Seven new prostate blight abiogenetic accident factors identified        

ProstateImage via Wikipedia

Cancer Research UK adjourned scientists align blow seven adolescent sites in the animal genome that are affiliated to men’s hazard of developing prostate cancer. Their allegation are appear in Nature Genetics today.

The scientists at The Institute of Blight Research and University of Cambridge begin one gene alleged MSMB which could possibly be acclimated in screening for prostate blight and ache monitoring. Another of the sites harbours a gene alleged LMTK2 which ability be a ambition for new treatments. The abstracts suggests these anew articular abiogenetic alterations are present in over bisected of all prostate blight cases. They anniversary access a person’s accident of the ache by up to 60 per cent.

There are apparently abounding altered factors that access the development of prostate cancer, but accurate combinations of genes are anticipation to comedy a above part. These after-effects represent the bigger cardinal of abiogenetic accident factors begin in one genome-wide blight abstraction to date.

Dr Ros Eeles, who led the abstraction at The Institute of Blight Research, said: “These agitative after-effects will advice us to added accurately account the accident of developing prostate blight and may beforehand to the development of bigger targeted screening and treatment.”

The team, accommodating with scientists in the UK and Australia, advised the differences in the abiogenetic accomplish up of over 10,000 men in total. They started by scanning the DNA of men who were anticipation to be at college ‘genetic risk’ of prostate blight because they had been diagnosed with the ache afore the age of 61 (1,171 men) or had a ancestors history of prostate blight (683 men). They again compared these after-effects with a ascendancy accumulation of men who did not accept the ache (1,894 men) but lived in agnate areas.

In the abutting stage, they looked to see if these abiogenetic variants could be begin added frequently in men with prostate blight than in men after the disease. They advised 3,268 men with prostate blight from the UK and Australia and 3,366 men who did not accept the disease.

Fellow abstraction author, Professor Doug Easton, administrator of Blight Research UK’s Abiogenetic Epidemiology Unit at the University of Cambridge continued: “In allegory with added cancers such as breast and lung cancer, we accept little about how prostate blight develops. These after-effects will abundantly beforehand our ability of this important disease.”

Harpal Kumar, arch controlling of Blight Research UK, said: “These after-effects are a beforehand in our efforts to accept men’s susceptibility to prostate cancer. Thanks to the all-embracing accord of so abounding scientists, and this huge beforehand in technology, we can now attract through the animal genome to ascertain so abundant added about prostate blight - the best accepted blight to affect UK men.

“We achievement these allegation will advice us brighten some of the capital difficulties faced by doctors and advisers in diagnosing and alleviative prostate cancer, so in aggregate with added advances we can eventually exhausted it.”Discover The Truth About Cancer And How To Eliminate Sickness And Disease Naturally By Health Expert Dr. Thompson Click Here!

          Occupy Wall Street        

(speach by Slavoj Zizek, NYC October 9)

Part One

…2008 financial crash more hard earned private property was destroyed than if all of us here were to be destroying it night and day for weeks. They tell you we are dreamers. The true dreamers are those who think things can go on indefinitely the way they are. We are not dreamers. We are awakening from a dream which is tuning into a nightmare. We are not destroying anything. We are only witnessing how the system is destroying itself. We all know the classic scenes from cartoons. The cart reaches a precipice. But it goes on walking. Ignoring the fact that there is nothing beneath. Only when it looks down and notices it, it falls down. This is what we are doing here. We are telling the guys there on Wall Street – Hey, look down! (cheering).

In April 2011, the Chinese government prohibited on TV and films and in novels all stories that contain alternate reality or time travel. This is a good sign for China. It means that people still dream about alternatives, so you have to prohibit this dream. Here we don’t think of prohibition. Because the ruling system has even suppressed our capacity to dream. Look at the movies that we see all the time. It’s easy to imagine the end of the world. An asteroid destroying all life and so on. But you cannot imagine the end of capitalism. So what are we doing here? Let me tell you a wonderful old joke from communist times.

A guy was sent from East Germany to work in Siberia. He knew his mail would be read by censors. So he told his friends: Let’s establish a code. If the letter you get from me is written in blue ink ,it is true what I said. If it is written in red ink, it is false. After a month his friends get a first letter. Everything is in blue. It says, this letter: everything is wonderful here. Stores are full of good food. Movie theaters show good films from the West. Apartments are large and luxurious. The only thing you cannot buy is red ink.

This is how we live. We have all the freedoms we want. But what we are missing is red ink. The language to articulate our non-freedom. The way we are taught to speak about freedom war and terrorism and so on falsifies freedom. And this is what you are doing here: You are giving all of us red ink.

There is a danger. Don’t fall in love with yourselves. We have a nice time here. But remember: carnivals come cheap. What matters is the day after. When we will have to return to normal life. Will there be any changes then. I don’t want you to remember these days, you know, like - oh, we were young, it was beautiful. Remember that our basic message is: We are allowed to think about alternatives. The rule is broken. We do not live in the best possible world. But there is a long road ahead. There are truly difficult questions that confront us. We know what we do not want. But what do we want? What social organization can replace capitalism? What type of new leaders do we want?
Remember: the problem is not corruption or greed. The problem is the system that pushes you to give up. Beware not only of the enemies. But also of false friends who are already working to dilute this process. In the same way you get coffee without caffeine, beer without alcohol, ice cream without fat. They will try to make this into a harmless moral protest. They think (??? unintelligible). But the reason we are here is that we have enough of the world where to recycle coke cans…

Part Two

….Starbucks cappuccino. Where 1% goes to the world’s starving children. It is enough to make us feel good. After outsourcing work and torture. After the marriage agencies are now outsourcing even our love life, daily.

Mic check

We can see that for a long time we allowed our political engagement also to be outsourced. We want it back. We are not communists. If communism means the system which collapsed in 1990, remember that today those communists are the most efficient ruthless capitalists. In China today we have capitalism which is even more dynamic than your American capitalism but doesn’t need democracy. Which means when you criticize capitalism, don’t allow yourselves to be blackmailed that you are against democracy. The marriage between democracy and capitalism is over.
The change is possible. So, what do we consider today possible? Just follow the media. On the one hand in technology and sexuality everything seems to be possible. You can travel to the moon. You can become immortal by biogenetics. You can have sex with animals or whatever. But look at the fields of society and economy. There almost everything is considered impossible. You want to raise taxes a little bit for the rich, they tell you it’s impossible, we lose competitivitiy. You want more money for healthcare: they tell you impossible, this means a totalitarian state. There is something wrong in the world where you are promised to be immortal but cannot spend a little bit more for health care. Maybe that ??? set our priorities straight here. We don’t want higher standards of living. We want better standards of living. The only sense in which we are communists is that we care for the commons. The commons of nature. The commons of what is privatized by intellectual property. The commons of biogenetics. For this and only for this we should fight.

Communism failed absolutely. But the problems of the commons are here. They are telling you we are not Americans here. But the conservative fundamentalists who claim they are really American have to be reminded of something. What is Christianity? It’s the Holy Spirit. What’s the Holy Spirit? It’s an egalitarian community of believers who are linked by love for each other. And who only have their own freedom and responsibility to do it. In this sense the Holy Spirit is here now. And down there on Wall Street there are pagans who are worshipping blasphemous idols. So all we need is patience. The only thing I’m afraid of is that we will someday just go home and then we will meet once a year, drinking beer, and nostalgically remembering what a nice time we had here. Promise ourselves that this will not be the case.

We know that people often desire something but do not really want it. Don’t be afraid to really want what you desire. Thank you very much!

          Living in the End Times [Video]        
Speaker(s): Slavoj Zizek | There should no longer be any doubt: global capitalism is fast approaching its terminal crisis. In his latest book, Living in the End Times, Slavoj Zizek has identified the four horsemen of this coming apocalypse: the worldwide ecological crisis; imbalances within the economic system; the biogenetic revolution; and exploding social divisions and ruptures. But, he asks, if the end of capitalism seems to many like the end of the world, how is it possible for Western society to face up to the end times? In a major new analysis of our global situation, Slavok Zizek argues that our collective responses to economic Armageddon correspond to the stages of grief: ideological denial, explosions of anger and attempts at bargaining, followed by depression and withdrawal. After passing through this zero-point, we can begin to perceive the crisis as a chance for a new beginning. Or, as Mao Zedong put it, "There is great disorder under heaven, the situation is excellent."
          Frases sobre petróleo        
Frases sobre petróleo
 (Traduzidas para português) Fonte: Oil Quotes em

"Suspiro. Por que as pessoas insistem em perpetuar o mito de que o petróleo vem de plantas e animais mortos? A origem abiogênica de produtos petrolíferos está bastante estabelecido, e observável em outros planetas, incapazes de suportar a vida, mas com grandes quantidades de metano "-. Jere Krischel de 2010

“Suspiro. Por que as pessoas insistem em perpetuar o mito de que o petróleo vem de plantas e animais mortos? A origem abiogênica de produtos petrolíferos está bastante estabelecida, e observável em outros planetas, incapazes de suportar vida, mas com grandes quantidades de metano.” -- Jere Krische,  2010

“A partir da análise de uma mancha de ketchup numa gravata não se pode concluir que a gravata seria feita a partir de tomates.” -- Peter Szatmari, geólogo

“Novas idéias em ciência não são sempre certas apenas porque são novas. Nem as velhas idéias estão sempre erradas apenas porque elas são velhas. Essa atitude crítica é requerida para todo o cientista.” -- Thomas Gold, astrofísico, astrônomo, cosmologista e geocientista

“Duas coisas são infinitas: o universo e a estupidez humana; e eu não tenho dúvidas quanto ao universo.” -- Albert Einstein, físico, cosmologista

“O que eles estão nos ensinando na escola sobre o petróleo proveniente de fósseis está errado.” â€“ C. Warren Hunt, geólogo, 2011

“Embora o modelo biogênico, orgânico tenha sido geralmente aceito pela indústria do petróleo quase desde seu nascimento, modelos inorgânicos recorrentemente emergem, propostos por geólogos e, mais frequentemente, químicos.” -- Peter Szatmari, geólogo, 2011

“O mundo é pleno de recursos - a questão é como nós podemos aplicar a tecnologia para torná-los energia.” -- Robert Ryan, E&P manager, 2009

“Evidências teóricas e experimentais recentes demonstram a possibilidade de que os hidrocarbonetos podem ter se formado nas profundezas da terra. Se a teoria Ã© fundamentada futuramente, então a depleção do petróleo torna-se um mito e a indústria deve estar pronta para enfrentar os novos desafios de perfuração mais profunda, para as rochas do embasamento, onde enormes campos de petróleo podem estar à espera para serem descobertos, como o Campo de White Tiger no Vietnã provou” -- V.C. Kelessidis, Setembro de 2009.

“Não há dúvida de que nossa pesquisa prova que o petróleo e o gás natural são produzidos sem o envolvimento de fósseis. Todos os tipos de rochas podem servir como reservatórios de petróleo.” - Vladimir A. Kutcherov, geólogo, físico, Setembro de 2009

“... O nosso planeta pode ter enormes recursos inesgotáveis de hidrocarbonetos.” - Vladimir A. Kutcherov, geólogo, físico agosto de 2009

“Nós demonstramos a transformação química do metano para hidrocarbonetos saturados mais pesados, como etano, butano e propano e sua reversibilidade, nas condições do manto superior do da Terra.”
- Alexander Goncharov, geólogo, agosto de 2009

“Todas as províncias de petróleo e gás no mundo estão aparentemente associadas com condições tectônicas transtensivas, apoiando a teoria abiogênica de petróleo.”
- Karsten M. Storetvedt, geofísico, agosto de 2008

“A moderna teoria do petróleo abiótico de origem profunda reconhece que o petróleo é um material primordial de origem profunda que emana na crosta da Terra. Em suma, o petróleo não é um “combustível fóssil” e não tem nenhuma conexão intrínseca com quaisquer detritos biológicos presentes nos
“sedimentos”.” - Vladimir A. Kutcherov, geólogo, físico, agosto de 2008

“Poços ultra profundos trazem uma gama de imprevisibilidades - basicamente uma mudança de pontos de vista das estruturas e dos processos geoquímicos na Terra.”
- Yuri Galant, geólogo, agosto de 2008

“É pelo menos plausível que o óleo de 3,2 bilhões anos de idade que encontramos de fato tem uma origem abiótica.”
- Roger Buick, astrobiólogo / Geociências, julho de 2008

“Nossos resultados mostram que a síntese abiótica de hidrocarbonetos na natureza pode ocorrer na presença de rochas ultramáficas, água e quantidades moderadas de calor.”
- Giora K. Proskurowski, geoquímico / oceanógrafo, Fevereiro de 2008

“Cinco proposições em Geologia, ou seja, Tectônica de Placas, o tamanho constante  da Terra, o calor motor Terra, a repercussão elástica, e a origem orgânica das reservas de hidrocarbonetos são desafiados como mitos, porque a sua verdade potencial não é confirmada pela observação, e/ou experiência, e/ou Lógica. Em seu lugar o Excess Mass Stress Tectonics – EMST, ou seja, um sólido quantificado, crescimento e radiação da Terra e suas implicações, tais como a origem inorgânica dos Hidrocarbonetos, afirma ser uma proposição abrangente e compreensiva.”
- Stavros T. Tassos, sismólogo / geocientista, Novembro de 2007

“No contexto de Excess Mass Stress Tectonics - EMST, os hidrocarbonetos são fontes de energia produzida abioticamente através de um processo no qual o hidrogênio e carbono, mas também de oxigênio, nitrogênio, enxofre e oligoelementos sendo formados no núcleo da Terra, ascendem através de trilhas fratura radial do sólido e frio manto para a superfície da Terra. Se sua ascensão é bloqueada formam compostos maiores, por exemplo, querogênio, que pode transformar pelo calor radiante nos 5 km superiores ou então do interior da Terra, em petróleo, gás e carvão, em temperaturas abaixo de <200, 100-50, e <50º C, respectivamente. Na ausência de trapeamento e/ou acima de 200° C, a temperatura na qual as porfirinas são destruídas, eles são liberados como gás metano, assim como em Titã, hoje, e/ou são totalmente oxidados a CO
2 e H2O. Reservas de petróleo e gás nas bacias maduras adjacentes aos escudos pré-cambrianos deformados e plataformas, principalmente durante os últimos 200 milhões de anos, quando os oceanos largos e profundos e um complexo padrão de soerguimentos e bacias sedimentares desenvolveram, proporcionando assim os reservatórios e as armadilhas estruturais e/ou estratigráficas. Eles associam com a atividade sísmica e vulcânica moderadas, gravidade ar-livre, geoidal, e as anomalias de fluxo de calor, e grandes províncias ígneas, ou seja, Excess Mass Stress Tectonics - EMST.” - Stavros T. Tassos, sismólogo / geocientista, Novembro de 2007

“O artigo apresenta uma visão de Expansão em oposição a Tectônica de Placas. Sobreposição de campo de óleo e gás nestas zonas visualizadas de espalhamento pode bem indicar novas áreas para descobertas de petróleo e gás para um profissional.”
- Keith P. Wilson, geólogo, Novembro de 2007

“A distribuição elementar do petróleo bruto de todos os depósitos estudados não coincide com o de qualquer rocha conhecida da crosta terrestre.”
- Kirill S. Ivanov, geólogo / geoquímico, Novembro de 2007

“Geralmente, na ciência, sempre que novos avanços são feitos, idéias antigas devem ser re-examinadas à luz dos avanços. No caso da origem
abiótica de gás natural e petróleo, que é especialmente verdade, como os avanços relativos aos processos operantes durante a formação do sistema solar, e para a composição e dinâmica do planeta Terra, tudo parece melhorar muito o prognóstico para os recursos abióticos.” - Marvin J. Herndon, geofísico, Setembro de 2006

“A formação de hidrocarbonetos mais pesados nas camadas superiores da crosta terrestre ocorre somente como resultado de reações do tipo Fischer-Tropsch, na presença de gás hidrogênio, mas não seria possível por razões termodinâmicas.”
- Geoffrey P. Glasby, geólogo, 2006

“Exemplos da ocorrência de hidrocarbonetos derivados abiogeneticamente têm sido registradas.”
- Geoffrey P. Glasby, geólogo, 2006

“É possível converter o metano em uma mistura complexa de alcanos e alcenos longos a altas pressões e temperaturas, mas não de carboidratos, os blocos fundamentais de construção de plantas.”
- Geoffrey P. Glasby, geólogo, 2006

“É geralmente reconhecido que as primeiras moléculas orgânicas pré-bióticas na Terra e em outros lugares do sistema solar devem ter sido formadas por reações abiogênicas.”
- Barbara Sherwood Lollar, geoquímico geólogo, 2006

“Teoria do pico do petróleo (peak oil) é um lixo, tanto quanto nossa preocupação com isso.”
- Robert W. Esser, geólogo, 2006

“Ninguém duvida que os hidrocarbonetos inorgânicos possam ocorrer em associação com sistemas hidrotermais.”
- Michael D. Lewan, geólogo, 2005

“Gases abiogênicos são um fato claro. Posso fazê-los na bancada do laboratório hoje.”
- Barbara Sherwood Lollar, geoquímico geólogo / 2005

“Nós mal aproveitamos, do ponto de vista de exploração, o potencial de hidrocarboneto que está lá fora deste planeta.”
- Stanley B. Keith, geólogo, 2005

“O metano não é tão fortemente fracionado, mas ainda acham que pode ser biológico. Em Lost City, você não consegue descobrir se é biológico ou não pelos isótopos.”
- James F. Kasting, Geociências, 2005

“Esse metano não pode ser proveniente de organismos vivos.”
- Jean-Pierre Lebreton, o astrofísico, 2005

“Nas palavras de Galey, o  único geólogo  que pode mesmo realmente dizer de onde o óleo está para ser encontrado, ele atende pelo nome de “ Dr. Broca.”
- Edwin Adkins, geólogo, 2004

“Uma teoria intrigante agora permeia as equipes de pesquisa das companhias de petróleo sugere que o petróleo pode realmente ser um produto natural inorgânico, e não um enteado de tempo insondável e degradação biológica. A teoria sugere que podem ser enormes, ainda a serem descobertas reservas de petróleo em profundidades e que as estimativas mundiais atuais são anãs.”
- Chris Bennett, engenheiro ambiental, 2004

“Os hidrocarbonetos podem ser re-definidos como um” recurso renovável, ao invés de finito “(Gurney, 1997)”.” - Peter R. Odell, economista / geólogo, 2004

“Enormes implicações decorrem do fato do petróleo e gás sendo recursos renováveis.”
- Peter R. Odell, geólogo economista, 2004

“Combustíveis de carbono vão dominar a economia da energia global do século XXI.”
- Peter R. Odell, geólogo economista, 2004

“Estamos lidando com este gigante de fluxo através do sistema, onde os hidrocarbonetos estão gerando agora, movendo-se através dos estratos que os cobrem agora, a formação dos reservatórios agora e derramamento no oceano agora.”
- Larry M. Cathles, geólogo, 2003

“O tema da química orgânica foi erroneamente tomada pelos geólogos de petróleo há muito tempo para se referir a química de origem biológica. Você ainda pode ter um livro de química orgânica que nada tem a ver com os organismos em um todo.”
- Thomas Gold,  astrofísico/astrônomo/cosmólogo/geocientista, 2002

“Eu não acho que ninguém está argumentando que o gás não poderia ser gerado a partir do manto.”
- Barry J. Katz, geólogo, 2002

“Eu não acho que ninguém jamais duvidou de que há uma fonte inorgânica de hidrocarbonetos.”
- Michael D. Lewan, geólogo, 2002

“Não houve qualquer tipo de” debate “sobre a origem de hidrocarbonetos por mais de um século. Competentes físicos, químicos, engenheiros químicos e os homens conhecedores da termodinâmica sabem que o petróleo natural não evolui a partir de material biológico, desde o último quarto do século XIX.”
- Jack F. Kenney, geólogo geofísico, 2002

“Eu não sei de qualquer idéia mais provável para manter as pessoas pobres do que a idéia de que os recursos são naturais, fixos e finitos.”
- Thomas R. Degregori, economista, 2002

“O petróleo natural não tem nenhuma ligação com a matéria biológica.”
- Jack F. Kenney, geólogo geofísico, 2001

“Os geocientistas são limitados apenas pela sua imaginação, inovação e determinação. Nas próximas décadas, haverá grandes avanços feitos na geologia, na geofísica e na engenharia de petróleo. O desafio para todos nós - enquanto geólogos, geofísicos, engenheiros, exploracionistas independentes, empresa ou governos exploracionistas - é a elaboração de novos conceitos e habilidades para explorar em áreas consideradas fora de questão, ou mesmo impossíveis.”
- Michel T. Halbouty, geólogo, 2000

“Esses reservatórios estão se reabastecendo com óleo.”
- David Sibley, geólogo, 1999

“Na minha visão, os hidrocarbonetos não são biologia retrabalhada por geologia (como a visão tradicional poderia sustentar), mas certamente geologia retrabalhada por biologia. Em outras palavras, os hidrocarbonetos são primordiais, mas como eles emanam do interior da Terra para a crosta externa, a vida microbial os invade.” - Thomas Gold, astrofísico/astrônomo/cosmólogo/geocientista, 1999

“Mesmo que a teoria da origem biogênica leve a muitas inconsistências é, no entanto agora impossível, no mundo ocidental, de realizar uma pesquisa em geologia do petróleo que implique um questionamento aceito desta posição.” - Thomas Gold, astrofísico/astrônomo/cosmólogo/geocientista, 1999

“O problema com a teoria de recursos finitos é muito bem ilustrado pelas tendências recentes na produção de petróleo. Há menos 6.784 trilhões de barris de petróleo no subsolo hoje do que havia em 1981, ano em que a escassez do petróleo em relação era maior. À primeira vista, então, pode-se pensar que a base de recursos naturais tem se deteriorado. Mas o petróleo é relativamente mais abundante hoje do que era há 17 anos.”
- Jerry Taylor, cientista político, 1998

“A indústria nunca vai ficar sem petróleo, não em 10 mil anos. Algum dia, ele pode ficar sem clientes. Cada setor mineral é um eterno cabo-de-guerra, entre retornos decrescentes e aumento do conhecimento.”
- A. Morris Adelman, economista, 1997

“Nem nós, nem nossos netos, nem os netos viverão para ver o fim da era do petróleo.”
- Karl-Heinz Schult-Bornemann, geólogo, 1997

“E por que eles acreditam que as commodities vão crescer mais escassas? Para muitas pessoas, a idéia de que os recursos são finitos está na origem dessa crença. Mas a idéia de finitude é um preconceito e não é apoiada por dados disponíveis. Incrível como que possa parecer, o termo 'finito' não só é inadequado, é francamente enganador quando aplicado aos recursos naturais.”
- Julian L. Simon, economista, 1997

“A moderna teoria russo-ucraniana da origem do petróleo profundo e abiótico não é controversa, nem atualmente, uma questão de debate acadêmico. O período de debate sobre o extenso corpo de conhecimento tem sido ao longo de aproximadamente duas décadas (Simakov 1986).”
- Jack F. Kenney, geólogo geofísico / 1996

“Agora temos em nossas mãos, realmente, em nossas bibliotecas, a tecnologia para alimentar, vestir e fornecer energia a uma população cada vez maior para os próximos sete bilhões de anos.”
- Julian L. Simon, economista, 1995

“Como ele [João Galey] disse uma vez, o único geólogo que poderia dizer com certeza onde o óleo seria encontrado foi o “Dr. Broca”.”
- Daniel Yergin, cientista político, 1992

“A grande escassez de petróleo é como o horizonte, sempre recuando quando alguém se move em direção a ele.”
- A. Morris Adelman, economista, 1991

“Isótopos estáveis de carbono não são um critério seguro para distinguir petróleo biogênico do não-biogênico.”
- A.A. Giardini (geólogo) e Charles E. Melton (químico), 1991

“... O fato de que nós acharmos que existe petróleo e gás nos outros corpos planetários, obviamente não devido à biologia, é completamente ignorada.”
- Thomas Gold, astrofísico/astrônomo/cosmólogo/geocientista, 1989

“A suposição de fixo, do esgotamento dos recursos naturais tem implicado em muitos a fazer previsões catastróficas de exaustão de recursos. Felizmente, sempre que estas profecias foram suficientemente específicas para serem testadas, a passagem do tempo e dos acontecimentos as falsificaram.”
- Thomas R. Degregori, economista, 1987

“Os estudos científicos sobre a origem dos hidrocarbonetos e os resultados práticos das investigações geológicas proporcionaram uma compreensão da presença de enormes recursos inesgotáveis de hidrocarbonetos.”
- Vladilen A. Krayushkin, geólogo, 1986

“Cada dez ou quinze anos desde o final de 1800,” especialistas “que previram que as reservas de petróleo durariam apenas 10 anos mais. Estes especialistas previram que das nove das últimas, zero esgotamentos de reservas de petróleo ocorreram.”
- Charles Maurice (economista) e Charles W. Smithson (economista), 1984

“O conceito geral de formação de petróleo por mecanismos biogênicos esteve firmemente entrincheirado por um longo tempo, mas não houve acúmulo de evidências experimentais convincentes em apoio dessa crença.” - Charles E. Melton (químico) e A.A. Giardini (geólogo), 1983

“A sugestão que o petróleo poderia ter surgido de alguma transformação de peixes esmagados ou detritos biológicos é, seguramente, a mais ridícula noção que tem sido entretida por um número substancial de pessoas durante um  prolongado
período de tempo.” - Fred Hoyle, astrofísico, 1982

“Eu tenho perguntado para os melhores geólogos e pesquisadores de petróleo, e posso lhe dar a resposta oficial: Ninguém sabe [como é possível origem biogênica].”
- Edward Teller, físico, 1979

“Quase nada se sabe sobre as fontes dos componentes voláteis do magma ou como eles são distribuídos e transportados entre o manto e os níveis rasos da crosta.”
- Howel Williams, geólogo, 1979

“Todos os campos gigantes de petróleo são mais logicamente explicados pela teoria inorgânica.”
- Vladimir B. Porfir'ev, geólogo, 1974

“Idéias são o sangue da vida da ciência do petróleo.”
- Hollis D. Hedberg, geólogo, 1969

“A análise estatística termodinâmica demonstrou claramente que as moléculas de hidrocarbonetos que compõem o petróleo exigem pressões muito altas para a sua formação espontânea, comparáveis à mesma pressão necessária para o diamante. Nesse sentido, as moléculas de hidrocarbonetos são os polimorfos de alta pressão do sistema de redução de carbono como é o diamante de carbono elementar. Qualquer noção de que pode sugerir que as moléculas de hidrocarbonetos evoluem espontaneamente nos regimes de temperatura e pressão caracterizam-se pela próxima à superfície da Terra, que são os regimes de criação e destruição do metano dos hidrocarbonetos, nem sequer merecem consideração.” - Emmanuil B. Chekaliuk, geólogo, 1968

“Os geólogos envolvidos na prospecção de petróleo e gás devem agora começar a reavaliar os fatos à sua disposição e analisá-los a partir de posições de falhas tectônicas crustais.”
- Ivan I. Chebanenko, geólogo, 1966

“O geólogo desempenhou um papel secundário à geofísica e tem desempenhado um papel secundário por muito tempo - na verdade, porque geofísica vem fazendo o pensamento para ele, a substância do crânio do geólogo esteve sob sedação constante por mais de 35 anos.”
- Michel T. Halbouty, geólogo, 1966

“Este triste estado de coisas não tem sido provocada pela falta de petróleo descoberto no chão. - É o resultado de uma redução drástica do esforço da indústria para encontrar petróleo ainda não descoberto nos Estados Unidos.”
- Michel T. Halbouty, geólogo, 1966
“É notável que apesar de sua ocorrência generalizada, sua grande importância econômica, e a imensa quantidade de pesquisa de ponta, dedicada a ele,  talvez hajam mais incertezas sobre a origem do petróleo do que qualquer outra substância de ocorrência natural.” -- H. D. Hedberg, 1964

“Várias vezes no passado, nós pensamos que estávamos ficando sem petróleo considerando que, na verdade estávamos apenas conduzidos para fora das idéias.”
- Parke A. Dickey, geólogo, 1958

“A preponderância esmagadora de evidência geológica obriga à conclusão de que o petróleo bruto e gás natural de petróleo não têm ligação intrínseca com material biológico proveniente perto da superfície da Terra. Estes são materiais primordiais que foram expelidos de grandes profundidades.”
- Vladimir B. Porfir'ev, geólogo, 1956

“O petróleo é encontrado na mente dos homens.” - Wallace E. Pratt, geólogo, 1952

“O petróleo é a criatura da ação direta das forças da terra sobre materiais comuns da terra.” - Wallace E. Pratt, geólogo, 1942

“Quando em 1915 um perfurador de um poço pioneiro também relatou um granito a 1100 pés, ou algo assim, bem no meio do estado [Kansas], não fomos só céticos; ficamos indignados. Nós negamos que no poço havia granito, e quando a perfurador, sob nossa supervisão, colocou para fora do poço lindos fragmentos de granito rosa, nós acusamos que ele mesmo havia plantado o granito lá!
.” - Wallace E. Pratt, geólogo, 1942

“Os recursos não são, eles tornam-se.”
- Erich W. Zimmerman, economista, 1933

“Francamente, não há escassez de petróleo, simplesmente uma falta de esforço para tirá-lo do chão.”
- A. C. Bedford, geólogo, 1917

“Todo os campos de petróleo, gás natural, e betuminosos ou depósitos não podem ser considerados como qualquer outra coisa, mas os produtos da solfatáricas emanações vulcânicas condensadas e presas em sua passagem para cima nos reservatórios porosos de todas as idades da crosta terrestre de rochas arqueanas ao Quaternário. Nada é tão simples e, portanto, nada tão natural como esta origem, e veremos que ela pode ser perfeitamente comprovada.”
- Eugene Coste, geólogo, 1903

“Só o Dr. Broca sabe ao certo.” - John H. Galey, geólogo, data desconhecida

“É um fato singular e notável que, enquanto a maioria dos outros ramos da ciência se emancipou da dificuldade de raciocínio metafísico, a ciência da geologia continua a ser presa em “teorias a priori.” - Sir Henry H. Howorth, geólogo, 1895

“É óbvio que a quantidade total de petróleo nas rochas subjacentes à superfície é grande... além da computação.”
- Edward Orton, geólogo, 1888
          X-Men: DOFP Getting Trailer, Cap 2 Gets Trailer, Too Many Trailers & More! RevolutionNews Issue 9, Vol 1        

Hey guys! Tonight we're recaping this weeks news. And boy, this was a great week! Lots of exciting news! Now lets dig into it.

Captain America: The Winter Soldier Trailer:

Marvel's Captain America: The Winter Soldier has finally gotten a trailer! Watch it here

What do you think? Leave your thoughts in the world of comments.

X-Men: Days of Future Past Gets Sneak Peak of Sneak Peak:

Fox's new X-Men movie has gotten a short but awesome teaser trailer. Click this link & enjoy

Leave your thoughts in the comments place.

X-Files & Ghostbusters Crossing Over in New IDW Comic Book:

We all know how IDW love to have fun with their properties & do crazy stuff with them & they continue to do so! The much loved X-Files, Transformers, TMNT, The Crow and the classic Ghostbusters are crossing over in a new IDW comic book. It is called The X-Files: Conspiracy which sees Mulder and Scully investigating the characters of the Ghostbusters, TMNT, Transformers, and The Crow franchises in an attempt to stop the spread of a global pandemic. Conspiracy kicks off in January 2014 with the first issue of The X-Files: Conspiracy bookend series (written by Paul Crilley and drawn by John Stanisci) and the one-shot The X-Files: Conspiracy - Ghostbusters special (written by Erik Burnham and drawn by Salvador Navarro). Expect more one-shots to follow in the coming months before the story wraps up in The X-Files: Conspiracy #2.

Give me your thougts in the comments section & don't forget to pick up The X-Files: Conspiracy & The X-Files: Conspiracy - Ghostbusters in January.

Chris Pratt Talks Rocket Raccon:

Chris Pratt, the dude that is playing Star-Lord, recently got the chance to talk about Guardians of the Galaxy & Rocket Raccon with Access Hollywood. Here's what he said...

"You think it's a cartoon character, but it's not, it's a very real creature," Pratt explained to Access Hollywood. "[Rocket Raccoon has been] tortured his whole life and no one else likes him, so he's lonely and he's angry and it's like, [there are] all these elements [to the character]. You sort of forget about that, you wouldn't think about, [and] hopefully [it] will come to life. I think it will and that's why they hired a really good actor to do the role. I could not be more excited that Bradley Cooper is voicing Rocket Raccoon. It's a great character. It's probably the best character in the movie, just because it's not what you would expect."

Marvel's Guardians of the Galaxy hits August 1st, 2014.

Thor's Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje Wants to Play Black Panther:

While chatting with RedCarpetReps, Akinnuoye-Agbaje confirmed his long-standing interest in the role, saying, "To be apart of the Marvel world had always been an ambition of mine, and to be able to do that has been really an honor, and I would hope that would endear me to being able to play other characters whether that be Panther or others. We had a great time doing that, and it was my initiation to that world, and you never know, but things like that can happen, and I’ve felt this is just the beginning.”

Akinnuoye-Agbaje also spoke with about his dual role as the warrior Algrim and the monstrous Kurse in Thor 2. For Algrim, AAA (as fans have dubbed him) spent hours in the makeup chair, while for Kurse he not only endured heavy prosthetics but up to 40 pounds of armor as well. The G.I. Joe: Rise of Cobra actor said he did a lot of mirror work to get Kurse's physically imposing presence down, settling on a less is more approach. But ultimately it's the internal life of the character that he dug into and not just the exterior look.

“There’s a furiously loyal bond between [main villain Malekith and Algrim] because they’ve been on the frontline together,” Akinnuoye-Agbaje said. “[Algrim] is somebody who would lay his life on the line for a cause, and he feels that Malekith heads that cause. So they’re tight. … [With] Kurse…the rage becomes something else, but what I've tried to do instead of just making him this ogre, this powerful brute, is keep the Algrim within him.”

Do you think Adewale is a good fit for the Panther? Leave your thougts in the comments section.

Animated Wonder Woman Movie in the Works?:

You may have to suddle for another Wonder Woman animated movie before she gets to the big screen. Yup, it looks like we'll be getting a follow-up to the 2009 Wonder Woman movie hit. Though, it may not be called Wonder Woman....

"We'll probably do a Wonder Woman-centered Justice League movie," James Tucker told ToonZone while promoting the release of Justice League: War. "We'll use the Justice League as an umbrella to focus on characters who might not be able to support DVDs of their own. That’s not my judgment, that’s based on sales."

Though Wonder Woman 2009 was critically well-received, it didn't make much money, which explains why WBA's recent animated films have focused more on Batman, Superman and the rest of the JLA. Still, Tucker says they haven't forgotten about DC's leading lady.

"We'll handle Wonder Woman in our own way, regardless of whether they'll do a [live-action] movie or not," Tucker said. "I like her as a character and want to feature her as much as we can. But it will probably be in the context of a Justice League movie."

Do you like the idea of another animated Wonder Woman movie? Or would you prefer a live-action adaption? Leave all that in the comments section.

Beware the Batman Pulled From Cartoon Network?:

Is history repeating itself? Beware the Batman fans are getting nervous after Cartoon Network made the abrupt decision to pull the animated series from the schedule. Originally, a new episode was slated to air this coming Saturday, but not only is that not occuring, but they aren't airing a repeat of Beware the Batman - instead, two episodes of Teen Titans Go! will air in the DC Nation one-hour programming block. The @NickandMore Twitter account first noted the change.

We checked with Cartoon Network and were told, "Currently, Beware the Batman is no longer on our air. DC Nation will continue on Saturday mornings at 10/9c with new exclusive shorts and a full hour of encore episodes of Teen Titans Go!" For now, no explanation has been given for why Beware has been pulled, though it's likely that the ratings for the show are the cold, hard issue. Beware the Batman is not nearly as successful as Teen Titans Go! and is not performing as strongly as the previous Batman series, Batman: The Brave and the Bold.

It was a year ago this month that Cartoon Network abruptly pulled new episodes of Young Justice and Green Lantern: The Animated Series from their schedule. While the shows would eventually air all the completed episodes, that was it for them, with both being cancelled.

So when will Beware the Batman return? The voice of Batman on the series, Anthony Ruivivar, tweeted that the series would return in January, however, that hasn't been confirmed by Cartoon Network as yet.

Hopefully we'll hear more information on this matter soon, but for now, share your thoughts on the ordeal in the comments section.

Japan Getting Avengers Anime Series:

In more animation news, Marvel announced today a new Avengers animated series specifically made for the Japanese market. Titled Marvel Disk Wars: The Avengers, the series comes via The Walt Disney Company (Japan) Ltd and will debut in Japan in spring 2014. Disk Wars, produced by by Nerima-ku, Tokyo-based Toei Animation Co., Ltd.,  will, per the press release, “revolve around how The Avengers – Iron Man, Captain America, Thor and the Hulk together with the help of Spider-Man and a group of teens, will harness their respective fighting skills and superhuman powers to foil Loki’s scheme to take over the world.”

Marvel Disk Wars: The Avengers is described as Walt Disney Japan’s “first animated television series specifically targeted at boys.”

Marvel Disk Wars: The Avengers arrives in Spring 2014. Leave your thoughts in the usual place.

Wonder Woman in Batman vs. Superman?:

As director Zack Snyder finished shooting the first few scenes of Batman vs. Superman, rumors of a Wonder Woman cameo have continued to escalate.

In a recent interview with Variety, Warner Bros.' president of creative development and worldwide production Greg Silverman was asked if the upcoming comic book movie would feature any other DC heroes such as Wonder Woman, Green Lantern and the Flash.

"We have been doing a lot of thinking for years about how to best use all those characters and we love them," Silverman said. "Wonder Woman is an amazing character. I think it's a great opportunity both for box office success, but also to have an amazingly powerful female superhero."

After Silverman specifically mentioned Wonder Woman, the site asked if there were any plans for a solo film based on DC's Amazon Princess. "We are taking it all very seriously and are trying to do a plan that's respectful to those characters and maximizes the stories as best they can," Silverman said, dodging the question. "So everything that has been speculated are things that we've thought about." Silverman also addressed the controversial casting of Ben Affleck as Batman in the Man of Steel sequel. "We knew going in that we had more information than the general public had," he said. "We knew what the take of the movie was, we knew what the character was going to be. We don't take these decisions lightly. We thought about everybody -- brand new people, established people. Ben is the perfect guy to play this role.

"They both will be wearing suits, there are capes involved, there will be action, there will be excitement... They've crafted a great story."

Don't miss Batman vs. Superman in 2015 & don't forget to leave your thoughts in the comments section.

Ryan Reynolds Talks About Deadpool Movie:

Another character that fans have been waiting to see on the big screen is Deadpool. Today, Ryan Reynolds answered whether we would ever see Deadpool heading his own movie...

While talking to Yahoo Movies! in a recent interview, the actor explained that a Deadpool solo movie will get made "eventually," but it's really up to the studio of when that will be. "The movie's actually very small," Reynolds said. "There's minimal impact to the studio, which is the way we're kind of presenting it to them. We're saying 'Look, the budget is minimal. Therefore, can we do this the way it should be done?'"

In concept alone, Deadpool is a tough nut to crack, more so than other Marvel characters because he's constantly breaking the fourth wall -- in the most vulgar way possible -- and that means an R rating. But, as Reynolds has made clear before, "[The movie] needs those elements... It's very meta, I mean, the character knows he's in a movie, he knows he's in a comic book. He names studio executives in the script. So, it's kind of a risky property. But, you know, we'll see."

So will Deadpool ever get made? "In our lifetime? Yeah, I think so," Reynolds said. "I think if I were a betting man it'll get made, eventually. I mean it's just been developed to high heaven. It has great people around it, so we'll see."

So, it looks like we will see the Merc with a Mouth on the big screen... One day... Leave your thoughts in the comments section.

Hulk Confirmed to Smash In Avengers 2: Age of Ultron:

We already know that the loveable green giant is coming back to the big screen in Avengers 2.... And now we know that he is going to smash!

A French website with the spellcheck-destroying name recently sat down with Kevin Feige, Marvel Studios’ president of production and info tease extraordinaire. When asked whether Hulk would be getting a new solo movie anytime soon, Feige demurred but recognized Hulk’s resonance with moviegoers:

“[W]e wanted people to come out of Avengers saying The Hulk was their favorite character or at least on [sic] of their favorite. The fact that it did happen, was awesome. So, you know, all of the effort related to Hulk right know is going to Age of Ultron. It’s exciting, because [Ruffalo] hasn’t been in any other film, so you can expect to have a lot of Bruce Banner and Hulk in Age of Ultron.”

Feige also says that both Scarlet Witch and Quicksliver will have “huge” parts in the new movie.

What do you think about this so far? Leave your thoughts in the comments section.

New Fictional Daily Bugle Article Goes Up:

Sony continues to build it's Spider-Man Universe with a new Daily Bugle article.

The Daily Bugle tumblr recently posted an "article" about the upcoming criminal trial of Dr. Curt Connors for the mayhem wrought by The Lizard in the first Spidey film, possibly dropping a few hints about the sequel's cast of characters in the process.

"A trial date has been set in the New York Appellate Court for alleged bio-terrorist Dr. Curt Connors. The former Oscorp biogenetics scientist has been indicted on twenty city and state counts, including trespassing, malicious destruction of property, theft of private property, aggravated assault, and using a weapon of mass destruction. Connors has pleaded 'not guilty' to all counts. It is expected his defense attorney, Anne Weying, will claim Connors was not responsible for the actions of his genetically transformed alter ego, the Lizard."

Quite the trial, huh?

Mark Waid's Daredevil Coming to a Close:

Has there been a better and more consistent book in Marvel's lineup than the current volume of Daredevil? Mark Waid took over the relaunched series in summer 2011, offering both readers and Matt Murdock a fresh start after years of progressively darker storylines. Thanks to Waid's smart, peppy writing and talented artists like Paolo Rivera and Chris Samnee, the series has become a model for many others to aspire to during the course of the Marvel NOW! relaunch.

Unfortunately, it looks like Daredevil may soon be following in the footsteps of recently canceled Marvel books like Fearless Defenders, Venom, and Scarlet Spider. Suspicions started earlier today when issue #32 was released and editor Steve Wacker had this to say in the letters page - "Javier [Rodriguez] will be back to draw issue #34 in a couple months to give Chris time to focus on our big two-part finale to this era of Daredevil. Sad, I know, but all things must end, right?"

Samnee later confirmed these suspicions on his Twitter account, posting the cover for February's issue #36 and calling it "the final issue." The cover certainly suggests things are looking down for Matt Murdock (more than usual, anyway).

But don't get too sad because Mark Waid has said before that he has plans for the Daredevil character in 2014, which means Daredevil could just be getting a Marvel NOW! relaunch.

Stay tuned for more news in the future.

Ben Kingsley Not Done With Marvel Yet:

It may come as a surprise to learn that Sir Ben Kingsley isn't quite done with Marvel just yet. In a recent interview, the actor revealed that he's worked on a new project with the studio, following his performance as the Mandarin (aka Trevor Slattery) in Iron Man 3.

"It's a secret Marvel project. I'm not allowed to say any more, you're going to have to wait and see," Kingsley told The Belfast Telegraph while promoting his latest film Ender's Game. "I was with many members of the crew that were involved in Iron Man 3. It was lovely to see them again. It was great to be with this wonderful family."

What do you think Kingsley is involved in? Leave your thoughts in the comments section.

Ant-Man a Heist Movie:

Marvel just loves their different tones for their different movies, right? Recently, it was confirmed that the Ant-Man movie would be a heist movie. Go to this link for more information....

Dr. Strange Brings The Supernatural to Marvel Movies:

Like I said, Marvel loves their different tones.

Following the news that Ant-Man will be a "heist movie", IGN quizzed Kevin Feige who was in town promoting Thor: The Dark World, about what genre he foresaw a Doctor Strange movie occupying, "I don’t want to say specifically, because that’s a part of our development process as we start to put it together," he told us, "but it’s no secret that the supernatural angle, the angle of alternate and parallel dimensions, we have not done in any of the films, and is not only a big part of the Doctor Strange comics, but also a big part of the Marvel Universe that we haven’t explored yet. So, I love the notion of tapping into all of that through Strange one day."

So, you look forward to Dr. Strange and the supernatural tone? Leave your thoughts in the normal place.



CHAPTER 2: Extro-science fiction and hyperstition

Paul Laffoly, Mind Physics

Suzanne Treister, Hexen 2039 U.S. Psychological Operations Equipment

Susan Hiller, Witness

Jake and Dinos Chapman, Zygotic Acceleration, Biogenetic, De-Sublimated Libidinal Model

Sarah-Jane Norman, Hokum

Zoe Beloff, The Ideoplastic Materializations of Eva C.


          Denmark,PhD scholarship in Host-virus Interactions        
Firstly I hope good for all of you

A 3 year PhD position belief host-virus interactions in bubble trout is accessible at the National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The abode of assignment is Aarhus, Division of Poultry, Angle and Fur Animals. The applicant will be affiliated to the Assay Group for Angle Immunology and Vaccinology.

The PhD action is an chip allotment of a beyond National Assay action with focus on co-evolutionary aspects of host and virus on both abiogenetic and phenotypic levels. The action will accommodate beneath stays at assay institutes alfresco of Denmark.

Job description
The all-embracing accurate aim of this PhD action is to acknowledge and characterise the mechanisms complex in amnesty to a baleful angle rhabdovirus (viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, VHSV). A DNA-based vaccine inducing a awful careful allowed acknowledgment actuality represents an important apparatus forth with immuno assays and atomic assay techniques. A above assignment will be to actuate mRNA and miRNA acknowledgment profiles to anesthetic and/or infection and to associate these with the phenotypic ancestry (level of immunity, humoral and cellular allowed response). Gene announcement assay will be an important activity, but assignment at all levels including additionally anatomic studies of virus advancement in corpuscle ability as able-bodied as wet lab anesthetic and infection trials should be expected. Publishing of after-effects in accurate journals will represent an chip element. A cardinal of training courses will be included in the PhD study.

Applicants should accommodated the afterward qualifications:
A master’s amount in either veterinary medicine, assay or a commensurable conduct or a agnate amount with an bookish akin agnate to the master’s degree
Experience in immunology, virology and/or atomic assay research
An absorption in accurate compassionate of host-pathogen interactions, aiming at development of strategies for ache prophylaxis
Fluency in English speaking and writing
Good abilities in accurate advice and avant-garde thinking, acceptable amusing skills

Salary and arrangement terms
The bacon and arrangement agreement are constant with the accepted rules for PhD amount students. The aeon of appliance is 3 years.

Further advice
For added advice please acquaintance Senior Scientist Niels Lorenzen, 3588 6829.

You can apprehend added about National Veterinary Institute at

Deadline for appliance is 15 August 2010. Please accessible the articulation “apply for this job online” and ample in the appliance anatomy and attach:
A action anecdotic why you are absorbed in this position
A CV including publications
Copy of affidavit with grades

All absorbed candidates irrespective of age, gender, race, adoration or indigenous accomplishments are encouraged to apply.

For added details

Please leave a comment IF you like the entry. It's like visiting a place where there is a guest book by the front door. Before you exit, you sign it to leave a note about your experience of the place.I know that people are visiting by virtue of site meter, but almost no one leaves a comment.If you are in a hurry (and who isn't these days?), just leave a "thanks".Thanks

          Trance + psy-trance (1998)        


The New York Times, November 29th 1998

by Simon Reynolds 

The Esperanto of electronic dance music, trance is probably the most popular rave sound in the world. Although this kinetic, hypnotic music has maintained a presence on the American rave scene since the style emerged in the mid-90's, trance seems to be rising to a new level of prominence in this country.
Where early trance was generally harsh, minimal and coldly cosmic, more recent strains of the genre emphasize melody, recognizably human emotions and a warmly devotional aura. All this makes trance a populist, accessible alternative to the experimental abstraction of hip rave styles like techno and drum-and-bass. In particular, trance's dewey-eyed sentimentalism seems to be attracting younger American ravers who are still in the honeymoon phase of using Ecstasy, an illicit drug that many users believe heightens feelings of tenderness and empathy.

Encouraged by the expanding American audience for trance, Paul Oakenfold, Britain's leading mainstream trance DJ, has launched an offensive on these shores, with regular club tours and the major-label release of his CD Tranceport. The German trance pioneer Paul Van Dyk also released not one but two albums in America this fall. And there's a growing following for the fiercer underground style known as psychedelic trance, with a flurry of parties in New York and the start of an American offshoot by the English label Blue Room Released.

Trance's roots lie in the pulsating metronomic rhythms of Eurodisco, a sound pioneered by the Munich-based producer Giorgio Moroder in 1977 and popularized by his protege Donna Summer. But trance really emerged as a distinct subgenre of rave music in Berlin and Frankfurt around 1993. Some aficionados identify 'Visions of Shiva', a 1992 collaboration between Mr. Van Dyk and the producer Cosmic Baby, as the first trance tune.

 Another seminal track was the group Hardfloor's 'Hardtrance Acperience' (1992), which resurrected the classic Roland 303 bass synthesiser sound of the late 80's genre called acid house. With its squeaky timbre and snaking patterns, the 303 remains a trance staple, driving dancers into a Dionysian frenzy.

Recently voted the world's No. 1 DJ in an industry poll conducted by the English dance magazine DJ, Mr. Oakenfold is famous for his role in kickstarting Britain's rave movement with his 1988 acid house club, Spectrum. Having dominated British club culture for a decade, Mr. Oakenfold is now directing his energy toward America. For the next two years, he plans to play at least 50 DJ dates a year in America. On the recording front, Tranceport, a collection of trance tracks by various artists mixed and blended by Mr. Oakenfold, has just been released by the Reprise subsidiary Kinetic, alongside the group Binary Finary's single, '1998', the year's biggest trance anthem. Tranceport features Mr. Van Dyk's remix of '1998'. Mr. Van Dyk's two albums, 45 Rpm (1994) and Seven Ways (1996), sold so well as imports that they have recently been released domestically by Novamute; his new album, Avenue of Stars, will follow next May.
Despite its crowd-pleasing power, trance tends to be despised by dance cognoscenti, who prefer more avant-garde styles like techno (a synthesizer- and drum-based instrumental music) and jungle (a hyperkinetic hybrid of hip-hop and reggae). These hipsters regard overt melody and explicit emotion (both of which trance features in abundance) as "cheesy" — that is to say, too close to normal pop music.

In contrast, Mr. Van Dyk talks of trying "to create little songs, not just rhythm tracks" and stresses the importance of expressing feelings through music. Where techno and jungle producers use terminology from astrophysics or biogenetics in the titles of their tracks, Mr. Van Dyk's most famous anthem, 'For an Angel', was inspired by meeting his girlfriend. Trance's melodramatic expressiveness often makes it verge on being a computer-era update of 19th-century symphonic music. In a similar quest for harmoniousness, Mr. Oakenfold doesn't simply synchronize tracks by tempo but combines them according to musical key, arrangement and dynamics.

Trance comes in several subgenres. As well as the lushly textured, lovey-dovey end of the spectrum represented by Mr. Oakenfold and Mr. Van Dyk, there's also a more bombastic strain of trance pioneered by labels like Noom along with a ferocious variant known as filthy acid techno that's popular in Britain's underground network of illegal raves in abandoned buildings. 

But the most significant subgenre is psychedelic trance. Where Mr. Oakenfold and Mr. Van Dyk's brand of trance favors wistful, naive melodies, psychedelic trance features ornate riffs and mandala-swirly patterns, plus an array of sonic effects that mimic LSD-induced sensations like synesthesia and quicksilver light-trails. The sound is rising in popularity on both the East and West Coasts of America. In New York, promoters like Tsunami and In-Trance-It hold parties with increasing regularity. Vain, a downtown club, holds a weekly psychedelic night, and House of Trance, a record store in the Village, is devoted to the genre.

Psychedelic trance was originally associated with Goa in South West India, the drug-and-dance paradise that lures raver tourists from across the world. By 1996, clubs had sprung up throughout Europe offering a surrogate version of the Goa experience. In September 1996, the promoter John Emmanuel Gartmann held America's first psychedelic trance rave, Return to the Source — a now legendary party at the Liberty Science Center in Jersey City. These days Mr. Gartmann's company, Tsunami, holds a psychedelic party every second Friday at Vinyl, a club in TriBeCa.
In the beginning, Tsunami events drew a crowd that was 80 percent European expatriates, members of what Mr. Gartmann calls "the international traveling set" — nomads who spend the winter party season going to raves in India and Thailand. For a long time, the only Americans at Tsunami parties, it seemed, were students from Harvard, Princeton and Yale. "My only explanation is that maybe they'd traveled a lot during their vacations," Mr. Gartmann said. Now Tsunami parties consist of 60 percent American ravers, who are turning on, tuning in and dropping in on the psychedelic scene because of its euphoric energy.
Psychedelic trance parties simulate the Goa experience as closely as possible. In India, parties on the beach or in the jungle run from sunset to dawn, whereupon dancers pick up flutes and conches to invoke the sun. In this spirit, Tsunami raves are structured so that the music progresses from "night music" (hard and sinister) through spiritually uplifting "sunrise music" to the sheer elation of "morning music".
The fashion and decor that accompany psychedelic trance also originated in India. "We like to get dressed up for the festival," said Mr. Gartmann. "Women get adorned. They look like goddesses. It's a celebration, an honoring, infused with the spiritual energy of India." Dancers wear fluorescent-patterned clothes that glow under ultraviolet light, T-shirts decorated with fractal-like patterns and sweat pants made of paisley and tie-dyed fabric. Some women adopt a beach bum look (white halter-tops, hair swept away from the face using white plastic sunglasses), accessorized with luminous nose rings, bracelets and bindis. Fluorescent face-paint and hair dye are also popular. For men, a common look is the unshaven backpacker style. At Tsunami's parties, the walls and ceilings are covered with gaudy streamers, papier-mache sculptures of magic mushrooms, butterfly mobiles and retina-scorching mandala tapestries.
As might be expected from the name, the psychedelic trance scene is surrounded by neo-hippy rhetoric, a syncretic mish-mash of mystical notions drawn from Buddhism, Hinduism and other non-Western religions. As such, it resonates with the vogue for Eastern spirituality in late-90's pop culture, from the Beasties Boys' devotion to Tibetan Buddhism to Madonna's flirtation with the kabbalah and yoga. Coincidentally, Madonna's latest album, Ray of Light, is steeped in the influence of the poppier end of trance, courtesy of its producer, William Orbit.
Eddie Bang, who works at the New York techno store Satellite, says that for psychedelic trance fans the music itself is like a religion. "They're tribally devoted to the scene," he said. In many respects, they are like Deadheads, another movement of mostly white, middle-class youths drawn to gaudy neo-hippy clothing, trance-dancing and tripping on hallucinogens like LSD and Ecstasy.
Spiritual vibes and loud colors aside, what makes the psychedelic scene so attractive to its devotees is the joyous frenzy of the crowd, which bounces and flails with a fervor rarely seen on New York dance floors. And although the music is generally held in critical disdain, psychedelic trance can be exhilirating. Performing live at Tsunami's recent Totally Twisted rave, the British producer Hallucinogen transported the dancers into a sonic maelstrom of phosphorescent filigree. Where many trance artists are minimalists, Hallucinogen is a maximalist. His tracks are continually morphing; every couple of bars, a new arpeggiated riff comes writhing out of the amazingly intricate mix.

Because of its Teutonic roots, trance is sometimes criticized as an unfunky form of dance music. In trance, creativity does operate largely on the level of melody and layering of texture rather than rhythm (the usual province of dance music). But adventurous producers like Hallucinogen are expanding trance's rhythmic palette of clockwork beats and chugging bass lines by weaving in dub reggae-style echo effects and speeded-up hip-hop beats. From the growing sophistication of the music to the irresistible energy it catalyzes on the dance floor, psychedelic trance is ready to explode into wider popular consciousness.

          INFIERNO (Dan Brown)        

Hace unos meses, sosteníamos con un buen amigo, (recién casado y menor de 30 años) una conversación referente al hecho de que en esta generación de parejas jóvenes está ocurriendo un fenómeno cada vez más notable: las dificultades para concebir y mencionábamos ambos algunos ejemplos puntuales de parejas y personas que conocemos. Por qué inicio escribiendo la reseña del libro que va en camino de ser el nuevo best seller, con este comentario? Sencillamente porque esta vez Brown nos sorprende con una teoría halada de los cabellos como él suele hacerlo, pero demás interesante para la realidad de nuestro mundo actual.

Robert Langdon es el protagonista, por cuarta vez, de una historia de trascendencia mundial, un sencillo profesor de Harvard experto en simbología, que parece siempre tener las respuesta de todo; Brown desarrolla la trama de INFERNO en escenarios hermosos e históricos como Florencia, Venecia y Estambul, los detalles descriptivos de los lugares en su novela me resultaron más amplios y minuciosos que en sus libros anteriores y permite imaginar con mucha claridad, la belleza de ese mundo misterioso y artístico; la historia principal gira en torno a la Obra LA DIVINA COMEDIA de Dante Alighieri, específicamente al infierno, que nos conduce a un recorrido histórico, artístico, místico y oscuro; involucra a una entidad que llama “El Consorcio” y a la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la trama está llena de hombres con aspecto de soldados; una supuesta asesina que viste de cuero, expertos de arte, obras valiosas, villano que con su genialidad ha hecho tambalear a la OMS y un súper héroe que gracias a su conocimiento logra como siempre armar el rompecabezas, esta vez no se trata de conspiraciones religiosas ni políticas, esta vez se trata de un asunto de salud mundial que nos deja muy abiertamente hacer nuestra propia reflexión sobre la principal pandemia que está sufriendo la humanidad actualmente: LA SOBREPOBLACION.

En esta ocasión, la historia inicia a la mitad de los sucesos, Langdon siendo perseguido por toda Florencia para ser asesinado, con amnesia por el roce de una bala en su cabeza y teniendo extrañas alucinaciones sobre muerte, peste y destrucción; con la ayuda de la Doctora Sienna Brooks, una especie de niña genio que ahora vive de manera austera y fuera de la vista pública,  emprenden una peligrosa y extraña travesía con el objetivo de buscar las respuestas que se encuentran perdidas en la mente de Robert, su investigación inicia con un extraño sello, de apariencia antigua, que Landong lleva en su tweed, al examinarlo se dan cuenta que es un aparato bastante moderno que al agitarlo muestra como especie de diapositiva un cuadro de Sandro Boticceli: “los círculos del infierno”, un mapa bastante detallado sobre el trayecto de Dante en los 9 círculos del infierno; sin terminar de dar crédito a lo que mira Landong se da cuenta que las imágenes de ese cuadro son las visiones que ha estado teniendo, al creer que su mismo consulado le traiciones huye junto Sienna hasta a la vieja Florencia siguiendo tan solo la referencia encontrada en la imagen que los conduce hasta el Palazzo Vecchio, en todo esta búsqueda de los protagonistas, Brown hace una descripción bastante detallada de los lugares, los edificios, las obras de arte y las calles de Florencia, lo que le da a la novela un toque bastante interesante; en fin, en el Palacio se dan cuenta que esta como parte de una exposición privada la máscara mortuoria del mismo Dante Alighieri, la cual roban y tras muchas páginas más de aventura encuentran un inscripción en espiral que los hace buscar la forma de llegar a la romántica VENECIA, una serie de emocionantes acontecimientos hacen que finalmente la OMS y El Consorcio contacten a Robert y le expliquen la magnitud de los acontecimientos: el peligro de una plaga mundial de consecuencias catastróficas y con la capacidad de mermar a la población mundial en al menos dos terceras partes, la peste negra de la era moderna, le informan que Bertrand Zobrist, un Ingeniero Genético millonario, ha sido capaz de crear un virus con la capacidad de lograr nivelar la población mundial con el objetivo de dar a la tierras más tiempo y es ahí don Dan Brown nos lanza su nueva conspiración: el campo de la manipulación de la línea germinal, la explicación matemática del hecho de que la población de la Tierra va en aumento, la gente vive durante más años y los recursos naturales, no dejan de disminuir, es decir, ESTAMOS MATANDO NUESTRO HABITAT, de qué forma? REPRODUCIENDONOS INCONTROLABLEMENTE (elevando a escandalosos números rojos el nivel demográfico mundial).
Convencido de esta teoría Zobrist decide que la única forma de salvar a la humanidad de sí misma es crear un virus que no sea de exterminio sino de esterilidad para grupos aleatorios de individuos, con lo cual en las próximas generaciones la población mundial disminuiría radicalmente; no ahondo mas pues prácticamente les he arruinado casi el final del libro, pero la historia es tan rica que no creo que en nada afecten mis adelantos al momento de leerla; finalmente en la majestuosa ciudad de ESTAMBUL todos los misterios se develan y Robert puede regresar tranquilamente a las aulas de Harvard.

A mediados y casi al final del libro nos dejan, como decía al principio, hacer nuestra propia reflexión: Realmente queremos y podemos hacer algo por solucionar este problema de sobrepoblación que nos está llevando al exterminio?

Deseamos seguir manteniendo nuestras sociedades de esta manera, en la cual cada vez hay menos recursos  y menos valores debido a la lucha voraz de lo poco que hay?

De manera muy personal, no me parece justo estar trayendo al mundo hijos de manera inconsciente, sobre todo porque esa irresponsabilidad se encuentra en los sectores más vulnerables y desprotegidos. No creo jajaja que exista en la Biogenetica algo con esta capacidad, pero sí creo que la naturaleza de alguna manera se empieza a purgar sola.

          Tuf Voyaging        

I've been meaning to finally read George R. R. Martin's Tuf Voyaging ever since Bantam Books re-issued the book in trade paperback format in 2013. I had my first taste of Haviland Tuf when I read GRRM's collection Dreamsongs, Volume 2, and was intrigued enough to want to find out more about that character and his adventures in outer space.

However, as is often the case, other authors, novels, and series have gotten in the way over the years and Tuf Voyaging sat on my shelf, all but forgotten. Yet when the time came for me to pick up reading material to bring with me on my two-week hiking trip in the French Alps, I recalled that this book had been awaiting my attention for quite a while and I decided to bring it with me.

Here's the blurb:

Long before A Game of Thrones became an international phenomenon, #1 New York Times bestselling author George R. R. Martin had taken his loyal readers across the cosmos. Now back in print after almost ten years, Tuf Voyaging is the story of quirky and endearing Haviland Tuf, an unlikely hero just trying to do right by the galaxy, one planet at a time.

Haviland Tuf is an honest space-trader who likes cats. So how is it that, in competition with the worst villains the universe has to offer, he’s become the proud owner of a seedship, the last remnant of Earth’s legendary Ecological Engineering Corps? Never mind; just be thankful that the most powerful weapon in human space is in good hands—hands which now have the godlike ability to control the genetic material of thousands of outlandish creatures.

Armed with this unique equipment, Tuf is set to tackle the problems that human settlers have created in colonizing far-flung worlds: hosts of hostile monsters, a population hooked on procreation, a dictator who unleashes plagues to get his own way . . . and in every case, the only thing that stands between the colonists and disaster is Tuf’s ingenuity—and his reputation as a man of integrity in a universe of rogues.

The problem with older science fiction works is that they don't always age well. This was a cause for concern, for the stories comprising this book were originally published between 1976 and 1986. The genre has evolved quite a bit these last few decades. The idea of an eccentric biogenetic engineer that moves from one world to the next in a giant spaceship, both solving and creating ecological problems along the way, may have been original thirty or forty years ago. But in 2017? Suffice to say that these stories didn't work as well as I had hoped. Not that Tuf Voyaging is a boring read. It kept me entertained while I was reading it, but these short fiction pieces definitely lack the unexpected, kick-you-in-the-balls when you least anticipate it, shock value moments and plotlines that have become the hallmark of GRRM's tales. Indeed, they're not something that stays with you once you're done reading and some of them are downright forgettable.

One of the main problems is that Haviland Tuf is not that compelling of a protagonist. Sure, it's kind of fun to follow the adventures of this quirky, fussy, extremely formal giant of a man. Pale and bald, vegetarian and cat-lover, Tuf sure is an oddball. Trouble is, it all gets old quite fast and Tuf is not endearing enough to carry this entire book on his shoulders. Hence, the more you read, the less enjoyable the stories get. The supporting cast is rather weak, and the spotlight remains on Haviland Tuf for the better part of the book. Tolly Mune showed some promise early on, but in the end she didn't live up to her potential. Another problem is that all of these short stories rely a lot on humor. To a certain extent, George R. R. Martin is responsible for heralding the grimdark era and he's never been known for his sense of humor. Overall, I felt that the comedic or comical aspects of Tuf's misadventures didn't always work all that well.

Interestingly enough, it was the two oldest stories that were the most interesting. Written in 1975 and revised in 1986, "A Beast for Norn" and "Call Him Moses" from 1978 were by far the best of the bunch. Initially published in 1981, "Guardians" is another engaging story. What was written afterward lacks the originality and the quality of their predecessors. "The Plague Star" recounts the tale of how Haviland Tuf came into possession of the Ark, a biowar seedship of the Ecological Engineering Corps from the ancient Federal Empire. What follows has come to be known as the S'uthlam triptych. Comprised of "Loaves and Fishes", "Second Helpings" and "Manna From Heaven", these stories were written so that GRRM could come up with enough material so that the first edition of Tuf Voyaging could be published by Baen in 1986.

The stories are arranged in chronological order, not in the order they were published. It makes perfect sense structurally, but it does make for an uneven read for the most part. As a vacation read for someone looking for lighter reading material, Tuf Voyaging did the job. Still, there is no denying that it is the weakest GRRM book I have sampled thus far. The author's impressive body of work set the bar rather high and Tuf Voyaging failed to live up to the lofty expectations generated by basically every other GRRM novels/novellas/short stories I've read.

Once upon a time, Martin signed a contract to write a second Tuf book which would have been titled Twice as Tuf or Tuf Landing. But then Wild Cards, Hollywood, and A Song of Ice and Fire came along and the project never materialized. Perhaps it's for the best, given how the first book has not aged well. GRRM said that it might still happen one of these days, when readers least expect it. Time will tell. . .

The final verdict: 7/10

For more info about this title: Canada, USA, Europe.
          Diterpenoids from Isodon species: an update        

Nat. Prod. Rep., 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7NP00027H, Review Article
Miao Liu, Wei-Guang Wang, Han-Dong Sun, Jian-Xin Pu
This review focuses on new diterpenoids from the Isodon species, including their structures, classifications, biogenetic pathways, bioactivities, and chemical synthesis (from December 2005 to June 2016).
To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above.
The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry

          GENPETS...PODRIA.... ¿ SER CIERTO?...!

joven artista canadiense....

Despuès de habernos horrorizado con sus Nikes de "carne humana" o hecho sonreir con sus làpidas interactivas, sale ahora con los bebès (màs parecen fetos), a los que hay que alimentar mediante un suero, que sangran, tienen huesos y se quejan....¡UFFFF!...bueno, entre muchìsimas otras cosas que se le han ocurrido...


GenPets es una línea de "mamíferos" de la marca BioGenetica. Vienen en un paquete donde son alimentados a travès de un tubo. Suena asqueroso, de ciencia ficciòn, y lleva a que enfrentemos una profunda reflexiòn..lo cual es lo que se quería lograr.... Esto se debe a que GenPets es en realidad una exposiciòn de arte que nos hace pensar en varios aspectos..terriblemente desagradables...que vive la sociedad moderna, habituada ya a toda clase de informaciones, Y EN LAS CONSECUENCIAS NEFASTAS E INHUMANAS QUE PUEDE LLEGAR A TENER LA MANIPULACIÒN GENÈTICA...

Solo que podamos imaginarnos siquiera a un ser viviente como un producto y que semejante cosa pueda ser REAL, aunque sea durante un segundo, pone de manifiesto que el artista no está equivocado. De hecho, hubo gente, sobre todo
adolescentes, interesados en comprar una de estas mascotas empaquetadas.

Para darle màs realismo a su presentaciòn, los promotores dicen...que estan formadas por huesos y mùsculos, que sangran cuando se cortan y que..."si sienten...solo que al no tener las cuerdas vocales muy hacen demasiado ruido".....UFF !!

Este hombre que desde hace muchos años ha causado polèmica mundial, desea que se reflexione en forma crìtica, sobre los cimientos que fundamentan la ètica (tan manoseada, traìda y llevada), utilizando para ello lo que està al alcance de todos y que nos mantiene atiborrados de noticias de todas clases, muchas espeluznantes y desgraciadamente reales: EL MARKETING que se desarrolla en los medios de comunicaciòn...

Poetul Dan Tipuriţă vine faţa noastră cu un nou volum de poezie, inedit prin titlu şi constructiv, ca filozofie a vieţii Să ne iubim deşertăciunile . Dacă luăm deşertăciune mot-a-mot din titlul acestui volum, autorul ne să iubim chiar lucrurile fără preţ, fără valoare din noi. de introducere al volumului, domnia sa denumeşte poezia acestui volum o poezie biogenetică pentru că, spune autorul să coboare abisuri, să treacă dincolo de zăgazurile neauzului, ale nevăzului, cunoaşterii de sine, lumea celulelor, a hematiilor, hormonilor, organelor generatoare şi purtătoare de aceste omeneşti deşertăciuni, să le limbajul stărilor fiziologice, puteri magice, ca unor adevărate fiinţe, pe care eu le-am iubit şi alături de care mi-am petrecut viaţă. ...
          Saru Hen'i-Tai - By Scrasamax        

SHT is a freakshow, and even the rest of the special forces for To'a know it, they avoid the division if at all possible. It's commander, Lt. General Kato, prefers it that way. The SHT, the 'Mutant Apes', are truly bizarre and horrific soldiers that Kato and his pet scientists have created, and they use them in throw away missions. Why he has such freedom, and suffers no consequences for his actions bothers many. It is wise to keep such things to yourself. The Emperor himself has granted Kato personal audience several times, as well as having bestowed on him the Defender of Yamato medal, and the Order of the Chrysanthemum. Kato can do anything he pleases, and he knows it. The cocky bastard.

Kato, Defender of Yamato

Lt. General Kato is a large and imposing man with dark hair, a steely gaze, and an air of power and confidence. He is without a doubt a patriot of Nippon, and a devoted servant of the Emperor. Most of his record and files are sealed, but it is known that he served for nearly a decade with the Imperial Navy, and then another decade in the Diplomatic Corps. After that, he started working in the intelligence and special forces divisions, and his record completely vanishes.

Kato carries the Emperor's favor, but he is chased by ghosts. You can see them, in his face, when he is tired or lets his guard down. He has done terrible things for the homeland, and only he knows how many have died at his hand, at his order, both enemies and allies alike. That's the dangerous thing about patriots and heroes, they will do what they think is right, regardless of how many men and women they send to their deaths.

The Nekkikyu Kawashima

The Nekkikyu Kawashima is one of the few aerostats floating above Nippon, and is currently situated above the Hiroshima Arcoplex. The complex houses a few dozen scientists and engineers, Kato and his personal staff, and the barracks and other facilities for Kato's 'Mutant Apes'. The facility itself is registered as scientific/industrial with biological and military applications. As the aerostat sits at fairly high altitude, most people give it no mind, there are typically much more impressive things running the straight, like the Red Sun cargo ships, and the ships of the Imperial Nipponese Navy, and rarer Pacific Rim Coalition Ships.

The Hiroshima Memorial Center is a public aerostat that hangs above the city, specifically above the site where the first atomic bomb was detonated against Nippon. The aerostat sits at the point of detonation, making it quite close to the ground, and easily visible from most anywhere in the arcoplex. It is a memorial to not the people who died in the explosion (that memorial is on the ground) but the to defeat of Japan, and the submission of the Emperor, and what many people feel, was the cultural dark period for the home islands. As the islands reemerged as Nippon, with western democracy swept away and the Emperor reinstated, the memorial was raised as a 'Never Again' gesture.

The Saru Hen'i-Tai

Also correctly known as the Mutant Apes, the Saru Hen'i-Tai are a small group of special forces commandos trained for counter-intelligence and clandestine warfare. There are a number of other groups involved in the same area, but the Saru Hen'i-Tai differ in that they are all clones, genetically engineered and grown to purpose for their tasks. The clones are all psychotronically intimated, have cybernetic upgrades and modifications, and are technically not considered reliable. The majority of the Mutant Apes require constant supervision and regular medical monitoring. Their modifications are high.

There are three ranks of augmentation and engineering; Reliable, Sustainable, and Unstable. Reliable augmentations can go weeks or months with nothing but routine upkeep, very similar to visiting the doctor once or twice a year. The majority of augments are required to be Reliable by law. Military and Intelligence ops can circumvent this with more cutting edge augmentations. The Sustainable augmentation requires regular care, typically weekly or every few days, to ensure that everything is optimal. These augments have embedded weaponry, arcanotech implants, parapsychic modifications, and so forth. Unstable augments are the rarest as they require hourly care to keep in functional range. These augments and clones are typically kept in hibernation, hooked to dreaming machines, until they are needed. Then, they are woken, briefed, sent into action, and quickly retrieved.

The Mutant Apes differ the most from all of the other divisions in that all of their clones are copies of other people. The Mutant Apes are dopplegangers and body doubles of powerful, influential, or otherwise important people within Nippon, and a few from without. The majority of these body clones come from former or still serving military personnel, especially those who have accomplished significant things in the name of Nippon or the Emperor. A number are of personal importance to Kato, and are replacements for some of the people that he has lost under his command.

They are biological clones, that is all. Their minds are their own, as they are gestated in the tanks. We don't intimate the minds of those we've cloned. The important thing is physical condition, clarity of mind, purity of soul. The makings of greatness aren't in our experiences but in our DNA and souls. Replicate the body, the spirit will fill it. The Mutant Apes are copies of great heroes, and they will fight for the Emperor and Nippon again, and again, and again.

The Emperor and Kato

Kato and his Saru Hen'i-Tai are one of the Emperor's personal interests. The Mutant Apes push the envelope of what can be done with cybernetics and cloning technology, often to freakish results. The unfreakish outcome of these experiments is Nippon's position as a leader in biogenetics, and the Emperor's ability to influence the very genetics of his sworn people. Nippon's supersoldiers are also superior to the rest of the world's sundry programs, even if their numbers are much lower. Certainly not least, the Saru Hen'i-Tai are exceptional at completing the missions given to them, often moreso the stranger the missions become.

Please visit Saru_Heni-Tai to comment or vote. The site prospers through your involvement.
          Why Evolution is False        

What Are We Talking About?

Here is Coyne’s definition of evolution:

In essence, the modern theory of evolution is easy to grasp. It can be summarized in a single (albeit slightly long) sentence: Life on earth evolved gradually beginning with one primitive species—perhaps a self-replicating molecule—that lived more than 3.5 billion years ago; it then branched out over time, throwing off many new and diverse species; and the mechanism for most (but not all) of evolutionary change is natural selection. 1

Notice that he intentionally excludes the origin of life. He postulates the existence of a single kind of living thing, “perhaps a self-replicating molecule,” upon which all subsequent changes build. Because of this definition, he avoids all discussion of how a lifeless Earth produced that first living thing.

According to Coyne, evolution begins with a living thing that already contains a mechanism for obtaining energy from the environment, a mechanism for storing that energy, converting the energy to other forms, using that energy for useful purposes, the ability to grow, the ability to reproduce itself, intrinsic genetic information, and has a method for expressing that genetic information as physical features. This living thing came about by some natural process which we can’t even begin to imagine, but isn’t of any real importance to answering the question of how we came to be on this Earth.

Clearly, the origin of that first living thing is vital to the theory of evolution. Why doesn’t Coyne include the origin of life in his definition of evolution? You know the answer. He can’t begin to explain it. Defining evolution as he did gives him an excuse to not even try.


If you are expecting a book with the title, Why Evolution is True to contain proof for the theory of evolution, you will be disappointed. What it really contains is excuses why evolutionists can’t prove evolution is true, why it is unreasonable to expect evolutionists to provide proof, and why you should believe in evolution anyway. Let the excuses begin!

Why We’ve Never Seen It

Nobody has ever observed macroevolution in the laboratory or in nature. Here is his excuse for why we have not.

Further, we shouldn’t expect to see more than small changes in one or a few features of a species—what is known as macroevolutionary change. Given the gradual pace of evolution, it’s unreasonable to expect to see selection transforming one “type” of plant or animal into another—so-called macroevolution—within a human lifetime. Though macroevolution is occurring today, we simply won’t be around long enough to see it. Remember that the issue is not whether macroevolutionary change happens—we already know from the fossil record that it does—but whether it was caused by natural selection, and whether natural selection can build complex features and organisms. [italics his] 2

There is a process known as “microevolution” that really does occur. Microevolution is the variation within a species that occurs because of loss of genetic information. But he is talking about “macroevolution,” which is the creation of a new kind of living thing resulting from genetic information that previously did not exist.

He asserts, without proof, that macroevolution is occurring today, while admitting that one can’t see it happening. That is, genetic information is supposedly arising spontaneously that will create a new kind of creature. He just knows it, even though nobody can actually see it. The alleged reason nobody can see it is because it happens so slowly.

For one thing, natural selection in the wild is often incredibly slow. The evolution of feathers, for example, probably took hundreds of thousands of years. Even if feathers were evolving today, it would simply be impossible to watch this happening in real time, much less to measure whatever type of selection was acting to make feathers larger. 3

The real reason why nobody has ever seen it is because it hasn’t happened! Genetic information doesn’t just magically appear.

He thinks he sees macroevolution in the fossil record. This is remarkable because he spends so many pages trying to explain why there are no missing links in the fossil record!

Why There Are No Missing Links

We don’t find any missing links in the fossil record but, according to Coyne, we should not expect to find any.

Taking into account all of these requirements, it’s clear that the fossil record must be incomplete. … we can estimate that we have fossil evidence of only 0.1 percent to 1 percent of all species—hardly a good sample of the history of life! [italics his] 4

What should our “missing link” with apes look like? Remember that the “missing link” is the single ancestral species that gave rise to modern humans on the one hand and chimpanzees on the other. It’s not reasonable to expect the discovery of that critical single species, for its identification would require a complete series of ancestor-descendant fossils on both the chimp and human lineages, series that we could trace back until they intersect at the ancestor. Except for a few marine microorganisms, such complete fossil sequences don’t exist. And our early human ancestors were large, relatively few in number compared to grazers like antelopes, and inhabited a small part of Africa under dry conditions not conducive to fossilization. Their fossils, like those of all apes and monkeys, are scarce. This resembles our problem with the evolution of birds from feathered reptiles, for whom transitional fossils are also rare. We can certainly trace the evolution of birds from feathered reptiles, but we’re not sure exactly which fossil species were the direct ancestors of modern birds.

Given all this, we can’t expect to find the single particular species that represents the “missing link” between humans and other apes. We can hope only to find its evolutionary cousins. Remember also that this common ancestor was not a chimpanzee, and probably didn’t look like either modern chimps or humans. Nevertheless, it’s likely that the “missing link” was closer in appearance to modern chimps than to modern humans. We are the odd man out in the evolution of modern apes, who all resemble one another far more than they resemble us. 5 [italics his]

We will return to this issue of humans being so different from modern apes later; but let’s stick to the impossibility of finding missing links for the moment.

Clearly, he is talking out of both sides of his mouth. He says that complete fossils sequences don’t exist, except for a few microscopic marine organisms. Microscopic fossils are controversial because scientists don’t always agree that they even are fossils. But, let’s suppose they really are fossils. Just because they look similar doesn’t necessarily mean that they are biologically descended from one another. Even if they are descended from one another, they are all still just microorganisms which demonstrate variation—not evolution. So, actually, the alleged microscopic fossils don’t really show evolution.

Human and bird fossils allegedly provide the best (although incomplete) sequence of fossils, but even they don’t really show a clear pattern of evolution, so Coyne remains in full-blown excuse mode.

Although far from complete, the record of human evolution is one of the best confirmations we have of an evolutionary prediction, and is especially gratifying because the prediction was Darwin’s.

But a few caveats. We don’t (and can’t expect to) have a continuous fossil record of human ancestry. Instead, we see a tangled bush of many different species. Most of them went extinct without leaving descendants, and only one genetic lineage threaded its way through time to become modern humans. We’re not sure yet which fossil species lie along that particular thread, and which were evolutionary dead ends. The most surprising thing we’ve learned about our history is that we’ve had many close evolutionary cousins who died out without leaving descendants. It’s even possible that as many as four humanlike species lived in Africa at the same time, and maybe in the same place. Imagine the encounters that might have taken place! Did they kill one another, or try to interbreed? 6

After saying they unable to tell how the different fossils are related, he next admits they aren’t even able to classify the fossils with any degree of certainty.

And the names of ancestral human fossils can’t be taken too seriously. Like theology, paleontology is a field in which the students far outnumber the objects of study. There are lively—and sometimes acrimonious—debates about whether a given fossil is really something new, or merely a variant of an already named species. These arguments about scientific names often mean very little. Whether a humanlike fossil is named as one species or another can turn on matters as small as half a millimeter in the diameter of a tooth, or slight differences in the shape of the thighbone. 7

It is important to remember that when paleontologists talk about “human fossils” they generally aren’t talking about complete skeletons. Often they are talking about one or two bones, a partial skull, or a few teeth. One can’t even be sure that the teeth and bones go together. This is why there are so many arguments. The models of our “human ancestors” that are displayed in museums are based on a few bones and a lot of speculation based on the presumption of evolution.

Here is his self-contradictory summary.

Looking at the whole array of bones, then what do we have? Clearly, indisputable evidence for human evolution from apelike ancestors. Granted, we can’t yet trace out a continuous lineage from an apelike early hominid to modern Homo sapiens. The fossils are scattered in time and space, a series of dots yet to be genealogically connected. And we may never have enough fossils to join them. 8

It is indisputable and yet unproven. How can you argue with “logic” like that?

For the Birds

Coyne makes general claims that the evolution of dinosaurs to birds, and the origin of flight, is well documented in the fossil record. But when he gets to specifics, he just makes excuses for why they don’t really know anything at all about the evolution of birds.

Because reptiles appear in the fossil record before birds, we can guess that the common ancestor of birds and reptiles was an ancient reptile, and would have looked like one. We now know that this common ancestor was a dinosaur. 9 [italics his]

Coyne so easily goes from “guess” to “know.” Even if the fossil record showed that a particular reptile died before a particular bird, it doesn’t prove that the bird is a biological descendant of the reptile. It is an indisputable fact that Big Brown (the horse that won the 2008 Kentucky Derby) died in 2008, and President George Washington died in 1799. Does that prove that Big Brown was a biological descendant of George Washington? Of course not!

We want you to get the full impact of Coyne’s explanation about bird evolution, so here is a long passage. As always, colored highlights are ours, but the italics for emphasis in the quote are his.

But if feathers didn’t arise as adaptations for flying, what on earth were they for? Again, we don’t know. They could have been used for ornamentation or display—perhaps to attract mates. It seems more likely, though, that they were used for insulation. Unlike modern reptiles, theropods may have been partially warm-blooded; and even if they weren’t, feathers would have helped maintain body temperature. And what feathers evolved from is even more mysterious. The best guess is that they derive from the same cells that give rise to reptilian scales, but not everyone agrees.

Despite the unknowns, we can make some guesses about how natural selection fashioned modern birds. Early carnivorous dinosaurs evolved longer forelimbs and hands, which probably helped them grab and handle their prey. That kind of grabbing would favor evolution of muscles that would quickly extend the front legs and pull them inward: exactly the motion used for the downward stroke in true flight. Then followed the feathery covering, probably for insulation. Given these innovations, there are at least two ways flight could have evolved. The first is called the “trees down” scenario. There is evidence that some theropods lived at least partly in trees. Feathery forelimbs would help these reptiles glide from tree to tree, or from tree to ground, which would help them escape predators, find food more readily, or cushion their falls.

A different—and more likely—scenario is called the “ground up” theory, which sees flight evolving as an outgrowth of open-armed runs and leaps that feathered dinosaurs might have made to catch their prey. Longer wings could also have evolved as running aids. The chukar partridge, a game bird studied by Kenneth Dial at the University of Montana, represents a living example of this step. These partridges almost never fly, and flap their wings mainly to help them run uphill. The flapping gives them not only extra propulsion, but also more traction against the ground. Newborn chicks can run up 45-degree slopes, and adults can ascent 105-degree slopes—overhangs more than vertical!—solely by running and flapping their wings. The obvious advantage is that uphill scrambling helps these birds escape predators. The next step in evolving flight would be very short airborne hops, like those made by turkeys and quail fleeing from danger.

In either the “trees down” or “ground up” scenario, natural selection could begin to favor individuals who could fly farther instead of merely gliding, leaping, or flying for short bursts. Then would come the other innovations shared by modern birds, including hollow bones for lightness and that large breastbone.

While we may speculate about the details, the existence of transitional fossils—and the evolution of birds from reptiles—is fact. 10

The only real science here is the study showing that wings can help birds run uphill. All the rest is, as Coyne admits, speculation—and therefore an undeniable fact!

We don’t have space this month to point out all the times Coyne makes bold general claims about the fossils, and then makes excuses for why the fossil data doesn’t support the general claim. We hope we have given you enough examples to prove our point, and hope that you read his book to find more examples for yourself.

Not Like Apes

Earlier in this essay we did promise, however, to examine Coyne’s statement about humans being so different from apes. This is important because evolutionists are stuck in the middle. On the one hand, they need to prove that we are so close genetically to apes that we must be biologically related to them. On the other hand, they need to explain how such a small genetic difference can produce such obvious, significant differences between men and apes.

That oft-quoted 1.5 percent difference between ourselves and chimps, then is really larger than it looks … More than 6 percent of genes found in humans simply aren’t found in any form in chimpanzees. There are over fourteen hundred novel genes expressed in humans but not in chimps. … Despite our general resemblance to our primate cousins, then, evolving a human from an apelike ancestor probably required substantial genetic change. 11 [italics his]

He is pretty close to the truth here. We’ve shown before that the allegedly small genetic difference between apes and man is a fictitious result of some artful mathematics. 12 There really is a substantial genetic difference between apes and humans which evolutionists don’t like to admit because it weakens their argument that we share a common biological ancestor.

The Discontinuity Problem

The most basic problem with the theory of evolution is staring us right in the face, but it is so obvious that it is often overlooked.

Indeed, perhaps the most striking fact about nature is that it is discontinuous. When you look at animals and plants, each individual almost always falls into one of many discrete groups. When we look at a single wild cat, for example, we are immediately able to identify it as either a lion, a cougar, a snow leopard, and so on. All cats do not blur insensibly into one another through a series of feline intermediates. And although there is a variation among individuals within a cluster (as all lion researchers know, each lion looks different from every other), the clusters nevertheless remain discrete in “organism space.” We see clusters in all organisms that reproduce sexually.

These discrete clusters are known as species. And at first sight, their existence looks like a problem for evolutionary theory. Evolution is, after all, a continuous process, so how can it produce groups of animals and plants that are discrete and discontinuous, separated from others by gaps in appearance and behavior? How these groups arise is the problem of speciation—or the origin of species.

That, of course, is the title of Darwin’s most famous book, a title implying that he had a lot to say about speciation. … Yet Darwin’s magnum opus was largely silent on the “mystery of mysteries.” And what little he did say on this topic is seen by most modern evolutionists as muddled. 13 [italics his]

If the theory of evolution were true, then plants and animals really would blur together without clear distinctions. It really is a problem for which Coyne has no good answer.

No Excuse for Sex

The origin of sex is one of the hardest things for evolutionists to explain. Coyne doesn’t have an answer. As usual, he just punts.

The question of the number of sexes is a messy theoretical issue that needn’t detain us, except to note that theory shows that two sexes will evolutionarily replace mating systems involving three or more sexes: two sexes is the most robust and stable strategy.

The theory of why the two sexes have different numbers and sizes of gametes is equally messy. This condition presumably evolved from that in earlier sexually reproducing species in which the two sexes had gametes of equal size. 14

False Claims

On those rare occasions when Coyne isn’t attacking creationists or making excuses for why there isn’t any real proof for evolution, he makes false claims about evidence for evolution. Here are just a few.

If we know the half-life, how much of the radioisotope was there when the rock was formed (something that geologists can accurately determine), and how much remains now, it’s relatively simple to estimate the age of the rock. 15

Geologists have no possible way of knowing how much radioactive material was in the rock when it formed.

Several radio-isotopes usually occur together, so the dates can be cross-checked, and the ages invariable agree. 16

No, they don’t invariably agree, unless you throw out the ages that don’t agree! The discordant dates of the Apollo 11 moon rocks are typical. (Only 10 of 116 measurements agreed with the “accepted” age of the moon. 17)

The fossil record documents the gradual loss of toes over time, so that in modern horses only the middle one—the hoof—remains. 18

This story about horse evolution has been debunked by evolutionists themselves for years! Even the Chicago Field Museum admits it. 19 20 How could Coyne not know that?

Getting His Haeckels Up

Coyne even goes so far as to try to defend Ernst Haeckel’s biogenetic law, sort of.

Noting this principle, Ernst Haeckel, a German evolutionist and Darwin’s contemporary, formulated a “biogenetic law” in 1866, famously summarized as “Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny.” This means the development of an organism simply replays its evolutionary history. But this notion is true in only a limited sense. Embryonic stages don’t look like the adult forms of their ancestors, as Haeckel claimed, but like the embryonic forms of ancestors. Human fetuses, for example, never resemble adult fish or reptiles, but in certain ways they do resemble embryonic fish and reptiles. Also the recapitulation is neither strict nor inevitable: not every feature of an ancestor’s embryo appears in its descendants, nor do all stages of development unfold in a strict evolutionary order. Further, some species, like plants, have dispensed with nearly all traces of their ancestry during development. Haeckel’s law has fallen into disrepute not only because it wasn’t strictly true, but also because Haeckel was accused, largely unjustly, of fudging some drawings of early embryos to make them look more similar than they really are. Yet we shouldn’t throw out the baby with the bathwater. Embryos still show a form of recapitulation: features that arose earlier in evolution often appear earlier in development. And this makes sense only if species have an evolutionary history.

Now, we’re not absolutely sure why some species retain much of their evolutionary history during development. The “adding new stuff onto old” principle is just a hypothesis—an explanation for the facts of embryology. 21 [italics his]

In summary, embryos look similar during development, except when they don’t; and this only makes sense to evolutionists. They don’t know why this happens. They don’t know why it only happens in some species. But it explains the facts of embryology!

We don’t know why Coyne thinks Haeckel was “unjustly” accused of faking the drawings. There is no question that he did fake them. His guilt has been known for decades.

Ignore the Contradictions

The theory of evolution is full of contradictions, resulting in debates and arguments among evolutionists. Coyne says these controversies prove how strong the theory is.

Critics of evolution seize upon these controversies, arguing that they show something is wrong with the theory of evolution itself. But this is specious. There is no dissent among serious biologists about the major claims of evolutionary theory—only about the details of how evolution occurred, and about the relative roles of various evolutionary mechanisms. Far from discrediting evolution, the “controversies” are in fact the sign of a vibrant, thriving field. What moves science forward is [sic] ignorance, debate, and the testing of alternative theories with observations and experiments. A science without controversy is a science without progress. 22

This is just amazing! There are controversies precisely because the theory is wrong. He says all the people who believe in evolution really believe in evolution (they just believe other believers in evolution are wrong). The fact that there is so much ignorance and controversy about evolution proves how true it must be.

If it is true that debate about evolution promotes scientific progress, why is it that evolutionists go to court to prevent debate about evolution from being discussed in American public schools?

The more you read about evolution, written by evolutionists, the less you will believe it!


1 Coyne, Why Evolution is True, 2009, page 3
2 ibid. page 133
3 ibid. page 132
4 ibid. page 22
5 ibid. pages 195-196
6 ibid. pages 196-197
7 ibid. page 197
8 ibid. page 207
9 ibid. page 34
10 ibid. pages 46-47
11 ibid. pages 210-211
12 Disclosure, January 2003, “98% Chimp”
13 Coyne, Why Evolution is True, 2009, page 169-170
14 ibid. page 156
15 ibid. page 23
16 ibid. page 24
17 Disclosure, June 2008, “The Age of the Moon”,
18 Coyne, Why Evolution is True, 2009, page 65
19 Disclosure, February 2002, “Horses and Peppered Moths”,
20 Disclosure, October 1997, “Education Behind the Times”,
21 Coyne, Why Evolution is True, 2009, page 78
22 ibid. page 223


          The Doctor Moreau Bra?        
In case you haven't heard, Victoria's Secret has toppled the scientific community on its ear, and perhaps changed life as we know it forever and ever, by way of their brand new "BioFit Bra."

Yes, the BIOFIT bra. Hmmm. Very perplexing, that name. Does "BioFit" mean "biologically designed"? "Bio-friendly"? "Biologically enhanced"? "Bio-Hazard"? (A sure way to keep unwanted gropers at bay.) Or, mayhap, "biogenetically created to infiltrate one's ta-tas, causing said ta-tas to magically lift, separate, and grow to ten times their natural state"?

Not sure, really, but it certainly does intrigue me.

What I've ascertained, however, is that this bra ostensibly enhances one's figure via cutting edge science, wherein the mysterious fibers woven into this ghastly garment have been grown in a laboratory by an evil geneticist named Dr. James D. Foote, best known for his work in the field of bovine mammarology. The mysterious fibers, of which there are two known types (the third is top secret, and may, if revealed, threaten national security), 36-D and 40-D-D, somehow intertwine with human physiology in such a way that alters DNA, thus producing instantaneous metamorphoses of the molecular structure.

Now, if you haven't yet seen the advertisement for this monstrosity, I can only say that it is so mind-bogglingly, stupendously insulting to any woman who has ever grown a pair of breasts, it may just cause those of us with a brain larger than Janet Jackson's nipple to never shop Victoria's Secret again.

Or even worse, put ridiculous images in our heads -- especially women like me, who imagine ridiculous things on a daily basis.

Case in point: While watching the BioFit commercial last night, ridiculous images did abound, images like...

!) A BioCat bra that makes use of feline DNA. Fabulous, really, what with the cute, furry cat heads strategically placed on each cup. What woman doesn't love cute, furry creatures, huh? Never be lonely again! And no boob-freeze EVER! Sure, it may take some getting used to, what with the cat faces eerily outlined though one's blouse (not recommended for use under tank tops), but the benefits outweigh the eerie cat heads. Puuurfection.

?) The revolutionary BioFruit Bra, which, depending on how much the organically grown pump is squeezed, gives the wearer either a luscious melon-like bobble, a perky orange bounce, or sprightly apricot wiggle.

And finally...

&) The first Victoria's Secret line for men! Gentlemen, you will be amazed and delighted with the BioButt Briefs, made with all natural fibers derived from the wee-tui-tui cactus, which will automatically bond with your gluteus maximus muscles by way of a special epidermal-cacti transference enzyme, so that your buttocks will take on a tight, rounded, almost bulbous richness.

But that's not all! Why not go hog-wild and pair the BioButt Briefs with the sure-to-turn-heads BioTrunk Jock! The BioTrunk is the must-have accoutrement for any man on the make! Constructed with heavy duty pachydermal microbiofibers, this strap-on, breathable cup guarantees comfort, while increasing package size to mammoth proportions.

Oh, I could go on and on, but I won't. I have disturbed even my own self way too much today, so enough. Enough.
          Vanity be not Proud        

Is it "maths" or processing of real physical electric signals (i.e. electrons) with real electronic circuits?
Some believe the battle line for debate is drawn at that intersection.

Perhaps though, the battle line plays out at the intersection of judicial vanity and judicial ignorance.

Most judges consider themselves to be very smart (High IQ). And they are.

But High IQ alone is not enough. No matter how smart one is, no matter how credentialed, the human brain (a biological organ) is of finite size, of finite speed and of finite (as well as age diminishing) ability to rewire itself (a thing referred to as plasticity).

No matter how hard they try, many an elder judge (or other arbiter) will never comprehend "computers," will never grasp modern biogenetics, will never fully appreciate modern physics and science.

There is a reason why almost all of our best and brightest (same high IQ) young PhD earners take so many years to finish their studies and finally get into the work world.

It’s because this is hard hard, brain straining stuff. The biological human brain organ is not a silicon based digital electronic computer and vice versa the computer is not a replica of the human brain. The notion of abstraction, of “mind” and of being able to do stuff with pencil and paper are delusions. These delusions appeal to the judge’s vanity by making them “feel” smart. (Gee now I get it, molecular biology is just like plucking a leaf from a tree.)

But they are not anywhere near that smart and all knowing. They are simply parading proudly in arrogant, asinine and vain ignorance. They just don’t know it. We see it. They don’t. Will they ever see it? (Ask the Bruce Willis character in the movie, “The Sixth Sense”. Spoiler alert, he is one of those ignorant lost ghosts.)

          More Pixels to the Inch        
Thomas Hartl

Words to avoid because of their excessive theoretical freight: “signifier,” “symbolic,” “text,” “textual,” and then “being,” and then finally all words, and this would still not suffice, for since words cannot be constituted as a totality, the infinity that traverses them could never be captured by a substracting operation; it is irreducible by reduction. Maurice Blanchot

Exod. 4:11 And the LORD said unto him, Who hath made man’s mouth? or who maketh the dumb, or deaf, or the seeing, or the blind? have not I the LORD? Exod. 4:11 Now therefore go, and I will be with thy mouth, and teach thee what thou shalt say.


The legend unreels. What’s the story here, the word, the gospel? You must have faith. Faith in your reading. Faith in your thinking. Faith in not suspending disbelief. Believe in your disbelief. In fiction, in language, everything is possible. Anything can happen. Anything be said and written. This is right in your face. For your eyes only. Your mirror on the wall. Your handwriting. We all are what we are, and the world is a feeling.

You know what? Moses was a lonely man. A loony loner. Baloner. “Slow of speech, and of a slow tongue” (Exod. 4:10). Led the Israelites out of Egypt and with a hoarse, frightening mouth and an awful lisp delivered the Law during their years of wandering in the desert of the real/reel, with God the Almighty sitting there in the back of that judicial mouth. Thou shalt not this. Thou shalt not that. Moses never uttering “his own” words, but always already and “solely” a mediation, a facsimile, a xerox, a simulacrum of the “real” word that was in the beginning (i.e., endlessly deferred and unintelligible). In the beginning was the wor(l)d. Irreducible by reduction. Amen. The desert, not only for the Israelites, turned into the book (Edmond Jabès). The Book of Life. Now, our desert is the hyperreality that is constantly being rained upon by endlessly circulating and shifting simulacra and signifiers. Drained of origin(al)s. But the spectral, possessed voice of Moses, this ghost in our machines and on our hard disks, can still be heard in the desert of our real. Broken, echoed, distorted. E.g., MTV. Mosaic Textual Voice. Delivering Mosaic Law. Transmitting Mosaic Bug. Infecting reason. An infected mouth, seduced, broken, as are his tablets. A speech impediment in consequence of a piece of live coal that he yearned to swallow as a child. Poor loudmouthed fellow. Mosaic logorrhea.

Now, what’s this Law? Mosaic Law? In his third novel, 98.6 (1975), in a section tellingly entitled “Palestine,” the Reb Sukiennik specifies [Ron learns from a lexicographer in Warsaw that sukno “is a kind of fine, woolen cloth used for overcoats” and that a ” sukiennik is one who makes it” (109-10). The Reb is our cloth-maker, our text-weaver. He will henceforth only be referred to in his cloned version as Reb Suk]: “the law of mosaics or how to deal with parts in the absence of wholes” (Sukenick, 98.6 167). The absence of holes. ‘Cause everything is. God is. “I am that I am.” We is. No verbal post-script, no facsimile will do to clear the field. Epistemology is short-circuited, put into the abyss, mis-en-abyme, turned back on itself in an opaque and perfect circle that will never be broken. This circle was created by breaking the tablets. Hence secret codes abound. No Rosetta Stone around. No solution to be found. The various sections in the Torah were not given in their correct order by Him. For then any schmuck could wake the dead and create golems: “Thus, the magical potentialities of the Torah were intentionally concealed by God in order to allow the common path of life not to be disturbed by the transmission of the code for extraordinary operations” (Idel 242-43). The grains of sand in the desert silent: “The gap. The blank space the clean slate. Where the terror is. And where dreams condense like clouds in an empty sky. Civilization comes down to a man staring at an empty page” (Sukenick, 98.6 171). A book, a text, that changes like a cloud as it goes along. Reb Steiner speaks of “an unhoused at-homeness in the text” (5). Like the people of the text, the tribe of the alphabet, the text itself is “not rooted but millennially equipped with legs” (19).

Mosaic Man, Reb Suk’s (textual) universe, or better yet: multiverse, pluriverse, omnivorous omniverse, is a cosmopolic cosmolingual cosmoverbal cosmicomic chaosmos or mosaicked mosaic with a plethora of legs, a monstrous and hilarious centipede of a golemic book. Reb Suk’s life, you say, accordingly, an endlessly long story whose episodes derive as much from the unpredictable currents of his mind and the prurient provokers of his body as from the cryptic trivia of the quotidian - the dark flood of experience that encompasses us all. The ebb and flow of the ocean of life in the permanence of the here and now, where background and foreground are constantly changing and turning into and on each other, contact boundaries shifted every single second. This is Reb Suk’s Gestalt Writing Program, his “science of comparative experience” (Sukenick, Down and In 7), in which “all issues resolve in the here and now” (Mosaic Man 171). And it is a healing program. The Reb novels the novel by constantly recombining and repercussing words. Moses never set foot on the promised land, he died on the wrong side of the Jordan in a (French?) kiss off the divine lips of the One. Reb Suk’s homeland is a country from which he is permanently exiled: “Whoever writes is exiled from writing, which is the country - his own - where he is not a prophet” (Blanchot 63).


Now “real to reel” and “straight to the bull’s eye of reality” (22): What’s his story? For decades, Professor Sukenick has been a central figure both in contemporary “postmodern” literature and on the publishing scene, untiringly promoting off-mainroad, non-corporate, committed innovations in writing and publishing. He hit the hot lit scene in 1968 with his first novel Up, published by Swallow Press, an instant success and representative of a new trend in U.S. fiction at that time. Many isms and schisms have since been tested out and applied: “postmodernist,” “surfictionist,” “post-contemporary,” “post-realist,” “meta-fictional,” “real fictitious,” “pomo-auto-bio,” “avant-bio,” “avant-poppish,” “experimental” (Prof Suk’s fav), whatever, you name it. (Add your word-shtick here: _____________.)

Now, since the mid-1970s, after the publication of two other influential early books, The Death of the Novel and Other Stories in 1969 and > Out in 1973, the professor has continued to have an important impact on contemporary literature and culture in various roles (yep, playgiarized that from you out there, Larry). His is a cultural and socio-political commitment that has gone strong over a long time now, and there are still no signs of compromise on the horizon. Professor Sukenick Was An Advisor For PMLA (which is the title of his next film script, the flick probably directed by Rod Drackenstein). Since 1977, he publishes a book review magazine, the American Book Review, “in response to the absence of informed review attention to literary, cultural and minority press books in the commercial mass circulation reviewing media” (press release), and since 1989 edits a litmag specializing in innovative fiction, Black Ice. He used to be head of an organization that supported and represented all the literary magazines in the country, CCLM. He teaches in the creative writing program of the University of Colorado. He teaches courses in publishing. He was director of the Publications Center at the University of Colorado.

With avant-writers Jonathan Baumbach, Steve Katz, Peter Spielberg, and Mark Mirksy, the prof was one of the founding members of the Fiction Collective in 1974, an author-administered and -edited “ ‘not-for-profit’ cooperative conduit for quality fiction, the first of its kind in this country, in which writers make all business decisions and do all editorial and copy work” (Sukenick cited in McCaffery, “The Fiction Collective” 109) at a time when “large publishing houses were already closing their doors to a great many weird and challenging writers” (Bérubé 190). The Fiction Collective was rebooted in upgraded form in 1988 as FC2 by Professor Sukenick and Curtis White, and has since in particular helped innovative gay/lesbian/bi and feminist/post-feminist writers to get their texts published. In 1993, FC2 launched its new series, Black Ice Books, which is specifically tailored for an “alternative mass market” (low price, portable format, paperback editions), introducing readers to what the professor and Larry McCaffery describe as the Avant-Pop, i.e., writing that exploits and simultaneously subverts the forms and models of popular culture. Sukenick’s Doggy Bag and his magnum popus Mosaic Man are excellent samples of the A-P.

Professor Sukenick probed into Ron’s/Ronnie’s (that is “Ronald Sukenick” and not Ronald Sukenick) pseudo-autobiographical adventures in New York City’s Lower East Side and the academe in Up (1968), the metafictional possibilities of short fiction in The Death of the Novel and Other Stories (1969), dished up alphabet soup and sent his fluid consciousness out west driven by the hope generated by the 1960s in > Out (1973), painted a rather bleak but nonetheless funny picture of that hope-and-euphoria-for-a-new-society gone sado-maso in 98.6 (1975), sang the academic-gone-hermit blues in Long Talking Bad Conditions Blues (1979), conceived wordbombs exploding into meaning in The Endless Short Story (1986), conjured up the Hollywood movie scene as a shaman in Blown Away (1986), and most recently pushed short fiction through the Avant-Pop grinder in his Doggy Bag (1994). And he has just finished a new novel “about” cows. Now, in Mosaic Man, the Professor for the first time in his literary career tunes entirely in to the Jewish side of the story/his story/stories/histories.

Jewish rules

Autonomy and “not $ but jewish rules” (24). “In the beginning was the WORD which is unspeakable, unreadable and unintelligible. Beyond human perception” (9). This is Reb Suk’s Genesis (in the section “Genes”), these are the writer’s Genes. The WORD made world. The WORD in the world. Words in the WORD. Read: the Book of Life. Did the LORD speak the WOR(L)D in Hebrew? In a language which is unintelligible, according to our genesis, a language written in secret code? The Master Code? How to crack God’s Code? First step in Genes: A writing that is not yet language, pure information, generative. Second step in Genes: The word becomes metaphor, a story, genetic. Third step in Genes: The pictures are replicated, story becomes history, generic. Graven images, finally.

In number six of the section “Numbers,” aptly titled “How to Be Jewish” (and, if I am not mistaken, an earlier title for Mosaic Man) we learn that “Ron is a fundamentalist of the book. He believes that books should be literally true. It is only the literally true that is fundamentally mysterious” (105). The second step in Genes. Therefore, he is working on a book project with the title Wholly Book, i.e., “a book containing what he calls the collected conscious… His quixotic idea is that the collected conscious as the anti-body to the virus should be collected in a book that is wholly a book and not partly illusion” (105). The virus here is anti-Semitism, biogenetic mutation, the A-bomb, Hiroshima, epidemic self-interest, the frantic search for the Golden Calf. The Wholly Book is (maybe not so paradoxically but necessarily). A collection (“collected conscious”). A mosaic. So complex in its cross-references, multiple meanings, acronyms, homonyms, homophones, echoes, reverberations, built into its wor(l)ds that it is wholly. Holy. A book. An approximation of the Master Code. Gnomic. Created. Doven. This our gospel, go(d)spell, good news. We all know that the Torah was written in Secret Divine Code, God’s Code. Accordingly, the language in Mosaic Man is densly gnomic, i.e., salted with gnomes, i.e., short, pithy expressions of general truths, aphorisms. A gnomic writer, Reb Suk rewrites the “wisdom” poetry of the Bible. You know: “the only gospel / the hand writing” (38).

After the creation of the world and the word, what does it mean to be Jewish? What does it mean to be a Jew and a writer? A Jewish writer? A writing Jew? Reb Suk doesn’t need a rabbi to tell him he is Jewish. This we learn from an earlier version of the “Profits” section (in the second part of the book): “Equating Jewishness with religion was not his decision. With respect to the sacred, he prefers the profane. While he believes some things are holy, god is not one of them. Especially not god as the author of the book of life” (“How to Be Jewish” 390). The nonobservant Jew is pondering what it means to be Jewish, a label that others have forced him to accept as his own: “His destiny is not his own. He’s not himself today, nor any day. Why? Because he’s a Jew, in a word” (388). Reb Suk’s definition (too static and way too strong a word) of Jewishness is not that of any orthodoxy, of faith, of morals, but a constant and interminable probing of word and world, a repeated breaking of the tablets of all laws, so as to feel the pulse of the experiential which is the world. Reb Suk’s cover is as a novelist, but everything he writes is really in the service of the intelligence. Everything he writes is an intelligence report. This one is called Mosaic Man. As in The Y-Files. Freud didn’t invent the ID, he just dropped the Y. That is, Intelligence Department. Identification. Identity. Me. What’s your ID? Over the centuries, the pell-mell babel of words of the haggada seems to have entirely messed up the core of the halacha. That’s the magic of words, go(d)spell. Here’s some deconstruction for you. And Mosaic Man is Reb Suk’s millennially apocalyptic, post-holo-caustic, post-dia-sporic haggada to the Pentateuch, its shticky avant-popish midrash. A jew jitsued MTV clip (as in Moses Television) with accelerated klezmer frenzy as soundtrack (Giora Feidman meets Sonic Youth).

YHWH’s “I am that I am” transferred to Pop Eye the Sailorman’s “I yam what I yam.” Which is the operating system of the Jew, in a word: “And a word can change everything, whether you want it to or not. Not up to you. Or me. I’m not in control. No. I am who I am” (215). He is basically a Jew of the word, a Jew de mot, a jeu de mot. A gamble with no profits. A mask without a face. He is a recorder. He is us. Our invisible selves. In an on-line interview for george jr., Reb Suk comes to speak about the genre of the novel and traditional storytelling:

the idea of storytelling that we’ve inherited is not only partly Greek, but is also partly the Christian tradition coming out of the New Testament of parables and so on, as opposed to the Old Testament which is more like a whole panoply of narrative techniques. It includes something like parable but it also includes argument and catalog and a whole bunch of techniques. Poetry. And narrative sequence that has very little of the imitative in it.

This biblical mulligan stew of the Old Testament is part and parcel of Reb Suk’s own distinctive mosaic text, especially in the first part of his book entitled Testimony (also read: Testament), which is a take on the Old Testament’s five books of Moses: Genesis as Genes, Exodus as Ex/Ode, Leviticus as Umbilicus, Numbers as Numbers (sub-divided into six numbered parts), and Deuteronomy as Autonomy (sub-divided into four unnumbered parts). The Old Testament is thus reshuffled into a pomo-mosaic of a New Jewish Testimony. And, Hell, Reb Suk (henceforth RS) is damned good at it. Imitation has a more far-reaching implication than this analogy on the level of structuring might suggest. In an ingenious cut-and-paste operation, RS co-opts the deific prohibition of imitation for his own anti-realist poetics:

I personally, as a Jew, have a false start with the Greco-Christian tradition. Especially in view of the fact that in the Old Testament it’s quite clear that you’re not supposed to use mimesis. This is very central. It’s like the third commandment or something like that before… maybe it’s the second commandment, before you’re not supposed to kill your mother and father, you’re not supposed to imitate anything… And there’s a good reason for that because imitation is pagan. It’s idol worship. It’s substituting the idol, or the icon, if you want, of reality, for reality itself. And that’s wrong.

Exod. 20:4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. The Second Commandment against graven images comes right after YHWH declares himself the only God. The Jewish rule against imitation becomes Ron’s (also RS’s?) poetics in Mosaic Man: “He realizes that he simply doesn’t like the idea of making things up. It’s a children’s game. If he wants to make things up, he can work in Hollywood, preferably for Walt Disney.” Therefore, “he takes tales wholesale and tells them retail,” by making use of paper, fax messages, xerox, newspaper clips, floppy disks, audio tape, etc., in five words: his handwriting on the wall. This might convey the truth of the moment by constantly throwing fish overboard and drawing Moses out of the waters of history (cf. Exod. 2:10; the Hebrew/Hejew name Mosche can be related to the verb mascha, which means “to tear out of the water”). And it also ties in with resistance-writing in the face of multi-national publishing conglomerates as the

international-multiconglomerate culture operates in the currency of images, therefore it becomes important not to have an image. Once you have an image you’re caught in the conglomeration web, but if you avoid an image you’re still free to glide through the net. Lack of image keeps you mobile. (In an on-line interview with Mark Amerika)

Now what else, in a novel, is the world but language? This can be said about the book: It is (being) written: 1. The Book of Life is already out there, in the world, as a part of reality, as a part of everything that has been said and written so far (i.e., the handwriting on the wall); 2. it is written at the moment of reading by keeping track of the movements of the mind in motion (i.e., the hand writing on the wall). Have you noticed that numbers are an arbitrary system of oreganizing? Golden calfing?

In the end, the Jewish condition might only be another instance of the human condition, Jewishness distilled down to the condition of every single life-form, thereby dissolving the self-proclaimed pretension of the chosen race or the chosen few of many an orthodox Jew: “How many of you had the feeling that you’re from another world, not this one? That you’re someone else, not the person you’re supposed to be?” (15) And: “That must be the way it feels to be Jewish, and even if you think you’re not a Jew, if you’ve ever felt that way you may be Jewish too” (15-16). Me a Jew?

making it/losing it

”$ = making it = cars sex food America - making it is losing it” (23). The first part of Mosaic Man comprises five sections and is a re-writing of the Pentateuch as “Testimony,” not as Testament. The testament, the statement of belief, turned into testimony, evidence in support of the observation, that both anti-Semitism and the race for the Golden Calf are still going strong. The wonderings/wanderings of Reb Suk’s Jew Ron on his “fluid itinerary” (171) start off in 1988 Paris, France, where the clearly racist party of Le Pen has gained power and influence. The Fall was the reason for Adam’s (the first golem’s) expulsion from Paradise. For the doubting Jew it is the attribution of “Jew” by society that triggers his Fall and sends him on his journey, “looking for something, though he doesn’t know what it is… He doesn’t know what it is but he knows he’s going to have to trace the root” (16-17).

First, then, the exodus (in “Ex/ode”): Ron’s parents are evicted from their apartment in Brooklyn, we learn from conversations recorded on tapes, the family annals, annotated, transcribed, and analyzed. We hear the voices of the mother and the father before being exiled by a pitiless landlord, all that spliced with “real-time windows” about the death of Ron’s father. Ron’s feeling guilty. Reb Suk here foregrounds the physicality of the text by means of scribbles or doodles (cf. the picts in the headers of this review - my digitalized handwritten versions). As so many “wordbombs” in the novel, which explode into meanings, these drawings on the page (writings on the wall? graffiti?) refuse to unlock a certain meaning (except, perhaps, the Star of David).

Back to Ronnie’s childhood in the 1940s (in “Umbilicus”): In a fever dream sequence the Brooklyn boy not yet bar miztvahed hops the Flying Wing with 1940s radio series comic hero Captain Midnight, his dead neighborhood war hero Sgt. Leibowitz and a zaftig blond named Happy Landis (after one of Captain Midnight’s bon mots: “Happy Landing”). Their secret mission: to save the Jews in Germany from Hitler’s death machine by bombing the Nazi concentration camps.

After that, back to Europe in the late 1950s (in “Numbers”), “to find it, but that’s where he loses it completely” (73). The OT Numbers chapter describes the second part of the Israelites’ wandering in the desert, pursuing the cause/course of the Ark of the Covenant, and so Ron is on a tour through Europe searching for something he doesn’t know what it is. Through Germany (Dresden and Heidelberg), where he gets drunk on beer and sings with members of a student korporation (what, to my ears, sounds dangerously close to Arbeit macht frei), on to Bohemia in 1958 Paris, where Ron does research on the influence of French culture on the American poet Wallace Stevens. Here, he is exposed to the first attack of the virus by reading the novels of French anti-Semitic writer Louis-Férdinand Céline. And he discovers that the Golden Calf has the face of shallow materialism and shows in art which makes “no difference between worldly success and artistic success” (95).

In the next section of the “Testimony” part of the book, “Autonomy,” we meet Ron in Poland (Warsaw, Lublin, Kracow, and Auschwitz - but this part of the story, in best Federmanesque tradition, is cancelled and does not get told). The Sukenick family is from Bialystok, where they owned a cloth mill (remember: sukiennik), but Ron does not go there in search of origins, as there is nothing there to be found, all traces wiped out, except for some kreplach, cholent, and apple tzimmes. There were about 3,000,000 Jews in Poland before the War, then 250,000 left after the War, and today about 4,000 Jews are living in a nation of 39,000,000. “Ron keeps wanting to ask the political question that pervaded his childhood: Is it good for the Jews? But he stops himself. What Jews?” (115).

Next stop Jerusalem: In Reb Suk’s novel 98.6, Israel is not a country that exists on our maps but, as Brian McHale puts it, “a tissue of deliberate misattributions” (48), an Israel of the mind rather than of an actual encyclopedia. In Mosaic Man, this trip to Israel is a fine example for “travel writing” (if that is what it is), steering clear of the clichés and pitfalls of that genre, conjuring up a certain atmosphere by conveying the raw data. This section starts up as a wild, fast-forward, roller-coaster, surreal ride through the city in a car with Jews of different origin and persuasion, and finds its denouement in the claustrophobic setting of the Tunnel of Hezekiah, an underground labyrinth mirroring the labyrinth of the Old Town of Jerusalem above ground (Is this the secret passage to the Golden Calf?). Jerusalem seems to be an endless feedback loop in which everything and everybody is in some mysterious way interconnected: “Actually in Israel everything is happening at the same time anyway because in Israel the past is the present. Recall is total, time is forgotten” (136).

Then Ron turns Aschenbach (the aged writer in Thomas Mann’s novella Death in Venice), stalking the streets of Venice in search of a young man who, in another feedback loop, seems to be himself. First hints that he might be a golem. Unexpected things happen like in a surrealist novel by André Breton; as he visits the ancient Jewish ghetto (the first ever the world has seen), he seems to be unable to exit this space and finds himself back in the ghetto time and again.

Last loop in this section: as at the beginning, a return to Germany two or three weeks after the Fall of the Wall, visiting the Jewish cemetery of Berlin and participating in a conference on autobiography and the avant-garde in Mainz (cf. Autobiographie amp; Avant-garde, ed. by Alfred Hornung and Ernstpeter Ruhe, Tübingen: Narr, 1992) with the writers Serge Doubrovsky and Ray Federman, surfictionist, fellow writer and fellow Jew, who is in pursuit of fame, trying to find “the Golden Calf. Finding it and at the same time losing it. That’s why he likes to gamble” (182). Ron remembers a trip to Wannsee near Berlin, where the Nazis stumbled on the idea of the final solution to “the Jewish problem” so that Ron’s reflection on the Book of Life of course does not have any final solution to it:

No, the book of life cannot be paraphrased, it cannot be prescribed, it cannot be predicted, it cannot be dictated, it cannot be imitated, it cannot resemble some other book, it cannot begin, it cannot end, it cannot be made up, it cannot be about major characters or minor characters or any characters other than those of the alphabet, it cannot be about the right ideas, it cannot be controlled, it cannot be about reality, because life is not about reality. It is it. If it weren’t, what would be? There is only one thing you can do with the book of life: add to it. (197)

the true story, the word

In part two of Mosaic Man, in which the Mosaic Law turns into “Hand Writing on Wall” and “Numbers” morphs into “Profit,” in which the “golden image [is] graved on every page, cast on every screen” (205), Ron, our Doctor of Philosophy, splits up into multiple personalities, into Doctors of Philosophy, one of these a tummler, a comic, a “killer kike” (203), an infected word clown in the boots of Danny Kaye or Lenny Bruce. Reb Suk’s Mosaic Man, called Ron or Ronnie in the first part of the book, is now an unnamed Avant-PoPoMo Morpheus, born too many times, an ever-changing, everlasting creature mosaicked together as multiple personalities (if one can speak of personalities here at all, keeping in mind the cardboard nature of all characters). Brought to life and unto the page by the author’s afflatus, by the secret code words of the Rebbe. Secret life-word scribbled on their forehead. AMETH. Truth. Multidimensional golemic vision. They see the world from every angle at the same time. As we read, they are us. And they is we. Only referred to as “we,” that is. A pronoun become name. Convergence of author and character? Are you kidding? Too simple. No name, no noun, no pro will do, only a shifter. Pointing to the action of writing itself, if at all pointing, to the “teller not the tales, the writer not the writ” (36). The trace of the hand writing. Its trail. Hand writing as in writing novel we reading.

Or, as Reb Suk puts it in his cultural-history-as-collective-autobiography of the U.S. underground, Down and In (1987), commenting on Jackson Pollock’s abstract expressionist paintings, which explode the edge of the canvas and turn wallpaper into art: “The action is on the wall, along with the handwriting. Part of life, not about it” (55). The next step in this direction is graffiti, the (sometimes unintelligible) sign in the book of the city which may assume various meanings depending on the reader, and it comes as no surprise that the graphic symbols in Mosaic Man (if that is what they are) resemble handwriting on a wall. In fact, these are doodles “written unto” the screen of Reb Suk’s computer, downloaded to the ROM of the book we hold in hand. The reader, on his or her part, changes ROM into RAM while reading. In short: he or she performs as RaMSCaN.

What’s the plot? Speculative jocularities. Stochastic extrapolations. A form of archeology. A screenplay for a flick called The Raiders of the Lost Calf. It goes like this: Some of the Marranos (Spanish Jews who converted to Christianity) in 15th century Spain are in the possession of an ancient calf icon (dug up near Ceasarea in the Holy Land). Expulsion in 1492. Turned crypto-Jews. 1942, Golden Calf is stolen by Nazi sect, but in the chaos of the final days of the war, they lose it too. Trail leads to Malta. The neo-Christian group called the Bond is on it. Fragments of the unpublished Dead Sea Scrolls are found in the heels of the cowboy boots of Strop Banally (© Up), an agent known in the trade as a golem. Uncircumcised. His handler is Dr. Frank Stein (© Out), an evil gene splicer. The Mossad come into the picture as the Bond is involved in the Third Temple Conspiracy, their aim to dynamite the Temple Mount in Jerusalem where they think the Golden Calf is buried. There is a connection to the Dead Sea Scrolls, especially the Copper Scroll: it gives directions to the original Golden Calf of Aaron. BTW: Eliezer Sukenik was the archeologist who bought the first Dead Sea Scrolls from a dealer in antiques in Palestine back in the 1940s. The Scrolls are written in genetic code. The language is called Gnomic. As in gnome and genome. “They say it’s a language that far outstrips the subtleties and complexities of any human language, proceeding by puns and triple or quadruple entendre. Something like ” Finnegans Wake ” (209). This is where he lost it.

The urban spaces of NYC are the topographical coordinates of the mosaic in progress, a pomo writing pad, hand writing on walls. In their 36th-floor apartment in Battery Park City, NYC, “we” are writing a novel entitled Great Expectorations, pomo-Dickensian sequel to Raiders of the Lost Calf about the private Dick Ram Shade (a clone of Sam Spade in The Maltese Falcon) who has The Raiders on his heels, chasing after Strop Banally’s cowboy boots. Shade researches the Third Temple Conspiracy lead by Guy Lobe who represents the Bond (not the Covenant, mind you). Shade’s secret name is RaMSCaN, his code name Shadrak. Dr. Frank Stein, a metempsychotic, wants to penetrate the Third Temple Conspiracy. This is a fight of fabricated clay Frankenstein creatures (golems) against vampiric blood sucking Christian Draculas. The idol of the Golden Calf is a strong magnet and thus illustrative of the magnetisms of money, power, control, the pillars of international conglomerate advanced hyperconsumer pancapitalism for which Rod Drackenstein’s (© Blown Away, Count Dracula’s lust for blood and the android, superhuman quality of Frankenstein’s monster combined) corporation XXX, Ltd. (i.e., Triplex) is a good example:

A benevolent multinational interplanetary conglomerate dealing in space exploration, newspapers, biochemicals, computers, armaments, aircraft, breweries, publishing, transportation, food products, cigarettes, banking, gambling casinos, real estate, pet food, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, construction, bakery goods, shipping, sports, oil, farm machinery, containers, sex, soft drinks, entertainment and communication. We’re a wholly owned subsidiary of a division of Huge Industries. (233-34)

Mr. Huge, head of Huge Industries, is the YHWH of the coming century, a corporate Mammon who works with the Mormons. It’s lonely at the top. He works stark naked, and he is phobic about infection. Trying to mimic, if not become, God the father. He is on a mission to release his country from the bond of innocence, to corrupt them with the promise of the Golden Calf. But he has already won it, wondering: “why isn’t he redeemed?” (239) Reb Suk’s critique and his sociopolitical sense of responsibility shows most touchingly in the various appearances of our everyday metropolis golems - in this novel a palimpsest of the homeless and the victims of the Holocaust. The Unseeables. One of them is Shack or Shackle. Our shadow: “We hole up in abandoned tenements all over the city. Winter is cold, summer is hot. You can’t see us we you shadow. We you. No person see his shadow in the dark. Lose your shadow, lose your heart” (255). This is the haunting presence at the end of the book that lingers on.

Characters, or rather, names from earlier novels by Reb Suk as well as themes, notions, echoes, etc. from the first part of the novel, the Torah-Testimony section, are superimposed to convey a supercrazy, supercomplex take on different “genres” (conspiracy plot, screenplay, detective novel, science fiction, comic book) in this final fight for the Golden Calf. How Adam and Eve were kicked out of Paradise by Mr. Huge, now equipped with RAM where there was ROM, how the Golem connects with Elvis sightings, that you better find out yourself. Culture and history are palimpsests that are so heavily fraught with (sometimes mutually exclusive) meanings, that the system is constantly on the verge of crashing due to information overload. But this is how it is. Rx: Elvis’s middle name is Aaron, the biblical Aaron devised the golden calf that Elvis was in search of, Elvis was in part Jewish, he died but is still sighted all over the globe as a golem, the golem has letters on his forehead which are his or her survival-machine, he is driven by truth (AMETH), Gorbachev also had a red aleph on his forehead, and so on, and so on. In this pulp fiction fantasy, which includes numerous references to a plethora of “high” and “low” cultural sources, Reb Suk has rolled together so many strands into beautiful wordbombs that explode on the pages of this novel with meanings flying off in all directions, thus paying apt tribute to the historical density of ideas, words, and things, to their conglomerate nature (no pun intended). This hilarious, wild, funny, mad, disrespectful treasure hunt leads right into the entrails of global pop culture and international conglomerates. A pomo Armageddon. In the middle of the incredibly twisted plot (both meanings intended), as Ram Shade proves to be too vulnerable to the gorgeous ladies who populate the story, the author drops his character to tell the story themselves, to act for him, as a “different Shade” (249). In the end and on the last page the plot is resolved by the notorious aliens who take The Lone Ranger’s Cowboy Boots with them and are convinced that we are stupid but beautiful creatures. As in zoo. Me and you.

Reb Suk does not so much utilize popular culture for “key images, character and narrative archetypes, metaphors, and points of reference and allusion that help us establish our sense of who we are, what we want and fear, and how we see ourselves and the world” (McCaffery, After Yesterday’s Crash xviii), the strategies of Avant-Pop, but first and foremost exploits, cuts up, and rearranges images and tropes straight out of the most popular book ever written: the Bible, in this Avant-Pope-ish quest for what it means to be Jewish in an information-dense, avant-poped environment. In our recombinant culture (cf. the theories by Arthur Kroker), Reb Suk uses recombinatory arrangements to short-circuit ancient (and often biblical) myths and legends and contemporary pop residues. Thus, the resolution deployed by conventional literary realism (beginning - middle - end) is spatialized as more pixels to the inch on the screen of reality: a higher resolution rendering a better, a more focused image of what it means to live at the beginning of the 21st century by not downloading events, “characters,” tropes, and all the paraphernalia of story-telling to the ROM of a single plot; there are many plots and even counter-plots (e.g., as written for the screen by Plotz in Suk’s Blown Away) all resolved in infinite numbers of pixels on the mosaic pages of Suk’s novel. And this, writes the Rebbe, “is the misunderstood thrust of the ‘Postmodern’ in fiction: an attempt to get at the truth of experience beyond our fossilizing formulas of discourse, to get at a new and more inclusive ‘reality,’ if you will” (“Autogyro” 294). In the end, not the postmodern, but the mosaic condition is the condition of the dawning 21st century, not pre-, modern, and post-, but all and much more at the same time in our “seething confusion of internationality” (11).

[Now here goes my countdown. ‘Cause I’m it. I’m your reviewer. You have to read this. I’m writing your rear-view between Salzburg and Vienna dividing my time [[does that ring a bell?]], both cities in Austria - no kangaroos where none intended - seventy-four years after the publication of the English translation of Chayim Bloch’s book on the Golem [[ The Golem: Legends of the Ghetto of Prague ]] in Vienna, Austria, the same year that Adolf Hitler’s Mein Kampf was published, Hitler being an Austrian, 10,000 copies of his book sold within eight months, sixty-one years after the so-called Anschluss, the “annexation” of Austria by Hitler’s German Altreich, 99.7 per cent voting YES in a referendum [[down the drain, or better yet, up the pile with Bloch’s book]], and right now a couple of weeks ago far too many Austrians voted for Jörg Haider’s so-called liberal party [[what a dirty joke]], for HJ and his right-wing populist party, and me I am not even circumcised, nineteen days more in the old millennium, the twentieth century, my grandfather was a Nazi until his bitter cancer-infected end, these are the days boys, so it goes, who was born two thousand years ago? [[winner take all, golden calf and the works]], thing is [[gotta tell ya]]: my foreskin [[oops]] is not that developed as that of your common mister proper aryan [[wanna see picture? what ya payin’? sale juif, brudny zid]], at least no pungent stench released when I reveal [[as in revelation]] my glans, is my penis Jewish, does this than make me a Jew, a Jew of the mind, are you, this is getting out of hand, I’ve danced with you too long, not to be continued]

Reb Suk is deliberately not being correct, be that in terms of politics, religion, sexuality, or fiction. And that is what makes all his books so liberating, so refreshing, what forces you to ventilate that skull and not follow the worn-out (and incredibly boring) paths that are perennially trampled by the sluggish correct(ed) masses of PC, RC, SC, or FC. A Reb Suk text (allow me this one, Maurice) fights what Charles Bernstein has ingeniously called “frame-locked prose,” that is, prose which “seems to deny its questions, its contradictions, its exhilarations, its comedy, its groping” (98). RS is an iconoclast in the best sense of the word. He robs you of your cherished idols, shatters your graven images, and forces you to stare into the abyss that remains. Or right into the broken mirror as you stand before it, stripped of mode(l)s and (i)cons, naked from head to toe (prick and cunt exposed), book in hand, letter in mind. You better dance that Bossa Nova. It’s fun. Find out.

You have fallen into The Endless Short Story (ESS). This ends The Great American Review (GAR). Wake UP. You prefer novels that are really novel? Buy this one. Read it. Eat it. Feed on it. Digest it. Why? Because I’m it. You’re it. Are you a Jew? You [period lost]

works cited

Bernstein, Charles. My Way: Speeches and Poems. Chicago and London: U of Chicago P, 1999.

Bérubé, Michael. “Straight Outta Normal.” Critique 37.3 (1996): 188-204.

Blanchot, Maurice. The Writing of the Disaster. Trans. Ann Smock. Lincoln and London: U of Nebraska P, 1995.

Idel, Moshe. Golem: Jewish Magical and Mystical Traditions on the Artificial Anthropoid. Albany: State U of New York P, 1990.

McCaffery, Larry. “The Fiction Collective, 1974-1978: An Innovative Alternative.” Chicago Review 30.2 (1978): 107-126.

__________ (ed.). After Yesterday’s Crash: The Avant-Pop Anthology. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1995.

McHale, Brian. Postmodernist Fiction. London and New York: Routledge, 1987.

Steiner, George. “Our Homeland, the Text.” Salmagundi 66 (1985): 4-25.

Sukenick, Ronald. 98.6: A Novel. New York: Fiction Collective, 1975.

__________. Down and In: Life in the Underground. New York: Morrow, 1987.

__________. “Autogyro: My Life in Fiction.” Contemporary Authors Autobiography Series, Vol. 8. Ed. Mark Zadrozny. Detroit: Gale, 1989: 283-295.

__________. “How to Be Jewish.” Autobiographie amp; Avant-garde. Ed. Alfred Hornung and Ernstpeter Ruhe. Tübingen: Narr, 1992: 387-400.

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          BIOETICA E MASS MEDIA        

È un dato di fatto che i mezzi di comunicazione parlano spesso di temi come l'aborto, l'Eutanasia, la riproduzione assistita, i trapianti di organi, etc.
Ne parlano perché sono problemi importanti per gli individui e per la società.

Ne parlano anche perché il pubblico dimostra di interessarsi vivamente ad essi.
Infatti, i problemi affrontati dalla bioetica hanno a che fare con la vita, la morte, la salute, la scienza, il futuro dell’umanità.

È interessante notare che mentre si dice che nel secolo quarto il popolo discuteva sulla santissima trinità, poi si è detto che si interessa soltanto di calcio o di moda.

Oggi però vediamo anche accese discussioni nei bar, come in televisione, su eutanasia, fecondazione assistita, clonazione, ecc.
I media si interessano anche dei temi di bioetica perché è facile presentarli
con un pizzico di morbosità, più o meno nascosta, che attira l'attenzione dei più distratti.

Insomma, la bioetica si “vende” facilmente.

Basta tenere presente le condizioni studiate dai giornalisti per poter considerare qualche cosa come «notizia»:
- novità: spesso si tratta di nuove conquiste scientifiche, di nuove leggi, di situazioni nuove, ecc.
- rilievo: importanza del fatto, del personaggio, ecc. Il rilievo è soprattutto del fatto e delle sue implicazioni.
- interesse umano: cose che toccano valori in quanto essere umani: qui si tratta di malattia, salute, vita e morte...
- prossimità: ciò che è vicino, della propria città, ecc.
Questo elemento è spesso assente:
si può trattare anche da persone o fatti lontani geograficamente;
se sono più vicini a noi aumenta l’interesse.

Ora, è chiaro che l'influenza dei mass media, ormai studiata in modo più che sufficiente.
Dal punto di vista psicologico e sociologico, gioca un ruolo importante nella configurazione della visione e comprensione del grande pubblico riguardo a queste tematiche.
Anzi, trattandosi in buona parte di problematiche nuove, e dunque non studiate sistematicamente negli anni di formazione scolastica, l'unica informazione e formazione (o de-formazione) che la stragrande maggioranza della gente riceve proviene dai mezzi di comunicazione.

È d’altra parte ugualmente chiaro che qui non abbiamo a che fare con tematiche
Di secondaria importanza; non si tratta di giochi di curiosità o forme di intrattenimento, che passano senza lasciare traccia di sé.
Qui si tratta si problemi che riguardano la vita e la morte di persone umane,
la manipolazione di un uomo da parte di un altro uomo, la concezione stessa della persona e della società...

Sono problemi che si ripercuotono profondamente nel vissuto e nella vita (o morte)
di esseri umani, e che contribuiscono a configurare la cultura della nostra società.
Se, dunque, i mass media influiscono profondamente su un settore importante
della vita individuale e sociale, è legittimo – anzi, doveroso – che ci poniamo alcune domande:
in che modo vengono oggi presentati e trattati i problemi riguardanti la bioetica?

Si può dire che l'informazione in questo campo sia accurata, completa, rispettosa della realtà?
Prevale il senso dell'equilibrio informativo sul facile allarmismo scandalistico?
Non è mio compito rispondere a queste o altre possibili domande.
Vorrei però esprimere alcune "preoccupazioni" che nascono in me dall’osservazione generale del “tono” e del “taglio” utilizzato dai media per quanto riguarda la bioetica.

Preparazione e competenza

Rimasi veramente stupito quando ebbi modo di leggere su un giornale di grande tiratura un articolo di un giornalista di grande prestigio, nel quale si auspicava,
in riferimento alla riproduzione assistita, una legge che finalmente mettesse dei limiti alla bioetica.
Poco dopo in una rivista un altro scrittore parlava delle cliniche di bioetica.

Forse – pensai – dato che si parla di “genetica” e “biogenetica”,
qualcuno crede che la “bioetica” sia l'insieme delle tecniche di riproduzione assistita.

Posso capire che tra la gente “profana” si sia generata una simile confusione.
Ma non me lo aspettavo da parte di uno che se la sente di poter offrire un contributo valido su un organo di stampa a scala nazionale.

Mi tornò alla mente quella battuta, un po’ pesante, di uno che chiede quale sia la differenza tra lo scienziato e il giornalista.

Risposta: lo scienziato è quello che sa tutto di niente; il giornalista, viceversa.
In verità, il buon giornalista – e ci sono – è uno che sa molto di molto... e che parla soltanto di ciò che sa (e si informa bene prima di parlare).

Ma dobbiamo constatare che ci sono pochi giornalisti veramente preparati nel campo della bioetica, come in quello dell’etica in generale.
E davanti alla valanga di casi, dati, eventi... riguardanti problemi di bioetica, che arrivano tempestivamente nelle redazioni di giornali e nelle catene di radio o televisione, il compito di coprirli e commentarli viene affidato a... “qualcuno”.

Naturalmente, è un problema che non riguarda solo la bioetica, ma il mondo dell’informazione in genere.
Ho l’impressione, però, che in questo campo (come in quello dell’informazione religiosa) ci sia una dose maggiore di quella pericolosa miscela di ignoranza e “spericolatezza”.

In questo settore troviamo frequentemente degli errori e delle imprecisioni che sono veramente preoccupanti.
A volte, quando leggo o sento certe cose, mi chiedo: se un giornalista sportivo facesse un errore equivalente a questo qui, se per esempio scambiasse la Coppa dei campioni con la Coppa UEFA... cosa gli succederebbe, dove andrebbe a finire?

E mi rispondo: forse alla sezione di religione o di bioetica!

Relativismo e falsa neutralità

Una seconda preoccupazione si riferisce alla pretesa “neutralità” con la quale i mass media presentano i temi e problemi di bioetica.
È chiaro che il buon giornalista deve sforzarsi per presentare i diversi punti di vista, anche contrastanti, sui temi che interessano a persone diverse, con diverse visioni delle cose, in un mondo pluralista come il nostro.

Deve raccogliere dati diversi e complementari, deve presentare le opinioni di coloro che hanno qualcosa di interessante da dire, da diverse angolature o da contrapposte posizioni.

Regna però la tendenza, facilmente comprensibile per uno che dedica la sua vita a “raccogliere opinioni”, a concludere e far concludere che tutte le opinioni valgono ugualmente.
È frequente trovare dei resoconti giornalistici su un caso problematico nel campo della bioetica, in cui, dopo aver forse raccolto le opinioni contrastanti di diversi esperti o “opinionisti”, l’autore del pezzo finisce con una frase del tipo:
“come si vede, ognuno ha la propria verità”.

Ma quale è il messaggio di una simile espressione?

In fondo si tratta della affermazione velata di una visione relativistica della realtà, soprattutto della realtà etica.
Dicendo, più o meno esplicitamente, che una opinione vale l’altra, si prende partito per una determinata e concreta scuola etica: quella del relativismo, o del non-cognitivismo (o scetticismo etico). In fin dei conti non si offre una visione neutra, ma di parte.

Questa tendenza al relativismo morale può derivare semplicemente dall’approccio giornalistico verso la realtà: raccolta di dati e opinione, esposizione asettica di queste, senza sbilanciamento personale per l’una o per l’altra.
Può essere però anche radicata in un “background” filosofico preciso, più o meno coscientemente ed esplicitamente abbracciato: appunto quello del relativismo.
Probabilmente quello che ho chiamato “approccio giornalistico” favorisce tra i professionisti della comunicazione sociale questa visione filosofica.

A volte, poi, il giornalista formula dei giudizi personali, sparsi qua e la,
anche in un testo apparentemente soltanto informativo.
Niente di male, purché sia ben chiaro che di questo si tratta.
Ma questo ci porta alla considerazione della terza preoccupazione.

Ricerca dello scandalo e della polemica

Il giornalista va alla caccia di “notizie”. Quando non le trova, le inventa.
O fa sì che un fatto di poco rilievo sembri un evento quasi epocale.
Alcuni anni fa rilasciai un’intervista a un giornalista del SIR (“Servizio di Informazione Religiosa”, della CEI).

Si parlava di un documento pubblicato dal Comitato di Bioetica francese, che approvava la sterilizzazione delle donne che soffrono un handicap mentale, per evitare il pericolo di gravidanze. Mi dichiarai contrario, offrendo le mie motivazioni.

Alla fine il giornalista mi chiese:“Se invece non si trattasse di sterilizzazione, ma di contraccettivi ormonali?”. Risposi dicendo che in quel caso la cosa cambia, in quanto non c’è una menomazione definitiva della donna, e la donna che eventualmente soffre una violenza sessuale non è tenuta a rispettare il significato procreativo della sessualità, come non deve rispettare il suo significato unitivo.

“Qualcosa di simile – mi disse lui – al famoso caso delle suore del Congo Belga, negli anni sessanta”.

Esatto, risposi.

E aggiunsi: però è chiaro che si dovrebbe trattare di mezzi che non sono abortivi. “È chiaro”, rispose lui.

Il giorno dopo, un dispaccio dell’agenzia ANSA riportò solo quest’ultima parte dell’intervista, aggiungendo che si trattava di qualche cosa di rivoluzionario.
Diceva che, dato il personaggio, il modo in cui aveva rilasciato l’intervista e il tono dell’intervista, non si poteva trattare di una “sparata”.

L’interpretazione era che il Vaticano aveva “inviato” un teologo moralista “moderato” per cominciare a modificare la dottrina sulla contraccezione.

La mia intervista, infatti, “apriva una breccia nel muro della dottrina dell’Humanae vitae.

Quando un giornalista amico mi segnalò il dispaccio ANSA mi misi a ridere,
convintissimo che quello non potesse interessare a nessuno.

Invece, la notizia fu data quella sera dal TG1 delle 8, tra le notizie di apertura, con tanto di musica sotto: “Teologo del Vaticano apre alla contraccezione...!”.
Il giorno dopo, la “notizia” era sulle prime pagine di tutti i giornali:
“La pillola alle suore”, e titoli simili.

Scrissi un breve articolo per L’Osservatore Romano del giorno, spiegando che si trattava di una interpretazione sbagliata.

Il giorno seguente i giornali titolavano: “Il teologo fa retromarcia!”.
Stessa cosa si è vista poco fa a proposito di una dichiarazione del Card. Humes, neo prefetto della Congregazione per il Clero.

Aveva affermato che il celibato sacerdotale “non è un dogma!”.

E che dunque un giorno la Chiesa potrebbe cambiare questa disposizione.
Certo, detto da chi proprio in quei giorni cominciava il suo servizio a fronte di quel dicastero, faceva un pò d’impressione.
Ne parlarono giornali, radio e televisioni.

Il giorno dopo il cardinale spiegò, anche lui in un articolo sul L’Osservatore, che si trattava di una forzatura.
Che, effettivamente, il celibato sacerdotale non è un dogma, ma questo non toglie la sua validità, etc. Immaginate i titoli dei giornali?

Effettivamente: “Il Cardinale fa retromarcia”!

Uno degli ingredienti della notizia è la polemica. Siamo tutti curiosi quando qualcuno disputa o lotta contro altri.
Questo elemento viene spesso utilizzato dai giornali; ancor di più da radio e televisioni, dove il confronto lo si vede e lo si sente.
Questo fenomeno fa sì che temi delicati e gravi, che spesso richiederebbero una trattazione pacata, discorsiva, a volte quasi meditativa, vengano gridati, acutizzati, esacerbati.
In questo modo il pubblico difficilmente può farsi un’idea serena, minimamente profonda, del problema trattato.

Orientamento e manipolazione

Fin qui ho parlato soltanto di un certo “atteggiamento” giornalistico,
un tipo di approccio verso la realtà, tipico di questo mestiere.
Ma sappiamo bene che, purtroppo, esiste anche il fenomeno della “manipolazione” volontaria di notizie, dati, opinioni...
Per quanto riguarda l’informazione sui temi della bioetica il fenomeno è chiaro e frequente.
Alcuni sono temi “scottanti”, pieni di significati ed implicazioni culturali,
sociologiche e perfino politiche.
Pensiamo all’aborto, la contraccezione, la riproduzione assistita, l’eutanasia...
Su questi ed altri temi si scontrano visioni profondamente diverse sulla persona umana, sul ruolo della legge e della società, sui fondamenti stessi della conoscenza e della coscienza etica.
Su questi temi ci sono anche delle posizioni prese da individui, gruppi e partiti politici.
E ci sono anche, in alcuni casi, dei grossi interessi economici intorno ad essi.
Bisognerebbe avere una concezione “angelicale” della realtà dell’informazione di massa.
Per non vedere il pericolo di manipolazione o di “orientamento” interessato delle notizie e delle opinioni in relazione a questi problemi. Sarà l’ideologia del giornalista, sarà il colore politico della testata dalla quale riceve il pane quotidiano, sarà la pressione di un determinato gruppo...

E poi, è talmente facile manipolare le cose...
Basta un piccolo “tocco”, un aggettivo nel titolo o sottotitolo (cioè nell’unico testo che molti leggeranno), basta un’omissione!
Chi ha avuto a che fare, anche minimamente, con i mass media in questo settore, lo avrà sicuramente costatato.
Qualche tempo fa mi chiamò una giornalista di un importante nazionale.
Una coppia di portatori sani del gene della talassemia aveva avuto un figlio talassemico.
La donna era incinta di gemelli, di cui uno risultò, con la diagnosi prenatale, portatore del gene, l’altro no.
Chiedevano il permesso per abortire il portatore.
Io dissi che mi sembrava aberrante che i genitori di due figli volessero uccidere il figlio malato solo perché malato, risparmiando il sano solo perché sano.

Il giorno dopo sul giornale veniva riportata la notizia, e due quadretti con l’intervista a me e a un’altra bioeticista, la quale affermava che si trattava di una scelta drammatica ma purtroppo l’unica giusta.

Diceva la giornalista: “La prof.ssa N., molto equilibrata...”;
invece, “P. Miranda, con tono perentorio...”.

Era proprio necessario aggiungere queste brevi qualificazioni (questa squalifica?).
Uno si rende conto dell’efficacia e semplicità delle tecniche manipolatorie quando, per esempio, dopo la registrazione di una trasmissione televisiva di grande prestigio, vede che gli è stata tagliata a metà una sua frase.
Sarà per guadagnare un po’ di tempo?

Ma veramente era necessario risparmiare quei cinque secondi?
Guarda caso, erano i cinque secondi in cui dicevo quello che cozzava frontalmente contro la tesi manifesta di tutto il programma.


È evidente, non ho voluto nasconderlo, il carattere critico e provocatorio di questo mio intervento. Non pretendo – non lo pretendiamo neanche in tutta la tavola rotonda – offrire soluzioni, tanto meno “illuminate” e definitive.
Credo solamente che la presa di coscienza di questi problemi in un campo informativo così delicato e decisivo come quello della bioetica, possa aiutare a riflettere su come possono almeno essere diminuiti e controllati.

Ne guadagnerebbe tutta la società.

Argomento pubblicato su Blog CATTOLICI, il Raccoglitore Italiano di BLOG di Fedeli CATTOLICI...

Questa opera è pubblicata sotto una Licenza Creative Commons.
Siete liberi:
di riprodurre, distribuire, comunicare al pubblico, esporre in pubblico, rappresentare, eseguire e recitare quest'opera alle seguenti condizioni:
- Devete attribuire la paternità dell'opera nei modi indicati dall'autore o da chi ti ha dato l'opera in licenza e in modo tale da non suggerire che essi avallino te o il modo in cui tu usi l'opera.
- Non potete usare quest'opera per fini commerciali.
- Non potete alterare o trasformare quest'opera, nè usarla per crearne un'altra.

Si ringrazia,
Gonzalo Miranda, L.C.
Professore Ordinario di Bioetica
Ateneo Pontificio Regina Apostolorum

Si ringrazia,
ll sig. Alessandro Proietti

          BABYLON 5 Rewatch: Season 1, Episodes 11-12        

Earthforce One, clearly inspired by the real-life Air Force One and almost certainly the inspiration for Battlestar Galactica's Colonial One (which was designed by some of the same people).

A11: Survivors
Airdates: 4 May 1994 (US), 25 July 1994 (UK)
Working Title: A Knife in the Shadows
Written by Mark Scott Zicree
Directed by Jim Johnston
Cast: Lianna Kemmer (Elaine Thomas), Cutter (Tom Donaldson), Sergeant Lou Welch (David Crowley), Nolan (Jose Rosario), General Netter (Rod Perry), Young Lianna (Robin Wake), Special Agent (David Austin Cook), ISN Reporter (Maggie Egan), Alien (Mark Hendrickson), Station One (Marianne Robertson)

Plot:    Earth Alliance President Luis Santiago is due to pay a visit to Babylon 5 to congratulate Sinclair on a job well done and also to present the station with a brand new fighter squadron, Zeta Wing. However, whilst preparing the Cobra Bays to receive the new fighters, a massive explosion rips along the docking arm, killing several workers. Earthforce special intelligence operatives arrive ahead of the President to investigate, one of whom, Lianna Kemmer, is the daughter of an old friend of Garibaldi’s who was killed on Europa when he refused to go on the take. Garibaldi slipped into alcoholism and Lianna’s idealised view of “Uncle Mike” was shattered. Kemmer angrily blames Garibaldi for not helping her father and is quick to pounce on any evidence that Garibaldi himself might be involved in the bombing.

One of the survivors of the blast, Nolan, dies whilst claiming that Garibaldi planted the bomb and a search of Garibaldi’s quarters turns up both a diagram of the Cobra Bay and Centauri ducats, a neutral hard currency (cash) which is untraceable, perfect for paying off assassins. Garibaldi goes on the run to clear his name and receives help from G’Kar and Londo. He is eventually captured by Kemmer after falling back on the bottle, but Sinclair searches Nolan’s quarters and turns up Homeguard propaganda and bomb-making equipment. Nolan must have set the bomb and inadvertently blown himself and the bay up ahead of schedule. Realising that Kemmer’s second-in-command, Cutter, must have planted the evidence in his quarters, Garibaldi manages to convince Kemmer to confront him. Cutter turns out to be behind the attack and has rigged the other Cobra Bays to explode when the B5 fighters launch as an honour guard for the President. Garibaldi manages to get Ivanova to stop the launch and knocks Cutter out himself. Kemmer heads back to Earth, her faith in Garibaldi restored.


The Arc: Though grievously hurt by the loss of many important members following the events of episode A7 and the arrest of their leader, Jacob Lester (as related in the newspaper article in A8), Homeguard remains a powerful, potent force. They despise President Santiago for his policy of peace and mutual trade with alien races and want him dead to stop his pro-alien policies. This idea is followed up on in episodes A22 and B2.

We learn some more about Garibaldi and his past in this episode. Much of Season 5’s major subplots are devoted to what happens when Garibaldi again hits rock bottom, in episode E11 in particular.

Zeta Wing makes its debut appearance in this episode. Episode B22 indicates that the other fighter pilots are annoyed that Zeta Wing has brand new ships whilst theirs are old and battered due to spare parts deficiencies. Episode B4 reveals that Zeta Wing is commanded by Lt. Commander Ray Galus.

Londo and Garibaldi form a bond in this episode, which is referenced in episode B12.

This episode could almost have been called The Very Long Night of Michael Garibaldi.

Background: Seventeen years ago (in 2241) Garibaldi used to serve on Europa, one of Jupiter’s moons, where most of the security force was on the take. Garibaldi and his friend Frank Kemmer refused to join them, so Frank was killed. Garibaldi was so shaken he hit the bottle and remained on it for years, becoming a wreck and wastrel in the process. After this he served on Orion IV and Mars, where he met Sinclair in 2253 (DC5, C8).

Garibaldi is 37 years old in this episode (which likely takes place in June or July 2258), so was born in 2220 or 2221, two to three years after Sinclair but nine to ten years before Ivanova. Kemmer appears to be in her mid-to-late 20s, which is quite young for her rank and position.

The rank structure of Earthforce is not always clear, but this episode seems to confirm that a Lt. Commander and Commander outrank a Major (also reinforced in A20, C10 and the fact that B5’s third-in-command is the never-seen Major Atumbe, who is subservient to Ivanova).

Ilarus is the Centauri Goddess of Fortune.

Apparently, the meaning of the word “wing” (as in fighter wing) has changed since the 20th Century. A squadron is a number of fighters, usually no less than eight and no more than fourteen (twelve is the most common number). A wing is a collection of squadrons working together. Throughout Babylon 5 the words “squadron” and “wing” are used interchangeably.

The President’s personal starship is called Earthforce One. It shares some similarities to the Asimov-style starliner, but is more streamlined and elegant in its appearance, as well as being coloured Earthforce blue.

The Vree, one of the League races, is noted for being a species of unpleasant eaters, at least by Narn standards.

References: General Netter is named for Douglas Netter, Babylon 5’s executive producer.

“Kemmer” is a reference to Ed Kemmer, the lead actor on early American SF show Space Patrol.

Earthforce One is clearly modelled after Air Force One, the United States President’s personal aircraft.

There’s a 3D holographic game featuring knights fighting one another that is popular in the Casino. It may be a nod at The New Twilight Zone, which featured a memorable battle involving a CG knight.

Unanswered Questions: What was Lianna Kemmer’s eventual fate?

Mistakes, Retcons and Lamentations: Garibaldi uses Cutter’s link to contact Ivanova. Episode C7 suggests that links are biogenetically keyed to one person and can’t be used by other people. It might be that Garibaldi, and possibly all Earthforce Security Chiefs, can automatically use any link, or that Cutter’s link was a generic one usable by anyone assigned to him when he arrived on Babylon 5.

Zeta Wing appears to only have seven fighters in it when it reaches the station. Alpha and Delta Wings are shown to have nine Starfuries or more in other episodes.

On Garibaldi’s wanted poster, he is called a “Terren”.

Behind the Scenes: The final scene in Survivors, where Kemmer boards the transport, features Babylon 5’s first attempted at a near-100% virtual set. The only real things in the shot are Kemmer and the ladder leading up to the ship. Everything else is fake.

J. Michael Straczynski noted that his family had alcohol problems going back four generations, and this inspired Garibaldi’s character.

Some viewers had issues with how the backstory to the episode unfolded. According to Straczynski, Nolan blamed Garibaldi on the spur of the moment to get him in trouble, not realising he was dying. Cutter seized on that, and Kemmer’s distrust of Garibaldi, to frame him.

Jerry Doyle drew on his background on Wall Street for the scenes of Garibaldi hitting the bottle, recalling too many ill-advised nights with tequila.

This episode marked a change in the perception of Jerry Doyle as an actor by some castmembers, with Peter Jurasik noting that Doyle had an instinctive, emotional style that was very different to the classical training some of the other actors had, but was just as effective. Jim Johnston was also impressed, noting that Doyle was one of the actors on the show who responded well he was given material that stretched and challenged him.

For the scene where Garibaldi makes a drunk speech in the Downbelow bar, Doyle spent several minutes spinning on the shot before shooting started, meaning he didn’t have to fake his stumbling around the set blindly.

The episode's ending takes on a slightly different note when you realise that Major Kemmer was almost certainly still on Earthforce One during the events of the season finale.

Familiar Faces: Writer Marc Scott Zicree was one of the main creative forces behind the TV series Captain Power and the Soldiers of the Future, giving Straczynski and Larry DiTillio a shot at writing episodes for that series. He also worked with Straczynski on The Real Ghostbusters and He-Man and the Masters of the Universe. His other credits include  Forever Knight, Animorphs, Sliders and both Star Trek: The Next Generation and Deep Space Nine.

Straczynski’s original plan was that the viewer would hear about President Luis Santiago but never see him. When it became necessary to show an image of him, he picked a picture of Douglas Netter, Babylon 5’s executive producer, and had Netter do a voice-over. However, when this episode came along Straczynski realised they really needed to see him. Netter refused to appear on-camera, so Straczynski nixed the scenes where Santiago comes on board. However, keeping Santiago off-screen does add to the mystique of the character.

This episode marks the first appearance of David L. Crowley as Sergeant Lou Welch. The Lebanese-born, British actor appears in several more episodes in the first two seasons.

Review: This episode features some extremely painful dialogue, has some moments that are so contrived they are quite painful to watch and puts a lot of weight on the shoulders of one of the least-experienced castmembers. Fortunately, Doyle rises to the occasion and there’s some excellent character development, both of Garibaldi and his relationship with other characters (particularly Londo). The result is an episode that feels like it’s not firing on all thrusters, but at least makes a game attempt to rise above its stock premise. ***

Garibaldi: “Nothing the government does surprises me.”
Ivanova: “That’s a very Russian attitude. I commend you.”

Garibaldi: “I need a drink. Water, straight.”

Sinclair: “Lt. Commander Ivanova, escort Major Kemmer off the Observation Dome.”
Ivanova: “With pleasure. You are going to resist, I hope?”

G’Kar: “The universe is run by the complex interweaving of three elements: energy, matter and enlightened self-interest.”

A12: By Any Means Necessary
Airdates: 11 May 1994 (US), 1 August 1994 (UK)
Working Title: Backlash
Written by Kathryn M. Drennan
Directed by Jim Johnston
Cast: Neeoma Connolly (Katy Boyer), Orin Zento (John Snyder), Senator Hidoshi (Aki Aleong), Mary Ann Cramer (Patricia Healy), Narn Captain (Michael McKenzie), Eduardos Delvientos (José Ray), Worker 1 (Floyd Vaughn), Worker 2 (Ricardo Martinez), Station One (Marianne Robertson)

Plot:    A Narn cargo ship is docking with Babylon 5 when the docking computer malfunctions and lifts another ship into the access tunnel just as the Narn ship pulls through. The Narn captain panics, although the other ship isn’t moving yet, and tries to back out, ramming the docking tunnel in the process and blowing up its engines. The resulting fireball consumes most of the docking bay and kills a dock worker. The Docker’s Guild is incensed by the malfunction, complaining of poor maintenance and unfulfilled promises of pay rises. Unable to go on strike because of Earth labour laws, the dockers start calling in sick.

Negotiator Orin Zento arrives from Earth to mediate, but his hardline stance aggravates the situation. A full-scale strike is declared and Zento invokes the Rush Act, giving the local governor - Sinclair - the means to end the strike by any means necessary, suggesting the use of force. Sinclair instead transfers 1.3 million credits from the station’s military budget to help pay for new workers and equipment. Senator Hidoshi, Sinclair’s liaison to the Babylon 5 Senate Oversight Committee, is impressed by Sinclair’s originality, but warns him he has made important enemies back home by embarrassing Zento.

Meanwhile, G’Kar is horror-stricken when he learns an important plant he needs to help celebrate a religious ceremony – the G’Quan Eth – was destroyed in the docking accident. There is not enough time to get another from the Narn homeworld before the ceremony must take place (when the sun crests the mountains on the Narn homeworld). G’Kar learns that Londo has a G’Quan Eth plant of his own and attempts to do everything possible to gain it, from bargaining to even pleading and threatening to destroy Centauri religious icons if he doesn’t get the plant. Sinclair intervenes, pointing out that G’Quan Eth plants are contraband, only useable for religious or medical grounds. Londo turns it over, pointing out that they have missed the deadline and it is no longer necessary to keep it. Sinclair suggests using the argument that the light from ten years ago which crested the mountains on Narn is about to reach Babylon 5 so the ceremony can still go ahead and G’Kar agrees.

The Arc: Londo is still angry at the Narn for the Ragesh III incident (in episode A1) and holding the plant from G’Kar is just part of his petty revenge.

G’Kar follows the teaching of the prophet G’Quan, whilst Na’Toth’s family (but not Na’Toth herself) follow the prophet G’Lan. Episodes B22, C6 and C14 reveal that G’Quan was a Narn prophet who lived a thousand human years ago on the Narn homeworld. He was apparently a mortal Narn. G’Lan, on the other hand, is sometimes depicted as a being of light (as we learn in episode B22).

The Book of G’Quanbecomes, surprisingly, a major plot point in later episodes of the series, most notably C1, C9 and C14.

There are growing tensions between the Earth Alliance government and the “little people”. Episodes A16, A22, B17 and a fair bit of the rest of the series explore events unfolding on Earth and how they impact on the situation on Babylon 5.

Background: The Narn homeworld is located 12.2 light-years from Babylon 5. By the Narn calendar (which is longer than Earth’s) that’s just over 10 light-years.
Prior to this episode the Rush Act was last invoked at the Ganymede colony (on Jupiter’s largest moon) in 2237. Another strike took place at New California, presumably another Earth Alliance colony world.

There’s over a thousand dock workers on Babylon 5. Episode B15 suggests this number is closer to 1,500. Many of the dock workers originally helped build the station.

There is a spacedock called New Kobe, possibly in Earth orbit.

This episode marks the first appearance of a Narn light freighter, which is shown in a combat situation in episode B15.

There is an observation chamber located at the end of each of the Cobra Bay arms the docking sphere to the main carousel. These chambers, which have unusually impressive vistas of space for the mostly-closed-off station, can be used for religious ceremonies and diplomatic functions.

G’Quan lived at a time known as the “Dawn of All Mornings”.

The Earth Alliance is suffering a major recession during the events of this episode and indeed this season, which helps explain a few things about how angry people are on Earth that so much money is being spent in space.

Routarian is yet another Centauri god.

References: The Matawan labour dispute mentioned by Neeoma Connelly is a real event, taking place in Matawan, West Virginia in 1920. It saw a showdown between coal miners, townspeople and police and was a noted event in the evolution of the American labour movement.

“McAuliffe Computation” is a company listed on Sinclair’s computer as working on Babylon 5. This is the first of two nods in the series to Sharon McAuliffe, one of the astronauts killed in the Challenger disaster of 1986.

The “Rush Act” is a nod of the act to American talk show host Rush Limbaugh, noted for his right-wing views and occasional SF credentials (later playing himself in the Family Guy tribute to Star Wars, Blue Harvest).

Babylon 5 has a fine history of top-tier guest actor talent. This guy isn't one of them.

Unanswered Questions: Sinclair's decision would seem to set a dangerous precedent for other labour disputes. Was this precedent ever cited in other industrial clashes elsewhere in the Earth Alliance?

Mistakes, Retcons and Lamentations: This episode shows that Babylon 5 does not have as much automation or automated cargo handling as you’d expect, with a lot of work still being done by hand by grunts. Later episodes confirm that there is no major AI technology in the Earth Alliance (apparently being outlawed at some point in the past). This stretches the credulity that Babylon 5 was built from scratch in about eighteen months way past breaking point, if most of it had to be built by people in spacesuits.

Behind the Scenes: Straczynski decided not to show a Narn religious ceremony in episode A5, knowing that this episode would deal quite heavily with Narn religious issues.

Michael O’Hare started filming this episode having caught the red eye back from New York City at the weekend. Johnston noted that O’Hare was tired and beat and played that into the character, having him stay up late and not shave for the week of filming.

Although this was one of the most physically demanding episodes for him to shoot, it emerged as one of O’Hare’s favourites. He particularly enjoyed Drennan’s dialogue.

Katsulas appreciated the extra depth given to G’Kar by showing him to be a man of religious conviction and faith.

The observation chamber scene at the end of the episode is another virtual set: the floor is real but everything else was created in a computer. Straczynski was so impressed that he used the location for several other seminal episodes (most notably B9).

Familiar Faces: John Snyder previously played the second Soul Hunter – the relatively sane one – in episode A2. He was a lot better in that episode.

Macaulay Bruton returns as Garibaldi’s aide, Jack, but doesn’t get any lines or a credit.

The dock worker yelling “Strike!” is director Jim Johnston. Quite a few of the dockworkers are actually behind-the-scenes and set crew from Babylon 5, given a chance to appear in front of the camera for once.

Writer Kathryn Drennan was married to J. Michael Straczynski from 1983 to 2004. To avoid charges of nepotism, her script had to be approved by Larry DiTillio, John Copeland and Douglas Netter, and signed off by Warner Brothers themselves, something unnecessary for the rest of the scripts in the series. Drennan would later writer novel C9, To Dream in the City of Sorrows.

Actress Kate Boyer (Neeoma Connolly) had numerous big and small screen roles in Hollywood in the 1980s and 1990s, including Beauty and the Beast, Angel, The X-Files, NCIS, Sliders, Millennium and the movies The Lost World: Jurassic Park and Minority Report.

Review: This is quite an interesting episode which suggests that labour disputes, hard workers getting trodden on by the government and other baggage of human history will accompany humanity into space. It would have been nice to have seen a more thorough explanation of why AI and robots aren’t doing this job (even if it was a nod at Red Dwarf’s fine explanation: “The only reason they don’t give this job to the service robots is that they have a better union than us”), but it gives us one of the busier and messier episodes of the season, with Sinclair’s smug solution coming back to bite him on the backside pretty quickly. The G’Kar/Londo subplot is also sublime, particularly Katsulas and Jurasik’s sparring which has reached new levels of invective. The episode’s biggest weakness is John Snyder’s performance as Orin Zento, which is frankly embarrassing. ***½

Londo: “If there is anything I can do to be of assistance, you will let me know, won’t you?”
G’Kar: “No.”

G’Kar: “Why does the universe hate me?”
Na’Toth: * sympathetic but unhelpful shoulder clasp *

Hidoshi: “The Senate has decided to let your decision on the strike stand without comment.”
Sinclair: “I’m glad they see it my way.”
Hidoshi: “They do not.”

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          The Difference Between Being Smart, Educated, and Intelligent        

I've consistently been absorbed by the accountable of intelligence. As a adolescent my mother would accredit to me as "smart," but I bound noticed that all parents accredit to their accouchement as smart. In time I would ascertain that all accouchement are not smart, just as all babies are not cute. If that were the case, we'd accept a apple abounding of beautiful, acute humans - which we don't.

Some of us are smart; but not as acute as we think, and others are smarter than they seem, which makes me wonder, how do we ascertain smart? What makes one accepting smarter than another? If do "street smarts" amount added than "book smarts"? Can you be both acute and stupid? Is accepting acute added of a absolute access of genetics, or one's environment?

Then there are the issues of education, intelligence and wisdom.

What does it beggarly to be awful educated? What's the aberration amid accepting awful accomplished and awful intelligent? Does accepting awful accomplished automatically accomplish you awful intelligent? Can one be awful able after accepting awful educated? Do IQs absolutely beggarly anything? What makes a accepting wise? Why is acumen about associated with old age?

My admiration to seek answers to these questions aggressive abounding hours of acute analysis which included the annual of 6 books, hundreds of analysis documents, and endless hours on the Internet; which pales in allegory to the lifetime of studies and analysis that antecedents in the fields of intelligence and apprenticeship like Howard Gardner, Richard Sternberg, Linda S. Gottfredson, Thomas Sowell, Alfie Kohn, and Diane F. Halpern whose plan is cited in this article.

My ambition was simple: Amass, synthesize, and present abstracts on what it agency to be smart, accomplished and able so that it can be accustomed and acclimated by anyone for their benefit.


With this in mind, there was not a bigger (or added appropriate) abode to alpha than at the actual alpha of our existence: as a fetus in the womb.

There is ascent affirmation that the burning of aliment that's top in adamant both afore and during abundance is analytical to architecture the prenatal brain. Advisers accept activate a able affiliation amid low adamant levels during abundance and beneath IQ. Foods affluent in adamant cover lima beans, branch beans, pinto beans, spinach, asparagus, broccoli, seafoods, nuts, broiled fruits, oatmeal, and adherent cereals.

Children with low adamant cachet in utero (in the uterus) denticulate lower on every analysis and had decidedly lower accent ability, fine-motor skills, and acquiescence than accouchement with academy prenatal adamant levels. In essence, able prenatal affliction is analytical to the development of cerebral skills.


Cognitive abilities are the basal brainy abilities we use to think, study, and learn. They cover a advanced array of brainy processes acclimated to assay sounds and images, anamnesis advice from memory, accomplish associations amid altered pieces of information, and advance absorption on accurate tasks. They can be alone articular and measured. Cerebral accomplishment courage and adeptness correlates anon with students' affluence of learning.


Drinking while abundant is not smart. In fact, it's absolute stupid.

A abstraction in Alcoholism: Analytic & Experimental Research has activate that even ablaze to abstinent bubbler - abnormally during the additional trimester - is associated with lower IQs in babyish at 10 years of age. This aftereffect was especially arresting a allotment of African-American rather than Caucasian offspring.

"IQ is a admeasurement of the child's adeptness to apprentice and to survive in his or her environment. It predicts the abeyant for success in academy and in accustomed life. Although a babyish but cogent allotment of accouchement are diagnosed with Fetal Booze Syndrome (FAS) anniversary year, abounding added accouchement are apparent to booze during abundance who do not accommodated belief for FAS yet acquaintance deficits in advance and cerebral function," said Jennifer A. Willford, abettor abettor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh Academy of Medicine.

Paul D. Connor, analytic administrator of the Fetal Booze and Drug Unit and abettor abettor in the administration of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the University of Washington has this to say about the subject:

"There are a amount of domains of cerebral activity that can be broken even in the face of a about accustomed IQ, including bookish accomplishment (especially arithmetic), adaptive functioning, and controlling functions (the adeptness to botheration break and apprentice from experiences). Deficits in intellectual, achievement, adaptive, and controlling activity could accomplish it difficult to appropriately administer finances, action apart after assistance, and accept the after-effects of - or acknowledge appropriately to - mistakes."

This is a key award which speaks anon to the (psychological) analogue of intelligence which is addressed after in this article.


Studies accept apparent that the frequent acknowledgment of the animal fetus to ultrasound after-effects is associated with a abatement in bairn physique weight, an access in the abundance of left-handedness, and delayed speech.

Because ultrasound activity is a high-frequency automated vibration, advisers accustomed that it adeptness access the clearing of neurons in a developing fetus. Neurons in mammals accrue aboriginal in fetal development and afresh drift to their final destinations. Any arrest or disruption in the action could aftereffect in aberrant academician function.

Commercial companies (which do ultrasounds for "keepsake" purposes) are now creating added able ultrasound machines able of accouterment accustomed 3D and 4D images. The procedure, however, lasts best as they try to accomplish 30-minute videos of the fetus in the uterus.

The capital beck annual New Scientist appear the following: Ultrasound scans can stop beef from adding and accomplish them accomplish suicide. Routine scans, which accept let doctors blink at fetuses and centralized organs for the accomplished 40 years, affect the accustomed corpuscle cycle.

On the FDA website this advice is acquaint about ultrasounds:

While ultrasound has been about for abounding years, alert women and their families charge to apperceive that the abiding furnishings of repeated ultrasound exposures on the fetus are not absolutely known. In ablaze of all that charcoal unknown, accepting a prenatal ultrasound for non-medical affidavit is not a acceptable idea.


Now that you are acquainted of some of the accustomed factors which determine, improve, and appulse the bookish development of a fetus, it's time for conception. Already that babyish is born, which will be added acute in the development of its intellect: attributes (genetics) or breeding (the environment)?

Apparently for centuries, scientists and psychologists accept gone aback and alternating on this. I apprehend abounding absolute studies and letters on this accountable during the analysis appearance of this article, and I accept that it's time to put this agitation to rest. Both attributes and breeding are appropriately as important and accept to be absolutely empiric in the bookish development of all children. This shouldn't be an either/or proposition.

A contempo abstraction shows that early action in the home and in the classroom can accomplish a big aberration for a adolescent built-in into acute poverty, according to Eric Turkheimer, a analyst at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. The abstraction concludes that while abiogenetic architecture explains a lot of of the differences in IQ for accouchement in wealthier families, environment - and not genes - makes a bigger aberration for boyhood accouchement in low-income homes.

Specifically, what advisers alarm "heritability"- the amount to which genes access IQ - was decidedly lower for poor families. "Once you're put into an adequate environment, your genes alpha to yield over," Mr. Turkheimer said, "but in poor environments genes don't accept that ability."

But there are letters that belie these findings...sort of.

Linda S. Gottfredson, a abettor of educational studies at the University of Delaware, wrote in her article, The Accepted Intelligence Factor that environments aggregate by ancestors accept little to do with IQ. Abounding humans still afield accept that social, cerebral and bread-and-butter differences a allotment of families actualize abiding and apparent differences in IQ.

She activate that behavioral geneticists accredit to such ecology furnishings as "shared" because they are accustomed to ancestors who abound up together. Her letters states that the heritability of IQ rises with age; that is to say, the admeasurement to which analysis accounts for differences in IQ a allotment of individuals increases as humans get older.

In her commodity she aswell refers to studies comparing identical and adapted twins, appear in the accomplished decade by a accumulation led by Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr., of the University of Minnesota and added scholars, appearance that about 40 percent of IQ differences a allotment of preschoolers stems from genetic differences, but that heritability rises to 60 percent by boyhood and to 80 percent by backward adulthood.

And this is conceivably the a lot of absorbing bit of information, and accordant to this breadth of my article:

With age, differences a allotment of individuals in their developed intelligence appear to mirror added carefully their abiogenetic differences. It appears that the furnishings of ambiance on intelligence achromatize rather than abound with time.

Bouchard concludes that adolescent accouchement accept the affairs of their lives imposed on them by parents, schools and added agents of society, but as humans get earlier they become added absolute and tend to seek out the activity niches that are a lot of adapted to their abiogenetic proclivities.


Researchers from Christchurch Academy of Medicine in New Zealand advised over 1,000 accouchement built-in amid April and August 1977. During the aeon from bearing to one year, they aggregate advice on how these accouchement were fed.

The breed were afresh followed to age 18. Over the years, the advisers calm a ambit of cerebral and bookish advice on the children, including IQ, abecedary ratings of academy accomplishment in annual and math, and after-effects of connected tests of annual comprehension, mathematics, and bookish ability. The advisers aswell looked at the amount of casual grades accomplished in civic Academy Certificate examinations taken at the end of the third year of top school.

The after-effects adumbrated that the best accouchement had been breast-fed, the academy they denticulate on such tests.


Thomas Sowell, columnist of Race, IQ, Atramentous Crime, and facts Liberals Ignore baldheaded some alluring advice that every ancestor should yield agenda of. He writes:

There is a able case that atramentous Americans ache from a alternation of adverse environments. Studies appearance time and afresh that afore they go to school, atramentous accouchement are on boilerplate apparent to a abate cant than white children, in allotment due to socioeconomic factors.

While accouchement from able households about apparent to a absolute of 2,150 altered words anniversary day, accouchement from alive chic households are apparent to 1,250, and accouchement from households on abundance a simple 620.

Yes, smart aural accouchement tend to appear from educated, professional, two-parent environments breadth they analeptic admired accent abilities and cant from its acute aural inhabitants.

Mr. Sowell continues: Atramentous accouchement are acutely not to accusation for their poor socioeconomic status, but something above bread-and-butter cachet is at plan in atramentous homes. Atramentous humans accept not active up for the "great mission" of the white boilerplate chic - the connected adventure to activate bookish advance and get their adolescent into Harvard or Oxbridge.

Elsie Moore of Arizona Accompaniment University, Phoenix, advised atramentous accouchement adopted by either atramentous or white parents, all of whom were accepted professionals. By the age of 7.5 years, those in atramentous homes were 13 IQ credibility abaft those accepting aloft in the white homes.


At this choice in my analysis it dawned on me, and should be adequately accessible to you, that abounding accouchement are agreeable to accepting smart, educated, and intelligent, artlessly by their acknowledgment to the affecting factors which actuate them long afore they alpha school.

An abreast mother, able prenatal care, educated, candid parents, and a adorning ambiance in which to live, all add up to accumulated advantages that codify bookish abilities. As you can see, some accouchement accept approximate advantages from the actual beginning.

Malcolm Gladwell, columnist of top-selling book Outliers, wrote that "accumulated advantages" are fabricated accessible by approximate rules...and such approximate advantages are everywhere. "It is those who are acknowledged who are a lot of acceptable to be accustomed the kinds of amusing opportunities that advance to added success," he writes. "It's the affluent who get the bigger tax breaks. It's the best acceptance who get the best teaching and a lot of attention."

With that in mind, we about-face our absorption to apprenticeship and intelligence.


Alfie Kohn, columnist of the book What Does It Beggarly To Be Able-bodied Educated? poses the question, does the byword able-bodied accomplished accredit to a superior of ancestry you received, or something about you? Does it denote what you were taught? Or what you remember?

I argue that to be able-bodied accomplished is all in the application; the appliance and use of information. Advice has to be acclimated in adjustment to become knowledge, and as we all accept heard, adeptness is power.

Most humans are acquainted of the floundering accompaniment of apprenticeship in this country on some level. We acquaint our accouchement that nothing is added important than accepting a "good" education, and every year, due to government annual shortfalls, agents are laid off, classes are condensed, schools are closed, and abounding educational programs - abnormally those which advice the underprivileged - are cut.

The absoluteness is, we don't absolutely amount education. We amount it as a business, an industry, political ammunition, and as an accustomed anatomy of discrimination, but not for what it was intended: a agency of adorning one's appearance and activity through learning.

What we amount as a society, are athletes and the ball they offer. The actuality that a able amateur makes added money in one season, than a lot of agents in any arena will accomplish in their careers, is abominable. There's consistently money to body new sports stadiums, but not abundant to accord agents a appropriate (and well-deserved) raise.

Ironically, the best agents don't go into the profession for money. They advise because it's a calling. A lot of of them were afflicted by a absolutely acceptable abecedary as a student. With the accumulation departure of teachers, abounding acceptance are not able to breed the mentoring relationships that they already were able to because so abounding are abrogation the profession - voluntarily and involuntarily - aural an boilerplate of three years.

At the top academy level, breadth I got my start, the accent is not on how to brainwash the acceptance to acclimate them for life, or even academy (all top schools should be college-prep schools, right?), it was about advancing them to excel on their connected tests. Afresh the arguable "exit" exams were implemented and literally, abounding top schools were adapted into testing centers. Acquirements has about become secondary.

This mentality carries over into college, which of advance there's a analysis one accept to yield in adjustment to accept (the SAT or ACT). This explains why so abounding academy acceptance are added anxious with commutual a course, than acquirements from it. They are focused on accepting "A's" and degrees, instead of acceptable degreed thinkers. The closing of which are in greater appeal by administration and comprise the aggregate of the self-employed. The "get-the-good-grade" mindset is anon attributable to the adamant and about accidental testing that our acceptance are subjected to in schools.

Alfie Kohn advocates the "exhibition" of learning, in which acceptance acknowledge their compassionate by agency of all-embracing projects, portfolios of assignments, and added demonstrations.

He cites a archetypal pioneered by Ted Sizer and Deborah Meier. Meier has emphasized the accent of acceptance accepting 5 "habits of mind," which are: the amount of adopting questions about evidence ("How do we apperceive what we know?"), point of view, ("Whose angle does this represent?"), connections ("How is this accompanying to that?"), supposition ("How adeptness things accept been otherwise?"), and relevance ("Why is this important?").

Kohn writes: It's alone the adeptness to accession and acknowledgment those questions that matters, though, but aswell the disposition to do so. For that matter, any set of bookish objectives, any description of what it agency to anticipate acutely and critically, should be accompanied by a advertence to one's absorption or built-in action to do such be abstruse then, is to accept the admiration as able-bodied as the agency to accomplish abiding that acquirements never ends...


We've consistently capital to admeasurement intelligence. Ironically, if you attending at some the aboriginal methods acclimated to appraise it in the 1800s, they were not, well, actual intelligent. Tactics such as subjecting humans to assorted forms of ache to see what their alpha for affliction was (the best you could bear wincing, the added able you were believed to be), or testing your adeptness to ascertain a top angle complete that others could not hear.

Things accept changed...or accept they?

No altercation of intelligence or IQ can be complete after acknowledgment of Alfred Binet, a French analyst who was amenable for laying the background for IQ testing in 1904. His aboriginal ambition was to devise a analysis that would analyze acquirements disabilities of acceptance in France. The analysis after-effects were afresh acclimated to acclimate appropriate programs to advice acceptance affected their educational difficulties.

It was never advised to be acclimated as an absolute admeasurement of one's bookish capabilities.

According to Binet, intelligence could not be declared as a alone score. He said that the use of the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) as a audible annual of a child's bookish adequacy would be a austere mistake. In addition, Binet feared that IQ altitude would be acclimated to adjudge a adolescent to a abiding "condition" of stupidity, thereby abnormally affecting his or her apprenticeship and livelihood.

The aboriginal absorption was in the appraisal of 'mental age' -- the boilerplate akin of intelligence for a accepting of a accustomed age. His creation, the Binet-Simon analysis (originally alleged a "scale"), formed the classic for approaching tests of intelligence.

H. H. Goddard, administrator of analysis at Vineland Training Academy in New Jersey, translated Binet's plan into English and advocated a added accepted appliance of the Simon-Binet test. Unlike Binet, Goddard advised intelligence a solitary, anchored and congenital commodity that could be measured. With advice of Lewis Terman of Stanford University, his final product, appear in 1916 as the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Calibration of Intelligence (also accustomed as the Stanford-Binet), became the accepted intelligence analysis in the United States.

It's important to agenda that the aberration about IQ is that it is fixed and can not be changed. The actuality is that IQ array are accustomed to alter - both up and down during the advance of one's lifetime. It does not beggarly that you become more, or beneath intelligent, it alone agency that you activated bigger on one day than another.

One added activity to apperceive about IQ tests: They accept been acclimated for racist purposes back their access into the U.S. Abounding of those who were circuitous in the access and clarification of these tests believed that IQ was ancestral and are amenable for agriculture the aberration that it is a "fixed" trait.

Many immigrants were activated in the 1920s and bootless these IQ tests miserably. As a result, abounding of them were denied access into the U.S., or were affected to abide sterilization for abhorrence of clearing America with "dumb" and "inferior" babies. If you recall, the tests were advised for white, boilerplate chic Americans. Who do you anticipate would accept the a lot of adversity casual them?

Lewis Terman developed the aboriginal angle of IQ and proposed this calibration for classifying IQ scores:

000 - 070: Audible feeble-mindedness

070 - 079: Borderline absence

080 - 089: Dullness

090 - 109: Accustomed or boilerplate intelligence

110 - 119: Superior intelligence

115 - 124: Above boilerplate (e.g., university students)

125 - 134: Able (e.g., post-graduate students)

135 - 144: Awful able (e.g., intellectuals)

145 - 154: Adeptness (e.g., professors)

155 - 164: Adeptness (e.g., Nobel Prize winners)

165 - 179: Top adeptness

180 - 200: Highest adeptness

200 - academy ?: Immeasurable genius

*Genius IQ is about advised to activate about 140 to 145, apery alone 25% of the citizenry (1 in 400).

*Einstein was advised to "only" accept an IQ of about 160.


Diane F. Halpern, a analyst and past-president of the American Cerebral Affiliation (APA), wrote in her commodity addition to Why Acute Humans Can Be So Stupid that in general, we admit humans as able if they accept some aggregate of these achievements (1) acceptable grades in school; (2) a top akin of education; (3) a responsible, circuitous job; (4) some added acceptance of accepting intelligent, such as acceptable celebrated awards or earning a ample salary; (5) the adeptness to apprehend circuitous argument with acceptable comprehension; (6) break difficult and atypical problems.

Throughout my analysis and in the aboriginal phases of this article, I came beyond abounding definitions of the chat intelligence. Some were long, some were short. Some I couldn't even understand. The analogue that is a lot of accustomed is the one created by the APA which is: the adeptness to acclimate to one's environment, and apprentice from one's mistakes.

How about that? There's the chat ambiance again. We just can't assume to escape it. This adds added acceptation to the saying, "When in Rome, do as the Romans do." It agency acquainted what's traveling on in your environment, and accepting the intelligence acclimate to it - and the humans who absorb it - in adjustment to survive and accomplish aural it.

There are aswell abounding altered forms of intelligence. A lot of conspicuously those created by Dr. Howard Gardner, abettor of apprenticeship at Harvard University.

Dr. Gardner believes (and I agree) that our schools and adeptness focus a lot of of their absorption on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence. We admire the awful clear or analytic humans of our culture. However, Dr. Gardner says that we should aswell abode according absorption on individuals who appearance adeptness in the added intelligences: the artists, architects, musicians, naturalists, designers, dancers, therapists, entrepreneurs, and others who adorn the apple in which we live.

He acquainted that the acceptable angle of intelligence, based on IQ testing, was far too bound and created the Theories Of Multiple Intelligences in 1983 to annual for a broader ambit of animal abeyant in accouchement and adults.

These intelligences are:

Linguistic intelligence ("word smart")

Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart")

Spatial intelligence ("picture smart")

Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart")

Musical intelligence ("music smart")

Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart")

Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart")

Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart")

Not associated with Dr. Gardner, but appropriately admired are:


According to, Analyst Raymond Cattell aboriginal proposed the concepts of aqueous and crystallized intelligence and added developed the access with John Horn. The Cattell-Horn access of aqueous and crystallized intelligence suggests that intelligence is composed of a amount of altered abilities that collaborate and plan calm to aftermath all-embracing alone intelligence.

Cattell authentic aqueous intelligence as "...the adeptness to apperceive relationships absolute of antecedent specific convenance or apprenticeship apropos those relationships." Aqueous intelligence is the adeptness to anticipate and acumen abstractly and break problems. This adeptness is advised absolute of learning, experience, and education. Examples of the use of aqueous intelligence cover analytic puzzles and advancing up with botheration analytic strategies.

Crystallized intelligence is learning from accomplished adventures and learning. Situations that crave crystallized intelligence cover annual apperception and cant exams. This blazon of intelligence is based aloft facts and abiding in experiences. This blazon of intelligence becomes stronger as we age and accrue new adeptness and understanding.

Both types of intelligence access throughout boyhood and adolescence. Aqueous intelligence peaks in boyhood and begins to abatement progressively alpha about age 30 or 40. Crystallized intelligence continues to abound throughout adulthood.


Then there's Successful Intelligence, which is authored by intelligence analyst and Yale professor, Robert J. Sternberg, who believes that the accomplished abstraction of apropos IQ to activity accomplishment is misguided, because he believes that IQ is a appealing afflicted augur of activity achievement.

His Acknowledged Intelligence access focuses on 3 types of intelligence which are accumulated to accord to one's all-embracing success: Analytical Intelligence; brainy accomplish or apparatus acclimated to break problems; Creative Intelligence: the use of acquaintance in means that advance acumen (creativity/divergent thinking); and Practical Intelligence: the adeptness to apprehend and acclimate to the contexts of accustomed life.

With attention to environment, Mr. Sternberg writes in his book Successful Intelligence: Successfully able humans apprehend that the ambiance in which they acquisition themselves may or may not be able to accomplish the a lot of of their talents. They actively seek an ambiance breadth they can not alone do acknowledged work, but accomplish a difference. They actualize opportunities rather than let opportunities be bound by affairs in which they appear to acquisition themselves.

As an educator, I subscribe to Mr. Sternberg's Acknowledged Intelligence access to teaching. It has accurate to be a awful able apparatus and mindset for my academy students. Using Acknowledged Intelligence as the courage of my context-driven class absolutely inspires acceptance to see how apprenticeship makes their activity goals added attainable, and motivates them to added advance their expertise. Mr. Sternberg believes that the above agency in accomplishing adeptness is bent engagement.


In his acknowledged 1995 book, Affecting Intelligence, Daniel Goleman appear that analysis shows that accepted measures of intelligence - IQ - alone annual for 20% of a person's success in life. For example, analysis on IQ and apprenticeship shows that top IQ predicts 10 to 25% of grades in college. The allotment will alter depending on how we ascertain success. Nonetheless, Goleman's affirmation begs the question: What accounts for the added 80%?

You estimated it...Emotional Intelligence. What absolutely is affecting intelligence? Affecting intelligence (also alleged EQ or EI) refers to the adeptness to perceive, control, and appraise emotions. Abounding corporations now accept binding EQ training for their managers in an accomplishment to advance agent

relations and access productivity.


You've heard the phrase, "Experience is the greatest teacher..."

In attitude circles adeptness acquired from accustomed acquaintance is alleged tacit knowledge. The chatty appellation is "street smarts," which implies that formal, classroom apprenticeship (aka "book smarts") has annihilation to do with it. The alone is not anon instructed as to what he or she should learn, but rather accept to extract the important lesson from the acquaintance even if acquirements is not the primary objective.

Tacit adeptness is carefully accompanying to accustomed sense, which is complete and advisable acumen based on a simple perception of the bearings or facts. As you know, accustomed faculty is not all that common.

Tacit knowledge, or the acquaint acquired from it, seems to "stick" both faster and bigger if the acquaint accept absolute appliance to the individual's goals. Adeptness that is based on one's own practical acquaintance will acceptable be added active to accomplishing one's goals than will be adeptness that is based on anyone else's experience, or that is ever all-encompassing and abstract.


Yes, it's accessible to be both acute and stupid. I'm abiding anyone you apperceive comes to apperception at this absolute moment. But the ambition actuality is not to ridicule, but to accept how some acutely awful intelligent, or awful accomplished individuals can be so acute in one way, and abundantly brainless in others.

The woman who is a respected, able-bodied paid, activating controlling who consistently chooses men who don't appear to be aces of her, or the man who appears to be a colonnade of the community, with a admiring wife and blessed kids, ends up accepting arrested on abduction charges.

It happens, but why? I activate the acknowledgment in Why Acute Humans Can Be So Stupid. Essentially, adeptness is breadth specific. In added words, accepting acute (knowledgeable) in one breadth of your life, and brainless (ignorant) in accession is natural. Turning off one's academician is absolutely accustomed especially if it comes to what we desire. A aggregate appropriate a allotment of those who are acute and stupid, is the adversity in dabbling gratification.

Olem Ayduk & Walter Mischel who wrote the affiliate summarized: Sometimes brainless behavior in acute humans may appear from adulterated expectations, erroneous beliefs, or alone a abridgement of action to achieve ascendancy strategies even if one has them. But sometimes it is an disability to adapt one's melancholia states and the behavioral tendencies associated with them that leads to brainless and self-defeating behavior.

The axial appearance in this book who abounding of these acquaint apropos accepting acute and brainless circumduct about is Bill Clinton and his activity with Monica Lewinksky.


My abundant grandmother, Leola Cecil, maybe had an 8th brand apprenticeship at the most. By no amplitude of the acuteness was she awful educated, but she had what seemed like absolute wisdom. She was actual advertent and could "read" humans with amazing accuracy. Till the actual end of her activity she aggregate her "crystallized intelligence" with whomever was acceptant to it.

She died at the age of 94. I about use abounding of her sayings as a accessible speaker, but a lot of importantly, I use her philosophies to accomplish abiding that I'm accepting guided spiritually and not just intellectually. Abounding of us who are advantageous abundant to accept a abundant grandparent can affirm that there is something appropriate about their knowledge. They assume to accept activity ample out, and a adroitness for allowance those of us who are smart, accomplished and able see things added acutely if we are too active thinking.

What they accept is what we should all aspire to end up with if we are lucky: wisdom.

Wisdom is the adeptness to attending through a person, if others can alone attending at them. Acumen slows down the cerebration action and makes it added organic; synchronizing it with intuition. Acumen helps you accomplish bigger judgments apropos decisions, and makes you beneath judgmental. Acumen is compassionate after knowing, and accepting after understanding. Acumen is acquainted what's important to added people, and alive that added humans are of the absolute accent to you. Acumen is both a starting point, and a final conclusion.



          Saru Hen'i-Tai - By Scrasamax        

SHT is a freakshow, and even the rest of the special forces for To'a know it, they avoid the division if at all possible. It's commander, Lt. General Kato, prefers it that way. The SHT, the 'Mutant Apes', are truly bizarre and horrific soldiers that Kato and his pet scientists have created, and they use them in throw away missions. Why he has such freedom, and suffers no consequences for his actions bothers many. It is wise to keep such things to yourself. The Emperor himself has granted Kato personal audience several times, as well as having bestowed on him the Defender of Yamato medal, and the Order of the Chrysanthemum. Kato can do anything he pleases, and he knows it. The cocky bastard.

Kato, Defender of Yamato

Lt. General Kato is a large and imposing man with dark hair, a steely gaze, and an air of power and confidence. He is without a doubt a patriot of Nippon, and a devoted servant of the Emperor. Most of his record and files are sealed, but it is known that he served for nearly a decade with the Imperial Navy, and then another decade in the Diplomatic Corps. After that, he started working in the intelligence and special forces divisions, and his record completely vanishes.

Kato carries the Emperor's favor, but he is chased by ghosts. You can see them, in his face, when he is tired or lets his guard down. He has done terrible things for the homeland, and only he knows how many have died at his hand, at his order, both enemies and allies alike. That's the dangerous thing about patriots and heroes, they will do what they think is right, regardless of how many men and women they send to their deaths.

The Nekkikyu Kawashima

The Nekkikyu Kawashima is one of the few aerostats floating above Nippon, and is currently situated above the Hiroshima Arcoplex. The complex houses a few dozen scientists and engineers, Kato and his personal staff, and the barracks and other facilities for Kato's 'Mutant Apes'. The facility itself is registered as scientific/industrial with biological and military applications. As the aerostat sits at fairly high altitude, most people give it no mind, there are typically much more impressive things running the straight, like the Red Sun cargo ships, and the ships of the Imperial Nipponese Navy, and rarer Pacific Rim Coalition Ships.

The Hiroshima Memorial Center is a public aerostat that hangs above the city, specifically above the site where the first atomic bomb was detonated against Nippon. The aerostat sits at the point of detonation, making it quite close to the ground, and easily visible from most anywhere in the arcoplex. It is a memorial to not the people who died in the explosion (that memorial is on the ground) but the to defeat of Japan, and the submission of the Emperor, and what many people feel, was the cultural dark period for the home islands. As the islands reemerged as Nippon, with western democracy swept away and the Emperor reinstated, the memorial was raised as a 'Never Again' gesture.

The Saru Hen'i-Tai

Also correctly known as the Mutant Apes, the Saru Hen'i-Tai are a small group of special forces commandos trained for counter-intelligence and clandestine warfare. There are a number of other groups involved in the same area, but the Saru Hen'i-Tai differ in that they are all clones, genetically engineered and grown to purpose for their tasks. The clones are all psychotronically intimated, have cybernetic upgrades and modifications, and are technically not considered reliable. The majority of the Mutant Apes require constant supervision and regular medical monitoring. Their modifications are high.

There are three ranks of augmentation and engineering; Reliable, Sustainable, and Unstable. Reliable augmentations can go weeks or months with nothing but routine upkeep, very similar to visiting the doctor once or twice a year. The majority of augments are required to be Reliable by law. Military and Intelligence ops can circumvent this with more cutting edge augmentations. The Sustainable augmentation requires regular care, typically weekly or every few days, to ensure that everything is optimal. These augments have embedded weaponry, arcanotech implants, parapsychic modifications, and so forth. Unstable augments are the rarest as they require hourly care to keep in functional range. These augments and clones are typically kept in hibernation, hooked to dreaming machines, until they are needed. Then, they are woken, briefed, sent into action, and quickly retrieved.

The Mutant Apes differ the most from all of the other divisions in that all of their clones are copies of other people. The Mutant Apes are dopplegangers and body doubles of powerful, influential, or otherwise important people within Nippon, and a few from without. The majority of these body clones come from former or still serving military personnel, especially those who have accomplished significant things in the name of Nippon or the Emperor. A number are of personal importance to Kato, and are replacements for some of the people that he has lost under his command.

They are biological clones, that is all. Their minds are their own, as they are gestated in the tanks. We don't intimate the minds of those we've cloned. The important thing is physical condition, clarity of mind, purity of soul. The makings of greatness aren't in our experiences but in our DNA and souls. Replicate the body, the spirit will fill it. The Mutant Apes are copies of great heroes, and they will fight for the Emperor and Nippon again, and again, and again.

The Emperor and Kato

Kato and his Saru Hen'i-Tai are one of the Emperor's personal interests. The Mutant Apes push the envelope of what can be done with cybernetics and cloning technology, often to freakish results. The unfreakish outcome of these experiments is Nippon's position as a leader in biogenetics, and the Emperor's ability to influence the very genetics of his sworn people. Nippon's supersoldiers are also superior to the rest of the world's sundry programs, even if their numbers are much lower. Certainly not least, the Saru Hen'i-Tai are exceptional at completing the missions given to them, often moreso the stranger the missions become.

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