothing but underwear and a headlamp in the cold rain.  Scary at the time, ridiculous in retrospect.  What a sight that must've been!  
  • From a health perspective, did you ever get sick and need a doctor?  How did you deal with that?  I only went to a doctor once, somewhere in southern Mexico (can't remember exact location).  I had a cold that turned into a bit of a chest infection, so decided to swing through.  I think the consultation was around $5 USD, and the round of meds prescribed another $5.  In all, doctors are cheap and readily available throughout LatAm in my experience (at least in larger cities).  In addition, before I left I purchased 12 month travel insurance through World Nomads.  This covers (not completely) things like emergency accident/sickness, emergency dental, adventure sports and activities (i.e. motos), baggage and personal effects (theft), accidental death and dismemberment, etc.  Have I used it?  Not once.  Was it worth the $1,200?  Hard to say.  Had I fallen and broken a leg, or had my laptop stolen, it may have been.  But, none of that happened, so I can't comment. 
  • Safety and security:  Did you ever get into a sketchy situation?  Were you ever robbed?  What can riders do to keep their risks lower?  I had a few sketchy situations while on the bike (i.e. drunks trying to grab at me, things being thrown while passing through roadblocks, etc), but was never attacked or robbed.  What's surprising however, is the large number of people that I ran into who did have serious issues.  Countless numbers of kids coming home from bars being beaten/robbed, several motorcyclists that had their gear or entire bikes stolen, stories of girls being raped, and the tragedy of Harry Devert being kidnapped/murdered in Michoacan, Mexico.  Now that I'm nearing the end of this I sometimes think, "how the hell did I make it through alive?"  I don't know if I'm lucky, good at traveling, have street smarts, or a combination of all of it.  Or none of it...  Who knows?

    Staying off highways for the most part, I did travel through sketchy areas.  However, the majority of people I interacted with were warm, and full of smiles.  My general thought on this...  If you are patient, friendly, and smiling yourself, most people want to help, NOT harm you.  There are $hitbags out there, and those can be dealt with accordingly.  From a riding/routing perspective, in addition to preparing routes each night before setting off (on both GPS and paper), I talked to as many locals, truckers, and police as possible.  I gathered information and made changes accordingly.  From a personal safety perspective, I have a knife on my side, and made the decision before I left that I am absolutely prepared to use it (along with several other 'items') if needed.  Even if lost, I typically walk with confidence.  Depending on the area, I usually never pull out a map in public (can duck into public restrooms).  I am aware if a person is following, and typically turn and approach them directly, or pretend to drop something or tie my shoe until they pass.  I use common sense and don't stumble home drunk alone, I shell out money for a cab when needed, and know that dark empty streets are my enemy.  On an important side note, typically it's best to just hand over whatever 'they' want.  I always carry a false wallet for this reason.  Fortunately, I've never had to give that over.  A good idea to prepare one though.

    I'll add one more thing to this.  As referenced above, 99.9% of the people that I came across on this trip were incredible, generous, kind, and welcoming.  The fear that something 'might' happen shouldn't keep you from doing a trip like this.  Just use caution, and talk to locals.  Also, get multiple opinions and take the running average.  What I mean by this is, a lot of people will tell you "this road is dangerous" or "you shouldn't enter this area".  If I turned back every time I heard that, I'd still be sitting at the border with Mexico.  Take advice, process it, get more, then make decisions accordingly.  Don't let paranoia ruin your trip.  Be vigilant, but don't forget to enjoy the ride!  Besides, you can just as easily be robbed 'back home'.  
  • How important is it to have support back home?  Uhhhhh...  Incredibly important!  For me, my father has been an invaluable resource.  He lives in Denver, so checks my PO box, opens anything that looks important, and keeps me posted.  In addition, he helped with my taxes earlier this year, and has followed up on a few add'l items on my behalf.  Before leaving, I gave him full power of attorney, and recommend you do the same with someone you trust before leaving.  That aside, having people back home who you can communicate and connect with while away long term is incredibly important.  For me several people have been a crutch.  I'd be lying if I said I didn't get down at times, lonely, and/or sad.  Family and friends have all been there for me.  I feel supported, and know that I have a group of people who have my back and are following along on the journey.  
  • Thinking back, what are two or three of the most memorable moments of the trip?  Oh man, that's difficult!  I'll just fire off a few that come to mind...  The first day I crossed the border into Mexico I was incredibly excited, but terrified.  I blasted south far away from the border.  That put me into La Pesca (sleepy fishing village) in late afternoon.  A few things stand out.  First, I nailed a topé (speed bump) at speed and learned immediately that those are disaster if not paying attention.  Second, I was so excited to see the ocean that I rode directly onto the beach, and directly busted my ass, quickly remembering how difficult sand is to ride in.  Third, after getting the bike up, and setting up camp, a truck came roaring onto the deserted beach directly towards me.  I noticed there were several guys in back armed with machine guns.  I thought to myself "Jesus, this isn't starting off well!  A crash and kidnapping all on the first day!"...  Turns out, they were members of the military coming to check on the "gringo loco" camping on the beach.  Instead of harm, I was offered protection for the night after we talked and laughed for a bit.  They took a few photos of them and the bike, and it was an eye opening experience.  Here I was terrified that something bad would happen, and the opposite, I was warmly welcomed into Mexico.

    The next thing that comes to mind are the incredible people I've met.  I don't want to start a list, as I'm sure I'll leave someone out.  I do however want to touch on one memory/experience I'll never forget.  Crossing from Panama to Colombia through San Blas was one of the best weeks of my life.  Boarding the motorcycle onto a sailboat, and setting out through paradise, with an amazing group of people...  Does it get any better?  I didn't think so, but it did.  Before I set off on this trip I was (and still am at times) recovering from a divorce.  I wasn't sure I'd ever find love again.  However, I met Nina.  She was the first person I noticed and talked to on the boat (probably helps that she's an incredibly attractive girl).  We had an instant connection and within hours were swimming together through emerald blue water, and exploring a nearby island.  That week, and the following in Cartagena together, we grew very close.  While the memories of sailing will stay strong, the memory of meeting Nina will forever be in my mind.  She made me 'feel' again, and showed me that it's possible to care about someone deeply, and for them to care for me.  For that I'll be forever grateful.

    The last thing I'll list is the riding and emotions that came with it through Peru and Bolivia.  There were bike issues, crashes, intense cold, being lost, etc.  Because of all that, there were times when I was frustrated, scared, and wondering why the hell I was even doing the trip.  However, peppered in with 'the bad' was some of the most wonderful riding, scenery, and landscape that I've ever experienced.  There would be days that I would cry tears of joy cresting a mountain with the perfect song playing in my helmet, then tears of frustration because I was lost and had yet another flat tire.  I learned a lot about myself during those days.  I became much more confident, not only in my abilities to travel, but in myself.  I felt like "if I can achieve this, I can achieve anything".  It was intense and hard to explain, but I'll never forget the mixed emotions that came with riding through the desolation and dirt roads of Peru and Bolivia.  Something I would highly recommend to anyone if given the opportunity.  In retrospect, it was one of the best parts of the entire trip.  
Enough rambling for now...  Today I plan to take a personal walking tour of Palermo to get to know my hood.  After that, I may take the Subte (subway) over to Cemetario La Recoleta.  Then again, I may save it for another day.  I have three weeks, so no rush.  My birthday is tomorrow and I'll probably have a long night, so maybe I'll just call the day early, grab a nice dinner, and get some rest.  We'll see...  It's nice not having a plan.  I'm sure it's one of the things that will be alarming when I'm back to reality.

Until then, 

~ D





          POINTS TO PONDER AND TOP NEWS        

Top World News Now                 
February 26, 2013



United States
Obama To Tell Israelis of Plan for Iran War
Obama's Paycheck Exempt From 'Sequester'
White House Sells Meetings with Obama for $500k
Pentagon to Keep Gen. Allen Probe a Secret
Kerry: US to Hasten Syria Government Change
Kerry’s first overseas trip off to shaky start
Bill unveiled to legalize medical pot
Why Should Taxpayers Give Big Banks $83 Billion a Year?
Listen up ladies! Next time there's a draft, Uncle Sam might want you too
Homeland Security Chief Threatens Long TSA Lines From Sequester
TB outbreak: LAPD urges officers to wear masks
US Internet providers start spy program to stop file-sharing
Billions at stake: US and BP clash in court over Gulf oil spill
Nation of Islam asks for gang protection
New York City homelessness continues to set new records
Canadian Asteroid-Hunting Satellite Launched into Space


Russia
Putin's KGB/FSB Converging with New IMF Banking FSB
Putin signs radical anti-tobacco bill into law
In Putin's Russia, Shooting the Messenger
Medvedev: No Grounds for New ‘Cold War’
Deputy FM Ryabkov: Iran sanctions may be lifted
Zyuganov reelected Communist chief, vows reset in left-wing politics
China, Russia ink major energy deal
Moscow 'regrets' treatment of Russians abroad
Moscow Welcomes Release of 15 Russian Sailors in Nigeria
1kg meteorite piece found in Russian Urals, biggest chunk yet discovered
Moscow Police Seize Large Cache of ‘Black Market’ Weapons
At Least 17 Amur Tigers Dead in Russia's Far East in 2012
Protests in Ukraine as EU gives May ultimatum
Ukraine wields natural gas trump card in Brussels
As Medvedev is savaged, Putin silent
State Duma Backs Putin's Foreign Assets Bill


China
Xi vows peaceful path on Taiwan
Xi calls for cross-Strait cooperation in realizing "Chinese dream"
Xi rewards Chinese missile brigade for launching 100 missiles
Hu Jintao meets KMT honorary chairman
State councilor meets South Korea's new president
South Korea's Park Warns North Against Nuclear Pursuits
Foreign Ministry: All Japanese activities regarding Diaoyu Islands illegal
Min of Environmental Protection refuses to release data from soil contamination investigation
China to halt approvals for small coal mines
2 Tibetan Monks Self-Immolate as Anti-China Protests Continue
Tibet's Growing Tragedy: Self-Immolation Protests Reach 105
5.4-magnitude earthquake jolts Tibet
BBC World Service Shortwave Radio Blocked in China
Chinese transport "workhorses" extending military's reach


United Kingdom‎
David Cameron: I'll stop migrant benefits
John Kerry: US Won't Back UK on the Falklands
Britain's top cardinal resigns over allegations 'he behaved inappropriately with priests'
Family Targeted in North Belfast Blast Bomb Attack
Cameron to hold talks with Kerry
Head of Cameron's local Tory branch resigns over gay marriage
Clegg denies cover up of associate's misconduct
Tory threat to rival parties over libel law
UK Ratings Cut Puts Spotlight on Budget
Will Litvinenko-MI6 links be revealed?
UK onshore wind farms to create more carbon dioxide than they save
Tax Breaks Spur Record UK Offshore Oil & Gas Spend


European Union
Berlusconi revives political career in chaotic Italian election
Italian markets celebrate Berlusconi’s poor performance in election
Italy's center-left to win lower house, leads in Senate race
Initial results indicate stalemate in Italian election
Angry Italians deliver austerity warning
EU ministers discuss horse meat crisis
EU holds breath over crucial Italy election
Topless Femen protest against Berlusconi as he votes in election
Protest votes add to uncertainty in close Italy election
Spanish Police Nab 3 Suspected of Spying for Iran
Spain police arrest 45 in Madrid after protest


Germany
Merkel holds talks with Turkish leaders frustrated by slow-moving EU talks
Germany presses Turkey for progress in lifting embargo on Cyprus
German government backs ban on far-right party
German Intel Paid Neo-Nazi Informer $240,000
Bare-chested protesters take on Berlin
Merkel: China, Russia seeing Syrian president's time is up
Merkel Raises Turks' Hope Of European Union Entry
Merkel kicks off sensitive visit to Turkey
Merkel inspects German Patriot missiles in Turkey
Germany arms the Persian Gulf monarchies
Germany patient with France on deficit


France
Hollande's Sarkozy joke riles French opposition
Ayrault: Boko Haram Claiming to Hold French Family
France blasts 'cruelty' as Boko Haram displays kidnapped family
France to pause austerity, cut spending next year instead: Hollande
Hollande urges compulsory labeling amid horsemeat scandal
France's military operation in Mali in 'final phase'
France warns of kidnappings, attack risk in Benin
France is euro 'problem child', frets Angela Merkel's party official
War For Global Energy Supremacy-World War III
Syrian Opposition Pledges to Attend Rome Summit
Syria says ready to talk with armed opposition
Kerry Vows Not to Leave Syria Rebels 'Dangling in the Wind'
Car blast rocks central Damascus, casualties reported
Assad's Army Has Fled Entire Area Bordering Israel
Syrian Refugees Riot in Jordan Camp; 3 Hurt
Nearly 100 Rebels Are Reported Killed in Mali Battle
No sign of peace or reconciliation in Mali
West African Mali forces to cost €715m

Insight Into Today’s News
Billionaires Continue To Dump Stocks
G20 issues empty declaration against currency wars
Norway Enters The Currency Wars