Troubling Meaty 'Estrogen'        

High temperature cooking can imbue meats with a chemical that acts like a hormone

Food for Thought

Women take note. Researchers find that a chemical that forms in overcooked meat, especially charred portions, is a potent mimic of estrogen, the primary female sex hormone. That's anything but appetizing, since studies have linked a higher lifetime cumulative exposure to estrogen in women with an elevated risk of breast cancer.

Indeed, the new finding offers a "biologically plausible" explanation for why diets rich in red meats might elevate breast-cancer risk, notes Nigel J. Gooderham of Imperial College London.

At the very high temperatures reached during frying and charbroiling, natural constituents of meats can undergo chemical reactions that generate carcinogens known as heterocyclic amines (see Carcinogens in the Diet). Because these compounds all have very long, unwieldy chemical monikers, most scientists refer to them by their abbreviations, such as IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx, and PhIP.

Of the nearly two dozen different heterocyclic amines that can form, PhIP dominates. It sometimes accumulates in amounts 10 to 50 times higher than that of any other member of this toxic chemical family, Gooderham says. Moreover, he adds, although heterocyclic amines normally cause liver tumors in exposed animals, PhIP is different: "It causes breast cancer in female rats, prostate cancer in male rats, and colon cancer in both." These are the same cancers that in people are associated with eating a lot of cooked meats.

However, the means by which such foods might induce cancer has remained somewhat elusive. So, building on his team's earlier work, Gooderham decided to probe what the heterocyclic amine did in rat pituitary cells. These cells make prolactin—another female sex hormone—but only when triggered by the presence of estrogen. Prolactin, like estrogen, fuels the growth of many breast cancers.

In their new test-tube study, Gooderham and coauthor Saundra N. Lauber show that upon exposure to PhIP, pituitary cells not only make progesterone, but also secrete it. If these cells do the same thing when they're part of the body, those secretions would circulate to other organs—including the breast.

But "what was startling," Gooderham told Science News Online, is that it took just trace quantities of the heterocyclic amine to spur prolactin production. "PhIP was incredibly potent," he says, able to trigger progesterone production at concentrations comparable to what might be found circulating in the blood of people who had eaten a couple of well-done burgers.

The toxicologist cautions that there's a big gap between observing an effect in isolated cells growing in a test-tube and showing that the same holds true in people.

However, even if PhIP does operate similarly in people, he says that's no reason to give up grilled meat. Certain cooking techniques, such as flipping hamburgers frequently, can limit the formation of heterocyclic amines. Moreover, earlier work by the Imperial College team showed that dining on certain members of the mustard family appear to detoxify much of the PhIP that might have inadvertently been consumed as part of a meal.

The human link

Three recent epidemiological studies support concerns about the consumption of grilled meats.

In the first, Harvard Medical School researchers compared the diets of more than 90,000 premenopausal U.S. nurses. Over a 12-year period, 1,021 of the relatively young women developed invasive breast cancers. The more red meat a woman ate, the higher was her risk of developing invasive breast cancer, Eunyoung Cho and her colleagues reported in the Archives of Internal Medicine last November. The increased risk was restricted, however, only to those types of breast cancers that are fueled by estrogen or progesterone.

Overall, women who ate the most red meat—typically 1.5 servings or more per day—faced nearly double the invasive breast-cancer risk of those eating little red meat each week.

Related findings emerged in the April 10 British Journal of Cancer. There, researchers at the University of Leeds reported data from a long-running study of more than 35,000 women in the United Kingdom who ranged in age from roughly 35 to 70. Regardless of the volunteers' age, Janet E. Cade's team found, those who consumed the most meat had the highest risk of breast cancer.

Shortly thereafter, Susan E. Steck of the University of South Carolina's school of public health and her colleagues linked meat consumption yet again with increased cancer risk, but only in the older segment of the women they investigated. By comparing the diets of 1,500 women with breast cancer to those of 1,550 cancerfree women, the scientists showed that postmenopausal women consuming the most grilled, barbecued, and smoked meats faced the highest breast-cancer risk.

These data support accumulating evidence that a penchant for well-done meats can hike a woman's breast-cancer risk, Steck and her colleagues concluded in the May Epidemiology.

PhIP fighters

Such findings have been percolating out of the epidemiology community for years. Nearly a decade ago, for instance, National Cancer Institute scientists reported finding that women who consistently ate their meat very well done—with a crispy, blackened crust—faced a substantially elevated breast-cancer risk when compared to those who routinely ate rare- or medium-cooked meats.

However, even well-done meats without char can contain heterocyclic amines, chemical analyses by others later showed. The compounds' presence appears to correlate best with how meat is cooked, not merely with how brown its interior ended up (SN: 11/28/98, p. 341).

At high temperatures, the simple sugar glucose, together with creatinine—a muscle-breakdown product, and additional free amino acids, can all interact within beef, chicken, and other meats to form heterocyclic amines. In contrast, low-temperature cooking or a quick searing may generate none of the carcinogens.

Because there's no way to tell visually, by taste, or by smell whether PhIP and its toxic kin lace cooked meat, food chemists have been lobbying commercial and home chefs to reduce the heat they use to cook meats—or to turn meats frequently to keep the surfaces closest to the heat source from getting too hot.

The significance of this was driven home to Gooderham several years ago when just such tactics spoiled an experiment he was launching to test whether Brussels sprouts and broccoli could help detoxify PhIP. "I bought 30 kilograms of prime Aberdeen angus lean beef," he recalls. "Then we ground it up and I gave it to a professional cook to turn into burgers and cook." Professional cooks tend to move meats around quite a bit, he found. The result: His expensive, chef-prepared meat contained almost no PhIP.

In the end, he says, "I sacked the cook, bought another 30 kilos of meat and prepared the burgers myself. It was a costly lesson."

Once restarted, however, that study yielded encouraging data.

One way the body detoxifies and sheds toxic chemicals is to link them to what amounts to a sugar molecule. Consumption of certain members of the mustard (Brassica) family, such as broccoli and Brussels sprouts (both members of the B. oleracea species)—can encourage this process. So Gooderham's team fed 250 grams (roughly half a pound) each of broccoli and Brussels sprouts each day to 20 men for almost 2 weeks. On the 12th day, the men each got a cooked-meat meal containing 4.9 micrograms of PhIP.

Compared to similar trial periods when their diets had been Brassica-free, the volunteers excreted up to 40 percent more PhIP in urine, the researchers reported in Carcinogenesis.

Experimental data suggest that two brews may also help detoxify heterocyclic amines. In test-tube studies, white tea largely prevented DNA damage from the heterocyclic amine IQ (SN: 4/15/00, p. 251), and in mice, extracts of beer tackled MeIQx and Trp-P-2 (see Beer's Well Done Benefit).

The best strategy of all, most toxicologists say, is to prevent formation of heterocyclic amines in the first place. In addition to frequently turning meat on the grill or fry pan, partially cooking meats in a microwave prior to grilling will limit the toxic chemicals' formation. So will mixing in a little potato starch to ground beef before grilling (see How Carbs Can Make Burgers Safer) or marinating meats with a heavily sugared oil-and-vinegar sauce (SN: 4/24/99, p. 264).

If you would like to comment on this Food for Thought, please see the blog version.


Janet E. Cade

UK Women's Cohort Study

Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics

30/32 Hyde Terrace

The University of Leeds

Leeds LS2 9LN

United Kingdom

Eunyoung Cho

Channing Laboratory

Department of Medicine

Harvard Medical School

181 Longwood Avenue

Boston, MA 02115

Nigel J. Gooderham

Biomolecular Medicine

Imperial College London

Sir Alexander Fleming Building

London SW7 2AZ

United Kingdom

Susan Elizabeth Steck

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Statewide Cancer Prevention and Control Program

Arnold School of Public Health

University of South Carolina

2221 Devine Street, Room 231

Columbia, SC 29208
Further Reading

Raloff, J. 2007. Concerns over genistein, part II—Beyond the heart. Science News Online (July 7). Available at [Go to].

______. 2007. Concerns over genistein, part I—The heart of the issue. Science News Online (June 16). Available at [Go to].

______. 2006. Pesticides mimic estrogen in shellfish. Science News 170(Dec. 16):397. Available to subscribers at [Go to].

______. 2006. No-stick chemicals can mimic estrogen. Science News 170(Dec. 2):366. Available to subscribers at [Go to].

______. 2006. Meat poses exaggerated cancer risk for some people. Science News Online (March 25). Available at [Go to].

______. 2005. Beer's well done benefit. Science News Online (March 5). Available at [Go to].

______. 2005. Carcinogens in the diet. Science News Online (Feb. 19). Available at [Go to].

______. 2004. How carbs can make burgers safer. Science News Online (Dec. 4). Available at [Go to].

______. 2004. Uranium, the newest 'hormone'. Science News 166(Nov. 13):318. Available to subscribers at [Go to].

______. 2001. Fire retardant catfish? Science News Online (Dec. 8). Available at [Go to].

______. 1999. Well-done research. Science News 155(April 24):264-266. Available at [Go to].

______. 1998. Very hot grills may inflame cancer risks. Science News 154(Nov. 28):341. Available at [Go to].

______. 1996. Another meaty link to cancer. Science News 149(June 8):365. Available at [Go to].

______. 1996. 'Estrogen' pairings can increase potency. Science News 149(June 8):356. Available at [Go to].

______. 1995. Beyond estrogens: Why unmasking hormone-mimicking pollutants proves so challenging. Science News 148(July 15):44. Available at [Go to].

______. 1994. Meaty carcinogens: A risk to the cook? Science News 146(Aug. 13):103.

______. 1994. Not so hot hot dogs? Science News 145(April 23):264-269.

______. 1994. How cooked meat may inflame the heart. Science News 145(March 12):165.

______. 1994. The gender benders. Science News 145(Jan. 8):24. Available at [Go to].

Smith-Roe, S.L., et al. 2006. Induction of aberrant crypt foci in DNA mismatch repair-deficient mice by the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP). Cancer Letters. 244(Nov. 28):79-85. Abstract available at [Go to].

______. 2006. Mlh1-dependent responses to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP), a food-borne carcinogen. (Abstract # 514). Toxicologist 90(March):105.

______. 2006. Mlh1-dependent suppression of specific mutations induced in vivo by the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP). Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 594(Feb. 22):101-112. Abstract available at [Go to].

           Probing the pharmacokinetics of cucurbit[7, 8 and 10]uril: and a dinuclear ruthenium antimicrobial complex encapsulated in cucurbit[10]uril         
Li, Fangfei, Gorle, Anil K., Ranson, Marie, Vine, Kara L., Kinobe, Robert, Feterl, Marshall, Warner, Jeffrey M., Keene, F. Richard, Collins, J. Grant, and Day, Anthony I. (2017) Probing the pharmacokinetics of cucurbit[7, 8 and 10]uril: and a dinuclear ruthenium antimicrobial complex encapsulated in cucurbit[10]uril. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 15 (19). pp. 4172-4179.
          Beginning of Winemaking in France        
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Discovery Highlights Innovative and Complex Fermented Beverages of Northernmost Europe in the Bronze and Iron Ages Philadelphia, PA 2014—Winters in Scandinavia were long and cold in the Bronze and Iron […]
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          Endo Pills - 18        
Informação cientifica de ação rápida - Ano 3 N° 18

Curso de Especialização em Endocrinologia - PUC
Instituto Estadual de Diabetes e Endocrinologia Luiz Capriglione

Prof.: Luiz César Povoa (A48)
Ricardo Martins Rocha Meirelles (A38)
Editores: Claudia Pieper (A22), Rosa Rita Santos Martins (A34) e Isabela Bussade (A8)
Editores Associados: Walmir Coutinho (A22) e Edna Pottes (A35)
Composição Gráfica: Wallace Margoniner


O Prêmio Nobel de 2009 vem reforçar a necessidade que os médicos têm de rever sua opinião sobre temas relacionados à Genética. Cada vez mais se torna claro que a frase que Sócatres tanto repetiu e que muitos acham que era de sua autoria “Conhece-te a ti mesmo” envolve não só a parte psíquica como a biológica. Pesquisas sobre câncer, envelhecimento, resposta terapêutica a quimioterápicos, antivirais, antibióticos e susceptibilidade para doenças crônicas são hoje voltadas para o estudo do genoma humano e seu papel na fisiologia celular.

Telômeros são localizados nas regiões terminais dos cromossomos, constituídos de repetições em série da sequência (TTAGGG) e são importantes para a replicação dos cromossomos e para a integridade dos mesmos durante o processo de divisão celular; a manutenção dos telômeros é realizada pela telomerase, enzima responsável por adicionar a sequência (TTAGGG) nas extremidades dos cromossomos quando estas se perdem. Na ausência da telomerase as extremidades cromossômicas se tornam mais curtas levando a morte celular. Todo esse processo ocorre de modo fisiológico e cada célula tem sua quantidade de telômeros e telomerases necessários para seu tempo de vida, ou seja, os telômeros têm papel fundamental no controle do número de divisões que uma célula deve ter até sua morte. Nas células cancerosas a taxa de proliferação celular é acelerada, o que deveria diminuir os telômeros, entretanto estas células reativam a atividade da telomerase levando ao desenvolvimento do câncer.

O prêmio Nobel de Medicina em 2009 foi entregue a três doutores em Biologia Molecular: Dra. Elizabeth Blackburn (Departamento de Microbiologia e Imunologia da Universidade da Califórnia), Dra. Carol W. Greider (Universidade Jonhs Hopkins de Medicina, Baltimore) e o Dr. Jack Szostak (Instituto Médico do Hospital Geral de Massachusetts). As duas primeiras descobriram a telomerase em 1984 e desde então elas e o Dr. Jack Szostak vêm publicando trabalhos sobre a telomerase nos processos de envelhecimento celular e nas divisões celulares alteradas nas células cancerígenas, propiciando o desenvolvimento de novas pesquisas sobre envelhecimento e novas opções terapêuticas para o câncer.

Ribossomos: organela citoplasmática composta de RNA ribossômico e proteína, sobre a qual os polipeptídios são sintetizados a partir do RNA mensageiro (mRNA); são constituídos de muitas proteínas estruturais diferentes em associação com tipos especializados de RNA conhecidos como RNAs ribossômicos (rRNA) É nos ribossomos que ocorre o processo de tradução do mRNA. Essa tradução envolve ainda um terceiro tipo de RNA, o RNA transportador (tRNA) que faz a ligação molecular entre o código contido na sequência de bases de cada mRNA e as sequências de aminoácidos da proteína a ser codificada.

O prêmio Nobel de Química foi concedido a três cientistas: Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (Laboratório de Biologia Molecular MRC, em Cambridge, Reino Unido), Thomas Steitz (Instituto Médico Howard Hughes, na Universidade de Yale, EUA). E Ada Yonath (Centro Helen & Milton A. Kimmelman de Estruturas Biológicas e Biomoleculares do Instituto Weizmann, Israel). Estes pesquisadores realizam estudos sobre a estrutura dos ribossomos facilitando o entendimento de sua conformação e funcionamento, o que vem contribuindo para o entendimento de como agem os antibióticos nos ribossomos das bactérias e porque processos se cria a resistência bacteriana aos medicamentos, permitindo assim que sejam desenvolvidos novos antibióticos.
Rosa Rita Santos Martins


A hipótese ambiental da obesidade propõe que a exposição pré e pós-natal à substâncias químicas ambientais contribui para adipogênese e obesidade. Os mecanismos essenciais para doença metabólica permanecem pouco compreendidos, mas muitos dados de estudos epidemiológicos humanos e em modelos animais indicam que a nutrição materna e outros estímulos ambientais influenciam no desenvolvimento e induzem mudanças permanentes no metabolismo e na suscetibilidade a doenças crônicas como diabetes.

Os compostos organoestânicos - Tributilestanho (TBT) são disruptores endócrinos, a exposição pré-natal a eles é uma conhecida causa de acúmulo de gordura em adultos. Usados amplamente na agricultura e indústria, os compostos organoestânicos têm entrado em grande quantidade no meio ambiente, deste modo, pesquisadores da Universidade da Califórnia, Irvine, liderados pelo Doutor Bruce Blumberg, buscaram definir melhor como a exposição pré-natal a TBT afeta a fisiologia nos adultos. Seus achados reforçam a hipótese de que atinge o feto durante o desenvolvimento do tecido adiposo e modifica o pool gerador do estroma multipotente em favor do desenvolvimento dos adipócitos.

Eles descobriram que, in vitro, TBT sensibiliza as células tronco multipotentes tanto de tecido adiposo humano quanto de ratos para sofrerem adipogênese. Em um modelo animal a exposição pré-natal modificou o comportamento das células tronco em favor da produção de adipócitos. A equipe de pesquisadores descobriu que a exposição ao TBT é associada a mudanças na metilação do DNA na população de células tronco multipotente, e que a exposição pré-natal ao TBT aumenta a expressão gênica adipócito-específica.

Em um artigo aguardando publicação no Molecular Endocrinolgy, os pesquisadores afirmam que a exposição ao TBT em fases precoces da vida altera o comportamento das células tronco em favor da produção de adipócitos. Estes resultados oferecem uma potencial explanação para as propriedades obesogênicas do TBT e ilustram como compostos xeonobióticos atingem o feto podendo afetar a adipogênese e obesidade.
Aline Isabel Rodrigues (C2)


O estrógeno e a testosterona exercem um papel conhecido no metabolismo ósseo e a proteína ligadora de hormônios sexuais (SHBG) parece ser outro possível fator determinante.

Os hormônios sexuais determinam o desenvolvimento e crescimento do esqueleto, além de atuar na manutenção após alcance do pico de massa óssea. Por esse motivo, pesquisadores do hospital universitário da Bélgica estudaram a relação entre os níveis de SHBG e as características ósseas de 667 homens saudáveis, na faixa etária de 25-45 anos.Utilizaram raio-X e tomografia computadorizada quantitativa analisando tíbia e rádio com parâmetros de osso cortical. Foram comparados os achados radiológicos com os resultados de SHBG, testosterona e estradiol. Após ajustes para as frações livres de esteróides, observaram que os maiores níveis de SHBG foram encontrados em indivíduos com maior densidade óssea cortical e maior circunferência do periósteo. Maior densidade mineral do osso trabecular também foi associada a menores níveis de SHBG. Esses resultados sugerem um possível papel da SHGB como fator independente na determinação da massa óssea.Porém, mais estudos são necessários para a confirmação desses dados e para definir se a SHBG teria um papel significativo ou apenas complementar no metabolismo ósseo.
Cláudia Mendes Guimarães Gontijo (C2)


Pesquisadores, avaliando o genoma dos genes da suscetibilidade ao diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2), podem ter feito um grande achado. Um grupo internacional de pesquisa identificou 13 novas variantes genéticas que influenciam a regulação de glicemia; resistência insulínica e função de células beta - alguns dos quais parecem aumentar o risco para tal doença.

A colaboração, envolvendo centenas de cientistas em mais de 100 instituições na Europa, Estados Unidos, Canadá e Austrália, caiu no grupode Meta Análises relacionadas à glicose e à insulina (MAGIC - Meta Analyses of Glucose and Insulin Related Traits Consortium), que recentemente publicou dois artigos online no Nature Genetics.

Um artigo relatou uma meta análise envolvendo cerca de 50.000 indivíduos, com reprodução em outras 76.558 pessoas, mostrando nove novas variantes genéticas que influenciam a glicemia de jejeum (ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 E C2CD4B). Dentres estes, ACDY5 E PROX1 foram associados a risco aumentado de DM2.

O segundo estudo de glicemia após Teste de Tolerância a Glicose, identificou 3 novas variantes gênicas que influenciam os níveis de glicose (VPS13C, GCKR, TCF7L2), com ADCY5 sobrepujando as variantes achadas no primeiro estudo para serem associadas ao diabetes.

Os resultados nos dão novas direções para pesquisas futuras na biologia do DM2, que é um crescente problema de saúde pública no mundo todo", disse o diretor dos Institutos Nacionais de Saúde, Francis S. Collins, autor dos dois artigos.

De acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) mais de 200 milhões de pessoas em todo mundo são afetadas pelo DM2, que mata mais de um milhão de pessoas por ano. Sua prevalência mais que dobrou nos últimos 30 anos, devido principalmente a um aumento da obesidade. Progresso em identificar e entender os genes envolvidos são a chave para combater o DM2.

Com mais genes identificados, podemos ver padrões surgirem", disse José Florez, pesquisador no Hospital Geral de Massachusetts e co-autor em um dos estudos. "Achar essas novas vias pode nos ajudar a entender melhor como a glicose é regulada, distinguir entre variações normais e patológicas na glicemia e desenvolver novas terapias.
Letícia Mauricio Garcia Japiassú (C2)


A doença que geralmente se manifesta em idosos, a Osteoporose, pode ter seus primórdios na infância e na adolescência. Fatores que alteram a formação ou reabsorção ósseas em jovens poderiam afetar, significativamente, o risco de fratura osteoporótica mais tarde na vida. A obesidade foi sugerida como um desses fatores, mas ainda não há um consenso se ela estaria ligada realmente à remodelação óssea.

Recentemente, algumas provas evidenciaram a ligação dos hormônios derivados dos adipócitos – adipocinas, incluindo leptina e adiponectina – ao tecido adiposo e ao osso.

Esperando para expor mais sobre esses “culpados”, Xiaobin Wang, M.D., M.P.H., SC.D., do Children`s Memorial Hospital em Chicago, e seus colegas realizaram um estudo transversal em gêmeos chineses residentes em áreas rurais. Eles avaliaram 675 meninos e 575 meninas, com idades entre 13-21 anos, medindo seus níveis de adipocinas plasmáticas pela tecnologia fluxométrica xMAP (análise de múltiplos perfis) e medindo também massa gorda, massa magra e parâmetros ósseos (área do osso, conteúdo mineral do osso, área tranversal e módulo de seção) pela DEXA.

Em um próximo artigo a ser publicado no “The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism”, os pesquisadores descreveram uma relação entre a massa óssea e o nível plasmático de adipocinas. Especificamente, a adiponectina foi inversamente associada com o conteúdo mineral ósseo em indivíduos do sexo masculino, mas não em indivíduos do sexo feminino, após ter sido ajustada para a massa magra, peso corporal, IMC ou massa magra e massa gorda simultaneamente. A leptina foi inversamente associada à área óssea do corpo inteiro e da coluna lombar em meninas após ajuste para massa magra e massa gorda.

“Embora as relações entre adipocinas e ossos pareçam ser específicas para cada gênero”, os autores assinalam a possibilidade de que genes ainda não identificados até o momento ou influências ambientais possam estar envolvidos na patogênese da doença.
Paula Flecher Bittencourt Schlobach (C2)
          Breast Cancer Coalition talk on ONS and Taxol solubility        
On May 1, 2011 I presented "Accelerating Discovery by Sharing: a case for Open Notebook Science" at the National Breast Cancer Coalition Annual Advocacy Conference in Arlington, VA. This was the first year where they had a session on an Open Science related theme and the organizers invited me to highlight some of the tools and practices in chemistry which might be applicable to cancer research.

I was really touched by the passion from those in the audience as well as the other speakers and conference participants I met afterward. For many, their deep connection with the cause was strongly rooted in a personal experience as breast cancer survivors themselves or their loved ones. Several expressed a frustration with the current system of sharing results from scientific studies. They felt that knowledge sharing is much slower than it needs to be and that potentially useful "negative" results are generally not disclosed at all.

The NBCC has ambitiously set 2020 as the deadline to end breast cancer (including a countdown clock). It seems reasonable to me that encouraging transparency in research is a good strategy to accelerate progress. Of course, great care must be exercised wherever patient confidentiality is a factor. But health care researchers are already experienced with following protocols to anonymize datasets for publication. Opting to work more openly would not change that but it might affect when and how results are shared. Also there is a great deal of science related to breast cancer that does not directly involve human subjects.

One initiative that particularly impressed me was The Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank, presented by Susan Clare from Indiana University and moderated by Virginia Mason from the Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Foundation. As a result of this effort, thousands of women have donated healthy breast tissue to create a comprehensive database richly annotated with donor genetics and medical history. The idea of trying to tackle a disease state by first understanding normal functioning in great detail was apparently somewhat of a paradigm shift for the cancer research community and it was challenging to implement. According to Dr. Clare, data from the Tissue Bank have shown that the common practice of using apparently unaffected tissue adjacent to a tumor as a control may not be valid.

This example highlights one of the key principles of Open Science: there is value in everyone knowing more - even if it isn't immediately clear how that knowledge will prove to be useful.

In my experience, this is a fundamental point that distinguishes those who are likely to favor Open Science from those who reject its value. If two researchers are discussing Open Science and only one of them views this philosophy as being self-evident the conversation will likely be about why someone would want (or not want) to share more and the focus will fall on extrinsic motivators such as academic credit, intellectual property, etc. If both researchers view this philosophy as self-evident the conversation will probably gravitate towards how and what to share.

I refer to this philosophy as being self-evident because I don't think people can become convinced through argumentation (I've never seen that happen). Within the realm of Open Notebook Science I have been involved in countless discussions about the value of sharing all experimental details - even when errors are discovered. I can think of a few ways in which this is useful - for example telegraphing a research direction to those in the field or providing data for researchers who study how science is actually done (such as Don Pellegrino). But even if I couldn't think of a single application I believe that there is value in sharing all available data.

A good example of this philosophy at work is the Spectral Game. Researchers who uploaded spectral data to ChemSpider as Open Data did not anticipate how their contribution would be used. They didn't do it for extrinsic motives such as traditional academic credit. Assuming that their motivation was similar to our group's, they did it because they believed it was an obviously useful thing to do. It is only much later - after a critical mass of open spectra were collected - that the idea arose to create a game from the dataset.

With this mindset, I explored what contribution we might make to breast cancer research by performing a phrase search strategy. Doing a simple Google search for "breast cancer" solubility generated mainly two types of results.

The first set involve the solubility behavior of biomolecules within the cellular environment. An example would be the observed increased solubility of gamma-tubulin in cancerous cells.
The second type of results address the difficulty in preparing formulations for cancer drugs due to solubility problems. A good example of this is Taxol (paclitaxel), where existing excipients are not completely satisfactory - in the case of Cremophor EL some patients experience a hypersensitivity.
Since our modeling efforts thus far have focused on non-aqueous solubility, there is possibly an opportunity to contribute by exploring the solubility behavior of paclitaxel. By inputting solubility data from a paper by Singla 2002 into our solubility database, Abraham descriptors for paclitaxel are automatically calculated and the solubilities in over 70 solvents are predicted.

In addition, by simply adding the melting point of paclitaxel, we automatically predict its solubility at any temperature where these solvents are liquids (see for example water).

Because of the way we expose our results to the web, a Google search for "paclitaxel solubility acetonitrile" now returns the actual value in the Google summary on the first page of results (currently 7th on the first page). The other hits have all 3 keywords somewhere in the document but one has to click on each link then perform a search within the document to find out if the acetonitrile solubility for paclitaxel is actually reported. (Note that clicking on our link ultimately takes you to the peer-reviewed paper with the original measurement.)

To be clear about what we are doing here - we are not claiming to be the first to predict the solubility of paclitaxel in these solvents using Abraham descriptors or any other method. Nor are we claiming that we have directly made a dent in the formulation problem of paclitaxel. We are not even indicating that we have done a thorough search of the literature - that would take a lot more time than we have had given the enormous amount of work on paclitaxel and its derivatives.

All we are doing is fleshing out the natural interface between the knowledge space of the UsefulChem/ONS Challenge projects and that of breast cancer research - AND - we are exposing the results of that intersection through easily discoverable channels. By design, these results are exposed as self-contained "smallest publishable units" and they are shared as quickly (and as automatically) as possible. The traditional publication system does not have mechanism to disseminate this type of information. (Of course when enough of these are collected and woven into a narrative that fits the criteria for a traditional paper they can and should be submitted for peer-reviewed publication).

Here is a scenario for how this could work in this specific instance. A graduate student (who has never heard of Open Science or UsefulChem, the ONS Challenge, etc.) is asked to look for new formulations for paclitaxel (or other difficult to solubilize anti-cancer agents). They do a search on commercial databases offered by their university for various solubilities of paclitaxel and cannot find a measurement for acetonitrile. They then do a search on Google and find a hit directly answering their query, as I detailed above. This leads them to our prediction services and they start using those numbers in their own models.

That is a good outcome - and that is exactly what has been happening (see the gold nanodot paper and the phenanthrene soil contamination study as examples). But the real paydirt would come from the graduate student recognizing that we've done a lot of work collecting measurements and building models for solubility and melting points, and contact us about a collaboration. As long as they are comfortable with working openly we would be happy actively work together.

I'm using the formulation of paclitaxel as an example but I'm sure that there are many more intersections between solubility and breast cancer research. With a bit of luck I hope we can find a few researchers who are open to this type of collaboration.

As another twist to this story, I will briefly mention here too that Andrew Lang has started to screen our Ugi product virtual library for docking with the site where paclitaxel binds to gamma-tubulin (D-EXP018). This might shed some light on some much cheaper alternatives to the extremely expensive paclitaxel and derivatives. The drug binds through 3 hydrogen bonds, shown below - rendered in 2D and 3D representations (obtained from the PDB ligand viewer)

The slides and recording of my talk are embedded below:

           Calix[4]arenes featuring a direct lower rim attachment of dansyl groups. Synthesis, fluorescence properties and first report on crystal structures         
Gruber, Tobias and Fischer, Conrad and Felsmann, Marika and Seichter, Wilhelm and Weber, Edwin (2009) Calix[4]arenes featuring a direct lower rim attachment of dansyl groups. Synthesis, fluorescence properties and first report on crystal structures. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 7 (23). pp. 4904-4917. ISSN 1477-0520
           Bridge-substituted calix[4]arenes: syntheses, conformations and application         
Fischer, Conrad and Gruber, Tobias and Seichter, Wilhelm and Weber, Edwin (2011) Bridge-substituted calix[4]arenes: syntheses, conformations and application. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 9 (11). pp. 4347-4352. ISSN 1477-0520
          Las biomoléculas cambian (Parte V). De cómo las biomoléculas nos cuentan la historia evolutiva.        
¿En qué se parecen un cocodrilo y un tomate? ¡En nada! ¡Son muy diferentes! Seguramente esa es la respuesta en la que todos pensamos al ver esta pregunta. Pero si todos los seres vivos, desde las pequeñas bacterias hasta las … Sigue leyendo
          Las biomoléculas cambian (Parte IV): Genes, alas de pájaros y sistemática.        
Desde el comienzo de la humanidad hemos tenido la necesidad de clasificar las cosas, entre ellas a los seres vivos. Separamos a las plantas de los animales, las cebras de los caballos, los gatos de los perros… Durante mucho tiempo … Sigue leyendo
          New Architectures for a New Biology        
David Shaw describes the current state of the art in biomolecular simulation and explores the potential role of high-performance computing technologies in extending current capabilities. (October 11, 2006)
          MTS51- James Liao - Turning Microbes into Fuel Refineries        

In this podcast I talk to James Liao, a professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at UCLA. I spoke to Dr. Liao about his research into engineering microbes to make fuel.

Today, we get most of the fuel for our cars out of the ground. It's a process fraught with dangerous consequences, from the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico to the rise in global temperatures thanks to greenhouse gases. Dr. Liao is among a growing number of scientists who think that microbes can help us out of this predicament.

We talked about the attraction of microbe-derived fuels, and the challenges of getting bacteria to turn air, water, and sun into something that can power your car.

Selected Publications

Atsumi, S.; T. Hanai and J.C. Liao (2008) Non-Fermentative Pathways for Synthesis of Branched-Chain Higher Alcohols as Biofuels, Nature, 451:86-89.

Atsumi,S.; Higashide, W.; and Liao, J.C. (2009) Direct recycling of carbon dioxide to isobutyraldehyde using photosynthesis, Nat Biotechnol, 27, 1177-1180

          Low Risk of Side-effects and Non-toxic Nature to Drive Global Market for Peptide Drugs        
Peptides are biomolecules that have unique pharmacological properties compared to large proteins and small molecule drugs. Peptides play an important role in synchronizing intercellular communications and modulating a number of cellular functions. Scientists say that the medical world can significantly benefit from peptides and the more they are utilized in the production of medicines, the more safe and specific drugs can be manufactured. The several benefits of peptides have been realized by the pharmaceutical industry in the past few years and several peptide drugs are entering the market at a steady pace. The market has witnessed significant traction in the past few years, however, only a few peptide drugs entered clinical trials. Currently, several hundreds of peptide drugs enter clinical trials and are released in the market for treating a variety of ailments. The global peptide market has started attaining maturity and the global population is becoming more receptive of the several potential benefits of peptides against a number of medical challenges. The major demand for peptide drugs is found in specialty medical areas such as oncology, cardiovascular conditions, metabolic diseases, and infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the demand for peptide drugs has also substantially increased on the fronts such as hematology and endocrinology.  The major benefits of peptide drugs are a much reduced risk of side-effects and their non-toxic nature. As peptide drug molecules and the parent molecules they are derived from are closely related, peptide drugs are known to pose little or no harm to the patients by virtue of undesired side effects. Side-effects caused by peptide drugs, if any, are mostly caused due to dosage-related or some kind of local reactions. So in general, no serious immune responses are known to result from peptide drugs. Also, as peptide drugs are manufactured from substances that are naturally occurring and are metabolically tolerable amino acids, they are usually non-toxic. All these factors are resulting in the introduction of a relatively larger number of peptide drugs as compared to the past in the market.

Original Post Low Risk of Side-effects and Non-toxic Nature to Drive Global Market for Peptide Drugs source Twease
          Natural Products in OBC        
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, our sister journal, publishes many articles that cover a variety of natural product chemistry. We try to keep you updated here, although signing up to OBC’s e-alert (free service) means you will receive the tables of content directly in your inbox every time an issue is published. Hand-picked for you from the latest issues […]
          Natural Products in OBC        
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, our sister journal, publishes many articles that cover a variety of natural product chemistry. We try to keep you updated here, although signing up to OBC’s e-alert (free service) means you will receive the tables of content directly in your inbox every time an issue is published. Hand-picked for you from […]
          Natural Products in OBC        
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, our sister journal, publishes many articles that cover a variety of natural product chemistry. We try to keep you updated here, although signing up to OBC’s e-alert (free service) means you will receive the tables of content directly in your inbox every time an issue is published. Hand-picked for you from […]
          Natural Products in OBC        
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, our sister journal, publishes many articles that cover a variety of natural product chemistry. We try to keep you updated here, although signing up to OBC’s e-alert (free service) means you will receive the tables of content directly in your inbox every time an issue is published. Hand-picked for you from […]
          Natural Products in OBC        
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, our sister journal, publishes many articles that cover a variety of natural product chemistry. We try to keep you updated here, although signing up to OBC’s e-alert (free service) means you will receive the tables of content directly in your inbox every time an issue is published. Hand-picked for you from […]
          Natural Products in OBC        
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, our sister journal, publishes many articles that cover a variety of natural product chemistry. We try to keep you updated here, although signing up to OBC’s e-alert (free service) means you will receive the tables of content directly in your inbox every time an issue is published. Hand-picked for you from […]
          World's earliest winery discovered 6,100 years after producing its last vintage        
The world's oldest winery has been uncovered in a remote cave in the mountains of Armenia.

A grape press, fermentation jars and even a cup and drinking bowl dating to about 6,100 years ago were discovered by an international team of researchers.

While older evidence of wine drinking has been found, this is the earliest example of complete wine production, according to Gregory Areshian of the University of California, Los Angeles, co-director of the excavation.

'The evidence argues convincingly for a wine-making facility,' said Patrick McGovern, scientific director of the Biomolecular Archaeology Laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia, who was not part of the research team.

Such large-scale wine production implies that the Eurasian grape had already been domesticated, said McGovern, author of 'Uncorking the Past: The Quest for Wine, Beer and Other Alcoholic Beverages.'

The same Armenian area was the site of the discovery of the oldest known leather shoe, dated to about 5,500 years ago. That discovery at the area known as Areni-1 was reported last summer.

According to the archeologists, inside the cave was a shallow basin about 3 feet across that was positioned to drain into a deep vat.

The basin could have served as a wine press where people stomped the grapes with their feet, a method Areshian noted was traditional for centuries.

They also found grape seeds, remains of pressed grapes and dozens of dried vines. The seeds were from the same type of grapes - Vitis vinifera vinifera - still used to make wine.

The earliest comparable remains were found in the tomb of the ancient Egyptian king Scorpion I, dating to around 5,100 years ago.

Because the wine-making facility was found surrounded by graves, the researchers suggest the wine may have been intended for ceremonial use.

That made sense to McGovern, who noted that wine was the main beverage at funeral feasts and was later used for tomb offerings.

Indeed, he said, 'Even in lowland regions like ancient Egypt where beer reigned supreme, special wines from the Nile Delta were required as funerary offerings and huge quantities of wine were consumed at major royal and religious festivals.'

McGovern noted that similar vats for treading on grapes and jars for storage have been found around the Mediterranean area.

In his books, McGovern has suggested that a 'wine culture,' including the domestication of the Eurasian grape, was first consolidated in the mountainous regions around Armenia before moving to the south.

The findings are published in the online edition of the Journal of Archaeological Science.

          Comment on Energy capture in photosynthesis may use quantum effects by alphacarey        
As far as I can tell, this article in iO9 (which is a fun site!) is a fair summary of the work reported in Nature Communications. I say "as far as I can tell" because the original paper has statements like "non-classicality of initially thermalized vibrations is induced via coherent exciton–vibration interactions and is unambiguously indicated by negativities in the phase–space quasi-probability distribution of the effective collective mode coupled to the electronic dynamics." Just guessing here, but I'd think that most light-absorbing biomolecules would have similar physics, so the fact that we can read the phrase "negativities in the phase–space quasi-probability distribution" may be due to that very thing happening in our retina. Whatever that thing is.
           Letters to the Editor         
Hollingworth, D; Kelly, G; Frenkiel, TA; Noble, CG; Taylor, IA; Ramos, A; (2005) Letters to the Editor. Journal of Biomolecular NMR , 31 (4) p. 363. 10.1007/s10858-005-1392-1 .
           NMR assignment of the apo and peptide-bound SH2 domain from the Rous sarcoma viral protein Src         
Taylor, JD; Fawaz, RR; Ababou, A; Williams, MA; Ladbury, JE; (2005) NMR assignment of the apo and peptide-bound SH2 domain from the Rous sarcoma viral protein Src. JOURNAL OF BIOMOLECULAR NMR , 32 (4) p. 339. 10.1007/s10858-005-0471-7 .
          SPMW The Nanomechanics of compositional mapping in amplitude modulation AFM        
Amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) has been very successful for imaging with high spatial resolution inorganic as well as soft materials such as polymers, living cells and single biomolecules in their natural environment [1]. The ability of AM-AFM to separate topography from compositional contrast is probably one its main advantages. Compositional mapping is achieved by recording simultaneously the oscillation amplitude and the phase lag between the external excitation of a vibrating tip and its response in the vicinity of the surface...
           Overproduction and identification of butyrolactones SCB1-8 in the antibiotic production superhost Streptomyces M1152         
Sidda, John D., Poon, Vincent, Song, Lijang, Wang, Weishan, Yang, Keqian and Corre, Christophe. (2016) Overproduction and identification of butyrolactones SCB1-8 in the antibiotic production superhost Streptomyces M1152. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 14 . pp. 6390-6393. ISSN 1477-0520
          Smart People Are Working Behind the Scenes to Save the Lives of People They Don’t Know        
Researchers have devised a protein “switch” that instructs cancer cells to produce their own anti-cancer medication. The researchers, led by Marc Ostermeier, a Johns Hopkins chemical and biomolecular engineering professor in the Whiting School of Engineering, showed that these switches, working from inside the cells, can activate a powerful cell-killing drug when the device detects […]
          Noted Women Scientists of India - an attempt at enumeration        
Priya Ravichandran (@binaryfootprint on Twitter), who is a program manager and writer with the Takshashila Institution, threw a challenge on Twitter the other day. She asked her followers to name top 5 women scientists of India without doing a Google search first. Easy-peesy, I thought. But as I tried to remember the names, I was mortified to discover that beyond Dr. Asima Chatterjee (a noted Chemist) and Dr. Sipra Guha Mukherjee (a noted plant biologist, who had taught us at the Jawaharlal Nehru University), I couldn't remember off-hand the names of any top tier Indian women in the pure sciences fields. Even in my dotage, this was embarrassing. So, I enlisted the help of my friends on Facebook (Viva la social media!) and asked them to come up with names. In this post, I am going to list those names that came up. One caveat: the list, understandably, may be slightly biased towards women in bioscience and related fields - since many of my friends and I are biology researchers. However, I'd love it if you, dear readers, could come up with other names, and leave them in the comments, along with a few words in description.

Before I begin, let me gratefully acknowledge all those friends who have offered their suggestions. Two friends suggested that I start looking into the list of the awardees of the SS Bhatnagar award, a science award in India given annually by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of the Government of India for fundamental and applied research. The award was instituted in 1958; it seems a monumental shame that only 14 women (out of over 450 total awardees) were given this award until 2012! It certainly doesn't bode well for women scientists in India.

UPDATE: October 25, 2013: Yamuna Krishnan becomes the 15th woman awardee of the Bhatnagar Award; she receives it in Chemical Sciences for her work with the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids.

Here's the list.

Shubha Tole2010Biological SciencesNeuroscientist, faculty member at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai; major research interest: Genetic mechanisms and signaling pathways of the cerebral cortex and amygdala of the developing brain.
Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay2010Engineering SciencesProfessor at the Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta; fellow of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), and Indian National Academy of Engineering; main research interest: Computational Biology and genetic algorithms.
Mitali Mukerji2010Medical SciencesScientist at the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi; main research area: effects of genome variation on human phenotypes and susceptibility to diseases.
Charusita Chakravarty2009Chemical SciencesProfessor of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi; main research interest: theoretical chemistry, chemical, classical and quantum physics.
Rama Govindarajan2007Engineering SciencesProfessor of Engineering Mechanics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research; main research interests: instability and transition to turbulence of shear flows, physics of interfacial flows.
Sujatha Ramdorai2004Mathematical SciencesProfessor at the School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai; Professor at Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver; PhD student of Raman Parimala (see below); mathematician renowned for algebraic theory; fellow of Indian Academy of Sciences (IAS), NAS, Indian National Science Academy (INSA).
Vijayalakshmi Ravindranath1996Medical SciencesCurrent Chair, Center for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science (IISc); main research interests: pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, disease modifying therapies.
Shashi Wadhwa1991Medical SciencesCurrent faculty member, All Indian Institute of Medical Sciences; main research interest: developmental neurobiology, quantitative morphology and electron microscopy.
Sudipta Sengupta1991Earth SciencesProfessor, Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University; fellow of INSA; conducted pioneering geological studies in Antarctica; expert mountaineer.
Manju Ray1989Biological SciencesEmeritus Scientist, Bose Institute, CSIR; former professor, Department of Biochemistry, Indian Association of Cultivation of Science; main research interest: tumor biochemistry and molecular enzymology.
Raman Parimala1987Mathematical SciencesCurrently, Professor of Mathematics at Emory University; member of the INSA and IAS.
Indira Nath1983Medical SciencesPhysician Scientist with major focus on immune responses in Leprosy; recipient of innumerable national and international awards, including Padmashree, the fourth highest civilian award in India; fellow and former vice president of the NAS; fellow of the IAS, National Academy of Medical Sciences, and many other national and international bodies.
Archana Sharma1975Biological Sciences(1932-2008) Scientist in the field of Cytogenetics and Genetic Toxicology; founding editor of the international journal The Nucleus; Second woman to be conferred a Doctorate of Science (D.Sc.) by University of Calcutta formerly, professor of Botany, University of Calcutta; member of INSA; author of several books on Chromosome and Genetic techniques. [Link to Obit]
Asima Chatterjee1961Chemical Sciences(1917-2006) Formerly Professor of Chemistry, University of Calcutta; first woman to be awarded a D.Sc. by an Indian university (University of Calcutta); noted for her work in organic chemistry and medicinal plants; member of INSA. [Link to Obit]

In addition to above, the following is a list of elected women fellows of prestigious national science bodies in India, such as IAS, NAS, and INSA. This compilation is gleaned from the websites of IAS, INSA, as well as individual institutions of the concerned scientists.

NameFellowshipResearch areaNotes
Ashima AnandINSAPhysiology and neurology of the cardiopulmonary systemScientist at Vallavbhai Patel Chest Institute of the Delhi University; also, a member of the Committee on Ethics of the International Union of Physiological Sciences.
Manju BansalINSA, IAS, NASMolecular Biophysics, Structural and Computational BiologyProfessor at the Molecular Biophysics unit, IISc; she did her PhD on collagen triple helix under the mentorship of world-renowned biophysicist GN Ramachandran; her work has elucidated the connection between DNA structure and specific functions such as transcription initiation and replication.
Mahtab Sohrab BamjiINSA, NAMSNutritional BiochemistryEmeritus Medical Scientist, Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR); she has done seminal work in elucidating the physiology and biochemistry of vitamin B-complex.
Aparna Dutta GuptaINSA, IASInsect Molecular PhysiologyProfessor at the School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad; her recent work has included improved methods of pest control via application of biochemistry and insect physiology.
Joyoti BasuINSA, IAS, NASMolecular and Cellular BiologyProfessor at Bose Institute, CSIR; she has done in-depth and high impact work on interaction of innate immunity with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the TB bacillus.
Archana BhattacharyyaINSA, IAS, NASIonospheric Physics and GeomagnetismScientist and Director of the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Mumbai; she studies the dynamics and evolution of ionospheric irregularities, which are produced by unstable plasma in earth's ionosphere, and scatter radio frequency waves.
Rajani Avinash BhiseyINSA, IASEnvironmental Carcinogenesis, Molecular EpidemiologyAdjunct professor, University of Pune; she developed a hairless mouse model sensitive to tumor initiation and promotion by environmental agents, such as tobacco; she has identified genetic polymorphisms that confer high oral cancer risk to tobacco users.
Bimla ButiINSA, NASPlasma PhysicsFormer Senior professor and Faculty Dean, Physical Research Laboratory; she held many national and international appointments.
Maharani ChakravortyINSA, NAS, NAMSMolecular Biology and Genetic EngineeringHonorary Scientist at the National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, ICMR; her work has greatly enriched the fields of ribosomes and protein synthesis in Salmonella typhimurium, and of the functions of bacteriophage P22.
Vidya Avinash ArankalleINSA, IASVirologyDirector-In-Charge & Scientist, National institute of Virology; she has conducted excellent research work in pathogenesis of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) and antibody immunity against HEV infection in pregnant women; she has developed a vaccine Candidate for HEV.
Madhu DikshitINSA, IASPharmacologyChief Scientist & Head, Division of Pharmacology, Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Lucknow; she has made seminal contributions in the understanding the role of Nitric Oxide in free-radical generation by innate immune cells, and in degenerative pathological conditions.
Chanda Jayant JogINSA, IAS, NASAstrophysicsProfessor of Physics, IISc, Bangalore; many original contributions in the field of morphology and dynamics of galaxies, which have been used to interpret observational studies on galaxies.
Sandhya Srikant VisweswariahINSA, IASBiochemistry, Protein Structure-Function and Signal TransductionProfessor of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, at IISc, Bangalore; current research focus includes molecular mechanisms of signalling mediated by cyclic nucleotides, and phosphodiesterase enzymes.
Sampa DasINSA, NASPlant Molecular Biology & BiotechnologyProfessor of Plant molecular biology, Bose Institute, CSIR; she has worked on carbohydrate-binding insecticidal plant proteins that inhibit certain agricultural pests, and created transgenic rice, mustard, chickpea and tobacco that were resistant to these pests.
Kasturi DattaINSA, NAS, IASCellular and Molecular BiologyFormerly, Professor, School of Environmental Sciences, JNU; currently, adjunct professor, Special Center for Molecular Medicine, JNU; she has made numerous contributions to studies on mammalian physiological processes.
Sulochana GadgilINSA, IASAtmospheric and Oceanic Science, Evolutionary BiologyPrimarily a mathematician, she is currently an Honorary Professor at the Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences of IISc; she has contributed significantly to the understanding of monsoon dynamics, tropical convection, coupling of the tropical atmosphere to the oceans and agricultural strategies for a variable climate; she also spearheaded the efforts culminating in the Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP).
Rohini Madhusudan GodboleINSA, IAS, NASTheoretical High Energy PhysicsProfessor at the Center for High Energy Physics, IISc, Bangalore; she has done important work on hadronic structure of high-energy photons; she is also known for her hypotheses around innovative ways to seek new particles.
Sudha Gajanan GangalINSA, IASCancer Immunology, Basic Immunology Genetic DiseasesEmeritus Professor at Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Biotechnology, Bharati Vidyapeeth in Pune; she had established the cancer immunology division at Cancer Research Institute, and developed several oral cancer cells lines and monoclonal antibodies that recognize a variety of cancer cells.
Rajinder Jeet Hans-GillINSA, IAS, NASGeometry of Numbers, Number Theory, Discrete GeometryINSA Senior Scientist and Emeritus Professor at Punjab University. She is known to have made significant contribution to the field of pure mathematics.
Gaiti HasanINSA, IASCellular and Molecular Biology, Genetics, NeuroscienceSenior Professor at the National Center for Biological Sciences, TIFR, Bangalore; current research interests include the role of intracellular calcium signaling in Drosophila growth and neuronal function, by which she seeks to understand role of calcium signaling in human disease.
Hiriyakkanavar IlaINSA, IASSynthetic and Medicinal ChemistryFormerly, Professor at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur - same institution where she was the first woman to receive a PhD (1968); her research contributions are related to the design and development of novel and efficient synthetic methods for biomolecules, especially heterocyclic substances and domino reactions.
Jaya Sivaswami TyagiINSA, NAS, IASMolecular Biology of MycobacteriaProfessor at the Department of Biotechnology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; a long time researcher in mycobacteriology, she has made important contribution to the understanding of the intracellular dormancy phenomenon of this bacterial pathogen.
Sudesh Kaur KhandujaINSA, NAS, IASAlgebraic Number TheoryCurrently, a Professor of Mathematics at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research in Mohali; her research contributions have been in theory of valuations, function field theory and algebraic number theory.
Renu Khanna-ChopraINSA, NASPlant Biochemistry and Stress PhysiologyScientist affiliated with the Water Technology Center of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute; her work has involved photosynthesis in relation to crop productivity, mechanism of heterosis and drought resistance in crop plants, and she has successfully hybridized drought tolerant and high yielding wheat varieties.
Kamala KrishnaswamyINSA, NAS, IASMedicineFormer Director of the National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR, where she also established the Advance Centre for pre-clinical toxicology at the Food and Drug Toxicology centre; her research has involved diet-cancer interactions, nutrient-drug interactions, environmental toxicology, non-communicable chronic diseases and vitamin B-complex deficiencies.
Usha Kehar LuthraINSA, National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)Pathology, Cytopathology, Cancer ResearchFormer Additional Director General, ICMR, and founder Director of the Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology, New Delhi; her work significantly progressed the understanding of cancer of uterine cervix, and the role of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in these cancers in India, she was also the Project Director of the National Cancer Registry Project and played a major role in establishing a network of population and hospital-based cancer registries for providing data for cancer research and control in India.
Chitra MandalINSA, NAS, IASGlycobiology, ImmunologySenior Scientist at the Infectious Disease and Immunology division of the Indian Institute for Chemical Biology (IICB), Calcutta; her current research interest involves the study of glycosylation of biomolecules in various physiological and pathological conditions.
Minnie Mariam MathanINSA, National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)Pathology, Electron MicroscopyPhysician Scientist with major focus on gastrointestinal ultra-structure; she made two important contribution to infectious disease research: (a) established an in vitro model of the pathogenesis of the intestinal lesion in Tropical Sprue, and (b) elucidated rotaviral etiology of acute diarrhea in children in India, as well as the mechanism of microbial diarrhea.
Asha MathurINSA, NAS, IAS, National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)Medical Microbiology, Virology, ImmunologyProfessor and Head of General Pathology and Microbiology at Saraswati Dental and Medical College, Lucknow; her research contributions include diagnosis and investigation of a variety of viral diseases; several aspects of the viral disease, Japanese encephalitis, were elucidated via her studies; she first developed an immunofluorescence-based technique for rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection in patients, and also helped develop an IgM capture ELISA kit for the diagnosis of JE; she initiated the AIDS surveillance center in UP.
Bittianda Kuttapa ThelmaINSA, IAS, NASGeneticsProfessor of Genetics, University of Delhi; her work has involved the understanding of functional significance of repetitive sequences on the X and Y chromosomes, and genetics of complex traits of disease syndromes, such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, as well as inflammatory rheumatic and bowel diseases; she developed a DNA-based diagnostics for Fragile X syndrome.
Soniya NityanandNAS, IASImmunology, Hematology, Stem CellsProfessor and Chair of Hematology department at the Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow; her wide-ranging current research interests include basic biology and therapeutic applications of human mesenchymal stem cells, biology and characterization of human bone marrow derived multipotent adult progenitor cells; she has also worked extensively on immune mediated disorders and hematological malignancies.
Veena Krishnaji ParnaikINSA, IASCell BiologyChief Scientist at the Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology; her work has significantly elucidated the functional organization of the mammalian cell nucleus, especially the role played by a fibrous nuclear protein called lamin in mediating spatial coordination of transcription and splicing; her observations have progressed the understanding of inherited diseases termed laminopathies.
Poonam SalotraINSAMolecular Parasitology and ImmunologyDeputy Director and Scientist, ICMR National Institute of Pathology, New Delhi; she is an acknowledged expert in the field of leishmaniasis; ongoing research interests include genomics, vaccines, diagnostics, immunopathologies, and mechanism of drug resistance in visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Vinodini ReddyINSA, National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)NutritionPhysician Scientist with important contributions in the field of infant nutrition and growth, nutrition-immunity interactions, protein energy malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency; her research has had significant impact on food and nutrition policies and programs in India.
Rentala MadhubalaINSA, IAS, NAS, National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)Molecular Parasitology, Functional GenomicsProfessor, School of Life Sciences, JNU, New Delhi; she is an acknowledged expert in the field of leishamania research; ongoing research interests include identification of chemotherapeutic targets, development of diagnostic biomarkers for drug resistance in leishmania and identification of potential vaccine candidates.
Somdatta SinhaIAS, NAS, INSATheoretical and Computational Biology, Complex systemsCurrently, a Professor of Biology at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali; formerly, a Professor at CCMB, Hyderabad. Her research interests include theoretical biology, nonlinear dynamics and complex systems, with the aim to understand the logic and design of biological processes. Her work has also involved analysis of epidemiological data of infectious diseases, studies in host-parasite evolution using genomic data and computational modeling, and use of graph theory to understand macroscopic properties of intracellular networks. In addition, she is an avid Science Educator.
Handanahal Subbarao SavithriINSA, NAS, IASPlant Molecular Virology, Protein BiochemistryProfessor of Biochemistry, IISc, Bangalore; she has made significant contribution to the understanding of biochemistry and mechanism of viral infection of plants, and elucidated the natures of some plant viruses native to India; her work led to the development of transgenic cotton plants resistant to cotton leaf curl disease.
Chandrima ShahaINSA, IAS, NASCell Biology, BiochemistryStaff Scientist, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi; her work has contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms of cellular defense from oxidative stress and modalities of cell death in both multicellular and unicellular environments; her earlier research involved physiology of reproduction and contraception, and she has served as a member of the ICMR Task Force on male contraception.
Bhagyashri Achyut ShanbhagINSA, IASReproductive Biology, EndocrinologyProfessor of Zoology, Karnataka University; her research has made outstanding contributions to reproductive and behavioral ecology of South Indian Agamid lizards, elucidating reproductive events and socio-sexual mechanisms controlling reproduction. A first in her field in India, she successfully raised and bred the lizard Calotes versicolor in captivity, and demonstrated how the lizards trade-off energy for manipulation of many reproductive physiological processes; she was one of the first to provide experimental proof to the "stress induced evolution of viviparity" hypothesis.
Ajit Iqbal SinghINSA, NASFunctional Analysis, Harmonic AnalysisFormerly, a Professor of Mathematics at University of Delhi, and currently, an INSA Senior Scientist; she has worked in the "areas of linear operators in locally convex spaces, locally convex algebras, spectral synthesis on hypergroups, applications of harmonic analysis to differential equations and orthogonal polynomials, geometry of the range of a vector measure, and Quotient Rings of algebras of functions and operators" (Note: Text quoted from her INSA page, because I have no clue about Mathematics.)
Ramanathan SowdhaminiINSABioinformatics, Predictive GenomicsAssociate Professor, NCBS-TIFR; current research interests include analysis of higher level structure and function of proteins and theoretical prediction of protein function from its structure using Bioinformatics and Genome Analysis tools.
Sarala Karumuri SubbaraoINSA, NASCytogenetics of MalariaFormer Director of the Malaria Research Center, ICMR; an insect geneticist by training, she focused on biology, epidemiology, as well as insecticide resistance of mosquito vectors of various diseases including Malaria; her studies paved the way for the genetic control of mosquitoes; she also developed diagnostic assays to identify non-vector sibling species to the vectors, which helped develop effective control strategies for the malaria vectors.
Sulabha Kashinath KulkarniINSA, NAS, IASNanotechnology, Materials Science, Surface ScienceProfessor of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune; she is recognized for her work on nanomaterials, hard coatings and high strength aerogels, and she was made noteworthy contributions in the field of Nanotechnology, Materials Science and Surface Science; she is also an enthusiastic author and science communicator.
Ushadevi Narendra BhosleINSA, NAS, IASAlgebraic GeometryMathematical Scientist at TIFR; she is regarded as an expert in the field of "moduli spaces of torsionfree sheaves on singular curves" (Note. Again, quoted from her INSA page. I have no idea what these words mean.).
Usha VijayraghavanINSA, IASMolecular Genetics, Plant DevelopmentProfessor of Microbiology and Cell Biology at IISc, Bangalore; her current research interests involve the study of genes that control cell division and differentiation, and thereby regulate flowering and plant morphology; she also studies post-transcriptional gene regulation.
Chitra SarkarNAS, IASNeuropathology, neuro-oncologyProfessor of Pathology at AIIMS, New Delhi; she is a nationally and internationally recognized expert in Neuropathology, where her work has made seminal contributions in several areas related to Central Nervous System malignancies; her research focus has included basic and translational research in Neuro-Oncology, Neuroendocrinology, Neuromuscular Diseases.
Pratima SinhaIASMolecular Genetics of Yeast and Molecular BiologyProfessor of Biochemistry, Bose Institute, Calcutta; her current research area focuses on DNA replication, segregation and cell cycle control in the budding yeast.
Anuradha LohiaIASBiochemistryProfessor of Biochemistry at Bose Institute, Calcutta; using the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica as a model organism, she studies regulation of phagocytosis, cell division and motility, as well as novel kinesins from eukaryotic pathogens.
Soumya SwaminathanNAS, IASPediatric Internal MedicineDirector for the ICMR National Institute for research in Tuberculosis in Chennai, where she leads a multi-disciplinary group of clinical, laboratory and behavioural scientists studying various aspects of TB and TB/HIV; her research contributions have involved investigation of treatment and prevention regimens for TB among HIV-infected adults and children, as well as nutrition, pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of anti-TB and anti-HIV drugs in the Indian population.
Sudha BhattacharyaNAS, IASMolecular Biology, Molecular Parasitology and GenomicsProfessor at the School of Environmental Sciences, JNU; her group uses the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica as a model system to study the biochemistry and molecular biology of various intracellular proteins.
Shobhona SharmaIASMolecular Parasitology, Parasite Immunology and Parasite MetabolismSenior Professor & Chair, Department of Biological Sciences, TIFR, Mumbai. Her current research interests include biology of the malaria parasite and host-parasite interactions, acquired immunity to malaria, nanolipid carrier-mediated delivery of antimalarials.
Shally AwasthiNAS, IAS, National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)Paediatric Pulmonology, Infectious & Parasitic Diseases, Clinical TrialsProfessor of Pediatrics in Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University (formerly King George’s Medical College), Lucknow; her area of research work is in child survival, especially after acute respiratory infections; her work has been instrumental in formulating national policy in this area.
Qudsia TahseenIASNematology, Taxonomy & Functional Biodiversity of Soil and Freshwater NematodesProfessor of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University; her area of research is the taxonomy and developmental biology of terrestrial and aquatic nematodes. She is an internationally acknowledged expert in nematode taxonomy, and has contributed to the existing knowledge by inventorying numerous nematode taxa specific to the Indian habitats; she also studied their role as indicators in assessment of the environment quality particularly of Indian wetlands. She holds the distinction of being the first Asian to receive ONTA (Organization of Nematologists of Tropical America) Special Award (2005) for sustained excellence in Nematology.
Renee M. BorgesIASEvolutionary Biology & Behavioural Ecology, Plant-Animal InteractionsProfessor, Center for Ecological Sciences, IISc, Bangalore; her research work specializes in the evolutionary ecology of inter-species interactions, and she investigates the sensory biology of these interactions, especially their chemical and visual ecology, using various insects as model systems.
Gomathy GopinathNAS, IAS, National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)Developmental Neurobiology, Neural PlasticityFormer Head of Anatomy, AIIMS, and an internationally acclaimed neurobiology researcher.
Priyambada Mohanty-HejmadiIASDevelopmental Biology, HerpetologyAn accomplished danseuse in the Odissi tradition of India, Priyambada Mohanty-Hejmadi left her dance recitals in favor of pursuing a career in science, which eventually brought her a Padmashri. She was a former vice-chancellor of Sambalpur University, and was an Emeritus Professor of Zoology at Utkal University, both in Orissa; she was one of the first scientists to demonstrate the phenomenon of homeosis, substitution of body parts, in vertebrates [Link to PDF], and had once worked on temperature-dependent sex determination in Olive Ridley turtles of Orissa, an effort which made way for conservation of these endangered species.
Namita SuroliaNAS, IASMolecular Parasitology, Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyProfessor of Molecular Biology and Genetics at Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Bangalore; her group studies host-pathogen interaction in Malaria, and the current research interests include identification of malarial parasite specific targets for drug development, study of the role of plastid in the parasite, and analysis of parasite fatty acid synthesis. She holds several global patents for anti-malarial agents.
Sangita MukhopadhyayNAS, IASImmunology, Cell Signalling, Communicable DiseasesGroup Leader, Molecular Cell Biology Division at the Centre for DNA Fingerprinting & Diagnostics; her current research interest is TB immunology, where she studies how
          EFECTO DONNAN        
Cuando existen moléculas cargadas de gran tamaño que no difunden a través de una membrana semipermeable (como las proteínas), su presencia cambia la distribución de las partículas íonicas. En efecto, la proteína intracelular, cargada negativamente, atráe iones K+ y repele iones Cl-, produciéndose un gradiente eléctrico (simbolizado por las cargas + y - a ambos lados de la membrana) y sendos gradientes de concentración de K y Cl, iguales y de signo opuesto. En el equilibrio, se tiene: 

La concentración de partículas a ambos lados de la membrana es desigual (en el interior están además de los iones las proteínas) de forma que se produce un gradiente osmótico hacia el compartimento que contiene estas últimas.

  La presencia de un ion no difusible, en un lado de una membrana, determina una redistribución iónica cuyo resultado final será el equilibrio Donnan, donde el potencial químico es igual, pero de sentido opuesto, al potencial eléctrico. En los dos compartimientos hay igual número de cargas positivas y negativas, pero el compartimiento que contiene el ion no difusible tiene, con respecto al otro compartimiento, un mayor número de partículas. De no existir algún otro mecanismo que compense esta distinta osmolaridad, deberá aparecer un flujo de agua desde el compartimiento que NO contiene a ion no difusible hacia el lado que contiene el Ion no difusible. Este flujo de agua haría que este compartimiento aumentara de volumen.
Si se piensa en una célula animal, como en el interior hay proteínas no difusibles, por equilibrio Donnan las células tenderían a hincharse. Sin embargo, esto no ocurre ya que en el exterior hay OTRO ION que se, comporta como NO DIFUSIBLE.
Este es el Na+, que crea también, un efecto Donnan, pero de sentido contrario: el desbalance osmótico, por las proteínas intracelulares se ve, así, compensado.
El Na+, sin embargo, no es totalmente impermeable y, por gradiente eléctrico y químico, tiende, permanentemente a entrar al interior celular. Será la bomba de Na+ la que lo hará permanecer en el exterior, COMO SI FUERA IMPERMEABLE.
Una consecuencia notable de este efecto del Na+ es el que ocurre si se inhibe la bomba de Na+: la célula aumenta de volumen.

Ahora si la distribución de cargas en la membrana es distinta se produce un potencial en dicha membrana (potencial de donnan) el cual para que este en equilibrio se requiere:

ji = 0
Lo que implica que la concentración de cargas dentro y fuera de la membrana debe poseer una estabilidad asociada en cuanto a la concentración de los iones en ambos lados es más si se considerase la membrana semipermeable como un agente catalizador produciría un gradiente de concentración en la membrana y sin embargo el equilibrio seria establecido así:


          FIU awarded $3.1 million for research that could swat Zika, malaria        
  Two grants totaling more than $3.1 million are helping researchers at FIU’s Biomolecular Sciences Institute wage war against Zika […]
           Biomolekuláris NMR: Szerkezet, oligomerizáció, mozgás és molekuláris felismerési jelenségek glikopeptid antibiotikumokban, cukrokban és kalcium kötő fehérjékben = Biomolecular NMR: Structure, oligomerization, dynamics and molecular recognition of glycopeptide antibiotics, carbohydrates and calcium binding proteins         
Batta, Gyula and E. Kövér, Katalin and Gunda, Tamás (2007) Biomolekuláris NMR: Szerkezet, oligomerizáció, mozgás és molekuláris felismerési jelenségek glikopeptid antibiotikumokban, cukrokban és kalcium kötő fehérjékben = Biomolecular NMR: Structure, oligomerization, dynamics and molecular recognition of glycopeptide antibiotics, carbohydrates and calcium binding proteins. Project Report. OTKA.
          2007 Silver Award: The Society for Biomolecular Sciences        
Association: The Society for Biomolecular Sciences Category: 03.1 Scholarly / Technical / Scientific Journal Publication: The Journal of Biomolecular Screeing Primary Contact: Karen Costanzo – Executive Assistant Award: Silver Year: 2007
          Make kids earn keep        

Interesting article on how today parents teach their children about money sense and how a Professor from US gave his advices.


Make kids earn keep
Source: The Sunday Times, 27 March 2011
By Huang Huifen

When civil servant Sharon Teh's elder son Wesley entered primary school this year, she was clueless about how much allowance she should give him.

'Eventually, I went by the food prices in the canteen,' says the 33-year-old, who decided on $2 a day.

'Sometimes I wonder if I'm giving him too much such that he will not value money in future,' says Mrs Teh, who has another son, Dylan, aged five.

A common concern among parents is how to instill the right values about money in their children.

Professor Lewis Mandell, a visiting professor from the University at Buffalo, has done 15 years of research on financial literacy among young American adults.

In town to teach the executive master of business administration class which his university offers in conjunction with SIM Global Education, he thinks giving kids a regular and unconditional allowance is akin to child abuse.

'The child will have an aversion to work because he will think why work when he can get the money easily.'

The best way, then, is to give an allowance in return for fulfilling expectations for doing chores, practising violin or obtaining a minimum grade. 'To the child, it is no longer an entitlement, it is a payment for a job. He will associate money with performance,' says Prof Mandell.

He also advocates giving a child ownership of his money from young. His daughter, now in her 30s, had an ATM card at age seven. At age 12, she started to invest in stocks, though she subsequently lost $1,000 because of a bad decision.

As a teenager, she was given a credit card in her parents' name with a $500 annual budget for shopping.

'Even if she went crazy and spent a lot of money when she was 13, we could view the bills and have a talk with her. But if the child grows older and you have no control over him anymore, you cannot have a discussion with him,' he says.

Read his advice to three families on their pocket money culture.

Reward child for saving

Seven-year-old Wesley is puzzled whenever his mum, Mrs Sharon Teh, 33, says they are not from a rich family and therefore cannot buy a particular toy. After all, he lives in a condominium apartment and can tell that it is different from an HDB flat.

But Mrs Teh, a civil servant, says: 'I don't want him to spend on toys he already has, so he gets the concept of not spending unnecessarily. We are not extremely rich and it takes hard work, especially that of his grandparents, to get to where we are now.'

Her husband is a human resource specialist and they have a younger son, Dylan, five.

She gives Wesley $2 a day for food. A bowl of noodles in his school canteen costs about $1, while drinks are 80 cents each. He is encouraged to save half that amount. When he does well in tests, she encourages him verbally, not financially.

Prof Mandell says: 'How can you save half of $2? It barely lets him enough to buy his lunch. You want him to develop positive association with savings, so praise him or pay interest for each dollar saved.

'It is understandable that Mrs Teh does not want to buy every toy Wesley demands but she should not say they cannot afford it when they can afford a condominium. The child will realise the truth eventually and will not trust his parents.

'Explaining that he owes his standard of living now to his grandparents does not make any sense to him, as he cannot relate to a lifestyle he has not gone through. Instead, explain that while the family is not poor, they still have to save for a rainy day.'

Happy Says: Hahaha. That's quite a typical Singaporean response. Actually I even thought of telling that my to my (future) children the same thing what the mom did. After all I did grow up with no financial rewards and instead earning my own keep!  But good point noted - save for a rainy day!

Compliance pays

There is a price to pay for misbehaviour for dentist Kuan Chee Keong's three daughters.

When his eldest girl Kaithlyn, 13, refused to wear her brace nightly to correct a spine problem, Mr Kuan, 41, and his wife Benita, 39, a doctor, deducted a dollar from her $15 weekly allowance for every night she defied orders.

He also deducted 50 cents to $1 from the weekly $9.50 allowance for Cherylyn, 10, when she threw a tantrum during tuition. Natalie, nine, gets a daily allowance of $1.50.

'Instead of caning our daughters, we dangle a 'carrot' to make sure they behave. This way, they will feel the pinch,' says Mr Kuan.

When Kaithlyn is allowed to go out on her own next year, he plans to give her $30 each outing for entertainment such as movies and meals. The leftover amount will have to be returned to him.

He also illustrates to them the concept of passive income by showing them his investment portfolio. He has 10 lots of shares worth $2,900 each. He tells the girls they get two lots each, and that they are bought with their money to give them a sense of ownership. In reality, it is not their money.

Prof Mandell says: 'I would reframe the way Dr Kuan deducts Kaithlyn's pocket money. I would say to her, 'To earn $15 a week, you must wear your brace every night. If not, I will deduct a dollar off your allowance next week for every day you do not wear it.'

'He should not make her return leftover money from outings. It provides a negative incentive for savings and encourages her to spend every cent.

'As for teaching the concept of stock markets, he should use the kids' money. That will drive home a stronger point. They will not feel much responsibility for it unless it is their money.'

Happy Says: First initial thought- That doctor is rich! (based on the portfolios spending) But ya kinda of strange to ask for your left over back? Why didn't he thought of asking them to save up that remaining amount instead or "investing" in his portfolios about? Haha!

Learn to live within means

Student Ryan Liew, 19, earns about $180 a week as a part-time sales ambassador at retail chain New Urban Male, and gets $1,000 credited monthly to an account under his mother Li Sew Lan's name for his shopping expenses. However, he can spend only a total of $1,000 in three months.

His father, taxi driver Liew Tiong Bok, 49, also gives him a daily allowance of $25 for food and transport.

Nonetheless, Madam Li, 46, cannot bear to stop giving him an allowance. 'Ryan's income is not enough to sustain his lifestyle. He buys a lot of clothes which he wears only a few times. He buys the same pair of shoes in different colours. He likes watches that cost about $300 each. He also has a huge appetite and eats enough for three,' says the freelance tour guide, who earns about $6,000 a month.

Ryan, a second-year chemical and biomolecular engineering student at Ngee Ann Polytechnic, says: 'I still need my allowance because I don't earn enough from work. I choose to work to experience the hardship because as an only child, I am quite pampered.'

Prof Mandell says: 'Ryan does not need the allowance. It is also a bad idea to give him $1,000 to spend, despite the three-month limit. It is conditioning him to live beyond his means.

'Madam Li works as a freelancer, which means her income is not stable. She should save the money for her retirement. Ryan does not need that large amount of savings from his allowance. Young people's wealth is in their healthy bodies and earning potential.

'She should try to cut his allowance. But it is cruel to condition him to a certain lifestyle, only to take it away abruptly. So she should explain to him her reasons and prepare him by cutting 50 per cent of his allowance now and then completely a year later.'

Happy Says: Today youths are really rich! $1000 in 3 months for shopping?! I probably don't even spend that kind of moolah today excepts when we go overseas for travelling! Once upon a time to earn $1200/mth during the school holidays from my monthly part time job was to pay off that semester school fees and earning extra income during school days by giving tuition and working as sales promoters in weekend and a libraian in weekdays was to pay off my weekly makan allowances! 

However i am really curious what kind of tour guide the mom is working as! $6K a month! WOAH! 
          Introducing two new article types for Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry        
OBC is introducing two new review article types: Reviews and Perspectives. These replace previous review article types and offer our authors and readers an even broader range of reviews, opinions and commentaries on the latest developments in organic chemistry and chemical biology. Reviews OBC Reviews are short, easy-to-read review articles covering current areas of interest […]
          Integrating biomolecules with metal-organic frameworks        
With their special structure and large surface area, MOFs open up new opportunities in drug delivery. The ability to exchange the metal centers and organic linkers even provide an extensive library of MOF materials. As a result, the integration of small guest molecules within the MOF pores, such as small molecule drugs and biomolecules, have shown promise for delivery applications to treat diseases. A recent review article discusses current proceedings on integrating diverse biomolecules within MOFs.

          JBS Publication Demonstrates Utility of InSphero 3D Co-culture Microtissues as Phenotypic RNAi Screening Tool        

Report in the Journal of Biomolecular Screening establishes fluorescent 3D tumor co-culture model, enables screening of gene function in a system more reflective of in vivo tumor growth.

(PRWeb February 27, 2014)

Read the full story at

          What’s Happening at the NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center?        

Big things are always happening in Gaithersburg, Maryland, the home of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center. This group within the Biomolecular Measurement Division develops evaluated mass spectral libraries to help scientists and lab workers with compound identification. Among the useful tools they provide are mass … Continue reading What’s Happening at the NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center?

The post What’s Happening at the NIST Mass Spectrometry Data Center? appeared first on NIST Mass Spectral Library | Software for Mass Spectrometer.

           Episode 53 - March 24, 2008        
Progress toward a new generation of vaccines for malaria and other diseases. A continued threat of water pollution at a famous Russian lake. Creation of a chemical “keypad lock” for biomolecular computers.
          PyGBe - Python, GPUs and Boundary Elements for Biomolecular Electrostatics        


PyGBe is a Python library that applies the boundary element method for molecular-electrostatics and simple nanoparticle plasmonics. We treat molecular-electrostatics with a continuum model and handle localized surface plasmon calculations in the quasistatic approximation.

PyGBe provides faster time-to-solution and also new problem-solving options to scientists in molecular biology, biochemistry and applied physics. It can handle solvent-filled cavities and stern layers; solve for protein-surface electrostatic interactions; probe protein orientation near charged nanosurfaces; and localized surface plasmon resonance with an eye towards nano-scale biosensor calculations.

          DNA Nanotechnology-based Engineering at the Biointerfaces [SystemX Seminar]        

Proteins and nucleic acids are dynamically organized in cells to realize their physiological functions with spatial and temporal orderliness. This type of elegant supermolecular assembly has inspired researchers to create molecular/biomolecular structures with dynamic organization outside of the cells. In particular, DNA nanotechnology has proven to possess extraordinary flexibility and convenience for "bottom-up" construction of exquisite nanostructures with high controllability and precision, which holds great promise in a wide range of applications, e.g., nanofabrication and molecular electronics, in-vivo and in-vitro sensing and drug delivery.

In this talk, I will present several examples of using tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs) for engineering the interfaces of cytoplasmic membranes and biosensors. TDNs are three-dimensional (3D) DNA architecture with high mechanical rigidity and structural stability, which are suitable for organization of higher-ordered nanocomplexes and nanodevices. In one example, we employed single-particle tracking to visualize the internalization of TDNs, and dissect the cell entry pathways of these virus-like nanoparticles. In the second example, we dynamically organized biomolecular receptors at the biosensing interface using TDNs, and performed in-vitro diagnostics for various diseases.

          SystemX Seminar        

If we had the technology than can measure specific biomolecules inside of bodies in "real time", it would transform medicine by providing clinicians with a valuable window into patients' health and their response to therapies. Unfortunately, such real-time measurements are currently not possible, except for a handful of molecules such as glucose. In this presentation, we will discuss recent advancements in "real-time biosensors." As examples, we will present our group's work on continuously measuring anti-cancer and anti-bacterial drugs in live animals with unprecedented time-resolution. Finally, we will discuss the exciting possibility of actively controlling these molecules inside of patients using closed-loop feedback control.

          Kailath Lecture and Colloquium 2015        

This year's event is a celebration of Professor Kailath's 80th birthday! We welcome more than 30 speakers – many are his former students.

The keynote speaker is:

  • Professor Stanley Osher, Professor of Mathematics, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering and Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, UCLA, Director of Special Projects, Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics
  • Title: What Mathematical Algorithms Can Do for the Real (and Even Fake) World
  • Abstract: When I entered the Courant Institute at NYU in 1962, applied mathematics used techniques such as asymptotic analysis, special functions, and separation of variables. The language was partial differential equations, functional analysis and perhaps complex analysis. Numerical analysis was just emerging from the shadows and many regarded it as the last refuge of scoundrels. The notion that I could have a research career based on devising algorithms that would be widely used in computer programs with applications ranging from supersonic flow to image processing to computer graphics to sparse recovery to chip design would have been as suprising to me as hearing that people using my algorithms would win academy awards.

    In this talk I will try to give a personal overview of the role of mathematics in designing algorithms that domain scientists find useful, and how new applications emerge serendipitously.

Please join us Thursday and Friday! 

          OSA Special Seminar        

Optical techniques are in high demand for the investigation of biomedical processes because they can be noninvasive, real-time and fast. In this talk, I present an overview of the recent advances in pushing the limits of sensitivity, resolution and speed in biological microscopy and how methods from laser spectroscopy, quantum optics and nanoscience have introduced a revolution in this area. In particular, I will show that photophysical improvements at low temperature can lead to optical resolution in the angstrom range, i.e. about one thousand times better than the diffraction limit. Next, I will discuss the need for fluorescence-free microscopy and how interferometric scattering detection (iSCAT) can be used for detecting individual biomolecules as small as 60 kDa in a direct and label-free fashion. This method is currently explored for studies of very fast diffusion and transport in artificial lipid membranes, cell membranes and of single-cell secretion. If time allows, I will also discuss our recent work on trapping and manipulation of very small nanoparticles.

          Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium        

More than 25 years ago, low temperature experiments aimed at establishing the ultimate limits to optical storage in solids led to the first optical detection and spectroscopy of a single molecule in the condensed phase. At this unexplored ultimate limit, many surprises occurred where single molecules showed both spontaneous changes (blinking) and light-driven control of emission, properties that were also observed in 1997 at room temperature with single green fluorescent protein variants. In 2006, PALM and subsequent approaches showed that the optical diffraction limit of ~200 nm can be circumvented to achieve super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, or nanoscopy, with relatively nonperturbative visible light. Essential to this is the combination of single-molecule fluorescence imaging with active control of the emitting concentration and sequential localization of single fluorophores decorating a structure. Super-resolution microscopy has opened up a new frontier in which biological structures and behavior can be observed in live cells with resolutions down to 20-40 nm and below. Examples range from protein superstructures in bacteria to bands in actin filaments to details of the shapes of amyloid fibrils and much more. Current methods development research addresses ways to extract more information from each single molecule such as 3D position and orientation, in thick cells. Still, it is worth noting that in spite of all the focus on super-resolution, even in the "conventional" single-molecule tracking regime where the motions of individual biomolecules are recorded in solution or in cells rather than the shapes of extended structures, much can still be learned about biological processes.

          Introducing Professor Motomu Kanai, OBC Associate Editor        
Professor Motomu Kanai has joined Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry as an Associate Editor. We are delighted to welcome him to the team and look forward to working with him over the coming years.   Motomu Kanai was born in 1967 in Tokyo, Japan, and received his bachelor degree from The University of Tokyo (UTokyo) in […]
          Outstanding Reviewers for Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry in 2016        
Following the success of Peer Review Week in September 2016 (dedicated to reviewer recognition) during which we published a list of our top reviewers, we will continue to recognise the contribution that our reviewers make to the journal by announcing our Outstanding Reviewers each year. Outstanding Reviewers for Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry in 2016, as […]
          Time to Publication 2016        
At OBC, we know one thing important to our authors is getting a decision to them quickly after they’ve submitted to us. That is why we worked extremely hard in 2016 to make this incredible fast, again. We are proud to announce that in 2016, Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry got the first decision to authors […]
          Most read articles in July – September 2016        
The articles below are 10 of the most read Review articles and 10 of the most read Papers & Communications from Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry in July, August and September 2016. Review Articles Transition-metal catalyzed valorization of lignin: the key to a sustainable carbon-neutral future Markus D. Kärkäs, Bryan S. Matsuura, Timothy M. Monos, Gabriel Magallanes […]
          Terapia floral !!!        
Stress e Terapia Floral, uma Parceria de Sucesso
Stress e Terapia Floral, uma Parceria de Sucesso
:: Thais Delboni :: 

A cada dia um maior número de pessoas conscientiza-se que conquistas sociais, financeiras e profissionais, embora muito positivas e bem vindas, não suprem totalmente os anseios da alma humana. É nesse momento que a busca por uma melhor qualidade de vida tem ocupado cada vez mais espaço no dia-a-dia das pessoas, pois começa-se a compreender a importância da felicidade na manutenção da saúde, produtividade e potencial criativo.

Considerado pela OMS como um dos grandes males desse final de século, o stress é um dos grandes responsáveis pela infelicidade, baixa produtividade e saúde precária, presentes na vida da maioria das pessoas.
Provocado pelas diversas reações orgânicas que são desencadeadas ao mesmo tempo ao nos sentirmos ameaçados real ou imaginariamente, o stress é necessário ao organismo, pois auxilia o desempenho das funções orgânicas e psíquicas (crescimento, criatividade, etc.).

Para poder enfrentar esses estados de tensão, o corpo faz com que as glândulas suprarenais produzam mais adrenalina, o fígado converta as reservas de gordura em açúcares (para produzir mais energia) e a irrigação sangüínea seja reduzida em alguns locais, para que coração, cérebro e músculos sejam melhor irrigados. Entretanto, se essas alterações acontecem repetidas vezes, com pequenos intervalos de tempo, ocorre o que podemos definir como stress negativo, responsável por sérios transtornos físicos e emocionais e sobre o qual trataremos nesse artigo.

Para facilitar a compreensão e solução desses conflitos emocionais e desequilíbrios físicos advindos dos estados de stress, a Terapia Floral tem papel fundamental, instrumentalizando o indivíduo para melhor se auto-conhecer e consequentemente sentir-se mais apto a modificar e curar sua vida em busca de qualidade e felicidade. Sintomas freqüentemente encontrados em indivíduos estressados, podem ser eliminados ou minimizados através do tratamento com Terapia Floral. Pode-se trabalhar a ansiedade utilizando, entre outras, as essências florais de Agrimony ou Filaree, conforme a característica da pessoa.

Desânimo e desmotivação podem ser tratados com Kapok Bush e California Wild Rose. Nasturtium e Hornbeam são indicados para os casos de cansaço mental. Cansaço físico, tensão muscular, dores nas costas e espasmos musculares reincidentes, podem ser auxiliados com o uso das essências florais de Olive, Lilac e Dandelion. Chaparral, White Chestnut e Impatiens são essências importantes no tratamento dos distúrbios do sono (insônia, sono excessivo ou sono agitado).

Para os casos de depressão, sentimento de solidão, desamparo e fragilidade, podemos utilizar Gentian, Gorse e Mariposa Lily. Falta de vitalidade, diminuição do desejo sexual e manifestação de disfunções sexuais são muito auxiliadas por Aloe Vera, Indian Paintbrush e Hibiscus. Impatiens e Grapefruit são indicados para irritabilidade e cefaléias freqüentes. Larch e Buttercup auxiliam nos casos de baixa auto-estima e auto-imagem negativa.

Dificuldades de concentração e em concatenar idéias contam com o auxílio das essências florais Shasta Daisy, Madia, Corn e Bush Fuchsia. Manzanita e Five Corners auxiliam nos casos de distúrbios alimentares. Echinacea é indicada quando ocorre diminuição na resistência imunológica do organismo. Oscilações da pressão arterial podem ser tratadas com Waratah, Sclerantus e Borage. Morning Glory auxilia quando há aumento no consumo de álcool, cigarros e drogas.

Fatores estressantes
Entre os agentes estressantes existem aqueles que podem afetar a saúde do nosso organismo independente da nossa vontade. São eles: variações extremas de temperatura, radiação, poluição ambiental e sonora, mudanças constantes no horário de trabalho, infecções, efeitos colaterais de medicamentos e deficiências nutricionais.
Estar atento ao próprio corpo e sentimentos leva a uma rápida solução de problemas evitando maiores transtornos. O stress geralmente é causado por uma somatória de fatores difíceis de serem administrados, podendo ser eles de caráter social, familiar, afetivo, pessoal e organizacional.

Fatores sociais, familiares e afetivos são aspectos aos quais somos submetidos e encontram-se relacionados à ordem política, econômica, financeira, de relacionamento e familiar, tais como guerras ou conflitos sociais, trânsito caótico, deficiência dos meios de transporte, falta de segurança nas cidades, custo de vida, desemprego, doenças prolongadas na família, problemas de relacionamento, problemas familiares, separações afetivas, dificuldades financeiras, etc...

Entre os fatores organizacionais estressantes, encontram-se a administração inadequada, chefias mal preparadas, indefinição quanto ao futuro da empresa, metas impossíveis, objetivos não claros por parte da empresa, comunicação deficiente, condições ambientais de trabalho inadequadas, órgão de recursos humanos ausente ou controlador, falta de treinamento adequado, deficiência de material de trabalho, etc.. Larkspur, Quaking Grass, Boronia, Indian Pink, Crowea e Nasturtium são alguns exemplos de essências florais, que auxiliam àqueles que tem esse tipo de vivência em seus ambientes de trabalho.

As organizações modernas, que compreendem a importância do seu papel social, mantém-se constantemente ocupadas com projetos que procuram melhorar as condições de vida de seus colaboradores, tornando as pessoas mais felizes e produtivas. Muitas dessas empresas já fazem uso da Terapia Floral com bastante sucesso.
Dificuldades emocionais que impedem a ação em determinadas situações são consideradas fatores pessoais e uma das principais causas de stress.

Seguem-se alguns exemplos:

Autoritarismo: pessoas autoritárias costumam ser muito rígidas, física e mentalmente, apresentando tensão muscular sentida principalmente no tórax, ombros e pescoço. A necessidade de controlar a tudo e a todos, indica uma grande insegurança e freqüentemente estabelece relações onde o poder é exercido através do medo. Costumam impor suas verdades e seus valores, o que evidencia o medo de mudar em função do aprendizado com os outros. Para facilitar a profunda compreensão desses processos, são indicadas as essências florais de Vine, Cherry Plum, Bauhnia, Mimulus, Rock Water, Dandelion e Buttercup.

Culpa: conscientizar-se dos próprios erros, exige maturidade e coragem para modificar-se, para aprender, não para nos escravizarmos a eles. O sentimento de culpa nada tem de construtivo, servindo apenas para manter as pessoas dóceis, acomodadas e controláveis. Resolver as culpas é voltar a caminhar trazendo na bagagem a experiência aprendida. É importante ser capaz de perdoar-se, para melhor compreender a importância desta atitude para com os outros. As essências florais que facilitam esse aprendizado são Pine, Borage e Sturt Desert Rose.

Medo de errar: buscar a perfeição gera indivíduos com extremo medo de errar, que não perdoam e não aceitam as próprias falhas, tampouco a dos outros. Tal atitude acaba levando corpo e mente a estados de extrema tensão. Rock Water, Beech e Larch são essências florais que irão favorecer o entendimento da importância da moderação e autoconfiança.

Medo de falar o que pensa: a expressão das próprias idéias, valores e crenças é vital para esclarecer dúvidas, elaborar conceitos e colaborar para a evolução do mundo. As essências florais de Trumpet Vine, Snapdragon e Pink Monkeyflower facilitam essa atitude.

Medo de perder: a perda de pessoas próximas ou as pequenas mortes vivenciadas nas perdas diárias, muitas ve-zes evocam sentimentos mal resolvidos que levam a desequilíbrios físicos e emocionais. As perdas encontram-se relacionadas a mudanças. Mudar algo em nossas vidas significa deixar as coisas velhas para poder abraçar novas. Para facilitar esses momentos, utilizam-se as essências florais de Bottlebrush, Star Thistle e Walnut.

Medo de ser diferente: a autenticidade, clareza de pensamentos e idéias próprias é a base para a estruturação do nosso ego. Limitar-se na forma de expressão é viver uma das condições mais críticas para o ser humano. Acreditar na possibilidade de algo diferente e respeitar as idéias que se apresentam, por mais estranhas que possam nos parecer a princípio, é fundamental para a evolução da humanidade. Para colaborar nesse processo podemos utilizar as essências florais de Iris, Illawara Flame Tree, Turkey Bush, Centaury e Sunflower.

Raiva contida: a raiva é uma poderosa energia que quando não utilizada ou expressa, pode minar a mente e o corpo abrindo espaço para diversas doenças. É importante tomar consciência da sua presença, encontrando uma maneira de expressa-la. As essências florais de Holly, Montain Devil e Chamomile irão ajudá-lo nesse processo.

Encontrando seu Caminho

Para manter uma situação de bem estar físico e mental é necessário cuidar-se, trabalhando consigo mesmo de forma agradável e respeitando suas particularidades. Além da Terapia Floral, o tratamento e a prevenção do stress podem ser eficazmente trabalhados através das medicinas ortobiomolecular, homeopática e antroposófica, psicoterapia, acupuntura, fitoterapia, iridologia, nutrição, yoga, dança, canto, esportes em geral, massagens, etc. Escolha o caminho que mais lhe agradar, pois todos buscam a harmonia do corpo e da alma, sendo complementares uns aos outros.
Lembre-se que todas as indicações aqui sugeridas dependem de cada caso, da personalidade de cada pessoa e do profundo conhecimento das essências florais. Nada melhor e mais aconselhável que a orientação de um terapeuta capacitado para auxiliá-lo nesse processo.

O stress pode parecer o "vilão" da sua vida, mas na verdade você é o maior responsável pela situação em que se encontra. Cuide-se. Respeite-se como SER HUMANO. Suas atitudes para consigo mesmo, refletirão na forma como os outros irão tratá-lo, portanto trate-se bem, buscando sempre uma melhor qualidade de vida para você e seus familiares. Sucesso! 

           Suspected bacterial disease in two archaeological horse skeletons from southern England: palaeopathological and biomolecular studies         
Bendrey, R. , Taylor, G.M., Bouwman, A.S. and Cassidy, J.P. (2008) Suspected bacterial disease in two archaeological horse skeletons from southern England: palaeopathological and biomolecular studies. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35 (6). pp. 1581-1590. ISSN 0305-4403 doi: 10.1016/j.jas.2007.11.002
          KVPY Exam Syllabus        

Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana (KVPY) Syllabus

Syllabus: Physics


·         Units and Measurements, Vectors, and Calculus in                Physics

·         Motion in a Straight line

·         Motion in a Plane

·         Laws of Motion

·         Work, Energy and Power

·         System of particles and Rotational Motion

·         Gravitation

·         Mechanical Properties of solids

·         Mechanical Properties of fluids

·         Thermal Properties of Matter

·         Thermodynamics

·         Kinetic Theory

·         Oscillations

·         Waves

·         Electric Charges and fields

·         Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

·         Current Electricity

·         Moving charges and Magnetism

·         Magnetism and Matter

·         Electromagnetic Induction

·         Alternating Current

·         Electromagnetic Waves

·         Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

·         Wave Optics

·         Dual Nature Of Radiation and Matter

·         Modern Physics (Atoms, Nuclei)

·         Semiconductor Devices


Syllabus: Chemistry


·         Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

·         Structure of Atom

·         Classification of Elements and Periodicity in               Properties

·         Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures

·         States of Matter

·         Thermodynamics

·         Equilibrium: Chemical and Ionic

·         Redox Reaction

·         Hydrogen

·         The s-Block elements

·         The p-Block elements Group 13 & 14

·         Organic Chemistry, some Basic Principle and    Techniques

·         Hydrocarbons

·         Solid State

·         Solution

·         Chemical Kinetics

·         Surface Chemistry

·         General Principles and isolation of elements

·         p - Block elements

·         d and f Block elements

·         Coordination Compounds

·         Halo-alkanes and Halo-arenes

·         Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

·         Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids

·         Amines

·         Biomolecules and Polymers

Syllabus: Mathematics

·         Sets, Relations and Functions & Logarithm

·         Trigonometry Phase 1

·         Trigonometry Phase 2

·         Inverse Trigonometric functions

·         Principle of Mathematical induction

·         Linear Inequalities

·         Linear Programming

·         Quadratic Equation

·         Sequence and Series

·         Binomial Theorem

·         Straight lines

·         Circles

·         Conic Sections

·         Complex Numbers

·         Permutations and Combinations

·         Probability

·         Statistics and Mathematical reasoning

·         Limits and Continuity

·         Differentiability and differentiation

·         Applications of Derivatives

·         Indefinite Integration

·         Definite Integration

·         Matrices and Determinants

·         2-d and 3-d Geometry

·         Vector Algebra


Syllabus: Biology


·         Biological classification

·         Plant Kingdom

·         Animal Kingdom

·         Morphology of Flowering Plants

·         Anatomy of flowering Plants

·         Structural Organization in Animals

·         The Cell: Unit of Life

·         Bio - Molecules

·         Cell Cycle & Cell Division

·         Enzymes

·         Transport in Plants

·         Mineral Nutrition

·         Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

·         Respiration in Plants

·         Plant Growth & Development

·         Digestion & Absorption

·         Breathing and Exchange of Gases

·         Body Fluids and Circulation

·         Excretory Products and their Elimination

·         Locomotion and movement

·         Neural Control and Coordination

·         Chemical coordination and Integration

·         Reproduction in Organisms

·         Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plant

·         Human Reproduction

·         Reproductive Health

·         Principles of Inheritance and Variation

·         Molecular Basis of Inheritance

·         Evolution

·         Human Health & Disease

·         Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

·         Microbes in Human Welfare

·         Biotechnology: Principles, Processes & Applications

·         Organisms and Populations

·         Ecosystem



Courtesy: KVPY


          Lehigh establishes new Department of Bioengineering        

Lehigh has established a new Department of Bioengineering that will build upon the university’s existing bioengineering undergraduate and graduate programs, according to an announcement from Provost Patrick V. Farrell. The department, which was formally announced on July 1, will be chaired by Professor Anand Jagota, a member of the chemical and biomolecular engineering faculty who [...]

The post Lehigh establishes new Department of Bioengineering appeared first on The Brown and White.

          Before Mitochondria: An Enzyme-Free Krebs Cycle?        
Metabolism, the set of processes through which we gain energy from food and produce the biomolecules we need in our body's cells, is universal to life. The biochemical pathways that underpin these processes are highly similar across all organisms and species. 

read more

          HPC & Life Sciences        
Biomolecular simulation provides a means to explore biomolecular structure, dynamics and interactions on timescales from femptoseconds to milliseconds on available high performance computing computational resources. Since the first protein simulations in ~1975, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with crude force field representations have increasingly provided insight into structure-function relationships in biomolecules like proteins and nucleic acids. The common "MD codes" have …
          Futures in Biotech 53: Project Genome 10K - Mapping Life's Greatest Journey        

Host: Marc Pelletier

Project Genome 10k, and how sequencing ten thousand vertebrate genomes will tell us about our past, present, and future.

Guest: Dr. David Haussler, professor of biomolecular engineering, University of California at Santa Cruz, director of the Center for Biomolecular Science & Engineering, and investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Show notes

Comments and suggestions on Futures in Biotech.

For a free audiobook, visit

Also thanks to Phil Pelletier and Will Hall for the great themes.

Thanks to Cachefly for providing the bandwidth for this netcast.

Running time: 52:59

          Bis-Gadolinium Complexes for Solid Effect and Cross Effect Dynamic Nuclear Polarization #DNPNMR        

Kaushik, M., et al., Bis-Gadolinium Complexes for Solid Effect and Cross Effect Dynamic Nuclear Polarization. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2017. 56(15): p. 4295-4299.

High-spin complexes act as polarizing agents (PAs) for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in solid-state NMR spectroscopy and feature promising aspects towards biomolecular DNP. We present a study on bis(Gd-chelate)s which enable cross effect (CE) DNP owing to spatial confinement of two dipolar-coupled electron spins. Their well-defined GdGd distances in the range of 1.2-3.4 nm allowed us to elucidate the GdGd distance dependence of the DNP mechanism and NMR signal enhancement. We found that GdGd distances above 2.1 nm result in solid effect DNP while distances between 1.2 and 2.1 nm enable CE for 1 H, 13 C, and 15 N nuclear spins. We compare 263 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra with the obtained DNP field profiles and discuss possible CE matching conditions within the high-spin system and the influence of dipolar broadening of the EPR signal. Our findings foster the understanding of the CE mechanism and the design of high-spin PAs for specific applications of DNP.

          Efficient assignment and NMR analysis of an intact virus using sequential side-chain correlations and DNP sensitization #DNPNMR        

Sergeyev, I.V., et al., Efficient assignment and NMR analysis of an intact virus using sequential side-chain correlations and DNP sensitization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2017. 114(20): p. 5171-5176.

An experimental strategy has been developed to increase the efficiency of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in solid-state NMR studies. The method makes assignments simpler, faster, and more reliable via sequential correlations of both side-chain and Calpha resonances. The approach is particularly suited to complex biomolecules and systems with significant chemical-shift degeneracy. It was designed to overcome the spectral congestion and line broadening that occur due to sample freezing at the cryogenic temperatures required for DNP. Nonuniform sampling (NUS) is incorporated to achieve time-efficient collection of multidimensional data. Additionally, fast (25 kHz) magic-angle spinning (MAS) provides optimal sensitivity and resolution. Data collected in <1 wk produced a virtually complete de novo assignment of the coat protein of Pf1 virus. The peak positions and linewidths for samples near 100 K are perturbed relative to those near 273 K. These temperature-induced perturbations are strongly correlated with hydration surfaces.

          Ancient Brews with Dr Patrick McGovern – BeerSmith Podcast #153        
Dr Patrick McGovern, Director of Biomolecular Archeology at the University of Pennsylvania Museum joins me this week to discuss research into ancient fermented beverages. Subscribe on iTunes to Audio version or Video version or on Google Play Download the MP3 File – Right Click and Save As to download this mp3 file Topics in This […]
          Synthesis, resolution, and: In vitro evaluation of three vesicular acetylcholine transporter ligands and evaluation of the lead fluorine-18 radioligand in a nonhuman primate        
Xuyi Yue, Hongjun Jin, Hui Liu, Zonghua Luo, Xiang Zhang, Kota Kaneshige, Hubert P. Flores, Joel S. Perlmutter, Stanley M. Parsons and Zhude Tu: 2017 Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry Volume 15, Issue 24, 2017, Pages 5197-5209 Read More
          Primera Investigación: Bioquímica        

1.- Describe la composición química de la leche.

La leche está compuesta químicamente por los siguientes componentes:

Agua: Es el componente más importante de la leche puesto a que el 90% de la leche es agua.

Proteínas: en la leche el 3 y4% son proteínas todo esto depende de la raza de a vaca. También podemos resaltar que la leche con mucha grasa también contiene proteínas.

Grasas: La grasa esta entre 3.5 y 5.25%, y al igual que las proteínas depende de la raza de la vaca. Lactosa: Es la única azúcar que contiene la leche, se encuentra en un 5%, da a la leche su sabor dulce y forma el 52% de los sólidos en leche.

Sustancias minerales: En la leche podemos encontrar alrededor de 1 % de sustancias minerales entre las cuales destacan el calcio y fósforo.

Vitaminas: Cumplen un papel importante porque son una fuente inportante de energía para niños y adultos cubren un porcentaje importante en el consumo de un litro de leche 2.

Citas Bibliográficas

1. Tripod. Composición química de la leche. Consultada el 13/06/05. Disponible en la Web:< >

2. Propiedades de la leche. Sección Lácteos. Consultada el 15/06/05. Disponible en la Web:
Composición química de los alimentos. Consultada el 13/06/05. Disponible en la Web:

Gentile, Agostina. Consultad el 13/06/05. Disponible en Web:
< >

2. Describe cada una de las propiedades químicas del átomo.

Dentro de las propiedades químicas del átomo podemos mencionar las siguientes:

Número Atómico: Indica el número de protones de la cortaza de un átomo, es un concepto importante y de la química y mecánica cuántica.

Cuando un átomo es eléctricamente neutro el número atómico será igual al número de electrones del átomo. Estos electrones determinan químico del átomo. Los iones son los átomos que poseen una carga eléctrica; cuando el número de electrones es más grande están cargados negativamente. y cuando el número de átomos es más pequeño están cargadas positivamente.

Masa Atómica: Indica la masa atómica de un átomo; expresada en umas (unidades de masa atómica); cada isótopo de un elemento químico puede variar en masa, la cual indica el número de partículas: neutrones y protones; en la corteza de un átomo.

La abundancia de los isótopos en la naturaleza es muy importante para la determinación de la masa atómica total de un elemento.

Electronegatividad de Pauling: Mide la tendencia del átomo para atraer la nube electrónica hacia sí durante el enlace con otro átomo. Los valores de electronegatividad son un rango pragmático, no están calculados ni basados en formulas matemáticas ni medidas.
El flúor; valor contra la electronegatividad más alto posible se le dio el valor de 4.0 y al francio elemento con la electronegatividad más baja posible, se le dio un valor de 0,7.

Densidad: Indica el número de unidades de masa del elemento que están presentes en cierto volumen de un medio.

Dentro del sistema internacional de unidades (SI) la densidad se expresa en kilogramos por metro cúbico (kg/m3)
Se expresa normalmente de forma gráfica con temperaturas y presiones del aire y a que ambas propiedades influyen en la densidad.

Es la temperatura a la cual la forma líquida de un elemento o compuesto se encuentra en equilibrio con la forma gaseosa. El punto de ebullición del agua es de 100oC, o 373 K

Punto de fusión

Es la temperatura a la cual la forma sólida del elemento o compuesto se encuentra en equilibrio con la forma líquida. Normalmente se asume que la presión del aire es de 1 atmósfera.
El punto de fusión del agua es de 0oC, o 273 K.

Radio de Vanderwaals

Cuando dos átomos cercanos no se unen y se atraerán entre sí se denomina de fuerza de Vanderwaals.

Es el radio que tiene un ión en un cristal iónico, donde los iones están empaquetados juntos hasta el punto que sus orbitales atómicos más externos están en contacto unos con otros.

Son los átomos del mismo elemento que difieren en su masa atómica. Principalmente con los átomos más pesados que tienen un mayor número, el número de neutrones en la corteza puede sobrepasar al número de protones. Isótopos del mismo elemento se encuentran a menudo en la naturaleza alternativamente o mezclados.

La configuración electrónica de un átomo es una descripción de la distribución de los electrones en círculos alrededor de la corteza. Cada uno de los círculos tiene un cierto nivel de energía, comparado con la corteza.

Energía de la primera ionización

Es la energía que se requiere para hacer que un átomo libre o una molécula pierdan un electrón en el vacío.

La energía de la segunda ionización indica el grado de dificultad para arrancar el segundo átomo.
También existe la energía de la tercera ionización, y a veces incluso la de la cuarta y quinta ionizaciones.

Potencial estándar

Es el potencial de una reacción redox, cuando está en equilibrio, con respecto al cero.
Cuando este supera al cero tenemos una reacción de oxidación y cuando el potencial estándar baja de cero tenemos una reacción de reducción. 2

Citas Bibliográficas

1. Lenntech. Propiedades químicas. Consultada el 13/06/05. Disponoble en la Web:<ímicas.htm>

Una visión intima de la materia. Capitulo nº1 . Consultada el 13/06/05. Disponible en Web:< > "Carbono e Hidrógeno". Consultad el 13/06/05. Disponible en:
Wikipedia. Átomo.Consultada el 13/06/05. Disponible en Web:<Átomo >

3.Explica cada una de las propiedades del átomo de carbono, cadenas carbonadas y clases de cadenas carbonadas.

El átomo de carbono
Su masa atómica es 12,01115.
Existen tres formas de carbono elemental en al naturaleza: diamante, grafito y carbono amorfo.
El carbono se caracterisa por su baja reactividad.
El carbono en forma de coque se utiliza para eliminar el oxígeno de las menas que contienen óxidos de metales, obteniendo así el metal puro. El carbono amorfo se encuentra con distintos grados de pureza en el carbón de leña, el carbón, el coque, el negro de carbono y el negro de humo.
Propiedades químicas del átomo de carbono
Dentro de las propiedades químicas del átomo podemos mencionar las siguientes:
La covalencia: Es la fuerza de unión que ejerce el carbono por sus cuatro enlaces, ya que sus cuatro orbítales híbridos son de igual intensidad de energía.

La tetravalencia: De acuerdo a esta propiedad podemos decir que el átomo de carbono es tetravalente ya que sus enlaces son covalentes (porque pueden formar enlaces entre dos átomos compartiendo 1 0 más pares de electrones) e iguales entre sí.

La Hibridación: Es la función d diferentes energías, de orbítales (estados estacionarios de la función de onda de un electrón que delimitan una región del espacio en la que la probabilidad de encontrar al electrón es elevada), de igual nivel pero de diferente subnivel, formándose orbítales de igual forma y de energía constante. Por ejemplo: la configuración electrónica del boro debido a que sus conglomerados tienden a excitarse.

La Autosaturación:Es la propiedad fundamental del carbono, diferencia al átomo de carbono de los demás elementos químicos, porque permite que los átomos del carbono comparta sus electrones de valencia con sí mismo, es decir la auto saturación es la propiedad por la cual el àtomo de carbono se une con toros átomos de carbono formando las cadenas carbonas.

Las cadenas Carbonadas

Las cadenas de carbono llegan a formarse por la facilidad que poseen los átomos de unirse consigo mismo.
Las cadenas carbonadas pueden ser de dos tipos:
  • Alifáticas o abiertas : las cuales se dan cuando los átomo de carbono que se unen, lo hacen, sin considerar la figura que se forme, se juntan o adhieren de forma libre, siempre con otros átomos de carbono.

  • Cíclicas o cerradas: cuando las moléculas de carbono se unen para formar un triángulo cerrado. El último carbono de la cadena se une al primero, formando un ciclo o anillo.

Existen distintos tipos de cadenas carbonadas entre las cuales podemos mencionar las siguientes:

Carbonos primarios, los que están unidos a un sólo átomo de carbono (no importa que el enlace sea simple o no);

Carbonos secundarios, terciarios o cuaternarios, los que están unidos respectivamente a dos, tres o cuatro átomos de carbono diferentes. 2

El átomo de carbono central es central es secundario.

Citas Bibliográficas
1.Grupo Wanadoo. Quimica Orgánica.Consultada el 13/06/05. Disponible en la Web:< >
2.Cadenas carbonadas. Consultada el 14/06/05. Disponible en la Web:<
Conceptos Previos. Química del carbono. Consultada el 15/0/6/05. Disponible en la Web:
El átomo de carbono. Consultad el 13/05/06. Dispoile en la Web: "Hibridación del carbono". Disponible en la Web:
Geocitis.Enlaces del carbono. Consultada el 13/06/05.- Disponible en la Web:

4. Describe cada una de las propiedades físicas y químicas de las biomoléculas: glúcidos, lípidos, proteínas, vitaminas y aminoácidos.
Propiedades de los lípidos
Propiedades físicas
  • Solubilidad: Porque son moléculas "antipáticas” (Amphi=doble) o bipolares.
  • Punto de fusión: En los Lípidos saturados, el punto de fusión aumenta debido al número de carbonos, mostrando tendencia a establecer enlaces de Vanderwals entre las cadenas carbonadas.1

Propiedades químicas

  • Saponificación: Al reaccionar con los álcalis o bases, da lugar a una sal de ácido graso, llamado jabón.
  • Esterificación: Unión del ácido graso con un alcohol, dando lugar a un éster y liberando una molécula de agua.

Propiedades de los aminoácidos

Propiedades físicas
  • Son compuestos sólidos incoloros; cristalizables; de elevado punto de fusión (por encima de los 200 ºC).
  • Son insolubles en solventes no polares y solubles en el agua.

Propiedades químicas

  • Están compuestos por carbono, oxígeno, hidrógeno y nitrógeno.
  • Un aminoácido tiende a adoptar una forma dipolar neutra (igual número de cargas positivas que negativas) se denomina Punto Isoeléctrico.

Propiedades de las proteínas

Propiedades físicas

  • Solubilidad: las proteínas generalmente son solubles en agua debido a los radicales R que están colocados en la superficie de la proteína y que establecen enlaces por puente de Hidrógeno con el agua.

Propiedades químicas

  • Especificidad, es decir, cada especie biológica posee algunas proteínas que las otras especies no tienen. Incluso proteínas que presentan la misma función y una estructura tridimensional muy semejante suelen tener una secuencia peptídica algo diferentes en los distintos organismos.
  • Desnaturalización: ocurre cuando estas pierden sus propiedades biológicas debido a que se expone a valores extremos como la temperatura y el ph o algunas sustancias que afecten sus propiedades de plegamiento.
  • Capacidad amortiguadora del ph consiste en que las proteínas poseen al menos un grupo amino inicial y un carboxilo terminal, además de grupos ionizables de los radicales R de algunos aminoácidos. Por esto tienen carácter anfótero: se pueden comportar como ácidos o como bases liberando o captando protones del medio.

Propiedades de las Vitaminas

Propiedades físicas

  • Se pueden disolver fácilmente en grasas, es decir son liposolubles.
  • Se pueden disolver fácilmente en el agua, es decir son hidrosolubles.

Propiedades químicas

  • Son compuestos químicos orgánicos, de estructura química variada relativamente simples.
  • No pueden ser sintetizadas por el organismo, razón por la cual, deben ser provistas por el organismo.2
Citas bibliográficas
Química del carbono. Consultada el 15/06/05. Disponible en la Web:<>
Raquel Castro García-Muñoz, Sonia Castro García-Muñoz . "Los Lípidos: Clasificación". disponible en:
CIENCIAS DE LA TIERRA Y DEL MEDIO AMBIENTE. "Nutrientes necesarios para la vida". Disponible en: EDGAR LOPATEGUI CORSINO. "PROTEÍNAS ". Disponible en:

5. Describe la clasificación de cada una de las biomoléculas.
Las biomoléculas se clasifican en:

1. Hidratos de carbono: Son aldehídos o cetonas polihidroxilados, o productos derivados de ellos por oxidación, reducción, sustitución o polimerización. También se les puede conocer con el nombre de sacáridos, glúcidos o glícidos.
Pueden estar unidos covalentemente a otro tipo de moléculas, formando glicolípidos, glicoproteínas, proteoglicanos y peptidoglicanos.

Los hidratos de carbono se pueden clasificar en:
Monosacáridos simples: los cuales son aldehídos o cetonas polihidroxilados. Los monosacáridos con función aldehído se llaman aldosas y los monosacáridos con función cetona se llaman cetosas.
Monosacáridos derivados: Estos pueden ser derivados por oxidación, derivados por reducción, dexosiderivados, aminoderivados y esteres fosfóricos.
Obligosacáridos: son polímeros de hasta 20 unidades de monosacáridos, su unión tiene lugar mediante enlaces glicosídicos.
Los polisacáridos: son hidratos de carbono formados por la unión de más de 20 monosacáridos simples. Se dividen en dos grupos:
Los que tienen función de reserva: almidón, glucógenoy dextranos y los que tienen función estructural: celulosa y xilanos.
Los polisacáridos derivados: Son polímeros de elevada masa molecular, formados por la condensación acetálica de monosacáridos derivados. Forman un grupo bastante heterogéneo de polímeros. Estos polisacáridos pueden dividirse en tres clases: formados por un sólo número, por dos números y en secuencia y por último polímeros ramificados.

Los glúcidos presentan la siguiente clasificación:
Osas: los cuales se clasifican de acuerdo al número de átomos que poseen: triosas, tetrosas, pentosas, hexosas y heptosas, siendo las más importantes biológicamente las que tienen 3, 5 y 6 átomos de C.

Se llaman aldosas di poseen función aldehído y si poseen función cetona se llaman cetosas.
Ósidos: Es la asociación de osas.

Se le llama Holósidos a la asociacion de sólo monosacárido.
Oligosacarido: de 2 a 10 monosacáridos
Polisacarido: más de 10 monosacáridos.

Y los heterósidos se les llama a los monosacáridos y otras sustancias no glucídicas (proteínas, lípidos) 1.

2. Lípidos: Son biomoléculas orgánicas formadas básicamente por carbono e hidrógeno, generalmente por oxigeno. Pero también pueden contener fósforo, azufre y nitrógeno.

Tienen en común dos características:
Son insolubles en agua.
Son solubles en disolventes orgánicos como éter, cloroformo, benceno, etc. 1

Los lípidos se pueden clasificar en:

  • Lípidos saponificables: Los cuales pueden ser simples cuando en su composición química sólo intervienen carbono, oxígeno e hidrógeno (Acilglicéridos y céridos) y complejos cuando en su estructura molecular además de carbono, hidrógeno y oxígeno, hay también nitrógeno, fósforo, azufre o un glúcido.(Fosfolípidos y glucolípidos)
  • Ácidos grasos: Son moléculas formadas una larga cadena hidrocarbonada de tipo lineal, y con un número par de átomos de carbono. Tienen en un extremo de la cadena un grupo carboxilo (-COOH).

Los ácidos grasos pueden clasificarse en dos tipos:

Ácidos grasos saturados (sólo tienen enlaces simples entre los átomos de carbono) e insaturados (tienen uno o varios enlaces dobles en su cadena y sus moléculas presentan codos, con cambios de dirección en los lugares dónde aparece un doble enlace)

  • Las proteínas: Son constituyentes químicos de la materia viva y están formados por carbono, hidrógeno ,nitrógeno, oxígeno y en los que además puede intervenir el azufre y el fósforo. Los aminoácidos son los monómeros de las proteínas. Las proteínas pueden clasificarse en: Holoproteínas, las cuales pueden ser filamentosas: proteínas esqueléticas como los músculos y globulares: albuminas y globulinas. Las Heteroproteínas, pueden ser: cromoproteínas, glucoproteínas, lipoproteínas y núcleo proteínas.
  • Aminoácidos: Los aminoácidos los podemos definir como ácidos orgánicos con un grupo amino en posición alfa. Los cuatro sustituyentes del alfa son: el grupo carboxilo, un grupo amino, un átomo de hidrógeno y una cadena lateral R. Los aminoácidos pueden clasificarse en:

Aminoácidos Protéicos: son aquellos que a su vez se clasifican en codificables, que son los que permanecen tal cuales son en las proteínas; y los modificables, que son el resultado de diversas modificaciones químicas posteriores a la síntesis de proteínas. Aminoácidos no Protéicos: que a su vez se clasifican en: D-AMINOÁCIDOS, a-AMINOÁCIDOS NO PROTEICOS, w-AMINOÁCIDOS.

  • Las vitaminas: Son sustancias orgánicas con carbono que intervienen en el metabolismo, se dividen en dos grandes grupos: Vitaminas Liposolubles: Que como su mismo nombre los indica, se disuelven en las grasas y aceites. Se almacenan en el hígado y en los tejidos grasos, debido a que se pueden almacenar en la grasa del cuerpo no es necesario tomarlas todos los días por lo que es posible, tras un consumo suficiente, subsistir una época sin su aporte. Las vitaminas liposolubles son la A, D, E y K. Vitaminas Hidrosolubles: son aquellas que se disuelven en el agua. Se trata de coenzimas o precursores de coenzimas, necesarias para muchas reacciones químicas del metabolismo. Se caracterizan porque se disuelven en agua, por lo que pueden pasarse al agua del lavado o de la cocción de los alimentos. Muchos alimentos ricos en este tipo de vitaminas no nos aportan al final de prepararlos la misma cantidad que contenían inicialmente. Para recuperar parte de estas vitaminas (algunas se destruyen con el calor), se puede aprovechar el agua de cocción de las verduras para caldos o sopas. Las vitaminas hidrosolubles son: VITAMINA C. Ácido Ascórbico. Antiescorbútica. VITAMINA B1. Tiamina. Antiberibérica. VITAMINA B2. Riboflavina. VITAMINA B3. Niacina. Ácido Nicotínico. Vitamina PP. Antipelagrosa. VITAMINA B5. Ácido Pantoténico. Vitamina W. VITAMINA B6. Piridoxina. VITAMINA B8. Biotina. Vitamina H. VITAMINA B9. Ácido Fólico. VITAMINA B12. Cobalamina. 2

Citas Bibliográficas

1.Bioquímica. Consultada el 14/06/05. Programa actualizado 28/04/03. Disponible en la Web: < >

2.Clasificación de los Hidratos de Carbonos. Consultada el 14/06/05. Disponible en la Web:<>

Proteínas. Consultada 13/06/05. Disponible en la Web:. <

6. ¿En qué alimentos se encuentran las biomoléculas? Escribe.

Los glúcidos los encontramos en los alimentos como las papas, camote, cualquier tipo de grano, como el trigo, maíz, cebada, arroz y los alimentos derivados, como el pan.

Los lípidos o grasas: estas biomoléculas las podemos encontrar en la leche, mantequilla, margarina, aceites, tocino, etc. Debemos resaltar que pueden ser de origen vegetal como la margarina; o de origen animal, como por ejemplo el aceite de hígado de bacalao, el que además es rico en vitaminas.

Proteínas: estas sustancias las encontramos en alimentos como la leche, la carne, los huevos, los porotos, los garbanzos, etc.1

Las vitaminas:

Las vitaminas las encontramos en vegetales verdes y amarillos (lechuga, espinacas, perejil, zapallos, zanahoria); también se encuentran en los huevos, mantequilla, aceite de hígado y en la leche. (Vitamina A).

En la Vitamina B, encontramos alimentos como la leche, legumbres, levadura, hígado, papas yemas de huevo y carne.

El hígado de vaca o cordero, riñón de cordero, pollo, bacalao, papa, avena, trigo, carne, maíz, ostras, las legumbres, leche, el huevo son alimentos que se encuentran en la Vitamina B1.

En la Vitamina B2 encontramos alimentos como la leche, las papas, la zanahoria, miel, nueces, duraznos, levadura de cerveza, espinacas e hígado.

Dentro de los alimentos que se encuentran en la Vitamina C podemos mencionar vegetales crudos y frescos como el tomate, berro, pimentón, pepinos, cebollas, también en el hígado, la leche, en los cítricos, manzana, limón, repollo, espinacas, lechuga, melón, el plátano.

Y por último podemos decir que los huevos, la leche, la mantequilla, la yema de huevo, crema, queso, salmón, sardinas y la levadura de cerveza se encuentran en la Vitamina D.2

Citas Bibliográficas

1.Alimentación. Nutrientes. Glúcidos. Lípidos. Proteínas. Vitaminas. Minerales. Pirámide alimenticia. Consultada el 14/06/05. Disponible en la Web:<>

2.Polímeros y biomoléculas. Consultada el 14/06/05. Disponible en la Web:<> Alimentos en la comunidad. consulta el 14/06/05. Disponible en la Web:<>

Grupo de las verduras y frutas. Consultada el 15/06/05. Disponible en la Web:

7. Explica el funcionamiento de cada uno de los órganos del sistema digestivo y la función general del sistema.

El sistema digestivo es el conjunto de órganos, encargados del proceso de la digestión (transformación de los alimentos para que puedan ser absorbidos y utilizados por las células del organismo).

Dentro de los órganos que forman el aparato digestivo podemos mencionar los siguientes:

El tubo Digestivo: También llamado conducto alimentario o tracto gastrointestinal , comienza desde la boca y se extiende hasta el ano. El tubo digestivo junto con las glándulas anejas (glándulas salivales, hígado y páncreas, forman el aparato digestivo.
El tubo digestivo está formado por siete partes: boca, faringe, esófago, estómago, intestino delgado y grueso y el ano. 1

La boca : este órgano está situado en la parte superior de la cara, tiene la forma de una cavidad hueca por donde se ingieren los alimentos. Las partes principales de la boca son: los dientes , la lengua y las glándulas salivales. A través de la boca se realiza la indigestión es decir se ingieren los alimentos.

La faringe: es la parte que sigue después de la boca. Esta cavidad se comunica con la nariz por dos agujeros, y también con el oído por otros dos conductos (trompas de Eustaquio).También se comunica con el tubo respiratorio (traquea); pero en el momento de pasar el alimento, este paso se cierra por medio de una válvula, llamada epiglotis, que impide que aquel vaya a parar al tubo respiratorio.

El esófago: Esta ubicado a continuación de la cavidad bucal , su función es conducir el alimento hacia el estómago. Esta función la puede realizar debido a que sus paredes musculares se mueven rítmicamente empujando el bolo alimenticio formado en la boca.

El estómago: Es una continuación del tubo digestivo. Se divide en fondo, cuerpo y antro. Mezcla los alimentos con los jugos gástricos gracias a que posee capas de musculatura longitudinal, circular y oblicuas.

El intestino delgado : Esta situado en la cavidad abdominal, es un tubo alargado y hueco con paredes más delgadas que las del estómago. Se divide en tres partes: duodeno, yeyuno e íleon. En la siguiente figura podemos apreciar las partes del intestino delgado:

El intestino grueso: Se ubica en la cavidad abdominal. Tiene aproximadamente un metro de largo y sus distintos tramos reciben el nombre de ciego, colon y recto. En la siguiente figura podemos observar las tres partes del intestino grueso:

El ano: Es el extremo terminal del tubo digestivo constituido por un músculo esfínter voluntario, (esfínter externo del ano), recubierto de mucosa, siendo una abertura a través de la cual los materiales de desecho de la digestión (heces fecales) salen del cuerpo.

Glándulas anexas

El hígado: Este órgano es una glándula anexa al tubo. Su función principal es fabricar una serie de jugos que contribuyen a que la digestión se realice en forma eficiente.

Dentro de las funciones que desempeña el hígado podemos mencionar las siguientes:

  • Producir y secretar la bilis, sustancia que hace soluble las grasas, facilitando la digestión. Este proceso se conoce con el nombre de emulsión de grasas.
  • Almacenar glucosa, en la forma de glucógeno, un hidrato de carbono más complejo.
  • Almacenar hierro y vitaminas.
  • Eliminar glóbulos rojos viejos.
  • Participar en el metabolismo de grasas, hidratos de carbono y proteínas.

El páncreas: Es un órgano complejo. Mide unos 15 cm. de longitud, 4 de ancho y unos 2 cm. de espesor. Sus funciones exocrinas son producir enzimas y bicarbonato de sodio. 2

Citas Bibliográficas

1. Wikipedia. Aparato digestivo. Consultada el 14/06/05.Disponible en la Web:

2.Sistema digestivo. Consultada el 14/06/05. Disponible en la Web:<>

La tercera de Icarito. Cuerpo Humano. Sistema Digestivo. Consultada el 14/06/05. Disponible en la Web:<>

Javier Berardo. El sistema Digestivo. Consultada el 14/06/05. Disponible en la Web:<>

8. Describe todo lo referente al metabolismo, clases, reacciones químicas.


Es el conjunto de reacciones bioquímicas que se dan en el interior de las células de los organismos vivos, las cuales transforman la energía , conservan su identidad y se reproducen.

Tipos de metabolismo

A) Según las necesidades de las células enérgicas de las células:

Anabolismo: El anabolismo o biosíntesis es una de las partes del metabolismo encargada de la síntesis o bioformación de moléculas orgánicas (biomoléculas) más complejas a partir de otras más sencillas o de los nutrientes. El anabolismo se puede clasificar según las biomoléculas o principios inmediatos que se sinteticen en:

  • Replicación o duplicación de ADN.
  • Síntesis de ARN.
  • Síntesis de proteínas.
  • Síntesis de glúcidos.
  • Síntesis de lípidos.

Catabolismo: El catabolismo consiste en la transformación de moléculas orgánicas o biomoléculas complejas en moléculas sencillas y en el almacenamiento de la energía química desprendida en forma de enlaces fosfato de moléculas de ATP.
El catabolismo es controlado por los mensajeros químicos como las hormonas catabólicas clásicas que son:

  • Cortisol.
  • Glucagón.
  • Adrenalina y otras catecolaminas.
  • Citocinas.
  • Tiroxina.

    Anabolismo y catabolismo

B) Según el método de la obtención de productos:

1. Metabolismo autótrofo fotosintético: cuando la fuente de carbono procede del anhídrido carbónico (CO2) y la energía de la luz solar.
2. Metabolismo autótrofo quimiolitotrófico: La fuente de carbono también procede del CO2 pero la energía procede de reacciones químicas exotérmicas inorgánicas.
3. Metabolismo heterótrofo: La fuente de carbono procede de moléculas orgánicas y la energía procede de la oxidación de estás moléculas orgánicas absorbidas a través de la membrana celular.

Etapas o Reacciones bioquímica del metabolismo

Dentro del metabolismo enérgico se distinguen tres etapas:

La Glucólisis

Llamada también glicólisis o glicólisis o ruta de EMBDEN-MEYERHOF, es una secuencia metabólica en la que se oxida la glucosa produciendo dos moléculas de piruvato y dos equivalentes reducidos de NADH o NADH2, que al introducirse en la cadena respiratoria, producirán dos moléculas de ATP.

Partes de la glucólisis:

1. En la primera parte la glucosa es fosforilada con el gasto energético de una molécula de ATP para dar glucosa-6-fosfato, que se isomeriza para formar fructosa-6-fosfato. A partir de la fructosa-6-fosfato y con gasto de otra molécula de ATP se forma la fructosa-1,6-bifosfato. Hasta esta parte se gastan dos moléculas de ATP. Esta es una reacción irreversible en la que intervienen la glucosa y el ATP, además de ser indispensable el catión (Ión con carga eléctrica positiva, ya sea átomo o molécula) Mg2+ y consta de cinco reacciones bioquímicas.

2. En la segunda parte de la glucólisis, la fructosa-1,6-bifosfato se escinde en dos moléculas: gliceraldheído-3-fosfato y dihidroxiacetona-fosfato, por medio de una enzima aldolasa. La dihidroxiacetona-fosfato se transforma en gliceraldheido-3-fosfato por lo que la glucólisis se multiplica por dos a partir de aquí. El gliceraldheído-3-fosfato, sufre cinco reacciones bioquímicas más hasta convertirse en ácido pirúvico.

Ciclo de Krebs

El ciclo de Krebs o del ácido cítrico es una serie de reacciones químicas que ocurren en la vida de la célula y su metabolismo. Es parte del desarrollo del metabolismo en los organismos aeróbicos, en cambio los organismos anaeróbicos usan otro mecanismo, como es la glucólisis, otro proceso de fermentación independiente al oxígeno.

La fosforilación o oxidativa

Llamada también cadena de metales de transportes es la transferencia de electrones obtenidos en la glicolisis y en el ciclo de kbers, hasta el oxígeno molecular , acoplado en la sintesis del ATP.

Citas Bibliográficas

1.The University for Arizona. Metabolismo. Consultada el 13/06/05. Disponible en la Web: <>

Oscar Alejandro Prieto Tarin. "Nutrición". Disponible en:

Ana Galea Martínez. El Cuaderno De Nutrición de Ana Galea. "Las sales minerales". Disponible en: Erosky. "Leche enriquecidas en vitaminas y/o minerales". Disponible en:

9. ¿Tiene minerales la lecha natural? ¿Por qué son útiles para la nutrición y la salud humana?

La leche natural si tiene minerales y son de gran importancia pra la nurición y la salud humana por las siguientes razones :

a) El calcio: Que ayuda al buen funcionamiento del sistema nervioso y muscular, siendo básico para la coagulación sanguínea y la formación de los huesos y dientes.
b) El fósforo: Permite la reserva de energía para las células, algo básico para las reacciones celulares.
c) El Magnesio: Es necesario en la nutrición y en la salud humana: para la actividad muscular y nerviosa.
c) Hierro: Ayuda en la formación de la hemoglobina, siendo además portadora del oxígeno a la sangre.
d) Potasio: De gran importancia para el sistema muscular y para las funciones del bazo y del hígado.

10. Explica la ubicación en la tabla periódica de todos los elementos químicos que están presentes en la leche.

Componentes químicos de la leche :

Hidrogeno (H): Elemento químico no metálico, perteneciente al grupo I A, periodo 1, familia de los alcalinos, de número atómico 1.

Hierro (Fe): Elemento químico perteneciente al grupo VIII B , período 4, familia de los metales pesados de transición dúctiles, de número atómico 26.

Oxigeno (O): Se encuentra en el grupo VIA, período 2, familia del oxígeno, de número atómico 8.

Calcio (C): Se sitúa, en el grupo IIA, en el período 4, familia de los alcalinos térreos y su número atómico es 20.

Fósforo (P): Se sitúa en el grupo VA, período 3, familia del nitrógeno, de número atómico 15.

Cloro (Cl): Elemento químico, situado en el grupo VII A, período 3; familia de los halógenos, de número atómico 17.

Magnesio (Mg): Elemento químico perteneciente al grupo II A, del periodo 3, familia metálico alcalino térreo, número atómi

          Turning Cancer Discoveries into Effective Targeted Treatments        

The Department of Applied Mathematics is pleased to host this series of colloquium lectures, funded in part by a generous gift from the Boeing Company. This series will bring to campus prominent applied mathematicians from around the world.


Speaker: Trachette Jackson, University of Michigan

Date: April 27, 2017, 4pm, reception to follow

Location: (SMI 120)

Title: Turning Cancer Discoveries into Effective Targeted Treatments with the Aid of Mathematical Modeling

Abstract:  As a group of genetic diseases, cancer presents some of the most challenging problems for basic scientists, clinical investigators, and practitioners. A critical challenge of experimental therapeutics for cancer is to decide which drugs are the best candidates for clinical trials. In order to design novel treatments that are able to effectively and selectively target pathways involved in tumorigenesis, it becoming increasingly necessary to make use of cross-disciplinary, systems science approaches, in which innovative theoretical and computational cancer models play a central role. The goal of this talk is to demonstrate how combining mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, and carefully designed experiments can provide a predictive framework for better understanding tumor development and for improving cancer treatment. In particular, mathematical models designed to predict the effect of novel anti-cancer therapies aimed at biomolecular and biomechanical events associated with vascular tumor growth will be presented and recent advances will be highlighted.

          Environmental Poster Conference        
The IDEAL Center is co-sponsoring the Lafayette Environmental Poster Conference this Thursday, December 5, 2013, from 7:00-9:00pm at the Farinon Center. Students from a variety of majors will be presenting their semester-long research projects. Other co-sponsors include the Department of Biology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Programs in […]
          Ancient Brews with Dr Patrick McGovern – BeerSmith Podcast #153        
Dr Patrick McGovern, Director of Biomolecular Archeology at the University of Pennsylvania Museum joins me this week to discuss research into ancient fermented beverages. You can find show notes and additional episodes on my blog here.
          TACC Helps ROSIE Bioscience Gateway Expand its Impact        

Biomolecule structure prediction has long been challenging not least because the relevant software and workflows often require high-end HPC systems that many bioscience researchers lack easy access to. One bioscience gateway – ROSIE – has been established as part of XSEDE (Extreme Science and Engineering Discover Environment) to expand access to the popular Rosetta suite of […]

The post TACC Helps ROSIE Bioscience Gateway Expand its Impact appeared first on HPCwire.

          â€˜Biomolecular Motor-based’ Computer Promises Speed and Reduced Power        

Combinatorial tasks are among the hardest for traditional computers. A good example is finding the optimum path through a large complicated network. Every possible path must be evaluated and as datasets grow the computing time grows exponentially making some tasks unfeasible. One practical example is verification of VLSI (very large scale integrated) semiconductor circuit design. […]

The post ‘Biomolecular Motor-based’ Computer Promises Speed and Reduced Power appeared first on HPCwire.

           Sleep Improves Learning        

I read with great interest the study results suggesting that sleeping after learning (studying) enhances our memory and ability to recall information. This is good news for students everywhere. The article was released in June by researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center.  The research, done in mice (I'm sorry but I can't help picturing Jerry the mouse sitting in his little mouse hole reading the newspaper), supports the theory that sleep helps consolidate and strengthen new memories and how sleep and learning cause actual physical changes in the brain. Very interesting.      

It seems that sleeping after learning (napping after studying) promotes the growth of tiny protrusions in our brain cells that make connections with other brain cells and helps the information pass across the synapses.  I'm telling you this is so exciting to me.

"We've known for a long time that sleep plays an important role in learning and memory. If you don't sleep well you won't learn well," says senior investigator Wen-Biao Gan, PhD, professor of neuroscience and physiology and a member of the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine at NYU Langone Medical Center. "But what's the underlying physical mechanism responsible for this phenomenon? Here we've shown how sleep helps neurons form very specific connections on dendritic branches that may facilitate long-term memory. We also show how different types of learning form synapses on different branches of the same neurons, suggesting that learning causes very specific structural changes in the brain."  On the cellular level, sleep is anything but restful: Brain cells that spark as we digest new information during waking hours replay during deep sleep, also known as slow-wave sleep, when brain waves slow down and rapid-eye movement, as well as dreaming, stops. Scientists have long believed that this nocturnal replay helps us form and recall new memories, yet the structural changes underpinning this process have remained poorly understood.

So, how did they do it? To shed light on this process, Gan and colleagues employed mice genetically engineered to express a fluorescent protein in neurons. Using a special laser-scanning microscope that illuminates the glowing fluorescent proteins in the motor cortex, the scientists were then able to track and image the growth of dendritic spines along individual branches of dendrites before and after mice learned to balance on a spin rod. Over time mice learned how to balance on the rod as it gradually spun faster. "It's like learning to ride a bike," says Gan. "Once you learn it, you never forget."

After documenting that mice, in fact, sprout new spines along dendritic branches, within six hours after training on the spinning rod, the researchers set out to understand how sleep would impact this physical growth. They trained two sets of mice: one trained on the spinning rod for an hour and then slept for 7 hours; the second trained for the same period of time on the rod but stayed awake for 7 hours. The scientists found that the sleep-deprived mice experienced significantly less dendritic spine growth than the well-rested mice. Furthermore, they found that the type of task learned determined which dendritic branches spines would grow.

Running forward on the spinning rod, for instance, produced spine growth on different dendritic branches than running backward on the rod, suggesting that learning specific tasks causes specific structural changes in the brain.

"Now we know that when we learn something new, a neuron will grow new connections on a specific branch," says Gan. "Imagine a tree that grows leaves (spines) on one branch but not another branch. When we learn something new, it's like we're sprouting leaves on a specific branch."

Finally, the scientists showed that brain cells in the motor cortex that activate when mice learn a task reactivate during slow-wave deep sleep. Disrupting this process, they found, prevents dendritic spine growth. Their findings offer an important insight into the functional role of neuronal replay-the process by which the sleeping brain rehearses tasks learned during the day-observed in the motor cortex.

"Our data suggest that neuronal reactivation during sleep is quite important for growing specific connections within the motor cortex," Gan adds.   

To reasd about the study see:,

          Moléculas que sienten y actúan        
Moléculas que sienten - Quilo de Ciencia podcast  -

La reciente disciplina de la Biología Sintética intenta desarrollar nuevos mecanismos biomoleculares que ejerzan funciones aún no presentes en la Naturaleza. Dos investigadores del Instituto de Tecnología de Massachusetts, EE.UU. han ideado un mecanismo molecular que permite la detección de un fragmento de ADN dado (por ejemplo el de un virus o el de un cambio cromosómico) y pone en marcha una nueva función molecular. La ingeniosidad de este mecanismo reside en que la detección se produce por dos moléculas diferentes, inofensivas por separado, que al reunirse, gracias al ADN detectado, hacen posible la generación de una molécula que ejerce una nueva función, como puede ser la de producir una toxina que mate a la célula.

          Graphene-Based Nanotube Biosensor Could Detect Single Biomolecules Efficiently        
Edward Honein has joined the Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology at EPFL from the American University of Beirut. Under the guidance of Professor Ardemis Boghossian, Honein’s summer project aims to develop...
          Emily Palmer Accepted into the Biomolecular Pharmacology Training Program        
Congratulations to Emily Palmer, who was accepted into the Biomolecular Pharmacology Training program.  As a trainee, Emily will take courses in pharmacology and the physical sciences and conduct research focused on the design, synthesis, and characterization of drug delivery vehicles.
          Researchers Develop Newer Membranes for Producing Clean Water        
Researchers at the University of Melbourne along with the CSIRO have come up with new types of microfilters or membranes that can produce clean water via energy efficient mechanisms. This newly developed technology will aid in the supply of clean and hygienic water that can be used for water purification and desalination applications. A professor at the Department of Biomolecular and Chemical engineering explained that hitherto there were no ways of adding chlorinating substances to water for preventing the growth of biological organisms during the process of desalination.  The process of biofouling has always been a glaring problem till date, however, with the introduction of the new technique it can be expected that the desalination operations henceforth will be more economical. For one of the lead professors of this research group it is of utmost importance to procure fresh water that can be used for industrial applications, irrigation, and drinking. The availability of water for the aforementioned uses has become a major challenge in today’s world. Researchers and scientists also state that it can be a life changing phenomenal change that can be brought about in billions of lives all across the globe if there can be the development and introduction of energy efficient methods for purifying water.  The latest types of membranes can in a way be compared to the presently applied commercial membranes that are applied in these areas. And more importantly these membranes exhibit higher resistance to the adverse effects of chlorine based chemicals. These membrane materials that are chlorine resistant can easily be cut into greater number of processing steps via lower operational costs.

Original Post Researchers Develop Newer Membranes for Producing Clean Water source Twease
          Studies of infrared spectra of isolated biomolecules        
          Peroxymonocarbonate as a new reactive oxygen species and its reactivity with biomolecules        
          Cod Liver Oil and Evening Primrose Buy 1 Get 2 Free        

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          Evening Primrose Oil Dry 500mg and 1000mg Buy 1 Get 2 Free        

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Flax is one of the premium sources of Alpha-Linolenic Acid (Omega-3) and Linoleic Acid (Omega-6), two essential fatty acids that can't be made by the body and must be obtained from diet. Fatty acids play a role in providing an energy source for the body. In addition, Organic High Lignan Flax Oil is a source of lignans - phytochemicals, which play a part in the well-being of the body. Cod Liver Oil naturally contains the omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA. Cod Liver Oil is a natural source of Vitamins A and D, which help maintain bones and a healthy immune system. Evening Primrose Oil is a rich, natural source of the important unsaturated fatty acid gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). EPA, DHA and GLA are precursors to prostaglandins, action-specific biomolecules that regulate many important functions in cells.

           The effect of pressure and mobile phase velocity on the retention properties of small analytes and large biomolecules in ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography         
Fekete, S., Veuthey, J.-L., McCalley, D. V. and Guillarme, D. (2012) The effect of pressure and mobile phase velocity on the retention properties of small analytes and large biomolecules in ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A, 1270. pp. 127-138. ISSN 0021-9673 Available from:
           Backbone 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments for a 14kD protein, GABAA receptor associated protein (GABARAP)         
Harris, R; McAlister, MSB; Sankar, A; Phelan, JP; Moss, SJ; Keep, NH; Driscoll, PC; (2001) Backbone 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments for a 14kD protein, GABAA receptor associated protein (GABARAP). Journal of Biomolecular NMR , 21 pp. 185-186.
           Reactive intermediates in the H-phosphonate synthesis of oligonucleotides         
Powles, Nicholas, Atherton, John H. and Page, Michael I. (2012) Reactive intermediates in the H-phosphonate synthesis of oligonucleotides. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 10 (30). pp. 5940-5947. ISSN 1477-0539
           Organic reactivity in liquid ammonia         
Ji, Pengju, Atherton, John H. and Page, Michael I. (2012) Organic reactivity in liquid ammonia. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 10 (30). pp. 5732-5739. ISSN 1477-0520
           Copper catalysed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) in liquid ammonia         
Ji, Pengju, Atherton, John H. and Page, Michael I. (2012) Copper catalysed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) in liquid ammonia. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 10 (39). pp. 7965-7969. ISSN 1477-0520
           The mechanism of the phosphoramidite synthesis of polynucleotides         
Russell, Mark A., Laws, Andrew P., Atherton, John H. and Page, Michael I. (2008) The mechanism of the phosphoramidite synthesis of polynucleotides. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 6 (18). pp. 3270-3275. ISSN 1477-0539
           The kinetics and mechanism of the acid-catalysed detritylation of nucleotides in non-aqueous solution         
Russell, Mark A., Laws, Andrew P., Atherton, John H. and Page, Michael I. (2009) The kinetics and mechanism of the acid-catalysed detritylation of nucleotides in non-aqueous solution. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 7 (1). pp. 52-57. ISSN 1477-0539
           Mechanism of the sulphurisation of phosphines and phosphites using 3-amino-1,2,4-dithiazole-5-thione (Xanthane Hydride)         
Hanusek, Jifi, Russell, Mark A., Laws, Andrew P., Jansa, Petr, Atherton, John H., Fettes, Kevin and Page, Michael I. (2007) Mechanism of the sulphurisation of phosphines and phosphites using 3-amino-1,2,4-dithiazole-5-thione (Xanthane Hydride). Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 5 (3). pp. 478-484. ISSN 1477-0539
          531 Reference APIs: GeoNames, Wikipedia and CrunchBase        

GeoNamesOur API directory now includes 531 reference APIs. The newest is the CanLII API. The most popular, in terms of mashups, is the GeoNames API. We list 88 GeoNames mashups. Below you?ll find some more stats from the directory, including the entire list of reference APIs.

In terms of the technical details, REST and XML lead the way. There are 334 reference REST APIs and 167 reference SOAP APIs. Our directory lists 391 reference XML APIs and 241 reference JSON APIs.

The most common tags within reference are 53 science reference APIs, 51 search reference APIs and 43 government reference APIs.

On the mashup side, we list 405 reference mashups. We named Baby Name Meanings as mashup of the day last week.

For reference, here is a list of all 531 reference APIs.

??4:14 XML Bible API: Christian bible verse service

?? API: ASP.NET FAQ service

??Abbreviations API: Abbreviated words services

??Acromine API: Acronym look-up and text mining service

??ActBlue API: Democratic fundraising service

??Activism Network Community API: Online activism network and community

??AFD Software Postcode Everywhere API: UK address and bank information service

??AHDS Identifier Resolver API: UK electronic research data repository

??AIDSinfo API: Government info on HIV/AIDS treatment

??AIMS Address API: Johnson County Kansas address lookup service

??AllAreaCodes API: Area code lookup service

??Amazonca API: Online barcode database

??American Bible Society BibleSearch API: Bible access and search service

??Anime News Network Encylopedia API: Online Anime Encyclopedia Service

??Aonaware Dictionary API: Dictionary lookup service

?? API: Standardized healthcare code reference service

??Archives Hub API: UK research archive

?? API: Artwork information discovery service

??arXiv API: Academic research repository

??ASPECT Vocabulary Bank for Education API: Education vocabulary controlled lists

??Attempto RACE API: Text-based logical reasoning service

??Australian Business Register ABN Lookup API: Australian Business Number look-up service

??Australian Tourism Data Warehouse API: Australian tourism information service

??AutoAppMart API: In-car application marketplace

??Avalara API: Sales tax data service

??AVIN API: Wine tracking number repository

??Avvo API: Lawyer and doctor directory service

??Baby Names API: International baby naming services

??BankHolidays API: Swedish banking holiday lookup service

??BankLZ API: German bankcode lookup service

??Barcelona Bicing API: Bicing station data

??Barnivore API: Vegan alcohol guide

??Basic Local Alignment Search Tool API: Genome database search tool

??Bavarian Authorities Signpost API: Local information service for Bavaria

??BBAS Personal Data Repository API: Semantic data for scientific biographical information

??BBAW G2L API: Greek-Latin text transliteration service

??BBAW ISO-Date API: German and Italian text analysis service

??BBAW Places API: German text analysis and place name service

??BBS Scene API: Bulletin board system services

??Bearmini Public Holiday API: Japanese public holiday reference service

??Behind the Name API: First name etymology and history database

??Best Buy BBYOpen Stores API: Retail store data

?? API: Online bible reference service

??BibServer API: Bibliographic metadata consolidation and sharing service

??Big Huge Thesaurus API: Thesaurus lookup services

??BigOven Recipe API: Recipes, grocery list, and nutrition API

??Billboard API: Music chart service

??Bing API: Online search services

??BIOBASE API: Biological research data repository

??BioCatalogue API: Life sciences web registry service

??BioGRID API: Biological reference search service

??BioMOBY API: Plant genome reference service

??Biomolecular Interaction Network Database API: Biomolecular database

??Biosemantics JANE API: Journal and author name service

??Black Book Online API: U.S. public record search service

??Boliven API: Online repository of medical device information

??Boliven Publications API: Patent and scientific document portal

??Bookshare API: Accessible Books For Readers with Print Disabilities

??Brain Maps API: Brain section images

??Brewery DB API: Your Complete Brewery and Beer API

??burrp API: Local business search service

??Business Profiles API: Business operating information service

?? API: US government small business resources

??Byomei API: Japanese disease reference service

??Callook API: US amateur radio callsign lookup

??CalorieKing API: Food information service

??Cambridge Journals Online API: Cambridge University Press collections

??Cambridge Lookup/Ibis Web Service API: Online Contact Retrieval Service

??Cambridge University Library API: Library catalog and services

??CanLII API: Canadian legal database

??CarJam API: New Zealand car facts history service

??CarQuery API: Automobile information

??CatalogWS API: Academic library

??CDYNE 411 API: Directory assistance service

??CDYNE Death Index API: Access to the Social Security Death Index

??CDYNE Demographics API: Neighborhood level demographics service

??CEERN API: Conservation and Environment Resource Database

??CENSUS.IRE.ORG API: 2010 census data access service

??Cevir Turkish-English Dictionary API: Turkish-English Dictionary look up service

??Cheeso's Looky Book Service API: Simple book search

??Chemcaster API: Cheminformatics management platform

??ChemSpider API: Chemical structure database

??China Historical GIS API: Chinese history and geography information service

??Chinese PostalCodeSearch API: Chinese postal code lookup service

??Chronicling America API: Archive of US newspapers

??CitedIn API: PubMed citation tracking service

??CiteULike API: Citation management service

??City and State by Zip Code API: Address lookup service

??City of Helsinki Service Map API: Helsinki information and service resource map

??CityGroups API: Local public directory

?? API: Clinical trials database and registry

??Clodoc API: Clojure programming documentation service

??ClojureDocs API: Clojure programming language example repository

??Collins Dictionary API: Online dictionary

??CommonDataHub API: Universal data standards repository

??Complexity Intelligence Spell Checker API: Spelling correction and recommendation service

??Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network API: Community driven open knowledge database

??Conversions API: Online calculator and measurment converter

??Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum API: Design museum collections database

??Copac SALT recommender API: Library resource recommendation service

??CoPub API: Medical research text mining service

??Cortera API: Business information and research data

??Cortera Business Vitals API: Basic company information web service

??Countries and Time Zones API: Time zone information service

??CrossRef DOI Resolver API: Persistent identifier resolver

??CrunchBase API: Directory of companies, people, and investors

??CSA/NBII Biocomplexity Thesaurus API: Biocomplexity Thesaurus search service

??CSRHUB API: Corporate Social Responsibility ratings database

??D&B Direct API: Commercial business information service

??Daleeli Mobile API: Saudi Arabian business directory

??Data-Planet API: Statistical data service

?? API: Business information service

??Data8 Companies House API: UK company search service

??Data8 Movers Identification API: Address checking and update service

??Datahotell API: Norway open government data

??Datanibble API: Quotes generator

??DayDetails API: On-this-date lookup service

??DBpedia API: Structured query interface to Wikipedia

??DBpedia Spotlight API: Semantic Text Annotation and Disambiguation

??DCMI Metadata Registry API: Metadata management service

??DDBC Authority Database API: Authoritative Buddhist people, place, and event name service

??Deduktiv ebaas distance API: UK postcodes service

??Deepdyve API: Scientific and medical journals

??Diablo 3 API: Diablo data service

??Dictionary Definitions API: Online dictionary

??Digital Public Library of America API: National digital library

??DigitalClassicist G-Tool API: Greek-to-Latin translation service

??DigitalNZ API: New Zealand metadata database

??Dun and Bradstreet Business Verification API: Research company background data

??Dun and Bradstreet Credit Check API: Credit quick check web service

??Dun and Bradstreet WorldBase Marketing Plus API: Business research services

??DuoShare Address Verification API: US address verification service

??DynaMed API: Medical clinic reference

??EBI CiteXplore API: Scientific publication and metadata retrieval

??eBibleicious API: Bible lookup service

??Ecolabel Index API: Ecolabel Database Tools

?? Inventory API: Specific automobile information via VIN

??Edoceo API: Assorted reference and conversion tools

?? API: School test scores and other data

??eLife API: Biological sciences journal access service

??Elsevier Linked Data Repository API: Semantic metadata service

??Email Address Validator API: Email address validation service

??Encyclopedia of Life API: Biology Encyclopedia

??EnergyStar ABS API: Energy management and conservation service

??EnergyStar Third-Party Certification API: Energy efficiency certification processing service

??Enrycher API: Text analysis and keyword generation service

??ESV Bible Lookup API: Bible lookup service

??Europeana OpenSearch API: European museum collection metadata

??Excluded Parties List System API: List of entities ineligible for Federal contracts

??Exploring Surrey's past API: Surrey County historical resource

??Factual Places API: Open Data for sharing and reference tools

??FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Fact Sheets API: Fisheries and aquaculture data service

??FatSecret API: Food, nutrition and recipe database and diet tools

??Fietstas API: Document and text processing service

??Fillbug API: Query by example service

??FinData API: Global financial information service

??FindPeopleFree API: Find UK residents and businesses by region

??Forvo API: Online word pronunciation guide

??FraudLabs AreaCodeWorld NPA NXX Area Code API: Geographical location service

??FRED API: US Federal Reserve Economic data

??Freebase API: Community driven open database

??FreeCite API: Bibliographic citations parsing service

?? API: Album cover archive

??Frengly Translation API: Text translation service

??Freshmeat API: Open source application index

??FUTEF Wikipedia API API: Third party Wikipedia web service

??Fwix Location API: Business listing service

??GEMET API: Multi-language thesaurus management service

??Genability API: Electricity price data service

??Genetics Home Reference API: Genetics research site

??Genomic Name Server API: Bioinformatics database

??GeoNames API: Geographic name and postal code lookup

??GEPIR API: Get company contact information via bar code

??Getpincode API: Indian pincode search engine

??GlobalQuran API: Quran text and audio

??Glocal Focal US Mortality Data API: US government mortality data

??Glosbe API: Multilingual online dictionary and translation memory

??GMOD API: Remote Querying of Biological Databases

??Good Business Day Exchanges API: International exchange holidays and hours reference service

??Goodreads API: Book search and social book services

??Google Books API: Book search services

??Google Civic Information API: Civic information service

??Google Diacritize API: Language pronunciation tool

??Google Places API: Local business and point of interest service

??Gracenote API: Music and video metadata service

??Greek Republic Ministry of Finance GSIS API: Greek citizens and traders information service

??Gwinnett Roman Baptist Church Open Bible API: Bible excerpt service

??Harvard Dash API: Digital repository of scholarly articles

??Hathi Trust Data Distribution API: Library catalog search service

??Healthnotes API: Self-care Decision Support

??HIPAASpace API: HIPAA code lookup services

??HireRight API: Human resources hiring screening service

??Holidays Service API: Holiday dates lookup service

??Hosca BankFinder API: Find banks by zipcode

??How do you pronounce and use?? API: Multimedia pronunciation dictionary

??I Heart Quotes API: Quotes and fortunes generator

??iCyte API: Resource and document saving service

??Idescat Catalan and Spanish Indicators API: Economic indicator service

??Idescat Onomastics API API: Catalan name data

??Idescat Rectifications API: Rectifications registry lookup service

??iFixit API: Online repair manual database

??IIAP Servicio Glosario API: Spanish glossary of environmental terms

??ikiMap API: Create Maps From Public and Personal Georeference Information

?? API: Unofficial IMDB data retrieval service

??ImpactStory API: Publication influence metrics service

??IndExs API: Index of mycology specimens

??Indian Pincode API: Indian PIN code information service

??Indiana University Knowledge Base API: Tech support reference database

??InfoChimps Datasets API: 2,000+ dataset reference library

??InfoChimps IP Intelligence Demographics API: Census data based on IP address

??Innovative Interfaces: Sierra API: Integrated library system

??Intelius Search API: Public records database search

??Internet Archive API: Non-profit Internet library and historical archive

??Ireland Revenue Customs and Excise API: Irish tax collection office data

??isiZulu API: Zulu-English dictionary

??ISOcat API: Linguistic concept definition registry

??Israel Ministry of Finance Taarif API: Israeli tariff reference service

?? API: European language translation service

??JChem ChemAxon API: Chemistry search and reference tool service

??Jigsaw API: Business information and contacts directory

??Kasabi API: Data marketplace

??Kateglo API: Indonesian online dictionary, thesaurus and glossary

??KnowMarkets Address Verification API: Postal and area code lookup services

??Korean Bible Society API: Korean-language Bible

??Kuakes API: International earthquake data

??la Loter?a del Ni?o API: Spanish Lottery Information Lookup

??Language Studio Asia Online API: Online translation service

??Lasso 9 Reference Library API: Lasso 9 reference information retrieval service

?? API: Legal articles archive

??Leafly API: Medicinal marijuana information service

??LER API: Danish underground utility cable information service

??Lexicomp API: Drug and clinical information service

??LexisNexis Academic API: Academic research repository

??Library of Congress SRW API: Information database search

??Library of Congress Subject Headings API: Access to the Library of Congress Subject Headings

??LibraryThing API: Books database and community

??LifeDesks API: Online science and taxonomy community

??LingQ API: language development service

??LinguLab API: Text creation and editing service

??LittleShoot Labs MIME API: File type reference service

??LittleSis API: Database for tracking political and business relationships

??LiveAddress Verification API: US address verification, validation, and geocoding

??LocalSchoolDirectory API: School information and search service

??Lollapalooza API: Music event reference

??London Prayer Times API: Unified Islamic prayer timetable for London

??Longman Dictionary API: English dictionary reference source

??LyricFind API: Music lyrics database

??MacMillan Dictionary API: Online dictionary

??Malaysia Prayer Times API: Muslim prayer times for Malaysia

??Martindale-Hubbell API: Legal directory

??MasterCard Merchant Identifier API: Merchant data lookup service

??MedlinePlus API: Health information service

??Mendeley API: Academic research paper sharing service

??Merriam-Webster Dictionary API: Dictionary and thesaurus products

??MetriDyne API: Real-time measurement accumulates service

??Microsoft MSDN API: Technical reference library

??Mirlyn API: Library catalog and services

??Mnemotechniques Abbreviator API: Abbreviation services

??Morpher API: Russian language reference service

??MovieMeter API: Retrieve film information in Dutch

?? API: Movie database query service

??MTPS Content Service API: Access to Microsoft documentation and related content

??Museum of London API: Access to museum data

??MyAvoxData API: Business entity data

??MyFonts API: Font store

??NADA API: Used car values lookup service

??Naringslex API: Oslo entrepreneurial reference service

??NASA Astrophysics Data System API: Astronomy and physics data service

??Nasa Exoplanet Archive API: Astronomical archive

??National Drug File-Reference Terminology API: Clinical information about medications

??National Library of Medicine ChemSpell API: Chemical reference database

??National Library of Medicine Digital Collections API: Library of medical books and video

??National Library of Medicine DIRLINE API: Medical information resource database

?? OpenSearch API: Scientific publication search service

??NCSU Libraries CatalogWS API: Library catalog and services

??NCSU Scholarly Publications Repository API: Academic publication information service

??Neil deGrasse Tyson Quotes API: Neil deGrasse Tyson Quotes

??NeuStar Port PS API: Telephone number information automation service

??New York Times Article Search API: New York Times article archives

??New York Times Campaign Finance API: U.S. campaign finance data

??New York Times Congress API: US Congress historical data

??New York Times Districts API: Political districts service

??New York Times Most Popular API: News popularity service

??New York Times Newswire API: All recent New York Times articles in summary

??New York Times NY State Legislature API: NY State legislative member information

??NextBio API: Science data research platform

??Ningbo Institute of Technology SOIP API: Open API for Searching the NIT Information Portal

??Nobel Prize API: Nobel Prize information service

??NoSwearing API: Swear word filter

??NSDL Search API: Online science library

??NTNU IME Faculty API: NTNU University data

??NumberLaundry API: Phone Number Information Service

??Numbers API: Number reference service

??Nursing & Health Survival Guides API: Health and nursing guide series

?? API: Obituary data archive

??Ockham Spell API: Spelling suggestion service

??OCLC Article Exchange API: Library document sharing service

??OCLC Classify API: Library catalog classification service

??OCLC WMS API: Library collection management services

??Office for National Statistics API: UK neighborhood and census data

??OMA Browser API: Proteins search engine

??OMG API: Computer industry standards database

??OneMusic API: Music metadata collection

??ONKI Ontology and Thesaurus API: Finnish library thesaurus and ontology service

??Open Charge Map API: Electric vehicle charging point database.

??Open Context API: Museum collection resesarch and reference service

??Open Library API: Library data access

??OpenCorporates API: Corporate information database

??OpenDOAR API: Academic research repository

??OReilly Safari API: Book search

??Our Manna Daily Verses API: Daily bible verses

??PastPlace API: Historical data service

??PBS TV Schedules API: TV schedule data service

??Peachpit Visual QuickStart Guides API: Visual QuickStart Guide

??Pearson Brilliant Series API: How-to and reference books

??Pearson Dictionaries API: Dictionary and reference service

??PGXN API: PostgreSQL metadata distribution service

??PhoneVal API: Phone number validation service

??PicketReport Lifestyle API: Neighborhood lifestyle data service

??Pillbox API: Medication identification service

??PilotOutlook API: International airport data

??Pincodr API: Indian pincode search service

??PLoS Search API: Scientific literature search service

??Postcode Anywhere API: UK and international address management software, postcode finder web services and more

??Postcode Anywhere Address Services API: Address capture, lookup and search

??Postcode Anywhere Customer Profiling API: UK population segmentation data service

??Postcode Anywhere Worldwide Business Data API: Business record database

??PostcodePal API: Geographic datasets for the United Kingdom and Crown Dependencies

??Powerhouse Museum Collection API: Online museum collection and datasets

??Pro6PP API: Dutch postcode database services

??Product Life Cycle Support API: Product management service for businesses

??Project Bamboo API: Humanities research support service

??PRONOM API: Electronic records management technical information database

??ProThesaurus API: Protein name thesaurus

??PubChem PUG API: Molecular library database

??PubMLST API: Biological database

??Pulsepoint Real-Time Classifier API: Context definition and classification service

??Pushpin Location Data API: Location and statistical information about places

??Python Package Index API: Python code database

??Qualified Address API: US address verification service

??Questsin API: Thesaurus and answers lookup services

??Quotations Book API: Quotations database

??Quotes Daddy API: Great quotes database

??RadioReference API: Radio station database

??Random House API: Book search and viewing service

??Raphael Research Resource API: Artwork linked data service

??RateBeer API: beer database and rating tool

??Real Estate Transaction Standard API: Real estate information standards reference

??RealEDA Reverse Phone Lookup API: Lookup address and name via phone

??RealSearch Liberty Criminal API: Criminal records search service

??RealSearch Wireless & Cellphone API: Wireless carrier database

??Realtime Register API: Uniform domain name registration service

??Record Setter URDB API: World record reference site

??refbase OpenSearch API: Bibliographic search service

??ReferralCandy API: Customer referral service

??RegExLib API: Database of regular expressions

?? API: U.S. government regulations document repository

??RestFul Web Services Airport API: Airport code reference service

??RestFul Web Services Bible API: Bible verse look-up service

??RestFul Web Services GeoIP API: IP address location service

??RestFul Web Services HCPCS API: Health care procedure code reference service

??RestFul Web Services Postal Code API: International postal code look-up service

??RestFul Web Services UNSPSC API: eCommerce product classification code reference

??RestFul Web Services USA Zip Code API: Zip code location service

??Reverse Australia API: Australian reverse phone lookup service

??RhymeBrain API: Online rhyming dictionary

??Rhyming API: Rhyming dictionary

??RIPE Database API: Internet Registry Database

??Ripe Development API: Local time and zip code information services

??Royal Albert Memorial Museum API: Museum collections data and image database

??RubyGems API: Ruby community gem hosting service

??RxNorm API: Clinical drug vocabularies

??RxTerms API: Drug prescription terminolgies

??Safe Creative API: Free copyright registry

??Sapo Holiday API: Portuguese holiday reference service

??Sapo POI API: Location data service

??Sapo Semantic Lists API: Semantic word lists service

??Sapo Verbetes API: WhoIs query service for public figures

??Scholarly iQ API: Scholarly publication tracking service

??Scholarometer API: Scholar impact rating service

??Science Museum API: British Science Museum data and services

??SciVerse Framework and Content API: Science Reference Research Platform OpenSocial

??Scopus API: Academic citation database

??SDSS CasJobs API: Scientific data and query management system

??SecondHandSongs API: Cover song reference

??SeedFinder API: Cannabis strain information service

??Sem4Tags API: Semantic tagging interpretation service

??Semantics3 API: Product Database

??Sensis Business Search API: Australian business directory search service

??SermonAudio API: Audio sermon library service

??SERP-P API: Philippines demographic data service

??ServiceObjects DOTS Demographics API: Zip code level demographic service

??ServiceObjects DOTS NCOA Live API: U.S. change-of-address (COA) update service

??Sesame Name Resolver API: Astronomical object information service

??Shakespeare API: Shakespearian play quote origin identification service

??SHOUTcast Radio API: Internet radio database service

??SigQuotes API: Random Alistair Young quote generator

??SimpleUPC API: Product information database

??Simply Postcode API: Postcode and address lookup service

??SKGA Golf Hadicap API: Golf handicap in Slovakia

??Skolportalen API: Swedish education resource documentation

??SKOS Thesaurus API: Thesaurus of related concepts

??Socrata Open Data API: Online data sharing service

??Softonic API: Catalog of downloadable software

??SolarGIS API: Solar resources information and calculation services

??SolarPlots API: Sun position tracking service

?? API: Spelling correction service

??Spire ITIS API: Taxanomic serial number and scientific name database

??Springer API: Scientific journal and books database

??SRC Demographics API: Demographic reference data

??St. Gregorios Church Bible API: Bible verse retrieval service

??Stack Exchange API: Question and answer site network

??STANDS4 Definitions API: Dictionary definition service

??Stanford HighWire API: COUNTER Usage Statistics Service

??State Library of New South Wales API: Internal library website maintenance and fundraising service

??Stochastic IMDb API: Unofficial IMDb service

??StrikeIron Address Verfication API: Global address verification service

??StrikeIron Do Not Call API: Telephone number verification serice

??StrikeIron Foreign Exchange Rates API: Foreign exchange rate information service

??StrikeIron Insider Trading API: Insider trading transaction information

??StrikeIron Lite Web Services API: Financial, census data, phone numbers, and other data

??StrikeIron Phone Number Enhancement API: Adds address and statistical data based on phone number

??StrikeIron Residential Lookup API: Residential directory lookup and validation service

??StrikeIron Reverse Phone Lookup API: Reverse phone lookup services

??StrikeIron Sales Tax Basic API: Sales and use tax data service

??StrikeIron Super Data Pack API: APIs for variety of reference data sources

??StrikeIron Tax Service API: Sales tax reference lookup

??StrikeIron US Addresses API: US address verification service

??StrikeIron US Census API: Census data information service

??StrikeIron Zacks Company Profile API: Corporate profiles web service

??StrikeIron ZIP and Postal Code Info API: ZIP and Postal Code information service

??Styfee API: Internalization and localization services

??SureChemDirect API: Chemistry Patent Data

??Synonyms API: Online thesaurus

??Tariff Analysis Project API: Official utility tariff data service

??Telephony Intelligence Data Services API: Telephony customer data service

??Texas History API: Texas History Resource

??TextRazor API: Text analysis service

??The Alife Database API: Listing of websites related to artificial life

??The Business Model Project API: Business model taxonomy

??The Freedom Registry API: Anti-human trafficking organization collaboration platform

??The Movie DB API: Movie, cast and image database

??The Society of Authors Member Search API: Search for a writer or translator

??Thesaurus API: Multi-languages thesaurus search service

??Thirukkural API: Thirukkural reference service

??Thomas Beyer First Names and Gender API: European names lookup service

??Thomson Reuters Knowledge Direct API: Business information and analytics

??Thomson Reuters Pharma API: Investigational drugs data

??Thomson Reuters Web of Science API: Citation reference index

??ThrustCurve API: Model rocket motor data

??Timetric API: Statistical analysis tools and data

??TimeZoneDb API: Time zone database

??Tixik API: Famous places GPS services

??Tourism New Zealand API: New Zealand tourism information service

??TOXNET API: Toxicology database

?? API: Professional translation workflow service

??Trends Top API: Company information service

??TurnItin iThenticate API: Plagiarism detection service

??U.S. National Library of Medicine ChemSpell API: Chemical name spell checker and thesaurus

??UC Davis IET API: University directory services

??UK National Archives Discovery API: National archives catalog

??UMBEL API: Semantic structure service

??UN Contrade API: International trade statistics service

??UN Data API: United Nations information service

??Unified Tax API: Sales tax lookup service

??University of Michigan Buildings API: University of Michigan building information

??University of Michigan Courses API: University of Michigan course information

El presente curso pretende que el alumno de sexto semestre del bachillerato tecnologico sea capaz de comprender, de forma mas amplia la biologia y el impacto que esta tiene con su realidad. Procura tambien desarrollar competencias y habilidades necesarias para realizar proyectos de investigacion asi como tambien comprender los conceptos de la biologia y su conexion con nuestras vidas.

La biologia es una de las ciencias que mas han avanzado en los ultimos años debido a que la tecnologia y el conocimiento van aparejados con el desarrollo de los pueblos, este conocimiento basico y el entendimiento de como funciona la ciencia se ha vuelto importante para que todo ciudadano pueda criticar y opinar sobre temas de salud, problemas ambientales y aplicaciones de las nuevas tecnologias, entendiendo que el desarrollo implica conciencia para que este nos beneficie y tambien a las generaciones por venir.
Veremos como los avances de la ciencia y la tecnologia han beneficiado el trabajo cientifico , asi como la situacion de la ciencia en Mexico; las funciones y estructura celular, las biomoleculas, los procesos de transporte, los procesos metabolicos: respiracion, fotosintesis, sintesis de proteinas, el cultivo de tejidos, las celuas indiferenciadas, el ADN recombinante, las aplicaciones de la biotecnologia en campos como la alimentacion (transgenicos), medicina (investigacion en nuevos farmacos para combatir enfermedades nuevas como el cancer y el VIH, la fecundacion in vitro etc.) industria.

          Integrating biomolecules with metal-organic frameworks        
With their special structure and large surface area, MOFs open up new opportunities in drug delivery. The ability to exchange the metal centers and organic linkers even provide an extensive library of MOF materials. As a result, the integration of small guest molecules within the MOF pores, such as small molecule drugs and biomolecules, have shown promise for delivery applications to treat diseases. A recent review article discusses current proceedings on integrating diverse biomolecules within MOFs.

          TRATAMIENTO MÉDICO        
El tratamiento del cáncer de la mama es multidisciplinario, es decir precisa la combinación de diversas modalidades o disciplinas terapéuticas para conseguir un control eficaz de la enfermedad. Las modalidades terapéuticas contra el cáncer de mama son la cirugía, la radioterapia, la quimioterapia, la hormonoterapia y la terapia biomolecular. Las dos primeras actúan a nivel local, es decir sobre la enfermedad en la mama y los ganglios linfáticos y constituyen el tratamiento de elección en la enfermedad localizada no metastásica. Las restantes actúan tanto a nivel local, como general de todo el organismo, en lo que se denomina tratamiento sistémico, y se utilizan de forma complementaria al tratamiento local con cirugía y/o radioterapia o como tratamiento de primera elección en la enfermedad metastásica o diseminada.

Y vendrá determinada por el tamaño del tumor y si se ha extendido a los ganglios linfáticos u otras partes del cuerpo.

  • Cirugía: Generalmente es el primer procedimiento elegido contra el cáncer de mama. La decisión acerca de la cirugía depende de varios factores, junto con el medico la paciente debe determinar el tipo de cirugía que mejor se adapta a su situación, teniendo en cuenta el estadio del cáncer  la personalidad del tumor y que le brindaría tranquilidad a largo plazo. Entre las principales cirugías se encuentran las siguientes:

La lumpectomía: También denominada cirugía de conservación de la mama, consiste en la extirpación del tumor y una pequeña cantidad de tejido circundante.

La mastectomía: Es el término médico para la extirpación quirúrgica de una o ambas mamas de manera parcial o completa, y pueden haber diferentes procedimientos.

Mastectomía subcutánea: se extirpa toda la glándula mamaria pero se deja el pezón y la areola. 

Mastectomía simple: extirpación de toda la glándula mamaria pero no de los ganglios linfáticos que se encuentran debajo del brazo (ganglios axilares). 

Mastectomía radical: extirpación de la mama, de los músculos pectorales y de los ganglios linfáticos axilares. Esta cirugía se consideró durante muchos años como el estándar para mujeres con cáncer de mama, pero en la actualidad se utiliza en muy pocas ocasiones. 

Mastectomía radical modificada: extirpación de toda la mama y de la mayoría de los ganglios linfáticos axilares, conservando los músculos pectorales. Hoy en día es la técnica más empleada.

La cuadrantectomía:  En cirugía oncológica es el término médico para denominar la extirpación de un cuarto de la mama.

La cuadrantectomía se recomienda en los casos en los que el tumor es de pequeño tamaño -lo que ocurre de un 10 a un 20% de los casos. El tejido extirpado es lo suficientemente reducido como para que no se aprecie una diferencia significativa entre una mama operada y la que no ha sido sometida a cirugía.

Según demostró el creador de este tipo de cirugía, Umberto Veronesi, los índices de supervivencia entre las mujeres que han sido intervenidas con esta cirugía que permite conservar la mama y las que han sido sometidas a cirugía más agresiva o a la extirpación de la totalidad de la mama son similares.

  • Quimioterapia: Usa medicamentos que se administran generalmente inyectados, para debilitar y destruir las células cancerosas presentes en el cuerpo, incluso las localizadas en el sitio original del cáncer y toda célula cancerosa que se haya diseminado as otra parte del cuerpo. Es una terapia sistémica, lo cual significa que afecta todo el cuerpo a través del torrente sanguíneo  esto explica la mayoría de los efectos colaterales, como caída del cabello, fragilidad en las uñas, etc. En algunos casos, se puede administrar quimioterapia antes de la cirugía para reducir el tamaño del cáncer.

Quimioterapia Neo-adyuvante: 
Es la que se administra antes de la cirugía. Está indicada en los cánceres de mama localmente avanzados,y en aquellos que midan más de 3 cm o que tengan adenopatías axilares. Se suele utilizar adriamicina y taxanos. La intención de la neadyuvancia es principalmente la disminución del tamaño tumoral para practicar una cirugía conservadora y la valoración de la respuesta a la quimioterapia para posteriores tratamientos.

Quimioterapia Adyuvante: E
s la que se administra después de la cirugía. Su indicación depende de los factores pronóstico clásicos que son la edad, el tamaño tumoral, la afectación ganglionar axilar, el grado de diferenciación celular (grado histológico) y los receptores hormonales. Si los ganglios axilares son negativos de infiltración tumoral las pacientes se clasifican en bajo y medio-alto riesgo. Las de bajo riesgo (receptores hormonales positivos, tumores menores de 2 cm, grado medio-alto I histológico y mayores de 35 años no son susceptibles de quimioterapia adyuvante. Las de riesgo (receptores hormonales negativos o receptores hormonales positivos pero con grado II-III histológico y tumores mayores de 2 cm), se benefician de la quimioterapia adyuvante. Las pacientes con ganglios axilares positivos, siempre se benefician de la quimioterapia adyuvante, excepto en mujeres mayores (70-75 años) o que padezcan otras enfermedades que contraindique la quimioterapia.

  • Radioterapia: Es un método altamente dirigido y sumamente eficaz para destruir las células cancerosas que pudieron haber quedado en la mama después de la cirugía. La radiación puede reducir el riesgo de recurrencia del cáncer de mama en alrededor de un 70%. A pesar de los temores de muchas personas, la terapia de radiación es relativamente fácil de tolerar y los efectos secundarios se limitan al Ã¡rea tratada. El Dr. Humberto López, jefe de consultas de Funcamama señala que la radioterapia siempre se debe aplicar cuando se haga cirugía preservadora y en algunos casos donde se practique mastectomía.
  • Terapia Hormonal: Se basa en la administración de medicamentos que tratan el cáncer de mama con receptores de hormonas positivos de dos formas: mediante la reducción de la concentración de estrógeno en el cuerpo y mediante el bloqueo de la acción del estrógeno en las células del cáncer de mama. Es muy importante tener presente que los medicamentos de la hormonoterapia no son eficaces contra el cáncer de mama con receptores de estrógeno negativos.

          Life's Ratchet        
by Peter M. Hoffmann

New York: Basic Books, 2012. 288 pages.

“The underlying theme of Life’s Ratchet is how random thermodynamic fluctuations at the molecular level (what Hoffmann calls the ‘molecular storm’) are harnessed by molecular machines—biomolecules such as molecular motors, enzymes, and DNA—to generate the ‘purposeful motion’ that characterizes living cells,” writes reviewer Sonya Bahar, who praises the book as “a singular achievement,” adding, “The idea of an essential tension between chance and necessity has been explored before, … but I have never seen it

          Curso Biomoléculas        
Hola a todos, esperando que estén pasando unas agradables mini vacaciones y disfrutando con sus familias y amigos, les traemos una web de una universidad vasca donde poseen un curso de biomoléculas en cuya página web aparecen muy claramente explicados los siguientes elementos:

-Hidratos de carbono
-Aminoácidos y péptidos
-Proteínas y enzimas
-Ácidos nucléicos

Les será de gran ayuda para llenar las diapositivas y encontrar explicaciones de forma rápida y más sencilla.

Que tengan unas lindas Fiestas Patrias,

PS: Les recordamos a todos que en la sección de bioquímica tenemos subido el link para que puedan descargarse el Lenhinger, libro de base que utilizan las y los profes en la u.
          BioM2MetDisease: a manually curated database for associations between microRNAs, metabolites, small molecules and metabolic diseases        
BioM2MetDisease is a manually curated database that aims to provide a comprehensive and experimentally supported resource of associations between metabolic diseases and various biomolecules. Recently, metabolic diseases such as diabetes have become one of the leading threats to people’s health. Metabolic disease associated with alterations of multiple types of biomolecules such as miRNAs and metabolites. An integrated and high-quality data source that collection of metabolic disease associated biomolecules is essential for exploring the underlying molecular mechanisms and discovering novel therapeutics. Here, we developed the BioM2MetDisease database, which currently documents 2681 entries of relationships between 1147 biomolecules (miRNAs, metabolites and small molecules/drugs) and 78 metabolic diseases across 14 species. Each entry includes biomolecule category, species, biomolecule name, disease name, dysregulation pattern, experimental technique, a brief description of metabolic disease-biomolecule relationships, the reference, additional annotation information etc. BioM2MetDisease provides a user-friendly interface to explore and retrieve all data conveniently. A submission page was also offered for researchers to submit new associations between biomolecules and metabolic diseases. BioM2MetDisease provides a comprehensive resource for studying biology molecules act in metabolic diseases, and it is helpful for understanding the molecular mechanisms and developing novel therapeutics for metabolic diseases.Database URL:

          Drug delivery, surface effects        
The Role of Surface Functionality in Determining Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity
Sung Tae Kim , Krishnendu Saha , Chaekyu Kim , and Vincent M. Rotello *

This review describes "how NP surface properties control interactions with biomolecules and cells at many scales, including the role the particle surface plays in determining in vivo behavior of nanomaterials. These interactions can be benign, beneficial, or lead to dysfunction in proteins, genes and cells, resulting in cytotoxic and genotoxic responses. Understanding these interactions and their consequences helps us to design minimally invasive imaging and delivery agents."

          Free Software For Scientists - Cytoscape        
A few years ago, a medical writer friend of mine showed me a paper on a new tool called Cytoscape.  He said, "see what you think of it, and let me know."  At the time we were both working on a project called Genome5000, to knockout the 5000 most druggable genes in the human genome.  Any time you're doing target validation studies, you want to get some idea of the pathways that may be effected in order to get a more mechanistic view of the phenotypes you're observing.  And this was what sparked our interest in Cytoscape.

Cytoscape is an open source project designed to help scientists visualize biomolecular networks.  It's written in Java and thus runs on most operating systems.  Its main sponsors are UCSD's Trey Ideker Lab, Memorial Sloan-Kettering, Institute for Systems Biology, and the Pasteur Institute.  Cytoscape has a rich set of plugins provided by a large number of contributors.  One of the more recent additions is a KEGG Pathway reader.  

The latest release of Cytoscape (version 2.7.0) added support for BioPAX 3 networks and nested networks.  The latter allows you to simplify a complex diagram, by grouping sets of nodes into subnetworks and representing the subnetwork by a single node. 

Getting Started
Getting started with Cytoscape is fairly simple:
  1. Go to the Cytoscape download page.  Fill out the short form, and submit it.  You will be taken to a page containing a list of download links.  
  2. Select the link that's appropriate for your operating system.  After your browser finishes downloading the installer program, start the installer, and follow the installation instructions.

Loading Pathways
One of the first things that you'll want to do is load a pathway for your target of interest.  In my example, I want to see the pathways that contain VEGF.  
  1. From the File menu, select Import Network from Web Services.  A dialog box will appear as shown below:

  2. My search for VEGF returned a number of different entries.  To refine the list, I click on VEGF/Rho/ROCK/Integrin Complex. This causes a pathway to appear in the network selection box on the right-hand side of the dialog.  I double-click the Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 from the NCI Pathways database, and the network is then downloaded.  I click the close button to dismiss the dialog and I can now see a network.

  3. At first glance, the network is a real rats nest of nodes and edges.  However, if you select the Layout > yFiles > Organic layout you'll soon see the nodes laid out in a more intuitive format.  The one comment here is that there doesn't seem to be a way to layout the nodes based on their cellular localization.   I found an out-of-date plugin called Cerebral which was designed to do just this, but I couldn't get it to create a new view based on the GO cellular localization data that I had.  I'm hoping to find out more at the Barcamp meeting next month.

Learning More
We've discussed the tip of the iceberg so far concerning Cytoscape.  There's a lot more to this application than I can cover in a blog posting, including the ability to create networks based on gene expression data, an a web-based visualization tool called CytoscapeWeb.  The members of Cytoscape's user community; however,  have created a number of online tutorials that you can access to help you learn more about it's functionality.  In addition to the standard text/screenshot type tutorials, you'll find some video tutorials posted on YouTube, thus making it easier to get started with Cytoscape.

If you'd like to meet some of the developers of Cytoscape, they'll be appearing at the Cytoscape Symposium and Retreat July 18-20 at the University of Michigan. And also at the San Diego Barcamp developers conference July 10-11th.

          Dialogue on Life and Its Origin        
|| By: Staff || This is an excerpt of the dialogue between Professor Werner Arber and Srila Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Maharaja (Dr. T. D. Singh) on October 12, 2001 at University of Basel, Switzerland. Srila Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Maharaja (Dr. T. D. Singh): While looking into some of the literatures, I find that some of your thoughts regarding life and its origin are very interesting. Your view is different from most of the other molecular biologists and evolutionary chemists. I have been waiting for an opportunity to discuss with you some of the scientific and philosophical questions about life and I feel very happy that we are meeting now. First of all, molecular evolutionists[1] around the globe are trying very hard to simulate the atmospheric chemical reactions in the hope of generating various chemical steps going from simple to complex biomolecules in the laboratory. They hope that this type of research may lead to the production of a primordial living cell in the laboratory.
           A 1-acetamido derivative of 6-epi-valienamine: an inhibitor of a diverse group of β-N-acetylglucosaminidases         
Scaffidi, Adrian and Stubbs, Keith A. and Dennis, Rebecca J. and Taylor, Edward J. and Davies, Gideon J. and Vocadlo, David J. and Stick, Robert V. (2007) A 1-acetamido derivative of 6-epi-valienamine: an inhibitor of a diverse group of β-N-acetylglucosaminidases. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 5 (18). pp. 3013-3019. ISSN 1477-0520
           Organic-inorganic nanocomposites based on iron containing clusters and biomolecules         
Chan, P., Chuaanusorn, W., Nesterova, M., Sipos, P. , Stpierre, T.G., Ward, J. and Webb, J. (1995) Organic-inorganic nanocomposites based on iron containing clusters and biomolecules. Australian Journal of Chemistry, 48 (4). p. 783.
           Syntheses in enantiopure form of four diastereoisomeric naphthopyranquinones derived from aphid insect pigments         
Aggarwal, R., Giles, R.G.F. , Green, I.R., Oosthuizen, F.J. and Taylor, C.P. (2005) Syntheses in enantiopure form of four diastereoisomeric naphthopyranquinones derived from aphid insect pigments. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 3 (2). p. 263.
           Effect of substituents on the stabilities of multiply-substituted carbon-centered radicals         
Menon, A.S., Henry, D.J. , Bally, T. and Radom, L. (2011) Effect of substituents on the stabilities of multiply-substituted carbon-centered radicals. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 9 (10). pp. 3636-3657.
           Different types of interactions involving cysteine sulfhydryl group in proteins         
Pal, Debnath ; Chakrabarti, Pinak (1998) Different types of interactions involving cysteine sulfhydryl group in proteins Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics, 15 (6). pp. 1059-1072. ISSN 0739-1102
           Structural features of helical aggregates of antibacterial peptides via simulated annealing and molecular modeling         
Devi, A. S. ; Sitaram, N. ; Nagaraj, R. (1998) Structural features of helical aggregates of antibacterial peptides via simulated annealing and molecular modeling Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics, 15 (4). pp. 653-661. ISSN 0739-1102
           Molecular dynamics simulations on parallel and antiparallel C.G*G triplexes         
Kiran, M. R. ; Bansal, M. (1998) Molecular dynamics simulations on parallel and antiparallel C.G*G triplexes Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics, 16 (3). pp. 511-526. ISSN 0739-1102.
           Biomolecular recognition using submicron laser lithography         
Shivashankar, G. V. ; Libchaber, A. (1998) Biomolecular recognition using submicron laser lithography Applied Physics Letters, 73 (3). pp. 417-419. ISSN 0003-6951
           Stereochemistry of 2',5' nucleic acids and their constituents         
Premraj, B. J. ; Yathindra, N. (1998) Stereochemistry of 2',5' nucleic acids and their constituents Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics, 16 (2). pp. 313-328. ISSN 0739-1102
          How protein misfolding may kickstart chemical evolution        
The origami of disease, and of life: Research into the abnormal folding of proteins related to neurodegenerative conditions is providing insights into how life may emerge from a chemical system.

By Carol Clark

Alzheimer’s disease, and other neurodegenerative conditions involving abnormal folding of proteins, may help explain the emergence of life – and how to create it.

Researchers at Emory University and Georgia Tech demonstrated this connection in two new papers published by Nature Chemistry: “Design of multi-phase dynamic chemical networks” and “Catalytic diversity in self-propagating peptide assemblies.”

“In the first paper we showed that you can create tension between a chemical and physical system to give rise to more complex systems. And in the second paper, we showed that these complex systems can have remarkable and unexpected functions,” says David Lynn, a systems chemist in Emory’s Department of Chemistry who led the research. “The work was inspired by our current understanding of Darwinian selection of protein misfolding in neurodegenerative diseases.”

The Lynn lab is exploring ways to potentially control and direct the processes of these proteins – known as prions – adding to knowledge that might one day help to prevent disease, as well as open new realms of synthetic biology. For the current papers, Emory collaborated with the research group of Martha Grover, a professor in the Georgia Tech School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, to develop molecular models for the processes.

“Modeling requires us to formulate our hypotheses in the language of mathematics, and then we use the models to design further experiments to test the hypotheses,” Grover says.

Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection is well-established – organisms adapt over time in response to environmental changes. But theories about how life emerges – the movement through a pre-Darwinian world to the Darwinian threshold – remain murkier.

The researchers started with single peptides and engineered in the capacity to spontaneously form small proteins, or short polymers. “These protein polymers can fold into a seemingly endless array of forms, and sometimes behave like origami,” Lynn explains. “They can stack into assemblies that carry new functions, like prions that move from cell-to-cell, causing disease.”

This protein misfolding provided the model for how physical changes could carry information with function, a critical component for evolution. To try to kickstart that evolution, the researchers engineered a chemical system of peptides and coupled it to the physical system of protein misfolding. The combination results in a system that generates step-by-step, progressive changes, through self-driven environmental changes.

“The folding events, or phase changes, drive the chemistry and the chemistry drives the replication of the protein molecules,” Lynn says. “The simple system we designed requires only the initial intervention from us to achieve progressive growth in molecular order. The challenge now becomes the discovery of positive feedback mechanisms that allow the system to continue to grow.”

The research was funded by the McDonnell Foundation, the National Science Foundation’s Materials Science Directorate, Emory University’s Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, the National Science Foundation’s Center for Chemical Evolution and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy.

Additional co-authors of the papers include: Toluople Omosun, Seth Childers, Dibyendu Das and Anil Mehta (Emory Departments of Chemistry and Biology); Ming-Chien Hsieh (Georgia Tech School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering); and Neil Anthony and Keith Berland (Emory Department of Physics).

Peptides may hold 'missing link' to life
           Letter to the Editor: Sequence Specific Assignment of Domain C1 of the N-terminal Myosin-binding Site of Human Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein C (MyBP-C)         
Ababou, Abdessamad, Zhou, Lihong, Gautel, Mathias and Pfuhl, Mark (2004) Letter to the Editor: Sequence Specific Assignment of Domain C1 of the N-terminal Myosin-binding Site of Human Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein C (MyBP-C). Journal of Biomolecular NMR, 29 (3). pp. 431-432. ISSN 0925-2738
           Intramolecular general acid catalysis in the aminolysis of β-lactam antibiotics         
Llinas, Antonio and Page, Michael I. (2004) Intramolecular general acid catalysis in the aminolysis of β-lactam antibiotics. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 2. pp. 651-654. ISSN 1477-0539
           Studying the adsorption of polymers and biomolecules on surfaces using enhanced sampling methods         
Allen, M. P. and Swetnam, Adam D.. (2012) Studying the adsorption of polymers and biomolecules on surfaces using enhanced sampling methods. MRS Proceedings, Vol.1470 . ISSN 1946-4274
          2017 Withrow Awards        

March 17, 2017

Eleven receive top honors during 27th Annual Engineering Awards Luncheon 

It was a celebration of teaching, scholarship, and service when members of the Michigan State University College of Engineering convened in the University Club on Thursday, March 16, at the 27th Annual Engineering Awards Luncheon. 

Leo Kempel, dean of the College of Engineering, greeted award winners and about 100 guests from the college during the annual spring ceremony.Eleven from the college received top honors March 16. Awards were presented (l to r), top row: Bradley Marks, Nathan Mellott, Anthony Ingle; middle row: Joshua Nahum, Ramakrishna Mukkamala, Peter Lillehoj, Geoffrey Recktenwald; front row: Kyle Foster, Jennifer Keddle, Gilbert Baladi, and Joyce Chai.

The Withrow Endowed Teacher/Scholar/Service Award Program was established by the Withrow family to recognize faculty of the MSU College of Engineering who have demonstrated excellence in instructional and scholarly activities and rendered distinguished service to the university and the student body. Jack Withrow earned a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering from MSU in 1954 and an MBA in 1971. He retired as executive vice president at Chrysler Corp. in 1988, and then served as president and chief operating officer at Lectron Products Inc., from 1989 to 1995. He received the MSU Distinguished Alumni Award in 1984. Dottie Withrow earned a bachelor’s degree in speech therapy and elementary education from MSU in 1955 and a master’s degree in teaching from Oakland University. She was a special education teacher in West Bloomfield Schools for many years and published a children’s book that promotes responsible pet care and a second book that teaches children about opera.

Recipients of the 2017 Withrow Teaching Excellence Awards are:  

Bradley Marks, a professor in the Departments of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, and Food Science and Human Nutrition, is recognized for his dedication and effort both in and outside of the classroom. Students note his ability to make difficult problems easy and fun to solve, and appreciate class time that is interactive and engaging, using interesting “real life” examples and limited lecturing. Marks conducts annual ABET accreditation efforts and successfully leads the highly demanding re-accreditation process on the six-year cycle. He is a major contributor to the growth of MSU’s biosystems engineering program through his leadership in recruiting, curriculum development, program coordination, and employer interactions. His efforts are often praised for helping students build and launch their professional careers. Alumni are unanimous in recognizing his significant contribution to preparing them for their careers. Possibly one student best summarizes the feelings in stating, “Most engaging professor I have ever had. I attribute this to his raw passion and enthusiasm for not only the subject matter, but teaching itself.”

Nathan P. Mellott, a materials science and engineering teaching specialist within the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, employs discovery-, discussion- and project-based learning in his classroom. His industrial experience lends itself to integration of practical, timely, and industry-relevant examples in his teaching. His passion for teaching, accessibility, and ability to relate were consistent threads in student comments. They note that he has demonstrated the ability to be “down-to-earth” and “approachable” while holding his students to “high academic standards.” Typical student comments include: “Dr. Mellott is exceptional, as he clearly explains concepts and will present the same information in different ways to reach as many students as possible. He is extremely patient and helpful with students who reach out to him,” and “Dr. Mellott is very good at preparing students for any field or research. He enjoys making sure that we learn course content. He is an asset to the department.”

Anthony J. Ingle is a teaching specialist in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. He brings a unique combination of industry and academic experience to his classroom - including practical experience from both state government (Michigan Department of Transportation) and the corporate world - which has proven invaluable to the students he instructs. He teaches classes ranging from 200-level introductory courses to capstone design. Students noted consistent excellence across all classes. As one student stated, “Mr. Ingle’s class prepared me more for my career than any other.” Many additional student comments highlighted his teaching skills, dedication to helping students, and passion for his field. He strongly and consistently exhibits caring, clear explanations, organization, professionalism and respect.

Joshua Nahum, a teaching specialist in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, is an excellent instructor who creates a positive learning environment in his classes and effectively communicates complex ideas. Students say he integrates new and relevant technologies into projects. Among his innovations, he restructured the database systems class to expand the curriculum. He emphasizes active learning and immediate feedback in all homework and project assignments. This creative approach engages students more fully by regularly surveying them regarding lecture material. He provides semester-long projects that help students to learn material thoroughly.

Ramakrishna Mukkamala, a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, has demonstrated exemplary dedication to undergraduate and graduate education throughout his tenure. His lectures are highly interactive, and he injects his personality into his lectures, providing content and context that thoroughly engages his students. Student evaluations testify to his effectiveness. Among them: “Hard class, but Dr. Mukkamala made it very understandable.” “Excellent Professor. Knew the material really well and wanted to see students succeed.” He often talked about life beyond MSU, with the specific goals of helping prepare students for the future and motivating them to strive to make a professional difference. His office hours have been particularly popular in recent semesters. As one student noted, “Most helpful office hours of any professor I’ve had at MSU.” Last spring, to accommodate the large number of students taking advantage of his office hours, he needed to hold them in a classroom. His SIRS evaluations are consistently among the best in the department. In the words of a former student: “Dr. Mukkamala was one of the best, if not the best ECE professor I’ve had here at MSU.”

Geoffrey D. Recktenwald, an academic specialist in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, is described by many of his students as a professor who motivates them to put in the time and effort needed to be successful in class. Students are enthusiastic to declare, “He challenges us, but does not try to break us.” He teaches with “enthusiasm that is hard to find, making sure that the concepts are understood so that everyone understands the material.” He is passionate about his courses and his teaching. This is reflected in the comments of students who refer to him as “patient and caring.” His interests do not stop at the equation or figure; he embraces the potential in each of his students demonstrated by the effort he genuinely makes for each individual in his classes. His students say that he sets all of them up to succeed and champions the high expectations he demands. By being thought provoking and fair, he “resonates, inspires, and drives one to succeed.” 

Distinguished Scholar—Junior Award: Peter Lillehoj
(Nominees have been in service to the university as instructors, assistant professors, or associate professors for not more than seven years.)

Peter Lillehoj is an assistant professor in the Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering, and an adjunct professor in the Institute of International Health. He has quickly established himself as an internationally recognized authority in the areas of BioMEMS, lab-on-a-chip and biosensors with applications toward mHealth, wearable sensing, and point-of-care testing since joining MSU less than five years ago.Dean Leo Kempel and Mechanical Engineering department chair James Klausner (right) presented the Distinguished Scholar - Junior Award to Peter Lillehoj for establishing himself as an international authority in the areas of BioMEMS, lab-on-a-chip and biosensors since joining MSU less than five years ago.

Lillehoj was the first to demonstrate the use of a mobile phone for quantitative electrochemical measurements of disease biomarkers, which has opened up a new direction in mHealth technology. Additionally, his pioneering work in wearable sensors for biomolecular detection was recognized by a prestigious NSF CAREER Award in 2014.

Through a strong network of collaborators, both within and outside of MSU, his research has been acknowledged by the scientific community through publications in respected scientific journals, and invited talks at premier scientific meetings and universities. His recognition by the research community and professional societies has resulted in invitations to serve on proposal review committees for multiple funding agencies including NSF, NIH and The Wellcome Trust, and as a reviewer for top scientific journals such as the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) and PLOS ONE.

He has published eight journal papers in respected peer-reviewed journals, and five articles in peer-reviewed international conference proceedings in collaboration with his colleagues and students. In 2014, he was recognized with the Annals of Biomedical Engineering Award for Most Downloaded Article. His work has also been featured in various news media including The Huffington Post, CBS Detroit, Gizmodo, Bioscience Technology,, and others.

Distinguished Scholar—Senior Award: Joyce Chai
(Nominees have been in service to the university for more than five years and hold the rank of professor.)

Joyce Chai, a professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, is an eminent computer scientist and superb scholar who has made important contributions to the field of language processing. Her work lies in the intersection of natural language processing, artificial intelligence, and human machine communication, and she has established herself as a leading researcher in the field.

She joined MSU in January 2003, after having been a researcher for the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, in Hawthorne, N.Y. Since she has been at MSU, her research has been primarily in the area of multi-modal interfaces that integrate speech, gaze, gesture, and other forms of user input - combining the best aspects of traditional graphical user interfaces with more advanced natural-language interfaces using speech input.

Dean Leo Kempel and Abdol-Hossein Esfahanian of computer science and engineering present the Distinguished Scholar - Senior Award to Joyce Chai for her eminent scholarship in computer science.She is a prolific researcher and has published more than 80 papers with her students. Most of these papers were selected by rigorous review processes and appeared in highly selective, top-tier conferences in natural language processing (NLP) and artificial intelligence (AI). She received the Best Long Paper Award at the 48th Annual Meeting for Association of Computational Linguistics, the top conference in NLP.

Chai has a prolific record in obtaining research grants from federal agencies (NSF, ONR, DARPA, etc.). She received a NSF CAREER Award in 2004 - on her first attempt upon arrival at MSU. Since then, she has been awarded $4.5 million federal funding as principle investigator. Many of her grants have been awarded by exceptionally competitive programs (such as the National Robotics Initiative with a funding rate of less than 5 percent).

The visibility and reputation of her work is also demonstrated by her participation in a high number of invited talks in the research community. She has been an invited speaker at workshops, and at universities and research labs. She delivered a keynote speech at the Karles Invitational Conference at Naval Research Lab, which convened the most prominent researchers in AI, computer vision, and cognitive science. She has been invited to participate in the Ernst Strüngmann Forum at the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies in May 2017. The forum is known for providing “a creative environment within which top international scientists discuss themes that transcend classic disciplinary boundaries.” 

Withrow Student Service Award – Kyle Foster
This award is presented to an advisor, academic specialist, or non-tenure-track instructor for outstanding service to students in the college. Nominations are submitted to the dean, and selection of the winner is made by the Engineering Undergraduate Studies Committee. 

Kyle Foster, assistant director of the Diversity Programs Office, is an advisor, mentor, tutor and friend to the students in the College of Engineering. Foster’s footprint extends beyond the College of Engineering, as ESSA students in Lyman Briggs College, and the colleges of Education, Natural Science, and Agriculture and Natural Resources have benefitted from his leadership. Theo Caldwell, director of the Diversity Programs Office, said, “His involvement in the creation and expansion of the Engineering and Science Success Academy (ESSA) retention initiative is one of the main reasons for the success of the program...His daily interaction with participants in this retention initiative has assisted us in creating a program that, in my opinion has become the model for the entire campus.”

Gloria Stragier Award for Dedicated and Creative Service – Jennifer Keddle
The Gloria Stragier Award for Dedicated and Creative Service is presented annually to a staff member in the College of Engineering to recognize exceptional and creative job performance and/or concerned and creative leadership.

Jennifer Keddle, an administrative assistant in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, wears many hats. She is fiscal officer and research administrator for the department, managing accounts for department faculty members and major research centers. She is a coordinator of logistics for annual conferences, seminar speakers, and faculty candidates. And, she is a human resources facilitator for hiring, work authorization, and reappointment for faculty and staff, as well as hiring and tracking student employees. Keddle functions as fiscal officer for the Institute for Advanced Composites Manufacturing Innovation (IACMI) and serves as the administrative assistant to its director. Faculty members from throughout the department praise Keddle’s professionalism. Professor Christine Chan wrote, “From my experience with individuals working on accounting and reconciliation of accounts, Jennifer is one of the best, if not the best, I’ve encounter thus far.”

See more award photos in the 2017 Photo Gallery.

Withrow Exceptional Service Award – Gilbert Baladi
This award recognizes a faculty member who has demonstrated exceptional institutional, public, and community service. Nominations are submitted by department chairpersons to the dean and associate deans for final selection. 

Gilbert Baladi, a professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, holds an exemplary record of service to the CEE department, the College of Engineering, and MSU. His professional service has also enhanced the work of the U.S. Department of Transportation, the World Bank, and many state departments of transportation. He has been engaged in the engineering field for more than 43 years, beginning as a teaching and research assistant at Purdue University while pursuing his master’s and PhD degrees. In his four decades of service, he has become an industry leader in the design, preservation and management of the transportation infrastructures. 

Former student Johnathon Crince, now an intel research specialist with Home Land Security in New York, stated, “Professor Baladi works tirelessly for the student body at MSU: creating online coursework to reduce the cost of materials for students, mentoring undergraduates, managing research assistants, taking on Ph.D. and master’s degree candidates, and working with professional societies.” 

Associate Dean Emeritus Ronald C. Rosenberg added, “The most striking attribute to me is Dr. Baladi’s devotion to the welfare of his students. He has been unflagging in his efforts to create a learning environment that will induce greater learning by employing somewhat novel tools. He has contributed countless hours, going above and beyond what even a dedicated educator might be expected to offer.”

Dean Leo Kempel opened the annual luncheon ceremony and Jes Asmussen, University Distinguished Professor of electrical and computer engineering, offered the closing remarks. Asmussen is approaching his 50th anniversary in the college.


 Read more on the 2017 winners in the Engineering Awards Luncheon Program.











          Accuracy of the detection of binding events using 3D single particle tracking        
Nanoparticles can be used as markers to track the position of biomolecules, such as single proteins, inside living cells. The activity of a protein can sometimes be inferred from changes in the mobility of the...
           Sequence-specific 1H, 13C and 15N backbone resonance assignments of the 34 kDa catalytic domain of human PTPN7         
Jeeves, Mark, McClelland, Darren M., Barr, Alastair J. and Overduin, Michael (2008) Sequence-specific 1H, 13C and 15N backbone resonance assignments of the 34 kDa catalytic domain of human PTPN7. Biomolecular NMR Assignments, 2 (2). pp. 101-103. ISSN 1874-2718
          On This Day in Math - July 29        

To call in the statistician after the experiment is done may be
no more than asking hm to perform a postmortem examination:
he may be able to say what the experiment died of.
~Ronald Fisher

The 210th day of the year; (21, 20, 29) and (35, 12, 37) are the two least primitive Pythagorean triangles with different hypotenuses and the same area (=210). Students are challenged to find another pair of such PPTs

There are an infinite number of numbers that appear six or more times in Pascal's Arithmetic Triangle, but only three of them; 1, 120, and 210 are year dates.

7! hours is 210 days.


1654 Pascal wrote a letter to Fermat agreeing to a result of Fermat on a probability problem about repeated rolls of a single die for a wager. "Impatience has seized me as well as it has you, and although I am still abed, I cannot refrain from telling you that I received your letter in regard to the problem of the points  yesterday evening from the hands of M. Carcavi, and that I admire it more than I can tell you. I do not have the leisure to write at length, but, in a word, you have found the two divisions of the points and of the dice with perfect justice. I am thoroughly satisfied as I can no longer doubt that I was wrong, seeing the admirable accord in which I find myself with you."  *York Univ Hist of Stats

1698 In a letter to John Bernoulli, Leibniz introduces the dot for multiplication..(cajori 233; vol 1 pg 267) “The dot was introduced as a symbol for multiplication by G. W. Leibniz. On July 29, 1698, he wrote in a letter to John Bernoulli: “I do not like X as a symbol for multiplication, as it is easily confounded with x; … often I simply relate two quantities by an interposed dot and indicate multiplication by ZC · LM. Hence, in designating ratio I use not one point but two points, which I use at the same time for division.”

1739 D’Alembert, age 21, submitted his first mathematical paper to the Academy of Sciences. *VFR As his knowledge of mathematics was mainly due to self-study, he often found that others had already established his mathematical discoveries by more elegant and more direct means. In 1739 d’Alembert submitted his first paper to the French Académie Royale des Sciences, in which he described the errors found in the standard textbook, Analyse démontrée, written by Charles Reyneau. *webpage of Robert Nowland

1773 First schoolhouse West of the Alleghenies.*VFR (built in Schoenbrunn, OH.)

1867 Thomas Hill, president of Harvard College, who was also somewhat of a mathematician, wrote Benjamin Peirce, who was a professor there: “I have the honor of informing you that the University, on Commencement Day, conferred on you the Degree of Doctor of Laws in recognition of the transcendent ability with which you have pursued mathematical physical investigations, and in particular for the luster which she has herself for so many years borrowed from your genius.” [P. 10 of Benjamin Peirce, AMM offprint, 1925] *VFR

1878 This was the height of search for the intra-Mercurial planet Vulcan using eclipses to block the Sun. (Vulcan was a small planet proposed to exist in an orbit between Mercury and the Sun. In an attempt to explain peculiarities of Mercury's orbit, in the 19th-century French mathematician Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier hypothesized that they were the result of another planet, which he named Vulcan.) Several observers claim sightings, but they are never confirmed. The problem is finally resolved by Albert Einstein (1879-1955) in his general theory of relativity in 1916. *NSEC

1958 President Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act. NASA opened for business on 1 October 1958, and within a week launched Project Mercury—the start of the U.S. manned space program. *VFR

2005, another candidate for tenth planet was announced by Mike Brown of California Institute of Technology. Its diameter is estimated at 2,100 miles - about 1-1/2 times that of Pluto. Its orbit is eccentric and inclined at about 45 degrees to the main plane of the solar system. It was named 2003 UB313 on a photograph made 31 Oct 2003. Later, its motion was recognized, on 8 Jan 2005. With orbits significantly inclined to the others, the status as a planet of either or even Pluto, is a subject for debate. They are in a region of numerous frozen comet-like objects beyond Neptune - the Kuiper Belt. The object Sedna - somewhat smaller than Pluto - was also found there in 2004. NASA also in an official statement referred to 2003 UB313 as a tenth planet*TIS

2015 On July 29, 2015, a 15th type of pentagon that would tile the plane was announced by Casey Mann, Jennifer McLoud, and David Von Derau of the University of Washington Bothell. In 1918, K. Reinhardt discovered five different families of convex pentagons that could tile the plane. This was the complete list until 1968, when Richard Kershner wrote about three more families of tiling pentagons. Martin Gardner wrote about the complete list of eight tiling pentagons in 1975, and then got a message from Richard James III about another type. Martin updated the readers of Mathematical Games, but then got a message from a housewife with no mathematical training, Marjorie Rice, who found four more families of tiling pentagons. In 1985, Rolf Stein found a convex pentagon that can tile the plane. Now, there is one more. *Wolfram


1858 Francesco Gerbaldi (29 July 1858, La Spezia, Italy to 29 June 1934, Pavia, Italy) was an Italian geometer, who proved Gerbaldi's theorem. In geometry, Gerbaldi's theorem, proved by Gerbaldi (1882), states that one can find six pairwise apolar linearly independent nondegenerate ternary quadratic forms. These are permuted by the Valentiner group. (say that three times real fast) *Wik

1862 Eduard Brückner (July 29, 1862–May 20, 1927) pioneer climate researcher. He also studied the glaciers of the Alps and particularly the effect of the ice ages on the Earth's surface features. By analyzing direct and indirect observations of climatic fluctuations, he discovered the 35-year Brückner climatic cycle (1887) of swings between damp-cold and warm-dry conditions. He initiated scientific debate on whether climate change should be interpreted as a natural function of the Earth system, or whether it was influenced by man's activities, such as deforestation. He considered the impact of climate change on the balance of power between nations and its economic significance in agricultural productivity, emigration, river transportation and the spreading of diseases.*TIS

1898 Isidor Isaac Rabi (29 July 1898 – 11 January 1988) was an American physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1944 for his invention (in 1937) of the atomic and molecular beam magnetic resonance method of measuring magnetic properties of atoms, molecules, and atomic nuclei. He spent most of his life at Columbia University (1929-67), where he performed most of his pioneering research in radar and the magnetic moment associated with electron spin in the 1930s and 1940s. His Nobel-winning work led to the invention of the laser, the atomic clock, and diagnostic uses of nuclear magnetic resonance. He originated the idea for the CERN nuclear research center in Geneva (founded 1954). *TIS

1912 Noel Bryan Slater, often cited NB Slater, (1912 in Blackburn , January 31 1973) was a British mathematician and physicist who worked on including statistical mechanics and physical chemistry, and probability theory.*Wik


1781 Johann Kies (September 14, 1713—July 29, 1781) a German astronomer and mathematician. Born in Tübingen, Kies worked in Berlin in 1751 alongside Jérôme Lalande in order to make observations on the lunar parallax in concert with those of Nicolas Louis de Lacaille at the Cape of Good Hope.
From 1742 to 1754, at the recommendation of the mathematician Leonhard Euler, he was made professor of mathematics at Berlin's Academy of Sciences and astronomer at its observatory.
He subsequently taught also at the Collegium of Tübingen. From 1754 to 1755, Kies served as director of the Astronomisches Rechen-Institut in Heidelberg.
Kies was one of the first to propagate Newton's discoveries in Germany, and dedicated two of his works to the Englishman: De viribus centralibus (Tübingen, 1758) and De lege gravitatis (Tübingen, 1773). Kies is also the author of a work on lunar influences: De influxu lunae in partes terrae mobiles (Tübingen, 1769). He wrote many other works, both in French and in Latin, on astronomy.
Kies corresponded with Euler from 1747 to 1767. Their correspondence consists of 8 letters, all of which were written by Kies.
The crater Kies on the Moon is named in his honor. *TIA

1839 Gaspard de Prony. (July 22, 1755 - July 29, 1839) Cauchy was elected his successor at the Bureau des Longitudes but was not admitted as he refused to take the oath of allegiance. *VFR
In 1793, de Prony began a major task of producing logarithmic and trigonometric tables for the French Cadastre. The effort was begun at the request of the French National Assembly, which, after the French Revolution wanted to bring uniformity to the multiple measurements and standards used throughout the nation. The tables and their production were vast, with values calculated to between fourteen and twenty-nine decimal places. Inspired by Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, de Prony divided up the labor, bragging that he "could manufacture logarithms as easily as one manufactures pins." At the top of the organizational hierarchy were scientists and mathematicians who devised the formulas. Next were workers who created the instructions for doing the calculations. At the bottom were about ninety "computers" (as they were called) who were not trained in mathematics, but who followed the instructions."
One of de Prony's important scientific inventions was the 'de Prony brake' which he invented in 1821 to measure the performance of machines and engines. He also was first to propose using a reversible pendulum to measure gravity, which was independently invented in 1817 by Henry Kater and became known as the Kater's pendulum. He also created a method of converting sinusoidal and exponential curves into a systems of linear equations. Prony estimation is used extensively in signal processing and finite element modelling of non linear materials. Prony was a member, and eventually president, of the French Academy of Science. He was also elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1810. His name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. *Wik

1898 John Alexander Reina Newlands, (July 22, 1755 - July 29, 1839) was a British chemist who first established an order of elements by the atomic weights, and observed a periodicity in the properties. Every eighth element has similar properties, hence he named the Law of Octaves (7 Feb 1863). It took another quarter century, and the work of others, such as Mendeleev, for the significance of his discovery to be recognized. He died in London.*TIS

1944 David Eugene Smith (January 21, 1860 in Cortland, New York – July 29, 1944 in New York) died in New York City at the age of eighty-four.*VFR Smith attended Syracuse University, graduating in 1881 (Ph. D., 1887; LL.D., 1905). He studied to be a lawyer concentrating in arts and humanities, but accepted an instructorship in mathematics at the Cortland Normal School in 1884. He also knew Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. He became a professor at the Michigan State Normal College in 1891, the principal at the State Normal School in Brockport, New York (1898), and a professor of mathematics at Teachers College, Columbia University (1901).
Smith became president of the Mathematical Association of America in 1920. He also wrote a large number of publications of various types. He was editor of the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society; contributed to other mathematical journals; published a series of textbooks; translated Klein's Famous Problems of Geometry, Fink's History of Mathematics, and the Treviso Arithmetic. He edited Augustus De Morgan's Budget of Paradoxes (1915) and wrote many books on Mathematics. *Wik

1962 Ronald Aylmer Fisher FRS (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962) was an English statistician, evolutionary biologist, eugenicist and geneticist. Among other things, Fisher is well known for his contributions to statistics by creating Fisher's exact test and Fisher's equation. Anders Hald called him "a genius who almost single-handedly created the foundations for modern statistical science" while Richard Dawkins called him "the greatest of Darwin's successors". In 2010 Dawkins named him "the greatest biologist since Darwin". Fisher was opposed to the conclusions of Richard Doll and A.B. Hill that smoking caused lung cancer. He compared the correlations in their papers to a correlation between the import of apples and the rise of divorce in order to show that correlation does not imply causation.
To quote Yates and Mather, "It has been suggested that the fact that Fisher was employed as consultant by the tobacco firms in this controversy casts doubt on the value of his arguments. This is to misjudge the man. He was not above accepting financial reward for his labours, but the reason for his interest was undoubtedly his dislike and mistrust of puritanical tendencies of all kinds; and perhaps also the personal solace he had always found in tobacco."
After retiring from Cambridge University in 1957 he spent some time as a senior research fellow at the CSIRO in Adelaide, Australia. He died of colon cancer there in 1962.
He was awarded the Linnean Society of London's prestigious Darwin–Wallace Medal in 1958.
Fisher's important contributions to both genetics and statistics are emphasized by the remark of L.J. Savage, "I occasionally meet geneticists who ask me whether it is true that the great geneticist R.A. Fisher was also an important statistician"*Wik The stained glass window is from the Greatroom at Caius College.

1994 Dorothy Mary Hodgkin OM FRS (12 May 1910 – 29 July 1994), known professionally as Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin or simply Dorothy Hodgkin, was a British biochemist who developed protein crystallography, for which she won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964.
She advanced the technique of X-ray crystallography, a method used to determine the three-dimensional structures of biomolecules. Among her most influential discoveries are the confirmation of the structure of penicillin that Ernst Boris Chain and Edward Abraham had previously surmised, and then the structure of vitamin B12, for which she became the third woman to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
In 1969, after 35 years of work and five years after winning the Nobel Prize, Hodgkin was able to decipher the structure of insulin. X-ray crystallography became a widely used tool and was critical in later determining the structures of many biological molecules where knowledge of structure is critical to an understanding of function. She is regarded as one of the pioneer scientists in the field of X-ray crystallography studies of biomolecules. *Wik

1996 Marcel-Paul "Marco" Schützenberger (October 24, 1920 – July 29, 1996) was a French mathematician and Doctor of Medicine. His work had impact across the fields of formal language, combinatorics, and information theory.[1] In addition to his formal results in mathematics, he was "deeply involved in [a] struggle against the votaries of Darwinism,"[2] a stance which has resulted in some mixed reactions from his peers and from critics of his stance on evolution. Several notable theorems and objects in mathematics bear his name (for example Schutzenberger group).*Wik

2004 Walter Feit (October 26, 1930 – July 29, 2004)was an Austrian mathematician who (with John Thompson) proved one of the most important theorems about finite simple groups.*SAU

Credits :
*CHM=Computer History Museum
*FFF=Kane, Famous First Facts
*NSEC= NASA Solar Eclipse Calendar
*RMAT= The Renaissance Mathematicus, Thony Christie
*SAU=St Andrews Univ. Math History
*TIA = Today in Astronomy
*TIS= Today in Science History
*VFR = V Frederick Rickey, USMA
*Wik = Wikipedia
*WM = Women of Mathematics, Grinstein & Campbell
           From biominerals to biomaterials: the role of biomolecule-mineral interactions         
Perry, Carole C. and Patwardhan, Siddharth V. and Deschaume, Olivier (2009) From biominerals to biomaterials: the role of biomolecule-mineral interactions. Biochemical Society Transactions , 37. pp. 687-691. ISSN 0300-5127
           POLY 262 Interactions of biomolecules with inorganic materials : principles, applications and future prospects         
Patwardhan, Siddharth V. and Perry, Carole C. (2007) POLY 262 Interactions of biomolecules with inorganic materials : principles, applications and future prospects. Abstracts of papers - American Chemical Society , 234. ISSN 0065-7727
           Are hydroxyl-containing biomolecules important in biosilicification? A model study         
Tilburey, Graham E. and Patwardhan, Siddharth V. and Huang, Jia and Kaplan, David L. and Perry, Carole C. (2007) Are hydroxyl-containing biomolecules important in biosilicification? A model study. Journal of Physical Chemistry B , 111 (17). pp. 4630-4638. ISSN 1520-6106
           Interactions of biomolecules with inorganic materials: principles, applications and future prospects         
Patwardhan, Siddharth V. and Patwardhan, Geetanjali and Perry, Carole C. (2007) Interactions of biomolecules with inorganic materials: principles, applications and future prospects. Journal of Materials Chemistry , 17 (28). pp. 2875-2884. ISSN 0959-9428
           Use of Te-130(2) for frequency referencing and active stabilisation of a violet extended cavity diode laser         
Burns, I.S. and Hult, J. and Kaminski, C.F. (2006) Use of Te-130(2) for frequency referencing and active stabilisation of a violet extended cavity diode laser. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy , 63 (5). pp. 905-909. ISSN 1386-1425
           Phosphonioalkylthiosulfate zwitterions - new masked thiol ligands for the formation of cationic functionalised gold nanoparticles         
JU-NAM, Y., BRICKLEBANK, N. , ALLEN, D. W., GARDINER, P. H. E. , LIGHT, M. E. and HURSTHOUSE, M. B. (2006). Phosphonioalkylthiosulfate zwitterions - new masked thiol ligands for the formation of cationic functionalised gold nanoparticles. Organic and biomolecular chemistry, 4 (23), p. 4345.
           Protocol for mutagenesis of alkene monooxygenase and screening for modified enantiocomposition of the epoxypropane product         
PERRY, A. and SMITH, T. J. (2006). Protocol for mutagenesis of alkene monooxygenase and screening for modified enantiocomposition of the epoxypropane product. Journal of biomolecular screening, 11 (5), 553-556.
          STARSEQ Demonstrates Measurement of Undetected Errors that Arise in Next Generation Sequencing.        
Dr. James Willey has published proof-of-principle experiments demonstrating the measurement sample variation and sequencing error for every Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) sample.  The June 1st, 2015 Biomolecular Detection and Quantification article describes how the STARSEQ method, mixtures of internal standards spiked into DNA samples, allow estimation of starting template abundance and method induced mutations effecting […]
           Active Learning Strategies for Phenotypic Profiling of High-Content Screens         
Smith, Kevin and Horváth, Péter (2014) Active Learning Strategies for Phenotypic Profiling of High-Content Screens. JOURNAL OF BIOMOLECULAR SCREENING, 19 (5). pp. 685-695. ISSN 1087-0571
          15th Host Guest Supramolecular Chemistry Annual Symposium RSC award winners        
The Chemical Science was awarded at the 15th Host Guest Supramolecular Chemistry Annual Symposium in Kusatsu, Japan, 3-4 June 2017, along with the ChemComm poster prize, the Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry poster prize and 7 other poster prizes.
           A novel NHC-catalyzed transformation of 2H-chromene-3-carboxaldehydes to 3-methyl-2H-chromen-2-ones         
Nair, Vijay ; Sinu, C. R. ; Rejithamol, R. ; Seetha Lakshmi, K. C. ; Suresh, Eringathodi (2011) A novel NHC-catalyzed transformation of 2H-chromene-3-carboxaldehydes to 3-methyl-2H-chromen-2-ones Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 9 (15). pp. 5511-5514. ISSN 1477-0520
           Nucleophilic heterocyclic carbene as a novel catalyst for cyclopropanation of cyano acrylates         
Raveendran, Anabha E. ; Paul, Rony Rajan ; Suresh, Eringathodi ; Nair, Vijay (2010) Nucleophilic heterocyclic carbene as a novel catalyst for cyclopropanation of cyano acrylates Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 8 (4). pp. 901-905. ISSN 1477-0520
           NHC-catalysed annulation of enals to tethered dienones: efficient synthesis of bicyclic dienes         
Nair, Vijay ; Vellalath, Sreekumar ; Babu, Beneesh P. ; Varghese, Vimal ; Paul, Rony Rajan ; Suresh, Eringathodi (2010) NHC-catalysed annulation of enals to tethered dienones: efficient synthesis of bicyclic dienes Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 8 (21). pp. 4861-4866. ISSN 1477-0520
           A novel pseudo four component reaction involving homoenolate for the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivatives         
Nair, Vijay ; Varghese, Vimal ; Babu, Beneesh P. ; Sinu, C. R. ; Suresh, Eringathodi (2010) A novel pseudo four component reaction involving homoenolate for the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivatives Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 8 (4). pp. 761-764. ISSN 1477-0520
           An efficient synthesis of indolo[3,2-a]carbazoles via the novel acid catalyzed reaction of indoles and diaryl-1,2-diones         
Nair, Vijay ; Nandialath, Vidya ; Abhilash, Keecherikunnel G. ; Suresh, Eringathodi (2008) An efficient synthesis of indolo[3,2-a]carbazoles via the novel acid catalyzed reaction of indoles and diaryl-1,2-diones Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 6 (10). pp. 1738-1742. ISSN 1477-0520
          Sep 11, 2017: Chemical Engineering Seminar: Arthi Jayaraman (University of Delaware) at Olin Hall        

Dr. Arthi Jayaraman
Associate Professor
Departments of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering & Materials Science and Engineering

"Linking Molecular Design to Structure and Thermodynamics in Macromolecular Soft Materials"


We develop molecular models, theory and simulation techniques to connect molecular features of macromolecular materials, specifically polymers, to their morphology and macroscopic properties, thereby guiding synthesis and characterization of these materials for various applications in the energy and biomedical fields.

In the first part of my talk, I will present our work on polymer functionalized nanoparticles containing polymer nanocomposites. The overarching goal of this work has been to control spatial arrangement of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix (i.e. polymer nanocomposite morphology) in order to engineer materials with target mechanical or optical properties. One way to tailor polymer nanocomposite morphology is by functionalizing nanoparticle surfaces with polymers, and systematically tuning the composition, chemistry, molecular weight and grafting density of these grafted polymers. We have developed an integrated self-consistent approach involving Polymer Reference Interaction Site Model (PRISM) theory and molecular simulations to study polymer grafted nanoparticles in polymer matrix, and to understand the effect of monomer chemistry, monomer sequence, and polydispersity, in the polymer functionalization on the effective interactions, and dispersion/assembly of functionalized nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. In this talk, I will present our recent results obtained using these computational techniques that agree with experimental results from our collaborator Prof. R. Krishnamoorti at University of Houston.

In the second part of this talk, I will present our molecular simulation work aimed at designing novel oligonucleic acids (ONAs) with varying backbone chemistries to tune ONA hybridization and melting. Since double stranded DNA (ds-DNA) is the basis of various bio- and nano- technologies, the need for cheaper alternatives and significant synthetic advances have led to the design of DNA mimics with new backbone chemistries (e.g. click nucleic acids, locked nucleic acids). A fundamental understanding of how these backbone modifications in the oligo-nucleic acids impact the hybridization and melting behavior of the double strands is still lacking. We develop new coarse-grained (CG) models and use these CG models in molecular dynamics simulations and well-tempered metadynamics calculations to capture the effects of varying backbone chemistries on the H-bonding between complementary nucleobases and the intra-strand base-base stacking, and ONA hybridization/melting. I will also present our recent results on how conjugation of these novel ONAs with biocompatible polymers (e.g. PEG) impacts the polymer-conjugated ONA hybridization. These polymer-conjugated ONAs will serve as building blocks for thermo-responsive gels and networks in biomaterials. This work is done in collaboration with Prof. C. Bowman and Prof. S. Bryant at UColorado Boulder.

Bio: Arthi Jayaraman received her B.E (Honors) degree in Chemical Engineering from Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India in 2000. She received her Ph.D. in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering from North Carolina State University in 2006, and from 2006-2008 conducted her postdoctoral research in the department of Materials Science and Engineering at University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign. In August 2008 she joined the faculty of the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at University of Colorado at Boulder, and held the position of Patten Assistant Professor. In August 2014 she joined the faculty at the University of Delaware as Associate professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering. She has been awarded the Saville Lectureship at Princeton University (2016), the AIChE COMSEF division young investigator award (2013), the ACS PMSE division young investigator recognition (2014), University of Colorado Provost Faculty Achievement Award (2013), Department of Energy (DOE) Early Career Research Award (2010), the University of Colorado outstanding undergraduate teaching award (2011) and graduate teaching award (2014) in Chemical and Biological Engineering. Her research expertise lies in development of theory and simulation techniques and application of these techniques to study polymer functionalized nanoparticles and polymer nanocomposites, and to design macromolecular materials for biomedical applications.

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          Sep 18, 2017: Chemical Engineering Seminar: Mike Harold (University of Houston) at Olin Hall        

Dr. Mike Harold
M.D. Anderson Professor and Chair
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston

"Multi-Functional Structured Catalysts For Clean Exhaust from Lean Burn Vehicles"


The U.S. faces the difficult dual challenge of reducing the consumption of transportation fuels and improving air quality. Lean burn gasoline, diesel, and natural gas engines are of interest because they are more fuel efficient than conventional stoichiometric gasoline engines. Unfortunately, the unconverted oxygen in the exhaust prevents the use of the conventional three-way catalytic converter to reduce nitrogen oxides (“NOx”) to N2. In this talk we describe progress towards the combination of two NOx reduction technologies, NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). Research in our group uses a combination of experimentation and modeling both to provide deeper insight and to devise “optimal” structures and operating strategies.

NSR is shown to be a promising but complex catalytic process that involves the sequential periodic reactive trapping of NOx and its rapid reduction on multi-functional catalysts containing precious metal and storage components. SCR is adopted from the stationary source process which utilizes NH3 as the NOx reductant, and utilizes both Cu- and Fe-exchanged zeolite catalysts. As stand-alone reactors, NSR has the noted disadvantage of cost (precious metal) and byproducts (NH3, N2O), while SCR requires an aqueous urea system to provide the NH3, which may “slip” from the reactor under the inherent transient vehicle operation. Moreover, both NSR and SCR have constrained temperature operating windows (low and high). Multi-functional catalyst architectures that combine two or more active layers or zones can be effective strategies to address cost and/or performance limitations. The “NSR + SCR” catalyst combines periodic NOx storage and reduction with in situ NH3 generation and selective catalytic reduction of NOx. To be described are results from targeted experiments as well as kinetic and reactor modeling that advance our understanding of these interesting catalytic reaction systems.

Bio: Michael P. Harold received his B.S. in Chemical Engineering from Penn State in 1980 and his PhD in Chemical Engineering from the University of Houston in 1985. Mike joined the faculty of the Chemical Engineering Department at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, where he became Associate Professor in 1991. In 1991 Mike was a Visiting Research Scholar at the Chemical Technology Department of University of Twente in Enschede, the Netherlands. In 1993 Mike joined DuPont Company where he held several research and supervisory positions. In 1999 Mike was appointed Research Manager of the Chemical Process Fundamentals Group in the Central Research Department of the DuPont Company. While at DuPont Mike was Adjunct Professor at the University of Delaware and was Chair of the Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Division of AIChE. In his R&D supervisory roles at DuPont Mike led programs to develop breakthrough technologies for the manufacture of key industrial polymers and their corresponding chemical intermediates, and synthetic melt-spun fibers. Mike then moved back to academia as chair of the UH Department of Chemical Engineering, which later became the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. He served this post until fall 2008.

Mike’s research expertise and interests are in the area of chemical reaction engineering, with specific focus on reaction-separation devices, inorganic membrane synthesis and applications, and catalytic and biocatalytic materials. Mike has 90 refereed publications, over 100 presentations at technical conferences, and over 60 invited seminars and lectures.

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Pour aborder le niveau moléculaire, on analyse d’abord la structure de l’eau : Pour comprendre les propriétés des biomolécules, il est nécessaire de connaître les principales liaisons chimiques. Les protéines : Elles assurent de très nombreuses fonctions dans les cellules : Les acides nucléiques qui sont notamment support de l’information génétique : Les lipides qui […]

Cet article Biomolécules est apparu en premier sur Workshop RIGOLE.

          Aug 28, 2017: Chemical Engineering Seminar: Ryan L. Hartman (New York University) at Olin Hall        

Dr. Ryan L. Hartman
Assistant Professor
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, New York University

"Multiphase Microreaction Engineering with Online Analytics for Chemicals, Energy, and Materials"


Engineering novel tools for the discovery of science and translation of the new knowledge from the laboratory to application are societal challenges. Our laboratory helps address these challenges through the field of catalysis and reaction engineering. The design of novel experimental methodologies for direct measurements in flow have the potential to reduce the amount of chemical waste generated, minimize the building space and energy requirements, expedite information, and yield more accurate predictive mathematical models during discovery, development, and manufacture. This so called “process intensification” has merit to revolutionize our understanding of chemicals and materials that have global impacts. Microfluidics with online characterization techniques can be considered as the appropriate experimental tools, and the systems are often heterogeneous.

This three-part seminar will commence with a brief introduction followed by our discoveries on i) green chemical reaction engineering, ii) multiphase microfluidics with in situ Raman spectroscopy, iii) and microsystems design for chemicals and materials in the energy and environmental sciences. In Part I, concepts drawn from organometallic C-C cross-couplings, water as an unconventional reaction solvent, and process intensification will be examined. Reaction interfaces confined in micro-scale flows sometimes behave differently than unconfined ones. In response, Part II will present our recent work on the design of microfluidics with in situ Raman spectroscopy to understand confined non-polar solvent/water and methane/water interfaces. Microsystems with online spectroscopic methods also have tremendous potential for understanding chemicals and materials in the energy and environmental sciences. In Part III, we will examine flash crystallizations of methane hydrates with high-pressure sub-cooled microsystems that reveal the contribution of mass transport on the crystal growth kinetics. Packed-bed microfluidics with online analytics for the discovery of methane activation catalysis and asphaltenes nanosheet size distributions will also be discussed. The seminar will conclude with a discussion of emerging trends in catalysis and reaction engineering.

Bio: Ryan L. Hartman is Assistant Professor and Faculty Engineer in Residence in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at New York University. Prof. Hartman completed his postdoctoral research in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge), his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor), and his B.S. in Chemical Engineering from Michigan Technological University (Houghton). He is the Catalysis and Reaction Engineering Programming Chair of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. He was recently honored as Visiting Assistant Professor of the Institute of Condensed Matter Chemistry of Bordeaux (ICMCB) CNRS. Previously, Hartman was Assistant Professor and Reichhold-Shumaker Fellow in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at The University of Alabama (Tuscaloosa). He is also a winner of the NSF CAREER Award and member of the National Academy of Inventors. Hartman returned to academia following his private sector career with Schlumberger Limited.

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          Jun 22, 2018: Symposium Honoring Michael Shuler at Klarman Hall        

Please join us as we honor the achievements of Michael L. Shuler, Samuel B. Eckert Professor of Engineering, during a symposium to be held June 22, 2018. The symposium will feature a keynote address by George Georgiou (Ph.D. '87), Laura Jennings Turner Chair in Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin.

Registration for this event is required. Please visit the event website for more information: You may also contact the symposium organizers with any questions via email at or phone at (607) 255-6331.

This event is hosted by the Robert Frederick Smith School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, and the College of Engineering.

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          Biomolecular conformational changes and ligand binding: from kinetics to thermodynamics        

Chem. Sci., 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7SC01627A, Edge Article
Open Access Open Access
Yong Wang, Joao Miguel Martins, Kresten Lindorff-Larsen
Biomolecular systems such as protein-ligand complexes are governed by thermodynamic and kinetic properties that may be estimated at the same time through enhanced-sampling molecular simulations.
To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above.
The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry

           Plant-Derived Biomolecules and Drug Delivery Systems in the Treatment of Liver and Kidney Diseases.         
Hermenean, Anca and Smeu, Claudia and Gharbia, Sami and Krizbai, István Adorján and Ardelean, Aurel (2016) Plant-Derived Biomolecules and Drug Delivery Systems in the Treatment of Liver and Kidney Diseases. CURRENT PHARMACEUTICAL DESIGN, 22 (35). pp. 5415-5441. ISSN 1381-6128
           The Use of Microdialysis Techniques in Mice to Study P-gp Function at the Blood-Brain Barrier.         
Sziráki, István and Erdő, Franciska and Trampus, Péter and Sike, Mirabella and Molnár, Petra Magdolna and Narozsnikné Rajnai, Zsuzsanna and Molnár, Judit and Wilhelm, Imola and Fazakas, Csilla and Kis, Emese and Krizbai, István Adorján and Krajcsi, Péter (2013) The Use of Microdialysis Techniques in Mice to Study P-gp Function at the Blood-Brain Barrier. JOURNAL OF BIOMOLECULAR SCREENING, 18 (4). pp. 430-440. ISSN 1087-0571
           Reaction of photoactive platinum anticancer complexes with biomolecules         
Phillips, Hazel I. A. (2011) Reaction of photoactive platinum anticancer complexes with biomolecules. PhD thesis, University of Warwick.
          Herbal Remedies for Dyspepsia, Ayurvedic Treatment - Causes & Symptoms         

"Good digestion is happiness and bad digestion is the root of all diseases". When food is not digested properly it becomes poison in body and results in digestion health issues. If you have a stomach upset you cannot enjoy your meal. There are various factors which are responsible for this problem like over eating, eating rapidly, eating unhealthy foods, bad combination of foods, improper eating timing of breakfast, lunch and dinner.

What is Dyspepsia?


Dyspepsia which is also called as indigestion or stomach upset. Dyspepsia describes the pain and discomfort in upper abdomen which results in the nausea, bloating and burping. Dyspepsia occurs when stomach acids come in contact with lining of digestive system and break down the mucosa which results in inflammation and trigger the symptoms of indigestions.

What Can Be Symptoms of Dyspepsia?

  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Sweating
  • Burning sensation in chest
  • Burping
  • Bloating
  • Black stools
  • Lethargy

"There is rarely to worry about the indigestion. But you must visit your doctor if symptoms last for more than two weeks. In very few cases, indigestion may be the symptom of stomach cancer"

Complications Associated with Dyspepsia

  • Gallstone
  • Due to the over acid production, stomach ulcers can form.
  • Stomach juices cause the destruction to the lining of digestive system that may lead to gastritis.
  • Excessive acid production causes the Zollinger Ellison disease which results in the tumors in upper pancreas and upper part of your small intestine (duodenum).
  • Esophageal and duodenal ulcers can form.

Ayurvedic Outlook

In Ayurveda there are three energies – vata, pitta and kapha which are responsible for a healthy body. So imbalance in any of three energies results in the health complications. Dyspepsia is also the result of aggravated vata dosha. When there is improper digestion of food occurs due to low jathragni and a very little part of food is converted in the nutritious juices while greater part is converted into the waste products. Accumulation of excess waste products causes the aggravation of vata dosha. Aggravated pitta dosha results in the production of ama (toxin) in body. Ama production results in dyspepsia and various other stomach complications.

Herbal Remedies for Dyspepsia by Planet Ayurveda

Planet Ayurveda is an herbal manufacturing which works in accordance with ancient Ayurveda. Ayurveda is the science of life. There are various herbs which are packed with miraculous properties and helps in the treatment of various diseases without any side effects. Whereas, allopathic medicines have the various side effects. Due to the negative impact of allopathic treatment, enormous people all over the worlds are looking for the herbal medicine for various diseases. Planet Ayurveda is also a leading name in the field of Ayurveda which offers the various herbal products for human being without side effects.

1. Heartburn Capsules

Heart burn capsules are the amazing formulation of Planet Ayurveda for the treatment of dyspepsia. This herbal remedy for dyspepsia is the combination of various natural products which are discussed in detail below:-

  1. Parval pishti (Coral) – Parval pishti is prepared from the coral which is rich in the carbon hence improves the digestion. It helps to balance the vata, pitta and kapha thus provides the relief in digestion.
  2. Akik pishti (Agate) – It helps to balance the vata and pitta thus good for the treatment of dyspepsia.
  3. Jawar mohra pishti (Coral) – This natural ingredient has cooling properties thus helps to balance the vata, pitta and kapha thus provides relief in digestion problems.
  4. Kamdudha ras (Coral) – It supports the healthy digestive system. It provides the relief in heart burn thus quite effective in the treatment of dyspepsia. It also helps to balance the pitta dosha in the body.
  5. Mukta pishti (Pearl) – Mukta pisthi is prepared from the pearls. It helps to provide relief in gastritis and burning sensation.
  6. Guduchi (Giloy) – This herb also provides the relief from burping, heartburn and vomiting

Dosage – One capsule, two times in a day.

2. Agnitundi vati

This herbal formulation has the miraculous properties and helps to strength digestive system. This herbal remedy for dyspepsia is the combination of various ingredients which are discussed below:-

  1. Triphala – Triphala is major ingredient of agnitundi vati. It helps to reduce the acidity problems thus quite effective in the treatment of dyspepsia.
  2. Jeerak (Cyminum cuminum) – Jeerak is the most common spice used in the Indian kitchen. It contains a biomolecule thymol which accelerate the various enzymes for proper digestion of food in stomach.
  3. Shunthi (Gingiber officinale)– It helps to provide relief in heartburn.
  4. Chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica)– Chitrak is also an important ingredient of agnitundi vati. It is quite effective for various stomach problems like indigestion, peptic ulcers and heartburn.
  5. Pippali (Piper longum) – It is quite beneficial in the treatment of diarrhea, indigestion and hyperacidity.
  6. Maricha (Pipper nigrum) – It provides the relief in the complications associated with dyspepsia like peptic ulcers, heartburn and improves the digestion.

Dosage – Two tablets two times in a day.

3. Mahashankh vati

Mahashankh vati is the combination of various natural ingredients like Pippali mool (Piper longum), Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica), Danti mool (Baliospermun montanum), Pippali (Piper longum), Marich (Piper nigrum), Shunti (Gingiber officinale), Shuddha vatsanabha, Hingu, Sjankha bhasma and Panch lavana. All the ingredients have cooling properties thus help to balance the pitta and vata dosha thus quite effective in the treatment of dyspepsia.

Dosage – Two tablets two times in a day.

4. Digestion Support

Digestion support is quite beneficial for the treatment of stomach disorder and supports the healthy digestive system. This herbal product is the combination of various ingredients which are discussed below:-

  1. Amla (Emblica officinalis) – This herb helps to balance the vata, pitta and kapha thus provides the relief in dyspepsia.
  2. Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) – It also provide relief in heartburn.
  3. Bahera (Terminalia bellerica) - It helps to improve the digestion process and also maintain the stomach pH.
  4. Sounf (Foeniculum vulgare) – It provides the relief in flatulence and gas.
  5. Jeerak (Cyminum cuminum) – It helps to provide the relief in the heartburn, nausea and vomiting.
  6. Pippali (Piper longum) – It also supports the healthy digestive system.
  7. Dhania (Coriander sativum) – Dhania is the most common spice used in Indian kitchen and have the great medicinal importance in Ayurveda. It helps to provide relief in gastritis and stomach pain.

Dosage – One capsule two times in a day.


"A healthy balanced diet can keep you away from the stomach complications"

Diet guidelines:-

  • Avoid spicy food.
  • Avoid white flour and white sugar.
  • Avoid non vegetarian diet.
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid smoking.
  • Don't consume chocolates, pastries and puddings.
  • Avoid high fat foods.

Here are some tips to improve digestion:-

  • Always take the good combination of food.
  • Don't eat too fast.
  • Eat freshly prepared food.
  • Drinking 2 or 3 glasses of water in morning is also beneficial for good digestion.
  • Take proper rest and sound sleep.
  • Chew food properly.
  • A mixture of curry leaves with lime juice and honey 2-3 times in a day helps to provide relief in dyspepsia.

          Ayurvedic Treatment for Indigestion - Causes & Symptoms        

Indigestion is the discomfort in upper abdomen. There is a burning sensation in the chest called as heartburn. Indigestion occurs when stomach acid comes in contact with the lining of digestive system. This indigestion causes inflammation, irritation in abdomen and underlying tissues.


  • Loss of appetite
  • Discomfort and fullness in upper part of abdomen.
  • Burning sensation in chest.
  • Nausea.
  • Bloating and burping.
  • Fatigue
  • Constipation.
  • Vomiting.
  • Blood stools.
  • Diarrhea.


  • Over eating.
  • Consumption of alcohol.
  • Smoking.
  • Eating fast foods and spicy foods.
  • Stress.
  • Anti inflammatory like ibuprofen thyroid medicines and antibiotics.
  • Obesity.
  • Eating very fast.
  • Eating high fat foods.


  • Stomach juices cause damage to lining of digestive system due to that problem of gastritis happens. Main cause of gastritis is Helicobacter pylori bacteria which can damage the lining of intestine.
  • Gallstone problem can occur.
  • Stomach ulcers are formed due to over acid production.
  • Due to excess production of stomach acid causes Zollinger Ellison disease.
  • Over acid production can cause many stomach complications like duodenal ulcers, esophageal ulcers and gastric ulcers.


  • Ultrasound - Abdominal ultrasound is done to diagnose indigestion. Before taking ultrasound, 2-3 glasses of water are taken by patient so that clear images of internal structures of intestine can formed. In this technique, sound waves are used to examine the areas of stomach.
  • Endoscopy - In this technique a device is inserted into stomach through your mouth. This is used to observe upper intestinal area to diagnose the peptic ulcers. In some cases scissors and forceps are attached on endoscope to remove the tissues for the purpose of biopsy
  • X- ray – In this technique a special radiograph is used that is barium swallow. This procedure is painless. By this method we can figure out the problems in esophagus. Due to indigestion, changes that occur in esophagus are visualized by X-rays.
  • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) – This technique provides the excellent view of organs of intestines to identify the intestinal diseases.
  • Blood and stool samples can be taken in the case of bacterial infections. Helicobacter pylori are the bacteria that cause damage to lining of intestine and cause indigestion. Presence of this bacterium in the blood and stool, diagnose the indigestion.


In Ayurveda, cause of excess acid production is due to excessive pitta which results - sourness and heat in the body. In ayurveda cause of indigestion is the pitta dosh. Due to this pitta dosh, there is a production of ama in body which causes various stomach complications like Nausea, bloating, burping, constipation, stomach ulcers, gastritis and gallstones can occur. In ayurveda there are many herbs like - bloodwort, chicor, cardamon, bishop's weed, clove, garlic, ginger, dill and fennel which helps to eliminate the toxins from the body. According to ayurveda problem of indigestion can be solved by having healthy and balanced diet.


Planet ayurveda is herbal manufacturing company and works for the welfare of human beings. All the products made by this company are totally free from preservatives, steroids and 100 % pure. Herbal formulations made by this company are completely safe without the addition of starch, additives, colors and preservatives and provide numerous health benefits. This company offers various herbal products which are herbal powders, herbal tablets, herbal tea, herbal oil, herbal juice and beauty products. Planet ayurveda offers a digestion pack for the treatment of indigestion. Herbal remedies for indigestion by planet ayurveda have excellent results in the patients.

1. Agnitundi vati

Agnitundi vati is the digestion pack provided by the planet ayruveda for the treatment of indigestion. This herbal formulation helps to strength the digestive system and reduces the problem of indigestion to a great extent.


  • Triphala – Triphala is very important ingredient of agnitundi vati. It help to reduce the acidity problem and treat various stomach disorders.
  • Jeerak – Jeerak is the spice which used in Indian kitchens. It helps in the activation of salivary gland, which is essential for the primary digestion of food. It gives the relief in gas problems and increases the appetite. It contains a biomolecule named as thymol, which triggers the various enzymes for complete digestion of food in stomach.
  • Ginger – It helps in the proper digestion of food and provides relief in gas and heartburn.
  • Chitrak – Chitrak is important ingredient of agnitundi vati. It is useful to treat the various stomach disorders like indigestion, peptic ulcers, loss of appetite and heartburn.
  • Long pepper – Long pepper is the spice which is used in Indian kitchen. It has excellent properties in the treatment of stomache, constipation, diarrhea, indigestion, flatulence and hyperacidity.
  • Maricha – Maricha also plays an important role in the formulation of agnitundi vati. It offers various health benefits in the treatment of stomach problems like indigestion, peptic ulcers, heartburn and triggers the digestion of food.

Dosage – 2 tablets thrice in a day with plain water.

2. Digestion support

Digestion support have excellent properties for the treatment of treatment of stomach disorders. It helps to improve the digestion, increase appetite and decrease the problems of constipation and balance the pH of stomach. Treatment provided by the planet ayurveda for the treatment of indigestion is quite effective and shows excellent results in patients. Herbal remedies for indigestion by planet ayurveda show excellent results in the patients.


  • Dhania - Dhania is very common herbs used in the Indian kitchens. It helps in the proper digestion of food so improves the digestion process. It also provides the relief in the gastric and stomach pain.
  • Sounf - Sounf is important ingredient in the formulation of digestion support. This herb has excellent results in the stomach problems like relief in flatulence and gas. It is useful in treatment of constipation, diarrhea and hyperacidity.
  • Bahera – Bahera has significant importance in the formulation of herbals medicines. It accelerates the digestion process, increase the appetite, reduce gastric and balance the stomach pH.
  • Jeerak - Jeerak is the spice mostly used in Indian kitchens. It has excellent properties to treat the indigestion because it contains a phytochemical compound named as thymol. It helps in the activation of salivary gland, which is essential for the primary digestion of food. It gives the relief in gas problems and increases appetite.

Dosage - 2 capsules twice in a day with plain water.

3. Draksha Avaleha

This herbal formulation helps to treat the various stomach disorders like indigestion, heartburn and flatulence.

Dosage - 1 Tea spoonful, two times in a day, every day, it can be taken with warm milk.

Where to buy Digestion Support Pack?

To buy Digestion Support Pack, please visit


  • Eat probiotic rich foods
  • Drinking plenty of water in a day can reduce the indigestion.
  • Use of low fat foods.
  • Green leafy vegetables should be taken in diet.
  • Avoid junk foods.
  • Intake of pulses and potatoes can reduce indigestion.
  • Stop having those food products which have high levels of acid like citrus fruits.
  • Beverages which have high levels of caffeine should be avoided.
  • Small meals should be taken.

There are some fruits which are useful to treat indigestion are listed below:-

  • Lemon – Drinking lemon juice helps to eliminate the toxins from body.
  • Oranges – Orange juice helps to increase the beneficial microflora of intestine and increase the indigestion.
  • Pineapple – Pineapple juice contains the digestive enzymes which give the relief in stomach upset.
  • Papaya – Papaya contains proteases, which helps to reduce the indigestion.

          Natural Treatment for Ovarian Cysts - Causes & Symptoms        
Ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts formed as a result of menstrual cycle. Most of cysts are painless and symptoms are observed during routine pelvic examination. Ovaries normally form the cyst like structures called functional cysts.



It is formed during mid period of menstrual cycle. An egg bursts out of its follicle and moves down into fallopian tube for fertilization. Formation of follicular cysts occurs when follicle does not rupture to release its egg and turns into the shape of cysts.


After releasing the egg, ruptured follicle start producing huge amount of estrogen and progesterone for fertilization is known as corpus luteum. After getting pregnant, corpus luteum is filled with fluid and blood so cyst is formed. But in the case when fertilization does not occur then corpus luteum is again absorbed by body.


  • Due to the rupture of cyst causes excess of pain and internal bleeding.
  • Vomitings, Headache, feeling tired and nauseous.
  • Irregular and heavy menstruation.
  • Pain in pelvis.
  • Severe lower pain and swelling in abdomen.
  • Development of ovarian cancer.
  • Infertility.
  • Due to the increase in the size of cysts, ovary get move out of its original position and creates pain.
  • Weight gain.
  • Urination at small intervals.


  • Sonography is technique which uses sound waves to see the images of ovary, uterus, and fallopian tubes to find out cyst in the ovaries. Routes of sonogram are either through vagina or abdomen. With the help of sonogram ovarian cancer can also be diagnosed.
  • Pelvic ultrasound are done for abdominal and vaginal regions of women and rectal regions of men. In this method high frequency sound waves create images of structures of   ovaries and uterus on a video screen.
  • Laparoscopy is the method by which an instrument is inserted into abdomen through a small cut by giving anesthesia to patient. With the help of this method we can remove the ovarian cysts.
  • When pregnancy test is positive, it suggests that ruptured follicle after releasing the egg, again fills with fluid.
  • Blood test are also done because solid ovarian cyst is more prone to ovarian cancer. So the elevated levels of cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) are usually seen in women. But in the case of uterine fibroids and endometriosis, increased level of (CA 125) are also present.


It is believed in ayurveda that cysts which are formed in ovary and other tumors are known as granthi rog and pitta. Herbal formulations helps to balance the hormonal levels, better functioning of gonads and decrease the size of cysts in ovary. Ashoka, shilajit, amalaki, Shatavari, kachnaar gugul, lodhra and aloe vera are herbs which helps to reduce the cysts and help in proper functioning of uterus.


Planet ayurveda is a herbal manufacturing company and all the products made by this company are 100% pure and contain no preservatives, colors, radicals and starch. So products provide the health benefits without any side effects and completely safe for use. Planet Ayurveda offers an Anti-Ovarian Cyst Pack.


This product is made by combination of various herbs which have excellent properties to treat the ovarian cysts.


  • Kachnaar bark (Bauhinia variegata) – Parts of the plant which are used to make herbal medicine are leaves, buds, flowers, barks roots and seeds. These phytochemical contents are present - alkaloid, tannins, ascorbic acids and essential oils which have the excellent properties to treat the polycystic ovary syndrome and various vaginal disorders.
  • Amalaki (Emblica officinalis) – Plant parts, used are seed, leaves, bark, root, flower, dried and fresh fruits can also be used. Tanins, saponins, glycosides, sterols and alkaloids are the phytochemicals present which have antioxidant, anticancer and anti inflammatory properties.
  • Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) – Flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids are phytochemicals which are present in fruit, stem, root and seed of plant. This herbal formulation have anti tumor, anti-inflammatory properties and also helps to reduce bleeding during menstruation cycle and decrease in size of cysts. It also helps to maintain hormone balance in the body.
  • Bibhitaki (Terminalia bellerica) – Bibhtaki is also a similar fruit like Haritaki. It is very effective to reduce the size of cyst and excess bleeding also.
  • Ginger (zingiber officinale) – Biomolecules present in ginger are very effective in the treatment of ovarian cancer and also help to balance the hor
  • Black pepper (Piper nigrum) – Phenols, alkaloid, saponins, tannins, steroids are the phytochemical present which are useful for treatment of infertility in women.
  • Pippali (Piper longum) – It is useful in the treatment of infertility and also have the anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Varuna (Crataeva religiosa) – It is useful to treat infertility in women, help to reduce the level of estrogen and also effective for the regular menstrual cycle.

Dosage - 2 tablets twice in a day with lukewarm water.


Chanderprabha vati is formed by mixture of various herbs which have numerous properties to treat the ovarian cancer, cysts and balance the body hormones.


  • Shilajit (Asphaltum)
  • Guggul (Commiphora mukul)
  • Sharkara (Sugar)
  • Karpoor (Cinnamomum camphora)
  • Vacha (Acorus calamus)
  • Mustak (Cyprus rotundus)
  • Haridra (Curcuma longa)
  • Amalaki (Emblica officinalis)
  • Chavya (Piper chaba)
  • Vidanga (Embelia ribes)
  • Giloy ( Tinospora cordifolia)
  • Shunthi (Zingiber officinalis)
  • Maricha (Piper nigrum)
  • Pippali  (Piper longum)
  • Sarjikashaar (Sodium carbonate)

Benefits - This herbal medicine is quite effective to treat ovarian cysts, pain during menstruation cycle, ovarian cancer, anemia and general weakness in female. This herbal formulation helps to balance the body hormones, decrease the excess urination and also help to reduce the chances of infertility in women.

Dosage - 2 tablets twice in a day after meals.


This herbal formulation is formed by the combination of various herbs which have excellent properties to treat the ovarian cysts and excess bleeding problems.


  • Lodhra (Symplocus racemosa)
  • Ashok (Saraca indica)
  • Udumbur (Ficus glomerata)
  • Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna)

Dosage – 1 to 2 tea spoonful , 2 times in a day with water or fresh juice.

Where to buy Anti-Ovarian Cyst Pack?

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  • Those fruits and vegetables are taken which are rich in alkaline content. These are magnesium rich foods like yams, bananas, Prunes, cashew nuts, and vegetables like cauliflower, cabbage, Brussels sprout, potatoes and sweet potatoes and broccoli help in reduction of pain in the case of ovarian cysts. Food which are rich in vitamin K are good to treat the ovarian pain.
  • Low fat foods.
  • Use of organic foods can reduce the risk of ovarian cysts. Before using fruits and vegetables wash and peel them properly.
  • Some wheat products contain magnesium and zinc which   help to maintain the hormone levels.


  • Avoid alcohol because it increase the levels of estrogen.
  • Avoid caffeine products, it can cause the disruption of hormones.
  • Avoid salty food.
  • Avoid cheese and yogurt.

           Ultrathin and smooth poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films for label-free biomolecule detection with total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE)         
Nam Cao, Hoai le and Gubala, Vladimir and Clancy, Eoin and Barry, Thomas and Smith, Terry J and Williams, David E. (2012) Ultrathin and smooth poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films for label-free biomolecule detection with total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 36 (1). pp. 250-256. ISSN 0956-5663. (doi: ) (The full text of this publication is not currently available from this repository. You may be able to access a copy if URLs are provided)
          Dieta antiTPM        

Médicos garantem: a solução para a mulher se ver livre dessa fase terrível pode estar na ALIMENTAÇÃO

Revirar o baú dos segredos da avó, colher sugestões da vizinhança, pesquisar dicas com as amigas - vale tudo para aplacar os sintomas da tensão pré-menstrual, síndrome que atinge nove em cada dez mulheres. Em alguns casos, médicos prescrevem remédios que visam equilibrar a taxa hormonal para minimizar a irritabilidade, o inchaço e a fadiga que surgem cerca de dez dias antes da menstruação.
A boa notícia é que a solução pode estar mais próxima do que imaginamos: no prato de comida.
Sim, o que você come faz diferença nisso também: estudos mais recentes apontam que a alimentação adequada é a principal aliada no combate à TPM. Algumas mudanças de hábitos à mesa promovem bem-estar nessa fase.
"As tentativas de aliviar o problema apenas com terapia hormonal são insuficientes sem o auxílio do reequilíbrio nutricional", afirma Maria Elizabeth Ayoub, ginecologista especializada em nutrologia e terapia biomolecular. Na segunda fase do ciclo menstrual, as taxas de progesterona crescem em relação às do estrógeno, o que leva à TPM. O importante é detectar quais incômodos prevalecem no organismo nesse período para estabelecer os alimentos adequados.
De imediato é essencial incluir no cardápio as fibras, que estão presentes em alimentos integrais, frutas e verduras. Elas ajudam a eliminar as toxinas do organismo."As toxinas acumuladas sobrecarregam os sistemas de eliminação e não permitem a excreção de hormônios através do intestino e dos rins. Esses hormônios voltam a ser reabsorvidos e colaboram para intensificar a TPM" acredita Maria Elizabeth Ayoub.
A retenção de líquido é outro efeito bastante comum da síndrome. Muitas mulheres chegam a ganhar de 2 kg a 3 kg alguns dias antes da menstruação de tão inchadas. A sugestão de Maria Elizabeth é acrescentar itens diuréticos ao menu, como salsinha, salsão, alcachofra e aspargos. " Evite sal e produtos industrializados porque eles aumentam a retenção de líquido", afirma Daniela Hueb, dermatologista e nutróloga.
O cálcio, encontrado em leite e iogurte, também deve ser ingerido, pois ajuda a amenizar as cólicas e o inchaço. Água, água de coco, suco de frutas e chás são altamente indicados. E, para evitar a irritabilidade, é bom riscar da dieta durante a bendita TPM café, chá preto e bebidas à base de cafeína, que provocam insônia e aumentam a ansiedade.
É importante ingerir alimentos ricos em vitaminas B, em particular a B6. São eles: cereais integrais, peixes, aves, soja, frutas, especialmente banana, abacate, ameixa, batata, couve-flor e repolho. A vitamina B6 induz o organismo a produzir serotonina, substância que nos dá sensação de bem-estar. "Assim, ela ajuda a regular as oscilações de humor", completa Daniela.

O chocolate e a compulsão

As cólicas e a compulsão por doce têm um remédio: o magnésio. Esse mineral é encontrado em verduras escuras, frutos do mar, sementes, brotos, nozes, amêndoas e castanhas, produtos da soja, como tofu, cereais integrais, damasco e abacate.
Rico em magnésio é também o chocolate, que ainda favorece a produção da serotonina. Isso explica o clássico desejo incontrolável de comer a guloseima na TPM. Quer dizer que é recomendado? Não exatamente. Deleitar-se com um "quadradinho" está liberado, mas exagerar é proibido. Afinal, o chocolate também tem cafeína e gordura, que pioram os sintomas da TPM.

(Fonte: Revista EMS saúde)
           Extraction of biomolecules by biosurfactant-reverse micelles         
Mohd. Setapar, Siti Hamidah (2011) Extraction of biomolecules by biosurfactant-reverse micelles. In: International Conference On Chemical And Process Engineering (ICCPE 2011).
          Spatially encoded strategies in the execution of biomolecular-oriented 3D NMR experiments        
Three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (3D NMR) provides one of the foremost analytical tools available for the elucidation of biomolecular structure, function and dynamics. Executing a 3D NMR experiment generally involves scanning a series of time-domain signals S(t (3)), as a function of two time variables (t (1), t (2)) which need to undergo parametric incrementations throughout independent experiments. Recent years have witnessed extensive efforts towards the acceleration of this kind of experiments. Among the different approaches that have been proposed counts an "ultrafast" scheme, which distinguishes itself from other propositions by enabling-at least in principle-the acquisition of the complete multidimensional NMR data set within a single transient. 2D protein NMR implementations of this single-scan method have been demonstrated, yet its potential for 3D acquisitions has only been exemplified on model organic compounds. This publication discusses a number of strategies that could make these spatial encoding protocols compatible with 3D biomolecular NMR applications. These include a merging of 2D ultrafast NMR principles with temporal 2D encoding schemes, which can yield 3D HNCO spectra from peptides and proteins within approximate to 100 s timescales. New processing issues that facilitate the collection of 3D NMR spectra by relying fully on spatial encoding principles are also assessed, and shown capable of delivering HNCO spectra within 1 s timescales. Limitations and prospects of these various schemes are briefly addressed.
          Sensitivity Enhancement in 1D Heteronuclear NMR Spectroscopy via Single-Scan Inverse Experiments        
Measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of low-gamma heteronuclei such as N-15 constitutes an important analytical tool for the characterization of molecular structure and dynamics. The reduced resonance frequencies and magnetic moments of these heteronuclei, however, make the sensitivity of this kind of spectroscopy inherently lower than that of comparable H-1 NMR observations. A well-known solution to this sensitivity problem is indirect detection: a 2D NMR technique capable of enhancing the sensitivity of heteronuclear NMR by porting the actual data acquisition from the low-gamma nucleus to neighboring protons. This has become the standard method of observation in biomolecular NMR, where the resolution introduced by 2D spectroscopy is always a sought-after commodity. Indirect detection, however, has not gained a wide appeal in organic chemistry or in in vivo investigations, where one-dimensional heteronuclear NMR information usually suffices. The present study explores the possibility of retaining certain advantages derived from indirect detection while not giving up on the simple one-dimensional nature of heteronuclear NMR, by relying on the spatial-encoding scheme we have recently demonstrated for implementing single-scan multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Preliminary results based on a 1D N-15 NMR can be enhanced significantly in this manner; the relevance of this experiment given the advent of dedicated H-1-observing cryogenic probeheads with very high sensitivities is briefly discussed.
          SECUENCIA DIDACTICA        

Comenzar con una inducción a modo de pregunta sobre la utilidad de las escaleras, mientras los alumnos aportan respuestas, el maestro comienza a explicar la utilidad y funcionalidad de una escalera, los tipos de escaleras hasta llegar a una escalera de caracol y comienza a hacer analogias con la mólecula de ADN.


El maestro explica como esta formadao el ADN, nombrando todas sus partes y siempre realacionadolas a la escalera. los alumnos leen y hacen un modelo, con plastilina en donde cada base nitrogenada es de un color adenina = azul, citocina = amarilla, guanina = rosa y timina verde, luego las unen con una cinta y la tuercen para formar la doble hélice.


El alumno identifica las partes del ADN y su funcionalidad como biomolecula encargada de trasportar la información genética.
          RESUMEN DE EXPOSICIONES.        


La electroforesis es un método de laboratorio en el que se utiliza una corriente eléctrica controlada con la finalidad de separar biomoleculas según su tamaño y carga eléctrica a través de una matriz gelatinosa.

Fue empleado por primera vez por en el año 1937, pero su importancia vino a incrementarse cuando en los años cincuenta E. L.Durrum y Arne W.K. Tiselius , impulsaron la electroforesis de zona, nombre que se asigno a la separación de materiales en un campo eléctrico en presencia de algún tipo de soporte; aunque este término se limito originalmente al análisis de coloides y partículas submicroscopicas , se ha convertido en estos últimos años en una metodología aplicada a sustancias de bajo peso molecular.

Cuando una mezcla de moléculas ionizadas y con carga neta son colocadas en un campo eléctrico, estas experimentan una fuerza de atracción hacia el polo que posee carga opuesta, dejando transcurrir cierto tiempo las moléculas cargadas positivamente se desplazaran hacia el cátodo (el polo negativo) y aquellas cargadas positivamente se desplazaran hacia el ánodo (el polo positivo).
El movimiento de las moléculas está gobernado también por dos fuerzas adicionales; inicialmente la fricción con el solvente dificultará este movimiento originando una fuerza que se opone , por otro lado las moléculas tienen que moverse en forma aleatoria o movimiento browniano debido a que poseen energía cinética propia denominado difusión. La energía cinética de las moléculas aumenta con la temperatura, por ello a mayor temperatura mayor difusión.
La suma de todas estas fuerzas provoca que las moléculas no migren de una manera homogénea, de tal manera que, si las moléculas son colocadas en un cierto lugar de solución, los iones comenzaran a moverse formando un frente cuya anchura aumentara con el tiempo.
Para reducir la anchura de este frente podemos reducir el movimiento de las moléculas empleando un medio que oponga más resistencia a dicho movimiento. Una forma común de hacer esto es formar un gel. El gel consiste de un polímero soluble de muy alto peso molecular que atrapa moléculas de agua y forma un tamiz que dificulta el movimiento de los solutos, consecuentemente, la migración electroforética de las moléculas será más lenta, pero el ensanchamiento del frente se verá reducido también.

Son los más comunes, dada su alta aplicabilidad en diferentes campos. Son útiles para lograr la separación de mezclas complejas. Se aplican pequeñas cantidades de la disolución de proteínas a un soporte sólido, que se impregna con una solución tampón. Los soportes son en general polímeros y forman un gel poroso que restringe el movimiento de las moléculas a través del medio durante la electroforesis y disminuyen los flujos de convección del solvente.
Como soporte han sido utilizados papel (celulosa), almidón, poliacrilamida, agarosa y acetato de celulosa, entre otros. Este método tiene gran poder resolutivo por que se aplica una cantidad pequeña de proteína a una zona estrecha, mientras que la longitud del trayecto es mucho mayor que la zona de aplicación. El equipamiento requerido es simple, fuente de poder, cubeta vertical u horizontal donde se colocan el soporte y dos electrodos Los más utilizados son:

Los geles de poliacrilamida se forman por polimerización de la acrilamida por acción de un agente entrecruzado, es químicamente inerte, de propiedades uniformes, capaz de ser preparado de forma rápida y reproducible. Forma, además, geles transparentes con estabilidad mecánica, insolubles en agua, relativamente no iónicos y que permiten buena visualización de las bandas durante un tiempo prolongado. Además tiene la ventaja de que variando la concentración de polímeros, se puede modificar de manera controlada en el tamaño del poro, lamentablemente cada vez se emplea menos en diagnostico debido a su neurotoxocidad.

El uso de geles de poliacrilamida que tienen un gradiente creciente de concentración de archilamida + bisacrilamida, y en consecuencia un gradiente decreciente en el tamaño del poro, pueden tener ventajas sobre los geles de concentraciones uniformes de acrilamida. En un gel en gradiente la proteína migra hasta alcanzar una zona donde el tamaño de poro impida cualquier avance. Una vez se alcanza el limite del poro no se produce una migración apreciable aunque no se detiene completamente. Una de las ventajas de este tipo de geles es que resuelve mejor las bandas pues las concentra en regiones más estrechas, además de incrementar el rango de pesos moleculares que se pueden resolver en un mismo gel comparado con los de una concentración fija.

La agarosa es un polisacárido (originalmente obtenido de algas, como el agar-agar, pero de composición homogénea), cuyas disoluciones (típicamente de 0.5 a 2 %) poseen la propiedad de permanecer liquidas por encima de 50 grados C y formar un gel, semisólido al enfriarse. Este gel esta constituido por una matriz o trama tridimensional de fibras poliméricas embebida en gran cantidad de medio líquido, que retarda el paso de las moléculas, se usa usualmente para separar moléculas grandes de alrededor 20.000 nucleótidos.

La electroforesis capilar se basa en los mismos principios de las técnicas electroforéticas convencionales, pero utiliza condiciones y tecnología distinta que nos permiten obtener una serie de ventajas al respecto, Esta separación de péptidos realizada sobre un capilar de silica fundida a potenciales elevados 20 a 30 Kv en un campo de 400 a 500 v/cm refrigerados por aire.
La corriente electro endosmótica (FEO) generada por los grupos silanol de la superficie interna del capilar da como resultado una corriente plana del frente del líquido que contrasta con el frente parabólico de la cromatografía líquida de alta resolución.
La ventaja de esta técnica es que el capilar de silica fundida que generalmente se cubre con una capa de polimina para darle mayor rigidez y resistencia, tiene una ventaja a través de ella que permite el pasaje de la luz UV de tal manera que la visualización es on-line.
Con esta técnica descripta es posible separar cationes, aniones, proteínas, macromoléculas y sustancias no cargadas en forma simultánea.

ISOELECTROENFOQUE. Esta técnica, habitualmente denominada electroenfoque se basa en el desplazamiento de las moléculas en un gradiente de pH. Las moléculas amfotéricas, como los aminoácidos, se separan en un medio en el que existe una diferencia de potencial y un gradiente de pH. La región del ánodo es Ácida y la del cátodo es alcalina. Entre ambos se establece un gradiente de pH tal que las moléculas que se han de separar tenga su punto isoeléctrico dentro del rango. Las sustancias que inicialmente se encuentran en regiones de pH inferior a su punto isoeléctrico estarán cargadas positivamente y migraran hacia el cátodo, mientras aquellas que se encuentran en medios con pH más bajos que su punto isoeléctrico tendrán carga negativa y migraran hacia el ánodo. La migración les conducirá a una región dónde el pH coincidirá con su punto isoeléctrico, tendrán una carga neta nula y se detendrán. De esta forma las moléculas amfotéricas se sitúan en estrechas bandas donde coincide su punto isoeléctrico con el pH.

La electroforesis bidimensional se basa en separar las proteínas en una mezcla según sus dos propiedades moleculares, una en cada dimensión. El procedimiento más usado se basa en la separación en una primera dimensión mediante isoelectroenfoque y la segunda dimensión según peso molecular mediante electroforesis en poliacrilamida.

La electroforesis es una técnica muy sensible y puede ser afectada por muchos errores experimentales, como la temperatura durante la polimerización y la corrida del gel, velocidad de la polimerización, niveles de catalizador, pureza del reactivo, tiempo de corrida y preparación de las muestras.


          Ancient Brews with Dr Patrick McGovern – BeerSmith Podcast #153        
Dr Patrick McGovern, Director of Biomolecular Archeology at the University of Pennsylvania Museum joins me this week to discuss research into ancient fermented beverages. Subscribe on iTunes to Audio version or Video version or on Google Play Download the MP3 File – Right Click and Save As to download this mp3 file Topics in This […]
          Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry 7e, John McMurry 업로드        
Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry 7e, John McMurry[2].pdf 목차 Chapter1 - Structure and Bonding ; Acids and Bases Chapter2 - Alkanes: the Nature of Organic Compounds Chapter3 - Alkenes and Alkunes: The Nature of Organic Reactions Chapter4 - Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes Chapter5 - Aromatic Conpunds Chapter6 - Stereochemistry at Tetrahedral Centers Chapter7 - Organohalides: Nucleophilic Substitutions and Eliminations Chapter8 - Alcohols,Phenols,Ethers,and their Sulfur Analogs Chapter9 - Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition Reactions . Chapter15 - Biomolecules: Amino Acids, Peptides, .......
          Aug 16, 2017: CCST Seminar: Dan Zhao at Colburn Lab        

National University of Singapore


Dr. Dan Zhao obtained his BS (2003) and MS (2006) in Polymer Chemistry and Physics from Zhejiang University, and PhD (2010) in Inorganic Chemistry from Texas A&M University. After finishing his postdoctoral training at Argonne National Laboratory, he joined the Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering at National University of Singapore in July 2012 as an Assistant Professor. His research interests include advanced porous materials and membranes with the applications in clean energy and environmental sustainability.


"Engineering Applications of Advanced Porous Materials"

The recent decade has witnessed the booming development of advanced porous materials (APMs) such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), covalent organic frameworks (COFs), etc. Unlike their conventional counterparts (e.g., silica, activated carbon, zeolite), APMs have crystalline structures, uniform yet tunable pore size, and versatile chemical compositions suitable for various modifications. Born in the labs of synthetic chemists, APMs have become a frontier in material research with huge potentials in various applications including storage, separation, sensing, catalysis, etc. However, several engineering issues remain to be resolved before their large-scale utilization, such as stability, cost, and system integration. In this talk, I will present our exploration in the engineering applications of APMs, with a focus on the development of water-stable Zr MOFs as adsorbent materials for postcombustion CO2 capture. In addition, I will introduce our membrane studies for gas separation and water purification, emphasizing polycrystalline Zr MOF membranes and ultrathin membranes containing two-dimensional MOF and COF nanosheets.

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           Bridgehead nitrogen heterocycles which contain the quinazoline moiety – synthesis and cycloaddition of 1,2-dihydroquinazoline 3-oxides         
Heaney, Frances and McCarthy, Tomas and Mahon, Mary and McKee, V. (2005) Bridgehead nitrogen heterocycles which contain the quinazoline moiety – synthesis and cycloaddition of 1,2-dihydroquinazoline 3-oxides. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 3. pp. 4351-4361. ISSN 1477-0520
          Virus Built Batteries? MIT Advances Bio-Industrial Manufacturing Technique to Assemble Electrodes        

MIT Virus BacteriophageMIT's Biomolecular Materials Group has advanced a technique of using 'genetically engineered viruses that first coat themselves with iron phosphate, then grab hold of carbon nanotubes to create a network of highly conductive material.'

This advanced 'bio-industrial' manufacturing process, which uses biological agents to assemble molecules, could help to evolve key energy material components (e.g. cathodes, anodes, membranes) used in batteries, fuel cells, solar cells and organic electronics (e.g. OLEDs). 

Professors Angela Belcher and Michael Strano led the breakthrough bio-engineering work which can now use bacteriophage 'to build both the positively and negatively charged ends of a lithium-ion battery.'   While the prototype was based on a typical 'coin cell battery', the team believes it can be adapted for 'thin film' organic electronic applications.

Energy = Interactions
Energy and Materials Science is about manipulating the assembly and interaction of molecules like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and metals.

Today we are at the beginning of new eras of nanoscale materials science and bio-industrial processes that are certain to change the cost and efficiency equations within alternative energy and biomaterials.  And we have a lot to learn about molecular assembly from Mother Nature's genetically driven virus/bacteria and plants. After all, the energy released from breaking the carbon-hydrogen bonds of coal (ancient ferns) and oil (ancient diatoms) was originally assembled by biology (with some help from geological pressures!).  So why not tap this bio-industrial potential for building future energy components?

Category: Energy
Year: General
Tags: energy, nanoscale, nanotechnology, catalysts, carbon, electricity, batteries, nanotech
          'Self-Cleaning' Surface Coating Improves Solar Cell Performance        

gtResearchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have developed a unique super-'hydrophobic' (water repelling) surface coating that 'boosts the light absorption of silicon photovoltaic cells both by trapping light in three-dimensional structures, and by making the surfaces self-cleaning allowing rain or dew to wash away the dust and dirt that can accumulate on photovoltaic arrays'.

The 'self cleaning' design mimics the water repelling surface of a lotus leaf, 'which uses surface roughness at two different size scales to create high contact angles that encourage water from rain or (desert dew) condensation to bead up and run off. As the water runs off, it carries with it any surface dust or dirt – which also doesn't adhere because of the unique surface properties'.

"The more sunlight that goes into the photovoltaic cells and the less that reflects back, the higher the efficiency can be," said C.P. Wong, Regents' professor in Georgia Tech's School of Materials Science and Engineering. "Our simulations show that we can potentially increase the final efficiency of the cells by as much as two percent with this surface structure."

"A normal silicon surface reflects a lot of the light that comes in, but by doing this texturing, the reflection is reduced to less than five percent," said Dennis Hess, a professor in the Georgia Tech School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. "As much as 10 percent of the light that hits the cells is scattered because of dust and dirt of the surface. If you can keep the cells clean, in principle you can increase the efficiency. Even if you only improve this by a few percent, that could make a big difference."

Category: Energy
Year: General
Tags: energy, solar, electricity, photovoltaics, thinfilm
          Forget about algae? Wisconsin researchers turn raw biomass into biofuels via two step chemistry        

ChemistFlickrBioenergy visionaries with algae and bacteria aren't the only players in town trying to corner the market on the 'future of biofuels'.  We cannot forget the Chemists.

Biofuels are expanding along two paths- one is based on chemical engineering, the other on biological processes.

Chemistry vs Biology
We can create biofuels by applying chemical engineering processes (e.g. ethanol via fermentation, or biodiesel via transesterfication) with high reliability and scale, but usually at a high cost.  

Or we can let Mother Nature do the work. Biology taps the power of algae and bacteria that contain special enzymes that reorganize molecules into a format that can be used to make biofuels, or converted into electricity via a fuel cell.

Biology could offer lower cost and turn carbon emissions into a feedstock, but first we must overcome challenges of scaling up volume production, and the unpredictable nature of biomolecular systems.

Wisconsin Focuses on Path of Chemistry
For now, chemical conversion is the more immediate opportunity and fits within the current paradigm of processing energy and materials feedstocks.  And engineers are working to overcome the challenges to reduce the number of steps, and facilitate reactions at a lower temperature with non-toxic, abundant resources.

Now scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have developed a two-step method to convert cellulose into a biofuel called DMF.  Professor Ronald Raines and graduate student Joseph Binder highlight the two step process:  First, they convert the cellulose of untreated biomass into the "platform" chemical 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) which is used in 'a variety of valuable commodity chemicals'. Generally HMF is made using processed glucose or fructose rather than raw biomass.

Step Two: Creating a New Biofuel with Gasoline Qualities

Category: Energy
Year: 2013
Tags: energy, biofuels, bioenergy, cellulosic, algae, chemistry
          How to prepare a solvated system of large molecules automatically        
The Packmol distribution includes the solvate.tcl script, which is used to solvate large molecules, usually proteins, with water and ions (Na+ and Cl-).  Given the PDB file of the biomolecule, just run the script with:
        solvate.tcl PROTEIN.pdb

And the script will create a input file for packmol called packmol_input.inp. With this file, run Packmol with:
        packmol < packmol_input.inp

And your large molecule will be solvated by a shell of 15. Angs. of water, and ions to keep the system neutral and a physiological NaCl concentration of 0.16M. The script usually makes reasonable choices for every parameter (number of water molecules, number of ions, etc.), but these may be controlled manually with additional options, as described below:
        solvate.tcl structure.pdb -noions
        solvate.tcl structure.pdb -shell 15.  -charge +5  -density 1.0 -i pack.inp -o solvated.pdb

Where: structure.pdb is the pdb file to be solvated (usually a protein)

"15." is the size of the solvation shell. This is an optional parameter. If not set, 15. will be used.

"-charge +5" is the total charge of the system, to be neutralized. This is also and optional parameter, if not used, the package considers histidine residues as neutral, Arg and Lys as +1 and Glu and Asp as -1. The Na+ and Cl- concentrations are set the closest possible to 0.16M, approximately the physiological concentration.  Alternatively, use the -noions to not add any ions, just water.

1.0 is the desired density. Optional. If not set, the density will be set to 1.0 g/ml.

solvated.pdb: is the (optional) name for the solvated system output file. If this argument is not provided, it will be the default solvated.pdb file.

pack.inp: is the (optional) name for the packmol input file that will be generated. If not provided, packmol_input.inp will be used.

All these options are output when running the "solvate.tcl" script without any parameter. The script also outputs the size of the box and the suggested periodic boundary condition dimensions to be used.

obtained from Packmol user-guide (

          DBN hexafluorophosphate salts as convenient sulfonylating and phosphonylating agents        
Jones, C. S., Bull, S. D. and Williams, J. M. J., 2016. DBN hexafluorophosphate salts as convenient sulfonylating and phosphonylating agents. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 14 (36), pp. 8452-8456.
           Enantioselection in peptide bond formation         
Hill, Roger R.; Birch, David; Jeffs, Graham and North, Michael (2003). Enantioselection in peptide bond formation. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, 1(6) pp. 965–972.
          Basic Tenets of Jewish Philosophy: The Soul        
Just what is the soul of man? There have been many attempts to define it. There are some who try to constrict it into the tiny realm of biomolecules, what is called the “animal soul,” so that when a person dies his soul also disappears. Some even view it as an illusion, leading to the ...

El compartir el conocimiento, así como las diversas herramientas didáctico-pedagógicas para facilitar las actividades de enseñanza aprendizaje de la asignatura de "BIOLOGÍA CONTEMPORÁNEA" para el semestre febrero-junio 2015, es el objetivo principal de este trabajo, espero que encuentren Ãºtil estas aportaciones, de igual manera serán bien recibidas sugerencias, para enriquecer el sitio con: PPT. vídeos  actividades para el alumno, formatos de herramientas de evaluación, así como ejercicios, dinámicas de enseñanza, etc., que mejoren los saberes de la biología actual en los alumnos del Ã¡rea de químico biológicas en el bachillerato tecnológico.



1. Nivel celular
1.1.Célula eucarióticas
1.2. Células procarióticas
1.3 Estructura y función

2 Nivel bioquímico
2.1. Bioelementos
2.2 Biomoleculas



3. Nivel fisiológico
3.1 Transporte
(activo y pasivo)
3.2 Respiración
(aerobia y anaerobia)
3.3 Fotosíntesis
(Fase luminosa y fase obscura)
3.4 Reproducción
(mitosis y meiosis)
3.5 Ciclo celular


4 Nivel genético
4.1 Ácidos nucleicos
4.2 Síntesis de proteínas

 5. Nivel tecnológico
5.1 Biotecnología
5.2 DNA recombinante


La asignatura de biología contemporánea tiene como propósito introducir al alumno en el
conocimiento de la biología celular y molecular a partir de cinco niveles que son: celular,
bioquímico, fisiológico, genético y tecnológico.

Proporcionando una serie de actividades para que los alumnos comprendan cómo se efectúan los principales procesos vitales de los sistemas vivos, introduciéndolos en el conocimiento de la composición molecular de las células y sus procesos bioquímicos, profundizando sobre la función de los nutrientes en los procesos metabólicos que se realizan en los seres vivos para mejorar su calidad de vida en aspectos como nutrición y salud; asimismo, que los estudiantes propongan estrategias preventivas y curativasde problemas relacionados con la salud propia y social.

El alumno reforzara los conocimientos de la biología contemporánea a nivel molecular y la
importancia que tiene esta en su entorno.

Al término del semestre el alumno conocerá y diferenciara los niveles moleculares así
como la importancia en el ámbito social, tecnológico y ambiental.

Para lograr los objetivos prepuestos se realizarán revisiones bibliográficas incluyendo
revistas científicas, así como el uso del Internet.
La participación de personal externo especializado en los temas de interés con los cuales
los alumnos podrán interactuar por medio de conferencias así como visitas a instituciones
académicas y privadas.


Desempeño    30
Producto        30
Conocimiento 15
Actitud           25
           Total     100%

Nota: el presente documento de estrategias didacticas para Biologia Contemporanea, fue elaborado por la Academia Nacional de Biologia, posteriormente  sera reemplazado por el documento elaborado por la Academia Estatal de Biologia Tamaulipas.




Dirección General de Educación Tecnológica Industrial


Biología contemporánea
Duración en horas:75
Componente de formación:Propedéutico

Propósito de la secuencia didáctica:Proporcionar una serie de actividades para que los alumnos comprendan cómo se efectúan los principales procesos vitales de los sistemas vivos, introduciéndolos en el conocimiento de la composición molecular de las células y sus procesos bioquímicos, profundizando sobre la función de los nutrientes en los procesos metabólicos que se realizan en los seres vivos para mejorar su calidad de vida en aspectos como nutrición y salud; asimismo, que los estudiantes propongan estrategias preventivas y curativasde problemas relacionados con la salud propia y social.
Tema integrador:
Vida de calidad
Otras asignaturas, módulos y submódulos que trabajan el tema integrador:
Biología yBioquímica.
Espacio ()                    Energía (   )                     Diversidad (  )                      Tiempo (   )                        Materia ( X  ).
Contenidos fácticos o conceptuales:
Biomoléculas: carbohidratos, lípidos, proteínas, ácidos nucleicos y cofactores.
Conceptos Fundamentales:
Conceptos Subsidiarios:
Biomoléculas: carbohidratos, lípidos, proteínas, ácidos nucleicos y cofactores.
Nivel celular

Contenidos procedimentales:


Hasta hace relativamente poco tiempo (300 años), la ciencia no se basaba en la observación, pero se sabía que el hombre (Aristóteles) estaba formado por partes pequeñas que componían un todo, pero no se conocían debido a la falta de avances técnicos y al marco filosófico.
En el siglo XVII aparece la Citología e Histología como ciencia debido a:
  • Aparición de Bacon, Descartes...: lo que era una ciencia especulativa pasó a basarse en la experiencia y la observación.teoria.jpg
  • Avances tecnológicos: uso de lentes para aumentar el tamaño de las cosas. 
  • El primero que utilizó las lentes correctamente fue el holandés ANTON VAN LEEWUENHOEK quien consiguió aumentos de hasta 250x. Esto dio lugar a que fuera el precursor de los conocimientos citológicos. Es el primero que realiza observaciones microscópicas racionales, realizó observaciones de todo tipo y sus descripciones de: glóbulos rojos, espermatozoides,... Pero no sabía cuales eran los componentes básicos de la materia viva, eran simplemente observaciones.

  • ROBERT HOOKE fue miembro de la Royal Society (primera asociación científica y muy selecta) y presentó a Leewuenhoek a la Royal Society los cuales lo aceptaron. Hooke mejoró los microscopios y realizó más observaciones, fue el primero que utilizó la palabra célula para describir lo que veía. Eligió este término porque observo la pared de una célula de corcho y al parecerse a las celdillas de un panal le puso ese nombre. En el siglo XVIII la ciencia no avanza apenas pero será entrando el siglo XIX (1820) cuando la ciencia se expande. El marco filosófico era el adecuado (Comte con el positivismo) y los avances técnicos son muy grandes debido a la revolución industrial que repercutió en la mejora de los microscopios.
Mathias Schleiden
Tomando como base a Hooke y a Leewuenhoek dos alemanes -independientemente- MATIAS SCHLEIDEN en los vegetales y THEODOR SCHWANN en los animales se dan cuenta de que hay algo común, independiente e igual que da lugar a las estructuras que observaban (la célula). Es así como surge la TEORÍA CELULAR cuyo postulado es: las células constituyen las unidades estructurales y funcionales básicas que componen los seres vivos. Esto era la unificación de todo lo que se sabía acerca de las células. la misma época, un médico, XAVIER M. BICHAT introduce el concepto de tejido sin utilizar el microscopio. Seleccionaba alguna parte de un ser vivo y lo reducía al mínimo (hirviéndolo...). A ese mínimo lo llamó tejido, y lo definió como parte esencial que constituye el órgano y que posee propiedades homogéneas. RUDOLPH VIRCHOW tomó el concepto de tejido y lo unió a la teoría celular y debido a la mejora de los microscopios y las técnicas de tinción vio que Bichat estaba equivocado y que los tejidos estaban formados por células. Y, además, sugirió que toda célula proviene de otra célula cuando hasta entonces lo que predominaban eran las ideas preformacionistas.

Asociado con otros estudios, en esta época Gregor Mendel promulga sus leyes de la Genética, se mejoran los microscopios en 1850 y, además, también se desarrollan las técnicas de tinción.
En la actualidad, en pleno siglo XX disfrutamos de grandes avances técnicos. Pero veamos cronológicamente los sucesos. A principios de siglo se tenían microscopios ópticos y técnicas de tinción muy desarrolladas que propiciaron un gran desarrollo de la Citología. Personajes importantes de esta época son Hugo de Vries, Santiago Ramón y Cajal...
Hugo de Vries descubrió cómo las células transmiten sus caracteres a su descendencia, él cree que es el único pero ya Mendel lo había propuesto en el siglo pasado, y entonces se dedica a unificar lo que él había descubierto con las leyes de Mendel dando lugar a la Citogenética.
Así tenemos que la célula es la unidad estructural, funcional y genética, esto es la teoría celular al 95%.
En el caso del cerebro pensaban que no habían células sino una masa protoplásmica continua, debido a que estaba formado como una red, cosa que casaba con la religión que pensaba que el alma se encontraba en el cerebro. Pero con Santiago Ramón y Cajal se vio que el sistema nervioso estaba formado por un tejido de células. La demostración le valió el premio Nobel de Medicina de 1906. Así dijo que no había excepciones a la teoría celular.
La teoría celular puede resumirse en que la célula constituye la unidad estructural y funcional básica que compone los seres vivos, no hay unidad de vida autónoma más pequeña que la célula y una célula proviene de otra.
HARRISON-CARREL probaron a disociar células y vieron si podían crecer cada una por separado. Es la técnica de cultivos celulares que consiste en mantener una célula viva en cámaras especiales. Se inventó en los años 30 el microscopio electrónico por LUSCHKA. Utilizó en lugar de luz natural, electrones. Los electrones proporcionan más definición pues la longitud de onda de la luz natural es de 0,4 micras y por tanto no podemos ver con luz natural, lo que sea menor de 0,4 micras. Con electrones la longitud de onda es de 0,1 nm. Pero dado que las muestras debían prepararse en el vacío, su aplicación se retrasó 20 años.
Después de la segunda guerra mundial se produjo un grandísimo desarrollo en el que por fin se usa el microscopio electrónico. Siendo uno de los grandes avances el descubrimiento a finales de los 50 de la doble hélice del DNA.


La Biología moderna se basa en entender cómo las biomoléculas y sus interacciones permiten explicar la "vida” de las células, no solo como entidades aisladas, sino como integrantes de organismos multicelulares. Cuanto mayor es el conocimiento de la estructura y función de las biomoléculas, de las células y del proceso del desarrollo embrionario más se comprende que los principales procesos vitales tienen notables similitudes en todos los seres vivos.

La Biología Molecular nace de la integración de disciplinas científicas que dentro del campo global de la Biología habían permanecido hasta hace poco tiempo separadas. Así por ejemplo, la estructura y reacciones entre biomoléculas era tradicionalmente el campo de la Bioquímica, la localización subcelular de biomoléculas y orgánulos eran característicos de la Biología Celular, la identificación, mapeo y regulación de la expresión genética eran el objeto de la Genética.

Pues bien, la Biología Molecular se asienta sobre los conocimientos y conceptos adquiridos en estas asignaturas englobándolos y proporcionando una visión unificada. Para alcanzar el objetivo de obtener información sobre los procesos vitales utiliza las técnicas de todas las disciplinas mencionadas independientemente de su origen. No hay ya fronteras entre estas disciplinas sino solo matices
Dos aproximaciones experimentales recientes han influido mucho en el desarrollo de la Biología Molecular: la Genómica o conocimiento de la secuencia completa del DNA de muchos organismos y la Proteómica o conocimiento de la estructura tridimensional, funciones e interacciones entre proteínas. Además constantemente, se desarrollan nuevas herramientas que permiten el estudio y conocimiento de los organismos vivos con mayor profundidad.

Algunos aspectos de la Biología Molecular en los que el conocimiento científico ha producido avances significativos y que tienen o pueden tener repercusión en la identificación, conocimiento o tratamiento de algunas enfermedades comunes. 

Uno de los avances más notables de la Biología Molecular de los últimos años es la secuenciación del genoma humano y de otros genomas. Entre las consecuencias de este avance se encuentra la posibilidad de analizar la expresión simultánea de miles de genes mediante la tecnología de los arrays o “chips” de DNA tanto en estados normales como patológicos.  Se ha conocido asimismo recientemente la estructura de la cromatina y cómo la RNA polimerasa II interactúa con activadores y coactivadores para regular la transcripción.

El conocimiento de cómo las proteínas se pliegan hasta obtener su conformación nativa representa una de las fronteras de la biología molecular. En los últimos años, se han obtenidos notables avances sobre los procesos del plegamiento de las proteínas, intervención de chaperonas, así como, sobre el destino de las proteínas sintetizadas en los ribosomas, hacia orgánulos subcelulares específicos y sobre los de degradación controlada de proteínas en el proteosoma . Alteraciones de estos procesos están en la base de la enfermedad de Alzheimer y de otras enfermedades neurodegenerativas.

Por otra parte, también se ha producido un avance notable en la identificación de las vías de señalización que controlan la proliferación, el crecimiento, y motilidad de las células. Así mismo, se conoce ya con bastante detalle, el proceso del ciclo celular y de la muerte celular programada (apoptosis). Estos hallazgos, unidos a los anteriores, han permitido grandes avances en la biología molecular del cáncer como es, la identificación de los oncogenes y de los genes supresores, el conocimiento de su modo de acción, así como su aplicación al diagnóstico y tratamiento. 


Los elementos de la vida Todos los seres vivos están constituidos, cualitativa y cuantitativamente por los mismos elementos químicos. De todos los elementos que se hallan en la corteza terrestre, sólo unos 25 son componentes de los seres vivos . Esto confirma la idea de que la vida se ha desarrollado sobre unos elementos concretos que poseen unas propiedades físico-químicas idóneas acordes con los procesos químicos que se desarrollan en los seres vivos.
Se denominan elementos biogénicos o bioelementos a aquellos elementos químicos que forman parte de los seres vivos. Atendiendo a su abundancia (no importancia) se pueden agrupar en tres categorías:
  1. Bioelementos primarios o principales: C, H, O, N
    Son los elementos mayoritarios de la materia viva, constituyen el 95% de la masa total.
    Las propiedades físico-químicas que los hacen idóneos son las siguientes:
    1. Forman entre ellos enlaces covalentes, compartiendo electrones
    2. El carbono, nitrógeno y oxígeno, pueden compartir más de un par de electrones, formando enlaces dobles y triples, lo cual les dota de una gran versatilidad para el enlace químico
    3. Son los elementos más ligeros con capacidad de formar enlace covalente, por lo que dichos enlaces son muy estables.
    4. A causa configuración tetraédrica de los enlaces del carbono, los diferentes tipos de moléculas orgánicas tienen estructuras tridimensionales diferentes .
      Esta conformación espacial es responsable de la actividad biológica.

  1. Las combinaciones del carbono con otros elementos, como el oxígeno, el hidrógeno, el nitrógeno, etc.,
    permiten la aparición de una gran variedad de grupos funcionales que dan lugar a las diferentes familias de sustancias orgánicas . Estos presentan características físicas y químicas diferentes, y dan a las moléculas orgánicas propiedades específicas, lo que aumenta las posibilidades de cración de nuevas moléculas orgánicas por reacción entre los diferentes grupos.
    1. permiten la aparición de una gran variedad de grupos funcionales que dan lugar a las diferentes familias de sustancias orgánicas . Estos presentan características físicas y químicas diferentes, y dan a las moléculas orgánicas propiedades específicas, lo que aumenta las posibilidades de cración de nuevas moléculas orgánicas por reacción entre los diferentes grupos.
    2. Los enlaces entre los átomos de carbono pueden ser simples (C - C), dobles (C = C) o triples. 

      lo que permite que puedan formarse cadenas más o menos largas, lineales, ramificadas y anillos.

    • Bioelementos secundarios S, P, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Cl
      Los encontramos formando parte de todos los seres vivos, y en una proporción del 4,5%.

  2. Azufre
    Se encuentra en dos aminoácidos (cisteína y metionina) , presentes en todas las proteínas. También en algunas sustancias como el Coenzima A
    Forma parte de los nucleótidos, compuestos que forman los ácidos nucléicos. Forman parte de coenzimas y otras moléculas como fosfolípidos, sustancias fundamentales de las membranas celulares. También forma parte de los fosfatos, sales minerales abundantes en los seres vivos.
    Forma parte de la molécula de clorofila, y en forma iónica actúa como catalizador, junto con las enzimas , en muchas reacciones químicas del organismo.
    Forma parte de los carbonatos de calcio de estructuras esqueléticas. En forma iónica interviene en la contracción muscular, coagulación sanguínea y transmisión del impulso nervioso.
    Catión abundante en el medio extracelular; necesario para la conducción nerviosa y la contracción muscular
    Catión más abundante en el interior de las células; necesario para la conducción nerviosa y la contracción muscular
    Anión más frecuente; necesario para mantener el balance de agua en la sangre y fluído intersticial

    Se denominan así al conjunto de elementos químicos que están presentes en los organismos en forma vestigial, pero que son indispensables para el desarrollo armónico del organismo.
    Se han aislado unos 60 oligoelementos en los seres vivos, pero solamente 14 de ellos pueden considerarse comunes para casi todos, y estos son: hierro, manganeso, cobre, zinc, flúor, iodo, boro, silicio, vanadio, cromo, cobalto, selenio, molibdeno y estaño. Las funciones que desempeñan, quedan reflejadas en el siguiente cuadro:

    Fundamental para la síntesis de clorofila, catalizador en reacciones químicas y formando parte de citocromos que intervienen en la respiración celular, y en la hemoglobina que interviene en el transporte de oxígeno.
    Interviene en la fotolisis del agua , durante el proceso de fotosíntesis en las plantas.
    Necesario para la síntesis de la tiroxina, hormona que interviene en el metabolismo
    Forma parte del esmalte dentario y de los huesos.
    Forma parte de la vitamina B12, necesaria para la síntesis de hemoglobina .
    Proporciona resistencia al tejido conjuntivo, endurece tejidos vegetales como en las gramíneas.
    Interviene junto a la insulina en la regulación de glucosa en sangre.
    Actúa como catalizador en muchas reacciones del organismo.
    Actúa sobre neurotransmisores y la permeabilidad celular. En dosis adecuada puede prevenir estados de depresiones.
    Forma parte de las enzimas vegetales que actúan en la reducción de los nitratos por parte de las plantas.
    Los bioelementos se combinan entre sí para formar las moléculas que componen la materia viva. Estas moléculas reciben el nombre de Biomoléculas oPrincipios Inmediatos.



Las biomoléculas las podemos dividirlas en dos grupos:
-Orgánicas: Son exclusivas de la materia viva, tienen un alto porcentaje de carbono. Muchas de ellas tienen una gran complejidad y se denominan macromoléculas o polímeros estando formadas por la unión de unas unidades más sencillas denominadas monómeros.
-Inorgánicas: Están presente tanto en la materia viva como en la inerte.
                        Sales minerales
                        Ácidos nucleicos






Es el compuesto más abundante de la materia viva. Por término medio representa el 75 % del peso de la misma.

El contenido de agua no es igual en todos los seres sino que varía de unas especies a otras.
Hombre: 70 %  Pino: 47 %      Medusa: 95 %
Maíz: 86 %      Lombriz: 83 %  Trébol: 90 %

Dentro de una especie, la cantidad de agua varia de unos órganos a otros dependiendo de la actividad biológica de las células, siendo tanto mayor el contenido de agua cuanto mayor sea la actividad de las células.

En el hombre el contenido medio es del 70 %
-Tejido óseo: 40 % -Sangre: 79 % -T.Nervioso:85 % -Dentina: 10%

·También varía de unos individuos a otros dependiendo de la edad.
En el hombre: -Embrión: 94 %  -Niños: 78 %  -Ancianos: 65 %

El agua de los seres vivos se está renovando continuamente, de tal manera que existe un continuo aporte y una continua eliminación, existiendo un equilibrio entre ambos. El aporte de agua al organismo se puede realizar de dos formas:

· Incorporándola del medio externo bien tomándola en forma líquida, mediante la bebida de la misma y de otros líquidos; o bien mediante la ingestión de alimentos más o menos ricos en agua. A esta agua se la llama agua exógena 

·Se puede obtener dentro del organismo a partir de otras moléculas orgánicas mediante diferentes reacciones metabólicas. A esta agua se la llama agua endógena. Esto explica porque algunos organismos muy sencillos como el pececillo de plata no necesita tomar agua del exterior, ya que con la que obtiene mediante el metabolismo les es suficiente. Igualmente explica porque los camellos pueden pasar tanto tiempo sin beber agua, gracias al metabolismo de las grasas.

La eliminación de agua se realiza de diversas maneras:

Mediante la orina, por el sudor y la transpiración, por la heces, mediante la respiración etc.

¨El agua es fundamental para la vida debido a que las propiedades químicas que tiene le permiten desempeñar funciones muy importantes. Es tan importante que todo organismo desprovisto de ella muere, solo algunos organismos inferiores como protozoos y determinados órganos como semillas pueden reducir considerablemente la cantidad de agua, pero entonces pasan a una vida latente reduciendo considerablemente sus actividades.

Mantener una correcta hidratación es importantísimo, ya que en nuestro organismo son perjudiciales los valores altos y bajos de agua. Aunque el agua no nos proporciona energía es un elemento del que no podemos prescindir, ya que interviene en numerosas reacciones bioquímicas necesarias para el buen funcionamiento de nuestro organismo. También interviene en otros procesos fisiológicos esenciales, como son la termorregulación, la absorción de nutrientes o la excreción renal.

Metabolismo y balance hídirco

El agua como tal no se digiere y el 95% se absorbe en el intestino delgado y en el grueso el 5% restante. Además, el agua no se metaboliza. El exceso se elimina por la orina a través de los riñones. Es por ello fundamental que en el interior del organismo exista un balance hídrico adecuado (ver Tabla 4), es decir, que el consumo de agua - junto a la producción de la misma de forma endógena-, debe estar equilibrado con las pérdidas de líquido.
Las perdidas del agua ocurren por cuatro vías distintas:
  1. - Renal, a través de la orina (alrededor de 1,5 L/día)
  2. - Cutánea, por medio del sudor (alrededor de 350 mL/día)
  3. - Pulmonar, a través de la respiración (alrededor de 400 mL/día)
  4. - Digestiva, en las heces.
Cuando hay una ingesta excesiva de agua o de solutos, se ponen en marcha distintos mecanismos de recuperación y restablecimiento del balance hídrico.
Aumento de la ingesta
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  • Scientists have played with Escherichia coli bacteria that can generate propane gas. The process needs a lot more work to become a practical way to produce propane as a fuel, but a bioreactor to make propane could be viable in a decade or so. (Maybe.) [url]
  • Some species of bacteria have been found that can consume pure electricity for food. These naturally-occurring microorganisms usually live near hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, but if they can feed on electrons directly (instead of soluble bits of iron), then they might be able to store energy in biomolecules for us and turn electricity into convenient biofuels. [url]
  • If you'd like to read more awesome and interesting stuff, check out this unrelated (but not entirely random!) Techdirt post via StumbleUpon.

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              Enlisting Bacteria for Greener Manufacturing        

    Producing high-value products such as pharmaceuticals with substantially less energy, no need for environmentally harmful chemicals, and a greatly reduced amount of waste by-products. This is the goal of NJIT Associate Professor and Department Chair Edgardo Farinas.

    Tagged: college of science and liberal arts, csla, manufacturing, edgardo farinas, chemistry, news, environmental science, natiional science foundation, pharmaceuticals, biomolecular research

               Review on the extraction of biomolecules by biosurfactant reverse micelles         
    Mohd. Setapar, Siti Hamidah and Mohamad Aziz, S. N. and Harun, N. H. and Mohd. Azizi, C. Y. (2012) Review on the extraction of biomolecules by biosurfactant reverse micelles. APCBEE Procedia, 3 . pp. 78-83. ISSN 1022-6680
               Positron and electron interactions and transport in biological media: modelling tracks and radiation damage         
    White, Ronald, Sullivan, James, Bankovic, Ana, Dujko, Sasa, Robson, Robert, Petrovic, Zoran Lj., Gómez-Tejedor, Gustavo García, Brunger, Michael, and Buckman, Stephen (2012) Positron and electron interactions and transport in biological media: modelling tracks and radiation damage. In: Gómez-Tejedor, Gustavo García, and Fuss, Martina Christina, (eds.) Radiation Damage in Biomolecular Systems. Springer, New York City, NY, USA, pp. 227-238.
              OPEN LETTER TO THE AUSTRALIAN PARLIAMENT, Senators and Members June 17 2015        

    Australian Forests and Climate Alliance.

    We are scientists, researchers and analysts with a direct interest in the management, exploitation and conservation of Australia’s native forests.
    We write to express our sincere opposition to the inclusion of native forest wood as an eligible fuel source for electricity generation under the Renewable Energy Target.

    The inclusion of native forest wood in the RET is being driven in part by the idea that burning native forest wood for electricity production will lower carbon emissions, replace coal and be based on residues left from sawlog production. However, these pressures are misguided and superficial. We ask that you not accept them on face value.

    Federal legislation should not allow for the burning of native forests to be termed ‘renewable’ and included in the government’s Renewable Energy Target.

    The claim in early June by Environment Minister Greg Hunt that forest waste is better burnt even if creating CO2, than left to rot and produce methane is an extremely ill‐informed and concerning statement as part of a Parliamentary speech.

    The definition of ‘waste’ is a key point and still remains without an adequate answer. Trees cut for pulplogs for paper production are considered ‘waste’ even when they comprise most of the logs taken from a forest. Australia should not be repeating the mistakes of the past 50 years of supporting a woodchip industry based on this distorted definition of waste.

    There is currently a growing demand in the Asian region for cheap wood pellets to burn in power plants. This gives an incentive to Australian forest industries to provide the resource for overseas use as well. In fact the current situation points to this being the most immediate market and one which would replace the recently collapsed export woodchip industry. If Australia begins to supply this market the demand could be difficult to curtail in the future. It could intensify the industrialisation of native forest management beyond the current practices and cause irreversible impacts on forest ecosystems.

    Medium to large wood‐fired generators are very inefficient and require huge volumes of wood fuel to produce a small amount of energy. Existing forest based biomass power plants in the USA emit at least 50 per cent more CO2 than coal, for the same energy produced 1. The 70MW Laidlaw plant in NH USA burns 113 tons of wood an hour. Such demands for feed‐stocks cannot be met by the ‘waste’ materials and residues.

    Greenhouse gas emissions created by forest logging include the loss of soil carbon, the output in the post logging site burn, emissions involved in transporting the materials from forests to processors then to generators and the emissions created by processing logs to a form suitable for a furnace. The additional CO2 the trees would have absorbed if left to grow should also be part of calculations. Recapturing this carbon loss by regenerating the logged forest takes hundreds of years. This is far longer than the period in which we need to address the serious problem of climate change. 2 3

    Drax, the world’s biggest biomass energy plant in the UK, is selling its power for £80 per MW/hr, two‐and‐a‐half times more expensive than coal, but last year received £340 million in ‘green’ subsidies. Without these subsidies, its biomass operation would collapse.

    Native forests are a critical component to climate mitigation and should be protected and restored as an extremely effective carbon capture and storage tool.

    Offering Renewable Energy Certificates to biomass burners or exporters would rob credits and therefore financial assistance from Australia’s true clean green energy alternatives.

    Energy‐related subsidies should be spent on measures that reduce carbon emissions and overall energy use, and on genuinely low carbon and sustainable forms or renewable energy.

    Using Australia’s native forests as fuel at an industrial scale would have long term impacts, ecologically, economically and would be counter‐productive to reducing Australia’s CO2 levels. At the very least a public inquiry is needed into whether using forests in this way can help reduce CO2 emissions.

    We ask you to consider these points carefully and exclude native forest wood ‘waste’ as a fuel source in the Renewable Energy Target.

    Yours sincerely,

    1. Professor Peter Gell, Professor of Environmental Science, Federation
    University Australia
    2. Professor David Lindenmayer AO, BSc, DipEd, PhD, DSc, FAA, Fenner
    School of Environment and Society, ANU.
    3. Adjunct Professor John R. J. French, USC, Faculty of Science, Health,
    Education and Engineering, Qld.
    4. Don White, Adjunct A Professor, School of Chemical and Biomolecular
    Engineering, University of Sydney
    5. Dr Greg. P. Clancy, Ecologist, Coutts Crossing, NSW
    6. Ian Penna PhD, Honorary Research Fellow, Federation University, Ballarat.
    7. Dr Mark Aaron Gregory, PhD, Chemistry, University of Melbourne Vic.
    8. Dr Steve Leonard, Department of Ecology, Environment and Evolution, La
    Trobe University Vic.
    9. Linda Selvey, MBBS(Hon), MAppEpi, PhD, FAFPHM, Associate Professor,
    Director of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences,
    Curtin University WA.
    10.Steve Phillips, B.Sc.(Hons), Ph.D. Managing Director/Principal Ecologist,
    Biolink Ecological Consultants NSW.
    11.Alan Roberts, MSc Solid State Physics Melb University (1967), NSW
    12.Mark Graham, B. App. Sc (Env. Res Mngmnt) ‐ collaborator with UNSW,
    Macquarie, UNE, UTS, SCU.
    13.Dr Oisín Sweeney, Science Officer, National Parks Association of NSW .
    14.Annette McKinley, M. Litt (Botany), consultant plant ecologist, NSW.
    15.Barbara Stewart B.Sc (Hons) Ph D, Consultant plant ecologist, NSW.
    16.Lucie Bradley, PhD, Organic chemistry, science communication, Monash
    University Vic
    17.Fiona Sutton, Botanist B.Biol.Sc. (Hons.), Ecology Australia, Vic
    18. Dr Peter McQuillan, Honours Programme Coordinator, School of Land and
    Food, University of Tasmania.
    19.Marion Carey, MBBS (Hons) MPH FAFPHM FRSPH, Adjunct Associate
    Professor (Research), Monash University, Vic.
    20. Elaine Bayes BSc (Hons), MSc, ecologist with Rakali Ecological Consulting
    21. David Cheal, Assoc. Adj. Professor, Centre for Environmental
    Management, Faculty of Science & Technology, Federation University, Vic
    22.Damien Cook, Principal Ecologist, Rakali Ecological Consulting, Vic.
    23. Dr Graeme Lorimer, PhD, F.Airqual, 'Director, Biosphere Pty Ltd' Vic.
    24.Bertram Lobert, BSc, MSc, Ecologist & Conservation Coordinator
    Strathbogie Ranges Conservation Management Network.
    25.Michael Calver, Associate Professor in Biological Sciences, School of
    Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University.
    26.Andy Baker, BSc (Hons), Wildsite Ecological Services.
    27.Harry F. Recher, FRZS, AM, Senior Fellow, The Australian Museum.
    28.David Milledge MRSc, wildlife ecologist (UNE).
    29.Rhonda James, BBus M.EnvMan. Ecologist, Manager, Bushland Restoration
    Services, NSW
    30.Neil Marriott, B Ed. Environmental Consultant, Stawell, Vic.
    31.John Kershaw, B.Env.Sc., Dip.Nat.Res.Mgt. Senior Botanist, Ecology
    Australia Pty Ltd.
    32.Keely Ough, Scientist, BSc Hons.
    33. Bernard Mace, ARMIT, LIM, GMOO‐STS, RSV.
    34. Geoffrey William Carr, BSc, Director, Ecology Aust Pty Ltd.
    35. Ruth Marr, BSc(Hons), Ecologist, Ecology Australia.
    36.Dr Linden Gillbank, School of Historical and Philosophical Studies,
    University of Melbourne.
    37.Doug Frood, BSc (Hons), Principle, Pathways Bushland and Environment.
    38.Susie Duncan, BSc (Hons), Director, Hinterland Bush Links, SE Qld.
    39.Dr Chris Belcher, BSc, MSc PhD, Principle Ecosystems Env Consultants Vic
    40.Dr Heather Keith, Fenner School of Environment and Society, ANU.

    2. Logging native forests causes immediate emissions (around 60% of forest carbon in SE NSW forests is lost in logging) that
    cannot be recovered except over centuries (an estimated 53 years to recover 75%, 152 years to recover 90%).

              Richard C. Alkire        
    Professor Emeritus, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Charles and Dorothy Prizer Chair, Colleges of Liberal Arts and Sciences and of Engineering
              NSF Division of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences Has New Proposal Submission Process        

    The Division of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences (MCB) in the Directorate for Biological Sciences (BIO) of the National Science Foundation (NSF) is implementing an eight month cycle for proposal submission and will initiate new procedures, on a trial basis, for the submission and review of research proposals beginning in Fall, 2011.

    The new deadlines for submitting proposals are:


    September 06, 2011
    May 21, 2012
    January 28, 2013

     A researcher may now submit only one proposal (as a PI or co-PI) per cycle.
    The changes apply to the four core clusters in MCB:
    • Biomolecular Dynamics, Structure and Function
    • Cellular Processes
    • Genetic Mechanisms
    • Networks and Regulation

    A Dear Colleague Letter published on May 10, 2011 outlines the new process; details can be found in the new proogram solicitation, Division of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences: Investigator-initiated research projects (MCB).  FAQs related to the changes also have been posted.

    The goal of these new procedures is:

    •     to better manage proposal processing in the face of increasing numbers of proposals
    •     to reduce the growing burden on the PI and reviewer community
    •     to improve funding rates

    The Division feels that the longer review cycle (8 months vs. 6 months, previously) will now give the PIs of declined proposals sufficient time for thoughtful revision.

    Program contacts and other information can be found on the MCB Investigator-initiated Research program page.

    Research Web Categories: 

              Multi-color Electron Microscopy For Biomolecules        
    An added detector on an electron microscope can aid in determining which molecules are found in which parts of a cell, scientists at the UMCG and Delft University of Technology […]
              Prader Willi        
    In 2013 it was concluded the 48th cycle of rehabilitation for adults with Prader-Willi. The services that the Institute offers for the Prader-Willi syndrome are: Specialistic medical evaluation (neurologist, endocrinologist, geneticist, internist, physiatrist, radiologist, psychologist, neuropsychomotor therapist, physical therapist …).  Genetic diagnosis  Biomolecular and cellular research Daily rehabilitative Cycles and overnights for 4 times a year for about 1 month.  Continue Reading



    Ningún Elemento químico es exclusivo de los seres vivos y todos se encuentran también en la Naturaleza. Sin embargo, hay sólo 27 que forman parte permanente de la vida y otros 60 pueden aparecer ocasionalmente. Estos elementos se denominan elementos biogénicos o biolementos. Según su importancia y abundancia se clasifican en:

    · Elementos plásticos primarios: carbono, hidrógeno, oxígeno y nitrógeno. Representan algo más del 96% del peso de cualquier organismo. Son elementos imprescindibles para la creación de materia orgánica

    · Elementos secundarios indispensables: fósforo, azufre, sodio, potasio, calcio, magnesio y cloro. Constituyen el 3% en peso aproximadamente. Son bioelementos necesarios para la vida de la célula.

    · Oligoelementos o elementos traza: Además de los señalados existen otros que son necesarios para el funcionamiento celular y que en conjunto representan menos del 1%. No todos forman parte de los seres vivos. Cabe citar por ejemplo el hierro, cinc, bromo, yodo y silicio.

    Al contrario que en los seres inertes, donde el silicio es la base, en los seres vivos se utiliza la química del carbono por varias razones:

    · Al tener peso atómico bajo permite enlaces covalentes estables, pero no tanto para impedir las reacciones metabólicas.
    · La estructura del átomo de carbono permite conseguir largas cadenas ramificadas que pueden romperse con facilidad.
    · Los átomos de carbono se unen con facilidad al nitrógeno, hidrógeno, oxígeno y azufre, facilitando así la unión de diferentes grupos funcionales.
    · Función de los bioelementos primarios y secundarios

    El carbono y el hidrógeno constituyen la estructura básica de las moléculas orgánicas y, junto al oxígeno, son los principales componentes. El nitrógeno participa en la construcción de proteínas y ácidos nucleicos.
    El fósforo forma parte de los ácidos nucleicos y sus enlaces son utilizados en la obtención de energía. El azufre constituye parte de la mayoría de las proteínas.

    El resto de bioelementos secundarios se encuentran en el interior de la célula disociados como iones. El sodio potasio y cloro participan en mantener el grado de salinidad así como en el impulso nervioso.
    El calcio actúa como constitutivo de estructuras esqueléticas, en el mecanismo de contracción muscular y en la coagulación entre otros procesos. El magnesio es imprescindible para la acción catalítica de muchas enzimas.

    · Función de los oligoelementos

    Son necesarios para el funcionamiento de la célula y suelen asociarse a enzimas.
    El hierro participa en los procesos redox de la cadena respiratoria y forma parte de la hemoglobina. El cobre forma parte de múltiples enzimas de oxidación. El cobalto y el molibdeno forman parte de coenzimas. El yodo es fundamental para la hormona del tiroides y el flúor en la formación de los dientes.


    Los átomos de los diferentes bioelementos se combinan para formar las moléculas constituyentes de la vida que se dividen en inorgánicas (agua y sales minerales) y orgánicas (glúcidos, lípidos, proteínas y ácidos nucleicos)
    Muchos de estos compuestos orgánicos son macromoléculas formadas por otras moléculas más sencillas. La unidad estructural aislada se llama monómero y la macromolécula recibe el nombre de polímero.


    El agua constituye el 75 % en peso de la materia viva. Cuanto más joven es el individuo, más porcentaje de agua tiene en su organismo, que va perdiendo con el paso del tiempo. Según su situación se clasifica en:
    · Agua circulante: que se desplaza a través del organismo y es utilizada como transporte de sustancias.
    · Agua de imbibición: Se encuentra empapando los materiales citoplasmáticos, unida débilmente a los materiales biológicos de los que se separa por desecación a los 100 ºC
    · Agua ligada: retenida en combinaciones diversas en el interior de las células, no desaparece por desecación.
    · Propiedades del agua
    La diferencia de atracción de electrones hace que el átomo del agua sea un dipolo eléctrico con lo que las moléculas tienden a asociarse por puentes de hidrógeno. Se forman grupos de hasta nueve moléculas, pero se deshacen al momento.
    · Elevada capacidad disolvente y dispersante: Es el disolvente universal y tanto las sales cristalizadas, los iones y los compuestos orgánicos se disuelven con facilidad en ella. Así mismo dispersa sustancias anfipáticas, que contienen grupos hidrófobos e hidrófilos.
    · Elevada tensión superficial: es decir, que al contacto con otro medio forma una película bastante resistente.
    · Alto calor específico: el agua necesita una caloría para elevar un gramo 1 ºC, un valor relativamente alto que permite que el agua absorba o libere cantidades de calor sin sufrir variaciones en su temperatura.
    · Alta conductividad: facilita la distribución del calor por toda la masa de agua.
    · Alto calor de vaporización: necesita mucho calor para pasar a estado gaseoso.

    · Funciones biológicas del agua

    · Vehículo de transporte de sustancias: debido a su poder disolvente y dispersante transporta sustancias de un punto a otro del organismo. Por otra parte, resulta indispensable para el intercambio de materia entre célula y medio.
    · Medio de reacción: gracias al poder disolvente, la mayoría de las biomoléculas están disueltas en agua y de ese modo reaccionan entre sí.
    · Reactivo químico: participa en las reacciones por su capacidad de disociarse en iones H+ y OH-, como ocurre en la hidrólisis, rotura de enlaces introduciendo agua.
    · Agente regulador de la temperatura: ya que su alto calor específico le convierte en un excelente amortiguador de los cambios térmicos.


    En todos los seres vivos, tanto animales como vegetales se encuentran:
    En estado sólido, formando parte de estructuras esqueléticas, como el calcio en los huesos o la sílice en los caparazones de algas.
    En su mayoría en disolución, en forma iónica. Su metabolismo se diferencia del de los demás componentes de la materia viva en que no pueden ser ni producidas ni degradas. Las funciones principales de las sales son la regulación de los procesos osmóticos, la regulación del pH y la acción específica de los cationes

    · Regulación de los procesos osmóticos

    Si dos sustancias se ponen en contacto por difusión, el soluto pasa de la más concentrada a la más diluida hasta igualar concentraciones. Sin embargo, si dichas disoluciones se separan por una membrana impermeable (solo deja pasar el disolvente), únicamente pasará el disolvente de la más diluida, o hipotónica, a la más concentrada, o hipertónica. Este proceso se denomina ósmosis.
    La presión osmótica, que es la que se ejerce contra la membrana plasmática, es capaz de hacer ascender la disolución en contra de la gravedad.
    En la ósmosis se produce el fenómeno de plasmólisis, en el que la célula que desprende agua para igualar la concentración se arruga y el contrario, de turgencia, en el que la célula se dilata tanto que puede llegar a reventar. La membrana plasmática es la que actúa como membrana semipermeable.

    · Regulación del pH

    Para su buen funcionamiento, las células requieren un pH próximo a la neutralidad. Sin embargo, como resultado de las reacciones metabólicas, continuamente se están produciendo sustancias ácidas o básicas que alteran el pH. Para evitarlo, el organismo dispone de ciertos sistemas químicos, denominados amortiguadores o tampón que evitan el cambio de pH constituidos por un ácido débil y una sal del mismo ácido. El más importante es el formado por ácido carbónico y carbonato sódico.

    · Acción específica de los cationes

    Los cationes ejercen diversas acciones que dependen del tipo de catión y no pueden ser sustituidos por otro. Algunos de ellos son antagónicos, es decir, uno estimula una acción y otro la inhibe. Los cationes de Na y K son los que paralizan el corazón en la diástole, mientras que el Ca lo hace en la sístole, complementándose
    Teniendo todo esto en cuenta, podemos afirmar que para la vida, los líquidos han de guardar las siguientes relaciones:

    · Ser isotónico con las células (misma concentración)
    · Tener un pH apropiado, cercano a la neutralidad
    · Composición catiónica equilibrada, en determinada proporción


    · Estado sólido. Así se encuentran las sustancias que forman estructuras esqueléticas y de protección. Son inorgánicas (calcio) u orgánicas (celulosa)
    · Estado gaseoso. Son los gases que intervienen el metabolismo celular (oxígeno y dióxido de carbono) y los que son inertes (nitrógeno)
    · Estado líquido. Sustancias disueltas en agua.
    · Estudio de las disoluciones coloidales

    Los solutos de elevado peso molecular se denominan partículas coloidales o coloides. Sus propiedades son:

    o Capacidad de presentarse en estado de sol o de gel, es decir, en un estado más fluido o más viscoso. Ese paso de un estado a otro lo determina la cantidad de agua. El citoplasma interior está en estado de sol mientras que en la periferia se encuentra en estado de gel.

    o Elevada viscosidad, oponen gran resistencia al desplazamiento relativo de sus moléculas.

    o Gran poder adsorbente, poseen la capacidad de unir a su superficie gran cantidad de moléculas. Cuanto menos sea el tamaño de las partículas, mayor es su adherencia.

    o Presentan el efecto Tyndall. Al atravesarlas la luz presentan un aspecto turbio, por la reflexión y la refracción de la luz.

    o No se pueden sedimentar. Son estables y no sedimentan, al contrario que las suspensiones. Sin embargo, puede conseguirse mediante ultra centrifugación.

    o Se pueden purificar por diálisis, es decir, separar las partículas coloidales de las no coloidales mediante una membrana.

    o Se pueden separar por electroforesis, es decir, mediante la acción de una carga eléctrica.

              Ancient Brews with Dr Patrick McGovern – BeerSmith Podcast #153        
    Dr Patrick McGovern, Director of Biomolecular Archeology at the University of Pennsylvania Museum joins me this week to discuss research into ancient fermented beverages. You can find show notes and additional episodes on my blog here.
              carbohidratos cuestionario biokimik 1        





    Monosacáridos: Los monosacáridos o azúcares simples son los glúcidos más sencillos, conteniendo de tres a seis átomos de carbono. Su fórmula empírica es (CH2O)n donde n ≥ 3. Se nombran haciendo referencia al número de carbonos (3-6), terminado en el sufijo osa. La cadena carbonada de los monosacáridos no está ramificada y todos los átomos de carbono menos uno contienen un grupo alcohol (-OH). El átomo de carbono restante tiene unido un grupo carbonilo (C=O). Si este grupo carbonilo está en el extremo de la cadena se trata de un grupo aldehído (-CHO) y el monosacárido recibe el nombre de aldosa.

    Aldosa: Una aldosa es un monosacárido (cierto tipo de azúcares) conteniendo un grupo aldehído por molécula.Su fórmula química de la forma genérica CnH2nOn (n>=3). Los carbonos se van numerando desde el grupo aldehído (el más oxidado de la molécula) hacia abajo.
    Gliceraldehido: El gliceraldehído es una aldotriosa que posee dos isómeros ópticos ya que tiene un carbono asimétrico - en la figura: C* -.
    Centroquiral: Se llama centro quiral o asimétrico a un átomo unido a cuatro sustituyentes diferentes. Una molécula que posee un centro quiral tiene una imagen especular no superponible con ella, denominada enantiómero.
    Diasteromero: clase de estereoisómeros que no tienen una imagen especular entre ellos, es decir, no son enantiómeros. Entre ellas pueden tener diversas características físicas y diferente reactividad.
    Ceto hexona: en una primera aproximación, son polihidroxicetonas. La estructura contiene pues, varios grupos hidroxilos y un grupo carbonilo. El sufijo que se utiliza al referirnos a ellos es "osa". Si se presenta de forma similar a una cetona, diremos es una cetohexosa.
    Furanosa: los monosacáridos de cinco o más carbonos se encuentran fundamentalmente en forma cerrada, es decir, con el grupo carboxilo formando parte de un anillo hemiacetálico, que puede tener 5 o 6 átomos. Si tiene 5 átomos, la forma se llama furanosa,

    Hemiacetal cíclico: los monosacáridos de cinco o más carbonos se encuentran fundamentalmente en forma cerrada, es decir, con el grupo carboxilo formando parte de un anillo hemiacetálico
    Centro Anumerico:
    Azúcar reductor: son aquellos que, como la glucosa, fructosa, lactosa y maltosa presentan un carbono libre en su estructura y pueden reducir, en determinadas condiciones, a las sales cúpricas.

    Quintina: es un polisacárido que forma el recubrimiento muy resistente que poseen la mayoría de los artrópodos. Es el segundo polímero natural más abundante después de la celulosa. Es usada como agente floculante para tratamiento de agua, como agente para curar heridas, como espesante y estabilizador en alimentos y medicamentos, como resina intercambiadora de iones. Es altamente insoluble en agua y en solventes orgánicos debido a los enlaces de hidrógeno que presenta la molécula.

    Glucocidos: Enlace Glicocidico: es el enlace para unir monosacáridos con el fin de formar disacáridos o polisacáridos

    Intolerancia a l a lactosa: es una afectación de la mucosa intestinal con imposibilidad para digerir la lactosa (azúcar de la leche) debido a una deficiencia de una enzima llamada lactasa.

    Homo polisacárido: compuesto de un único tipo de monómero
    Granulo de glucógeno: es una sola molécula, consistente en una cadena muy ramificada, rodeada por las enzimas que participan en su formación y degradación. A los gránulos aislados se les denomina glucógeno  . Cuando forman acúmulos a modo de roseta, se le llama glucógeno .

    Lectina: Proteína que se une fuertemente a un azúcar específico. Muchas lectinas derivan de semillas vegetales ya menudo se utilizan como reactivos de afinidad para purificar glucoproteínas o para detectarlas sobre la superficie de las células.

    Glicoproteína: son moléculas compuestas por una proteína unida a uno o varios hidratos de carbono, simples o compuestos. Tienen entre otras funciones el reconocimiento celular cuando están presentes en la superficie de la membrana plasmática.

    Acido sialico: es el ácido N-acetil-neuramínico presente en los gangliósidos



    Dihidroxiacetona: No tiene centro quiral
    Ribosa:tiene 3 centros quirales
    Eritrulosa:tiene 1 centro quiral
    Glucosamina:4 centros quirales
    Fructuosa:tiene 3 centros quirales
    Sedohectulosa:tiene 4 centros quirales
    2-desoxirribosa:tiene 2 centros quirales
    N-acetil glucosalina:5 centros
    Acido ciánico:1 centro quiral







    a)glucosa: la prueba da positivo, porque el OH del carbono carbonilo está libre, por lo que reacciona con el sulfato de cobre del Fehling (azúl), reduciendo a óxido de cobre (rojo ladrillo).
    b)ribosa 5-fosfato: la prueba da positivo
    c) trealosa.- la prueba da positiva
    d) lactosa.- la prueba da positivo, porque el OH del carbono carbonilo está libre, al igual que la glucosa.
    e) sacarosa.- la prueba da negativo, porque en este disacárido ambos grupos OH de los carbonos carbonilos participan en el enlace o-glucosídico.
    f) maltosa.- la prueba da positivo, porque el OH del carbono carbonilo está libre, al igual que la glucosa y lactosa

    A)GLICERALDHEIDO.-Contiene grupo funcional hidroxilo y aldheido
    B)GLUCOSA(FISCHER).-Contiene grupo funcional hidroxilo y aldheido
    C)GLUCOSA(HAWORTH).-Contiene grupo funcional hidroxilo
    D)N-ACETILGLUCOSAMINA.-Grupo funcional cetona y amino
    E)ACIDO GALACTURONICO.-Grupo funcional carboxilo

    7.8 escriba el nombre y dibuje la estructura de un disacárido o el polisacárido que tiene al menos uno de los tipos siguientes de o-glycosidic bonds.use cualquier monosacárido de construye el oligosacarido.

    A)GLICINA.-No tiene grupo OH
    B)4 HIDROXIPROLINA.-Si tiene grupo OH
    C)ASPAROGINA.-No tiene grupo OH
    D)VALINA.-No tiene grupo OH
    E)SERINA.-Si tiene OH
    F)5 HIDROXILISINA.-Si tiene OH
    G)TREONINA.-SI tiene OH
    H)CISTEINA.-No tiene OH


    GLUCOSA.-4 carbonos anomericos
    RIBOSA.-3 carbonos anomericos
    GALACTOSA.-4 crabonos anomericos
    FRUCTOSA.-3 carbonos anomericos
    SEDOHEPTULOSA.-4 carbonos anomericos




    Se obtiene exclusivamente de los vegetales que lo sintetizan a partir del dióxido de carbono que toman de la atmósfera y del agua que toman del suelo. .- en los cereales y vegetales.
    seres humanos, en el hígado, el corazón y los músculos
    La síntesis de glucógeno a partir de glucosa se llama glucogénesis y se produce gracias al enzima glucógeno sintetizas. seres humanos, en el hígado, el corazón y los músculos

    Reserva energética Proporciona gran parte de la energía que consumimos los humanos por vía de los alimentos.
    Material de reserva energetica
    Mezcla de dos de la amilosa y la amilo pectina.

    Unidas entre ellas por enlaces  1-4 lo que da lugar a una cadena lineal.
    se une a la siguiente cadena mediante un enlace α-1,6-glucosídico



    Tienen entre otras funciones el reconocimiento celular cuando están presentes en la superficie de la membranas plasmáticas.
    Reconocimiento celular
    Los tipos sanguíneos dependen del tipo de glicoproteína que contienen la membrana de los eritrocitos; el tipo de sangre A tiene como oligosacárido una cadena de N-acetilgalactosamina, mientras que el tipo B tiene una cadena de galactosa, de tal modo que, el tipo AB presenta los 2 tipos de glicoproteínas y el tipo O carece de ambos. Para determinar el tipo sanguíneo se usan antisueros, que contienen anticuerpos que reconocen determinado tipo de glicoproteína (el antisuero A reconoce la glicoproteína A). El conocimiento del tipo sanguíneo es importante para hacer transfusiones y evitar la formación de coágulos que provocan infartos y trombosis cerebrales mortales


    a)Gliceraldehido contra dihidroxicetona pares aldosa cetosa
    b)Glucosa contra fructosa anómeros
    c)Glucosa contra manosa epímeros
    d)Triosa contra eritrosa enantiómeros
    e)2 glucosamina contra 2 galactosamina anómeros
    f)alfa glucosa contra beta glucosa anómeros
    g)d glucosa contra l glucosa enantiómeros
    h)d glucosa contra d galactosa anómeros


    Porque forma una estructura ciclica hemiacetal se requieren mas de 4 carbonos,para formar el ciclo y el gliceraldehido solo tiene 3 carbonos

    7.19 use el fórmula de proyección haworth para dibujar cada uno de los monosacáridos siguientes
    a - D - manosa

    CH2OH -O-P

    a - D-glucosa - G - fosfato

    a - D - desoxirribosa CH2OH

    7.20 El disacárido trealosa es el mayor componente de la hemolinfa, la circulación de fluidos en insectos, y está abundante en las setas, hongos y bacterias. Es un componente únicamente 2 unidades con enlaces alfa, alfa (1,2) glucosaza.
    ¿Es un carbohidrato reductor?
    Parte de 2 glucosas reductoras dulces por lo tanto se consigue de un disacárido no reductor, con un bajo poder edulcorante.

    Dibuja esta estructura

    7.21 Completa las siguientes reacciones de carbohidratos y dibuja las estructuras de los productos orgánicos

    a - D-glucosa + CH3OH



    7.24 Escribe la reacción catalizadora de cada una de las siguientes enzimas.





    Oxido reduccion d)glucosa+nadh+h+---------sorbitol + nad+
    Hidrólisis b)lactosa+h2o ----------galactosa +glucosa

    Fosforizacion a)d-glucosa + glucosa -------glucosa-1-fosfato + adp

    Isomeracion c)gliceraldheido -3-fosfato-----dihidroxiacetona fosfato




    A)PH 1.0
    B)PH 7.0
    C)PH 12.0

    7.31 el cacahuete lectina ata expresamente al disacarido galactosa la n-acetilgalactosamina. Los dos monosacáridos son unidos por una B (1,3)obligación glucosilacion. Dibuje la estructura de este disacárido

              Nature Communications article on carbon dots, with co-author Paul Kenis        
    "A Metal-free Electrocatalyst for Carbon Dioxide Reduction to Multi-carbon Hydrocarbons and Oxygenates" was published December 13, 2016 in Nature Communications, and includes co-author Paul Kenis (Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering).
              Nanotechnology Basics        

    What is Nanotechnology?

    Answers differ depending on who you ask, and their background. Broadly speaking however, nanotechnology is the act of purposefully manipulating matter at the atomic scale, otherwise known as the "nanoscale."

    Coined as "nano-technology" in a 1974 paper by Norio Taniguchi at the University of Tokyo, and encompassing a multitude of rapidly emerging technologies, based upon the scaling down of existing technologies to the next level of precision and miniaturization. Taniguchi approached nanotechnology from the 'top-down' standpoint, from the viewpoint of a precision engineer.

    Foresight Nanotech Institute Founder K. Eric Drexler introduced the term "nanotechnology" to the world in 1986, using it to describe a 'bottom-up' approach. Drexler approaches nanotechnology from the point-of-view of a physicist, and defines the term as "large-scale mechanosynthesis based on positional control of chemically reactive molecules." See our Press Kit History of Nanotechnology for details.

    In the future, "nanotechnology" will likely include building machines and mechanisms with nanoscale dimensions, referred to these days as Molecular Nanotechnology (MNT).


    It uses a basic unit of measure called a "nanometer" (abbreviated nm). Derived from the Greek word for midget, "nano" is a metric prefix and indicates a billionth part (10-9).

    There are one billion nm's to a meter. Each nm is only three to five atoms wide. They're small. Really small. ~40,000 times smaller than the width of an average human hair. (See How small is one-billionth of a meter?)

    A good reference to visit to help you understand the nanoscale materials end of "nanotech" is the Teacher's Guide To The (Small) World Of Nanostructured Materials

    One aspect of nanotechnology is all about building working mechanisms using components with nanoscale dimensions (MNT), such as super small computers (think bacteria-sized) with today's MIPS capacity, or supercomputers the size of a sugar cube, possessing the power of a billion laptops, or a regular sized desktop model with the power of trillions of today's PC's.

    The other aspect deals with scaling down existing technologies to the nanoscale, examples of which can be seen at our Current Uses page.

    Some of the most promising potential of nanotechnology exists due to the laws of quantum physics. Quantum physics laws take over at this scale, enabling novel applications in optics, electronics, magnetic storage, computing, catalysts, and other areas.

    Regardless of the diverse opinions on the rate at which nanotechnology will be implemented, people who make it a habit of keeping up with technology advances agree on this: it is a technology in its infancy, and it holds the potential to change everything.

    Read this great Introduction from the Center for Responsible Nanotechnology for a better understanding of what nanotechnology is and is not, the social and business implications, and some steps being considered to control misuse.

    Related and interwoven fields include, but are not limited to: Nanomaterials, Nanomedicine, Nanobiotechnology, Nanolithography, Nanoelectronics, Nanomagnetics, Nanorobots, Biodevices (biomolecular machinery), AI, MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), NEMS (NanoElectroMechanical Systems), Biomimetic Materials, Microencapsulation, and many others.

    Let's start BIG, with something you can get your hands on (so to speak):

    A meter is about the distance from the tip of your nose to the end of your hand (1 meter = 3.28 feet).

    One thousandth of that is a millimeter.

    Now take one thousandth of that, and you have a micron: a thousandth of a thousandth of a meter. Put another way: a micron is a millionth of a meter, which is the scale that is relevant to - for instance - building computers, computer memory, and logic devices.

    Now, let's go smaller, to the nanometer:

    A nanometer is one thousandth of a micron, and a thousandth of a millionth of a meter (a billionth of a meter). Imagine: one billion nanometers in a meter.

    Courtesy and © Quantum Dot Corporation ( Refer the image at the end of the post )
    Another perspective: a nanometer is about the width of six bonded carbon atoms, and approximately 40,000 are needed to equal the width of an average human hair.

    Another way to visualize a nanometer:
    1 inch = 25,400,000 nanometers

    Red blood cells are ~7,000 nm in diameter, and ~2000 nm in height
    White blood cells are ~10,000 nm in diameter
    A virus is ~100 nm
    A hydrogen atom is .1 nm

    Nanoparticles range from 1 to 100 nm
    Fullerenes (C60 / Buckyballs) are 1 nm
    Quantum Dots (of CdSe) are 8 nm
    Dendrimers are ~10 nm
    DNA (width) is 2 nm
    Proteins range from 5 to 50 nm
    Viruses range from 75 to 100 nm
    Bacteria range from 1,000 to 10,000 nm

    For our purposes, nanometers pertain to science, technology, manufacturing, chemistry, health sciences, materials science, space programs, and engineering.

    Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering and technology, nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale.

    At the nanoscale, the physical, chemical, and biological properties of materials differ in fundamental and valuable ways from the properties of individual atoms and molecules or bulk matter. Nanotechnology R&D is directed toward understanding and creating improved materials, devices, and systems that exploit these new properties.

    From What is Nanotechnology?

    Powers of 10 From 10-15 meters (a fermi), in steps of 10, to 10 -9 meters (nanometer), all the way out to 10 +16 meters (a lightyear), and finally, to 10 +23 meters (10 million light years). If you have not seen this really neat series of viewpoints, it can help to put scale into perspective!

    "View the Milky Way at 10 million light years from the Earth. Then move through space towards the Earth in successive orders of magnitude until you reach a tall oak tree just outside the buildings of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in Tallahassee, Florida. After that, begin to move from the actual size of a leaf into a microscopic world that reveals leaf cell walls, the cell nucleus, chromatin, DNA and finally, into the subatomic universe of electrons and protons."

    Courtesy and © web site.
    Declaration : This blog site is not for any commercial / business purpose.

              Blog: Arsenic-based life gets even more toxic        

    Scientists pound two more nails into the coffin of an incredible scientific claim

    Deleted Scenes

    The brouhaha over a 2010 report that a microbe can incorporate the toxic element arsenic in its cells continues — though most experts consider the issue settled long ago. A study from Rosemary Redfield’s lab at the University of British Columbia that replicated the original experiments and found no evidence that microbe GFAJ-1 was using arsenic to survive has now been published online in Science (Science News covered it in February).

    Science is also publishing a second paper by ETH Zurich microbiologists that comes to the same conclusion: GFAJ-1 is extremely tolerant of arsenic and very good at scavenging phosphorus. That makes it a pretty cool microbe, but poor GFAJ-1 will never live up to its original hype. When you’ve been touted as a New Form of Life, well, Really Good at Finding Phosphorus just doesn’t have the same cachet.

    That brings Science, a journal with plenty of cachet, to a total of eight technical comments and two papers unquestionably refuting the original findings by Felisa Wolfe-Simon and her colleagues. Yet their paper still hasn’t been retracted. Why not?

    “Ideally a correction or other such statement should be initiated by the authors,” says Ginger Pinholster, director of public programs at the American Association for the Advancement of Science, publisher of Science. “So we assume that Felisa Wolfe-Simon and her colleagues need time now to review these studies and come to their own conclusions.”

    The editorial statement released by Science with the new studies wasn’t quite as forgiving. “Contrary to an original report, the new research clearly shows that the bacterium, GFAJ-1, cannot substitute arsenic for phosphorus to survive,” it states. “In conclusion, the new research shows that GFAJ-1 does not break the long-held rules of life, contrary to how Wolfe-Simon had interpreted her group’s data.”

    Wolfe-Simon’s statements suggest she may not be ready to reinterpret her results. “Our data implied that a very small amount of arsenate may be incorporated into cells and biomolecules helping cells to survive in environments of high arsenate and very low phosphate. Such low amounts of arsenic incorporation may be challenging to find and unstable once cells are opened,” she wrote in an e-mail.

    But whether Wolfe-Simon and her colleagues ever come around may be less important than how the research lives on in the record. More than 90 percent of retracted papers are cited as if they have never been retracted, says Ivan Oransky, executive editor at Reuters Health and cocreater of Retraction Watch, which covers retractions as part of the scientific process. A naïve reader who lands on the Science page hosting Wolfe-Simon et al’s paper may not know or bother to scroll past the 11 “suggested reading” links that sit between the original paper and the newly published findings that contradict it.

              Question from – Biomolecules        
    View the answer on clay6.comjeemain,aipmt,chemistry,biomolecules,organic-chemistry,cbse,class12,unit16,difficult,q95
              John Mattick still claims that most lncRNAs are functional         

    Most of the human genome is transcribed at some time or another in some tissue or another. The phenomenon is now known as pervasive transcription. Scientists have known about it for almost half a century.

    At first the phenomenon seemed really puzzling since it was known that coding regions accounted for less than 1% of the genome and genetic load arguments suggested that only a small percentage of the genome could be functional. It was also known that more than half the genome consists of repetitive sequences that we now know are bits and pieces of defective transposons. It seemed unlikely back then that transcripts of defective transposons could be functional.

    Part of the problem was solved with the discovery of RNA processing, especially splicing. It soon became apparent (by the early 1980s) that a typical protein coding gene was stretched out over 37,000 bp of which only 1300 bp were coding region. The rest was introns and intron sequences appeared to be mostly junk.

    Since there are about 20,000 protein-coding genes, this means that almost 25% of the genome is transcribed just to produce those 20,000 proteins. This accounted for some of pervasive transcription. If you add in known genes for all the noncoding RNAs then you get to about 30% of the genome.

    What about the rest? The latest deep sequencing studies from ENCODE and other sources suggest that about 80% of the genome is transcribed. Are there huge numbers of undiscovered genes for noncoding RNAs?

    The growing consensus is that most of this transcription is spurious or accidental transcription produced by inappropriate transcription initiation at random sites in the genome. This is consistent with data showing that most transcripts are present at very low concentrations in the cells where they are detected. It's also consistent with the idea that most of these transcripts come from regions of the genome that are not conserved—it could be junk DNA.

    Another bit of evidence is largely negative. After decades of looking for function there is still only a relatively small proportion of those transcripts that have been shown to have a biological function. Furthermore, the specificity of these transcripts is consistent with low level spurious transcription due to inappropriate binding of cell-specific transcription factors [see How many lncRNAs are functional: can sequence comparisons tell us the answer?].

    As my colleagues Alex Palazzo and Eliza Lee point out, the default, or null, hypothesis should be that these transcripts do not have a function. The onus is on those who wish to show that most of them have a function (Palazzo and Lee, 2015).

    John Mattick is one of those who defend the functionality of pervasive transcription. He thinks the human genome is full of thousands of noncoding genes that exquisitely regulate the protein-coding genes. He assumes that most of the transcripts are functional just because they exist.

    Mattick was awarded a prestigious prize a few years ago for his great insight (?) [John Mattick Wins Chen Award for Distinguished Academic Achievement in Human Genetic and Genomic Research]. Let me remind you of the citation ...
    The Award Reviewing Committee commented that Professor Mattick’s “work on long non-coding RNA has dramatically changed our concept of 95% of our genome”, and that he has been a “true visionary in his field; he has demonstrated an extraordinary degree of perseverance and ingenuity in gradually proving his hypothesis over the course of 18 years.”
    I was hoping that, over time, Mattick would begin to appreciate the view that most transcripts are non-functional. I was hoping that he would, at the very least, begin to understand the arguments of his opponents (I am one).

    That's a forlorn hope as his latest paper shows. Mattick and his colleagues work at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research in Sydney Australia. The Garvan Institute is associated with the University of New South Wales. Their latest review appears in Trends in Genetics (Deveson et al., 2017). Here's the abstract ...
    The combination of pervasive transcription and prolific alternative splicing produces a mammalian transcriptome of great breadth and diversity. The majority of transcribed genomic bases are intronic, antisense, or intergenic to protein-coding genes, yielding a plethora of short and long non-protein-coding regulatory RNAs. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) share most aspects of their biogenesis, processing, and regulation with mRNAs. However, lncRNAs are typically expressed in more restricted patterns, frequently from enhancers, and exhibit almost universal alternative splicing. These features are consistent with their role as modular epigenetic regulators. We describe here the key studies and technological advances that have shaped our understanding of the dimensions, dynamics, and biological relevance of the mammalian noncoding transcriptome.
    Let's see how he deals with the controversy.

    Most of the genome is junk. There is abundant evidence that most of our genome (~90%) is junk. That means most of pervasive transcription produces junk RNA. Mattick and his colleagues don't deal with the evidence in favor of junk DNA.

    Sequence conservation. The sequences and expression of most transcripts are not conserved. This is exactly what you expect for spurious transcription of junk DNA. This doesn't bother Mattick and his colleagues because they think the functional transcripts are likely human specific and therefore not conserved.

    Low abundance. The paper argues that low abundance is not a problem because many of the lncRNAs are highly concentrated in a small number of cells rather than being distributed at low levels over thousands of cells.
    One of the key concerns about the biological relevance of lncRNAs has been their low abundance in tissue samples, sometime argued to be a manifestation of "transcritpional noise." However, accumulating evidence suggest that this reflects heightened spatiotemporal precision rather than low abundance background noise.

    Lack of proven function. The fact that only a few transcripts have a function is not a problem because we have some excellent examples of functional RNAs. Furthermore, assays for function by deletion or knock-out have revealed that some unknown lncRNAs might be functional. For example, a recent study showed that deleting 700 lncRNAs uncovered 51 (7%) that produced a change in the phenotype of cancer cells. Another knock-out study showed that 499 out of 16,401 (3%) affected cell growth. I prefer to see this glass as mostly empty.

    Specificity. The fact that many transcripts are only found in some cell types is often used as an indication of function and that's how Mattick and his colleagues see it. However, cell specificity is also what you expect from spurious transcription. They don't mention that.

    Alternative splicing. Mattick believes that most (probably all) protein-coding genes undergo alternative splicing to produce at least 10-12 different protein isoforms. To him, this is an example of fine-tuned regulation. He cites papers showing that many lncRNAs precursors are also alternatively spliced to produce a variety of different forms. To his way of thinking, this analogy to protein-coding genes implies that lncRNA are also part of a sophisticated gene regulation network.
    The exon-centric architecture of lncRNAs, in which exons are recombined into a dizzying diversity of isoforms, can also be reconciled with an RNA-driven developmental program. This implies that exons may act as discrete functional domains, each with a unique and specific affinity for external biomolecules (specific protein domains, DNA motifs, etc.). Modular recombination of lncRNA exons may enable diverse and dynamic interactions, for instance by delivering a particular chromatin remodeler to particular sites in the genome at specific moments in development.
    I think most splice variants in protein-coding genes are due to splicing errors and the typical protein-coding gene makes only one polypeptide. All available evidence is consistent with this view.

    Since I don't believe in abundant alternative splicing in protein-coding genes, I don't think abundant splice variants in non-functional transcripts of junk DNA are significant.

    The controversy over functional transcripts continues. It's disappointing that proponents of function fail to address the arguments of their opponents and it's disappointing that most of them still believe in abundant alternative splicing. It's disappointing that they ignore the arguments in favor of junk DNA. It's disappointing that they dismiss sequence conservation as an important criterion in deciding function.

    This is largely a clash of worldviews. Some of us see biology as inherently sloppy and messy and we aren't the least bit surprised about splicing errors, transcription errors, and junk DNA. Other see cells more like finely-tuned Swiss watches where every molecule has a precise role to play and every molecule has a function. All you have to do is discover that function.

    Deveson, I.W., Hardwick, S.A., Mercer, T.R., and Mattick, J.S. (2017) The Dimensions, Dynamics, and Relevance of the Mammalian Noncoding Transcriptome. TRENDS in Genetics. 33:464-478. [doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2017.04.004]

    Palazzo, A.F., and Lee, E.S. (2015) Non-coding RNA: what is functional and what is junk? Frontiers in Genetics, 6. [doi: 10.3389/fgene.2015.00002]

              LA CELULA        
    La celula es la unidad morfologica y funcional de todo ser vivo .la celula es el elemento de menor tamaño que puede considerarse este modo puede clasificarse a los organismos  vivos segun el numero de celulas posean ;si solo tiene una se les denomina unicelulares como protozoos o las bacterias .
    si poseen mas se les llama pluricelulares, en estos el numero de celulas es variable , de unos pocos cientos como en algunos nematodos a cientos billones , como en el caso del ser humano .
    la aparicion del primer organismo vivo sobre la tierra suele asociarse al nacimiento de la primera celula. si bien existen muchas hipotesis que especulan como ocurrio , usualmente se describe que el proceso se inicio gracias a la transformacion de moleculas bajo unas coondiciones ambientales adecuadas son capaces de autorreplicarse.
    existen dos tipos la sprocariontas :que comprenden las celulas arqueas y bacterias .
    eucarontas divididas tradicionalmente en animales y vegetales , si bien se incluyen ademas hongos y protistas , que tambien tienen celulas con propiedades caracteristicas .
    consiste en biomoleculas y algunas metales y estructura se automantieneactivamentemedianteel metabolismo , asegurandose la coordinacion de todos los elementos celulares y su perpetuacion por replicacion a traves de un genoma codificado por acidos nucleicos . caracteristicas extructurales comunica con el interior , que controla los movimientos celulares y que mantiene el potencial de membrana.contiene un medio interno acuoso ,citosol , que forma la mayor parte del volumen celular y en el que estan inmersos los organulos celulares.poseen material genetico en forma de adn , el material hereditario de los genes y contiene arn .
    tiene enzimas y  otras proteinas .
    mitocondria,son organulos de aspecto , numero y tamaño variable que interviene en el ciclo de krebs ,fosforilacion oxidativa y en la cadena de transporte de electrones de la respiracion .
    presentan una doble membrana externa e interna.
    los cloroplasto son los oorganulos celulares que en los organismos eucariotas fotosinteticos se ocupan de la fotosintesis contienen vesicula , los tilacoides donde estan los pigmentos y moleculas implicadas en la conversion de energia luminosa en energia quimica .intervienen en el metabolismo interno produciendo energia
    Los componentes celulares citoplasmicos clasificados como organitos en una celula animal son:
    1.organitos membranosos que incluyen :
    a) membrana celular
    b) reticulo endoplasmico
    c) aparato de golgi
    d) mitocondrias
    e) lisosomas

    2) ribosomas
    3) centriolos
    4) fibrillas ,filamentos y tubulos
    5) inclusiones citoplasmicas
    Estas estructuras no se limitan a la celula con su medio ambiente , sino que tambien limitan y separan  partes de la celula para favorecer o evitar cierto tipo de reacciones.
    Protege y separa una celula de otra y la aisla del medio extracelular , presenta un sistema de plieges en forma de canales y compartimentos .otr forma de incorporar sustanciasal interior de ella es por medio de la pinocitosis y la fagocitosis .
    Esta formado por un sistema de vesiculas o cisternas cuya pared es una membrana se divide en dos variedades
    tiene bordes inregulares debido a la presencia de ribosomas unidos a la membrana tiene coo funcion la sintesis de proteina que es secretada al exterior de la celula
    carece de ribosomas dado su aspecto regular lleva acabo funciones de sintesis de hormonas , lipidos , o carbohidratos transmision de impulsos y destoxificacion de sustancias como hormonas o medicamentos .
    esta tambien un sistema de vesiculas membranosas y se le considera la continuacion del RE rugoso almacena momentaneamente completa sintesis agregandole lipido o carbohidrato que necesita la proteina .
    Estan constituidas por dos membranas :interna y externa . la interna con pliegues que se proyectan al exterior de la misma .Ambas membranas preentan subestructuras mas pequeñas llamadas corpulus elementales .
    son globulos o vesiculas membranosas que contienen enzimas proteoliticas cuya funcion es digerir o destruir las particulas fagocitadas .
    son pequeñas estructuras celulares corpusculares que pueden estar asociadas con la RE o en libertad formando en ocaciones pequeños grupos llamados polirribosomas. su funcion esta relacionada con la sintesis proteica dado que es en estas estructuras que se una el RNA mensajero del nucleo .
    son estructuras formadas por nueve haces tubulares dispuestos en forma cilindrica .su funcion es organizar la proteina fibrilar que a su vez tiene participacion muy importante en la reproducion celular .
    son estructuras con diferentes funciones como sosten celular , capacidad contractil o de transporte intracelular segun su estructura . las fibrillas que dan sosten estan constituidas basicamente por una proteina denominada actina que se encuentra en continuo cambio formando lo que se conoce como citoesqueleto .
    con este termino se describen los materiales intracelulares que pueden ser de tres tipos
    a) alimentos almacenados , como glucogeno ,lipidos
    b)granulos y globulos de secresion , como enzimas hormonas
    c)pigmentos hemoglobina ,melanina
    este nucleo se encuentra almacenada la informacion genetica que en el transcurso de la vida de una celula regula las funciones que tienen lugar en el citoplasma  
              organizacion del cuerpo        
    La ciencia de la estructura corporal de los organismos se denomina fisiologia es la ciencia que estudia las funciones de los organismos, muchas de las facetas de la anatomia y la fisiologia se basan en otra ciencia, la quimica.
    MATERIA :todo lo que ocupa espacio,y que tiene masa , sea grande o pequeño sea vivo o no.
    ELEMENTOS:es una forma simple de materia, una sustancia que no puede descomponerse en dos o mas sustancias diferentes.
    ATOMOS:son las unidades estructurales que constituyen cada elemento.
    DALTON quimico ingles , propuso a principios del siglo xix la teoria de que la materia esta compuesta por atomos.
    tambien dijo que esta compuesto por neutrones un nucleo y electrones.
    REACCIONES QUIMICAS :las reacciones quimicas se efectuan por actividad de los electrones impares que se encuentran en las capas mas exteriores de los atomos .
    RADIOACTIVIDAD:la radioactividad consiste en en un cambio del nucleo atomico.
    BIOQUIMICA:es la quimica de los organismos una ciencia joven pero amplia ,tanto que algunas obras de la bioquimica contienen mas de 1000 paginas.
    BIOMOLECULAS:son compuestos que intregan los organismos vivientes, la mas abundante de ella es el agua . los miles de ostras encajan en siete clases de compuestos:acidos , bases , sales , proteinas , carbohidratos , lipidos y acidos nucleicos.
    Los acidos , la bases y las sales pertenecen a un grupo de compuestos que se denominan electrolitos.
    Los electrolitos son compuestos cuyas moleculas estan constituidas por iones positivos e iones negativos que se disocian cuando se disuelve el agua y forman cationes y aniones.
    Las proteinas son los compuestos que contienen carbono organico mas abundante del cuerpo.
    catalizan las reacciones quimicas , transportan substancias,producen movimientos , regulan funciones , constituyen varias partes y nos defienden contra ,muchas substancias mortiferas.
    los carbohidratos son las substancias que se denominana momunmente azucares y almidones .
    Hay tres tipos monosacaridos, disacaridos y polisacaridos.
    su funcion  liberacion y almacenamiento de energia .
              Green Tea Lipids + Statins, PWO CHO + Glycogen, Visceral Fat, Heart Health + Anthrax - Research Update July '17        
    Matcha releases more antioxidants than tea leaves (Fujioka. 2016).
    Only recently, you've read the "Caffeine June 2017 Research Update" [(re-)read it] here at the SuppVersity. Some of the effects of green tea have thus already been discussed. After all, caffeine is one of the health-relevant ingredients of tea; it is, however, not the most important one.

    As Yuan Fen et al. explain in their latest meta-analysis of the effects of green tea on blood lipids, tea can be classified as green tea, oolong tea or black tea depending on the manufacturing process" (Fen 2017). What exactly it is that mediates the various health benefits of tea (inflammation, hypertension/heart disease, and cancer | Serafini 2011) and their potency may thus differ slightly from tea to tea.
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    For example, "green tea is abundant with kaempferol glycosides, while oolong tea contains more quercetin and myricetin glycosides and black tea is rich in quercetin glycosides" (Fen 2017). Most importantly, however, teas contain substances we call catechins, e.g. epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin (EC). EGCG is considered to be is the major and functional component (Fen 2017). Accordingly, hitherto published studies tested or ascribed the health effects of green tea to the high relative amount of EGCG. I have thus chosen both studies using real tea and EGCG/catechin supplements for this SuppVersity Research Update:
    • Green tea improves your blood lipids like a statin, but without the side-effect-prone mechanism of blocking cholesterol completely (Fen 2017) -- The effects of green tea consumption on lipid metabolism in people with overweight or obesity was the research interest of the previously cited study by Fen et al. in "Molecular Nutrition & Food Research". Based on 21 published RCTs, the scientists calculated that ...
      Figure 1: No clear effect on HDL was observed (Fen 2017).
      "[...] green tea significantly decreased plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) levels in overweight or obese people[, in form of a] 3.38mg/dl [reduction] for TC (95% CI: -6.42, -0.33mg/dl) and -5.29mg/dl [reduction] for LDL (95% CI: -7.92, -2.66mg/dl), respectively" (Fen 2017).
      That sounds great, but the absolute change in LDL is small in comparison to the average statin, which achieves reductions of 69.6 mg/dl (Law 2003).
    Warning! EGCG may mess with the efficacy of your statins (and other medications): It's important to note, that EGCG acutely reduces the pharmacokinetics of statins. This has been proven only recently (Kim 2017) for rosuvastatin in healthy volunteers, whose systemic exposure to the drug was reduced by a whopping 19% when EGCG and rosuvastatin were co-administered only once. Interestingly enough, though, two weeks of chronic EGCG supplementation abolished this inhibitory effect. Green tea does that by interacting with a range of intestinal and hepatic organic anion transport peptides (OATPs) and we're yet far from understanding all its drug interactions. Proven have been the previously mentioned interaction with rosuvastatin, as well as interactions with the blood pressure medication (beta blocker) nadolol, and another statin, namely simvastatin, where it had, paradoxically, opposing effects and increased the plasma concentration by inhibiting both, intestinal CYP3A4 and P-gp and hepatic OATP1B1 (Werba 2015).

    And there's more. In rodents on high cholesterol diets, scientists from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem have recently been able to demonstrate that the effect of green tea polyphenols on bile acid will overload your livers ability to get rid of cholesterol and thus promote non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (Tirosh 2017) - a phenomenon that has already been observed in human beings, too.
    • Accordingly, people who actually need statin drugs because they have a genetically high risk of heart disease would be ill advised to try and replace their medications with green tea - not just, but also because "green tea's effect on plasma TG and HDL must be further evaluated by additional high-quality and large-scale RCTs" (Fen 2017) - also to answer, among others, the following question.
      • the differential effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated green tea on triglycerides (↕ for regular ↘ for decaffeinated green tea)
      • differences in health effects in healthy overweight or obese individuals vs. unhealthy overweight or obese individuals (in whom the scientists' subgroup analyses, for example, showed sign. reductions in triglycerides that were not observed in healthy subjects)
      • age-effects that couldn't be analyzed in the current meta-analysis of studies in which people from all age groups (from children to the elderly) participated
      • the seriousness and root cause of side effects, which were transient, but were still reported in four of the twenty-one trials
      For (lean and obese) individuals who are interested in overall heart health and don't have a genetically determined increased risk of heart disease, the 2-4 cups of green tea (or 300-1500mg green tea extract) the subjects in the 21 RCTs certainly are the better choice for cholesterol control - after all, the reduction in total (TC) and low-density cholesterol/lipoproteins (LDL) occurs in the absence of headaches, flushing, weakened and impaired skeletal muscle, diabetes, and liver injury - all repeatedly reported side effects of statin therapy (Mancini 2011; Chaipichit 2015; Castro 2016).
    600mg/day Anything Beyond That and EGCG May Mess W/ Your Liver Health! Scientists Propose 300mg/day Limit for EGCS in Food Supplements (read the SuppVersity Facebook News Post from July 2nd, 2017). While evidence that the real deal, i.e. green tea can damage your liver, things look different for supplements with isolated catechins, esp. EGCG.

    Dekant et al. recently reviewed the existing literature and came to the conclusion that EGCG has the potential to induce hepatic damage. Based on the finding that "[i]n clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day," the researchers propose a "tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day" which would give you "a twofold safety margin" (Dekant 2017).
    • New study questions previously reported beneficial effects of green tea on post-exercise glycogen resynthesis, but... (Tsai 2017) -- You will remember my article from last October in which I outlined that "Green Tea Extract Reduces the Amount of Insulin You Need to Store Your PWO Carbs by ~20%" (read it). A recent study in the British Journal of Nutrition does now suggest that these effects may at least be dose-dependent.

      Unlike the previously cited study by Martin et al. (2016) used 3x350mg of green tea extract (GTE) for one week, Tsai et al. administered a significantly lower dose of GTE (500 mg/d) for 8 weeks. Furthermore, the scientists used a low-intensity workout and a carbohydrate-enriched meal, instead of a graded exercise and 75g of pure glucose as post-workout (PWO) nutrition.
      Figure 2: While the study did not confirm the beneficial effects on PWO glucose metabolism, it found a sign. reduced PWO RER (a), i.e. ratio of CHO:FAT oxidation, due to higher fat oxidation rates w/ GTE (Tsai 2017).
      In all honesty, it is thus not surprising that Tsai et al. observed only one significant benefit of GTE supplementation: it increased exercise-induced muscle GLUT type 4 (GLUT4) protein content of the vastus lateralis and the energy reliance on fat oxidation compared with the placebo trial (P<0·05). That there were no differences in blood glucose and insulin responses between the two trials may simply be a function of the comparatively slow rise in blood glucose in response to the test meal with a GI of "only" 76.6 (23.4% lower than glucose).
    • Even on a normal diet, green tea prevents visceral adiposity (Raso 2017) -- While we do have dozens of studies showing that green tea alleviates the (visceral) body fat accumulation in response to unhealthy, hypercaloric diets, the latest rodent study by Raso et al. is the first study to investigated the effects of administering green tea as the main source of hydration on visceral fat accumulation in the long run - in human terms 45 years!
      Figure 3: Changes in relative (per kg body weight) and absolute visceral fat over the course of what would be 45 years in human beings with either water or green tea as the main source of hydration (Raso 2017).
      And the results are, as you can see in Figure 3, quite significant: While all animals, which were young at the beginning of the study, showed a sign. increase in weight and visceral fat over the course of the 18-week study, the visceral fat gains proportional to the weight of the animals were different between the groups. In that, the green tea group had a significantly smaller gain in visceral fat compared to body weight, resulting in a smaller area of visceral fat per kilogram body weight at the end of the experiment compared to the control group (p < 0.01).
    Table 1: Research overview (Oz 2017 | free full text)
    SuppVersity Suggested Read: "Chronic Inflam-matory Diseases and Green Tea Polyphenols" (free full-text). It is well known that green tea polyphenols (GrTPs) are potent antioxidants with important roles in regulating vital signaling pathways. This review summarizes how they act on transcription nuclear factor-kappa B and related proteins to ameliorate the surge of inflammatory markers like cytokines and production ofcyclooxygenase-2.
    • Anthrax? Green tea can kill Bacillus anthracis the etiologic agent of the infamous infective disease anthrax that has been used to threaten people and governments by terrorists before (Falcinelli 2017) -- 10 days, that's the time that you have left on earth if you're infected with anthrax spores, spores that can infect you if you touch infected meat or breath in anthrax spores. The corresponding ease of infection is one the reasons that politicians and researchers fear the possible future use of B. anthracis as a bioterrorism agent.
      Figure 4: Green tea inhibits growth and kills Bacillus anthracis in Luria Broth. CFU/ml of bacilli grown for 4 h in the presence of 10% black tea or 10% green tea. n = 3. p = 0.08, black tea. *p < 0.01, green tea (Falcinelli 2017)
      This fear has resulted in an impetus to develop more effective protective measures and therapeutics. In their latest study, Falcinelli, et al. show that green tea inhibits the growth of B. anthracis - albeit yet only in vitro.

      As you probably already expected, it's epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) that was shown to be responsible for this activity. Yet even though EGCG was clearly bactericidal against both the attenuated B. anthracis ANR and the virulent, encapsulated strain B. anthracis Ames strain, future studies will have to show if and how green tea and EGCG can be used in human beings to prevent or battle anthrax infections... which reminds me to remind you, that GTE has also been shown to be a useful natural disinfectant able to limit enteric viral contaminations conveyed by food and food-contact surface (Randazzo 2017).
    Can green tea "fix" Alzheimer's? Latest review of the efficacy of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG from green tea) in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease says that even though "in recent years, natural compounds, due their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties have been largely studied and identified as promising agents for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD," the authors highlight that the "promising results" come exclusively from "pre-clinical" studies, so that "drawn clinical trials are extremely needed" (Cascella 2017) before we can tell how useful EGCG is whether it has preventive effects, only or can also be used to ameliorate if not curative Alzheimer's when someone is already experiencing symptoms.
    • Part of the heart health benefits of green tea are not about EGCG and green tea extracts don't help with blood flow either, while real tea does (Lorenz 2017) -- In a randomized crossover study, a single dose of 200 mg EGCG was applied in three different formulas (as green tea beverage, green tea extract (GTE), and isolated EGCG) to 50 healthy men. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and endothelial-independent nitro-mediated dilation (NMD) was measured before and two hours after ingestion. Plasma levels of tea compounds were determined after each intervention and correlated with FMD.

      Figure 5: Only green tea increased flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Subjects consumed 200 mg of EGCG as isolated EGCG, GTE, or green tea after fasting overnight. An equal volume of hot water served as control. Green tea significantly increased FMD compared to GTE, EGCG, and water as control. Water slightly decreased FMD, whereas EGCG and GTE had little effects. Data are means ± SEM from n = 50 subjects. All p-values by repeated measures ANOVA followed by post hoc Bonferroni (Lorenz 2017).
      FMD significantly improved after consumption of green tea containing 200 mg EGCG (p < 0.01). However, GTE and EGCG had no significant effect on FMD. NMD did not significantly differ between interventions. EGCG plasma levels were highest after administration of EGCG and lowest after consumption of green tea.

      Even though the plasma levels of caffeine increased after green tea consumption, caffeine is not exactly the most likely among the various candidate ingredients that could take EGCG's place as an active ingredient responsible for green tea's (drink) ability to improve flow-mediated dilation. After all, previous studies suggest that coffee rather decreases than increases FMD (Papamichael 2005). Since similar effects have been observed by Heiss et al. in 2007 for a high-flavanol cocoa drink, other phenolic constituents of green tea, which obviously cannot be found in green tea extracts are much likelier candidates.
    Hot or not? That could be a matter of health or ah... well almost death ;-) Learn why in my previous article "To Boil or Not to Boil? What's Going to Make Your Tea the Healthiest? Recent Study: It Depends on the Type of Tea"
    How do I prepare the healthiest green tea? Now that you've learned that a DIY water-extract from green tea is better than commercially available extracts in pills or capsules (at least for FMD), this question is probably preying on your minds.

    The answer to this important question comes from a study that will not be officially published before November this year. A study that shows that increasing the extraction temperature will also increase the polyphenol content of your tea. Thi sin turn enhances not just the antioxidant activity of the brew, it will also boost its ability to inhibit α-glucosidase and α-amylase, in vitro. In vivo, however, green tea steeped at 60°C had significantly stronger glucose uptake inhibitory activity (p<0.05) than green tea that was prepared at 100°C.

    The answer to the previously raised question "Hot to brew the perfect tea?" is thus both, context- and, as previously discussed research suggested, also type-dependent | Comment.
    • Chaipichit, Nataporn, et al. "Statin adverse effects: patients’ experiences and laboratory monitoring of muscle and liver injuries." International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy 37.2 (2015): 355-364.
    • Cascella, Marco, et al. "The efficacy of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (green tea) in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: an overview of pre-clinical studies and translational perspectives in clinical practice." Infectious Agents and Cancer 12.1 (2017): 36.
    • Castro, M. Regina, et al. "Statin use, diabetes incidence and overall mortality in normoglycemic and impaired fasting glucose patients." Journal of general internal medicine 31.5 (2016): 502-508.
    • Dekant, et al. "Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements." Toxicol Lett. 2017 Jun 24. pii: S0378-4274(17)30233-3. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.06.008. [Epub ahead of print]
    • Falcinelli, S.D. et al. "Green tea and epigallocatechin-3-gallate are bactericidal against Bacillus anthracis." FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2017 Jun 12. doi: 10.1093/femsle/fnx127. 
    • Fujioka K, et al. "The Powdering Process with a Set of Ceramic Mills for Green Tea Promoted Catechin Extraction and the ROS Inhibition Effect." Molecules. 2016 Apr 11;21(4):474. doi: 10.3390/molecules21040474.
    • Heiss, Christian, et al. "Sustained increase in flow-mediated dilation after daily intake of high-flavanol cocoa drink over 1 week." Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 49.2 (2007): 74-80.
    • Kim, Tae-eun, et al. "effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate, major ingredient of green tea, on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in healthy volunteers." Drug design, development and therapy 11 (2017): 1409.
    • Lorenz, Mario, et al. "Tea-induced improvement of endothelial function in humans: No role for epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)." Scientific Reports 7 (2017).
    • Mancini, GB John, et al. "Diagnosis, prevention, and management of statin adverse effects and intolerance: proceedings of a Canadian Working Group Consensus Conference." Canadian Journal of Cardiology 27.5 (2011): 635-662.
    • Papamichael, Chris M., et al. "Effect of coffee on endothelial function in healthy subjects: the role of caffeine." Clinical Science 109.1 (2005): 55-60.
    • Randazzo, W. et al. "Effect of green tea extract on enteric viruses and its application as natural sanitizer." Food Microbiol. 2017 Sep;66:150-156. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2017 May 3.
    • Raso, et al. "Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography." Acta Cir Bras. 2017 May;32(5):342-349. doi: 10.1590/s0102-865020170050000003.
    • Serafini, Mauro et al. "Health Benefits of Tea" in Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition. Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2011.
    • Shahid, Saleem Ullah, et al. "Effect of SORT1, APOB and APOE polymorphisms on LDL-C and coronary heart disease in Pakistani subjects and their comparison with Northwick Park Heart Study II." Lipids in health and disease 15.1 (2016): 83.
    • Tehrani, H.G. et al.  "Effect of green tea on metabolic and hormonal aspect of polycystic ovarian syndrome in overweight and obese women suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome: A clinical trial." J Educ Health Promot. 2017 May 5;6:36. doi: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_67_15. eCollection 2017.
    • Tirosh, Oren, et al. "OP-17-Tea Extracts-induced Liver Injury: Lipotoxic Interaction Between Lipids and Polyphenols." Free Radical Biology and Medicine 108 (2017): S8.
    • Tsai, et al. "Effect of green tea extract supplementation on glycogen replenishment in exercised human skeletal muscle." Br J Nutr. 2017 Jun 20:1-8. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517001374. [Epub ahead of print]
    • Werba, Jose, P et al. "Overview of green tea interaction with cardiovascular drugs." Current pharmaceutical design 21.9 (2015): 1213-1219.

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               Interaction between Oxide Nanoparticles and Biomolecules of the Bacterial Cell Envelope As Examined by Infrared Spectroscopy         
    Jiang, Wei and Yang, Kun and Vachet, Richard W. and Xing, Baoshan. (2010) Interaction between Oxide Nanoparticles and Biomolecules of the Bacterial Cell Envelope As Examined by Infrared Spectroscopy. Langmuir, 26 (23). p. 18071. ISSN 0743-7463
              9th-century Anglo-Saxon salve kills MRSA        
    Research conducted on a 9th-century Anglo-Saxon salve for eye infections has found that it kills the modern superbug MRSA. Dr Christina Lee, an Anglo-Saxon expert from the School of English has enlisted the help of microbiologists from University’s Centre for Biomolecular Sciences to recreate a 10th century potion for eye infections from Bald’s Leechbook an [&hellip
               Fehérjék konformációs dinamikája mint a biomolekuláris felismerés és jelátvitel meghatározó eleme = Protein conformational dynamics as a key determinant in biomolecular recognition and signal transmission         
    Závodszky, Péter and Barna, László and Beinrohr, László and Cseh, Sándor and Cseh-Szilágyi, Katalin and Dobó, József and Gál, Péter and Gráczer, Éva and Gyimesi, Gergely and Györffy, Dániel and Hajdú, István and Kamondi, Szilárd and Kazinczyné Dr. Vas, Mária and Kocsis, Andrea and Lorincz, Zsolt and Major, Balázs and Matkovicsné Dr. Varga, Andrea and Megyeri, Márton and Perbiróné Szabó, Judit and Pollnerné Flachner, Beáta and Sajó, Ráchel and Szaszkó, Mária and Szilágyi, András and Varga, János and Végh, Barbara Márta and Vonderviszt, Ferenc (2013) Fehérjék konformációs dinamikája mint a biomolekuláris felismerés és jelátvitel meghatározó eleme = Protein conformational dynamics as a key determinant in biomolecular recognition and signal transmission. Project Report. OTKA.
              X-ray Laser Gets First Real-time Snapshots of a Chemical Flipping a Biological Switch         
    Scientists used SLAC's LCLS X-ray laser to make the first snapshots of a chemical interaction between two biomolecules. It changes the shape of millions of molecular switches almost instantaneously, like synchronized swimmers performing the same move.

              Scientists, Interns Bring Structural Biology’s ‘Magic Bullet’ Technique to X-ray Lasers        
    The team determined the 3-D structure of a biomolecule by tagging it with selenium atoms and taking hundreds of thousands of images.

               The experimental degradation of archaeological human bone by anaerobic bacteria and the implications for recovery of ancient DNA         
    Dixon, Ron and Dawson, Lucy and Taylor, Delia (2008) The experimental degradation of archaeological human bone by anaerobic bacteria and the implications for recovery of ancient DNA. In: The 9th International Conference on Ancient DNA and Associated Biomolecules, 19-22 October 2008, Pompeii, Italy.
               Combinatorial Control of mRNA Fates by RNA-Binding Proteins and Non-Coding RNAs         
    Iadevaia, V and Gerber, AP (2015) Combinatorial Control of mRNA Fates by RNA-Binding Proteins and Non-Coding RNAs Biomolecules, 5 (4). pp. 2207-2222.
              Koya University Researcher Published 11 Papers in 2016        

    Asst. Prof. Dr. Fahmi Fariq, Koya University Instructor, Faculty of Health and Science, has published 11 research articles in 2016. The majority of the research papers have been published by Journals having high impact factor, directly related to Thomson Reuters Index. 

    Concerning the selection of these research articles, Dr. fahmi said “Selecting the subjects to research is immensely dependent on their significance in Modern Technology, particularly in the field of Organic Electronics and Solar Cells.” 

    Some of the practical sections of the research papers have been carried out by Dr. Fahmi in cooperation with international researchers from abroad universities. 

    With regard to the research conclusions, Dr. Fahmi noted that, “The research conclusions have led to some major breakthroughs, which includes the use of special electronic organs to make Light Sensors and increase the ability of transforming solar energy into electricity via organic solar cells.” 

    “Six of the research papers have been published by Thomson Reuters Index, Journal Impact Factor, and the rest through international journals having Index and DIO.” He further added. 

    Related Researchs 

    1. F.F. Muhammad, Mohd Y. Yahya, Khaulah Sulaiman, Improving the performance of solution-processed organic solar cells by incorporating small molecule acceptors into a ternary bulk heterojunction based on DH6T:Mq3:PCBM (M= Ga, Al), Materials Chemistry and Physics, 188(2017)86-94 [Link]
    2. Lih Wei Lim, Fakhra Aziz, F.F. Muhammad, Azzuliani Supangat, Khaulah Sulaiman, Electrical properties of Al/PTB7-Th/n-Si metal-polymer-semiconductor Schottky barrier diode, Synthetic Metals, 221(2016)169-175 [Link]. 
    3. Rebar T. Abdulwahid, Omed Gh. Abdullah, Shujahadeen B. Aziz, Sarkawt A. Hussein, F.F. Muhammad, and Mohd Y. Yahya, 

      The study of structural and optical properties of PVA:PbO2 based solid polymer nanocomposites, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 27(11) (2016) 12112-12118 [Link].

    4. Lih Wei Lim, Chin-Hoong Teh, Rusli Daik, Norazilawati Muhamad Sarih, Mohd Asri Mat Teridi, F.F. Muhammad, Khaulah Sulaiman, Synthesis and characterization of 2, 2’-bithiophene end-capped dihexyloxy phenylene pentamer and its application in solution-processed organic ultraviolet photodetector, RSC Advances, 6(2016)61848-61859 [Link].

    5. F.F. Muhammad, Mohd Yazid Yahya, Kamal Aziz Ketuly, Abdulkader Jaleel Muhammad, Khaulah Sulaiman, A study on the spectroscopic, energy band, and optoelectronic properties of α, ω-dihexylsexithiophene/tris (8-hydroxyquinolinate) gallium blends; DH6T/Gaq3 composite system, Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 169(2016)144-151 [Link]. 

    6. F.F. Muhammad, Impedance spectroscopy analysis of DH6T:PCBM bulk heterojunction incorporating Gaq3: experiment and model, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 27(1)(2016) 637-644 [Link].

    7. Haval M. Abdulla, F.F. Muhammad, M.G. Faraj, The impact of sunlight intensity and outdoor temperature on the performance of inorganic solar panels, International Letters of Chemistry, Physics, and Astronomy 67 (2016) 58-64 [Link]. 

    8. F.F. Muhammad, Solar Cells Based on Nanostructured Organic/Polymeric Materials, Journal of Technology Innovations in Renewable Energy 5(1) (2016) Editorial [Link].

    9. N. A. Qadr, S. W. Muhammad, F. F. Muhammad, Performance Analysis of a Mini-Thermoelectric Engine for the Generation of Electricity, International Journal of Engineering and Technologies, 6 (2016) 20-29 [Link]

    10. Dashty A. Babakr, Hamad H. Bayiz, Hawkar M. Qadr and F.F. Muhammad, Investigation of Photo-Absorption and Current-Voltage Properties of Liquid Extracts from Fruits for Organic Solar Cells Application,  Journal of Technology Innovations in Renewable Energy 5(1) (2016) 11-17 [Link]. 

    11. F.F. Muhammad, Abdulkader Jaleel Muhammad and Khaulah Sulaiman, Optical Response and Photovoltaic Performance of Organic Solar Cells Based on DH6T:Alq3 Active Layer, Journal of Technology Innovations in Renewable Energy 5(1) (2016) 3-10 [Link].

              RAMAS DE LA BIOQUIMICA        

    •Biología celular: (citología) es una área de la biología que se dedica al estudio de la morfología y fisiología de las células procariotas y eucariotas. Trata de conocer los orgánulos celulares, su composición bioquímica y su función en el contexto celular tanto en estados fisiológicos como patológicos. Es esencial en esta área conocer los procesos intrínsecos a la vida celular durante el ciclo celular, como la nutrición, la respiración, la síntesis de componentes, los mecanismos de defensa, la división celular y la muerte celular. También se deben conocer los mecanismos de comunicación de células (especialmente en organismos pluricelulares) o las uniones intercelulares. Es un área esencialmente de observación y experimentación en cultivos celulares, que, frecuentemente, tienen como objetivo la identificación y separación de poblaciones celulares y el reconocimiento de orgánulos celulares. Algunas técnicas utilizadas en biología celular tienen que ver con siembra de cultivos celulares, observación por microscopía óptica y electrónica, inmunocitoquímcia, inmunohistoquímica, ELISA o citometría de flujo. Está íntimamente ligada a disciplinas como histología, microbiología o fisiología.
    •Química orgánica: es un área de la química que se encarga del estudio de los compuestos orgánicos, es decir, aquellos que tienen enlaces covalentes carbono-carbono o carbono-hidrógeno. Se trata de una ciencia íntimamente relacionada con la bioquímica, pues en la bioquímica la mayoría de compuestos biológicos participa el carbono. Así deben saber estructura, conocimientos sobre enlace químico, interacciones moleculares...
    •Genética molecular e ingeniería genética: es un área de la bioquímica y la biología molecular que estudia los genes, su herencia y su expresión. Molecularmente, se dedica al estudio del DNA y del RNA principalmente, y utiliza herramientas y técnicas potentes en su estudio, tales como la PCR y sus variantes, los secuenciadores masivos, los kits comerciales de extracción de DNA y RNA, procesos de transcripción-traducción in vitro e in vivo, enzimas de restricción, DNA ligasas… Es esencial conocer como el DNA se replica, se transcribe y se traduce a proteínas (Dogma Central de la Biología Molecular), así como los mecanismos de expresión basal e inducible de genes en el genoma. También estudia la inserción de genes, el silenciamiento génico y la expresión diferencial de genes y sus efectos. Superando así las barreras y fronteras entre especies en el sentido que el genoma de una especie podemos insertarlo en otro y generar nuevas especies. Uno de sus máximos objetivos actuales es conocer los mecanismos de regulación y expresión genética, es decir, obtener un código epigenético. Constituye un pilar esencial en todas las disciplinas biocientíficas, especialmente en biotecnología.
    •Inmunología: área de la biología, la cual se interesa por la reacción del organismo frente a otros organismos como las bacterias y virus. Todo esto tomando en cuenta la reacción y funcionamiento del sistema inmune de los seres vivos. Es esencial en esta área el desarrollo de los estudios de producción y comportamiento de los anticuerpos.
    •Virología: área de la biología, que se dedica al estudio de los biosistemas más elementales: los virus. Tanto en su clasificación y reconocimiento, como en su funcionamiento y estructura molecular. Pretende reconocer dianas para la actuación de posibles de fármacos y vacunas que eviten su directa o preventivamente su expansión. También se analizan y predicen, en términos evolutivos, la variación y la combinación de los genomas víricos, que podrían hacerlos eventualmente, más peligrosos. Finalmente suponen una herramienta con mucha proyección como vectores recombinantes, y han sido ya utilizados en terapia génica.
    •Farmacología: área de la bioquímica que estudia cómo afectan o benefician ciertas sustancias químicas al funcionamiento celular en el organismo. Se pretende generar racionalmente sustancias menos invasivas y más eficaces contra dianas biomoleculares concretas. En bioquímica es esencial una de sus rama, la enzimología que estudia el comportamiento bioquímico de las enzimas (proteínas) que son biocatalizadores. En este sentido, pretende conocer el comportamiento cinético químico de ciertas reacciones metabólicas, los mecanismos de catálisis y los procesos de actuación de las enzimas, así como su modificación.
    •Enzimología: área de la bioquímica muy ligada a la farmacología. Estudia el comportamiento de los catalizadores biológicos o enzimas, como son algunas proteínas y ciertos RNA catalíticos. Así se cuestiona los mecanismos de catálisis, los procesos de interacción de las enzimas-sustraro, los estados de transición catalíticos, las actividades enzimáticas, la cinética de la reacción,... todo ello desde un punto de vista bioquímico. Estudia y trata de comprender los elementos esenciales del centro activo y de aquellos que no participan, así como los efectos catalíticos que ocurren en la modificación de dichos elementos; en este sentido, utilizan frecuentemente técnicas como la mutagénesis dirigidas.
    •Estructura de macromoléculas o bioquímica estructural: es un área de la bioquímica que pretende comprender la arquitectura química de las moléculas biológicas especialmente de las proteínas y de los ácidos nucleicos (DNA y RNA). Así intentan conocer por qué las macromoléculas son así, que interacciones físico-químicas atómicas posibilitan dichas estructuras, como se pliegan las proteínas… Uno de sus máximos retos es determinar la estructura de una proteína conociendo sólo la secuencia de aminoácidos, que supondría la base esencial para el diseño racional de proteínas (ingeniería de proteínas).
    •Metabolismo y su regulación: es un área de la bioquímica que pretende conocer los diferentes tipos de rutas metabólicas a nivel celular, y su contexto orgánico. De esta forma son esenciales conocimientos de enzimología y biología celular. Estudia todas las reacciones bioquímicas celulares que posibilitan la vida, y así como los índices bioquímicos orgánicos saludables, las bases moleculares de las enfermedades metabólicas o los flujos de intermediarios metabólicos a nivel global.


               A yeast-based in vivo bioassay to screen for class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase specific inhibitors.         
    Fernández Acero, Teresa y Rodríguez Escudero, Isabel y Vicente, Francisca y Monteiro, Maria Cândida y Tormo, José R. y Cantizani, Juan y Molina, María y Cid, Víctor J. (2012) A yeast-based in vivo bioassay to screen for class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase specific inhibitors. Journal of biomolecular screening, 17 (8). pp. 1018-1029. ISSN 1552-454X
              When are we going to get a 3rd generation sequencer?        
    Two years ago, there were at least a dozen companies trying to develop DNA sequencing technology to rival incumbents like Illumina, Life Technologies, Roche/454, PacBio, and Complete Genomics (the latter offers sequencing as a service). What has changed since?

    Despite numerous optimistic announcements by start-ups (for example, here and here and here and here and here) and investments totaling more than $400 million, there hasn't yet been any great breakthrough. The only exception is Oxford Nanopore, whose MinION sequencers seems to be close to ready for prime time.

    The table below lists companies that have said they are developing sequencing technology and that have received funding according to the online database Crunchbase, which tracks that sort of thing:

    Acquired by Roche

    Even though that's a long list, it is not complete. Companies whose funding situation or current status are unclear and who have therefore not made it onto the list are Noblegen, Base 4 Innovation , Electron Optica, the Beijing Institute of Genomics (BIG), Electronic Biosciences, Qiagen's Intelligent Bio-systems, Reveo, and MobiousBiosytems. Doubtlessly, some of those have quietly exited the race.

    Let's summarise: There are a lot of companies trying to develop the sequencer of the future, and at least some of them have received generous funding. Most have been active for at least two years, but we haven't seen any results yet, at least in the form of a sequencing machine we can buy. Clearly, 3rd generation sequencing is a though nut to crack.

    I'd like to thank Keith Robison for pointing out omissions in an earlier version of this post, which I've now fixed.

              Práctica 18. Biomoléculas        

    Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey
    Campus Puebla

    Práctica No. 18

    Responsable: Mtro. Víctor Hugo Blanco Lozano

    Equipo No. 8
    Grupo 2

    Integrantes del equipo:
    Stephania Díaz Lorenzo                    A00397831
    Ana Laura Velázquez Gil                   A01325205
    Omar Sánchez Jiménez                    A01324800
    Jorge Armando Luna Morales           A01099726
    Gabriela Rivera Hernández               A01325193

    A lo largo de la práctica se realizarán múltiples reacciones químicas y pruebas esenciales, que caracterizan la presencia de diferentes biomoléculas en una mezcla o producto específico. Asimismo, también será necesario aprender a cuantificar las mismas para su posterior análisis y observación de datos y resultados.


    El carbono y sus compuestos son fabricados constantemente por múltiples organismos vivos, y se encuentran divididos en cuatro grandes grupos: carbohidratos, lípidos, proteínas y ácidos nucleicos. Todos ellos difieren tanto es sus propiedades químicas, como en las físicas; sin embargo, los tres primeros son similares metabólicamente, al menos, en el hecho de que son fuente de energía para los organismos, dado a que el rompimiento de moléculas complejas da como resultado liberación de energía. De esta manera los componentes de las moléculas orgánicas se pueden usar en una gran variedad de combinaciones en los organismos vivos. A estos componentes se les conoce como biomoléculas, y están presentes en la mayoría de los procesos biológicos de los organismos. (Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2013)

    A lo largo de la práctica, se trabajará con distintos compuestos así como con múltiples pruebas metódicas con el fin de identificar las biomoléculas que se hallan presentes en los productos adyacentes en cuestión. Dichas pruebas son desglosadas en la sección de Desarrollo para tener una mayor visión del trabajo experimental realizado durante las tres horas de laboratorio. No obstante, se mencionará un poco acerca de las pruebas más características para la identificación de glúcidos.
    Para la identificación de glúcidos con poder reductor dentro de los monosacáridos y disacáridos, se trabajó primordialmente con dos pruebas, conocidas como Fehling y Benedict.

    Las pruebas de Fehling y Benedict se basan en la capacidad de los azúcares reductores de reducir los iones cúpricos (Cu2+). Tanto la solución de Fehling como la de Benedict son soluciones alcalinas de Cu2+ complejado con iones tartrato (Fehling) o citrato (Benedict). Si un fluido analizado contiene un azúcar reductor, el ion cúprico se reduce al estado cuproso (Cu2O). Esta reducción del cobre se manifiesta en la desaparición del color azul oscura de la solución reactivo y en la aparición de un precipitado rojo.
    (Bradley, F., & Bennett, T. P., 1982)

    Consideraciones Teóricas

    Las biomoleculas son las moléculas constituyentes de los seres vivos. Los cuatro bioelementos más abundantes en los seres vivos son el carbono, hidrógeno, oxígeno y nitrógeno, representando alrededor del 99% de la masa de la mayoría de las células

    Diferencias entre azúcares reductores y no reductores

    El azúcar, un carbohidrato cristalino, comestible y soluble en agua, es esencial para la producción de energía en todos los seres vivos. Aunque se asocia más comúnmente con la sacarosa que se encuentra en los alimentos de sabor dulce, el azúcar también se encuentra en la mayoría de las frutas (fructosa) y en casi todos los aperitivos, alimentos procesados o bebidas con sabor como el jarabe de maíz de alta fructosa. A nivel químico, un azúcar se considera "reductora" si reduce un agente oxidante dentro de una reacción química, mientras que las que no reducen la oxidación se llaman "no reductoras".

    Componentes químicos

    Los azúcares con estructuras químicas que incluyen un átomo de carbono anomérico libr