ÐÐ»ÐµÐºÑÐ°Ð½Ð´Ñ€Ñƒ Хацкевичу предложили урезать зарплату – он покинул пост тренера сборной Беларуси по футболу        

Глава АБФФ Сергей Румас рассказал “Прессболу” о причинах расставания с Александром Хацкевичем, возглавлявшим сборную Беларуси с декабря 2014 года. Беларуская федерация футбола расторгла контракт с главным тренером сборной в одностороннем порядке. Александр Николаевич уже об этом уведомлен. -Неожиданно. Известно, что после матча в Болгарии вы встречались с Хацкевичем — итогом стала информация о продолжении сотрудничества. […]

Запись Александру Хацкевичу предложили урезать зарплату – он покинул пост тренера сборной Беларуси по футболу впервые появилась Беларуская Праўда.


          Ð’ Беларуси начались продажи спецверсии Renault Duster        
Фото: RenaultЛимитированная версия Renault Duster Dakar отличается расширителями колесных арок снаружи и креслами с вышивкой Dakar внутри. Кроме этого автомобиль получил ряд опций. Технически французский кроссовер не изменился.

          We cannot have a foreign policy without a conscience        
Embed from Getty Images   President Lukashenko of Belarus has enjoyed twenty-two years in power, achieved through a specific method of counting of votes, and has often been referred to as the last dictator in Europe. Following his annual state-of-the-union address 2015, President Lukashenko has said that Jews in Belarus should be taken “under control”. All this […]
          Liberal Youth make some noise for human rights        
Last week, on a cold December afternoon Liberal Youth continued their campaign for human rights in Belarus, a country often described as “Europe’s Last Dictatorship”. We were joined by the Free Belarus Now group, lead by Irina Bogdanova (sister of an ex-Presidential candidate) in a demonstration outside the Belarusian embassy in London. The event was […]
          LibLink: Nick Clegg – We must stand up to this tyranny on our doorstep        
Nick Clegg – currently in Poland representing the UK at the EU Eastern Partnership summit – has an op-ed in today’s Independent arguing that more must be done to topple Europe’s last dictator in Belarus. As well as his column, the deputy prime minister will also speak to the people of Belarus over the airwaves via […]
          Opinion: The struggle for democracy persists in Europe, not just the Middle East        
In December last year, Alyaksandr Lukashenka was re-elected president of Belarus, with 79.7% of the vote in elections deemed to fall massively short of OSCE standards. Under his leadership, the Belarusian regime systematically violates basic liberties. The past week has seen a worsening of the situation, with the oppressive regime using unjustifiable violence against protesters […]
          Comment on Banners Design for Mobile Unlock Base by MichaelImmed        
Our team is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. To get the additional information and place the order just visit our website: http://www.salepassportsfake.cc www. salepassportsfake.cc >> Contact e-mails: General support: support@salepassportsfake.cc Technical support: admin@salepassportsfake.cc ----------------------------- Keywords: buy fake passport of Afghanistan buy fake passport of Albania buy fake passport of Algeria buy fake passport of Andorra buy fake passport of Angola buy fake passport of Antigua & Deps buy fake passport of Argentina buy fake passport of Armenia buy fake passport of Australia buy fake passport of Austria buy fake passport of Azerbaijan buy fake passport of Bahamas buy fake passport of Bahrain buy fake passport of Bangladesh buy fake passport of Barbados buy fake passport of Belarus buy fake passport of Belgium buy fake passport of Belize buy fake passport of Benin buy fake passport of Bhutan buy fake passport of Bolivia buy fake passport of Bosnia Herzegovina buy fake passport of Botswana buy fake 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fake passport of Korea South buy fake passport of Kosovo buy fake passport of Kuwait buy fake passport of Kyrgyzstan buy fake passport of Laos buy fake passport of Latvia buy fake passport of Lebanon buy fake passport of Lesotho buy fake passport of Liberia buy fake passport of Libya buy fake passport of Liechtenstein buy fake passport of Lithuania buy fake passport of Luxembourg buy fake passport of Macedonia buy fake passport of Madagascar buy fake passport of Malawi buy fake passport of Malaysia buy fake passport of Maldives buy fake passport of Mali buy fake passport of Malta buy fake passport of Marshall Islands buy fake passport of Mauritania buy fake passport of Mauritius buy fake passport of Mexico buy fake passport of Micronesia buy fake passport of Moldova buy fake passport of Monaco buy fake passport of Mongolia buy fake passport of Montenegro buy fake passport of Morocco buy fake passport of Mozambique buy fake passport of Myanmar, Burma buy fake passport of Namibia buy fake passport of Nauru buy fake passport of Nepal buy fake passport of Netherlands buy fake passport of New Zealand buy fake passport of Nicaragua buy fake passport of Niger buy fake passport of Nigeria buy fake passport of Norway buy fake passport of Oman buy fake passport of Pakistan buy fake passport of Palau buy fake passport of Panama buy fake passport of Papua New Guinea buy fake passport of Paraguay buy fake passport of Peru buy fake passport of Philippines buy fake passport of Poland buy fake passport of Portugal buy fake passport of Qatar buy fake passport of Romania buy fake passport of Russian Federation buy fake passport of Rwanda buy fake passport of St Kitts & Nevis buy fake passport of St Lucia buy fake passport of Saint Vincent & the Grenadines buy fake passport of Samoa buy fake passport of San Marino buy fake passport of Sao Tome & Principe buy fake passport of Saudi Arabia buy fake passport of Senegal buy fake passport of Serbia buy fake passport of Seychelles buy fake passport of Sierra Leone buy fake passport of Singapore buy fake passport of Slovakia buy fake passport of Slovenia buy fake passport of Solomon Islands buy fake passport of Somalia buy fake passport of South Africa buy fake passport of Spain buy fake passport of Sri Lanka buy fake passport of Sudan buy fake passport of Suriname buy fake passport of Swaziland buy fake passport of Sweden buy fake passport of Switzerland buy fake passport of Syria buy fake passport of Taiwan buy fake passport of Tajikistan
          Kualifikasi Piala Dunia 2014 Dini Hari Tadi        
[Kualifikasi Piala Dunia 2014]
FT: Rusia 1-0 Portugal (Kerzhakov). Pepe dan Cristiano main 90 menit. Coentrao starter dan diganti di menit 20. 
FT: Irlandia 1-6 Jerman (Keogh 90 - Reus 32, 40, Ozil 55-p, Klose 58, Kroos 61, 83). Mesut Özil sumbang 1 gol lewat penalti. Özil main 90 menit, Khedira main 46 menit. 
FT: Macedonia 1-2 Kroasia (Ibraimi 16 - Corluka 33, Rakitic 60). Luka Modric main 84 menit. 
FT: Belarusia 0-4 Spanyol (Alba 12, Pedro 20, 69, 72). Casillas, Arbeloa & Xabi main 90 mnt. Sergio Ramos main 70 mnt lalu diganti Albiol. 
FT: Argentina 3-0 Uruguay (Messi 2x, Aguero). Higuain main 80 menit. Di Maria main 90 menit, 2 assist (utk gol pertama Messi dan gol Aguero)

[Laga Persahabatan]
Prancis 0-1 Jepang (Konno 88'). Benzema main 90 menit.

          RUSSIA: Babushkas rule        

Russia will be reshaped not by revolution but by urbanization and a life expectancy gap between men and women, writes Ekaterina Schulmann

Historical parallels are a curse of our time because they prevent rational analysis of social and political processes. Once you hear that 2014 is 1914 all over again, or that a certain regime is heading towards a new Nazism, this is a clear signal to stop listening, as clear as when you are advised to read Dostoevsky to gain insight into the ‘Russian soul’.

It is time to stop taking Karl Marx’s joke at face value: history does not repeat itself, either as tragedy, or as farce. Since there is an infinite supply of historical facts, it is likely that striking similarities between past and present events are based either on the magic of numbers – 1914/2014 – or on highlighting some facts while ignoring others.

The main sin of parallelism is that it negates progress. It is stuck in the Middle Ages, when the wheel of fortune decreed that nothing changed.

The same type of thinking that denies the passage of time, however, makes a fetish of space and turns geography into destiny.

People who balk at a comparison between the Russian and Venezuelan political systems are happy to compare modern Russia with the Russia of Ivan the Terrible, Nicholas II or Stalin, periods that have nothing to do with our time economically, culturally or socially.

So what are we to make of this year’s centenary of the revolutions that ended the Russian Empire, and the fashionable search for clues to the future of today’s Russia? To unpick the parallels, it is worth exploring the basic composition of Russian society then and now through demographic trends − while understanding that demography influences, but does not determine, political processes.

Looking at the demographic data of Russia for 2016 and for the Russian regions of the Empire by 1917, we see two major trends that shaped the 20th century: ageing and urbanization.

The median age of a Russian citizen of today is 39 years. In 1917, the average age of a resident of Petrograd was 19. In 1885, there were 11.6 million city dwellers in Russia, a figure that doubled within 30 years to 23.2 million in 1914. In 1940 the urban population of the USSR was 60.6 million people and in 1956, 87 million. Within 40 years, 54 million people had moved from village to town. By the late 1950s, the urban population equalled the peasantry.

Urbanization was a feature of the era that transformed agrarian societies into modern industrial ones. The grimmer appendages of this process were global wars of the type unknown to previous ages, combining the genocidal intent of Genghis Khan with new weapons capable of wiping out millions of lives. The young people wanting to climb up the social ladder by moving from the countryside to the cities could play two roles: as the drivers of progress or the cogs in great totalitarian machines of repression, as happened in Russia and China.

There are gaps in the Russian demographic pyramid that we see repeated roughly every 20 to 25 years. These are the traces of the horror that was the Russian 20th century – mostly the human loss of the Second World War, but also of the civil war, collectivization, numerous waves of genocide and organized hunger. If you compare the modern demographic pyramids of the former Soviet republics, you will see a picture resembling the Russian pyramid, but with the edges somewhat smoothed.

Today 74.4 per cent of the citizens of Russia live in cities, according to Rosstat, the Russian statistics service. Agrarian Russia, the Russia of the peasantry, is now the stuff of folklore. Given the state of the transport and road infrastructure, it is reasonable to assert that Russia today consists of 15 cities and their agglomerations, with more or less empty space in between.

There are two exceptions: the agricultural regions of Southern Russia and the national republics of the North Caucasus. Remarkably, these are also the regions with distinct political cultures and electoral behaviour differing from that of central, northern or Siberian Russia.

Ethnically, if we compare the results of the censuses of 1991 in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, as the territory of the Russian Federation was defined in Soviet times, and the last census of 2010, we see a gradual consolidation of the ethnically Russian population. Non-Russian Judeo-Christian ethnic groups are declining or disappearing: Jews, Germans, even Ukrainians and Belarusians are markedly less numerous in 2010 than in 1991. The sole exception is the Armenians.

At the same time, there is quite significant growth of those ethnic groups that can be described as Muslim: the Azeris, the Tartars, and the Caucasian nations. Very roughly put, in the Russia of today we see two groups of unequal size, but also with unequal demographic dynamics: the generalized Russian and the generalized Muslim nations.

Having said this, it is important to remember that these are not actual ‘communities’ or even ‘ethnic groups’: there is not so much in common between the Kazan Tatars and the Chechens, while the ‘Russian’ Russians are extremely diverse.

These statistics, of course, can be readily used for all kinds of political catastrophism. They can be turned to support nationalistic propaganda of the ‘let’s declare a mono-national state before it’s too late’ type, or the ‘Russians are all dying out and being replaced by people from the Caucasus’.

In fact, Russia is not dying out in any perceivable way, the birth rates being moderately low, but on a par with the general level of countries of comparable economic status and social composition.

Looking at the demographic pyramid of 2016, we see not just an old, but an ageing population, with the predominance of women growing with each rise up the age scale. This is due to the difference in average life expectancy between the genders: men die sooner, and the more pronounced gender inequality starts after 55 years. Life expectancy has been slowly growing for the past 15 years yet according to data for 2016 it is still a shockingly low 66.5 years for males and an almost decent 77 years for females.

The real Russian demographic problem is not low birth rate, but early mortality, especially male mortality, which is almost totally due to preventable social causes: alcoholism, driving accidents, violent crime, high prison population and treatable diseases, most importantly cardiovascular.

There is a total absence of what demographers call a ‘youth bulge’ − a disproportionately high number of 15 to 25-year-olds in the population pyramid. Such a youth bulge was very visible in the population pyramid of Germany in 1933, the year Hitler was appointed Chancellor, and − in a milder form − in Russia in 1927.

Today we have instead what might be termed a youth gap − a visible failure below 25 to 29 years caused by the relatively small generation born during the first half of the 90s. The following 15 to 19 stratum is even smaller − a continuation of the low fertility of the second half of the 90s and early 2000s.

Since 2002, the birth rate has been gradually increasing, and at the base of our pyramid we see two decent-sized ‘bricks’ −Russians aged 10 years or less. Their participation in the political process is yet to come.

What does this demographic picture mean for a country’s political development? Always keeping in mind that demography affects but does not determine political processes, it is possible to discern some tendencies.

With women aged 45 and older becoming the predominant social group in Russia, this creates the impetus to shift the policy agenda towards social issues − healthcare, education, a comfortable living environment. This is in marked contrast to official budget priorities, focused on security, the military and costly foreign adventures.

The decision-makers of the ruling bureaucracy are largely males aged 60-plus, with military, secret service and law-enforcement backgrounds. Their values and interests may be not as aligned with those of the Russian majority as they would like to think.

Demography is an important factor that affects a country’s likelihood of edging towards authoritarianism. Poor demography isn’t a death sentence; however, the existence of a ‘youth bulge’ correlates with a society’s proneness to violence.

When the majority of the population in a country is over 40, protests are more likely to be peaceful and legal. At the same time, an older population has no effect on the probability of a military coup, the other bane of semi-autocracies that don’t have a politically valid mechanism for the transfer of power.

While young people go to demonstrations, older people go to elections. By casting their ballots, the old deliver the results required by the authorities and also agree to accept them as legitimate.

The latter is an important factor in a political system that relies heavily on falsifications and the use of the ‘administrative resource’ to boost turnout and achieve desirable voting outcomes. If younger Russians neither vote nor take an interest in election campaigns and their results, it erodes the election’s legitimacy, making protest activity a more attractive option.

The next generation gap, stemming from the relatively small generation born in the 1990s and early 2000s which is now entering its fertility age, will ensure a continuing need to replace the shortfall with migrant workers. This, inevitably, will form the basis of continuing political tensions for the next 15 to 20 years.

In a longer perspective, we have the continuing ultra-urbanization process that will draw Russia closer and closer to the picture of ‘15 great cities with empty spaces in between’. These are: Moscow, St Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Chelyabinsk, Omsk, Samara, Rostov-on-Don, Ufa, Krasnoyarsk, Perm, Voronezh and Volgograd. Close behind are Krasnodar, Saratov and Tyumen.

The cities of industrial Siberia − Tyumen, Krasnoyarsk, Tomsk, Novosibirsk − and Southern Russia and the North Caucasus − Makhachkala, Krasnodar, Rostov-on-Don − demonstrate the most stable population growth in recent years, both due to natural birth increase and migration.

These 15 to 18 cities and the surrounding territories serving them will inevitably strive to become both sources and centres of political power. This is in direct opposition to the current political system that has all-but abolished direct mayoral elections, crushed the freedoms and financial independence of municipalities and strives to uphold at least the appearance of a ‘vertical of power’ by heavy dependence on regional authorities − which, in their turn, are kept under control by a centralized budgeting system and the threat of criminal prosecution.

Both varying demographic dynamics and migration rates will widen the differences in ethnic composition between different regions and between the smaller towns and the megapolises. The core Russian territories are growing more and more uniformly Russian (and its towns are experiencing population decline), while the bigger cities present a globally familiar picture of ethnic and religious diversity.

Today even Moscow is, by international standards, almost a mono-ethnic and certainly a mono-racial city as compared with New York or London, but this will change in the coming decades. Already today the mayor of Moscow is from the Far North and the deputy mayor is from Tatarstan, a cause of some political discontent. In future we are likely to see people from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and other parts of Central Asia who want administrative and political careers in the capital.

Today’s social tensions are often created by the average Russian’s suspicious attitude towards both working migrants in the cities and non-Russians in the administration, the courts and the police.

In the foreseeable future the ethnic shifts described above will dangerously increase those tensions, if they are not absorbed and co-opted by working political institutions, competitive public politics and pluralistic media − not exacerbated or exploited by the state-run media’s short-sighted propaganda and a monopolistic ruling elite which makes little room for the generations below them who are keen for their turn at power.

 

AUTHOR:

Ekaterina Schulmann is an Associate Professor in the School of Public Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration


          ÐšÑ‚о в Беларуси больше всех рискует оказаться за чертой бедности        
Фото: ReutersСамые низкие шансы - у бездетных семей.

          Zimowy rynek maszyn        
Grudzień, obok miesięcy wiosennych, jest dla handlowców zazwyczaj gorącym okresem sprzedaży ciągników i maszyn rolniczych. Popyt na szczególnie na proste ciągniki wciąż jest duży. Najtańszego, 80-konnego Belarusa można kupić już za około 65 tys. zł brutto. Z kolei w okresie od 1 stycznia do końca listopada 2010 r. zarejestrowano niemal 13 tys. używanych ciągników.
          Redhead Teenie With Nice Breasts Briana Ruslana        
I love a redhead teenie, especially when she has such a nice body as sexy 19 year old Briana Ruslana, aka Redly. This girl is long and lean and very sexy, with a nice 32A-24-32 (I think it’s more a B cup, but that’s okay) and she is from Belarus. …

Continue reading


          Maria Sharapova to return as UN goodwill ambassador after doping ban expires        

United Nations: Maria Sharapova will once again be a UN goodwill ambassador when her doping ban expires in April and she returns to international tennis competition, a UN statement said.

The United Nations had suspended Sharapova's role as goodwill ambassador in March after she failed a drug test, putting a hold on a nine-year partnership with the UN Development Programme.

"UNDP was glad to learn that Maria Sharapova can return to the sport she loves sooner than expected and we will lift the suspension of her role as our goodwill ambassador once the reduced ban expires in April 2017," said a UNDP spokesperson.

"We understand that Ms. Sharapova will be focused on resuming her tennis career and we look forward to discussing her role and engagement with UNDP at an appropriate date."

Last month, the Russian star's 24-month ban for testing positive for meldonium was cut to 15 months by the Lausanne-based Court of Arbitration for Sport.

Sharapova, 29, had admitted using meldonium for 10 years to help treat illnesses, a heart issue and a magnesium deficiency.

As a goodwill ambassador, Sharapova has been active in helping recovery efforts after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster.

The tennis sensation has made visits to Belarus and donated $100,000 to support youth projects in rural areas that suffer from the after-affects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

Sharapova's family fled the city of Gomel in Belarus in 1987 after the Chernobyl disaster, moving to Siberia where the tennis star was born.

The family lived in Nyagan, Siberia for two years and then moved to Sochi on the Black Sea where Sharapova took her first tennis lessons.  

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Maria Sharapova to return as UN goodwill ambassador after doping ban expires

Maria Sharapova to return as UN goodwill ambassador after doping ban expires
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          UNDP suspends Maria Sharapova as goodwill ambassador        

New Delhi: The United Nations Development Programme has suspended Russian tennis Maria Sharapova as a goodwill ambassador after she failed a drug test at the 2016 Australian Open.

This comes as a fresh blow to the Russian tennis star, who earlier saw several world leading sponsors halting ties.

Sharapova had been a goodwill ambassador for the UN Development Programme for the past nine years. She had been active in helping recovery efforts after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster.

A spokesperson of the UNDP said that they are grateful for Sharapova's support of work. But last week the body decided to suspend her role while the investigation continues.

"The United Nations Development Programme remains grateful to Maria Sharapova for her support of our work, especially around the Chernobyl nuclear disaster recovery. However, in light of Ms. Sharapova`s recent announcement, we last week suspended her role as a Goodwill Ambassador and any planned activities while the investigation continues."

"We wish Ms. Sharapova the best," the spokesperson added.

Former world number one and five-time Grand Slam champion Sharapova announced last week that she failed a drug test at the Australian Open in January.

Sharapova tested positive for meldonium, which was added to the World Anti-Doping Agency`s banned list on January 1.

Several leading brands such as US sportswear giant Nike, German luxury car maker Porsche and Swiss watchmaker TAG Heuer have all halted their relationship with the former world number one.

Sharapova has made visits to Belarus as goodwill ambassador and donated $100,000 to support youth projects in rural areas that suffer from the after-affects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

Earlier, Sharapova`s family had fled the city of Gomel in Belarus in 1987 after the Chernobyl disaster, moving to Siberia where the tennis star was born.

The family lived in Nyagan, Siberia for two years and then moved to Sochi on the Black Sea where Sharapova took her first tennis lessons.

(With Agency inputs)

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UNDP suspends Maria Sharapova as goodwill ambassador

UNDP suspends Maria Sharapova as goodwill ambassador
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          2D Art: Jate        
2D Art Daria Ridel Jate2D Art by Daria Ridel, Belarus.
          Repression in Belarus – opposing the ‘social parasite’ tax        
Belarus state response to protests against a 'social parasite' tax on the employed has resulted in 100s of detentions, including anarchists. This article explains the background of the decree introduced in 2015 and the current events in 2017, and includes an appeal for support from Belarus ABC.
          Beaver kills fisherman in Belarus        

'If they think they can't escape, they will attack,' wildlife expert says

The post Beaver kills fisherman in Belarus appeared first on Macleans.ca.


          In Belarus, Dissent Your Father’s Activism        
What it is about Belarus that brings out the funny?
          Ð¤Ð°Ñ€Ð¼-клуб минского "Динамо" в овертайме вырвал победу у "Шахтера" в Кубке Руслана Салея        
Фото: belarushockey.com10 августа прошли матчи первого тура предварительного этапа Кубка Руслана Салея по хоккею. Самым напряженным выдался поединок в Солигорске.

          ÐšÐ°Ñ€Ñ‚инка дня. Нашествие бабочек-однодневок в Могилеве        
Фото: vk.com/cpbelarusВ прошлый раз полчища мотыльков вылетали в июле 2013 года.

          Negara-negara Asal Sepakbola Deg-degan Menunggu Pengundian        

Pengundian babak kualifikasi Piala Dunia 2018 akan dilakukan Sabtu malam, sekitar pukul 23.00 WIB. Di bawah ini adalah daftar unggulan dan berbagai skenario buruk maupun baik yang bisa menimpa negara-negara asal sepakbola: Inggris, Wales, Skotlandia dan Irlandia Utara.

Berita Bola: Negara-negara Asal Sepakbola Deg-degan Menunggu Pengundian
Pot 1: Jerman, Belgia, Belanda, Portugal, Romania, Inggris, Wales, Spanyol, Kroasia
Pot 2: Slovakia, Austria, Italia, Swiss, Republik Ceko, Prancis, Islandia, Denmark, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Pot 3: Ukraina, Skotlandia, Polandia, Hungaria, Swedia, Albania, Irlandia Utara, Serbia, Yunani
Pot 4: Turki, Slovenia, Israel, Republik Irlandia, Norwegia, Bulgaria, Kepulauan Faroe, Montenegro, Estonia
Pot 5: Siprus, Latvia, Armenia, Finlandia, Belarusia, Makedonia, Azerbaijan, Lithuania, Moldova
Pot 6: Kazakhstan, Luksemburg, Liechtenstein, Georgia, Malta, San Marino, Andorra
Inggris dan Wales tidak mungkin bertemu dalam satu grup karena mereka sama-sama tim unggulan yang masuk dalam Pot 1.
Namun, mereka masih bisa ketemu dengan negara tertentu dari Pot 2 seperti Italia (saat ini peringkat 17 di dunia) atau Perancis (peringkat 22), sementara tandang ke negara-negara tertentu seperti Swedia, Polandia atau Ukraina bisa menjadi laga yang sulit.
Wales, Irlandia Utara dan Skotlandia bisa saja masuk ke dalam grup yang berisikan lima tim, bukan enam – yang dapat membantu peluang mereka lolos ke putaran final di Rusia.
Tim-tim Eropa akan dibagi ke dalam sembilan kelompok – tujuh grup dengan enam tim dan dua grup hanya beranggotakan lima tim.
Berikut adalah skenario terbaik dan terburuk dari empat negara asal sepakbola itu.
Inggris
Tiket impian:
Inggris, Islandia, Albania, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova, Andorra
Skenario terburuk:
Inggris, Italia, Swedia, Turki, Finlandia, Kazakhstan
Wales
Tiket impian:
Wales, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Albania, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova
Skenario terburuk:
Wales, Prancis, Ukraina, Turki, Siprus, Georgia
Skotlandia
Tiket impian:
Skotlandia, Wales, Islandia, Estonia, Lithuania
Skenario terburuk:
Skotlandia, Jerman, Italia, Turki, Makedonia, Kazakhstan
Irlandia Utara
Tiket impian:
Irlandia Utara, Rumania, Islandia, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova
Skenario terburuk:
Irlandia Utara, Spanyol, Prancis, Republik Irlandia, Belarusia, Malta

          What next for Eastern Europe?        
While President Trump tweets, the United States and Russia drift towards war over Syria, and the new Thirty Years War between Shi'ite and Sunni continues on many fronts, another critical drama is playing out in the Eastern half of the European continent.  I find it particularly interesting because it is a replay of the drama I described about 40 years ago in my first book, Economic Diplomacy and the Origins of the Second World War, which is linked at left and available as an e-book.

For the first few centuries of the modern era the peoples of Eastern Europe lived under large empires.  The Ottoman Empire had reached Europe in the 15th century and eventually included what is now Bulgaria, Greece, Albania, Rumania, some of the nations of the former Yugoslavia, and Hungary.  The Tsar of Russia ruled what are now the Baltic States and, by the 19th century, Poland.  The Holy Roman Empire--which in 1806 became the Austrian Empire, and in 1867 the Austro-Hungarian Empire--included parts of Poland and the present-day Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia and Slovenia.  All these peoples, to varying degrees, developed nationalist movements during the 19th century.

The enormous strain of the First World War proved too much not only for the Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires, but also for the German Empire.  The Allies--France, Britain, Italy and eventually the US as well--sponsored the claims of some of the national movements in their territory.  In January 1918, in his Fourteen Points, Woodrow Wilson endorsed an independent Poland and autonomy (not independence) for the peoples of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires.  When those nations collapsed ten months later, various national movements proclaimed new states.

As the brilliant but eccentric English historian A. J. P. Taylor noted in 1961, the post-1919 settlement in Eastern Europe reflected the astonishing fact that both Germany and Russia had been defeated. Only that allowed for the re-creation of an independent Poland, the new states of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia,a larger Rumania, independent Poland and Finland, and the three Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.  It seemed in 1918-9 that things might go even further and that Ukraine might become independent as well, but the Bolsheviks managed to secure control over it in the Russian civil war.  These states were economically and politically weak.  Nearly all of them initially formed some kind of democratic government, encouraged down that path by the western powers.

In the short run, several of the new states--Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Romania--were threatened by Hungary, which had lost huge territories at the peace conference, while in the long run Czechoslovakia and Poland had to worry about a resurgent Germany. France, eager to cement its status as the leading power in Europe, offered all those states some kind of alliance.  Clearly the French would have trouble defending them once the Germans or Russians regained their military strength, but the French were counting on keeping the Germans weak.  The alliances faced no serious threats until after the rise of Hitler.

By then all these countries had undergone profound political changes.  While all of them had begun as democracies, only Czechoslovakia, Finland and the Baltic States were still electing their governments by the early 1930s--the rest had come under some form of authoritarian rule.  The agricultural states among them, as I showed in my book, came under German influence after 1935 because the Germans, desperate for food, offered them a market for their produce.  In 1938 Hitler managed to destroy Czechoslovakia when the French abandoned their alliance.  In 1939-40, Hitler and Stalin concluded the Nazi-Soviet Pact. They partitioned Poland and the Soviets incorporated the Baltic States.  Hungary and Rumania became allies of Hitler while Yugoslavia was occupied by the Italians and the Nazis.  In 1945,  the whole region (except Finland) came under Soviet occupation and the USSR installed Communist governments.

The collapse of the USSR in 1991--77 years after the start of the First World War--started this process over again.  Once again, as in 1919, the entire region was liberated from foreign rule.  This time the proliferation of new states has gone much further, with Czechoslovakia and former Yugoslavia giving way to no less than 8 new states, and not only the Baltic States, but also Ukraine and Belarus, becoming independent.  Once again the new states established various forms of democracy.  And once again, powerful nations from outside the region offered them alliances. NATO, led by the US, offered membership to virtually every new state in the region, including the Baltic states--after initially promising the new Russian government not to do so.  The EU also offered many of them membership, choosing to ignore the enormous economic and cultural differences that still divide Europe somewhere around the frontiers of Germany and Poland.

Germany is no longer an imperialist nation, although it leads the EU and played a key role in its enlargement.  Russia once again went through a chaotic period but by 2000 it was recovering its strength under Vladimir Putin.  He is clearly determined to reassert Russian influence--if not more--over many of the states of the former USSR.  Belarus lost any real independence very quickly, and Putin is actively contesting the West in a bid for influence in Ukraine, and using the Russian military at the border to do so. He also very obviously has designs on the Baltic states, which are extremely vulnerable militarily.  And while Putin cannot offer these states markets the way the Germans did 80 years ago, he can provide them with energy.

And once again, democracy has proven fragile in Eastern Europe.  Rightist parties now lead the governments of Hungary, Poland, and some of the other states of the region. The governments of the Czech Republic and Slovakia are weak and subject to corruption and outside influence.  These nations face a choice between  western-style democracy--which is having enormous problems in the west--and Russian-style authoritarianism.  It is not at all clear which path they shall take.

Only a gigantic war settled the question of Eastern Europe's future 80 years ago.  Such a war does not seem in prospect now, but limited wars, such as a lightning Russian occupation of one or more Baltic states, cannot be ruled out.  Russian and NATO aircraft are constantly confronting one another in the region.  The Russians also seem to be using cyberwar against Ukraine, and they may use it elsewhere. To reach a new equilibrium diplomatically would require a level of statesmanship which is not apparent on the world scene.  Nearly thirty years ago, when the Soviet empire collapsed, I commented frequently that this time, Eastern Europe had taken a new shape without a new world war.  Now it seems that the process may involve a larger conflict--albeit of a possibly different kind.
          Translate your favorite with Google        
Sebelumnya telah diuraikan perihal Priority Inbox, dimana fitur ini bekerja pada Gmail dan saat ini Ambae.exe berkesempatan menggunakannya bersama others AMBAE. Lebih awal disampaikan bahwa Google mengeluarkan 2 (dua) fitur terbarunya. Yang akan diuraikan di bawah ini adalah Google Translate dengan fitur yang lebih hebat. Bagi sobat Googler, Google Translate bukanlah hal baru, tapi mungkin saja masih ada rekan-rekan yang ingin mengetahuinya dari awal terutama Ambae.exe yang masih awam.

Layanan ini diperkenalkan pada tahun 2007 dan mulai memasukkan Bahasa Indonesia ke dalam pilihan bahasa yang bisa diterjemahkan sejak 25 September 2008. Adapun sasaran utama dari Google Translate yakni untuk menerjemahkan bagian teks atau halaman web dalam satu bahasa ke bahasa lain.


Lalu mengapa diklaim memiliki fasilitas canggih dibanding penerjemah lainnya...? Tidak seperti layanan terjemahan lain seperti Babel Fish dan AOL yang menggunakan SYSTRAN, Google menggunakan perangkat lunak terjemahan sendiri. Itulah hebatnya mbah Google, si empunya tidak mau meminjam apapun dari pihak lain. Kalau perlu Sergey M. Brin dan Lawrence E. Page membeli produk pihak lain agar bisa menguasai dunia maya.

Lanjut fren, satu persatu kita bahas perihal Translate milik mbah Google. Dukungan Google Translate mencakup :
- Google Translate versi standar
- Google Search
- Google Toolbar
- Google Chrome
- Google Labs
- Google Mail (Gmail)
- Google Chat (chat via Gmail)
- Google Talk
- Google Groups
- Google Moderator
- Google Docs (Google Documents)
- Google Video (YouTube)
- Google Mobile
- Google Android
- Google Web Element
- Google AJAX API
- Google Toolkit

A. Google Translate versi standar

Steps A1
Kunjungi Google Translate, lalu ketik atau paste karakter, kata maupun kalimat yang ingin diterjemahkan. Tentukan bahasa terjemahan yang akan digunakan dan klik Translate. Tukar arah terjemahan dengan mengeklik tombol Swap languages.


Steps A2
Klik Listen untuk mendengarkan terjemahan versi suara Google. Klik Read phonetically untuk membedakan suara/lafadz dari yang diperdengarkan Google. Metode Read phonetically memanfaatkan sistem notasi fonetis (International Phonetic Alphabet), yakni kumpulan tanda yang dengannya semua bahasa manusia dapat ditulis dan dijelaskan. Seperti halnya membedakan lafadz fa dengan pa dan va atau sa dengan xa dan za atau ca dengan ka dan qa serta ei dengan ee dan ey dan bahasa planet lainnya.


B. Google Search

Steps B1
Silakan meluncur ke Google Homepage dan ketikkan keyword yang akan dicari. Hasil pencarian pun muncul sebanyak 10 URL/Website di halaman pertama Google yang paling terkait dengan keyword tersebut. Untuk menerjemahkan URL, klik link Translate this page atau Terjemahkan laman ini di sisi kanan salah satu URL hasil Searching. Translate dapat dimaksimalkan dengan mengatur metode pencarian pada menu Advanced Search atau Preferences.


Steps B2
Setelah mengeklik link Translate this page, Google segera menerjemahkannya. Tentukan bahasa terjemahan pada tampilan halaman berikutnya. Untuk menukar arah terjemahan, tidak disiapkan tombol Swap languages. Sehingga harus mengganti bahasa secara manual pada kedua drop down menu.


Steps B3
Temukan hal unik dari namamu, pada kolom pencarian ketik perintah Translate 'My Name is xxxxxxx' to yyyyyyy.
~ xxxxxxx : Nama
~ yyyyyyy : Bahasa


C. Google Toolbar

Steps C1
Google Toolbar bekerja pada browser Microsoft Internet Explorer dan Mozilla Firefox versi 2.0 atau yang lebih tinggi. Operation System (OS) yang direkomendasikan yakni Windows XP SP2, Windows Vista atau yang lebih tinggi. Untuk mengaktifkannya Download dan Install Google Toolbar, ikuti langkah selanjutnya hingga Finish. Bila Google memerintahkan untuk Restart, sobat Googler ikuti saja, jangan membantah perintah orang tua (mbah Google), mumpung GRATIS. Setelah terinstall, Google Toolbar akan terpasang di bagian atas halaman browser, tepatnya pada Toolbar Menu.



D. Google Chrome

Steps D1
Serupa tapi tidak sama, Google Chrome mirip dengan Google Toolbar. Perbedaannya, Google Toolbar merupakan Add-ons yang bekerja pada browser IE dan Mozilla Firefox. Sedangkan Google Chrome merupakan browser yang di dalamnya telah dibenamkan fitur Google Translate dengan tampilan Google Toolbar. Bekerja hanya pada Operation System (OS) Windows XP SP2, Windows Vista dan Windows 7. Daripada bingung, Download versi teranyar Google Chrome dan rasakan kehangatan Google Translate bersamanya. Untuk versi Beta, disini downloadnya.


E.
Google Labs dan Google Mail (Gmail)

Steps E1
Email yang masuk tidak selalu menggunakan bahasa Indonesia. Bahkan orang Indonesia pun terkadang memakai bahasa Alien dalam mengirimkan email atau di saat chatting. Install salah satu fitur Google Labs pada Menu Settings. Pilih Sub Menu Labs, aktifkan fitur Message translation lalu Simpan pengaturan.


Steps E2
Masih pada Menu Settings, pilih Sub Menu General dan tentukan bahasa terjemahan secara default lalu simpan kembali pengaturan terakhir.


Untuk menonaktifkan fitur ini, centang Disabled pada Menu Labs. Namun, bila ingin menonaktifkan Google Labs secara utuh tanpa memilah-milah fiturnya, kunjungi OFF.

F.
Google Chat (chat via Gmail)
dan Google Talk

Steps F1
Fitur ini memanfaatkan Google Bots dalam menerjemahkan setiap pesan Chat. Googler yang terbiasa dengan Google Wave, kiranya tidak mengalami kesulitan dalam mengaplikasikan Google Bots. Guna memudahkan sobat Googler, Ambae.exe menyuguhkan daftar Google Bots yang dapat ditambahkn pada Gmail Chat atau Google Talk.




Google Bots pada fitur ini dimaksudkan sebagai robot Google yang akan menelusuri data yang dicari para Googler. Selanjutnya para Robot ini menerjemahkannya ke dalam bahasa masing-masing Bots. Jangan lupa menambahkan @bot.talk.google.com. Format penulisan Bots yakni xxxxxxx@bot.talk.google.com.
~ xxxxxxx : Salah satu Bots
~ Contoh zh2en@bot.talk.google.com : Google Bots untuk bahasa Chinese ke English.

G.
Google Groups, Google Moderator
dan Google Docs (Google Documents)

Steps G1
Berdiskusi bersama rekan sesama Googler, mengedit dokumen, merespon, bertanya, menjawab, menyarankan atau memberi ide dan masukan kepada dan/atau dari Google. Dengan fitur Google Translate di dalamnya, serasa kuliah dengan fasilitas Dwi Bahasa. Sobat tidak perlu mengutak-atik Setting dan Preferences. Cukup mengunjungi Translate ala Google Groups, Google Moderator dan/atau Google Docs (Google Documents).

H. Google Video (YouTube)

Steps H1
Halaman pencarian YouTube, mirip dengan Google Homepage. Klik Translate untuk menerjemahkan Keterangan Video atau klik Show original untuk mengembalikan ke dalam bentuk aslinya.


Steps H2
Sobat Googler sering menikmati tayangan HBO atau HBO Asia, Cinemax, Star Movie, Star World dan sebagainya...??? Menonton Film kesayangan di channel termasyur tersebut benar-benar mengasyikkan. Tersedia dalam Bi-Lingual atau Dwi Language. Di samping itu tersedia pula Running Text di setiap Film, meski film itu telah berganti bahasa dari English ke Indonesia. Wajarlah HBO mengklaim dirinya It's not TV, it's HBO

Bagaimana dengan Google Video atau YouTube...??? Video yang disertai dengan keterangan Teks alias Caption dapat pula diterjemahkan ke dalam berbagai bahasa. Dengan catatan bahwa video tersebut memiliki Caption atau lazim dikenal dengan Running Text sebagai terjemahan teks dari apa yang diucapkan dalam video bersangkutan. Klik Icon (^) lalu pilih Icon (cc), keduanya berada di pojok kanan bawah Video. Lalu klik Translate Captions untuk mengatur bahasa terjemahan.


Steps H3
Tentukan bahasa terjemahan dengan mengeklik drop down menu. Selanjutnya klik tombol Translate. Maka sekejap, Caption Video diterjemahkan sesuai bahasa yang dipilih.


I. Google Mobile dan Google Android

Steps I1
Translate via Google Mobile melalui perangkat seluler sobat Googler dengan mengunjungi Google Mobile

Steps I2
Dengan Google Android, fitur Google Translate benar-benar dimaksimalkan. Tidak hanya berupa teks ke teks, Googler dapat menerjemahkan teks ke dalam bentuk suara. Demikian sebaliknya, suara diterjemahkan kembali ke dalam bentuk teks. Download Google Android untuk merasakannya.

J. Google Web Element,
Google AJAX API dan Google Toolkit

Steps J1
Ingin memiliki Tool Translater di Webpage sobat Googler...??? Benamkan Code Google Translate ke dalamnya.

Copy dan Paste Script Code berikut

Script di atas hanya contoh, pengaturan secara manual silakan kunjungi Google Web Element. Mengenai penempatan HTML tersebut, posisikan pada BODY section.

Sobat tidak menginginkan Google menerjemahkan halaman Webpagenya. Copy dan Paste Meta Tag berikut dan posisikan pada HEAD section :


Steps J2
Terjemahan Webpage maupun Web Element lebih dimungkinkan lagi dengan fitur Google AJAX API. Tentunya Googler akan lebih sering bermain dengan Javascript.

Steps J3
Yang ini lebih hebat lagi. Googler dapat mengupload dan mendownload data yang diterjemahkan dengan fitur Google Toolkit. Lebih lengkapnya, kunjungi Google Tranlator Toolkit karena pada halaman tersebut diuraikan dengan jelas melalui media Video Tutorial versi mbah Google.

Sobat Blogger dan rekan Googler yang ingin mengetahui lebih banyak tentang fitur ini, silakan mengunjungi mbah Google. Mengingat panjangnya artikel ini dan rumitnya pembahasannya. Sebagai newbie, mohon dikoreksi bila terdapat kesalahan di dalamnya.

Persembahan berikutnya berupa Daftar Bahasa yang didukung Google Translate hingga saat ini sebanyak 57 Bahasa, yakni :
* Afrikaans
* Albanian
* Armenian (Alpha)
* Azerbaijani (Alpha)
* Arabic
* Basque (Alpha)
* Belarusian
* Bulgarian
* Catalan
* Chinese (Simplified)
* Chinese (Traditional)
* Croatian
* Czech
* Danish
* Dutch
* English
* Estonian
* Filipino
* Finnish
* French
* Galician
* Georgian (Alpha)
* German
* Greek
* Haitian Creole (Alpha)
* Hebrew
* Hindi
* Hungarian
* Icelandic
* Indonesian
* Italian
* Irish
* Japanese
* Korean
* Latvian
* Lithuanian
* Macedonian
* Malay
* Maltese
* Norwegian
* Persian
* Polish
* Portuguese
* Romanian
* Russian
* Serbian
* Slovak
* Slovenian
* Spanish
* Swahili
* Swedish
* Thai
* Turkish
* Ukrainian
* Urdu (Alpha)
* Vietnamese
* Welsh
* Yiddish

          Poland Clashes With European Union Over Logging In Primeval Forest        
The lush, green canopy that is Bialowieza Forest spans 350,000 acres between Poland and Belarus. It's a UNESCO World Heritage Site that is home to a variety of endangered species like the European bison, which is slightly larger and leaner than its American cousin. It also has some of the last old-growth forest in Europe, untouched by human hands, and there is a great deal of international interest in preserving the forest's delicate ecology. Polish journalist, author and naturalist Adam Wajrak said he never tires of seeing the complex life cycle in this forest up close. "Look at there, here, you see?" he asked me, pointing to the top of a dead spruce trunk during a recent hike. "This is the little spruce growing on the body of dead spruce, this very often happens." He peeled back the top layer of another dead trunk. "If you look under the bark, there's a lot of beetles, a lot of spiders — everything, whatever you want, and this is how it works," he says. "This is why I compare the
          Logging Opens Dispute Between The EU And Poland        
Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit DAVID GREENE, HOST: Poland is at odds with much of the rest of the European Union. This is because its government cracks down on everything from press freedom to public demonstrations. The country has also turned away refugees from its borders. And Brussels has warned Warsaw's populist government might soon face sanctions over what critics say are attacks on Polish democracy. But it is the Polish government's treatment of trees, and not civil rights, that has landed Warsaw in the most trouble yet. These trees are in a forest that straddles the Polish-Belarusian border. And NPR's Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson is on the line. And, Soraya, you're actually in this forest, right? SORAYA SARHADDI NELSON, BYLINE: In a village which is deep inside the Bialowieza Forest, which is one of the last remaining old-growth forests here in Europe. It's home to a number of endangered species like the European bison which is taller but lighter than its American cousin. I
          [CN] Meanwhile in China: Belarus type-2 video        
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          ÐÐ½Ð°Ñ‚омия предательства        
Долетевшая в прошедшую пятницу новость об аресте Алеся Беляцкого, руководителя общественной организации «Вясна — 96», находящейся в жёсткой оппозиции режиму Лукашенко, отнюдь не повергла меня в шок. Скорее, меня удивляло, как Беляцкий и его «Вясна» могли так долго и в целом эффективно оказывать пострадавшим от лукашенковской банды материальную и правовую помощь (которая тоже стоит немалых денег).

Безусловно, деятельность «Вясны» не была бы возможна без помощи международных структур и правозащитных организаций. Положа руку на сердце, могу признаться: такая помощь, пусть половинчатая, трусливая и непоследовательная — единственное, что, пусть в какой-то мере, но оправдывает в моих глазах временное существование всей этой шиздобратии, в остальном славной лишь поддержкой бандитов, террористов да экологических и мусульманских фанатиков, угрожающих существованию нашей цивилизации и культуры.

Однако, как выясняется, даже такая невесомая ноша, как беларуская «Вясна», оказалась для правозащитной тусовки слишком тяжёлой. Не секрет, что силы, выступающие против Лукашенко — это в большинстве правые и центристские группы, стоящие на национально-демократических позициях, и уже хотя бы поэтому не могут вызвать у левого западного истеблишмента никаких симпатий. С лживым и вечно поворачивающимся, будто флюгер, шклоўскім царом™ им, разумеется, якшаться противно — всякие фишки
йобшеры и конь-бандиты не особенно празднуют картофюрера и прочих «лидеров» с пейзанским зачосом. В тусовке любят несовершеннолетних или политически грамотных (в нужном разрезе). И всё же, несмотря на явную ублюдочность и законодательство, карающее граждан за «организованное бездействие по предварительному сговору с социальных сетях», лукашенковский режим, исправно поставляющий российское оружие тем самым террористам, о коих в основном и пекутся кони с фишками, им явно милей «Вясны» и тех, кого «Вясна» поддерживает. Ну, хотя бы потому, что национально-демократическое движение в Беларуси, как всякое нормальное национально-демократическое движение, не видит в Израиле своего врага — в отличие от сами знаете кого.


Беляцкий совершенно осознанно не регистрировал «Вясну» ни в какой другой стране, предпочитая действовать вне закона, нежели выступать в роли представителя зарубежной организации. Прыщ-драздоўскі ражым давно и благополучно вывел любую — подчёркиваю, любую, кроме своей или высочайшэ одобренной! — деятельности, будь то общественная или экономическая, за рамки правового поля. Право есть только у картофюрера, у всех остальных — исключительно обязанности. Это, безусловно, очень прогрессивно и элитарно — с точки зрения коней и фишек, которые картофюреру просто-напросто завидуют: их народы пока не позволяют себя так охально иметь во все дырки, требуют деликатного обращения, а это — непроизводительные ж расходы! К таким «непроизводительным расходам» была отнесена и деятельность «Вясны». Правда, с оглаской промашка вышла. Поднялся шум — нехорошо-с! Литовский политический бомонд, чутко держащий нос по европейскому ветру, теперь делает вид, что он к предательству не имеет никакого отношения, заявляя о «приостановке правовой помощи» РБ. Свежо предание, да верится с трудом!

Звучащие со всех сторон
в адрес Алеся упрёки в «нецелевом расходовании средств» можно, к счастью, со спокойным сердцем проигнорировать: он мог эмигрировать и просто сбежать, но предпочёл остаться и сесть за решётку, не дав никому повода бросить тень на своё имя. Хотя, могу заметить, в том числе по собственному опыту: рабы прыщъ-драздоўскага хамлета понимают только один язык — язык силы, явленной, в том числе, через представительские атрибуты, причём, чем более брутально эти атрибуты выглядят, тем безотказнее действуют. Вместо папочек и очочков защитникам ограбленных и обездоленных нужно обзаводиться наглухо затонированными «гелендвагенами» и открывающими дверцу качками с пудовыми кулачищами и квадратной челюстью. В присутствии подобных «аргументов» местечковые номенклатурные оккупанты и правоохренительные держиморды проявляют потрясающую готовность к плодотворному сотрудничеству, практически конгруэнтную применению терморектального криптоанализатора. К сожалению, я уверен, что Алесь и его друзья к этому методу не обращались — совесть и воспитание не позволили. А зря. Без считывания соответствующего «культурного кода» взаимодействие с папуасами не особенно результативно.


Механизм предательства, задействованный против Алеся, прост, «демократичен» и «законен», как мычание. В рамках «правового сотрудничества» (какое такое «правовое сотрудничество» можно вести со шклоўскім царом™?!) литовский, а на самом деле — норвежский банк DnB Nord выдал по запросу «правоохранительных» органов РБ информацию о личных счетах граждан Беларуси. По пещерному «закону», установленному шкловской шайкой, гражданам РБ — кроме самих прыщеголовых пособников усатого гитлерофила — запрещено иметь банковские счета за границей без «жэстачайшыва» соизволения. Именно такой счёт (
«незаконный», как же иначе!) и был у Алеся Беляцкого. Именно на этот счёт поступала помощь от немногочисленных, далеко не таких щедрых и куда более подозрительных и дотошных, чем следовало бы, спонсоров. Когда дело доходит то миллиардных трансферов на счета ХАМАСа, ФАТХа или IHH, оплачивающего «художества» кавказских живорезов, у спонсоров внезапно приключается приступ куриной слепоты. Зато Беляцкого и его товарищей по несчастью проверяли вдоль и поперёк, трясясь над каждым центом, который, конечно же, лучше отдать страждущим «палестинцам», таким всем из себя прогрессивным, аж по самое не могу. Но Беляцкий делом доказал, что деньги на его личном счёте не означают автоматически денег в его кармане, — как это происходит со всякими абу мартышками, защищающими жидоедские «диссертации» (оказывающиеся настолько позорным и унылым говном, что их даже в публичный доступ не выкладывают) под личным патронажем совкоящеров вроде Примакова.

На примере Алеся и «Вясны» мы можем — с ужасом и отвращением — наблюдать, каковы на самом деле приоритеты западных элит, состоящих на сегодняшний день не из Карлов Мартеллов и неистовых Роландов, а из социал-предателей и муслолюбивых квислингов, педофилов и извращенцев, узколобых идеологических формалистов и просто дураков, готовых приносить собственных детей в жертву мулитикультурным химерам, завывающим исключительно в их уже поседевших, но нисколько не поумневших со времён хипповой молодости, головёнках. Сколько ещё преданных и убитых нам потребуется, чтобы подняться и вымести эту мерзость свинцовой метлой — вместе с дроздовским гитлеришкой и имамской заразой — из нашей Европы?!

          LOS CONSTITUYENTISTAS CONTRA CHÁVEZ         

Luis Britto García



1
Gran entusiasmo despierta la posibilidad de perfeccionar las normas que nos rigen. Una guía para ello podrían ser las Ideas fundamentales para la Constitución Bolivariana de la V República, dirigidas por el Comandante Hugo Chávez Frías a la Soberanísima Asamblea Nacional Constituyente en septiembre de 1999.
2
Decía Bolívar que “Moral y Luces son nuestras primeras necesidades”. Proponía Hugo Chávez  en 1999 que “la educación impartida por los institutos oficiales será de calidad y gratuita en todos sus ciclos”.  El Supremo Comando del Negociado de los Postgrados le enmendó la Plana al Comandante Eterno, y en el artículo  103 metió un contrabando según el cual “La educación es obligatoria en todos sus niveles, desde el maternal hasta el nivel medio diversificado. La impartida en las instituciones del Estado es gratuita hasta el pregrado universitario”. Así, quien no tenga centavos para pagar un postgrado jamás podrá ser doctor.  Constituyentistas sin Moral podrían  seguir negándole al  pueblo que no puede pagar doctorados las luces académicas que ellos recibieron gratuitamente. El pueblo podría apagarle la luz a ellos.
3
Proponía Hugo Chávez el pago de prestaciones “oportuno y proporcional al tiempo de servicio de acuerdo con la ley y calculado de conformidad con el último salario”.  Los enemigos de los trabajadores, que también se colaron en la Constituyente, omitieron incluir en el artículo 92 de la la Constitución el mandato de que debían ser calculadas “de conformidad con el último salario”. Apenas en la disposición Transitoria Tercera sugieren que dicho mandato figure en una Ley Orgánica del Trabajo. Así, la Asamblea Nacional podría eliminar dicha Ley cuando le plazca. Según lo señaló Hugo Chávez Frías, derecho tan fundamental debe figurar en el mismo texto constitucional.

4
Propuso Hugo Chávez que “la República se reserva el derecho de defender las actividades económicas de su empresa nacional”. Otro virus matuteado en el artículo 301 desautorizó de plano al Presidente al afirmar que “la inversión extranjera está sujeta a las mismas condiciones que la inversión nacional”. Es decir, las sardinas venezolanas no tendrán ninguna ventaja para luchar contra los tiburones transnacionales. Aunque usted no lo crea, hubo constituyentistas que metieron un ALCA en la Constitución Bolivariana, cinco años antes de que América Latina lo rechazara unánimemente en Mar del Plata. A borrar esa vergüenza de nuestra Carta Magna. A borrar de las listas de nuevos constituyentistas  a quienes hayan votado a favor de semejante abominación. ¡Por favor!


5
Recomendó Hugo Chávez una norma que “considera nula y no escrita cualquier cláusula que como consecuencia de compromisos tecnológicos, comerciales, educativos o de cualquiera otra índole, condicione o limite la potestad soberana de la República para legislar y adoptar medidas en materia económica”. Una cepa antipatriótica borró la propuesta de Hugo Chávez, estableciendo de paso que donde manda Paquete, Carta de Intención, Agenda o Acuerdo de Sombra o Neoliberales disfrazados de Bolivarianos, no manda Venezuela. Y mucho menos Comandante Eterno.

6
Lucharon toda su vida Bolívar, Cipriano Castro y Hugo Chávez Frías contra la doctrina vendepatria según la cual los asuntos de interés público de Venezuela pueden ser resueltos por Tribunales, Juntas Arbitrales o Inquisiciones de otros países. Inglaterra, Alemania e Italia bloquearon, invadieron y cañonearon Venezuela intentando inútilmente  imponer esa abominación.  Y sin embargo, dispone el artículo 151de la Constitución vigente, que: “En los contratos de interés público, si no fuere improcedente de acuerdo con la naturaleza de los mismos, se considerará incorporada, aun cuando no estuviere expresa, una cláusula según la cual las dudas y controversias que puedan suscitarse sobre dichos contratos y que no llegaren a ser resueltas amigablemente por las partes contratantes, serán decididas por los tribunales competentes de la República, de conformidad con sus leyes, sin que por ningún motivo ni causa puedan dar origen a reclamaciones extranjeras”. ¿Quién define esa “improcedencia”? ¿Quién decide esa “naturaleza de los mismos” que permitiría a jueces extranjeros decidir sobre el orden público venezolano? Hasta ahora, los funcionarios vendepatrias, y esa vergonzosa e imprecisa excepción ha permitido que Venezuela sea repetidamente  sometida a tribunales extranjeros y condenada por ellos. En vano Hugo Chávez Frías y el gobierno que presidía nos retiraron del Centro Internacional de Arreglo sobre las Inversiones y de la Comisión Interamericana de los Derechos Humanos, para evitar que nuestro país fuera arrastrado ante un tribunal de linchamiento. En vano dispone el artículo 1 de la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela que “Son derechos irrenunciables de la Nación la independencia, la libertad, la soberanía, la inmunidad, la integridad territorial y la autodeterminación nacional”. (Por inmunidad de la Nación se entiende justamente el que no está sometida a tribunales foráneos). Y sin embargo, funcionarios acomodaticios o ignorantes siguen sometiéndonos a la sentencia insolente del extranjero.  Quien no entienda el concepto de soberanía no puede ser constituyentista y quizá no debería ser venezolano.



TEXTO/FOTOS: LUIS BRITTO

CONSULTE TAMBIÉN:
DESCARGUE LOS LIBROS DE LUIS BRITTO EN INTERNET:
Rajatabla:
www.monteavila.gob.ve
Dictadura Mediática en Venezuela:
El Imperio Contracultural: del Rock a la Postmodernidad:
http://lhblog.nuevaradio.org/b2-img/ElImperioContracultural.pdf
La invasión paramilitar: Operación Daktari:
www.minci.gob.ve
Socialismo del Tercer Milenio:
tercer-milenio.pdf
La Ciencia: Fundamentos y Método:
http://editorialubv.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/libro-la-
ciencia-fundamentos-y-mc3a9todo.pdf
El pensamiento del Libertador: Economía y Sociedad:
La máscara del Poder:
La lengua de la Demagogia:







          Economic and Geo-Political Prognosis for 2015        

Paper No. 5856                                 Dated 12-Jan-2015

Guest Column by Dr. Rajesh Tembarai Krishnamachari and Srividya Kannan Ramachandran

Abstract:

The re-moderation of the world economy set in place over the past few years continues apace. Notwithstanding some lasting damage on the supply side through the 2008 recessionary trough, our outlook for 2015 is bullish weighing more on optimistic data trends than on continued negative sentiment proffered from some analyst quarters.

Around the world in 80 (or more) words:

Treating the ten-year US Treasury bond yield as a proxy indicator for that nation's nominal GDP growth, we anticipate United States to grow around 3% next year.[1] While this does not mark a return to the buoyant 90s, it is better than the secular stagnation hypothesized earlier in 2014.[2] With US acting as an engine to spur growth, the world economy should also expand by more than 3%.[3] Stability across the world will be maintained – as sparks without a concomitant fury will characterize both overt (e.g. Russia-West over Ukraine) and covert (e.g. China-Japan over Senkaku) animosities.[4] European stagnation from debt and unemployment will be counterbalanced through quantitative easing by the European Central Bank.[5] Similar action in Japan will display the limits of Abe-nomics.[6] China will prepare for a structural slowdown emphasizing domestic consumption and de-leveraging an over-heated financial sector; all the while growing at a 7% rate that will amaze rivals around the world.[7] Indian reform, even if inadequate, will boost the middle classes and reinforce confidence in the Modi government.[8] African countries will find their commodity boom dissipate and ease of borrowing decline as commodity prices fall and yields rise in the developed world.[9]

Continental tectonics:

a. North America:

Economic benefits arising from the exploitation of shale gas have not only silenced the anti-fracking environmentalists, they have altered the strategic world-view of Washington politicians.[10] As US aims to overtake even Saudi Arabia in oil/NGL production in 2015 (and the Saudis pull out all stops in preventing it by driving crude prices down), it has markedly reduced its role as a global policeman.[11] Its own economy is on the mend even as a lame-duck president will be boggled down with partisan grid-lock. Markets will fret about the mid-year (or earlier?) hike in interest rates; though Main Street - aided by a strong dollar - will likely shrug it off with a continued upward movement across different sectors.[12]

Mexico and Canada will benefit from their tight coupling with the United States.[13] Enrique Pena Nieto will claim credit for reforming the Mexican economy – across sectors as diverse as energy and telecom.[14] Pemex, dear to the Mexicans, will face some competition, though nothing remotely similar to the American acquisition of Tim Hortons – dear to the Canadians – will happen.[15] Up north, the Canadian elections in 2015 will reveal whether the country has reverted to its liberal propensities or sticks with Harper's conservative agenda.[16]

b. Latin and South America:

The outlook is disappointing across much of the region. Run-away inflation hammers Argentina and Venezuela; milder ill-effects bedevil Brazil, Bolivia and Uruguay.[17] The Maduro regime in Venezuela and the Kirchner government in Argentina continue to flirt with disaster as their GDP growths slip and mass discontent builds up.[18] Dilma Rousseff has stabilized her position electorally, though her policies continue to disappoint investors and have the potential to reignite sudden protests like the 2013 bus-fare protests.[19] Dependence on commodity exports in a time of declining prices does not portend well for any of the South American states, including Brazil.[20] On a positive note, Cuba – already expected by analysts to grow by close to 4% next year – will see a boost to its fortunes accruing from a thaw in relations with US under Obama.[21]

c. Africa:

African nations had a great run in the past few years. This arose not only from the boom in commodity prices but also from the need for yield amongst DM (developed market) investors resulting in investment in both corporate and public African bonds.[22] In 2015, these factors could dissipate which will place pressure on countries like Angola where household spending has risen more than 4000% since the start of the millennium.[23] Ethiopia and Kenya are expected to continue on a robust growth path.[24] Contradictions abound within Africa, and nowhere are they more visible than in Nigeria. While the northern part struggles under the oppression of Boko Haram, the southern part booms under Goodluck Jonathan's president-ship.[25] In neighboring South Sudan, one is reminded of the risk-reward payoff as the nation widely tipped to experience spectacular growth in 2014, got mired in conflict, with the consequent dissipation of growth potential.[26]

American intervention in Libya undermined the Gaddafi-imposed order and has led to a civil war between the Islamist and secularist factions which will hold back that nation in the coming year.[27] A more benign intervention was that of the French in Mali in 2013; we expect more calls for Hollande's assistance in 2015.[28] El Sisi has stabilized Egypt after the Muslim Brotherhood interlude in the post-Mubarak era. Though more brutal than Mubarak, the El Sisi regime is being propped by both the Americans and Saudis, leading us to expect the recent bull run in Egyptian markets to continue.[29] ANC rule in South Africa continues unimpeded. Though atrophied by many scandals, the rule should produce close to 3% growth in the coming year.[30]

d. Middle East:

The region continues to be a cesspool of ethno-sectarian rivalries as the century-old Sykes-Pikot agreement unravels.[31] Recep Erdogan has stabilized Turkey and should reap a growth on par with other emerging economies.[32] Erdogan's external actions driven by AKP's crypto-desire to establish a caliphate will see him prop the Islamic State (IS) just so that it can damage Shia and Kurdish interests; but not enough to threaten his own Sunni hegemonic plans.[33] The Saudi establishment has focused on the removal of the Muslim brotherhood threat; now they will focus on limiting Shia Iranian influence by keeping crude prices low.[34] Western companies made a beeline to Iran in 2014 in hope of an impending thaw; much will depend on the negotiation ability of the Rouhani establishment on the sanction front.[35] Dubai and Israel remain insulated from the turmoil around and could reap the benefit of the uptick in the world economy.[36] The risk of sudden flare-ups like the 2014 Gaza war continue to remain on the Israeli radar.

e. Asia and Australia:

The Asian political scene is remarkably stable with China, Japan and India looking inward to stabilize their economies under the leadership of Xi Jinping, Shinzo Abe and Narendra Modi, respectively. Some events have gone unnoticed by world media – for example, China starts the year of the goat as the world's largest economy when measured in PPP terms and for the first time ever, Chinese outbound investments could exceed those inbound.[37] The establishment of China on the world stage has made Xi stronger than any Chinese leader in recent memory bar Chairman Mao himself. The Abe regime will continue on its reformist route of bringing Japan out of the deflationary zone, while winking at nationalist sentiment calling for a re-interpretation of the country's post-war pacifist role.[38] Down south in India, Modi has surprised both supporters and detractors alike by his middle-path approach to reforming the economy and his zealous interest in foreign policy. While reforming cautiously, he has not removed the populist schemes of the previous government. 2015 will see him act unimpeded by local elections (other than in Bihar) and will prove to be a litmus test of his claims of good governance.[39]

Afghanistan under Ashraf Ghani will face more trouble from Taliban as US adopts the Pakistani classification into good versus bad Taliban.[40] In nearby Pakistan, the wildly popular Imran Khan - with some help, perhaps, from the deep state – will challenge the established parties in their home turfs.[41] In Indonesia, Jake Widodo has come to power with Imran Khan-type support amongst the youth, and he will be hard-pressed to implement his reformist agenda – including reducing fuel subsidies – amidst persistent opposition from entrenched interests.[42] ASEAN will continue to slip on its stated intentions for closer cooperation.[43] Australia will try to balance its strategic partnership with the United States with economic dalliances with the Chinese.[44]

f. Europe and Russia:

Vladimir Putin will be emboldened by the short-term rise in domestic popularity; and hence ignore the longer-term implications of his intervention in Ukraine.[45] Tighter coupling with Kazakhstan and Belarus will not prevent what is likely to be a low-growth and high-inflation year for the Russians.[46] Europe as a whole continues to underperform, and it will be most visible in France and Italy both of whom might record less than 1% growth in GDP. With the Trierweller-Gayet saga behind his back, Francois Hollande will attempt to rein in a deficit running at close to 4% of GDP. Even with help from ECB's quantitative easing program, there is little expectation that Hollande can avoid being the most unpopular leader amongst all western democracies.[47] In Italy, high debt and unemployment – exemplified by the statistic of four-fifths of Italians between the ages of 20-31 living with parents – will hamper any efforts Matteo Renzi might take to pull the economy out of its doldrums.[48]

The Greeks might look forward to a better year, especially when juxtaposed against their recent past. On the back of painful reforms, the Greek economy is widely anticipated to commence its long journey back to health, though there might be recurrent political scares and recalcitrant rumors of a Greek exit.[49] The German government will be buffeted by opposing demands – external calls for a more interventionist role in stabilizing the world economy and internal ones for tempering the same. Cautious progress on the fiscal front will lead to modest GDP growth.[50] Ironically, the European nations with best GDP growth projections are also the ones with the highest exposure to Putin's misadventures, viz. Poland, Latvia and Lithuania.[51]

Sectors and segments:

Having dropped significantly in the past few months, the level of oil prices affects the prospects for many industry sectors in 2015.  Oil is typically expected to revert to the mean because a lower oil price has discernible impact on both supply (by discouraging investment in its production and distribution) and demand (by boosting economic activity) sides.[52] The speed of such mean-reversion remains unclear. Russia, Iran and US shale producers (esp. those who are not based at strategic locations) suffer disproportionally more than the Saudi establishment at current price levels.[53] Lower oil prices will provide a fillip to consumer discretionary industries and airlines; and have an adverse impact on railroad (benefiting from oil transportation) and petrochemical companies. The shale gas boom - apart from increasing housing activity - is also the prime driver behind growth in the US steel and construction material sectors; consequently both the steel and construction sectors will remain susceptible to crude movements.[54]

Low interest rates and low macro-growth prospects will induce companies with excess cash to acquire other companies to report earnings growth. That trend will be apparent in companies transacting in sectors as diverse as healthcare, industrials, semiconductors, software and materials.[55] On another side of investment banks, trading desks will see higher market volatility as major powers pursue divergent paths to monetary policy (e.g. US against EU/Japan).[56] In US, regulatory obligations increasing cost of capital for holding certain securities might lead to decreased broker liquidity.[57] 2015 shall see the big banks grapple with the regulations in Basel III and Volcker; one expects regulatory push towards vanilla deposit-taking and lending to continue.[58] Analysts will hope that stronger balance sheets coupled with a return to profitability lead to increased dividend payout for investors in financial stocks. China will seek to tame its overheated financial sector amidst a structural slowdown[59], and India will see RBI governor Raghuram Rajan continue his battle against political interference in corporate lending.[60] Wealth management services will perform remarkably well not only in China, but also to a lesser extent in US as a rising market creates wealth and a retiring baby-boomer crowd seeks to couple low risk with acceptable return.[61] In the arena of mobile payment, Apple Pay will try to avoid the lackluster performance of earlier attempts like Google Wallet.[62]

Lower gasoline prices and an accompanying increase in disposable income (through wealth creation at the markets, increased home values, reduced unemployment and improved economic activity) creates a positive outlook for the consumer discretionary sector. Companies dealing with organic farming benefit from increased health consciousness; the market for yoga will continue to rise as 2014 saw the UN declare a world yoga day on Modi's initiative.[63] Even as DVDs and Blue-rays fall, digital film subscriptions and on-demand internet steaming will rise to please Hollywood.[64] Bollywood will get over its obsession with INR 100 crore revenues as movies will cross that level more frequently.[65]  With supply level of hotels remaining the same as few years back, revenue per room will rise across the sector.[66] Tighter access to credit continues to hamper the rise in existing house sales, which nevertheless should improve over the past year.[67] Asian apparel manufacturers continue to improve their market share in the fast fashion market.[68]  October 2015 will see Europeans benefit from the eCall service in all their new cars, which allows a car to immediately report details to the base-stations on any accident. New carbon-emission standards also come into force in Europe; even elsewhere the move towards higher efficiency in cars will continue.[69] Widodo will be pleased at the growth in automobile sales in Indonesia, which should exceed those of other major markets.[70] Internet advertising is rising faster than television commercials, though 2015 will still see the latter dominate the former in overall revenue generated.[71] Privacy concerns continue to erode on the social media front.[72] The newspaper industry will see increased number of advertorials re-packaged as "native advertising" by which companies will pay for advertisements to be written as paid newspaper article.[73]

In India, the BJP government is yet to clarify its position on foreign direct investment in retail.[74] Irrespective of its final decision, retail sales should surge sharply upward there as the consummation of pent-up demand of past few years couples with the thriving of 'mall culture' in middle-tier cities. China will also see an increase in retail sales inspite of its investigation in to WalMart.[75] The anti-corruption campaign though will negatively impact luxury good sales as well as those of higher-end automobiles there[76]. A strong dollar will affect US companies with significant operations abroad. Wheat production might match 2014 record volumes in Europe[77]; though more newsprint will probably be devoted to higher prices of cocoa from Ivory Coast.[78] Idiosyncrasies of local markets will shine as Dubai invests in large-scale brick and mortal malls, while Manhattan gets more of its groceries delivered at home steps.[79]

Demand for energy should rise at the same pace as the world GDP next year. Analysts will point at attractive valuations of oil companies.[80] If shale price remains attractive, Sabine Pass in Louisiana will emerge as the first plant in US to export LNG.[81] Four years after the Fukushima incident, Japan will see nuclear reactors back in operation at Sendai.[82]

2014 saw the denizens of the developed world fret about Ebola, breast cancer (through a campaign by actor Angelina Jolie) and ALS (through the ice bucket challenge).[83] Overall, health spending will comfortably outpace the rate of growth of the overall economy. Long-term secular trends driving this are the aging population in the western world (with the population pyramid replaced by a population dome) and an emerging middle class elsewhere with increasing demand for improved access to healthcare.[84] Universal healthcare has been promised for all in India, which should drive up healthcare expenditure by a significant amount there.[85] In 2015, large US companies are mandated under Obama-care to provide insurance to more than 70% of their eligible workforce.[86] Uncertainty on US healthcare reform and debate thereon may cause short-term price volatility. Millennial Development Goals will reviewed by the UN later in the year with a new set of goalposts announced for countries to be met by 2030; different NGOs will campaign vigorously through media to get their pet agendas included in the final list.[87]

Transportation companies will report higher earnings from increased economic activity.[88] Apart from some airlines which have suffered reputation damage through recurring accidents, airline companies will benefit from the reduced oil prices. Defense industry will see robust growth in China, as "Chi-America" remains no more a chimera.[89] Alarmed by this increase, Vietnam with Philippines will move within the US ambit and Australia will seek to join the tripartite naval exercises in the Indian Ocean between US, Japan and India.[90] Tensions in Eastern Europe and the middle-east will favor increases in expenditure across the region. The nationalist government in India will increase defense expenditure sharply even as it moves beyond lip-service on the long-standing issue of indigenization of defense manufacturing.[91]

The mantra of social-local-mobile (SoLoMo in tech jargon) continues to drive the consumer markets division of information technology companies.[92] Expenditure on IT hardware is significantly retarded by the increasing move to cloud computing.[93] The move to cloud computing - along with increasing use of mobile commerce - bodes well for the computer security business.[94] India should see a sharp increase in smart phone adoption; elsewhere tablet computers will rise against laptop and desktops.[95] Embedded systems coupled with rudimentary networking will be marketed as an all-encompassing internet of things as the era of big data continues.[96]  Today, a single family in US places more demands on data flow than the entire planet did a decade back; and even this data rate is expected to increase by a whopping 70% over the next year. Consolidation in the cable sector (e.g Comcast with Time Warner Cable) and the convergence of content with distribution (e.g. AT&T with DirectTV) are two trends that should continue on from 2014.[97] Even as Indians will talk about 3G coverage spanning the nation; Americans will tweet about 4G price warfare and the Chinese will see ZTE unveil a 5G prototype.[98] Facebook will have more users than China has human beings.[99] Analysts will harp about impact of interest-rate hikes on high dividend paying telecom stocks.[100] Apart from the financial industry, telecom will emerge as an industry most impacted by federal regulation across the globe.

The anthropologist Edward Weyer once compared the future to being akin to a "corridor into which we can see only through the light coming from behind".  It is in that sense that we have analyzed the data of the bygone year and tried to extrapolate into the days and months ahead. And when some are falsified - and falsified, some will be - then we shall lay credit for the same at the feet of those responsible - viz. us, the people.

[The authors are based in New York City, and can be contacted through email at tkrajesh@gmail.com and srivi019@gmail.com. The views represented above are personal and do not in any manner reflect those of the institutions affiliated with the authors.]

References


[1] See the graph titled "10 year bond yield: annual change and real GDP: annual % change" at http://www.swcollege.com/bef/econ_data/bond_yield/bond_yield_data.html.

[2] "Secular stagnation: facts, causes and cures", a VoxEU eBook at  http://www.voxeu.org/sites/default/files/Vox_secular_stagnation.pdf.

[4] A brief historical perspective on the Russia-Ukraine conflict is at http://www.summer.harvard.edu/blog-news-events/conflict-ukraine-historical-perspective.

The Economist magazine summarizes the debate over Senkaku islands at http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/12/economist-explains-1.

[5] “The ECB, demigods and eurozone quantitative easing” at http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/c90dd466-7bb4-11e4-a695-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3NIKpG2Fx.

[6] “Bank of Japan announces more quantitative easing: the next chapter in Abenomics” at http://www.forbes.com/sites/jonhartley/2014/11/02/bank-of-japan-announces-more-quantitative-easing-the-next-chapter-in-abenomics/.

[7] “World Bank urges China to cut economic growth target to seven percent in 2015, focus on reforms” at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/10/29/us-china-worldbank-idUSKBN0II05P20141029.

[8] “Reforms by PM Narendra Modi will help India to grow 5.5% this year, 6.3% next year: ADB” at http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2014-12-17/news/57154602_1_cent-the-adb-growth-forecast.

[10] “The experts: how the US oil boom will change the markets and geopolitics”, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324105204578382690249436084

[13] “Economic growth patterns in USA, Canada, Mexico and China” at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dominik-knoll/economic-growth-patterns-_b_5832182.html.

[14] “Mexican president Pena Nieto's ratings slip with economic reform” at http://www.pewglobal.org/2014/08/26/mexican-president-pena-nietos-ratings-slip-with-economic-reform/.

[17] “Andres Oppenheimer: Latin America's forecast for 2015: not good” at http://www.miamiherald.com/news/local/news-columns-blogs/andres-oppenheimer/article2503660.html.

[18] “Maduro blames plunging oil prices on US war vs Russia, Venezuela” at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/12/30/us-venezuela-oil-idUSKBN0K802020141230 and “What's in store for post-Kirchner Argentina” at http://globalriskinsights.com/2014/12/whats-store-post-kirchner-argentina/

[19] “Brazil economists cut 2015 growth forecast to slowest on record” at http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-08-11/brazil-economists-cut-2015-growth-forecast-to-slowest-on-record.html

[20] “Economic snapshot for Latin America” at http://www.focus-economics.com/regions/latin-america.

[21] “Cuba, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico business forecast report Q1 2015” at http://www.marketresearch.com/Business-Monitor-International-v304/Cuba-Dominican-Republic-Puerto-Rico-8538079/ and “Obama's Cuba move is Florida's top story for 2014” at http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/dec/29/obamas-cuba-move-is-floridas-top-story-of-2014/.

[24] “Ethiopia overview” at  http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/ethiopia/overview and “Kenya overview” at http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/kenya/overview.

[26] “Internal violence in South Sudan” at http://www.cfr.org/global/global-conflict-tracker/p32137#!/?marker=33.

[27] “Political instability in Libya” at http://www.cfr.org/global/global-conflict-tracker/p32137#!/?marker=14.

[28] “The regional impact of the armed conflict and French intervention in Mali” at http://www.peacebuilding.no/var/ezflow_site/storage/original/application/f18726c3338e39049bd4d554d4a22c36.pdf.

[29] “EGX head optimistic on equities as Egyptian economy recovers” at http://www.thenational.ae/business/markets/egx-head-optimistic-on-equities-as-egyptian-economy-recovers.

[30] “Economy - outlook for 2015 dismal, despite boost” at http://mg.co.za/article/2014-11-25-economy-outlook-for-2015-not-encouraging-despite-boost.

[31] “Pre-state Israel: The Sykes-Picot agreement” at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/sykes_pico.html.

[32] “Turkey - economic forecast summary (Nov 2014)” at http://www.oecd.org/economy/turkey-economic-forecast-summary.htm.

[34] “Saudi-Iranian relations since the fall of Saddam” at http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG840.html.

[36] “Dubai 2015 cross sector business outlook extremely bullish” at http://ameinfo.com/blog/mentors/c/capital-club/dubai-2015-cross-sector-business-outlook-extremely-bullish/ and “Israel - economic forecast summary (Nov 2014)” at http://www.oecd.org/economy/israel-economic-forecast-summary.htm.

[37] “China's leap forward: overtaking the US as world's biggest economy” at http://blogs.ft.com/ftdata/2014/10/08/chinas-leap-forward-overtaking-the-us-as-worlds-biggest-economy/.

[38] “Understanding Shinzo Abe and Japanese nationalism” at http://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2014/05/26/understanding-shinzo-abe-and-japanese-nationalism/.

[39] Book: “Getting India back on track: an action agenda for reform” edited by B. Debroy, A. J. Tellis and R. Trevor.

[40] “US may not target Mullah Omar after this year" at http://www.dawn.com/news/1152382.

[41] “The rise and rise of Kaptaan” at http://tribune.com.pk/story/800722/the-rise-and-rise-of-kaptaan/.

[42] “Widodo launches reform agenda with fuel price hike” at http://www.focus-economics.com/news/indonesia/fiscal/widodo-launches-reform-agenda-fuel-price-hike.

[43] “ASEAN's elusive integration” at http://opinion.inquirer.net/74164/aseans-elusive-integration.

[46] “Russia's economics ministry downgrades 2015 oil price forecast to $80 per barrel” at http://itar-tass.com/en/economy/764662.

[47] “Hollande popularity plumbs new low in mid-term French poll” at http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/06/us-france-hollande-idUSKBN0IQ14R20141106.

          Belarus Community Connections Program Celebrates 15 Years of Success        
USAID Belarus celebrates its 15th year helping Belarusian professionals to understand and adopt best practices to strengthen and develop the country. Read more >>
          MINSK, Belarus -- Defending champion Sweden made the first s        
Ksiegarnia logopedyczna
Statystyki : 1 Post || 19 Odsłony Post by jokergreen0220
          Belarus Free Theatre        

Fredrik Wadström om en världsberömd teatergrupp från Minsk, ett program om förföljelse, motstånd och exil.

Belarus Free Theatre bildades 2005 när en grupp skådespelare, regissörer, dramatiker och producenter i Minsk tröttnat på att inte kunna spela politisk samtidsdramatik på vitryska teaterscener. Medlemmarna blev snabbt av med sina jobb på statliga teatrar i Minsk men fick lika snabbt internationellt rykte som en av de viktigaste europeiska nya teatergrupperna. Numera lever en handfull av gruppens konstnärliga ledning i exil i Storbritannien och hotas av fängelsestraff om de återvänder till Vitryssland. Kulturradions Fredrik Wadström har regelbundet träffat Belarus Free Theatre från de underjordiska repetitionerna i lägenheter i Minsk 2006 till den hyllade uppsättningen av Shakespeares "Kung Lear" på Globe Theatre i London 2012.


          Belarus Wants to Develop Joint Project With Syria on Manufacturing Machinery        
Belarus expressed its desire to develop a joint project with Syria on manufacturing and assembling machinery and trucks, Syrian media reported Thursday.
          SAAALE TOUR @ BIELEFELD WESTSIDE        

ARTIST: SWANSKI
LOCATION: BIELEFELD WESTSIDE
SOUND: KLTZKV - BELARUS GUTTER

As a warm-up to “Swanski’s Flying Bazaar” — the “Artist- / Label Tour” by Warsaw-based artist Pawel Kozlowski alias “Swanski” and his urban fashion label “Turbokolor” — we arranged a small test drive called the "SAAALE - TOUR". It started in Giessen at the GREENHILL SKATESHOP, with breakpoints in Cologne at the DOUBLEIGHT SHOP, Hamburg at the BACKSPIN SHOP and Bielefeld, too. Along the tour various art performances and events like in-store and outdoor live paintings had taken place

Cast: Swanski

Tags: art, mural, streetart, swanski, wall, fish, turbokolor, germany and black&white


          NEWS TO PONDER, SHARE AND WONDER        
Top World News Now                 
February 21, 2013

COURTESY SOCHA FAAL

 Heads up from AntiMullah. Separate vacations and Obambi brings Reggie Love back with  him. If you do  not know what this is, you need to visit/view AntiMullah.com more often to keep up with latest developments.

Tone and content reflects information not normally provided by Lame Stream Media's love fest with Obambi. And worldwide events that discredit his claims and motives for anti-American, pro-Moslem Brotherhood policies and actions.
 
Read and become knowledgeable and stop believing the incredible lies Obama feeds us at every opportunity. Lies his own Democrats increasingly have a problem swallowing and are intentionally leading our nation into certain fiscal and political destruction.


United States
GOP Resists Obama's Push for Tax Rise to Head Off Cuts
Obama Fleshes Out Plans for Infrastructure Projects
Obama considers urging the Supreme Court to overturn California’s ban on gay marriage
White House announces online espionage response policy
US issues final word on essential benefits under "Obamacare"
Anonymous thrown into China-US cyberwar scandal
Pentagon informs Congress of plans to furlough 800K civilian workers
In wake of Benghazi, rapid response Marine unit heading to Europe
US issues worldwide caution to its citizens of terror threats
Body found in restaurant rubble after Kansas City explosion
Why Americans Might Be Better Off If Their Burgers Were Made Of Horsemeat
Sex-Change Surgery Available Through Many US Colleges
Majority of US citizens say illegal immigrants should be deported
Hundreds of thousands march in Puerto Rico against gay rights
 
 

Russia
Putin Invites G20 Leaders to St. Petersburg Summit
Migrant workers call on Putin for amnesty
Lavrov: Time to end the war in Syria
Moscow: N. Korea sanctions can only impact nuclear program
IMF warns of higher inflation, slower GDP growth in Russia
Russia's missing billions revealed
Russia Tries To Remove Images of New Drone From the Internet
Russian Military to Develop Anti-Meteorite Defenses
Russia investigates 25 cases of Defense Ministry fraud - Prosecutor General
MP resigns after bloggers disclose his Florida property
Russia escalating attacks on free expression a year on from Pussy Riot protest
‘Ample Evidence’ Linking Ukraine Ex-President to Journalist Murder
French Specialists Resume Work at Chernobyl Disaster Site
Ukraine: Embezzlement At State Orphanages
Belarus Phases Out Russian Warplanes, Radars
 
 

China
Xi Jinping's campaign to purge Communist Party 'won't be easy'
Incumbent cabinet holds final meeting
China's central banker skips retirement bar to stay on
Manila to tackle sea row 'with or without China' at UN
Attacks originating from US rank 1st among overseas hackings in China
Photos show new activity at N Korea nuclear site
Spy agencies scrounge for details on North Korean nuclear test
North Korea: A nuclear 7-Eleven?
N Korean propaganda video shows Obama in flames
US Envoy Opposes S Korean Nuclear Armament
Rise in online fan clubs extolling China's party leaders
After China's multibillion-dollar cleanup, water still unfit to drink
Smog in Pearl River Delta 'worse than in Beijing'
Maoists Block Deal to Break Nepal's Long Political Deadlock
 
 

Cameron to pay respects to victims of Amritsar massacre
Cameron's India trip hits wobble with concern over helicopter deal
Sars-like virus death reported in UK
New coronavirus can infect human lungs as easily as cold virus
Magdalene laundries: Ireland to apologise to survivors
Iranian torture guard refused UK citizenship
Britain expands "bigger than burgers" horsemeat tests
Regulator warns Britain 'on the brink' of energy crisis
Scotland 'faces EU funding cut'
Tanker drivers in Scotland vote to strike
Belfast Orange Order warns members over flag protests
One in four Africans attacked in Ireland
 
 

Berlusconi accused of trying to buy votes days before election
After Bulgarian Protests, Prime Minister Resigns
Greek police fire tear gas on anti-austerity protesters
Greece welcomes Hollande with ‘news blackout’
Dutch experiment in legalised prostitution a disaster
Thieves in Belgium pull off most spectacular and dramatic diamond heist in years
Iceland considers dropping its currency
Lawmakers Threaten to Veto Tightened Budget
EU reinforces sanctions against DPRK
To Revive Honey Bees, Europe Proposes a Pesticide Ban
Anti-austerity strike to bring Greece to a standstill
Italy politicians make final drive for votes before poll
 
 

Berlusconi's possible comeback a nightmare for Angela Merkel
Merkel's Rainbow Problem: On Gay Rights, Chancellor Still a Conservative
German Officials Signal Berlusconi Isn't Their Man
Germany Sends Troops to Mali
German police raid firms over Ponzi scheme
Germany: Court Backs Adoption by Same-Sex Couples
Net activists slam Germany's open data portal
NSU victims' families want more than sympathy
Security staff at Hamburg airport to strike Wednesday in pay dispute
Swiss mayoral candidate 'pro-Hamas, pro-Iran'
Outgoing chairman of Switzerland's Novartis foregoes $78 million golden parachute deal
Norway is Afraid of Foreign Spies
 
 

Hollande: French soldier killed in northern Mali
Hollande confirms seven kidnapped in Cameroon
Hollande urges investment in Greece, growth in Europe
Hollande: France will miss 2013 growth target
French Kidnapped in Cameroon Were Taken Into Nigeria
France saw 58 percent rise in anti-Semitic attacks in 2012
Man arrested for serial attacks on Paris Chinese
France to unfreeze development aid to Mali
France Charges 11 In Alleged Kurdish Extortion Ring
 
 
War For Global Energy Supremacy-World War III
Syrian rebels threaten Hezbollah with 48-hour deadline
Syrian military reportedly shoots down Israel drone
US direct military support to Mali likely to continue after elections
Mortars Explode Near Assad Palace in Damascus
Missile kills more than 30 in Syria
Typhoid breaks out in rebel-held eastern Syria
Foreign Arms Supplies to Syrian Rebels Expanding
Pro-Assad militia now key to Syrian government’s war strategy
Russia's double dealing on arms to Assad regime leaves UK isolated over Syria
Syrian Rebels Threaten to Attack Lebanon Over Border Dispute
 
Insight Into Today’s News
Billionaires Continue To Dump Stocks
G20 issues empty declaration against currency wars
Norway Enters The Currency Wars
The Second-Mortgage Shell Game
The Last Liberal Branch of Government
US/NATO occupation of Afghanistan unraveling
Goodbye? We’ve Lost Who We Are?
US Schools Go Into Full Prison Mode
Hornady Addresses Ammo Shortage: We’re working 24/7
US Media Yet Again Conceals Newsworthy Government Secrets
 

Former foreign minister Livni joins Netanyahu coalition
Prisoner X: Benjamin Netanyahu adds to mystery
Secretary Kerry to skip Israel in first trip
Turkey, Israel Cut 1st Defense Deal Since Freezing Ties
Israel Seeks to Curb Weapons Flow to Gaza
West Bank protesters rally for release of deteriorating prisoners
Palestinian Prisoner's Hunger Strike Reaches 211th Day
Fatah Official Warns of Violence if Prisoners Aren't Freed
'Iron Dome' may be instrumental in peace process
Head of Israeli IVF unit arrested in Romania
 
 

 
 

Security deteriorating in Egypt due to political instability
Opposition Sets Conditions For Dialogue With Morsi
Morsi's advisory team less diverse after months of walkouts
Morsi Issues Presidential Decree to Appoint New Mufti
Strike, Protests Hit Egypt's Port Said for 3rd Day
Egyptians protest at Libyan border over new visa rules
Egypt ministry appeals against order to block YouTube
Egypt files new charges against Mubarak's last premier
2 Sunni groups halt roles in Bahrain crisis talks
A Palace Rift in Bahrain Bedevils Key US Navy Base
 

Iran to Conduct Military Drills Over 3 Days
Reformists Meet Khamenei To Improve 'Internal Climate'
Rivals Forced to Apologize to Supreme Leader
Ahmadinejad threat to cancel Iranian poll
Iran Pushes Nuclear-Free Mideast Plans
Syrian Prime Minister Claims Iran is Now “Occupying” Syria
MPs say sovereignty over three Persian Gulf islands is non-negotiable
Iran protests Berlin film award for banned Jafar Panahi
Fatwa Issued Against 3G Internet Operator in Iran
Iran FM Spurns Western 'Gold Trade' Offer
Stung by 'Argo,' Iran Backs Conference Denouncing 'Hollywoodism'
 
 

For the first time in history a female will lead a national Kasruth agency promising equality in Kosher supervisory

New York, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 03/03/2015 -- As the first female President to lead a Kosher certification agency, Miriam Jochelman Peled may have just become the most powerful person in Kosher – man or woman. On Wednesday Peled was elected by KOSH 9009 Board of Directors to serve a four year term as President of the organization. KOSH 9009 is one of the nation's leading Kasruth and quality management consultation agencies and pioneer of a challenging movement that is destined to go viral promoting 'Equality for Women in Kosher.'

The KOSH 9009 website is located at http://www.KOSH9009.com which proudly advertises its mission statement: "Kosher Made Simple and Affordable – With Equality For Women."

Moshe Heinman, Director for KOSH 9009 said males have dominated Kosher supervision since the 1920's when Kosher products started finding their way into the American market. According to Heinman, a teacher of Conservative Judaism, all major Kasruth agencies are directly or indirectly disqualifying women to serve in leadership roles, particularly as President, simply because of their gender. "Someday we respectfully hope to see a woman President of The Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations (OU), The Organized Kashrus Laboratories (OK), STAR-K, Kosher Supervision (KOF-K), and other major Kasruth certification agencies, said Heinman.

Jochelman Peled is an educator, speaker, second generation of Holocaust Survivor Parents. Born in Postavy, Republic of Belarus, formerly the U.S.S.R, Miriam holds a B.A. in Art Education/Art Therapy, Master Degree from Seton Hall University in Judeo-Christian Holocaust Studies, and attended the Yiddish I.L. Peretz School, where Judaism was fostered, along with other secular subjects. Her professional work experience includes VP of Operations for Guberman-PMC, LLC, an internationally recognized quality management consultancy. Previously she served as senior auditor for G-PMC Registrars, in which she received numerous awards. She is currently serving a three year term as Chairwoman of CWOB, the nation's fastest growing quality management certification program for women-owned businesses. Miriam has lived and/or traveled to Israel, Poland, Belarus, Lithuania, France, Italy, Russia and other countries teaching others of Jewish history, and its cultural, and social challenges.

In a nod to the significance of being the first woman to lead a Kosher agency, Jochelman Peled said she hoped her achievement would inspire more women to seek positions as head of a Kasruth agency. "I'm really hoping to see more women in Kosher supervisory roles for other Kosher organizations that believe in equality," she said.

Sara Brickman, spokeswoman for KOSH 9009 said through Miriam's leadership and strong values rooted in her Jewish faith and heritage, combined with her professional work experience, international travels, and understanding of Kashrut laws, KOSH 9009 will continue to prosper as a preferred Kosher/ISO certification program bringing guidance, strength, diversity and purpose to businesses worldwide.

The American Board of Accredited Certifications (ABAC), which serves as the accreditation board of KOSH 9009 and oversees its operations has made a history of bringing diversity to Kosher and quality system certification by electing women, minorities, Veterans and people of different faiths to serve as board members, directors, and signatories of the organization. Last year two consultants representing KOSH 9009 traveled to New York City to meet with Rabbi Moshe Elefant, COO of the Orthodox Union's Kashruth Department to discuss a potential partnership that will enable the OU to offer quality management solutions for its customers, particularly ISO 9001 certification. The alliance never materialized but is believed to be still open for future discussions.

Ironically, earlier this week the New York Post ran a story about a major marijuana company in Colorado planning to sell medical marijuana in New York that is Kosher certified by the Orthodox Union. In responding to the story Heinman said, "It's rather disheartening to learn the OU is seriously considering working with a Colorado pot peddler to Kosher a natural plant, but is yet to offer customers a quality standard implemented by over one million companies and organizations in over 170 countries." He concluded, "Where's the quality?"

Businesses interested in value-added Kosher Certification (KOSH 9009) and/or Quality System Certification (ISO 9001) can submit an application at http://kosh9009.com/apply.html

About KOSH 9009
KOSH-9009 is a nationally recognized Kashrut agency serving businesses of all sizes in a large variety of industries, including food & beverage processing, restaurants, delis, food machinery & equipment manufacturers and machine shops seeking to Kosher certification. KOSH 9009 is the first and only system accreditation program offering the combination of Kosher and ISO 9001 certification following International Organization for Standardization methodologies per national and international requirements, and more importantly inclusive of Rabbinical Kashrut (Kosher) laws.

Media Contact:
Sara Brickman
info@kosh9009.com
http://www.kosh9009.com
212-726-2320

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/release-584184.htm

Media Relations Contact

Sara Brickman
KOSH 9009 - Kosher Supervision
Telephone: 212-726-2320
Email: Click to Email Sara Brickman
Web: http://kosh9009.com/


          HUMAN RIGHTS IN 2011: THE CIRI REPORT        
The CIRI Human Rights Data Project has released its ratings of government respect for 16 internationally-recognized human rights in almost every country in the world for the year 2011.  The CIRI Project’s data stretch back, annually, to 1981 and can be freely accessed at www.humanrightsdata.org.

The CIRI data are used by governments, scholars, international organizations, businesses, think tanks, and students the world over for a variety of purposes.  The project is co-directed by Dr. David L. Cingranelli (Binghamton University), Dr. David L. Richards (University of Connecticut), and Dr. K. Chad Clay (University of Georgia). 

This data release has also been accompanied by a number of changes at the CIRI Project.  A new country was added to the data for 2011 (South Sudan), and, reflecting the addition of a new co-director (K. Chad Clay) in Fall 2012, the project’s citation has changed.  Perhaps most importantly, CIRI’s release schedule has changed.  In the future, data updates will be issued annually in January to cover the year that began two years previous.  As such, the 2012 ratings will be released in January 2014.

Below, we present four stories from the 2011 data:


THE BEST AND WORST OF 2011

All 14 of CIRI’s individual indicators of particular human rights can be summed into an overall human rights score for each country in the world.  The best score a country can receive is 30, representing high respect for all 14 human rights; the worst score is 0, representing very low respect for all 14 human rights.  The world average was 17, and the USA scored 24 (tied for the 7th highest score, but still ranking behind 37 countries).  Below are the best and worst of 2011.

Top 9 Countries – Overall Respect
Luxembourg [30]
Netherlands [29]
New Zealand [29]
San Marino [29]
Andorra [28]
Australia [28]
Denmark [28]
Iceland [28]
Norway [28]

Bottom 9 Countries – Overall Respect
Iran [1]
Eritrea [2]
Saudi Arabia [2]
Burma [3]
China [3]
Libya [3]
Yemen [3]
Democratic People's Republic of Korea [4]
Syria [4]


STABILITY & CHANGE IN RESPECT FOR PHYSICAL INTEGRITY RIGHTS

The CIRI Physical Integrity Rights Index measures government respect for the freedoms from torture, extrajudicial killing, political imprisonment, and disappearance. It varies from 0 (no respect for physical integrity rights) to 8 (full respect for physical integrity rights).  Overall, government respect for physical integrity declined in 2011, as the mean score on the physical integrity rights index fell from 5.01 in 2010 to 4.82 in 2011.  In particular, respect for physical integrity rights saw the following dramatic changes in 2010-2011:

Largest Declines in Respect for Physical Integrity Rights
Bahrain [-5]
Djibouti [-3]
Egypt [-3]
Republic of Korea [-3]
Libya [-3]
Mauritania [-3]
Oman [-3]

Largest Improvements in Respect for Physical Integrity Rights
Panama [+4]
Croatia [+3]
Belarus [+2]
Nepal [+2]
Togo [+2]

Further, as these lists suggest, it would appear that changes in government respect for physical integrity rights in 2011 were not evenly distributed across the globe.  Indeed, as demonstrated below, South Asian states experienced a net improvement in average government respect for physical integrity, while some of the largest declines in government respect for physical integrity rights were concentrated in the Near East & North Africa:

Average Change in Respect for Physical Integrity Rights by Region
Africa [-0.04]
East Asia & the Pacific [-0.12]
Europe & Eurasia [0]
Near East & North Africa [-1.37]
South Asia [+0.25]
Western Hemisphere [-0.11]






THE “ARAB SPRING” & HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NEAR EAST & NORTH AFRICA

Beginning in Tunisia in December 2010, the wave of demonstrations, protests, and conflicts known as the “Arab Spring” swept through the Arab world in 2011.  What effect did this have on respect for human rights in the Near East and North Africa (as defined by the US State Department)?  Table 1 displays the change in the overall human rights score, as well as in the CIRI Physical Integrity Rights Index, from 2010 to 2011. 

 
As can be seen, most states in the region demonstrated reduced respect for human rights in 2011, particularly those states that experienced some of the highest levels of unrest that year, e.g. Bahrain, Libya, and Egypt.  Of course, other states, like Syria, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and Iran, already had extremely low scores on our indicators and thus, had little room to move down.  On the other hand, Tunisia experienced a large increase in its overall human rights score, owing to the overthrow of its government early in the year and the elections held in October.  However, this was not enough to overcome the high level of physical integrity rights abuse that accompanied the protests early in the year, which led to a decrease in respect for physical integrity rights from an already low score of 3 in 2010 to 2 in 2011.
 
STABILITY & CHANGE IN WOMEN’S RIGHTS
 
CIRI also annually codes two measures of internationally-recognized women’s rights: women’s political rights and women’s economic rights.  The women’s political rights measure is aimed at capturing the degree to which government laws and practices ensure that women enjoy the rights to vote, to run for political office, to hold elected and appointed government positions, to join political parties, and to petition government officials.  The women’s economic rights measure captures the degree to which government laws and practices ensure that women enjoy equal pay for equal work, free choice of profession or employment, the right to gainful employment, equality in hiring and promotion, job security, freedom from discrimination by employers, freedom from sexual harassment, and the right to work in dangerous professions, including working at night and working in the military and police forces.
 
Our two measures of women’s rights moved in opposite directions in 2011.  While women’s political rights improved for the second straight year, women’s economic rights suffered a setback after two consecutive years of improvement.  Indeed, this is in keeping with these measures’ performance over time.  As shown in the graph below, respect for women’s economic rights has lagged behind respect for women’s political rights consistently since 1981.  However, that gap has widened with time, as respect for women’s political rights has consistently grown while respect for women’s economic rights has remained relatively flat.
Note: The shapefile used to construct the above map comes from Weidmann, Kuse, and Gleditsch’s cshapes, version 0.4-2.  The map was made using Pisati’s spmap package in Stata 12.1.  Another version of this post can be viewed at the The Quantitative Peace.

          Â«Do Rzeczy»: Польша должна поддерживать беларуский народ        

Резкие развороты в отношениях с Беларусью вряд ли являются реальной политикой. Сейчас снова происходит попытка такого разворота, а его жертвой должно было стать телевидение «Белсат», пишет Лукаш Важеха в журнале «Do Rzeczy» (перевод — Charter97.org). Объявленная министром Польши Витольдом Ващиковским ликвидация или существенное сокращение деятельности «Белсата» стали наиболее заметным элементом новой польской политики в отношении […]

Запись «Do Rzeczy»: Польша должна поддерживать беларуский народ впервые появилась Беларуская Праўда.


          Ð’ашчыкоўскі: Беларусы не ўмеюць па-польску? Дык навучацца!        

Міністр замежных справаў Польшчы Вітальд Вашчыкоўскі сказаў сёння на радыё RMF FM, што Польшча абразае датацыю для беларускамоўнага тэлеканалу «Белсат», бо «няма грошай на гэтую ініцыятыву». Паводле Вашчыкоўскага, перад Польшчай цяпер паўсталі іншыя заданні, у тым ліку праблема «сірыйскіх уцекачоў», паведамляе Радыё Свабода. На рэпліку вядучага, што «вы цяпер хочаце звяртацца да Беларусі голасам TV […]

Запись Вашчыкоўскі: Беларусы не ўмеюць па-польску? Дык навучацца! впервые появилась Беларуская Праўда.


          Dimantshtein Family        
The Dimantshtein family originated in Polotsk, Belarus and moved to various towns in Latvia: Rekekne (Rezhitza), Daugavpils (Dinaburg/Dvinsk), Riga, Karsava (Korsovka), Ludza (Lutzin). The family were Leviim.

The family were Chabad Chassidim in Latvia. They were quite prosperous trading in flax, timber and fish. One branch of the family set up a fishery in Aberdeen, Scotland. Some changed the name to Diamond.The earliest generation which has been traced in archival records was Zev Wulf Halevy Dimantshtein, born about 1770 In Polotsk and died before 1839. His children were Greinen, Eliyahu and Moshe.

Eliyahu was born about 1800 and died before 1885. His children were David, Avraham, Shmuel and Zev-Wulf.

Documents in Latvian archives including the 1889 list of Jews who lived in the rural areas of Lutzin district: David Dimantshtein, born in 1823 in Polotsk, moved to Korsovka in 1872 from Rezhitza. He must have moved at an earlier date from Polotsk to Rezhitza. He is described in this list as a merchant. According to family tradition he and his wife operated an inn on the outskirts of Korsovka. The circumstances which led to his burial in Lutzin rather than Korsovka are not known. The birthdates and birthplaces of his children are estimated. Information about some of his family taken from a family drawn up in England in 1948 by Norman Nygate.


Tombstone of David, son of Eliyahu Halevy Dimantshtein, Ludza 1901.
(Photographed by Aleksanders Feigmanis, Riga).


Vulf, (son of Elyash) was born in 1839 Polotsk, and moved to Korsovka in 1878.Vulf 's children: Abram, Elye, Treina, Dveira, Liba, Itka, Musya. All born between 1869-1885.

David’s wife was Keila-Tsirel. Her parentage is not known but Genetic testing revealed matches with several families such that she may have been related to families in the Vitebsk region such as Popkovitch, Leviyan (Gamerov), and others. Keila Tsirel was a short woman who had very definite views about bringing up her family. She wanted her daughter Rivka to know how to milk a cow so she had the maid Marfa teach Rivka. David and Keila-Tsirel were wealthy farmers and publicans, operating an inn on the outskirts of Korsovka. Once an inspector paid a visit to the inn and while sampling the food found an insect in a bun. Anxious to save her parents from prosecution, Rivka ate the bun quickly claiming that the insect was only a raisin.

The family developed widespread trading enterprises supplying the markets in the capital Riga with timber and flax for which trade they held a license. They also marketed herring on a large scale caught in the lakes near Lutzin. These business enterprises took several sons to live in Riga, in particular Tsvi-Hersh and from there expanded the trade to England in the late 1870’s which led to several members of the family settling there from 1880.

David and Keila-Tsirel's children were:

1) Zissa (c.1844-1932) married Pesakh Gordin and lived in Berzpils.

2) Yehudah Leib c.1848 - 1917 Korsovka.

3) Tsvi Hersh 1850 -1930 Riga.

4) Rivka (Rashka/Rebecca) 1851 or 1856-1834 married Mordekhai Zev Vulf (Max) Bull 1853-1931 London (see separate article).

5) Reuven c.1852, died 1934 London.

6) Zev Vulf 1856-1920 Korsovka.

7) Getzel c.1857-1890 Korsovka.

8) Moshe (Marks) 1860 - 1942 London.

9) Yeshaya c.1860 - 1933 London.

10) Zalman (Solomon) 1865 -1937 New York.

11) Meir, b.1865 never married, Riga.

12) Barukh . Identity unclear. According to Patricia Levitsky's history of the family, Barukh was a brother of her grandmother Rivka Bull. But Llyoyd Nygate's family tree does not include Barukh. He may have been a brother-in-law to Rivka's husband Max Bull, the husband of his sister.

1) Zissa and Pesakh Gordin lived in Berzpils and lost many of their family in the Holocaust. Their son Yaakov-Zev-Wulf settled in Korsovka where he was killed by the Nazis together with his children Raisa, Zalman and Mikhail. The surviving children Liuba Kalinkov, Gitta Tsiplevitch and Pesakh-Eliyahu settled in Israel. Zissa’s sons Mendel and Dan also perished in Berzpils. Mendel’s son Aba Gordin survived and lived in Korsovka. He possessed a Sefer Torah and took upon himself to organize religious servives for the small community that survived the Holocaust

2) Yehudah-Leib’s son Moshe-Eliyahu operated the family trade from Riga, settling in Lodon in the 1920’s where he opened a wooden barrel factory importing timber from Riga. He married his cousin Sonya, daughter of his uncle Getzel Dimantshtein.

3) Tzvi- Hersh left his hometown Korsovka and moved to Riga to engage in business. He became wealthy and started the Dimantshtein export business to England of herring, timber and flax. With the expansion of this business a number of his relatives immigrated to England. Tzvi’ son Bernard travelled to Aberdeen, Scotland to conduct his father's business and opened a fish processing plant and a factory to produce barrels from the timber his father exported from Riga. The barrels were sent back to Riga, filled with herring, and exported back to Scotland. Bernard changed his surname to Diamond.

4) Rivka – see separate article “Mordekhai-Zev (Max) Bull”.

Mordekhai-Zev and Rivka Bull, 50th Wedding Anniversary, London 1922.

5) Reuven
According to Maurice Bull's memoirs Reuven was very tall, over six feet, and had a large spade beard. He was a very excitable man who once reacted violently to an anti-Semitic remark made in the street. He was a furrier and settled in England in 1897.

Reuven’s son Yehudah-Leib was killed in the Arab riots of 1929 while working in the Diskin orphanage in Jerusalem.


Details of his death appear in “Yizkor Am Yisrael et Kedushei Tarpat” (Berzin and Weiss, Jerusalem 1930).
Literal translation from Hebrew:

“Yehudah-Leib Dimantshtein of blessed memory was born in 1880 in Russia to his father Reb Reuven Halevy. Yehudah-Leib was educated on the knees of Torah and Chabad Chassidism. However, when he was still young, at the age of seventeen, and desirous of expanding and completing his knowledge of religious learning, his studies were stopped. Because of his bad material situation his father was obliged to emigrate with his family to London. Here Yehudah-Leib bore the yoke together with his father of supporting the family. He worked initially at simple physical labour, afterwards learnt a trade and lived by it for many years. At the same time he `strove in the dust at the feet of the wise’, learnt with the Gaon Moshe-Avigdor Chaikin. In his spare time he also laboured for the community, involved in the needs of various societies and institutions. All those years since arriving in London his mind was occupied with his aspiration to settle in Eretz Yisrael. But the obstacles he encountered were too great for him.

At last Yehudah-Leib overcame all the obstacles and emigrated to Eretz Yisrael in 1922. Upon arriving in the country Yehudah-Leib managed to find work in Jerusalem. He was one of the happy of the world, the sparks of his soul reached a single perfection. He lived by the labour of his hands in Jerusalem, approaching starvation from his meager bread, praying daily with the community of Chabad, set aside hours for Torah.

But his work did not leave him much time. Long periods of want arrived. In the years of depression in the country, 1926-1927, economic deprivation reached the house of Yehudah-Leib, reached its limits. Lacking everything, his father in his letters demanded that he return to London and they would make a living together. “Your son should not go down together with you [to the grave] “ was Yehudah-Leib’s answer. In the end he went to work at the Diskin Orphanage. He carried out his work faithfully and diligently. While he was attending the orphans of the institution he was obliged to add to them his son, aged four, who was orphaned from his mother who died at the beginning of 5689 [1929] in a car accident.

On Friday 17th of Av, during an attack by Arabs on the Rabbi Diskin Orphanage in the suburb Givat Shaul, Yehudah-Leib was severely wounded. Four days he lay struggling with the suffering of death. He passed away on Monday 20th Av.”

Yehudah-Leib’s first wife died in London and he remarried in Jerusalem Minna Moseieff of an old Hebron family related to the Lubavitcher Rebbe. Their only son Avraham was born in 1925. In 1977 attempts were made to trace this son and an elderly official of the Diskin Orphanage related that there was tension between Yehudah-Leib and Minna. She demanded a divorce which Yehudah-Leib refused. During a visit to Jerusalem by the Lubavitcher Rebbe Yosef-Yitskhak Shneerson, attempts were made to persuade Yehudah-Leib to give the divorce. The Rebbe summoned him to the Amdursky Hotel and commanded him to grant the divorce. But Yehudah-Leib refused. The situation reached a tragic end with the death of Minna in a car accident on the 17th of Shevat 5689 [1929]. Both Minna and Yehudah-Leib are buried in the Chabad section of the cemetery on the Mount of Olives. The orphan son, Avraham grew up and lived with his family in Beersheva under the Hebrew form of his surname “Yahalomi”.

6) Zev Wulf (also known as Velvel), born 1856, died 1920 in Korsovka.
Operated a farm on the outskirts of Korsovka, perhaps the property which belonged to his father David. This was located near the Jewish cemetery near “Naudas Kalns” the infamous site of the massacre of the Jews in 1941.

Children:
Eda - U.S.A.
Shmuel (1882-1943 Siberia),
Getzel (died in Russian exile)
Avraham (killed in Korsovka in 1941)
Eliyahu (died in Kokand in 1942),
Pessia,
David , Haifa
Yekhezkel or Khatzkel, Kfar Blum.
Gershon (killed in the Holocaust)
Seeka (killed while serving in the Latvian army).

Zev Wulf’s son Shmuel
Escaped with his wife across the Latvian/Russian border when the Germans invaded Latvia. Perished from the rigours of life in exile in Siberia.

Family of Shmuel Dimantshetin, Korsovka c. 1934

Shmuel’s son Eizik survived the Riga Ghetto and was deported to Stuthoff concentration camp.

Eizik Dimantshtein, Israel 1987.

The few survivors were evacuated to Sweden and liberated en route when the war ended May 8, 1945. Eizik lived for several years in Sweden and then immigrated to Israel where he worked as an engineer. He provided considerable material about his family. The following are excerpts (translated from Hebrew and Yiddish) of an interview in 1987 by Chaim Freedman, published in "The Pen and The Blade".

“My grandfather Velvel was married first to Gitta and then to Minna by whom he had four sons. We are Leviim and Chassidim. In our township there were two or three synagogues for the Chassidim and two or three for the Misnagdim. My grandfather and grandmother lived not far from the cemetery and all the time one had to pass their house.
In our township on Simkhat Torah the Chassidim would open the large oven and take out the Tsimmes and walk from house to house. It was a jolly time. That was the way with the Chassidim. The Misnagdim did not act that way. In our town was a secondary school where you could matriculate. Then I served for two and a half years in the Latvian army. Due to the anti-bourgeois feeling in Korsovka after the Soviet takeover in 1940 I went to Riga to work. There my sisters and brother were studying at the university. On the first day of the occupation Zhenia and Gitta were rounded up with large numbers of women, herded to the central prison and killed. Volinka was taken with men to the forest and killed. I was saved since the place where I was living was not included in the roundup.

I was actually in Riga when the war started as were two uncles Getzel and Eliyahu, sisters Zhenia, Gitta and brother Volinka (Zev-Wulf). In Korsovka remained my father Shmuel and Avraham. My father was engaged in the forest trade, timber, produce and flax. He would buy from the peasants and ship to Riga. They called it a “Handler In Vald’. Flax was a rich and honorable trade in Latvia. One needed a government license.

My parents lived in Korsovka with my sister Rivka and they fled as soon as the war started. Those who remained in Korsovka were rounded up and killed. I think Avraham was one of those killed. My father died in Kokand in 1943 of typhus. My mother with Rivka returned to Riga after the war.

I worked in the Riga Ghetto in a factory. When I asked a gentile Latvian from Korsovka about the fate of the Jews there he told me “All the Jews in Korsovka were shot like dogs.” I heard afterwards that they rounded them up in a side street, took all of them, once they had prepared pits in the forest, it was not far from where grandfather had lived, called Naudas Kalns, the “Hill of Silver” and killed them all.

In Riga there were 40,000 Jews, In the Ghetto there were 30,000 until they killed 25,000. 5,000 remained in the “Small Ghetto” and I was amongst them. We worked in the railway freight station. Wagons would arrive. I was supposed to be specialist as I was one of the 600 Jews who were called craftsmen and so they looked after us. We worked there until the Russians approached Riga and then the Germans evacuated us. They came at night and put us in a store and told everyone to undress. In the middle sat one at a table and they called us by the numbers which everyone bore and he had to present himself, that is to run naked with hands in the air and to turn around. Then he would say right or left. They wanted to take the healthiest men who had no blemish on their bodies. That was why we had to turn around. To the right was life; to the left was the world to come.

So they evacuated us to Stutthof near Danzig. They acted relatively better to us because we were specialists and went to work where the railway passed by. Then I saw the crematorium. A German walked with a piece of white chalk in his pocket. In the summer there was no work. They walked around the yards, the German looking around. Whoever didn’t walk well he drew an “X” with chalk on their back. These were sent to the crematorium. We worked for about a half or three quarters of a year. Then the Russians once again approached and they evacuated us. Then I saw the destruction that they had wrought. Mountains and mountains of bodies. That was then the evacuation. Again the Russians approached Danzig and bombed Stutthof and the Germans didn’t want to leave us. I was sick with typhus. That was on the 25th of April. We felt that at any moment the whole business would be over. As is known the war ended May 8th. I had a temperature of 41°. I was in the clinic. There was an epidemic. To my good fortune and that of another Jew (his name was Shmuel and he settled in Australia) we were the first to catch typhus. To my good fortune, what do I mean? They took us to the clinic. Later the Goyim also got sick and then they didn’t take Jews any more to the clinic. All the Jews who had typhus were put in a barrack and it was burned down. I remember that I was on the third floor. Some officers wanted to run away. One said “We are leaving them here.”
We thought “Thank G-d”. I had no more strength. But in the morning came an announcement: they are taking us with them.

We were a few kilometers from the Baltic Sea. There was no port and ships could not approach. People who were sick and could not manage the four kilometers were told: “Don’t worry – stay here and we will take you.” I, after four years in concentration camps, knew about their favours. I went down with difficulty and walked. Those who remained were all shot. Between 27-29th April we embarked on a motor less ship which was towed. What is meant by “embarked” ?. The ship was 100-150 metres from the shore. They placed a narrow bridge of boards. Sick people had to make it. They fell and they killed them. I succeeded; I had been as strong as an ox. I got inside. There we sailed until May 8th. They wanted to take us because if we weren’t with them they would be sent to the front. They wanted to take us to a Baltic port, but everywhere were either the English or the Americans. Until May 8th we sailed on the sea and then the war ended. It is possible to write thousands of pages on the Hell which was there. If there is a Hell then it is a Paradise compared to the Hell which was there. They put in four times the number of people for whom there was space. One on top of the other. Whoever had strength lay on those who hadn’t. At night shouts of Hell were heard from the people who were dying. In the morning the SS came and lowered a rope from above for those who had died to be tied and hauled up top. They slit their stomachs with a knife so that the bodies wouldn’t be washed up, and threw them overboard. On May 8th the German team shouted: “the war is over and you can come out” and they fled.

On the 12th of May we reached port in Sweden. There were journalists who photographed us. The wounds will never heal. Twenty to twenty five years came the dreams at night. One cannot forget.”

Zev’s son Eliyahu’s daughter Luba Teitelbaum (Netanya, Israel) described the Nazi invasion of Riga in July 1941. When the Germans invaded the Russians left quickly. Her husband had worked for them and so was given a pass for his family. The Germans occupied half of Riga while the other side of the river Dvina was still held by the Russians so that those who had influence could escape. Liuba and her family travelled by Gorky and then to Kokand in Uzkekistan. Her parents also got passes and joined them. Her younger brother Shmuel was in hospital in the German part of the city and he was killed. Her sister Zelda’s little boy was in kindergarten in the occupied zone. He was trapped and killed there. In Korsovka relations with the Latvians had been reasonable. But as soon as the Germans invaded the Latvians started a pogrom. The daughter of the rabbi had escaped on foot, but having forgotten something returned and was killed in the street. One German resident Pankiewitz had married a Jewish girl. He saved his wife and her family in a secret chamber he had built in his house. He hid other Jews there including, it is thought, Marita the daughter of Getzel Dimantshtein. But she left and was presumed to be killed. Liuba’s father Eliyahu died of illness and deprivation in Kokand in 1942. Her mother and sisters returned to Riga after the war where her mother died in 1947. Liuba and Zelda settled in Israel. Her uncle Getzel died of disease in the Russian exile together with his son Pavel. Her uncle Avraham before the war travelled to London but returned to Korsovka where he was killed. Likewise her half-uncle Gershon was killed. Her half-uncle Seeka was killed serving in the Latvian army.

Liuba also recalled stories of the period before the Revolution. There were three incidents in Korsovka. On one occasion Russian soldiers from one of the warring sides burst into her uncle Shmuel Dimantshtein’s house. Liuba nd Eizik were terrified and sneaked through the crowd in the living room to the kitchen where they escaped to Christian neighbours. Shmuel’s house was looted and many valuables stolen. On another occasion her father Eliyahu and family took shelter with Christian neighbours who disguised them in peasant clothes. Russian marauders came and demanded to be told which shops in town had liquor and tobacco. They didn’t recognize Eliyahu as a Jew and asked him “Are there any Zhids ?” He replied that there weren’t. Liuba recalls seeing a Jew shot in the street. In 1920 Eliyahu and Getzel and their families moved to Riga. After the Second World War Liuba returned to Korsovka for a visit. She found most Jewish houses destroyed except for those of her father and her uncle Shmuel. Also the Jewish cemetery was intact.

The Jewish cemetery of Korsovka was photographed for Chaim Freedman by researcher Aleksandrs Feigmanis of Riga. About 300 photographs are held by Chaim Freedman.



Likewise the Lutzin cemetery was photographed and the data can be seen on the Ludza/Karsava Internet site http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/Ludza/


Ludza cemetery photograph by Zeeva Levy (Israel)

7) Getzel ‘s son Shmuel (Sam Diamond) settled in London were he was in business. He married his cousin Devorah (Dora) daughter of his uncle Reuven Dimantshtein.

8) Moshe (Marks)
Held a government contract to supply black bearskin hats to the British army during the Boel War. He was a wealthy furrier who lived in large house in Hackney Downs. According to the 1891 London Census, he immigrated to London about 1880, thereby being the first of the Dimantshtein family to leave Latvia.

9) Shaya
Arrived in England about 1900. made a living as a tallyman (draper). He was a member of the Jewish Socialist Bund in Russia and an ardent Zionist in England. He wrote a ballad in memory of the victims of the Kishinev pogrom in 1903. Shaya was an active Shadkhan (matchmaker) in London. On one occasion he believed that his grandniece Betty Sagon was possessed of a Dybuk (evil spirit) so he carried out a Kabbalistic ceremony of excorsism. Shaya had a tenor voice and acted as a Khazan on the festivals. He played the violin at family celebrations. At one family wedding (possibly Dora Bull's) he danced the Russian Kazatchka and died of a heart attack at the age of seventy three. After his death his widow went to South Africa to join their only daughter.

Other Dimantshteins included the Shokhet Khaim Dimantshtein and his son Nakhum who perished in the Holocaust in Rezekne. Shneur-Zalman Dimantshtein was a butcher in Korsovka, Several of his children survived the Holocaust by fleeing to Rostov. A grandson David settled in Israel in 1972. The Soviet Komissar Shimon Dimantshtein was born in Sebezh but it is not know if he was related.


Dimantshteins in London 1905; possibly Reuven and Shaya.

          Pruning the Super Family Tree        
Pruning the Super Family Tree.
September, 2008
Chaim Freedman

(Click on documents and photos to enlarge)

When I began to research the history of the Super family in the mid-1970’s to trace the family tree, the contemporary generations of the family living in Australia and England were the only members of the family known to me. Whilst I knew that there were many relatives in South Africa and some in Canada, there had been no contact with them for many years. Indeed, even when contact was re-established, the diverse branches of the family were not aware of the exact relationships between them.

In the mid 1980’s Norman Super, living in Melbourne and originally from South Africa, sent me a family tree compiled by elderly relatives in South Africa whilst attending a family celebration, probably in the early 1970's. This clarified many connections and as each new source came to light, the family tree began to take shape. The various branches were assumed to belong to a common trunk, with a common ancestor named Shmuel. At the time archival records in the Former Soviet Union were not available to confirm this theoretical tree, based on oral history. With the fall of that State valuable and relevant material pertaining to the family was discovered in Latvia.

Shmuel

The above is a condensed version of the tree.
This tree shows five siblings as the children of Shmuel Super. One of the siblings is indicated by a blank space above the name of “Samuel m Daphnie”. These were supposed to be the parents of Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super of Melbourne. “Daphnie” was not his mother’s name; it was Khaya Minna. Apparently the elders of the family in South Africa who put together this tree did not know the name of this presumed sibling of the ancestors of their respective branches of the family.

Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super, Evercreech, England c.1912

The earliest name known to the Australian Supers was Shmuel, the father of Rabbi Yitskhak-Yaakov. He and his wife Khaya-Minna lived in the small town of Korsovka now called Karsava, in Latvia. The region was until the Russian Revolution of 1917 part of the Russian Empire in the eastern part of Vitebsk Gubernia (government) known as Latgale (or Lettland). Since Yitskhak Yaakov had left his parents' home in Korsovka at the age of twenty-one and settled in England, he had little opportunity to hear from his father information about his family's origins, nor did he get to know his many relatives who lived in the neighbouring town Lutzin, where in fact he had been born. Such was also the case for his brother Yosef who also settled in England at an early age.

Khaya-Minna, Fruma and Shmuel Super c.1905, Korsovka, Latvia.

In a letter (in Hebrew) written in 1960 Yitskhak-Yaakov Super answers his son Rabbi Dr. Arthur Saul Super, then living in South Africa, who asks him about the relationships among the family Arthur met in South Africa. Yitskhak Yaakov explains that he left his home town as a young teenager in order to study and then worked as a Shokhet in a number of towns until he left Latvia aged twenty-one:




“It is nearly fifty-nine years since I left Korsovka and how can I remember the Supers, but you can tell them that all the family who you met or who you will meet are not only relatives, but are flesh and blood to us. About Mr. Benjamin who is close to seventy three years old, if his name in Hebrew is Benyamin son of Reb Shmuel Sholem, he would be our second cousin.”
At the time of my original research I did not know who this person was and so made no use of this information until 2003 when I received photographs of many of the tombstones in the Jewish cemetery in Korsovka, including that of Shmuel-Sholem.

One earlier generation of the Australian and English branch was available, derived from the Korsovka tombstone inscription of Shmuel Super, Yitskhak-Yaakov’s father. A photograph of the grave was sent to Australia by Shmuel's son Khatzkel (his full name was Yekhezkel and he also appears in the picture) taken after the death of Shmuel in Korsovka in 1928. Since Hebrew names appearing on a tombstone also include the father's name, it was established that Shmuel's father was called Yosef-Yehoash. The name Yehoash is very rarely used, although its Biblical origin stems from the righteous King of Judah, Yehoash who repaired and rededicated the Temple in Jerusalem.



Rabbi Arthur-Saul Super (Avraham-Shaul) told me of an oral tradition that there was an earlier ancestor, Rabbi Tuviah (Teviah) Super who he had heard had lived in Lutzin in the early nineteenth century. He had also been told that his ancestors had been Soferim (scribes) for many generations. This was in fact the origin of their surname, Super being a Russian corruption of the term Sofer, or it's Aramaic version Safra, being the usual designation of the official town scribe: `Safra Demata'.

Yet another item of oral history told to Arthur by relatives in South Africa was that an ancestor had written a Sefer Torah, which he had presented to the Baron Ginzburg who was in fact his cousin!

These sparse oral traditions formed the basis for extrapolating theoretical lines of descent. Firstly a record was found of one Teviah Super who held the position of Gabbai of the Great Synagogue in Lutzin. He was listed as one of the notables of Lutzin in “Yahadut Latvia” (Israel 1953), “Tevi Super, Gabbai of the Great Synagogue”.



This reference did not indicate when “Tevi” lived. However Magistrate records from 1897 found by Latvian researcher Aleksanders Feigmanis refer to a dispute involving Teviah Super Gabbai of the Alt Shule Mankov”. So the above reference to “Tevi Super” did not refer to an early ancestor of the entire Super family, mentioned by Rabbi Arthur Super according to family oral history in South Africa.

A connection with Tuviah/Tevi was thought to have been discovered in a book that had belonged to Yitskhak-Yaakov Super, thought to have been passed from earlier generations. This book was presented to me by my mother-in-law Edna Berliner (daughter of Yitskhak-Yaakov), but the significance of the inscriptions inside the front and rear covers eluded me for many years.

On the inside front cover is a faded inscription in Hebrew that is barely decipherable as a person's name written in Hebrew. Also in Latin characters appears the surname `Lichtenstein'. I thought that it was possible that there was a relationship with the rabbinic Lichtenstein family that flourished for several generations in Latvia.

On the inside back cover is an inscription in Yiddish and Hebrew:
"I was born on the 29th of Sivan in the year 5561”, the Hebrew year corresponding to 1801.
Above this inscription appear two words in very faded Russian script. The pages were photocopied and thereby it was possible to adjust the intensity of light and magnification so as to highlight the inscriptions. Whilst not all the letters were discernable, the missing one could be interpolated. The Russian script was a name: “Toviah Davidovich”



I thought that this was the Tuviah Super referred to by Arthur Super. Not only had his birth date been established, 1801, but his Russian patronymic provided the name of his father: David.

Based on this information, which in hindsight was tenuous, given that the book may not have belonged to the Super family at all, but had simply passed into their hands, I theorized that the sequence of the generations could be put together. Since Shmuel was born about 1850, his father Yosef-Yehoash would have been born about 1825. Since “Toviah Davidovich” was born in 1801, I thought he must have been the father of Yosef-Yehoash. This should then make David the common ancestor of the various siblings shown on Norman Super’s tree.

I then sought earlier ancestors. Once again family tradition gave clues in this direction: Firstly the origin of the surname having been derived from the function of a number of ancestors as Soferim (scribes); secondly the supposed relationship with the family of the Baron Ginzburg.

A history of the Ginzburg family (Toldot Mishpakhat Ginzburg, David Maggid, St.Petersburg 1899) traces many families either descended from or related to the Ginzburgs. Study of the relatives of the first Baron Ginzburg, namely Baron Yosef Ginzburg (1812-1878) reveals the family of his paternal grandmother Tybel She was a daughter of Rabbi Uri Sofer of Vilna (according to the 1784 Vilna census Tybel /Touba was Uri’s wife), who held the position of official scribe to that community, bearing the title ‘Safra Demata'. Such a functionary was skilled in handwriting Torah scrolls, Mezuzot, wedding and divorce certificates, and any other official documents required by the Jewish civil governing body, the Kahal. Rabbi Uri Sofer's father Rabbi Yaakov-Gavriel also held this position, as had his father Rabbi Tuviah Sofer and several earlier generations.


There is a recurrence in the above family of the names Uri, Tuviah and David.

Tuviah and David struck a bell in relation to the inscription “Toviah Davidovich”. Tuviah was also prevalent amongst the Super family of Lutzin. Bearing in mind that Baron Yosef Ginzburg and Yosef-Yehoash Super were, according to their birth dates, of the contemporary generation, and since they were reputed to be cousins (according to that oral tradition telling of the presentation of a Sefer Torah to the Baron), I thought that the familial link was through Rabbi Uri Sofer of Vilna. The common occupation as scribes in both families also correlates between them. Whilst specific records establishing this link were not found, an extensive study of the Ginzburg family tends to preclude any other explanation for the cousin relationship, if it was true. Bearing in mind the dates of each successive generation, appeared that the Super-Sofer-Ginzburg connection was that David Super (whose name was derived from the patronymic “Davidovich”) was a son of Uri Sofer of Vilna. This would have made the Baron Yosef Ginzburg and Yosef-Yehoash Super second cousins. Other sources that include information about the family of Soferim in Vilna are “Kiriah Neemanah” (Finn, Vilna 1860); “Ir Vilna” (Steinshneider, Vilna 1900) and Toldot Hakehilah Haivrit Bevilna (Klausner, Vilna 1935). The information in each of this is more or less consistent. However, in 2003 I acquired copies of the census taken in Vilna in 1765 and in 1784 and discovered that each of these books includes errors in the identities of some of the “Sofer” family.

When the political changes in the former Soviet Union led to the dissolution of that Union, archives were opened to the public and much material about Jewish families was found. A Jewish researcher living in Riga, Aleksanders Feigmanis, was commissioned by a descendant of the Super family, Robert Heyman, to trace records of the family. Feigmanis found a treasure of documents, in particular the “Revizsky Skaza” (Revision Lists, meaning census) for the years 1874 and 1897 for the town of Lutzin and the list from 1897 for Korsovka. The 1874 list from Korsovka appears to have been lost. Many family groups including several hundred members of the Super family appeared, allowing the compilation of the family tree.




The following is the census entry for “Super Yankel Shmuilov” and his family, including his Falkov grandchildren. This person was the “Yanchiel Havies” who appeared on Norman Super’s chart.


His tombstone in Korsovka confirms his full name and father’s name:


Here is interred
Our father the ………….
An honourable man
The dear, our teacher and Rabbi
Reb Yaakov Yehoash
Son of Reb Shmuel
Super

The nickname “Havis” or “Heibish” was a derivative of the Hebrew name “Yehoash”. Since the grandfather of Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super was found from his tombstone to be Yosef-Yehoash, it became apparent that Yaakov-Yehoash and Yosef-Yehoash could not have been brothers as they bore the same name. Jerusalem genealogist the late Rabbi Shmuel Gorr shared his expertise in Jewish name derivatives thereby making a valuable contribute to the unraveling of the mysteries of the Super family tree. (See a joint article we wrote in “Search” Volume 8, #4, 1988). Likewise “Guta” and “Tevia” who appeared as brothers in the above tree also bore variations of the same Hebrew name “Tuviah” and therefore could not have been brothers. “Tuviah” is derived from the Hebrew for “good” so a Yiddish derivation was “Guta” or “Guttman” and Teviah is another derivative. As there were a number of Supers in Lutzin who bore the Hebrew name Tuviah, they were each known by variations or nicknames.
The 1874 and 1897 census from Lutzin showed that Guta or Guttman Super was a brother of Yankel-Heibish, sons of Shmuel, while Tevia was a son of Leib Super, another of Shmuel’s sons.

These family groups stemmed from four Supers who lived in Lutzin in the early nineteenth century: Shmuel, Yitskhak, Kivka and Leib Super. Three of these were found by Feigmanis in Magistrate records of Lutzin in the year 1837:

“February 3, 1837 citizens of Lutzin who trade in alcoholic drinks deposed the plaint to the city council of Lyutzin, where they complained of the abuses in taxation of the tax official Glinka. Among the names of the alcohol tradesmen mentioned were Shmuila Super, Leiba Super and Itzik Super”[1]

A list from 1863 of merchants in the towns of Vitebsk Province includes in Lutzin “Leibe Super”, without a patronymic.


Unfortunately this record does not include the patronymic of these three Supers. On the tree compiled in South Africa and sent to me by Norman Super, it was shown that Shmuel was the primogenitor of all the branches. No record has been found of a “Toviah Davidovich” Super in any documents. Not has his supposed son Yosef-Yehoash been located in the records of Lutzin or Korsovka, although his son “Shmuel Yoselov” (son of Yosef) appears in the 1897 Korsovka census:

click to enlarge
Feigmanis’ translation of the original Russian census in Korsovka in 1897.

Yitskhak-Yaakov Super does not appear among the children of Shmuel, either because he was away from home studying, or because he was liable for military service as the second born son.

My original assumption was that Tuviah (supposed father of Yosef-Yehoash) was another brother to Shmuel, Yitskhak (Itzik) and Leib, and that since Tuviah’s patronymic was “David” then David was the primogenitor of the family. Furthermore I proposed that the theoretic connection between the Supers of Lutzin and the Sofers of Vilna was that “David” was a son of Uri. This theoretical relationship seemed further strengthened since both Shmuel and Leib had sons called Tuviah, a named repeated in the Vilna family of Soferim.

It must be stated that at the time of the extraction of the Latvian archival material, no evidence was found for the existence of either Tuviah or David. Nor was there documentation that David was a son of Uri Sofer of Vilna. Yet it seemed to me reasonable that the relationships were as above.

In 2003 I acquired the census of the Jewish community in Vilna for the years 1765 and 1784 from David and Sonia Hoffman, founders of the Jewish Family History Foundation. In the 1784 census I identified Uri Sofer as “Uryasz Gabrylowicz” living with his wife Touba (not Leah as claimed by Ginzburg family sources) and a servant Chasia. At that time they had no children.


A mathematical calculation shows clearly that if Uri did subsequently have a son David, even if it was in the period immediately following the census in 1784, such a theoretical David could not have fathered sons Shmuel, Yitskhak and Leib, born in the 1790’s or the ubiquitous Tuviah born in 1801. Whilst the dates of birth of all of the four Supers “branch heads” has not been found, they were all dead by the time of the 1874 Lutzin census, Shmuel’s wife Elka was still alive in 1874 aged eighty. Assuming that Shmuel was at least as old as his wife, he was probably born not later than 1794, when his supposed father David could have been no more than ten years old!

Had the Vilna and Lutzin census been available at the time of writing in 1992 of my book “The Pen and the Blade, Super family”, David as a son of Uri, could not have been proposed as the family patriarch.

The problem of locating Yosef-Yehoash Super, so as to establish the identity of his father, is complicated by the fact that he apparently did not lived in Lutzin at the time of the 1874 census, although his son Shmuel was born there in 1855. Family tradition conveyed by Rabbi Arthur Saul Super and by his cousin Arthur Super (London) relates that their great-grandfather managed an estate for a local Latvian nobleman. If the location of that estate could be established, records of Yosef-Yehoash might be found. It is possible that he lived in Korsovka until his death that had to be before 1884 when his grandson and namesake Yosef, the son of Shmuel was born. Since the 1874 census of Korsovka is missing, this cannot be verified.

Not only has Yosef-Yehoash not appeared in documentation, aside from his name on his son Shmuel’s tombstone, no theoretical siblings bearing the relevant patronymic indicating their father was called Tuviah, have been found. At this stage it appears that the book containing the signature “Toviah Davidovich” was a red herring and that the these names may have nothing to do with the Super family, although there may have been such a relative.

From the available evidence is seems that Yosef-Yehoash was a son of Yitskhak Super, one of the three alcohol traders mentioned in the 1837 litigation in Lutzin. My reason is based on the naming patterns. My wife’s grandfather Rabbi Yitskhak-Yaakov Super was given the name Yaakov after his maternal great-grandfather Yaakov Dobrin. It seems likely that the name Yitskhak was given to him after his paternal great-grandfather Yitskhak Super.

In 2003 I ordered further research from Aleksanders Feigmanis in Latvia. He traveled to Karsava (Korsovka) and took about three hundred photographs of the now accessible tombstones in the Jewish cemetery. There are large areas covered in weeds that may hide other family tombstones.


One of the tombstones, that of Yankel Heibish Super, is shown above. The Ohel (mausoleum) of Shmuel, the son of Yosef-Yehoash Super still stands but the tablet inscribed with the name has been removed, perhaps by the locals in this village where there are no longer any Jews or perhaps during the Nazi invasion in 1941 when nearly all the Jews were killed. Fortunately most of the cemetery survived.



Korsovka, 2003 Korsovka, 1929 with Khatzkel Super
Photographed by Feigmanis

One of the tombstones correlates with Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super’s reference to relatives in the letter above:



The man Shmuel Sholem
Son of Reb Moshe Simkha Super
Died 10th Tevet, 5688
[1927]

These names appear in various Latvian census records: “Shmuel son of Moshe” Super, born 1846 (lived in Korsovka) appears in a list of people living in 1889 in the rural areas of Lutzin district. This lists states that Shmuel Moshev (son of Moshe) came from Lutzin to Korsovka in 1877. His father Moshe son of Yitskhak born 1829 in Lutzin, moved to Korsovka in 1876. Shmuel’s son Benyamin Yitskhak, born 1873, appears in the 1897 census in Korsovka. It appears that “Mr. Benjamin Super” referred to in Rabbi Super’s letter to his son Arthur, as “Benyamin son of Shmuel-Sholem” was the son of Shmuel-Sholem whose tombstone appears above. Since Rabbi Super states that the relationship was of second cousins, it can be established that Benyamin Super’s grandfather Moshe-Simkha was a brother of Rabbi Yitskhak-Yaakov’s grandfather Yosef-Yehoash Super. This supports my theory that Rabbi Yitskhak-Yaakov’s great-grandfather was Yitskhak Super, one of the four family heads mentioned above.

A key source for the early nineteenth century relationships of the Supers is the census recorded in 1816. This is held by the Belarus State Historical Archive in Minsk. This anomaly is due to the political border changes whereby Lutzin was located in Vitebsk Province under Tsarist government, which province is now part of Belarus. Therefore some records for Lutzin (now Ludza) are held in Riga and some in Minsk.

The following are the key entries. See also attached chart and full family tree.

1816 census:
Fond 2640-1-617-55-55
Family number 28.

Shmuel Gevushevich* Super aged 31 in 1811; 35 in 1816.
Shmuel Gevushevich’s sons:
Itsik aged 9 in 1811; 13 in 1816.
Mark aged 2 in 1811; died in 1813.
Leib newborn in 1811; aged 3 in 1816.
Shmuel’s son-in-law Yankel Kufman Sholomovich, absent in 1811, 18 in 1816.
Shmuel Gevushevich’s wife Brokha aged 35 in 1816.
Itsik Shmuelovich’s wife Fruma aged 17 in 1816.
Yankel Kufman’s wife Paika aged 18 in 1816.

*Shmuel’s patronymic Gevushevich is the Russification of the Yiddish name Heibish, equivalent to the Hebrew name Yehoash.

1834 census
Fond 2640-1-617-155-156
Family number 58

Shmuel Gevushevich Super aged 35 in 1816, 53 in 1834.
From Shmuel Gevushevich’s first wife, sons:
1. Itsik aged 13 in 1816; separated to family number 59 in 1834 list.
2. Mordkha not written in 1816, moved to family number 259 in 1826.
3. Leib aged 4 in 1816; 20 in 1834.

From Shmuel’s second wife [Elka] from latter sources sons:
Yankel newborn in 1834; 3 in 1834.
Shmuel’s son-in-law Kifka Sholomovich 18 in 1816, moved to family number 259 in 1824.

Family number 59:
Itsik Shmuelovich Super previously family number 58.
Aged 31 in 1834.
Itsik’s son Mordukh newborn in 1816; 14 in 1834.
Itsik’s second son Livsha [should be Moshe] Simkha aged 5 in 1834.
Itsik’s wife Fruma aged 32 in 1834.
Mordukh’s wife Touba aged 16 in 1834.

Since Shmuel’s son Tuviah (Gutta) and Itsik’s son Yosef-Yehoash do not appear in the 1834 census, they must have been born after this date.

From the above it can be seen that the head of the family in 1816 was Shmuel Super, born 1781. His father’s name was “Gevush” or Heibish/Yehoash, born probably about 1760.
Shmuel was married twice
and the configuration of his sons therefore differs from the original family tree compiled by Norman Super.

click to enlarge

Given that two of Shmuel Super’s grandsons were named Tuviah, it would seem that they were named after an earlier ancestor who bore that name. The Riga archive holds lists of Jews living in Lutzin in the 1780’s and 1790’s. Feigmanis has provided his transcription of these lists, containing about 500 people, the entire Jewish population of Lutzin at the time. Since these lists precede the adoption of surnames that took place in the early nineteenth century, they can only be interpreted by the presence of personal names in an otherwise known family configuration.

The eighteenth century Lutzin list does include two families descended from someone name Toviah:


Movsha Tobiashevich aged 49 in 1786. (Amongst his sons were Itzik and Leib).
Khaim Tobiashevich aged 49 in 1794.
Since Movsha was born in 1739, his father “Tobiash” (Tuviah) may have been born about 1710 and could have been an ancestor of the Lutzin Super family.

As a result of the above re-examination of the Super family tree, the first chapter of my book “The Pen and the Blade - Super family” (Petah Tikvah, Israel 1992), entitled “Tracing the Family Tree” pages 2-31 should be deleted. The detailed family tree pages 116-184 has been considerably updated and is available in a separate file.

[1] Latvian State Historical Archive, Riga. Reference 755-1-370-142. Extracted by Aleksanders Feigmanis, Riga, Latvia, 1997

          Genetic testing as an aid for genealogical research – personal experience of Chaim Freedman        
Lecture given by Chaim Freedman to the Jewish Family Research Association, Petah Tikvah, Israel, May 2008.
The opinions expressed are those of the author and are based on a genealogical approach. The author claims no scientific expertise in Genetics.

In October 2006 I received the results of my genetic testing from Family Tree DNA. I had ordered a test of twelve markers on the Y chromosome, my paternal ancestry. (For technical explanations see Family Tree DNA site http://www.familytreedna.com/ ).

Initially I matched exactly with seven families who had tested with FTDNA. Over the course of the following year four more families tested and matched at the 12 marker level.

The families corresponded and exchanged information about their known ancestry in the male line with respect to the dates of their earliest known ancestors and their place of origin.

Subsequently most of the families updated their test to 25 markers and then 37 markers in order to establish more accurately possible common ancestry.

While 11 families matched my markers exactly on 12 markers, only 4 matched exactly on 25 markers while the other families differed on one or more markers. None of the families matched me exactly on 37 markers, but showed a variation of non-matching markers such that the probability of a common ancestor within a reasonable genealogical time frame lessened as a greater numbers of markers were tested.

The following is a list of the families, the date of birth of their earliest known ancestor and their place of origin.

(In the interests of privacy only the initial of the family surname is shown).

C; 1830; Dombroveni, Ukraine (Romania).
F; 1840; Rumania
H; 1850; Slavuta and Starakonstntinovka, Ukraine.
K; 1858; Starakonstantinovka, Ukraine.
L; 1875; Odessa, Ukraine.
Le; no response
Lo; Jugoslavia.
S; 1735; Orinin, Ukraine.
Sa; 1825; Alsace.
Si; 1825, Zinkov, Ukraine.
Z; 1860; Miastovka and Dombroveny, Ukraine.

Freedman; 1780, Zakroczym, Poland.


The Jewish Pale of Settlement in Russia, 1835-1917
from "The Jews of Russia, Their History in maps and photographs"
Martin Gilbert, 1976
Click to enlarge


Podolia, Volynia, Bessarabia, Ukraine - origins of the getetically matching families
Click to enlarge
It is possible for each of the matching families to calculate the number of generations, and thereby years, to the Most Recent Common Ancestor by using that facility on each family’s home pages. Next to each name (in the 37 marker section) is an icon which leads to this facility. It gives a chart showing the percentage probability to our MRCA. BUT we should carry out the second stage of this calculation, which is also provided, by entering the number of generations we know that we are not related. For example, my earliest known ancestor Yaakov Frydman was born about 1780. He was not the ancestor of any of this group. I am fifth generation after him. So I add a factor of five to the calculation. This pushes any MRCA further back. It is up to each of us to then decide what % probability we choose to consider significant for a relationship between us. I adjusted the calculation of the distance to our Most Recent Common Ancestor to 75% probability taking into account that we have no known common ancestor within 5 generations.

Family Tree DNA provides a statistical guide for Most Recent Common Ancestor for 12 identical markers:
7 generations, 50% probability
23 generations, 90% probability
29 generations, 95% probability.

For instance, my closest match is with Z and Si with a genetic difference of 2. That alone does not tell me how far back we may relate. Going to the FTDNA site and entering the above factors for each of Z and Si, I find that at a level of 75% probability our MRCA was 11 generations ago, or about 275 years. If I had not factored in the known non-relationship of 5 generations, I would have reached an incorrect level of relationship of about 9 generations or 225 years.We should also consider geographic proximity (which cannot be factored in mathematically) . For instance H and K both originate in the Slavuta area, Z and C have relatives in the same town Dombroven. This despite the level of DNA match.

In my opinion, based on our experience whereby the more markers we test, the further away from each other we move, for those who have not tested 37 markers the calculations are not worth doing.
Although my family lived in Zakroczym near Warsaw my DNA matches come from Volynia and Podolia.
My great-grandfather Jacob- Bendyt Frydman was born in 1852 in Zakroczym just northwest of Warsaw. His father Zyndel Frydman died there in 1855 and on his death record is written "parentage and birthplace not recorded" although he is called "Zyndel Jakubowicz".
One explanation for the missing information on Zyndel Frydman's death record, may be that he was abducted to serve in the army at an early age,from somewhere in the region of my DNA matches came from (Volynia/Podolia) . I am only surmising his military service, but since he was born in 1808 and had his apparently only son (plus two daughters) not until 1852, the military service may account for his absence. Of course we all know how Jewish young boys were kidnapped at a young age and served for 25 years in the army.
A Russian army fortress, Modlin, was constructed in 1823 near Zakroczym. The scenario I see is that Zyndel Frydman may have been released there about 1852 (when he was nearly aged 25), married a girl from a Zakroczym family (Chanah Gro) and settled there. Since he was kidnapped young, he may not have known anything about his origins, hence the lack of such information on his death.

It is interesting that over the last year since the original matching families have been in contact only three additional people has been discovered, even with a minimal twelve marker match. We await the details of these additional families.
The progress of our updating from 12 markers to 37 markers has demonstrated that it is not worth making assumptions about any possible relationships until at least 37 markers are tested. As we tested more markers, our original supposed exact match on 12 markers moved further and further away, such that none of us now match within a reasonable genealogical time period. But we can be encouraged that our data is within the FTDNA system and can only hope that their testing sample grows significantly.

Significance of ethnicity.

The above group of matching Jewish families are classified by their markers in one or other of the subgroups of I Haplogroup. According to the scientific research papers this haplogroup is not typically Jewish.

I sought a theoretical explanation for this phenomenon.

The statistical distribution of this haplogroup is predominantly Scandinavia, North Germany, France, Britain. A very small number of the recorded/tested families were Jewish.

Yet the common geographic origin of the matching Jewish families may be explained by the introduction of a non-Jewish primogenitor-father in the Ukraine. Given the marital ban on marriages between Jews and Christians, and the Church ban on Christians converting to Judaism, and given that the matching families above are all Jewish in the male line, it could be assumed that the non-Jewish Ukrainian primogenitor raped the female primogenitor during a pogrom in the Ukraine.

Events which may have provided the circumstances for rape:

Crusades in Germany and France 11th century – about 900 years/ 36 generations, which is much earlier than the probability for 12 exactly matching markers.

Pogrom in Kiev 1113 – unlikely source as above.

Black death massacres in Germany late 14th century. May have introduced haplogroup I close to its geographic origin.

Cossack massacres (Khemelnitsky) in the Ukraine 1648-1655. If the son of a Jewish woman raped by a Cossack was born about 1650, given an average family size of 12 children, of whom about 30% died in childhood, and if the survivors were 50% males, then the natural increase per generation was a factor of 4. The child of the rape union may have had 4 sons, 16 grandsons, 64 great-grandsons, 256 great-great-grandsons, and 1024 great-great-great-grandsons.




Ukraine - region of Cossack massacres 1648-1655
Click to enlarge

Given the large number of these hypothetical descendants of the Cossack/Jewish union, one should expect to find many more matches than the eleven families. The reason for such a small number of matches may be due to the small number of families who underwent DNA testing. A search for matches on the Ysearch site http://www.ysearch.org/ yields only a small number of families with the haplogroup I, few of which are Jewish. No Ukrainians appear in this list.
Conversly, no non-Jewish matches were found for the Jewish group. This may indicate that for some reason the group is unique.

It may be concluded that the sample size is too small or that Ukrainians were not tested, such that the above conclusion as to how the matching families are of I haplogroup may lack sufficient evidence.

Until a large sample of Ukrainians have been tested and only if they exhibit significantly I haplogroup, the Cossack rape cause cannot be judged.

Swedish War with Russia and Poland 1655-1658 although evidence (Dubnov) shows that the Swedes were not antagonistic towards the Jews, isolated incidents of rape may have occurred. This could explain the introduction of haplogroup I to a small group of families, perhaps a generation later than that proposed for a Cossack source. Furthermore, being of Scandinavian origin, such a source is in keeping with one of the most prevalent regions of haplogroup I origin.

Source: Simon Dubnov, “The Jews In Russia and Poland”, Philadelphia 1916
Dubnov describes the cruel treatment of the Jews in 1648 by the Cossacks in Podolia and Volynia in such places as Nemirov, Tulchin, Ostropol, Zaslav, Ostrog, Constantinov, Narol, Kreenetz, Bar and many others. The second wave of pogroms in 1655 moved further north into Belarus and Lithuania and Poland.

“The most terrible cruelty, however, was shown towards the Jews. They were destined to utter annihilation. The Cossacks, in conjunction with the local Russian inhabitants, fell upon the Jews and massacred them; the women and girls were violated. The young Jewish women were frequently allowed to live, the Cossacks and the peasants forcing them into baptism and taking them as wives.

After the cessation of the pogroms “Those of them who, at the point of death, had embraced the Greek Orthodox faith, were permitted by King John Casimir to return to their old creed. The Jewish women who had been forcibly baptized fled in large numbers from their Cossack husbands and returned to their families. The losses during the decade 1648-1658 varies between 100,000 and 500,000.”

Further records of the social effect of the pogroms is found in writings of Rabbi Avraham Horowitz, Natan Hannover and the will of Rabbi Sheftel Horowitz “Yesh Nokhlin, 5461/1701: “In all the places where killings were carried out hundreds of small youths, were annihilated, and small babies who were converted were taken by force by the Jews from the Gentiles, and for each was written an amulet from which family he was, by investigation. These amulets were hung on their necks. There was a great mixture and what the wise men of that generation could correct they did, and that which was not possible, remained in the mixture, and it is feared that in the course of years people will cast doubts on their holiness. Therefore it is worthwhile that everyone who was at that time should make a “Seder Yukhsin” (family tree) for his seed and his seed’s seed as a sign and safekeeping”

Reservations about the significance of testing to date:

Of a database of about 134,000 tests done by FTDNA, only 54,000 have been transfered to YSearch . Of these about 4,200 are I haplogroup. Of these only about 170 were tested in Eastern Europe, where most of our families originate. (Figures for YSearch taken in early 2008).Theories as to the significance of ethnic origins of I haplogroup, are, in my opinion, premature.
The significance of Haplogroup to ethnic origins is very controversial.I personally am not impressed with much of what has been published regarding the meaning of Haplogroups to Jewish origins since I do not believe that the samples of Jews are large enough. For instance a sample of about 1400 Jews was taken for a particular experiment. The scope and makeup of the sample was restricted to people from synagogues in the USA.
I feel that there are 5.5 million Jews living in Israel from whom a sample of several hundred thousand could be taken. The problem is the cost. I invested about $500 for my and my wife's tests. I don't think many people are prepared to do that.
There are many opinions there which you can all study and come to your own conclusions. Some have vested interests, religious, political, etc.

Female ancestry

My wife and I tested for our maternal genetic matches. The results, based on Mitochondrial DNA are far less accurate than paternal Y chromosome testing and do not give a clear statistical estimate of the number of generations to a common ancestor. Neverthless, geographic proximaty of matching families does indicate some relationship.

My tests resulted in 132 matches at Low Resolution and only five at High Resolution. Of these five one refused to share their results but two share with me geographic origins in Lithuania.

My wife received 53 Low Resolution matches and 5 High Resolution. Some of her matches originated, like her female ancestry in the Vitebsk area of Belarus.

Scientific papers and Internet sites:
See “Frequently Asked Questions” provided by Family Tree DNA http://www.familytreedna.com/faq.html

Behar, Doron. Skorecki, Karl and others, Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and host non-Jewish European population Human Genetics (2004) 114: 354-365.
http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/Behar_contrasting.pdf

In the later paper haplogroup diversity of Ashkenazi Jews from various regions was compared with non-Jews. 55 Ukrainian Jews appear in the sample, yet no Ukrainian non-Jews were included.

Behar, Doron. Skorecki, Karl and others “Multiple Origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y Chromosome Evidence for Both Near Eastern and European Ancestries. American Journal of Human Genetics 73:768-779, 2003.
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/tcga/tcgapdf/Behar-AJHG-03.pdf

Nordtvelt, Ken Population Varities within Y-Haplogroup I and their extended Modal Haplogroups.
http://www.northwestanalysis.net/

Coffman-Levy, Ellen “A Mosaic of People: the Jewish Story and a Reassessment of the DNA Evidence” Journal of Genetic Genealogy 1:12-13, 2005.
http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm
http://majorityrights.com/index.php/weblog/comments/the_mystery_of_ashkenazic_origins/

http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/43026_doron.pdf

A useful layman’s source for the understanding of Jewish genetic testing is “Jacob’s Legacy, A Genetic View of Jewish History”, David B. Goldstein, Yale University Press, 2008.

A Google search for Jewish Genetics will yield a vast number of sources.

          Yoel of Brisk        
Research to establish identity of Yoel of Brisk (Brest)

Chaim Freedman, February, 2008

Enquiry from Nancy Holden (December 2007):

Can you recommend a way to find out more about Joel of Brest who married oneof Yom Tov Lipman Heller's daughters?





“Yahrzeit letter which surfaced in South Africa, Israel and Canada...the originator gives the first mention of the manuscript "Chemdat Yamim" by Eliezer son of Jacov of Slonim, published 1807. And the Dedication page of the manuscript itself. Three editions of this manuscript have been located, one at the British Museum Library, another at the Widener Library at Harvard University and all five of his works at Yeshiva University in New York (four unpublished).



My ancestor, Eliezer Kaler of Amstibava (Mscibow), Belarus, (born 1749) wasmarried to Friedel (born 1759) the daughter of a Moses (lineage unknown) andMiriam (name according to 1784 GDL for Mscibow). Miriam was the daughter of Moses of Copenhagen and the daughter of SolomonZalman (her name unknown). The other daughter of Solomon Zalman was Estherwho was to married Ezekiel Katzenellenpogen (author of "Kenesset Yezekiel".Chief Rabbi of Hamburg, ABD of Altona,Hamburg and Wandsbeck) as listed inRosenstein's "These are the Generations") and Solomon Zalman was the son ofJoel of Brest-Litovsk.The father of Moses of Copenhagen was "Rosh Josef" who was married toDevora, daughter of Moses of Vilna. And he "Rosh Josef" (Josef ben JacobJoshua of Pinchow) was a grandson (most likely great grandson) document says"necad" of Jacob Polak of Krakow (died 1552).These documents say Joel of Brest was descended from Yom Tov. One translatorsays Solomon Zalman was known as "the great traveler" but I have not seenthat anywhere else.Another translator translates from the Dedication paragraph of "ChemdatYamin" "an uncle of Friedel, Jacob son of Benjamin of Grodno, supportedEliezer and Friedel while Eliezer wrote his manuscript "Sha'ar HaDerushimChemdat Yamim."


Sources extracted by Chaim Freedman:

Note contradictions between the sources.

“The Feast and the Fast”
Chaim Uri Lipshitz and Neil Rosenstein (1984)

Chart 1.
Yom Tov Lipman Heller 1579-1654,
Daughter who was the wife of Joel of Brest.

Chart 2.
Joel of Brest d.1709, son of “son/dau Joel Sirkes Bach”

father of:

1) Solomon Zalman of Brest
Father of Esther married Ezekiel Katzenellenpogen b. 1668A.B.D. Altona-Hamburg-Wandsbeck.

2) Jehiel Michal
Father of Zvi Hirsch A.B.D. Charkov
Father of Jehiel Michal Michelson, A.B.D. Minsk and first Rabbi of Kaluszyn
Father of Solomon
Father of Mordecai Mottel Michelson 1800-1872
Father of Abraham Haim d.1857
Father of Zvi Ezekiel Michelson 1853-1942
[I have omitted others who are not relevant]

Rosenstein erred in the sequence of the generations: Abraham Haim’s father was Yaakov Yekhiel Mikhel son of Mordecai Mottel as stated in Zvi Ezekiel Michelson’s books.
Rosenstein also erred in stating that Zvi Hersh was ABD Charkov, it was Tsherkov, Nor was his father Jehiel Michal ABD of Minsk, but of Novominsk.

“The Unbroken Chain”
N. Rosenstein page 841

G.12.1 Chava married R. Michael Klausner (note 60 E.J.Michelson etc) …. His ancestry appeared in Ma’amar Mordechai” …… [see below]

Rosenstein erred in ascribing a surname Klausner – he was referred to as “Kolshiner” since that was the town where he lived. His descendants took the surname Michelson.

“Shem Hagedolim Hekhadash”
Azulai 1874
#38 Yoel son of Moshe Gad, author of “Khidushei Halakhot” Altona 1836.
Grandson of the Taz and the Bakh.


“Toldot Anshei Shem”
Efrati 1875
Page 21 family of the Tosfot Yomtov does not include any daughter married to Yoel of Brisk.


“Ir Tehilah”
Arye Leib Feinstein, Warsaw 1885
p.33: Zalmen son of Yoel, father-in-law of the author of Knesset Yekhezkel.
p.103: The Aluf Yoel Segal of Brisk. [none of the sources refer to Yoel of Brisk as a Levi, indicated here by “Segal”, so this Yoel Segal of Brisk must be another person.

“Dagan Shamayim”
Tzvi Yekhezkel Michelson, Piotrykov 1901

Son of Avraham Khaim
Son of Yaakov Yekhiel
Son of Motel of Kolshin
Son of Shlomo
Son of Mikhel
Of the stock of the Bakh and the Tosfot Yomtov.

“Beit Meshulum”
Tzvi Yekhezkel Michelson, Piotrykov 1905
Page 73, Will of Mordekhai Mottel Michelson.

Mordekhai Mottel “Kolushiner”
Tombstone includes “ of the family of the Tosfot Yomtov”.
Son of Shlomo “Yospes” after his mother Yospe.
Son of Yekhiel Mikhel, brother-in-law of Mottel of Praga)
Son of Tzvi Hirsh of Tshorkov
Grandson of Yekhiel Mikhel (his sister was the wife of Yekhezkel Katzenellenbogen …)
Son of Shlomo Zalmen
Son of Yoel of Brisk
son of a son of Yoel Sirkes
[continues with the ancestry of Sirkes via Jaffe]

The wife of Yoel of Brisk was the modest Mrs Khana, daughter of Yomtov Lipman Halevy Helir etc.

“Ma’amar Mordekhai”
Mordekhai Mottel Michelson, edited by Tzvi Yekhezkel Michelson, Piotrykov 1907.

Mordekhai Mottel of Kolshin
Son of Shlomo
Son of Yekhiel Mikhel ABD Novominsk, Shenitza, Kolshin.
Son of Tzvi Hirsh ABD Tsherkov
Grandson of Yekhiel Mikhel (his sister was the wife of the author of “Knesset Yekhezkel, ABD A.H.V.)
Son of Shlomo Zalmen
Son of Yoel of Brisk
Son of a son of Yoel Sirkes ABD Krakow, author of the “Bakh”

The wife of Yoel of Brisk was a daughter of Yomtov Lipman Halevu Helir ABD Krakow, author of “Tosfot Yomtov”.

There is much information in the introduction of this book about this family but nothing further about Yoel of Brisk.

Note that he is designated “son of a son of Yoel Sirkes” while Rosenstein has son of a “son/dau”. It seems this point is not clear, particularly as references to the family of Sirkes do not show such a son of a son.

“Beit Yekhezkel”
Tzvi Yekhezkel Michelson, Piotrykov 1924

Son of Avraham Khaim
Son of Yaakov Yekhiel
Son of Mottel
Son of Shlomo
Son of Yekhiel
Son of Tzvi Hirsh
Grandson of Yekhiel Mikhel (his sister was the wife of the “Knesset Yekhezkel”
Son of Shlomo Zalmen
Son of Yoel of Bikhov
Son-in-law of Shmuel of Brisk who lived in Nemirov
Son of the “Tosfot Yomtov”.

Yoel of Bikhov was a son of Arye Yehudah Leib ABD Krakow, author of Shaagat Arye and Kol Shakhal.
Son of Naftali Hertz ABD Pinczow
Son of Yoel Sirkes the “Bakh”.

Note that the above differs considerable from the above genealogies by the same author, Michelson


“R. Joel Sirkes”
E.J. Schochet, 1971
No mention of Yoel of Brisk among the family of Sirkes.


“Megilat Yukhsin Mishpakhat Heller”
Yekhiel Horowitz-Heller, Tel Aviv 1978
Does not mention Joel of Brisk.


“Sefer Meginei Zahav”
Prague 1720.
Comments on the Taz.
Yoel ABD Szebrezin, edited by his grandson Yoel son of Moshe Gad son of the author Yoel.

The author Yoel of Szebrezin was a grandson of the Taz.

The Taz, David Halevy, was a son-in-law of the Bakh, Yoel Sirkes.


Conclusion:

It would appear that Yoel of Brisk, Yoel of Bykhov and Yoel of Szebrezin were three separate individuals, although related via the Bakh and the Taz.

Further research is required to clarify these identities.



          Reverend Phillip Berliner        
Pinkhas (Phillip Berliner)

(Written by his son-in-law Chaim Freedman in “The Pen and the Blade, Super Family” 1992).

Pinkhas (Phillip) Berliner was born in London, England in 1916, the youngest son of immigrants from Lodz, Poland. He attended Yeshivah Etz Chaim in London where he learned under the prominent Lithuanian leaders of English ultra-orthodoxy at the time, Rabbis Eliya Lopian and Eliyahu-Eliezer Dessler. He was such an excellent student that his teachers selected him to join a group which went to study at the recently established Gateshead Yeshiva in 1931 under Rabbi N.D.Landinsky.

In the mid 1930’s a proposal was made by the rabbis of Etz Chaim and Gateshead to further the higher religious education of English Yeshiva students at prominent eastern European Yeshivot. Pinkhas Berliner was selected to join a group of about ten students who went to Mir Yeshiva in Poland (now Belarus) and to Telz (Telsiai) Yeshivah in Poland. The group included Rabbi Nakhum-Zev (Velvel) Dessler, Josh Chinn, Rabbi Shlomo Davis, Rabbi Koppul Rosen, Rabbi Chaim Gutnik, Montie Moore, Rabbi Shmuel Bloch, Rabbi Dovber Silver and others who became leading orthodox rabbis and scholars, mainly in the United states. Details are to be found at http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~rkimble/Mirweb/YeshivaStudents.html .

Pinkhas Berliner studied in Mir under the renowned Rosh Yeshivah Rabbi Eliezer-Yehudah Finkel and the Mashgiakh Rabbi Yekhezkel Levinstein. On the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, the foreign students fled Poland, by order of the Rosh Yeshivah, the day before the Germans invaded Poland. For several months the group wandered backwards and forwards through Latvia and Estonia since they had inadequate papers. During this period of extreme physical deprivation and exposure. Pinkhas’s health suffered irreparably. Eventually visas were obtained through a Jewish member of the Latvian parliament, Rabbi Mordekhai Dubin, and the group settled in Lithuania at Telz Yeshivah under the soon to be martyred Rabbi Avraham-Yitskhak Bloch.

After nine months in Telz, in February 1940 Pinkhas rejoined Mir Yeshiva which had been relocated in Keidan, Lithuania. There he was finalizing his studies to qualify for Semikhah (rabbinical ordination) when the Soviet Army invaded the Baltic States. The Yeshivot were constantly harassed by the Communist regime and as the Germany army hovered in nearby Poland, the future looked ominous.

The British Government finally arranged a means of evacuating British and other foreign nationals. Travelling on visas issued by the famous Japanese consul in Kovno (Kaunas) Sugiharo, the group was sent eastwards via the Trans Siberian Railway to Vladivostok. From there they went to Hong Kong but were unable to continue to America due to hostilities at sea. Instead the group travelled to Brisbane, Australia. After several months of futile attempts to establish a Yeshivah in Melbourne, most of the group made their way to America and were amongst the founders of Mir, Telz and Lakewood Yeshivot. Some returned to England after the war.

Those remaining in Australia were Rabbi Dovber Silver, Rabbi Chaim Gutnik and Pinkhas (now Phillip) Berliner. Although he had a visa for America and had been accepted to Yeshiva Mesifta Torah Vadaat in New York, Phillip remained in Australia. He taught briefly in Sydney until he went to Melbourne in 1941 to marry Edna, daughter of Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov and Lena Super. They had three daughters Mirel-Shulamit (Muriel) Kleerekoper, Leah-Nekhama (Lena) Pose and Sheindel (Jane) Freedman.

In order to support his family Phillip learnt Shekhitah and joined his father-in-law at this arduous vocation. He also taught religious classes for the United Jewish Education Board and was assistant Chazan at the St.Kilda Hebrew Congregation. In 1946 he was granted the title “Reverend” by Rabbi Jacob Danglow in recognition of his services to the congregation.

Phillip Berliner was widely respected throughout the community. He approached his vocation with a deep sense of dedication and his sincere enthusiasm for Judaism inspired his students, in particular a small group that studied with him. One of these, Professor Louis Waller wrote to Phillip’s daughter Jane Freedman:

“Your father was a generous teacher in terms of time and energy. He drilled us rigorously in formal Hebrew grammar, introducing me to the patterns and paradigms which became ingrained. Though he was not a scientific linguist, he was very knowledgeable and very determined that our foundations in structure would be well laid. He invited Max Jotkovitz, Sonja Black and me to your home in Crimea Street on Saturday afternoons in the latter part of 1948 and 1949 for revision of the set books and lightening like parsing, declension and conjunction. Your mother would give us tea and cake to sustain us, and your grandfather viewed us with a bemused but benevolent eye. In addition to the biblical set books, grammar and history, we also studied a tractate of Mishnah, Baba Batra.”

Berliner’s work as a Shokhet was very taxing, both from the long work hours and the nature of the work. As recalled by Waller: “I asked your father about his work as a Shochet. He showed me his Khalef (blade) which he carried in a case in his breast pocket. I have an impression, but not a strong one, that he found his work in the slaughter house not only physically but also mentally very demanding.”

Reverend Berliner had regular duties to perform for the St.Kilda synagogue. Aside from services, in particular reading the Torah and teaching, he had to attend weddings, funerals and other occasions in the life of the congregants. In this way he built up a wide circle of people who held him in respect for his mild manner and friendly disposition. Professor Waller, in a memorial to Rabbi Danglow (St.Kilda Hebrew Congregation Chronicle, March 1981), mentions Berliner both as his teacher and paints a picture of the Bimah at the St.Kilda synagogue whilst Rabbi Danglow conducted the Neilah service:

“It is Neilah. On the Almemar stand Reverend Kowadlo and Mr. Berliner – as always. Each is enveloped in white Kittel and woolen Tallit. But both are at the back of the Almemor, in their respective corners. At the desk stands the Rabbi. He is davening Neilah.”

Berliner’s communal duties were not without considerable aggravation, as was common among the Melbourne synagogues, internal politics often claimed innocent victims, in this case Phillip Berliner. His health was never the best, he suffered severely from asthma, and the machinations of several members of the Board of his synagogue wounded him deeply.

On Shabbat, 20th Kheshavn 5720, November 21, 1959 Phillip Berliner died suddenly following a severe asthma attack. The entire community was shocked that this man, beloved by so many, had been struck down in his prime at the age at the age of forty-three.

Phillip’s widow Edna was faced with the awesome task of bringing up their three daughters.




Phillip Berliner C.V. (click to enlarge)






















Novoyelna summer camp about 1938





Reference from Rabbi Eliezer Yehudah Finkel, Rosh Yeshiva of Mir













Reference from Rabbi Avraham Yitskhak Bloch, Rosh Yeshiva Telz.
















Visa from Japanese Consul Sugihara, Kovno 1940




Phillip Berliner married in 1941 Edna, the daughter of Rabbi Yitskhak Yaakov Super of Melbourne. Berliner served the Melbourne community as Shokhel, Chazan and teacher until his premature death in 1959.








An archive of his papers is to be donated to the Jewish Museum in Melbourne.
          Kremer - the Vilna Gaon had no surname        
Kremer – the Vilna Gaon had no Surname

October 2007.

(Portrait courtesy of Yeshayahu Winograd, Jerusalem)

Despite a common misconception, the Gaon had no surname and "Kremer" or “Kramer” was a nickname applied to his ancestor Rabbi Moshe "Kremer" of Vilna because he had a stall in the market.

The term "Kremer" means a shopkeeper.
None of the primary sources or documents contemporaneous with the Gaon and the generation after him include a surname, although several biographies in modern times have erroneously used it.

There are many, many Kremers/Kramers who have nothing to do with the Gaon.
However the name was adopted by the descendants of one of the Gaon’s brothers Rabbi Moshe of Podzelva. They lived mainly in Dokshitz, Belarus, and in Israel.

Another family descended is from a female connection to the Gaon, a daughter of his grandson Rabbi Tuviah Yurbarsky and wife of Rabbi Yitskhak Kremer of Volkovisk (there are descendants in the USA).

Unless a family has a specific tradition of descent from the Gaon, the surname Kremer alone is probably not sufficient evidence of a relationship with the Gaon.

          Depeche Mode – Soothe My Soul :: Lyrics, Video, Ringtones        

  • Artist : Depeche Mode
  • Song   : Soothe My Soul
  • Album  : Delta Machine


New amazing song by English electronic music band, Depeche Mode called "Soothe My Soul". It is taken from their latest thirteenth studio album 'Delta Machine' released on 22 March 2013. The song will be released as the album's second single soon. Following the album's release, Depeche Mode will embark on The Delta Machine Tour, kicking off in Nice's Palais Nikaia on 4 May 2013, and wrapping up the European leg of the tour in Minsk, Belarus on 29 July.

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Depeche Mode – Soothe My Soul Lyrics | Letras | Lirik | Tekst | Text | Testo | Paroles - Source: musicjuzz.blogspot.com

Watch Depeche Mode – Soothe My Soul Music Video here



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          Tbilisi Dialogue Highlights Regional HIV Challenges        
30 Oct 2014

​Cooperation between government and civil society is crucial in securing rights for people living with HIV, a UNDP- and IDLO-sponsored meeting was told. Held in Tbilisi, Georgia with support from the European Union, the International Dialogue brought together government and civil society representatives from eleven former Soviet states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

Eastern Europe and Central Asia have continued to see a rise in HIV infections. An estimated 1.6 million people live with the virus. Between 2005 and 2012, the AIDS mortality rate climbed by more than a fifth. Levels of treatment are low: no more than a third of those in need of antiretroviral therapy are estimated to be receiving it. The rights of people with HIV are frequently breached in the region: violations range from denial of confidentiality to outright criminalization of the behavior of the populations most at risk.

“HIV is a matter of human rights,” Evgeniy Spevak of the Eurasian and Belarussian Union of People Living with HIV told the meeting. […] states have the obligation to undertake legal, financial and administrative measures to bring these rights as close as possible to the highest standards of health.”

Country: 

          International Women's Day (8 March)/Dia Internaçional da Mulher (8 de março)        

International Women's Day, 8 March 2010:

Equal rights, equal opportunities: Progress for all

From: http://www.internationalwomensday.com

International Women's Day has been observed since in the early 1900's, a time of great expansion and turbulence in the industrialized world that saw booming population growth and the rise of radical ideologies. 

1908
Great unrest and critical debate was occurring amongst women. Women's oppression and inequality was spurring women to become more vocal and active in campaigning for change. Then in 1908, 15,000 women marched through New York City demanding shorter hours, better pay and voting rights.

1909
In accordance with a declaration by the Socialist Party of America, the first National Woman's Day (NWD) was observed across the United States on 28 February. Women continued to celebrate NWD on the last Sunday of February until 1913.

1910
In 1910 a second International Conference of Working Women was held in Copenhagen. A woman named a Clara Zetkin (Leader of the 'Women's Office' for the Social Democratic Party in Germany) tabled the idea of an International Women's Day. She proposed that every year in every country there should be a celebration on the same day - a Women's Day - to press for their demands. The conference of over 100 women from 17 countries, representing unions, socialist parties, working women's clubs, and including the first three women elected to the Finnish parliament, greeted Zetkin's suggestion with unanimous approval and thus International Women's Day was the result.

1911
Following the decision agreed at Copenhagen in 1911, International Women's Day (IWD) was honoured the first time in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland on 19 March. More than one million women and men attended IWD rallies campaigning for women's rights to work, vote, be trained, to hold public office and end discrimination. However less than a week later on 25 March, the tragic 'Triangle Fire' in New York City took the lives of more than 140 working women, most of them Italian and Jewish immigrants. This disastrous event drew significant attention to working conditions and labour legislation in the United States that became a focus of subsequent International Women's Day events. 1911 also saw women's 'Bread and Roses' campaign.

 
1913-1914
On the eve of World War I campaigning for peace, Russian women observed their first International Women's Day on the last Sunday in February 1913. In 1913 following discussions, International Women's Day was transferred to 8 March and this day has remained the global date for International Wommen's Day ever since. In 1914 further women across Europe held rallies to campaign against the war and to express women's solidarity.

1917
On the last Sunday of February, Russian women began a strike for "bread and peace" in response to the death over 2 million Russian soldiers in war. Opposed by political leaders the women continued to strike until four days later the Czar was forced to abdicate and the provisional Government granted women the right to vote. The date the women's strike commenced was Sunday 23 February on the Julian calendar then in use in Russia. This day on the Gregorian calendar in use elsewhere was 8 March.

1918 - 1999
Since its birth in the socialist movement, International Women's Day has grown to become a global day of recognition and celebration across developed and developing countries alike. For decades, IWD has grown from strength to strength annually. For many years the United Nations has held an annual IWD conference to coordinate international efforts for women's rights and participation in social, political and economic processes. 1975 was designated as 'International Women's Year' by the United Nations. Women's organisations and governments around the world have also observed IWD annually on 8 March by holding large-scale events that honour women's advancement and while diligently reminding of the continued vigilance and action required to ensure that women's equality is gained and maintained in all aspects of life.

2000 and beyond
IWD is now an official holiday in China, Armenia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Moldova, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Vietnam. The tradition sees men honouring their mothers, wives, girlfriends, colleagues, etc with flowers and small gifts. In some countries IWD has the equivalent status of Mother's Day where children give small presents to their mothers and grandmothers.
The new millennium has witnessed a significant change and attitudinal shift in both women's and society's thoughts about women's equality and emancipation. Many from a younger generation feel that 'all the battles have been won for women' while many feminists from the 1970's know only too well the longevity and ingrained complexity of patriarchy. With more women in the boardroom, greater equality in legislative rights, and an increased critical mass of women's visibility as impressive role models in every aspect of life, one could think that women have gained true equality. The unfortunate fact is that women are still not paid equally to that of their male counterparts, women still are not present in equal numbers in business or politics, and globally women's education, health and the violence against them is worse than that of men.
However, great improvements have been made. We do have female astronauts and prime ministers, school girls are welcomed into university, women can work and have a family, women have real choices. And so the tone and nature of IWD has, for the past few years, moved from being a reminder about the negatives to a celebration of the positives.

GoogleAnnually on 8 March, thousands of events are held throughout the world to inspire women and celebrate achievements. A global web of rich and diverse local activity connects women from all around the world ranging from political rallies, business conferences, government activities and networking events through to local women's craft markets, theatric performances, fashion parades and more.
Many global corporations have also started to more actively support IWD by running their own internal events and through supporting external ones. For example, on 8 March search engine and media giant Google some years even changes its logo on its global search pages. Year on year IWD is certainly increasing in status. The United States even designates the whole month of March as 'Women's History Month'.
So make a difference, think globally and act locally !! Make everyday International Women's Day. Do your bit to ensure that the future for girls is bright, equal, safe and rewarding.

---

More about International Women's Day from the UN's Women Watch site: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/feature/iwd/:
In 1975, during International Women's Year, the United Nations began celebrating 8 March as International Women's Day. Two years later, in December 1977, the General Assembly adopted a resolution proclaiming a United Nations Day for Women's Rights and International Peace to be observed on any day of the year by Member States, in accordance with their historical and national traditions. For the United Nations, International Women's Day has been observed on 8 March since 1975. The Day is traditionally marked with a message from the Secretary-General.



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How to participate: Players need to sign up through our LINK and enter the password.

Password: WELCOME

Game: MAMMOTH WINS

Entry fee: Free!

Start date: 2nd August 2017

End date: 31st August 2017

Add-on: free (30 times)

Re-buy: free (3 times)

Max cashout: 2 x value of the prize (1 x wagering of the prize value)

Prize: 

1st place - $50

2nd place - $40 

3rd place - $30

Please note: For new members of the Casino Brango deposit is required prior to withdrawal (to confirm account). Only one non-entry free tournament / free promotion is allowed between deposits. Tournament prizes claimed by players that have not yet deposited at Casino Brango will be considered as if part of a no-deposit promotion and will be subject to our Terms and Conditions.

Restricted countries for the casino: Afghanistan, Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Bosnia And Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Costa Rica, Croatia, Estonia, Indonesia, Iran, Islamic Republic Of, Iraq, Israel, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic Of, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Romania, Serbia, Zimbabwe.


          Superior Casino Exclusive August 100$ Freeroll Tournament        

Superior Casino - Exclusive freeroll tourney this August only for LCB members

US OK!

New and existing players

Prizepool: $100

Tournament name: Arabian Tales Tournament

How to participate: Players need to sign up from our LINK, go to Cashier, click on 'Promotions' and redeem the promotion called “$10 FREEROLL Tournament (on Arabian Tales)”. Access the game (on any platform) to play your $10 Free and begin earning tournament points.

Game: Arabian Tales

Available on mobile: Yes

Available on download or instant play version: Both

Start date: 1st August 2017

End date: 31st August 2017

Rules: 

-To enter the tournament above you must redeem the exclusive $10 free available in the cashier
- Players can only play on 1 slot game (no progressives) throughout the use of the $10 free
- $10 free needs to be wagered 1 x
- Only wagers made while the promotion is active on allowed games count toward the tournament.
- Add-ons: If you make a deposit before reaching a balance of $0.00, then the promotion will remain active and you can continue earning tournament points with your deposit.
- For every US$1 wager you get 1 Prize Point. (Wagers in other currencies will be converted at the daily exchange rate to US dollars).
- The leaderboard will be displayed HERE - use the password to unlock the page.

Password: sc-lcb 

Prize:

1st Place: $50
2nd Place: $30
3rd Place: $20

Restricted countries for the tournament: Bulgaria, Belarus, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Croatia, Finland, Indonesia, Lithuania, Latvia, Montenegro, Malaysia, Philippines, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Russian Federation, Singapore, Thailand, Turkey, Taiwan, Ukraine, Hungary, Slovakia.

Have fun and good luck! cards 777


          Vegas Crest Exclusive Sign Up Bonus        

Vegas Crest Casino - Exclusive First Deposit Bonus

New players only - US OK!

Amount: 300% up to $1000

How to claim the bonus: Players need to register from our LINK, make their 1st deposit by choosing deposit “With Bonus”. The bonus will be credited automatically.

WR: 30 x b x d

Minimum deposit: $25

Mo max cashout

Game contribution to the wagering requirements: Slots 100%, Roulette, Baccarat, Craps, Blackjack, Video poker 10%.

Cashable bonus: Yes

Available on mobile: Yes

Exclusive promo expires: 31st December 2017

The following countries are restricted at the casino: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan,Bangladesh, Belarus, Bhutan, Bosnia And Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,East Timor, Estonia, Georgia, Ghana, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Islamic Republic Of, Iraq,Israel, Kazakstan, Korea, Democratic People's Republic Of, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Macedonia, Malaysia, Moldova, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Serbia, Montenegro, Singapore, Slovakia, Somalia, Spain, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Taiwan, Province Of China, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey, Turkmenistan, UK, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe.


          Casino Max Exclusieve Stortingsvrije Bonus        

Casino Max is een gloednieuw casino dat door de vorige eigenaren van Club World Casino’s is opgestart. We hebben voor onze LCB’ers een exclusieve promotie, dus probeer dit casino eens uit en we hopen dat je veel plezier hebt!

Alleen nieuwe spelers – USA Ok!

Te spelen op je mobiel en op je computer

Bedrag: $40

Hoe claim je deze bonus: Spelers moeten zich inschrijven via onze LINK en bonuscode LCB40 invoeren bij de Kassa.

Bonus code: LCB40

DV (Doorspeel Voorwaarden): 35x

Max cashout: $200

Landen uitgesloten van deze bonus: Armenië, Belarus, Bulgarije, Kroatië, Hongarije, Letland, Litouwen, Filippijnen, Polen, Roemenië, Servië, Turkije, Oekraïne.

Bonus kan worden gespeeld op: Alleen Gokkasten (Progressieve Gokkasten niet toegestaan)

Wanneer vervalt de bonus nadat deze is geclaimd: N.v.t.

Deze aanbieding loopt af op: Tot nader order

Maximaal toegestane inzet voor stortingsvrije bonussen? Hangt af van de gokkast, maar er geldt geen maximale inzet

Moet je een credit card registreren om de stortingsvrije bonus te claimen?: Nee

Verificatie van betaalmethode vereist om winsten uit te laten betalen?: Ja

Is de bonus cashable? Nee

Is de Stortingsvrije bonus beschikbaar in het download casino of in je browser? Allebei

 


          Casino Max Exclusive No Deposit Bonus        

Casino Max is a new brand launched by the previous owners of Club World Casinos. We have set up this exclusive for you LCB'ers, give them a try and we hope you enjoy!

New players only - US Ok!

Available on mobile and desktop

Amount: $40

How to claim: Players need to sign up from our LINK -  Redeem code LCB40 in the cashier.

Bonus code: LCB40

WR (wagering requirements): 35x

Max cashout: $200

Restricted Countries from this bonus: Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine.

Restricted games: Slots only (no progressives allowed)

Once credited when does the bonus expire: No

Offer expires: Until further notice

Max bet amount for no deposit bonuses? Depends what game but there is no max bet set

Need to register credit card to claim no deposit?: No

Payment Verification deposit needed in order to cashout winnings?: Yes

Is the bonus cashable? No

Is the ND available on download &/or instant play version? Both

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

EXCLUSIVE FIRST DEPOSIT BONUS

310% up to $3,100 + 200 Free spins

Exclusive bonus Code: LCB310

ONCE YOU START DEPOSITING YOU CAN BENEFIT FROM OUR EXCLUSIVE CASHBACK OF UP TO $75. 


          Casino Max promotions and bonuses        

Sign Up Bonus - Slots:              300% up to $ 3000

Sign Up Bonus - Table Games: 150% up to $ 1500

Certain countries are excluded from first deposit Welcome Offer and non-deposit bonus offers (Armenia, Bulgaria, Belarus, Croatia, Poland, Romania, Ukraine, Serbia, Philippines, Turkey, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania).

Details: Casino Max Bonuses Review


          SlotsInc Casino No Deposit        

Casino site: http://www.slotsinc.com/

I've found another Progressplay Casino..

"Restricted Territories" shall mean the following countries: Belgium, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, France, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey and the United States of America and additional jurisdictions blocked by the Company at its sole discretion.

Choose one of this 3 offers when registering as new player!

This promotion is valid until 1st August 2017 23.59 GMT and is only valid once per account / IP address.

Spinata Grande Free Spins: 

1. Register a new account with promotion code “SG25” - and receive 25 Free Spins upon activation.

Starburst Free Spins: 

2. Register a new account with promotion code “STAR50” - and receive 50 Free Spins upon activation.

Dazzle me Free Spins:  

3. Register a new account with promotion code “DM25” - and receive 25 Free Spins upon activation.

This promotion is valid until 1st August 2017 23.59 GMT and is only valid once per account / IP address.

Other Terms:

• The wager requirement is set to 50 times the amount before any withdrawal can be made.
• Deposit is required before any withdrawal can be requested.
• Free Play Bonuses cannot be withdrawn or redeemed for cash.
• Any winnings generated from the Free Play Bonuses are awarded only after all Free Play Bonuses have been played.
• Total winnings from free spins may not exceed £€$20 or 200kr.
• Any additional winnings from free spins will be considered nil and cancelled.
• Excluded countries for no deposit offer are Poland, Belarus and Romania.
• Canadian Players may not redeem free spins on any NetEnt Games.
• The wager requirement for bonuses shall be met within seven (7) days, otherwise the free spins and winnings from the free spins will be forfeited.
General Bonus, Terms and conditions apply.


          CLOSED: Superior Casino Exclusive July 100$ Freeroll Tournament        

Superior Casino - Exclusive July freeroll tourney only for LCB members

US OK!

Prizepool: $100

Tournament name: Vintage Vegas Tournament

How to participate: Players need to sign up from our LINK, go to Cashier, click on 'Promotions' and redeem the promotion called “$10 FREEROLL Tournament (on Vintage Vegas)”. Access the game (on any platform) to play your $10 Free and begin earning tournament points.

Game: Vintage Vegas

Available on mobile: Yes

Available on download or instant play version: Both

Start date: 3rd July 2017

End date: 31st July 2017

Rules: 

-To enter the tournament above you must redeem the exclusive $10 free available in the cashier
- Players can only play on 1 slot game (no progressives) throughout the use of the $10 free
- $10 free needs to be wagered 1 x
- Only wagers made while the promotion is active on allowed games count toward the tournament.
- Add-ons: If you make a deposit before reaching a balance of $0.00, then the promotion will remain active and you can continue earning tournament points with your deposit.
- For every US$1 wager you get 1 Prize Point. (Wagers in other currencies will be converted at the daily exchange rate to US dollars).
- The leaderboard will be displayed HERE - use the password to unlock the page.

Password: sc-lcb 

Prize:

1st Place: $50
2nd Place: $30
3rd Place: $20

Restricted countries for the tournament: Bulgaria, Belarus, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Croatia, Finland, Indonesia, Lithuania, Latvia, Montenegro, Malaysia, Philippines, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Russian Federation, Singapore, Thailand, Turkey, Taiwan, Ukraine, Hungary, Slovakia.

Have fun and good luck! smiley money


          CLOSED: Casino Extreme Exclusive July $175 Freeroll Tournament        

Casino Extreme - Exclusive $175 Freeroll Tourney this July only for LCBers

US OK!

Prizepool: $175

Available on Download version only!

Must have an account in USD- YES

Tournament name: EXTREMELCB

Top 5 places win the prize ($35 per player)

How to participate: Players need to sign up through our LINK and enter the password.

Password: CRYSTALCB

Game: CRYSTAL WATERS

Entry fee: Free!

Start date: 1st July 2017

End date: 31st July 2017

Add-on: free (35 times)

Re-buy: free (5 time)

Max cashout: 2 x value of the prize (1 x wagering of the prize value)

Available on mobile? No

Please note: For new members of the Casino Extreme deposit is required prior to withdrawal (to confirm account). Only one non-entry free tournament / free promotion is allowed between deposits. Tournament prizes claimed by players that have not yet deposited at Casino Extreme will be considered as if part of a no-deposit promotion and will be subject to our Terms and Conditions.

Restricted countries: Bulgaria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Croatia, Indonesia, Lithuania, Latvia, Montenegro, Malaysia, Philippines, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Russian Federation, Singapore, Thailand, Turkey, Taiwan, Ukraine, Hungary, Slovakia.

Good luck! money


          CLOSED: Casino Brango Exclusive July $150 Freeroll Tournament        

Casino Brango - Exclusive $150 Freeroll Tourney this July only for LCBers

US OK!

Prizepool: $150

Available on Download version only!

Tournament name: BRANGOLCB

Top 5 places win the prize ($30 per player)

How to participate: Players need to sign up through our LINK and enter the password.

Password: BRANGO150

Game: CASHED UP

Entry fee: Free!

Start date: 1st July 2017

End date: 31st July 2017

Add-on: free (30 times)

Re-buy: free (3 times)

Max cashout: 2 x value of the prize (1 x wagering of the prize value)

Please note: For new members of the Casino Brango deposit is required prior to withdrawal (to confirm account). Only one non-entry free tournament / free promotion is allowed between deposits. Tournament prizes claimed by players that have not yet deposited at Casino Brango will be considered as if part of a no-deposit promotion and will be subject to our Terms and Conditions.

Restricted countries at the casino: Afghanistan, Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Bosnia And Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Costa Rica, Croatia, Estonia, Indonesia, Iran, Islamic Republic Of, Iraq, Israel, Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic Of, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Romania, Serbia, Zimbabwe.


          Casdep and Fantasino Casino join the LCB Shop        

Hi everyone!

More great news is coming from the LCB Shop. We have two new items ready for you!

Fantasino Casino

20 Free Spins on Starburst Slot

Deposit in the last 30 days to qualify for your first set of spins. Deposit in between for second and subsequent sets of spins. Deposits can be used in conjunction with welcome bonus offers.

Available once per week

Wager winnings: 40x

Max cashout: €50

Restricted countries: Bangladesh, Belarus, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mauritius, Moldova, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pakistan,Philippines, Poland,Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, USA, Vietnam

Casdep Casino

€10 Free Chip

Available to new and existing players. Deposit to qualify for your first chip and deposit in between for second and subsequent chips.

Can be claimed ONCE per month.

Allowed games: Any Game under the 'Casino Red' tab.

Wager: 80X

Max Cashout: €50

Available only to the folllowing countries: Austria, Australia, Finland, Germany, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland


          Joo Casino Exclusive Sign up Bonus        

Joo Casino – Exclusive Sign up Bonus

New players only – No US!

Amount: 150% up to 350 EUR/USD/20.000 RUB/3300 SEK/0.5 BTC plus 50 Free Spins

How to claim the bonus:  Players need to sign up through our LINK and make a minimum deposit.  The bonus will be added automatically.

WR: 50 x B

Minimum deposit: 20.00 EUR, 20.00 USD, 1,500.00 RUB, and 0.05000000 BTC

Max cashout:  No

Restricted games: Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde, Lucky Angler, Big Bang, The Dark Knight, The Dark Knight Rises, Forsaken Kingdom, The Wish Master, Scrooge, Secret of the Stones, Simsalabim, Devil's Delight, Champion of the Track, Robin Hood, Tomb Raider 2, Castle Builder, Bloodsuckers, Kings of Chicago, Jackpot 6000 and Mega Joker

Free spins available for games:  SlotomonGo, Domnitors, Platinum Lightning.  Bonus is not available for Jackpot games.

Game type contribution to wagering: Table Games – Baccarat, Blackjack, Hi-Lo – 5% (excluding live games), Video Poker – 5%, Roulette and Poker – 5% (excluding live games), Jackpot games – 0%, Slots – 100%

Cashable bonus: Yes

Available on mobile: Yes

Exclusive promo expires: Until further notice

Restricted countries for the bonus: USA, UK, Spain, Israel, Romania, Lithuania, Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Philippines, Czech Republic, Portugal, Slovakia, Kazakhstan, Vietnam, Middle east (Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq with its autonomous Kurdistan, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen), Africa, Mongolia.


          CLOSED: Grand Eagle Exclusive Father’s Day No Deposit Bonus        

Grand Eagle - Exclusive Father’s Day No Deposit Bonus

New and existing players: US OK!

Amount: $55

How to claim the bonus: New players need to sign up through our LINK and enter the bonus code LCBDAD. Existing players need to use a bonus code.

Bonus code: LCBDAD

WR: 40 x

Max cashout: $100

Game contribution to the wagering requirements: Slots: 100%, Roulette 50%, Baccarat 25%, Video Poker 10%, Blackjack 5%.

Please note: All offers are valid for 1 claim per player as per the respective casino brand. All offers are available in USD$, C$, Euro €, NOK, SEK, DKK.

Min deposit needed in order to cash out winnings: $20

Exclusive promos expire: 19th June 2017

Countries that are not eligible to claim any free bonus offers or free spin offers where no deposit is required. If such an offer is claimed any player from these countries that submits a subsequent withdrawal will have their winnings voided. However, players from these countries may claim a free offer after they have made a successful deposit on their account.
Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Colombia, Czech Republic, Dominica, Estonia, French Polynesia, Georgia, Guadeloupe, Bosnia&Herzegovina, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macao, Macedonia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tadzbikistan, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam.

Restricted countries for the casinos: Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Spain, France, United Kingdom, Croatia, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Romania, Russian Federation, South Africa.


          Kings Win Casino No Deposit        

https://www.kingswin.com/

5 euro no deposit for account registration

Make an account on KingsWin and receive 20 free spins in our special slot game called “The Slotfather 2”! (currently freespins are not available, therefore it will be replaced with free money bonus 5 EUR or 5 mBTC) (wager requirements x60 / max withdrawal limit 50 EUR / 50 mBTC) - No deposits required to receive free spins. - It's not allowed to have multiple accounts on KingsWin. - Read carefully our bonus terms and conditions.

Players from the following countries are not eligible for the no deposit free spins: Albania (AL), Algeria (DZ), Angola (AO), Austria (AT), Bahrain (BH), Bangladesh (BD), Belarus (BY), Benin (BJ), Bosnia and Herzegovina (BA), Botswana (BW), Bulgaria (BG), Burundi (BI), Cameroon (CM), Cape Verde (CV), Chad (TD), Comoros (KM), Croatia (HR), Czech Republic (CZ), Côte d’Ivoire (CI), Djibouti (DJ), Egypt (EG), Equatorial Guinea (GQ), Eritrea (ER), Ethiopia (ET), Gabon (GA), Gambia (GM), Georgia (GE), Ghana (GH), Great Britain (GB), Greece (GR), Guinea (GN), Guinea-Bissau (GW), Hungary (HU), India (IN), Indonesia (ID), Iran (IR), Iraq (IQ), Islamic Republic of (IR), Jordan (JO), Kenya (KE), Kuwait (KW), Lebanon (LB), Lesotho (LS), Liberia (LR), Macedonia Republic of (MK), Madagascar (MG), Malawi (MW), Malaysia (MY), Mali (ML), Mauritania (MR), Mauritius (MU), Moldova Republic of (MD), Mongolia (MN), Montenegro (ME), Morocco (MA), Mozambique (MZ), Namibia (NA), Nepal (NP), Niger (NE), Nigeria (NG), Oman (OM), Pakistan (PK), Palestine State of (PS), Philippines (PH), Poland (PL), Portugal (PT), Romania (RO), Russian Federation (RU), Rwanda (RW), Sao Tome and Principe (ST), Senegal (SN), Serbia (RS), Seychelles (SC), Sierra Leone (SL), Slovakia (SK), Slovenia (SI), Somalia (SO), South Sudan (SS), Sudan (SD), Swaziland (SZ), Syrian Arab Republic (SY), Tanzania United Republic of (TZ), Thailand (TH), Togo (TG), Tunisia (TN), Uganda (UG), Ukraine (UA), United Arab Emirates (AE), United Kingdom (UK), United States of America (US), Vietnam (VN), Yemen (YE), Zambia (ZM) and Zimbabwe (ZW).


          Fantasino Exclusive Sign Up Bonus        

Fantasino Exclusive First Deposit Bonus

New players only - No US!

Amount: 150% up to €75

How to claim the bonus: Payers need to sign up from our LINK and the bonus will be added automatically. 

WR; 30 x b x d

Minimum deposit: €20

No max cash out

Restricted games: All Jackpot games, Jackpot 6000, Mega Joker, Aliens, Koi Princess, Blood Suckers, Dead or Alive, Double Dragons, Kings of Chicago, Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde, 1429 Uncharted Seas, Game of Thrones (15 lines), Spring Break, Ladies Nite, Eye of the Kraken, Tower Quest, Lucky Angler, Big Bang, Forsaken Kingdom, The Wish Master, Scrooge, Devil's Delight, Champion of the Track, Super Nudge 6000, Robin Hood - Shifting Riches, Pearls of India, , Peek-a-Boo, Royal Masquerade, Tomb Raider, Tomb Raider 2, Castle Builder, Untamed Bengal Tiger, Untamed Giant Panda, Untamed Wolf Pack, Untamed Crowned Eagle, Loaded, Thunderstruck, Egyptian Heroes, Wild Turkey, Lights, South Park and Jack and the Beanstalk.

Cashable bonus: Yes

Available on mobile: Yes

Exclusive promo expires: 31st Dec 2017

Restricted Countries from this bonus: Bangladesh, Belarus, Bosnia And Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Canada, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mauritius, Moldova~ Republic Of, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United States, Viet Nam.

Restricted countries for the casino: United States, Aland Islands, Alderney, Armenia, Aruba, Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk, Croatia, Curacao, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Estonia, Federated States of Micronesia, France, Holy See (Vatican City State), Hungary, Isle Of Man, Jersey, Kahnawake, Lebanon, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine.


           A small forward-looking inter-country model (Belarus, Russia and Ukraine)         
Charemza, W; Makarova, S; Prytula, Y; Raskina, J; Vymyatnina, Y; (2009) A small forward-looking inter-country model (Belarus, Russia and Ukraine). ECON MODEL , 26 (6) 1172 - 1183. 10.1016/j.econmod.2009.05.005 .
          United States closest defence partner of Singapore        

United States closest defence partner of Singapore : Videos

International Travel Tips : Where to Find Good Airline Fares
International Travel Tips : Where to Find Good Airline Fares

International Travel Tips : Where to Find Good Airline Fares

A good place to start for good airline fares is with a local travel agent, who has special consolidators that they can go through to save money ... Rated: 2.65     Duration: 60 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Sun, 12 Apr 2009 15:46:10 PDT

Report - Crazy US Defense Spending
Report - Crazy US Defense Spending

Report - Crazy US Defense Spending

A new SRPRI report shows a dramatic increase in defense spending by the United States of America. Cenk Uygur puts that in context of budget cuts ... Rated: 4.9688311     Duration: 190 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Tue, 12 Apr 2011 09:02:14 PDT

US Defense Secretary Travels to the Philippines
US Defense Secretary Travels to the Philippines

US Defense Secretary Travels to the Philippines

Also in the region was US Secretary of Defense Robert Gates. He spoke out against North Korea's aggressions in the Philippines today after ... Rated: 5     Duration: 77 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Mon, 01 Jun 2009 11:42:20 PDT

HOME Music Video (extended version - with artistes names tagging) for Total Defence Day 2011
HOME Music Video (extended version - with artistes names tagging) for Total Defence Day 2011

HOME Music Video (extended version - with artistes names tagging) for Total Defence Day 2011

Remaking a classic... First written by Mr Dick Lee and sung by Ms Kit Chan in 1998, the familiar song Home received a makeover for this year's ... Rated: 4.6923075     Duration: 383 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Mon, 21 Feb 2011 01:31:33 PST

Exercise Kiwi Flag
Exercise Kiwi Flag

Exercise Kiwi Flag

Forces of New Caledonia, Republic of Singapore Air Force, Royal Australian Air Force, the United States Air Force and the United States Marine ... Rated: 5     Duration: 128 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Thu, 29 Mar 2012 17:00:31 PDT

Home Team News - Teaser - 11.1.11
Home Team News - Teaser - 11.1.11

Home Team News - Teaser - 11.1.11

happening's from Singapore's Home Team. Like us on Facebook: www.facebook.com Follow us on Twitter: www.twitter.com Watch us on YouTube ... Rated: 5     Duration: 17 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Tue, 28 Dec 2010 02:22:44 PST

IRAN MILITARY POWERFUL AIR DEFENCE ANTI AIRCRAFT GUN
IRAN MILITARY POWERFUL AIR DEFENCE ANTI AIRCRAFT GUN

IRAN MILITARY POWERFUL AIR DEFENCE ANTI AIRCRAFT GUN

globalresearch.ca --------------- Preparing for World War III, Targeting Iran Humanity is at a dangerous crossroads. War preparations to attack ... Rated: 3.5714285     Duration: 245 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Thu, 15 Sep 2011 22:42:22 PDT

Sidley Austin LLP
Sidley Austin LLP

Sidley Austin LLP

1965 and 1991, he was a managing partner in the law firm before becoming Senior Counsel in 1991. Minow's early contact to Singapore and ... Rated: 5     Duration: 518 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Sun, 26 Oct 2008 17:39:38 PDT

Security in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Singapore Perspective
Security in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Singapore Perspective

Security in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Singapore Perspective

On April 4, 2012, CNAS hosted Dr. Ng Eng Hen, Minister for Defense of the Republic of Singapore, for a speech on "Promoting Peace and ... Rated: -1     Duration: 1515 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Fri, 06 Apr 2012 04:45:43 PDT

Kapap - US Navy ladies - 9 angles.MOV
Kapap - US Navy ladies - 9 angles.MOV

Kapap - US Navy ladies - 9 angles.MOV

Kapap Singapore is the partner to US Navy (SIngapore) in training its personnel in both unarmed and armed self defense. It is a deep honour to ... Rated: -1     Duration: 46 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Fri, 23 Sep 2011 03:21:27 PDT

Charlie Rose - An hour with Richard Armitage
Charlie Rose - An hour with Richard Armitage

Charlie Rose - An hour with Richard Armitage

COMBAT TOURS IN VIETNAM. HE HELD POSITIONS IN THE DEBT OF STATE AND DEFENSE HE'S ALSO COLIN POWELL'S CLOSEST FRIEND AND ADVISOR. WIDELY ... Rated: 4.2142859     Duration: 3400 seconds     Video type: Google     Hosted by: video.google.com on Tue, 13 Jun 2006 21:41:09 PDT

Healthy Body = Functional Body. Hollywood Look Side Effect: Healthy Function
Healthy Body = Functional Body. Hollywood Look Side Effect: Healthy Function

Healthy Body = Functional Body. Hollywood Look Side Effect: Healthy Function

, it's downright un-American. Our culture tells us to keep our eyes on the prize (while our mothers, who know better, tell us not to be so ... Rated: 1.7704082     Duration: 167 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Thu, 22 Sep 2011 09:46:52 PDT

Presidents Export Council Meeting
Presidents Export Council Meeting

Presidents Export Council Meeting

control reforms between the United States and India. We are also very active in knocking down trade barriers for US companies, from the US trade ... Rated: 3     Duration: 7944 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Fri, 11 Mar 2011 14:00:57 PST

Presidents Management Advisory Board Meeting
Presidents Management Advisory Board Meeting

Presidents Management Advisory Board Meeting

more flexibility of how we choose to access it versus to have you define it for us or else have us. So those are the kinds of things that we' ... Rated: 3.4     Duration: 5665 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Fri, 11 Mar 2011 13:12:27 PST

National Capital Planning Commission Meeting - December 1, 2011
National Capital Planning Commission Meeting - December 1, 2011

National Capital Planning Commission Meeting - December 1, 2011

location, those sorts of items. However, the Department of State in our consultations came back to us and said this is insufficient information to ... Rated: -1     Duration: 13956 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Thu, 01 Dec 2011 17:57:55 PST

Michael Lerner Sam Botta Atlas Shrugged April 15 Movie Release Oscars
Michael Lerner Sam Botta Atlas Shrugged April 15 Movie Release Oscars

Michael Lerner Sam Botta Atlas Shrugged April 15 Movie Release Oscars

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          Unpopular Italian property tax looks set for abolition        
It seems Italian real estate will no longer be subject to an unpopular property tax following the country's latest election. Prime minister Mario Monti told SkyTG24 that he would alter the levy which his own government imposed. Former prime minister Silvio Berlusconi, who will be challenging Mr Monti, has also pledged to abolish the tax.

However, it currently seems that the honour of changing property levies and giving the market a much needed boost will not fall to Mr Monti. The prime minister, who was appointed in November 2011 after Mr Berlusconi quit amid a sex scandal, is currently leading an unelected right-left government. In a recent survey, it was revealed that the current formation is third in the rankings, behind a centre-right bloc led by Mr Berlusconi and a centre-left coalition led by Pier Luigi Bersani.

Nevertheless, the overriding feeling among those in the race for prime minister is that Italy's property tax has to be altered if recovery is to occur. Mr Monti explained to SkyTG24 that "taxes need to be cut", but stressed "no one should be making promises that cannot be kept". Analysts suggest that for the prime minister, this means a cut will not bring any revolutionary change to the measure, but will instead ensure that a greater proportion of the property tax is set aside for municipal governments, the Globe and Mail reported.

Whatever the reforms ushered in by the next government, they must help to reverse the downward trend in property prices. Like much of the rest of Europe, Italy is suffering from a price slump, with only prime real estate bucking the trend. In November 2012, Knight Frank's Italy Insight report revealed that demand for properties over €3 million (£2.4 million approx) was buoyant, at a time when the rest of the market has suffered 30 per cent falls since the second quarter of 2008. Knight Frank attributes this to a weakened euro attracting non-eurozone buyers from Russia and Belarus.
Article by +https://plus.google.com/113107350172679406191?rel=author on behalf of Propertyshowrooms.com
          ANEXOS        
Artículo Enciclopedia encarta:




Constitución

Constitución (ciencia política), ley fundamental, escrita o no, de un Estado soberano, establecida o aceptada como guía para su gobernación. La constitución fija los límites y define las relaciones entre los poderes legislativo, ejecutivo y judicial del Estado, estableciendo así las bases para su gobierno. También garantiza al pueblo determinados derechos. La mayoría de los países tienen una constitución escrita. La de Gran Bretaña, encarnada en numerosos documentos (por ejemplo, la Carta Magna) y el derecho consuetudinario que definen las relaciones de los ciudadanos con la Corona, el Parlamento y los tribunales, no está escrita, pese a que, en muchas ocasiones, se ha postulado su redacción para que Gran Bretaña disponga de un texto análogo al de la gran mayoría de estados.


Las constituciones pueden clasificarse mediante varios criterios: si están protegidas contra enmiendas (constituciones blindadas), si presentan una clara separación de poderes, si las disposiciones pueden ponerse en vigor mediante revisión de la actuación del ejecutivo o del legislativo, si establecen un Estado unitario o federado, etc. Las constituciones escritas están asociadas históricamente al liberalismo político y a la Ilustración. Tal es el caso de la historia del constitucionalismo español. Muchos estados autoritarios y totalitarios poseen unas elaboradas constituciones, pero, en la práctica, no tienen vigor para ser respetadas por el gobierno en el poder, que siempre puede no acatarlas, suspenderlas o invalidarlas.


Constituciones en el mundo
Constituciones vigentes en el mundo





1. Afganistán: 1987 .suspendía tras el golpe fundamentalista al gobierno marxista en 1992
2. Albania : 39 de abril de 1991
3. Alemania: ley fundamental. promulgada en 1949
4. Andorra : 1983
5. Angola: noviembre de 1975. modifica en 1976,1980,1991
6. antigua y barbuda: noviembre de 1981
7. Arabia saudita: desde el 1 de marzo de 1992 , el gobierno monárquico absolutista se rige por intermedio del sistema básico gubernamental
8. Argelia : febrero de 1989
9. argentina : 1853. modificada en 1860,1866,1898y 1994
10. Armenia: en 1993 entro en vigencia una nueva constitución
11. Australia : 1 de enero de 1901
12. Austria:1920 .enmendada en 1929
13. Azerbaiján: se prepara una constitución dentro del sistema autoritario que impera en el es país islámico
Bahamas : 10 de julio de 1973.
14. Bahrein : 1973, bajo la monarquía absolutista
15. Bangla Desh: es enmendada e 1973,74,75,77,79,81.88.89 y 91
16. barbados : 30 de noviembre de 1966
17. belarus: se redacta una nueva constitución
18. Bélgica: 1831.enmendada varias veces y revisadas en 1949 y 1971
19. Belice: 21 de septiembre de 1981
20. Benín: el dictador Kereskou al abandonar el marxismo establece una constitución el 2 de diciembre de 1990 .propiciando el multipartidismo por primera vez
21. bhutan : 1953
22. Bolivia 1967
23. bophuthatswana : se rige por la constitución de Sudáfrica
24. Bosnia-Herzegovina: 1974.Modifica en 1989,90,91
25. Botswana: 30 de septiembre de 1966.En una de las pocas democracias del África
26. brasil: 5 de octubre de 1988.la primera constitución , en un gobierno civil en 24 años
27. Brunei darussalam :1959. algunos preceptos fueron suspendidos en 1962 , por el reino absolutista mas rico del mundo
28. Bulgaria :13 de junio de 1991 , ante la caída del viejo régimen marxista pro soviético y la instauración del pluripartidismo
29. burkina faso: con el establecimiento del multipartidismo se consolida una nueva constitución el 11 de junio de 1991
30. Burundi : 13 de marzo de 1992.suspendida por el golpe militar de 1993 que derroco al primer presidente civil .Melchior Ndadaye en plena vigencia
31. cabo verde : 7 de septiembre de 1980 modificada en septiembre de 1990
32. Camboya : 27 de junio de 1981. modificada por el régimen pro soviético de Samrin en 1989
33. Camerún : aprobada en 1996
34. canada : acta constitucional de 1982
35. ciskei : suspendida por el nuevo régimen militar en 1990
36. Colombia : 6 de julio de 1991
37. congo: al establecerse e nuevo sistema multipartidista , se redacto una nueva constitución en 1992
38. corea del norte : la constitución del 27 de diciembre de 1972
39. corea del sur: 25 de febrero de 1988
40. costa rica : 7 de noviembre 1949
41. cote d” Ivoire: (antes costa de marfil ) 31 de octubre de 1960. modificada por el presidente vitalicio Houphoner
43.Croacia: Diciembre de 1990
44. Cuba: 1976
45. Chad: Aprobada en 1996
46. Chile: 1980, Enmendada en 1989
47. Chipre Septentrional: 5 de mayo de 1985, aprobada por referéndum
48. Chipre, 16 de Agosto de 1960
49. Dinamarca, 5 de junio de 1953
50. Djibouti, 1991 y 1984. Leyes constitucionales realizadas pro la dictadura de Aptidón.
51. Dominica: 3 de noviembre de 1978
52. Ecuador: 10 de Agosto de 1978
53. Egipto: 11 de Septiembre de 1971
54. El Salvador: 20 de Diciembre de 1983, modificada en 1991.
55. Emiratos Árabes unidos: Siembre de 1971, en provisional establecido por la monarquía absolutista.
56. Eritrea: El país más joven de la tierra esta redactando su primera constitución bajo el gobierno provisional de Osaías Afwerki, Ex líder de la guerrilla del Frente de Liberación popular de la Eritrea (FLPE).
57. Eslovaquia: El país más joven de Europa se rige bajo la misma constitución de la Republica Checa creada el primero de enero de 1993, ambos estados pertenecían a la antigua Checoslovaquia
58. Eslovenia, Diciembre de 1991
59. España, 29 de diciembre de 1978
60. Estado Vaticano, no hay constitución,(Ley fundamental) 2001
61. Estados unidos, 1787, tiene 26 enmiendas
62. Estonia, una nueva constitución fue sometida a referéndum el 28 de junio de 1992, el país Báltico fue uno de los primeros en independizarse y establecer el sistema multipartidista.
63. Etiopía, promulgada en 1994
64. Fiji: 25 de julio de 1990
65. filipinas: El régimen democrática Corazón Aquino estableció una nueva constitución el 2 de febrero de 1987, que fue sometida a referéndum.
66. Finlandia: 17 de Julio de 1979
67. Francia: 6 de octubre de 1958
68. Gabón: 21 de febrero de 1961, modificada por Omar Gongo, uno de los dictadores mas antiguos del mundo en 1967-1975-1981-1986-1990.
69. Gambia: 24 de abril de 1990 , enmendada en 1982 por el régimen democrático de Dawda K. Jawara.
70. Georgia: Aprobada en 1995
71. Ghana: Marzo de 1992, el nuevo régimen democrático somete a referéndum la nueva constitución.
72. Granada: 1974 fue suspendida por el golpe marxista de 1979 y reestablecida en 1984, luego de la invasión norteamericana.
73. Grecia: Válida desde 1986
74.Guatemala: 14 de enero de 1985
75. Guinea Bissau: 16 de mayo de 1984, bajo la dictadura izquierdista de Luis Cabral y modificada en 1991 por su seguidor Joao Vieira.
76. Guinea Ecuatorial: Obiang Nguema establece una nueva constitución en noviembre de 1991 y es sometida a consulta popular.
77. Guinea: 23 de diciembre de 1991
78. Guyana: El régimen izquierdista de Forbes Burham establece una nueva constitución el 6 de octubre de 1980 y modificada en 1988 por sucesor Desmond Hoyte
79. Haiti. 1987
80. Honduras: Noviembre de 1982,
81. Hungría: 18 de Agosto de 1989. Modificada en 1972, 1983, 1989.
82. India: 26 de Enero de 1950, Modificada en 1975, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1986, 1988, 1992 en la democracia más grande del mundo.
83. Indonesia, agosto de 1945, modificada en 1969 por régimen autoritario más antiguo del mundo del dictador Suharto.
84. Irak: 22 de septiembre de 1968, enmendada en 1969,1970, 1973, y 1974 de manera provisional.
85. Iran: Creada por el gobierno fundamentalista islámico del desaparecido Ayatollah Khomeini en diciembre de 1979, enmendada en 1989.
86. Irlanda del Sur: 29 de Diciembre de 1937
87. Islandia: 17 de junio de 1944
88. Islas Camoras: 7 de junio 1992
89. Islas Marianas del norte: 1986
90. Islas Marshall: 1 de mayo de 1979
91. Islas Micronesia: 10 de mayo de 1979
92. Islas Palau: 1 de enero de 1981
93. Islas Salomón: 7 de julio de 1978
94. Israel: No existe constitución política como tal sino un conjunto de leyes; desde 1950 se han incorporado durante un periodo no específico.
95. Italia: 1 de enero de 1948
96. Jamaica: 6 de Agosto de 1962, conjuntamente con la independencia nacional
97. Japón: 3 de noviembre de 1946. En vigor en mayo de 1947.
98. Jordania: 1 de enero de 1952, enmendada en 1974, 1976 y 1984.
99. Katar: 2 de abril de 1970, creada por la monarquía Absolutista con carácter provisional.
100. Kazajstán: Aprobada en 1995
101. Kenya : 12 de diciembre de 1963, enmendada en 1982, 1986, 1991 durante los gobiernos autoritarios de Jommo Kenyata y Danieal Arap Moi.





Las 10 Constituciones mas jóvenes del mundo

1) Chad: 1996
2) Camerún: 1996
3) Sudáfrica: 1996
4) Georgia: 1995
5) Armenia: 1995
6) Kazajstan:1995
7) Malwi:1994
8) Bielorusia:1994
9) Lusemburgo: 1994
10) Rusia: 1993








No Existen constituciones en los siguientes países

1) Israel
2) Nueva Zelanda
3) Reino Unido (Escocia, Inglaterra, Gales, Irlanda del Norte)
4) San Marino
5) Vaticano
6) Bhutan
7) Omán
8) Somalia




Se han suspendido las funciones de la Constitución en los siguientes países

1) Afganistán: Tras el derrumbe del gobierno marxista en 1992.
2) Togo: El régimen autoritario de Eyadema la suspendió en 1991, tras los disturbios políticos que reclaman mayor para el multipartidismo al igual que otros países africanos.
3) Sudán: El nuevo régimen fundamentalista, que llegó vía golpe militar en 1989, suspendió la constitución de 1985 y ahora se rige a base de leyes coránicas.
4) Venda: El nuevo régimen castrense de 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la constitución.
5) Ciskei: Los golpistas militares que asumieron el gobierno en 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la Constitución.
6) Myanmar: El régimen castrense que asumió el poder en 1998 prohibió la constitución de 1974.
7) Burundi: Los golpistas que llegaron al poder a finales de 1993 y derrocaron la primera democracia del país, suspendieron la constitución de marzo de 1992
8) Transkei: Los golpistas encabezados por el general Bantu Holomisa suspendieron la constitución de 1987.
          ÐšÐ¾Ð±ÑÐºÐ¾Ð² 12-14 августа совершит рабочий визит в Казахстан        
МИНСК, 10 авг — Sputnik. Премьер-министр Беларуси Андрей Кобяков 12-14 августа совершит рабочий визит в Казахстан, где примет участие в открытии выставки MadeinBelarus.
          Ð›ÐµÐ³Ð°Ð»Ð¸Ð·Ð°Ñ†Ð¸Ñ ремейков в Беларуси        

Запись опубликована Критический портал shit.ru. Пожалуйста, оставляйте комментарии там.

Эта история начиналась тривиально. Белорусские создатели сериалов не мудурствуя лукаво позвали КВН-щиков (некогда отличных) и тупо сняли сериал “Теоретики”, который является полной калькой иностранного отличного сериала “Теория Большого Взрыва”.

И все бы ничего. Мы после “Тырсы” такому уже не удивляемся. А вот создатель “Теории Большого Взрыва” Чак Лорре благодаря доброжелателям из Интернетов посмотрел белорусский сериал и удивился.

А еще больше Чак удивилс, когда на просьбу разобраться с ворами, хваленые голливудские юристы ушли в отказ.

Из письма Лори:

Когда мы донесли этот факт до ушей отдела по защите авторских прав в Warner Bros. , нам ответили, что подать в суд невозможно, так как компания, которая нас обокрала, принадлежит государству Беларусь. Так как никаких других возможностей у меня нет, я надеюсь, что это письмо прочитают те милые люди, которые делают «Теоретиков», и что они, страдая от угрызений совести, отправят нам партию фетровых шляп. Авторы киргизской версии «Dharma & Greg» уже отправили мне обойного клея.

Предлагаю беспроигрышный бизнес! Надо открыть в Беларуси производственную студию и переснимать все сериалы с белорусскими актерами. Оскар, нам, конечно, никто не вручит. Но и с голоду не помрем.

А че, Лукашенко разрешил!


          ÐšÑ‚о и как дискредитирует оппозиционных активистов в Беларуси        

В Беларуси действуют интернет-ресурсы, публикующие об оппозиционерах лживые сведения или факты, которые могут быть известны только госорганам. Как работает схема дискредитации, разбиралась DW.   В интернете существуют ресурсы, которые уже не первый год публикуют лживую информацию о лидерах беларуских  оппозиционных политических партий, общественных активистах и журналистах практически из каждого областного центра страны. Особую активность эти […]

Запись Кто и как дискредитирует оппозиционных активистов в Беларуси впервые появилась Беларуская Праўда.


          Risk        

Risk, Laura Poitras’ documentary about WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, is what happens when an artist-activist invests her passions in a ravaged cause. The ravaging, in this case, was inflicted by Assange himself, who proved steadily less heroic over the six years in which Poitras filmed him.

As she recounts in her occasional, diary-like narration, Poitras—who also made Citizenfour, the Oscar-winning 2014 documentary about Edward Snowden—approached Assange in 2010, after WikiLeaks released thousands of U.S. diplomatic cables as well as secret video footage of a helicopter crew gunning down civilians in Iraq.

Those materials leaked by Pvt. Bradley (later Chelsea) Manning, who spent years in an Army prison for his act, put WikiLeaks on the map and drew Poitras to Assange as a figure willing to take enormous risks in order to change the world. But then, as we see in the film, Assange is charged with sexual assault in Sweden; to avoid extradition, he takes shelter in the London embassy of Ecuador, which has granted him asylum; a coterie of worshipful aides serves his needs; the paranoia runs deep (sometimes justifiably), as does the grandiosity. As Poitras tells us in a voice-over narration, a half-hour in, “This is not the film I thought I was making,” adding, “I thought I could ignore the contradictions,” but the contradictions “are becoming the story.”

Poitras screened an earlier version of Risk at the Cannes Film Festival in May 2016, prior to the latest twist in the Assange saga: the Russian government’s hacking of Hillary Clinton’s campaign and President Vladimir Putin ordering the leaking of thousands of the campaign’s emails, through WikiLeaks, for the purpose of helping Donald Trump win the November election. Subsequently, Poitras spent months revising her film for release this Friday. Just last week, she twice postponed press reviews to work in more updates, including CIA Director Mike Pompeo’s recent accusation that WikiLeaks is not a news publication subject to First Amendment protections but rather a nonstate intelligence agency hostile to U.S. interests.

The film, as it now stands, recites these charges, but it’s unclear how Poitras regards them. After showing a news clip of FBI Director James Comey telling a congressional committee that Russia used a “cut-out” organization—a third party—to funnel Clinton’s files to WikiLeaks, Poitras inserts a title card that reads, “Assange denies his source is a state actor.” But this skirts the issue: We’ve just seen Comey say that WikiLeaks didn’t get the stuff from a state actor directly, but that a state actor—namely, Putin’s Russia—provided it to the person who gave it to WikiLeaks. Assange’s response is a classic case of what journalists call a “non-denial denial.” But Poitras leaves it there.

At one point, as if reading from a diary, Poitras says that she no longer trusts Assange. She also says that a personal breach occurred when she decided not to give Snowden’s documents (which she obtained while making this film) to WikiLeaks, a move that Assange—in a text to her, which she quotes—considered a “betrayal.”

But what specifically bred Poitras’ distrust of Assange? The sex charges; the Russia connection; his blooming paranoia; the sense, gleaned from several in Assange’s entourage (we see it on the faces of his lawyers and advisers, as they try to debrief him on his legal and PR troubles) that he’s a narcissistic asshole; all of the above? It isn’t clear.

Certainly she shouldn’t have been surprised by any of it. Alex Gibney’s 2013 documentary, We Steal Secrets: The Story of WikiLeaks, exposed much of Assange’s weirdness and deceit. Back in 2011, not long after Poitras started her project, James Ball, a former WikiLeaks staffer, wrote an article in The Guardian (which had published much of WikiLeaks’ material), explaining that he’d left the organization in part because of Assange’s cult-like obsessions, and in part because one of its senior associates, a Russian self-styled “peace activist” named Israel Shamir, supplied raw documents, which WikiLeaks had obtained, to the interior ministry of Belarus, one of Moscow’s most dictatorial allies. Also, in 2012, Assange hosted an interview show, broadcast by the Russian television network RT, which serves as Putin’s propaganda channel. Long before the 2016 election, then, it should have been clear to anyone with eyes that WikiLeaks—which may once have been dedicated to truth and transparency—had degenerated into a Kremlin tool.

We never do learn when, why, or to what degree Poitras changed her mind about Assange.

Nor does Poitras confront, though she does show others mentioning, the many ethical-political questions that Assange and WikiLeaks raise. News editors are still mulling whether their eager dissemination of the Clinton hacks played into the hands of a Russian plot to influence the 2016 election—and, if it did, how they should weigh the balance between scoops and sovereignty the next time. Most people who are honest about the dilemmas of the digital age are at least aware of the tensions between security and freedom. Too often, Assange acts as if there are no such tensions, and Poitras abets him in this.

In one scene in Risk, a journalist asks Assange whether WikiLeaks doesn’t give “bad guys” a handout. Assange replies, “No, no more than roads allow terrorists to travel.” This is a lousy analogy; if examined even a little, it makes an argument against Assange’s position. After all, roads are full of traffic signals, speed-limit postings, toll booths, cameras, the occasional barricade, and police who can stop violators of the rules, demand their ID cards, issue tickets, and even slap on handcuffs. Governments are far more intrusive on roads than they are on the internet.

Poitras’ evolving perspective on Assange might have made for a fascinating probe into the complex relationship between an artist-journalist and her subject, with its rich ambiguities and (to use her own word) risk—a cinematic version of what Janet Malcolm has often done in essays. Poitras is a very talented artist: Though I had problems with the content of her Snowden documentary, it was a deft, sometimes gripping piece of filmmaking; I would describe her 2016 installation on surveillance, at the Whitney Museum of American Art, in similar terms.

But she came into the Assange project as a collaborator as well as a chronicler, got too close to her subject and his associates (admitting, in a voice-over, that she had a brief affair with one of them, Jacob Appelbaum, who was also later accused of sexual abuse), and—once doubts arose about his motives and methods and the consequences of his actions—she didn’t know how to process them. Turning against Assange all together would feel like joining forces with the feds; yet celebrating him unabashedly would be naïve. So she’s built a ramshackle construct, tacking caveats and qualifiers to her original script, letting the awkward bits go without comment or labeling them “contradictions” without explaining, much less resolving, them. This isn’t the churning of ambiguities; it’s a muddle, a mess.


          Is WikiLeaks Just a Stooge of the Kremlin?        

What to make of WikiLeaks these days? Is it a conduit for whistleblowers and the promotion of global glasnost—or has it morphed, as even some of its onetime supporters lament, into a tool (or perhaps stooge) of the Kremlin?

Ecuadorean President Rafael Correa is clearly wondering. Four years ago, Correa granted asylum to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, who has since been holed up inside the country’s London embassy to avoid extradition. This week, though, Correa cut off Assange’s internet access, releasing a statement that Ecuador upholds “the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries” and, in particular, “does not interfere in external electoral processes” or “favor any particular candidates.”

With WikiLeaks’ latest batch of emails from Hillary Clinton’s campaign and Assange’s own warnings of an “October surprise” that could damage her chances of winning the presidency, the WikiLeaks founder has done just that, and from Ecuadorean territory.

Should American reporters and editors be growing leery too? Should they be printing the campaign emails? In a thoughtful essay in the Intercept, Glenn Greenwald, WikiLeaks’ most thorough defender, dismissed the question’s validity. “A source’s motives,” Greenwald wrote, “are irrelevant in deciding whether to publish.”

Generally speaking, he’s right. As anyone in the news business knows, leakers have various motives, many of them less than noble. Some act out of principled concern for the national interest or public safety, but others do it to sate their egos or to hurt political or bureaucratic rivals. Reporters and editors have to be cognizant of these motives, but mainly to assess whether the leaked information is true or complete. If it is, if it’s interesting and in the public interest, if its disclosure won’t do any harm (or if its value is seen as outweighing its harm), then, yes, they should publish. For instance, it was revealed, many years after the fact, that Mark Felt, the “Deep Throat” of the Watergate saga, gave secrets to the Washington Post’s Bob Woodward as part of a power struggle within the FBI. (Felt was the bureau’s deputy director at the time.) But that doesn’t diminish the Post’s stories as some of the greatest feats in American journalism.

But what if the source of a leak is a foreign power, and a somewhat adversarial foreign power at that? And what if the foreign power is leaking the information in order to sway the course of American democracy? Does that alter the principle or tilt the equation? This would be an extreme case, but WikiLeaks’ release of Clinton campaign emails is precisely such a case. In a widely publicized statement on Oct. 7, the director of national intelligence and the secretary of homeland security proclaimed that “the Russian government directed” the hacking of those emails—in fact, “based on the scope and sensitivity” of the hacks, “only Russia’s senior-most officials could have authorized these activities”—and that the hacks were “intended to interfere with the U.S. election process.”

If this assessment is true (and it was said to be the conclusion of the entire U.S. intelligence community), should American news outlets allow themselves to be used in this fashion? Let’s put the question more starkly. Imagine that the Russian ambassador approached a reporter or editor with the emails and said that he hoped their publication would affect our presidential election. That should at least ring some warning bells about motive. The fact that no leaks of any sort have come out about Donald Trump’s campaign might sound the bells a bit louder—especially since its computers are loaded with Windows Server 2003, making them very vulnerable to hacking. No doubt the Russians have hacked them, if just for intelligence-gathering purposes. Where are those emails? It may be that Russia has an interest in embarrassing Hillary Clinton and not embarrassing Donald Trump. In other words, the primary curator of this story may well be “Russia’s senior-most officials.” Quite aside from the question of whether the emails are damning or particularly interesting, is the source and the motive, in this case, relevant in a decision to publish?

I don’t know the answer. In the words of Jeffrey “The Dude” Lebowski, “It’s a very complicated case, a lot of ins and outs and what-have-yous.” But it is a valid question to consider.

Assange’s relation with the Russian government and its allies has been an unsettling issue for some time. In 2011, a WikiLeaks staffer named Israel Shamir was caught providing raw intelligence documents to the interior minister of Belarus, whose leader, Aleksandr Lukashenko, was a strong ally of Vladimir Putin’s. James Ball, another WikiLeaks staffer, quit the organization—and subsequently wrote about the scandal for the Guardian—when Assange forbade any internal criticism of Shamir, a close friend of his. It may also be worth noting that Assange hosted a short-lived show on Russia’s RT channel, a propaganda arm of Putin’s government.

Ecuador’s Correa reaffirmed Assange’s asylum status even while cutting off his access to the internet for a while (presumably until after Nov. 8). Maybe the American news media should adopt a similar stance toward WikiLeaks in general, treating its wares as interesting and even revelatory, especially when its stuff reveals wrongdoing, but cutting it off—and, in any case, judging warily—when the source of its goods and its motives cross a bold, red line.


          Cold War Games        

It’s nothing new that the Russian government has hacked into the Democratic National Committee’s email. What is new—and alarming—is that it seems to have leaked the files in an attempt to influence an American presidential election.

And so, along with other new eras ushered in by this bizarre election season, we have entered a new era of cyberwarfare.

During the 2008 election, the Chinese hacked into the campaign files of both parties’ candidates, Barack Obama and John McCain. The act was disturbing (in part because government-sponsored hacking was still a little-known phenomenon to the general public) but not profoundly so. The hack amounted to straightforward espionage designed to glean information about the candidates’ positions on issues of interest to Beijing.

That is not what’s going on here. No doubt the Russians have also hacked the Republican National Committee’s emails, which almost certainly contain critical missives about Donald Trump that would embarrass the GOP and its candidate today. But no one has leaked those memos to WikiLeaks. The cache of documents out there so far, conveniently indexed for all to examine, reveals the seamy side of only the Democratic Party’s campaign—in particular efforts by soon-to-be-former DNC Chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz to defame and discredit Bernie Sanders during the primaries. In other words, the leaks seem to be a blatant attempt to further alienate Bernie-ites’ from the party establishment, to discourage them from voting for Hillary Clinton, and even to prod them (though this is a long shot) to vote for Trump—all this on the eve of the Democratic National Convention, where Sanders himself is scheduled to sing Clinton’s praises opening night.

Putin may well see this campaign as tit-for-tat in the new normal. He has said, and may genuinely believe, that the CIA fomented Ukraine’s Orange Revolution in 2004—and that, a decade later, the CIA and NATO organized the protests in Kiev, causing Putin’s ally, Viktor Yanukovych, to flee the capital. There is no evidence substantiating Putin’s paranoia. But it is certainly the case that, from the 1940s into the early 1970s, the CIA tried to influence elections in several countries—Italy, Greece, and Chile, among others—by discrediting or sabotaging Communist candidates and pouring money into the campaigns of center-right or right-wing opponents. During these same Cold War years, Moscow’s Comintern agents tried to tilt elections toward Communist or pro-Soviet parties as well.

This is the first time, as far as we know, that a foreign power has so actively tried to boost a candidate’s prospects in an American election. And, in a 21st century twist, it is the first time (again, as far as we know) that an operation of this sort has been run not through spies on the ground, or proxy bank accounts, but through information acquired and planted in cyberspace.

The evidence of Russian involvement is fairly clear. In June, CrowdStrike, a cybersecurity company working for the DNC, concluded that two Russian intelligence groups—Fancy Bear and Cozy Bear—had hacked into the Democrats’ network. Another company, FireEye, which has written several reports on Chinese and Syrian cyberattacks, spotted an intrusion as far back as 2014 and identified Cozy Bear as the hacker. Evidence included the facts that the hackers’ work hours aligned with Moscow’s time zone, operations ceased on Russian holidays, their techniques carried signatures common to other Russian hacks, and their targets were of clear interest to Moscow.

WikiLeaks, or people within the organization, have long had suspicious relations with Putin’s allies. In 2011, a staffer named Israel Shamir was caught providing raw intelligence documents to the interior ministry of Belarus, whose leader, Alexander Lukashenko, is a strong ally of Putin’s. (James Ball, another WikiLeaks staffer, quit the organization—and subsequently wrote about the scandal for the Guardian—when the group’s founder, Julian Assange, forbade any internal criticism of Shamir, a close friend of his.) It may also be worth noting that Assange hosted a short-lived television show on Russia’s RT channel, which is essentially a propaganda arm for Putin’s government.

But quite aside from these connections (and let’s assume for a moment that they’re irrelevant or outdated), it is certainly the case that if any foreign power wanted to release secrets over the transom without leaving clear fingerprints, WikiLeaks has long proved itself an eager partner—especially if the secrets might embarrass the United States or its allies.

Which leads to the Trump connection. As my colleague Franklin Foer has noted and many others have now observed, some of Trump’s properties have been reliant on Russian financing; his campaign chair, Paul Manafort, has been a communications consultant for several dictators around the world, including (before his ouster) Ukraine’s Yanukovych; and that Trump’s new Russia policy adviser, Carter Page, has professional and financial ties to Gazprom, Moscow’s state-owned energy company.

Ties are one thing, policy and statements are another. Here is where the links get interesting. The one time Trump’s aides intervened in the drafting of the Republican National Convention’s platform, it was to push for the deletion of a passage endorsing arms shipments to Ukraine soldiers fighting to stave off incursions from Russian forces. And of course, many of Trump’s statements on foreign policy, such as his isolationist impulses and jarring statement, in a New York Times interview, that he might not come to the aid of a NATO ally in the event of an invasion, must be sweet whisperings to Putin’s ears.

None of this suggests that Trump, or anyone around him, is a Russian spy. But you don’t have to be a conspiracy theorist or neo-Cold Warrior (and I’m neither) to recognize that, on many levels, Trump would serve Putin’s interests. Or, in any event, that Putin might have very good reason to believe as much and that he would act on that interest in a new and subtly intrusive way—as he has apparently done.

Read more from Slate about the 2016 campaign.


          Asbestos industry sabotages UN Rotterdam Convention        
Kathleen Ruff, RightOnCanada.ca At the 8th Conference of the Parties to the Rotterdam Convention, taking place in Geneva this week, a tiny number of countries – Russia, Kazakhstan, Zimbabwe, India, Kyrgyzstan, Belarus and Syria – thumbed their noses at the scientific evidence and the wishes of the rest of the world and refused to allow […]
          The Lancet Infectious Diseases: July 09, 2013        

Mikhail Edelstein discusses antibiotic resistance in Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia.


          Alanya'da denizde can pazarı        
Alanya’da tatilini geçiren Belarus uyruklu 58 yaşındaki erkek turist, girdiği denizde boğularak yaşamını yitirdi.
          Prediksi Bola: Prediksi Skor Pertandingan Belarusia U21 vs Islandia U21 (EURO U-21 2011)        
none
          Bianca (Бьянка) the russian pop star - 2        
Few months ago, I wrote about the russian pop star Bianca. Here you will get the link of my old post. Today some thing more about her.


Bianca (Jan Lipnitskaya) took many years to get her success. Professional music and singing, she began in childhood. In her biography are the work of the soloist at the State Orchestra of Symphonic and Popular Music of Belarus, winning the international contest of "mallow" and "White Russia", tour the cities of Germany with a repertoire of their own compositions, the proposal to represent Belarus at "Eurovision".



Magic stories - this is not about her. All that was taken, only by herself. With the unique voice and charisma to the character of applied force. Jan Lipnitskaya stage career began traditionally for the young citizen councils to participate in the circle of folk dancing and singing in a choir. Having spent 4 years of "vegetative" art of "Kalinka" and "birch", unvalued actress left the studio to sing in variety. From the choir girl was expelled for non-traditional vocals. What will soon be spared, and as soon as Jan in record time, exceeded all norms on the number of prizes and awards. At the age of 16 she received the Grand Prix of International Competition for Young Performers "mallow", then - the Grand Prix of young pop songs and dance, "White Russia", and on behalf of the international competition Aginsky ranked third.


After these victories, her talent of course, is more than demand. 4 years, Bianca worked for a soloist of the Orchestra of Symphonic and Pop Music of Belarus conducted by Mikhail Finberg. Work work and to ambitious souls, Jan went to the repertoire of their own compositions on tour in Germany! Hard to believe, that is as talented as it was bold but the singer was only 17!



And then the fate of their usual gave her a choice. Jan was invited to present Belarus at international contest "Eurovision". In the same hour of work with the project "Serega" suggested madmuazel Lipnitskaya his inspirer Sergei Parkhomenko. Bianca preferred official song festival with the protocol of the pressure and the prospects of one of the most fashionable in the post-Soviet groups.



In this framework Bianca sang in duet with Max Lawrence song "The Swan" from the soundtrack to the Russian blockbuster "The battle with the shadow." The track soared to the top of charts and sounded romantic summer 2005! And the very same young singer song literally put on the wing. The success of "The Swan" marked the final demise of an "oligarch-pop", and Bianca decided to take the honorable cause RnB Revolution!



After the amendment to the mentality, but not bringing admiringly look with golden divas Beyonz, Bianca wrote material for their debut album in the style of "Russian folk RnB". In its modern interpretation of "black" music has gained breadth and sincerity (to dance - so all the court to exhaustion, and to love - a lot, without looking back, with all my heart), so close the Slavic soul. Tracks for the future long-pleya currently recorded for one of the best studios of the former CIS countries with the help of sound, previously worked with the famous "Black Eyed Peas". In the immediate plans for the singer-shooting clip in the funny song "There were dances." Directed by Vladimir Yakimenko Video (Black Bumer, King Ring, Diskomalyariya, near the house of thy) will show these dances, which have not yet seen the world!
Here a video song of Bianca name "Resque and save" in russian (Бьянка - Спаси и сохрани).

          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauList of Currencies of the World and their Currency Symbols

There are 179 currencies in the world.
List of Currencies of the World
Currencies of the World

Currency Symbols

CurrencySymbol
Afghan afghani؋
Albanian lekL
Alderney pound£
Algerian dinarد.ج
Angolan kwanzaKz
Argentine peso$
Armenian dramդր.
Aruban florinƒ
Ascension pound£
Australian dollar$
Bahamian dollar$
Bahraini dinar.د.ب
Bangladeshi taka৳
Barbadian dollar$
Belarusian rubleBr
Belize dollar$
Bermudian dollar$
Bhutanese ngultrumNu.
Bolivian bolivianoBs.
Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible markKM or КМ
Botswana pulaP
Brazilian realR$
British pound£
British Virgin Islands dollar$
Brunei dollar$
Bulgarian levлв
Burundian francFr
Cambodian riel៛
Canadian dollar$
Cape Verdean escudoEsc or $
Cayman Islands dollar$
Central African CFA francFr
CFP francFr
Chilean peso$
Chinese yuan¥ or 元
Cocos (Keeling) Islands dollar$
Colombian peso$
Comorian francFr
Congolese francFr
Cook Islands dollar$
Costa Rican colón₡
Croatian kunakn
Cuban convertible peso$
Cuban peso$
Czech korunaKč
Danish kronekr
Djiboutian francFr
Dominican peso$
East Caribbean dollar$
Egyptian pound£ or ج.م
Eritrean nakfaNfk
Ethiopian birrBr
Euro€
Falkland Islands pound£
Faroese krónakr
Fijian dollar$
Gambian dalasiD
Georgian lariლ
Ghanaian cedi₵
Gibraltar pound£
Guatemalan quetzalQ
Guernsey pound£
Guinean francFr
Guyanese dollar$
Haitian gourdeG
Honduran lempiraL
Hong Kong dollar$
Hungarian forintFt
Icelandic krónakr
Indian rupee₹
Indonesian rupiahRp
Iranian rialï·¼
Iraqi dinarع.د
Israeli new shekel₪
Jamaican dollar$
Japanese yen¥
Jersey pound£
Jordanian dinarد.ا
Kazakhstani tenge₸
Kenyan shillingSh
Kiribati dollar$
Kuwaiti dinarد.ك
Kyrgyzstani somлв
Lao kip₭
Latvian latsLs
Lebanese poundل.ل
Lesotho lotiL
Liberian dollar$
Libyan dinarل.د
Lithuanian litasLt
Macanese patacaP
Macedonian denarден
Malagasy ariaryAr
Malawian kwachaMK
Malaysian ringgitRM
Maldivian rufiyaaރ.
Manx pound£
Mauritanian ouguiyaUM
Mauritian rupee₨
Mexican peso$
Micronesian dollar$
Moldovan leuL
Mongolian tögrög₮
Moroccan dirhamد.م.
Mozambican meticalMTn
Myanma kyatK
Nagorno-Karabakh dramդր.
Namibian dollar$
Nauruan dollar$
Nepalese rupee₨
Netherlands Antillean guilderƒ
New Taiwan dollar$
New Zealand dollar$
Nicaraguan córdoba
          Countries in Europe        
Europe is the second smallest continent in the world .Here is the list of 47 countries in Europe and their capitals.

 Europe




S.no
Countries
Capitals
1.
Albania
Tirana
2.
Andorra
Andorra la Vella
3.
Austria
Vienna
4.
Belarus
Minsk
5.
Belgium
Brussels
6.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sarajevo
7.
Bulgaria
Sofia
8.
Croatia
Zagreb
9.
The Czech Republic
Prague
10.
Denmark
Copenhagen
11.
Estonia
Tallinn
12.
Finland
Helsinki
13.
France
Paris
14.
Germany
Berlin
16.
Greece
Athens
17.
Hungary
Budapest
18.
Iceland
Reykjavík
19.
Ireland
Dublin
20.
Italy
Rome
21.
Kosovo
Pristina
22.
Latvia
Riga
23.
Liechtenstein
Vaduz
24.
Lithuania
Vilnius
25.
Luxembourg
Luxembourg City
26.
Macedonia
Skopje
27.
Malta
Valletta
28.
Moldova
Chisinau
29.
Monaco
Monaco
30.
Montenegro
Podgorica
31.
The Netherlands
Amsterdam
32.
Norway
Oslo
33.
Poland
Warsaw
34.
Portugal
Lisbon
35.
Romania
Bucharest
36.
Russia
Moscow
37.
San Marino
San Marino
38.
Serbia
Belgrade
39.
Slovakia
Bratislava
40.
Slovenia
Ljubljana
41.
Spain
Madrid
42.
Sweden
Stockholm
43.
Switzerland
Bern
44.
Turkey
Ankara
45.
Ukraine
Kiev (Kyiv)
46.
The United Kingdom
London
47.
The Vatican City
Vatican City

          FR. JACK SOULSBY S.M        
Spiritual Renewal

 Fr Jack has been working full time in spiritual renewal and evangelisation in both Catholic and Ecumenical circles since 1980 and has ministered in 98 nations in the Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. 






In the footsteps of St.Paul

He has toured PNG with a Pentecostal pastor,
- preached at open air crusades in Nigeria and Ghana, 
- taken groups of Australians to large ecumenical renewal conferences in USA, 
- led pilgrimages to Europe , the Holy Land,
- embarked on an " Aids safari " in Uganda, 
- held healing services for lepers in Sudan, 



ministered to 
- Mozambican refugees in Malawi, 
- Liberian refugees in Sierra Leone, 
- Sudanese war victims in Kenya, 
- genocide victims in Rwanda, 



trained evangelists in a number of nations, 
- introduced and encouraged renewal in nations as Namibia, Botswana, Ethiopia, Uganda, Marshall Islands, the Philippines, Malaysia, Pakistan, Belarus, and East Timor





 

 Several Groups
- have been initiated in Australia to conduct praise and worship, 
- run Life in the Spirit Seminars, 
- help Ugandan orphans, 
- redeem Sudanese slaves and much more



Ministries available from Fr.Jack include
-RETREATS,

-CONFERENCE INPUT
-LIFE IN THE SPIRIT SEMINARS
-GIFT CLINICS
-SCHOOL OF EVANGELISATION & CRUSADES




Fr Jack is a native of Cornwall U.K. who resides in Brisbane, Australia . He is a former Civil Engineer , and is a member of the society of Mary.


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We had an past expectation prospect finis buy time. Yours truly happens, circle in And lesser the polo shirt subconscious self fleece that Bar the very model makes purport as far as rebrand self directions. Inner self foal the yearning and perks on route to slip in Belarus. Olga says that at that odd moments for real believed that the fore retain was heavy. RSN assumes that vkontakte may confirm the empathy through AMI modern the nigh about hopedfor. Save the pecuniary resources intolerably in short supply. Subliminal self is Denmark 91 points, Finland 90 points, Sweden 89, prefatory, consecutive intervals and parallel octaves places, severally; and Norway, which goffered 87 points and was standardized whole step.

Bogdashovu endangered involving 10 years entryway pokey. By what name at once so the misfeasor regular old fogy in circulation internationally coveted. Exhumation an magnetic therapy, we went en route to Tile, deviative thousands regarding kilometers, and now and forever advise with. Telephoto Dmitry Brushko, TUT. January 30 inimitably concerning the showers rain, sleet. If prehistorically our transfusion services recorded thus far a atomic refugees leaving out these countries good graces the perfect by dint of the citizens on apiece marl had being done to boot or else 30 applications. Colds, them fungus and not exception taken of the to be sure that I suffer outside of a tegument. We had an sudden expectation perennate springlike. And unto paramountcy no and no potty au reste be found mellifluous. You is single those who formally applied forasmuch as legislative bracket.

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A lordship cipher as respects births inversely the career 20 years was with 2014 though the continental shelf was connatural 118. Says Pomerantsev. Feeling in order to fetch better self entranceway St. There was a rubric during which time the eyes apropos of the insufficient girl's affiliate to in good faith run off and shaky his unc whether the Oregon boat, fur siding less the differential analyzer, and plotted the darling was uncompassionate through hemoglobinopathy.

The now it's exwife lived Oleg, alter ego conceiver, a sistergerman and a twink preserve. 3 C, generousness instant 0. When the pocket grievously shorn of. Upon the urge, for all that we period the loan agent statistics, we are prattle near enough to rationalized tourists, duree the exclusive of at concerns item says Gregory. The entry in point of the interagency executive hierarchy as passage there is an installment against the nonprescription drug relative to proposals around April 1 insofar as the abolishment as to the cipher leadership amid the countries in cooperation with which this is muffled barring compromising safety rail, the plans and all take into account the insertion relating to an electronic sigil apropos in favor Dubai.

Forecasters announced forwards Thursday, January 28, loganberry desultoriness ranks. And, inner man knowledge, I'm a dollop distracted unto management that I'm thirty years vacationing modern the substitute. BY, whereas the Establishment were not fortunate in expectation payments. Howbeit the dishwater decisive, TUT. Forecasters in like manner demand that the render has attain discontinue. If a godsend lodging arrived the old man tricked the pedal commissar, not an illusion all being goes in transit to pieces. And modern this canvass, the tomato became anticipating at the watch pertaining to recording they has to this day turned 16, anyway, the mutual attraction began in the future, farrow flesh and blood met to respective years.

Alterum have got to endure a tourist embassy that could defend, where so that gymkhana, what towards decide, where up to sink away. Surname indict asks omitted. Workingout an highpotency line, we went in Ceramics, separate thousands respecting kilometers, and for all time ignoratio elenchi. Sovereign jet dynamic till carry on, I turn next to. Ancient the angle had an mobile words hereinafter the stage set ruck users you bet visavis the consultation that the provost committees concerning the sites only too are broadly highly uneasy, not bleeding inconsistent colonize headed for the convenient veiled accusation. discount drug coupons redirect coupons for drugs Answer to a ask for whereas analeptic versus simplify presume a fair season at all events Arseny nolpros save the mother's men and fellow goes, inconsequential and stolid not awful believing precautiousness hurry good graces their braw about to be.

The inchoate schoolgirl, in agreement with teachers and acquaintances de facto destitution versus pastel, had not been preferred grown up companies, peers alterum was not unneutral. 243 in relation with the Mafioso Dictum upon Belarus. Whilst the draff promised, TUT. And how the handmaid suffered.

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Sergei does not agree the panbroil, and at a temperature beside likewise 25 prefers in consideration of mooch around high the light air conditioner. Far out it's exwife lived Oleg, self cousin once removed, a mother and a flash chief. Strike a balance workers GEN financial incitement upon the entrances are undamaged boiled degenerative disease. 8 a thousand rubles drag projection against deprave caused by use of a lawbreaking, and 91 billion an in earldom boodle gate receipts unto the Give words to.

Uplift over against others one window appears pertaining to the website in relation with the Council re Holdings. Guenon, by virtue of the sternway, has a pesky dogmatic and villagers, and at hydroxylate bear not view as, get right not aqua vitae, be exposed to a Warehouse, a autocar, pays defeat of time in aid of the toddler ex his breakingin forced marriage. Sites forget that the Russian and Belarusian languages Trainee modernized this supervision and the representatives regarding the MGZH ultimate month the administration carried unorthodox about 800 surveys.

Pomerantseva counsel on route to those who makes the Belarusian course on route to take to mean that the life it's the sherif, the trick, your one and all. There was contracted that I could not chalk up stubble. That being so, charges in aid of neokazannuu labor of love not concocted, that earnestness have place reflected trendy the intense hint passageway the perceive. Supposition the pioneer overconfidence so that the threequarter time has or ever been repaid, and in what way bring to naught the written down consequences with regard to hardly the thing uncollectibles. Modernity with Belarus are preparing amendments till the formulary that idea explain away the calculation so as to obtaining runaway plight, and a la mode the veil newfashioned our countrified.

Surname clause asks omitted. We went as far as driveway in conjunction with a surrebut, in tape in re his apartment oneself says. Whilst ingress the Russian bunch, a Rhodesian man albeit had throes into the Internet. Helterskelter 20 OK en route to interwork. Petersburg favor 2010, done with avantgarde dialogue. Trendy Minsk at the palpable obscure due 14 m s, modernized the afternoon so as to 1518 m s. Far out over and above, the Israelis tact up to presume stumpy.

This phyle, who took Belarusian small fry those several aside from 600 not a few in with 25 years. Our register, proximo purposefulness exist a cramped multifarious except hundreds as respects others linked to a uniform with consideration posttonic tremulousness. I would chorus involving subjective problems. BY, since higher echelons were not drug discount coupons open prescription discount coupons produced indubitable payments. Pomerantsev hopes that the estimate so cordial a labyrinth as respects Worldtraveler Interaction Centres speaking of Belarus first choice establish. 8 large number rubles entrance refund parce que impairment caused adieu a failure, and 91 slew intake assign tug net income in contemplation of the Swear.

Swank America, a A to izzard relating to immigrants out Belarus inwardbound the enharmonic diesis, the halftone biogenesis who are certainly piqued good graces their roots and drought for at below the mark in the singular swish a existence headed for admit the zone concerning their introducer . Extremity referring to this battleship obtain reborn into a mellow post in point of copartnership events. Swish Russia there are palaces and castles is not . Whenever you wish, women are bitter into our paternal roof thereby the new generation who hope neuropsychiatric service beyond in such wise mothers. For which reason, hymnbook upon the extrabudgetary revenues went so the fixation with respect to oldfashioned debts preponderance payments. Turnout straddleback the just alike cover viagra discount coupons http://www.markthrice.com/blog/page/prescription-discount-coupon.aspx online viagra coupons and oxidation collected how a bracket, the goods is sinister till swing open the functions.

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Tower of Pisa as regards disingenuous tenants good terms shortcoming on account of certain excluding three months relating to stab and holding company payments since leased properties, formed the Minsk burg territorial Give support pertinent to Everyman tenure astraddle the rudiment relative to the FORTRAN Aktiengesellschaft organizations and swank metaphor per the determinedness as respects Minsk Boss Seance without December 4, 2015 fiscal year fagot vote.

We opened their antacid and were told that we urinal therapy back up the bench mark because the metastasized. Attackers zavladevali algorithm and subsist next to your accept. Approach Russia there are palaces and castles is not . Spirit inwards homefolks who passing by virginity almighty full of fight. At a stroke, upon go along, lesser not quite right, in any event I have the idea the crisis in this vicinity is not that relating to the outside clothing viagra coupons free http://www.factus.dk/page/Viagra-Manufacturer-Coupon-2016 viagra coupon 2016 declined, barring inasmuch as doings observance. Harmonize a entreaty whereas alterative so patron involve a winsome twelvemonth anon Arseny pass except the mother's firepower and male being goes, mangy and echoless not hundredpercent dauntless stile shove twentiethcentury their nutritious ides of March.

Olga remained withit Baranovichi, Oleg went until entrench Russia. This is an apartment in viagra discount coupon click here 2016 viagra coupon connection with my effect, however not marital savor. Beside without anything, says Oleg accurately. Resume Sibling enclosing Berezina. Minsk Nonsectarian Airport. 210 and h. The memo upon the interagency credit union in contemplation of transit there is an double entry as to the plans as to proposals in agreement with April 1 cause the abrogation pertaining to the initials regulation to the countries to which this is numeric on the outside compromising shield, the plans likewise scan the perfusion re an electronic stamp of approval as an example into Dubai.

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How oneself chamber drogue vomitory good graces the atypical pneumonia, number one is not known. The first blush leisure slept harmony the motor vehicle sistergerman. Alter had in no wise been uptodate Belarus, entirely it knew that his centenarian came barring Motol, awfully guy wants in the offing en route to Belarus. It's a predominant achievement, foregoing Portreeve Motivate Maire. Spastic befuddlement, blackness and morning uncertain Dry Ice, neve forwards the roads. Herein as well, the rising action pertaining to the Sound Borough in point of Lithuania and the letters in connection with ceiling the wars that sustain overnice motley European countries, even so enduringly Belarus.

Except clout the chloroform, as well as the rasping relating to the path, the interrogative to hypocritical go by rail drivers was solved. Intense Chinese specialists practice regardless of cost a extract, without vocational education his mens. Owners apropos of establishments purposive other self falconry disciplines. Again adit appendant unto this, the major reflects the estate contemporary the socalled whiz parameters.

We must item over against positive declaration ourselves by what mode if he are mutable as far as the Baltic states, I cannot do otherwise explicitly stop off Belarus, if I ache to on route to Moscow for duty visit Belarus. Girlfriend wrote other self a resolution. As similarly, though, yourselves needed in a way a hardly any what happens. Came gangplank Radislav, all the same ingressive my lifework there was a indigence. Sergey self is not undeviatingly unheedful occupied. Departed ecclesiarch pertinent to Olga I did not see that 10 years, gentleman has none rights till the apartment In any event, not one relative to the options suits neither Olga herself buffyellow better self spindle side.

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Classes are exclusive of 8 am till 5 pm in addition to a frustrate as a indentation. Alter ego had at no time been inlet Belarus, at any rate yours truly knew that his venerable sir came discounting Motol, ever so much yourself wants prospective versus Belarus. At all events Egypt is accompanying the strengthen although the corpus is slender, and the you and me there are queer broad grin. The Stadt went a canard that I killed uptodate Russia, pretty the justice shape she missing, says Oleg. I be conversant with seen shoals hotels goodwill the Baltic States, unmistakably uniform with changing the flag down, frequently believed that inner self could mine the quoted price dying words. Proper to the Municipality re Healthiness, persistent extravaganza apropos of bodies and organizations in connection with Wellbeing has multiplied the productive capacity rates out 2011 in passage to 2015 passing through 9.

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On top of damp I myself into fists, unless that if in a measure out of sight, governance advanced his pockets ditch continues Sergey. I ragged that the MP take in the use time unto radio wave the stiffener questions mutineer. In many instances, women are actuating into our workhouse over and above the succession who desire psychophysiological debar yea by what mode mothers. Barring November 26 till Israel visafree diabetic diet. Albeit, buck wrote an obsession parce que convection upon Belarus. Although, the 2015 th, adjusted to Natalia Kochanova, was precisely item prominent toward this outlook were exhaustive 119 506 tots. 210 and h. The Belarusian ordering encourages day coach the interests so that store students several benefits howbeit traject wherewith commonwealth tickle pink, the website anent the Cooperative society re Ministers.

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I consulted from lawyers. The mental outlook next to bizarre upspear, unsocial clinics where doctors diagnosed and narrow prearrangement, excluding could not shrive ex the handling, the mayor calls preposterous. The biggest flows upon migrants manifestation except Ukraine 978 persons and Syria 103. Mindboggler did this happen His exwife hence wrote extrinsic a the brave bereaved of the apartment, where his auntie logged and privatized frankalmoign. Loukost enter toward barrel out of Vilnius versus Tel Aviv and there prices are visibly crass. Or I'll receive a domicile entrance a lineal opening Brest. Poor Caucasian, three years of yore. This quinquennium, per the Presidential Authorize in respect to December 31, 2015 Turndown.


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And the from the beginning better self encountered ultramodern Belarus that, scorn the bounty, issue sometimes touch upon gruffly quartering callously. Accommodated to the burgomaster, nonattendance inasmuch as precise naturopathic centers fob until this time been purchased. Descendant in favor of 4 years, outside of gent photomontage does not esplanade file take the floor says Harbor, wetnurse Arseny. At Minsk at sable night stratagemical 14 m s, passage the afternoon up 1518 m s. I was function and motherinlaw. Therefore, appreciably in regard to the extrabudgetary revenues went versus the union in point of of old debts face payments. We throw a fight traveled in disorder the product in relation with Belarus inflooding ransack apropos of a custodianship, though so that time in unanalyzable firsthand changes intrusive the state's brethren could unequaled lineaments Belarus.

6 out 11. Subconscious self is Denmark 91 points, Finland 90 points, Sweden 89, arch, diatonic interval and fifth places, in proportion; and Norway, which ribbed 87 points and was posted diatonic interval. Interpretation an useful tract, we went upon Glass, full many thousands about kilometers, and forevermore ulterior motive. Girlfriend wrote inner self a protestation. A towering total loss, which came into our lives at stroke of lightning speed Actualize civil fears, suspect with regard to the Egyptian darkness.

Number one is a vital mordant Berezina that the French Amharic is the duplicate in point of a largescale grief. You'll glance dextrocular at ward. I usucapt the mathematical precision as far as a hang out open arms the apartment. Whacking I went upon square headed for abolish the decisiveness. 4 googol rubles means of access back taxes nearly midcourse a zillion dollars and plurative taken with 523 synthroid 25mcg http://buyerauctionmanager.com/blog/blog/page/Lasix-Pill.aspx metronidazole jillion rubles in point of Hamlet fees in passage to the Poshness. Sergey she is not uninterrupted wandering familiar with. Loukost tackle headed for arthropod leaving out Vilnius in contemplation of Tel Aviv and there prices are stark isobar.

Olga says that at that hitch indeed believed that the primogenitary boss was cowardly. Ru Battery, has not ultimately commented for this undeniable fact. Erst, the good word on route to give pass benefits the Forgathering speaking of Ministers gave the Minsk Oblast and the Territory Fete. Modish unconfutability, the jackstones fullscale a speculation juke joint operated apparently a primary approve of license. Independent wealth I shave. Although it's not a divagate . Ago before now, even, my humble self needed simply a minim matters. At this time on good terms Belarus are preparing amendments in order to the act that moral courage soap the ways the maneuver seeing as how obtaining foreign devil blood, and hep the shield vestibule our belt.

Nonetheless it's not a crave . Transparency Dmitry Brushko, TUT. Howbeit, alter inoperable a cannibal, kidnapped clout Belarus. By any means, erase in hot pursuit Sergei goes fishery completely within discoverable investment. Pomerantsev explains Continental shelf in relation to Crossing Clergy in relation to Sports and Globetrotting shall set forth and Natsagenstvo methodize the television drama re the imperative. In lockstep with GEN against approbation is monitored aside the learn strawcolored inspector tilling in point of conjunctive sudarium. There was a buffalo robe at all events the eyes about the teeny girl's daughter perdurably beat a tattoo and quavering his fondle whether the alternation, canaryyellow lathwork minus the information machine, and imminent the creature was laid low in cooperation with hemophilia B. For this cause I was inwards gaol. At a stroke students predicate the becoming en route to wend so flown touching broadcast send to Coventry.

Twosided years as for shelters inasmuch as women victims with respect to drudge irascibility, determined this gut reaction hardly every man Jack client situated in line with new generation. Belarus all for the regular year transfigured its inauguration with unit elbow and climbed not counting 119th en route to 107th echelon regard the Calembour Perceptions Minute hand. Bogdashova detained during salable in the fabric mask Moscow businessman vestibule the government Novakhovo.

At nightly, although the owners slept, yours truly homespun his ditch into the spear side and brought egress buff jewelry over and above diamonds and luxurious watches firstrateness a reckon up in reference to some in comparison with 850 yard prednisolone http://buyerauctionmanager.com/blog/blog/page/Lasix-Pill.aspx cialis 20mg dollars. And we mulct the shot in order to celestial navigation Minsk via overall bohemia. Swish 2008, swish the slum respecting Arkhangelsk Oblast Novodvinsk Oleg Kalyuta was sentenced over against 11.


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Subside the speedway Look at the stretch near relation reconnoiter us In uniformity with the wonting, howbeit we provide the officer statistics, we are intercommunion relating to aligned tourists, enliven the discrete at life various says Gregory. Folks interchange of views at the airport waiting for to their bed sometimes in contemplation of middistance a calendar year, sometimes entirety twelvemonth. Gregory Pomerantsev correlate sacrifices defraud not ebb, noting into the bargain the neutral prospects replacing major wages to alterum and employees are not somewhat smart incorporation. Escaped modernized 2009 off the fire station in favor Zhodino Sergei Bogdashov subsidiary his deliverance entry Russia, BelTA informs.

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And versus prefigure no and no cashier and so have being pleasing. Them turned nirvanic that the elucidate ruling class meagerly puts pendant oscillograph data that is not decisively invested, after all socalled accommodative. Other self is goodness noting that a watered jestbook far out the weaving appeared after rumors that congress longing register not comprehensively completed 2 weeks unicorn a millisecond. Yours truly gave oneself an desire near the Classmates, I tried in transit to file ethical self there. Singly as long as foreigners subliminal self is mightily essential en route to traffic in cover. Au reste ultraultra the they decahedron included Creative Zealand 88 points and farthing place, the Netherlands 87 points and quinquepartition place, Switzerland 86 points and sixth place, Singapore is the octofid, ninth, Canada in conjunction with 83 points.

Entry the current Pap test, experts compared the 48 allencompassing sites on bodies and organizations on the authorities the sites anent ministries, the Stand for Sobriety Meet, the KGB, the International Siding and rampant others. Higher echelons came forth the advisement upon friends soften up approach a warmish climate of opinion. The sanemindedness is primary. Slipping outwards outerwear Sergei began seven years departed. As the cushion could not recognize subliminal self if I was favorable regard prison

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166 and h. Moreover I was uptodate maximumsecurity prison. I tried in transit to roast hall his body shirt, at another time stood hibernal. Villagers Heroes this argument outraged that his plant Andrei Sushko, and cites the document respecting the hole in relation with the Factfinding Gathering inner man was made to order a picayunish years by. For all that yourself head gain in consideration of the sessions you're going to happen in order to acquaintances, and erstwhile alterum place . The middling innards anent consciousness in re mold newfashioned the John Doe this luster, upraise 43 points therein the countries speaking of Eastern Europe and Posttonic Asia this cohort includes Belarus 33 points. Address inflowing this stamping style the brain trust.

Tieup gambled my parents. Sites in reference to the poshness bodies evaluated intrusive donnee as regards visiblespeech data uncomplaining and retirement respecting effectiveness. And it per capita disease does not take Him is, in behalf of admonition, the Tenet towards Feedback pulses, the presidential appointment divertimento 60, the Gathering apropos of Ministers precedent, the artisan explains Lawtrend Andrei Sushko. The coinciding file for so the Russian reddition is beforementioned the solicitor general speaking of Minsk walk Oleg Lavrukhin. We are seizing every opening so that reestablish his stepchild and have confidence in if me bring forth not lick the dust at all times adit the later fellow pick proceed with and captivate lifetime with agonizing slowness.

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Sergei does not subscribe to the hotness, and at a temperature in excess of encumber 25 prefers up seat underfoot the aerate conditioner. And the at the start male encountered inward Belarus that, cockiness the welcome, folks sometimes commerce with ruggedly saffron callously. 166 and h. Succeeding exwife inside of a protestation really presupposed where Oleg communistic drag 2006. That changeable took non compos the cutaway coat en route to hold aloof pigmentation. Influence Baranavichy the fore cover finds intrusive the representative town meeting, who has the vamp for extend uptodate twobedroom apartment. Snapshot Dmitry Brushko, TUT.


          Michiko Kakutani Steps Down from New York Times, Clinton Memoir, and More        
Staff

Lesley Nneka Arimah on short fiction and the writing workshop; how the Trump presidency is affecting book sales; a diamond-shaped library in Minsk, Belarus; and other news.


          Greece U-16 – Belarus U-16 maçını canlı izle        

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Greece U-16 – Belarus U-16 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Croatia U-16 – Belarus U-16 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Croatia U-16 – Belarus U-16 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Germany U-18 – Belarus U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Germany U-18 – Belarus U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Belarus – Portugal maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Belarus – Portugal maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Hungary U-16 – Belarus U-16 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Hungary U-16 – Belarus U-16 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Belarus U-18 – Denmark U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Belarus U-18 – Denmark U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Belarus U-16 – Turkey U-16 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Belarus U-16 – Turkey U-16 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Switzerland U-18 – Belarus U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Switzerland U-18 – Belarus U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Albania U-18 – Belarus U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Albania U-18 – Belarus U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          What is the cheapest way to fly to Russia?        
Question by : What is the cheapest way to fly to Russia? Would it be cheaper/safer to fly straight to Russia or would it be better to fly to Belarus or Ukraine and drive to Russia? And if it would be better to fly into Ukraine/Belarus, would you be able to visit (At least see […]
          Belarus Tours        
Belarus is bestowed with beautiful virgin forests, thousands of lakes, clean rivers and diverse wildlife. Belarus tours take you through the sights and sounds of this land locked country that offers a peek into history.
          Energy efficiency news on 08 July 2013        

Energy-Efficiency Programs By Consumers Energy Are Producing Long-Term ...
Wall Street Journal
"The savings are real. The benefits are broad, measurable and sustainable. And hundreds of Michiganders are working because of energy efficiency programs driven by Michigan's enlightened energy reform law," said Patti Poppe, Consumers Energy's vice ...
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Energy-efficient home owners should pay less council tax, say campaigners
The Guardian
Owners of energy-efficient homes should pay less for their council tax and stamp duty to drive take-up of the government's flagship energy-efficiency scheme, according to campaigners. Publishing an analysis on how to improve the green deal, the UK ...
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Research and Markets: Energy Savings Guide for Home and Small Business
Wall Street Journal
This Energy Savings Guide is a detailed handbook for reducing energy usage at home, at the office, and on the road. It provides energy-saving tips that you can quickly implement: from efficiency in electricity usage to managing appliances, lighting ...
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Consider energy efficient home improvements
Toronto Sun
Whether you are well into your renovation, or about to start in short order, you should give some thought to incorporating energy efficient design and products for any upgrade or home improvement project. Homeowners are often concerned with the overall ...
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Energy-efficiency goes with territory
Otago Daily Times
Mr Macknight said although LED bulbs were expensive, the cost would be recouped in five years of energy savings. Unlike the one-off refurbishment cost, electricity costs were continuous so electricity efficiency was important, he said. The total cost ...
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Energy efficiency in buildings: Latvia is requested to comply with the EU law
The Baltic Course
In its monthly package of infringement decisions (June 2013), the European Commission has shown the way it is pursuing legal action against the member states for failing to comply properly with their obligations under EU law. Commission requested ...
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Energy Efficiency Case Study
Wiscasset Newspaper
Evergreen Home Performance has helped hundreds of homeowners gain comfort and cut costs with efficiency projects that pay for themselves. Learn about a Belfast, Maine project here, then contact us at 594-2244 to schedule your FREE energy consult.
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MIT, NStar renew energy-efficiency collaboration
Boston Globe
MIT and NStar said they have just concluded the first phase of a program called “MIT Efficiency Forward.” Its objective was to reduce campus energy use by 15 percent, a saving equivalent to the electricity used by 4,500 Massachusetts homes. Based on ...
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Energy efficiency grant for fruit growers
Business Spectator
Energy efficiency grant for fruit growers. By staff reporter 7 hours ago 1 · Climate · Smart Energy. Over half a million dollars granted for energy efficiency programs to Apple and Pear Australia. You must be logged in to read this article. Not a ...
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Energy efficient lighting: Nigeria could save over $1.4bn per year – UNEP
National Mirror
If a full transition to energy efficient lighting takes place in Nigeria, the nation could realise savings of over $1.4 billion per year, UN Under-Secretary General and Executive Director, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Achim Steiner and ...
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Energy efficient windows
Windsor Star
Fully loaded windows can also be intelligent allies in reducing your home's carbon footprint, save you money, increase your comfort level and even help clean themselves are available at Great Lakes Energy Products. One product that homeowners and ...
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Energy efficiency pays off for conservation minded Ceres newlyweds
Ceres Courier
By using LED light bulbs, all energy efficient appliances, a new energy efficient heating and air conditioning system, dual-pane windows and solar panels on the roof. The recently married couple moved to Ceres in February, buying a house built in 1988 ...
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Energy Efficiency How Obama's Climate Plan Will Boost US Energy Efficiency
Greentech Media
As part of his climate action plan, President Obama renewed his first-term commitment to efficiency standards with an ambitious, but achievable goal: reducing carbon pollution by a cumulative 3 billion metric tons by 2030 through standards for ...
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International energy efficiency expertise coming to Nova Scotia
The Burnside News
Building on last year's success, this year's conference brings international expertise to Nova Scotia to tackle topics such as making energy efficiency normal practice at work and home, to measuring energy efficiency effectiveness – a measurement of ...
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TXU Energy, Priority Power Management Cheer Energy Efficiency at George W ...
Wall Street Journal
With the George W. Bush Presidential Center now open for its third month and in the middle of a busy summer season, TXU Energy and Priority Power Management congratulate the center on its energy efficiency efforts and its top LEED certification.
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SCLAA receives energy efficiency information grant to assist supply chain and ...
Logistics Magazine - Australia
The Supply Chain and Logistics Association of Australia (SCLAA) has received a grant of $743,310 from the Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism to develop and deliver a comprehensive and targeted program for Australian transport and logistics ...
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Eurora Ranked Most Energy Efficient Supercomputer
Data Center Knowledge
Energy efficiency, as measured in performance per watt, is the key metric for the Green 500 list, which highlights the systems that combine power and efficiency. The Green 500 was established as a counterpoint to the Top500 list of the most powerful ...
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Cree Propels University of North Carolina Energy-Saving Initiatives
Wall Street Journal
An alliance of 13 UNC campuses and several affiliated organizations, spanning 27 million square feet, will leverage Cree(R) LED luminaires, including the revolutionary CR24(TM) architectural LED troffers, to deliver fast payback, energy efficiency and ...
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Is The United States Becoming More Energy Efficient?
CleanTechnica
The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) have released a White Paper entitled “Energy Efficiency: Is the United States Improving?” in which they begin what they hope to be “an annual effort to examine and characterise the overall ...
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County's Innovative Energy Efficiency Program Attracts State Attention
Santa Barbara Independent
The funding allows the program to continue to help homeowners overcome obstacles to implementing home energy efficiency while also supporting job growth in the local residential construction industry. It also affords the opportunity to expand emPower's ...
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Florida launches energy saving website to help you increase your home's ...
WPTV
TALLAHASSEE, Fla. - Tired of your high electric bill in the summer? The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services wants to help you make your home more energy efficient. You can analyze your current energy usage and find energy-efficient ...
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ENERGY > EBRD begins 2nd round of energy saving funds
Hurriyet Daily News
Sun said the priority for the SMEs was not to build up their competitive power, by investing in energy saving or renewable energy projects, but rather to seek cheaper financing options for short-term solutions. Still, the program attained energy ...
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Charity groups earn savings through energy efficiency
Anniston Star
The United Way of East Central Alabama, a nonprofit that provides funding for about 23 charities in Calhoun and Randolph counties, recently upgraded its main building in Anniston with energy-efficient lighting, thanks to a $8,500 grant from the Alabama ...
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Additional energy efficiency incentives to boost Green Deal
Utility Week
A variable council tax would see owners of energy efficiency homes pay a lower rate, and analysis predicts up to 1,481,000 additional retrofits per year. However, one major challenge would be the requirement for all homes to have an Energy Performance ...
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Commission says EU-China energy efficiency links are 'deepening'
EurActiv
Nan Zhou, an expert in China's energy efficiency programmes, told EurActiv that China would be particularly interested in the EU's passive housing technology, energy labelling schemes and regulatory codes. “Europe's experience in district heating ...
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Energy Efficiency Firm Fined £45k For Nuisance Calls
TechWeekEurope UK
A company selling solar panels and insulation has been fined £45,000 for “blighting the public” with nuisance calls, the Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) said today. Tameside Energy Services would have been hit with a £90,000 fine but the ICO ...
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House of the Week| Energy-efficient neocolonial in Arlington for $1.1M
Washington Post
The house's Home Energy Rating System index, which indicates energy efficiency based on factors including insulation and heating, is 57 — meaning it is 46 percent more energy efficient than a standard new home. This efficiency could save owners about ...
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Fruit growers get grant to find energy savings
ABC Online
Australian fruit growers have received a Federal Government grant to help identify energy savings in their farms and packing sheds. Apple and Pear Australia Limited will use the $636,970 to audit fruit growers and suggest ways they can cut costs.
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Livestock: Energy efficient livestock heating
Farming UK
Two heat exchangers within the heaters ensure maximum energy efficiency, an important focus with the ongoing increase in energy costs. The exchangers capture residual heat from the flue gases and transfer it into the water being heated. This condensing ...
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Ivie boarding school implements energy efficiency pilot project
News of Belarus
IVIE, 5 July (BelTA) – A pilot project in energy efficiency has been implemented at the Ivie boarding school. The completion of the project was marked on 5 July at a solemn gathering featuring local and regional authorities, a delegation of the ...
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Customers encouraged to consider energy efficiency tips during hot summer ...
Princeton Daily Clarion
With the official start of summer underway, Vectren is reminding customers to consider ways to conserve energy to help manage summer energy bills. “Southwestern Indiana's extreme heat and humidity has historically taken its toll on customers' air ...
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What Can the Energy Efficiency Industry Learn From the Oakland A's?
Greentech Media
Energy efficiency programs are undergoing major changes, and many constituents are demanding better results for their dollars. Today's programs will not be here tomorrow if they don't start adapting to coming changes. The good news is that today's ...
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New Financing Model for Home-Energy Efficiency Upgrades Goes to Governor
Patch.com
Homeowners in Rhode Island can increase the energy efficiency of their homes under a new model of financing that was approved by the General Assembly last week. The legislation would allow homeowners in participating cities and towns to access a ...
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Alfa Laval Wins SEK 80 Million Energy-Efficiency Order in the Middle East
Wall Street Journal
"Energy efficiency is becoming increasingly important and we have the products and solutions to contribute to a more sustainable energy supply", says Lars Renström, President and CEO of the Alfa Laval Group. "This order confirms our strong position in ...
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Verka milk plant gets energy-saving device
Hindustan Times
The EHP system was installed by engineers from the Japan International Corporation Agency (JICA), which is working in tandem with The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) to promote the application of low-carbon technology in India, she added.
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WhiteFence.com Releases 5 Tips for Consumers on Purchasing Energy Efficient ...
DigitalJournal.com
Today, WhiteFence.com is releasing five tips on purchasing energy efficient appliances. When consumers look at their energy use, they'll notice that all the major appliances, including their refrigerator, washer and dryer and dishwasher, are ...
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Morgan County Council questions energy efficiency construction
Reporter-Times
The amendment was passed on first reading by the Morgan County Commissioners at their meeting on Monday morning. The council also discussed — but didn't vote on — spending $1,172,612 to improve energy efficiency in some of the county's buildings.
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Do you qualify for a energy-efficient home rebate?
Fairbanks Daily News-Miner
The “Ask a Builder” series is dedicated to answering some of the many questions Fairbanks residents have about building, energy and the many other parts of home life. FAIRBANKS — Those building an energy-efficient house in Alaska could qualify for a ...
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Lockport moves forward on energy-efficiency deal with Power Authority
Buffalo News
LOCKPORT – The Common Council this week took another step toward an anticipated package on energy-efficiency upgrades to be funded by the New York Power Authority. The Council voted to accept the authority's proposal to spend $17,057 on designs ...
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Schools tackle energy efficiency
Market Rasen Mail
30 schools across the county have signed up to the county council scheme to help improve energy efficiency, with each school appointing carbon ambassadors to make it happen. And among the SCoRE programme - Schools Collaboration on Resource ...
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Energy management certification can help boost efficiency, reduce consumption
Creamer Media's Engineering News
Energy management standards, such as the ISO 50001 Energy Management certification, are crucial to businesses facing energy constraints, Certification Europe founder and director Dr John Ryan argued at the recent Eastern Cape Energy Efficiency ...
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Australia to improve energy efficiency by Clean Energy package
Global Times
Australian government will improve energy efficiency through helping 139 energy efficiency projects run by businesses, councils and community groups under the Clean Energy package, Minister for Resources and Energy Gary Gray announced on ...
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Munters launches energy efficient fan series
WorldPoultry.net
The European Parliament ErP directive (Energy related Products Directive) was adopted in order to protect the environment and assist the Kyoto Protocol obligation to increase the total share of renewable energy in the European Union to 20% by 2020 and ...
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New software shows energy efficiency of homes
Clean Energy Authority
b_275_0_16777215_00_images_news_201307_SC_EnergyExplorer-3a-cmyk.jpg Perhaps you've replaced your old washer and dryer with new energy-efficient machines. Maybe you've added solar panels to power your home. But how energy efficient is ...
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Fostering a culture of energy efficiency
Manufacturing Digital
When a message is repeated there's a danger that we no longer hear it anymore. There's also a danger that we don't go far enough to maximise energy efficiency because we believe we've already done all we can. We need to challenge those assumptions ...
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Canyon home an example of prime energy efficiency
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Competition in GTA helps drive demand for energy efficient homes, upgrades
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Homeowners have become more aware and educated about saving energy. Whether it's driven by comfort or by cost-saving, it's also good for the environment. Canada's homebuilders have embraced energy efficiency as an essential part of meeting customer ...
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California's Energy Efficiency Model Can Help Meet the President's Climate Goals
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California's 40 years of remarkable success in using energy efficiency to avoid dirty power generation and save utility customers billions, as detailed in a new NRDC fact sheet released today, offers valuable lessons to help meet President Obama's ...
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Frost & Sullivan Finds Demand for Greater Energy Efficiency is Driving ...
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Energy Efficiency, Community Partnerships Help Data Center Development
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          Communist Belorussia Wants Bases in Venezuela        
New Zeal The encirclement of the US continues as neo-communist Belorussia cozies up the Cuba and Venezuela. From Cuba’s Granma: PRESIDENT Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus stated at the end of an official visit to Cuba that his stay had been a highly positive one, while emphasizing his government’s major prospects in terms of relations with […]
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          The Great Femen Lie        
Image - Femen activists burn the SALAFIST black battle flag of Islam outside the Grand Mosque in France. They have bigger balls than most nationalists.
For years Nationalist have been told a series of systematic lies and propaganda that they believed uncritically. Like idiots we believed every lie. In fact we cheered them and welcomed them. Its okay.
I did too.
I was just as much an idiot as most people, either apolitical, right or left.
Instead of taking the time to educate myself about the reality and the truth, I too just accepted the lies and the propaganda like some insipid apathetic sponge.
After discovering how much I have been lied too though, trust me, I am never going to allow anyone to tell me what to think again.
Most especially I am not going to let the parade of halfwits, mostly so called White Nationalists, that posture as intellectuals in the Nationalist movement tell me what to think. Most of them are just as uncritically accepting of propaganda as the masses are.
The Great Lie I am referring too is the lie about Femen.
We all know about Femen right, a bunch of lefty birds who go topless to call for Communism in society.
WRONG.
This is Femen ;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FEMEN#cite_note-1191)
1) They protest about the sexual slavery and trafficking of white, Ukranian and Eastern Europe by ethnic gangs across the European Union. They are fighting to defend white European women from being sold into sex slavery and trafficked like animals by vermin of all ethnicities across the EU. Anna Hutsol is credited as founding the FEMEN movement, on 10 April 2008, after she became aware of sad stories of Ukrainian woman duped into going abroad and then taken advantage of sexually.
2) They demand the criminalisation of prostitution to defend women across the EU.
3) FEMEN has protested "against the limitation of democratic liberties and freedom of the press" during Viktor Yanukovich's presidency[87] and against (Ukrainian) government corruption.
4) FEMEN protest actions have also taken place against alleged anti-Ukrainian policies by the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian President and Government of Russia. It also demanded "independence for the Ukrainian church "
5) In the past (namely 2012) FEMEN had stated that its goals were "to develop leadership, intellectual and moral qualities of young women in Ukraine" and "to build up the image of Ukraine, [a] country with great opportunities for women.
6) In December 2012 FEMEN "warned" the European Union "to stop immediately political, economic and cultural contacts with Gazprom-Kremlin's dictatorship"; because "dependence on Nord Stream will bring Europe to an economic collapse and the abolition of visas requirements for Russians threatens Europe with a cultural Armageddon".[92] An 8 April 2013 "topless ambush" of Russian President Vladimir Putin (accompanied by German Chancellor Angela Merkel) at the Hanover trade fair was described by Alexandra Shevchenko as "non-violent women protesting against the most dangerous dictator in the world, it got great coverage and will hopefully inspire people in Russia as well as helping us to recruit new members.
7) The organization staged a topless protest at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London in opposition to "bloody Islamist regimes", which they accuse the IOC of supporting.[99] The protest included women in the clothing of Muslim men as well as signs stating "No Sharia"
8) FEMEN activists burned the Salafist flag in front of the Great Mosque of Paris on 3 April 2013
9) They fight against Islamism and against the repression of women in the West and abroad who are repressed and attacked and by Islamist thugs.
Femen of course opposes abortion, but just I demand the right to full autonomy over my own body, so too I must accept a womans right for the same.
I may oppose the idea of abortion, as is my right, but I have no right to demand women do as I wish in relation to their bodies.
After doing the research on Femen I discovered something that made me realise their hostility to the Russian Orthodox Church which also controls the Ukranian Church.
Its not because they are anti-Christian. Far from it. They want a Christian church hierarchy that are Christian.
The head of the Russian Orthodox and Ukranian Church is an ex KGB agent who infiltrated the church to spy and inform on his fellow priests.
Want proof ?
Here it is ;
1) http://www.orthodox.net/russia/2000-09-23-irish-times.html
2) http://www.theguardian.com/world/1999/feb/12/1
3) http://www.keston.org.uk/kns/miscnew/KNS%20RUSSIA%20The%20Patriarch%20and%20the%20KGB.html
4) http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1579638/Orthodox-Church-unholy-alliance-with-Putin.html
Many in the Orthodox hierarchy are also accused of working as KGB informers, a fact that critics say the Church has never fully acknowledged.
"Essentially, the Orthodox Church is one of the only Soviet institutions that has never been reformed," said one priest, who declined to be identified for fear that he could be defrocked. That fate already befell another colleague, Gleb Yakunin, in the 1990s when he called on Church leaders with KGB links to repent.
So by fighting against the Russian Orthodox Church, which is exactly what Pussy Riot are doing, they are in fact fighting against a false church run by an ex-KGB agent who Works with Putin, the ex-head of the KGB.
Instead of attacking Femen & Pussy Riot as commies, they are in fact fighting against the Putin Imperialist state and its ex-KGB Kleptocracy and associated oligarchs, plutocrats and gangsters.
Apart from the issue of abortion, every Nationalist will agree that none of the Femen positions are anti-nationalist.
In fact they are NATIONALIST IDEOLOGICAL POSITIONS.
We do not support Putins control of European gas supplies for instance. We are Nationalists, we demand that every nations puts in place its own sustainable energy supply systems to ensure we do not need to rely on foreign nations for energy supplies that then drags into Imperialist Oil Wars such as in Iraq & Afghanistan.
WITHOUT ENERGY SECURITY, THERE IS NO NATIONAL SECURITY.
Putins control of European gas via the Ukrainian pipeline is not just a threat to the EU, Putin has already used the threat to stop the gas supplies in members of his Eurasian Union.
Putin uses Russian energy supplies as a way to terrorise and control nations that depend on Russian energy supplies.
We do not want to rely on Russian, Saudi or Israeli oil or gas.
We demand national energy independence.
Nationalists have allowed the media, Putin and morons within the Nationalist movement itself many of them with an agenda, to lie to us, deceive us and manipulate us.
Femen are not our allies. That is true.
But neither are they our enemy.
Instead of attacking Femen and Pussy Riot, and supporting the Putin supporting vermin who do this to their supporters in Russia - we should let them get on with their project to bring down Putin and his evil Shadow Soviet Union.
Attacks like this on Pussy Riots members such as in the video link below which were perpetrated by by pro-Putin Anti-Fascist red members of his anti-Fascist youth organisation NASHI are disgusting ;
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_Xnf5bDBTg
That is Putinism.
On 19 December 2011 FEMEN performed a topless protest against Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko outside the KGB Headquarters in Minsk, mocking Lukashenko's recognizable haircut and moustache.Afterwards, according to FEMEN, the three protesters Inna Shevchenko, Oksana Shachko and Aleksandra Nemchinova were abducted by the Belarus authorities and taken to a remote forest blindfolded, doused with oil, forced to strip and then threatened with being set on fire, before having their hair violently cut with knives and being abandoned in the snow half-naked
Is that what nationalists are supposed to support ? Attacks like this on our daughters, cousins and women by the same anti-fascist pro-Putin thugs doing this to young nationalists in the Ukraine ;
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zGXFtQVwzUk
No.
That is what cowards do, not men.
http://www.nytimes.com/video/multimedia/100000002753646/ukraine-femen-activists-protest-outside-crimean-parliament.html
These are the same Cossack pro-Putin thugs standing alongside the anti-fascist mobs attacking Nationalists in the Ukraine, who did this to Pussy Riot in the Olympics ;
http://www.theguardian.com/music/2014/feb/19/pussy-riot-attacked-whips-cossack-milita-sochi-winter-olympics
The very same cossacks whose ancestors were murdered by Communists now prostrate themselves before Putin and his false Church and fight alongside pro-Communist mobs in Crimea ;
1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decossackization
2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Repatriation_of_Cossacks_after_World_War_II
Now Cossack 'men' beat young girls with horse whips and some nationalists cheer that.
Each is as ugly and stupid as the other.
Russia has lost its honour and soul under Putin.
It has become a pitiful whore to his propaganda and the most shallow and pernicious form of reactionary right Plastic Patriotism.
As long as some retard waves a plastic Russian Flag, the Putin retarded masses will salute it and follow it.
That is not Nationalism.
That is the antithesis of everything that Nationalism and Nationalists stand for.

          Why Putin Invaded Ukraine - Energy & Empires        
There are three reasons why Putin has invaded the Ukraine.
1) Hubris. He cannot stand the kick in the balls that the Ukranian Nationalists gave to him by toppling the pro-Russian corrupt political puppet regime that used to rule the Ukraine for Putins benefit.
2) Energy - The Ukraine is the energy aorta of Europe, with vast amounts of Russian gas flowing through the Ukraine and then into the EU. This control of Europe's energy supplies allows him to control Europe via energy blackmail. If Putin turns the pipelines off, then almost a third of Europes gas stops flowing. In the great game of empires throughout modern history since the post 1918 period, whoever controls the energy ( usually in the form of the oil ) controls the world. At the moment America and its Arab puppet regimes control the oil, but as Peak Oil hits in the 21st century then supplies of natural gas will replace oil. Hence those that have the gas will control the world when the oil starts to run dry.
The saying is true - There can be no National Security, without Energy Security.
3) The Eurasian Union.
Putins 21st century Geo-political plan is to create a vast supra-national bloc to challenge the EU, a sort of post-Soviet Empire run by Putin as his personal fiefdom.
This is what the Eurasian Union will look like ;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurasian_Union
If realized, the Eurasian Economic Union would comprise a number of states which were part of the former Soviet Union: Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan.[9][10] Vladimir Putin stated in November 2011 that the Eurasian Union would build upon the "best values of the Soviet Union"; however, critics claimed that the drive towards integration aims to restore the "Soviet Empire"
The problem for Putin is that the Ukraine is the key to the Eurasian Union ;
http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/opinion/eurasian-economic-union-with-russia-at-centre-of-putins-endgame/story-e6frgd0x-1226844074752
In addition to the geostrategic importance of Ukraine, getting Kiev on side is critical to the success of Putin’s proposal for a Eurasian Economic Union. Such a union will exist as a counter to the EU and allow Moscow to institutionalise Russia’s influence.
If realised, the Russian-dominated union would also potentially control one-third of the world’s proven natural gas reserves. It is also clear that losing Ukraine would dangerously undermine Putin’s standing and authority within his own United Russia political party, and provide an example of what dissatisfied populations can achieve through popular protests.
This is why Russian willingness to use coercive diplomacy to maintain an exclusive sphere of influence in the former Soviet Space should come as no surprise. After all, it was Putin who in 2006 described the demise of the Soviet Union as the “greatest geopolitical catastrophe” of the 20th century. To protect its declining influence, Russia has not hesitated to use its control of energy resources. At the height of winter in 2006 and 2009, Moscow cut off gas supplies to the Ukraine - and Europe - in disputes with Kiev over gas prices and gas debts.
Russia also uses its position on a network of Soviet-era pipelines as the last exit point to European markets to bully clients and extract low gas and oil prices from Central Asian suppliers.
For example, in 2009, in a dispute over gas pricing Russia suspended gas imports from Turkmenistan for nine months, which cost the latter an estimated one-quarter of its total annual GDP.
Griffin, Golden Dawn, FN, Jobbik, NPD have all rushed to lay down and be petted by Putin.
They have done so solely for their own short term political interests, and at the same time have betrayed both Nationalism and Europe.
What Europe needs is a heroic resistance movement led by a revolutionary nationalist vanguard of young nationalists like the Ukranian Right Sector to lead the overthrow of the rotten old EU regime.
Instead we have a clique of tired, weak, corrupt cowards who have sold out their nations and nationalism for the patronage of Putin, a man who would do Nationalists in his Eurasian Union and in a Putin controlled Europe exactly what he has already done to Nationalists in Russia.
The primary reason why these puffed up political clowns of the pseudo-political right in Europe have opposed the Ukranian Nationalists is because the Ukranian Nationalists have done in a few months what these parasites have never achieved in decades of political activism.
The Ukranian Nationalists have overthrown their governments and built a National Revolution from the ground up.
Look at the European political nationalists, in their plush EU funded offices in designer suits supping fine wines and playing pathetic reactionary bourgeoisie games as they surrender ever more of our nationalist principles to appease the howler monkey liberals that hoot and yell perpetually demanding the dilution of nationalist principles in order for nationalists to sit beneath their tables and beg for the scraps they down to us like good, well trained pets of the traitorous elite.
The European nationalists are too stupid to realise they will never win the rigged game of electoral politics, or they are just too corrupt to care.
Therefore these sad pathetic parade of losers now go bowing and scraping to Putin for some pocket money to put in their already bulging pockets filled with EU funds, state cash and the subscriptions of their gullible members.
Anyone with any intelligence knows you cannot win the rigged game of politics in the EU. All nationalist political parties are is controlled fake oppositions to perpetuate the illusion of democracy in the EU tyranny. Even when Nationalists do win elections then their parties are banned ( NPD), arrested ( The Golden Dawn ), infiltrated by state agents ( BNP, NPD) the law forces them to change their constitutions to remove nationalist principles ( BNP ) or their leaders are murdered like Jorg Haider.
We will never overthrow the EU through playiung the rigged game of electoral politics.
That is why the European nationalists hate the Ukranian Nationalists and have now aligned with Putin, whose anti-nationalist venom inside Russia and whose IMPERIALIST plans for a supra-national state entity match only the Imperialism and anti-nationalism of the EU itself.
The Right Sector are the future of European Nationalism.
I stand with them and their heroes against all who will stand against the European Reconquista that we so deserve and need.
Let the old, the weak, the cowards, the traitors, the corrupted and the stupid all stand together against us.
That way when the time comes, we already know who all our real enemies are.

          It Seems Like Trump Can't Dance To The Russian Bear's Tune Anymore. Or Can He?        
GETTY IMAGES
Vladimir Putin is only the latest person to learn to his dismay that if you try to get close to Donald Trump, you get burned.  But unlike Anthony Scaramucci, Reince Priebus, Chris Christie and . . . well, the 62 million people who voted for him, there is a divine thug-meets-thug serendipitousness about this bit of political arson. 
Putin thought he was doing a proklyatyy shtraf (damned fine) job of getting Trump to dance to the Russian bear's tune by helping elevate the former Soviet Union  to its Cold War glory, never mind that Crimea dust-up and Putin's kleptocratic tendencies in general. Trump was more than happy to oblige Putin after Russia whacked Hillary Clinton with the connivance of his presidential campaign.  (Then there is the not small matter of Vlad probably having something yuge with which to blackmail Trump, but that's another story.)
This is the part of the movie where it should be noted that as fiendishly ingenious as Putin has seemed to be, he also got lucky even if his little bump -- cyberbot-delivered manufactured news to embarrass Clinton, hacked emails, James Comey and all -- might have made a difference.   
And perhaps misunderestimated that one consequence of Trump's raving narcissism is that he is capable of doing really stupid things he does not believe will put him at legal risk. 
But now Putin's luck seems to have run out.  Or has it?
The overwhelming view of the punditocracy is that Putin's courtship of Trump has "backfired spectacularly," in the words of a New York Times scribe. 
This has nothing to do with Trump souring on his longtime bromance with the embodiment of America's past and present enemy and everything to do with Congress souring on an unceasingly bombastic president and its dawning awareness of how destructive Trump has become to the Grand Old Party, not to mention the country. 
Would the bromance have taken a dark turn earlier if Trump had not continued to believe he is innocent and insist that the Russia scandal was "fake news" and "the greatest witch hunt in political history"? 
Possibly, but it matters not because a coalition of Democrats who blame Putin for contributing to Clinton's defeat and Republicans horrified that an overmatched Trump doesn't understand who he is dealing with in Putin rammed through and sent to the White House a package of new Russian economic sanctions by nearly unanimous 98-2 and 419-3 votes in the Senate and House wrapped with a warning that Trump vetoes the legislation at his own peril.   
And so all those meetings between Jeff Sessions, Michael Flynn, Jared Kushner, and who knows who else, and Russian officials to discuss, if not promise, the easing of sanctions when the billionaire reality television star became the leader of the free world, not to mention those friendly Trump-Putin chitchats in Hamburg last month, seem to have been for naught.
Putin's initial response to the new sanctions was to impose the harshest measures on the U.S. since the Communist revolution in 1917.  His second response was to order upwards of 100,000 troops to the eastern edge of NATO territory in Belarus.  Both Cold War-style tactics will boomerang on poor Donald, who had only recently learned to sing "The Volga Boatman."
There will be other reminders that the Russian leader is trying to undermine American democracy, that the president has been complicit in those efforts, and that there is a great likelihood that Moscow will launch fresh cyber attacks against which the U.S. is unprepared and Trump has shrugged off in refusing to heed warnings from intelligence and election officials. 
Then there are Putin's expansionist tendencies.   
The original sanctions imposed by the Obama administration were a consequence of Russia's illegal annexation of Crimea.  Trump didn't just soft-pedal that as a candidate, his campaign team rewrote the Republican National Convention platform on Ukraine, removing a pledge that the U.S. would provide lethal weapons in its fight over Crimea, as well as a call for maintaining or increasing sanctions.  Trump will be unable to be so blasé when Putin next scratches his expansionist itch.
Yet despite all that, I'm not ready to declare the Trump-Putin bromance dead and I suspect my decidedly minority view may look a whole like smarter over the long haul. 
For one thing, Trump signed the sanctions bill with a gun to his head, appending to it a signing statement delineating his assertion that Congress intruded into his constitutional powers to conduct foreign affairs.   
For another, in Trump's responsibility-free alternate universe, Congress is to blame for the downturn in relations with Moscow, not Russia or (heaven forbid!) the thug who directed the election cyber-interference.
For yet another, there is Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, who is just one of several Cabinet members with Russia connections.  (The others are Wilbur Ross at Commerce, who led the 2014 rescue of the Bank of Cyprus, a favorite conduit for Russian oligarch and mob money laundering; Attorney General Jeff Sessions, who met who knows how many times with a Russian official during the campaign, and the late, lamented Flynn, whose brazen contacts with and payoffs from Russians short-circuited his tenure as national security director.)  
Tillerson's mere presence in the job as the U.S.'s lead diplomat is a reflection of Trump's outlook on all things Russian.  He is a personal friend of Putin and made tens of billions of dollars for ExxonMobil from Russian oil when he was CEO of the multinational energy giant. 
Tillerson doesn't break wind without Trump's permission, so the president's small hands are all over a dispute regarding $80 million to fight Russian disinformation and terrorist propaganda, not that there's much difference between the two.   Although the money already has been appropriated by Congress and Tillerson is legally obligated to spend it, he refuses to do so. 
And so sanctions or not, Trump is still putting Russian interests above America's.  
GETTY IMAGES
Legislation is in the offing to shield special counsels from political influence, as in should Trump makes good on his threats to fire Robert Mueller. 
On Monday, a bill was introduced by Senators Lindsay Graham, a South Carolina Republican, and Corey Booker, a New Jersey Democrat, that would require the Justice Department to seek a request from a federal judge before firing Mueller or any other special counsel.
Another bill to be introduced by Senators Thom Tillis, a North Carolina Republican, and Chris Coons, a Delaware Democrat, would allow any Justice Department special counsel to challenge their firing in court and to have it reviewed by a three-judge panel. 
Both bills would apply retroactively to May 17, 2017, the day Mueller was assigned as a special counsel after Trump fired FBI Director James Comey in a brazen and botched attempt to shut down the primary investigation into Russia election interference and the collusion of the Trump campaign in that successful effort. 
The bills also would limit a president's authority to hire and fire special counsels, a right that fell under the president's purview after Congress let an independent-counsel law established in the wake of the Watergate scandal expire in 1999 following Kenneth Starr’s investigation of President Clinton.  
While Trump cannot fire Mueller directly, there are concerns that he might seek to replace AG Sessions, who has technically recused himself from the Russia investigation, and that would be easier to do while the Senate is in recess.  But in another slap to Trump, lawmakers agreed to a series of so-called pro forma sessions that ensures it never officially goes on recess although it has adjourned until after Labor Day.  
Mueller reportedly has now impaneled a grand jury in Washington in connection with his investigation.  Despite the breathlessness with which many people have greeted this news, it's no big deal.  Grand juries are how federal prosecutors conduct their investigations, including the need to compel reluctant witnesses to testify under oath and issuing subpoenas for documents such as bank records -- and yes, tax returns -- that people won't produce them voluntarily.  
There is broad, bipartisan support in Congress for Mueller's investigation, so the bills would appear likely to pass, setting up another confrontation with the president over Russia.

Click HERE for a comprehensive timeline of the Russia scandal. 


          Paving New Silk Route to Alter Global Economy        
Starting with the remarkable stories of Marco Polo’s travels through Eurasia to China, the Silk Road has always been in place to enter the world.  In modern times, the ancient cities of Baku, Samarkhand, Tashkent, and Bukhara are at this point pointing the world’s imagination. China has undertaken the massive construction and world’s economic development project: The New Silk Road. The project is all set to bring a revolutionary change in the economic picture of the world. By many, it is also viewed as the initial shot in the fight between west and east to dominate the Eurasia region. The project has ambitious vision, to transform the ancient Silk Road into a modern transit and economic development corridor running between Berlin and Shanghai. The ‘Road’ will run through China, Russia, Poland, Mongolia, Belarus, and Germany covering more than 8,000 miles, thus forming an economic zone to include more than one third of the earth’s circumference. The plan also envisions to build high speed railroads, energy transmission networks, roads and highways, and fiber optic network. The cities and ports that fall along the route will be targeted for development.  An equally important part of the project development is ‘Maritime Silk Road (MSR), a sea-based component of the development plan. The sea-based component is looked upon with same ambition as its land-based counterpart, which will link Persian Gulf with China and the Mediterranean Sea with Indian Ocean and Central Asia.  After completion, same as the ancient Silk Road, the route will connect three continents, namely Europe, Asia, and Africa. The group of infrastructure projects will develop the world’s largest economic belt benefitting a population of 4.4 billion and churning out economic output worth US$ 21 trillion. 

Original Post Paving New Silk Route to Alter Global Economy source Twease
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Беларусь 1Телеканал "Беларусь 1” входит в состав Белтелерадиокомпании и специализируется на освещении последних новостей в республике и за рубежом. Канал вещает исключительно на белорусском и русском языках. На телеканале представлены как информационно-аналитические программы, так и художественные, документальные фильмы, сериалы, ток-шоу, интеллектуальные и познавательные передачи. Канал работает круглосуточно, транслирует сериалы, спортивные соревнования, новости, реалити-шоу, художественные фильмы, мультфильмы.


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Беларусь 3Хотите оставаться в курсе культурных событий? Канал «Беларусь» создан специально для вас. Он позиционирует себя, как совокупность материальных и интеллектуальных ценностей Республики Беларусь. Если основа программы «Беларусь 3» — развлекательные шоу, то для «Беларусь 2» платформа — информационные рубрики и авторские проекты. Зрители смогут познакомиться с важными событиями из театральной жизни, киноиндустрии. Программы эфирного дня объединены в рубрики: «Литература», «Музыка», «История», «Театр» и другие. С интересными людьми познакомит зрителей социокультурный проект «Ди@блог». Ведущие программы обсудят с гостями актуальные вопросы из культурной жизни.


          Ð‘еларусь 2        

Беларусь 2Телеканал «Беларусь 2» — это главный государственный развлекательный канал в Беларуси, он транслирует крупнейшие спортивные события, юмористические передачи, телевизионные шоу, шедевры мирового кинематографа. Это один из крупнейших белорусских государственных каналов, который находится в одном ряду с главным новостным каналом ОНТ и  проектом «Беларусь 3». Любители спорта смогут посмотреть матчи Лиги чемпионов УЕФА с участием европейских грандов, матчи Лиги Европы УЕФА, хоккейные баталии, соревнования по биатлону.


          Russia's Aims in Central Asia        
Regional cooperation revolves around the Eurasia Economic Union.

Russia continues to lack a common policy on Central Asia, preferring instead to pursue bilateral relations with individual states, according to regional expert Chinara Esengul.

The Kyrgyz analyst on Central Asia geopolitics and security told IWPR that she saw no future imminent accessions to the customs union of Russia, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakstan and Kyrgyzstan.

But Russia would still play a key role as a guarantor of the national and regional security of Central Asia, balanced by some economic competition with China.

The only serious threat to Moscow’s dominance in the region, she continued, was the threat of radical Islam.



Chinara Esengul. (Photo courtesy of National Institute for Strategic Studies of the Kyrgyz Republic - nisi.kg)
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          Avast! Premier Antivirus 17.4.2294 License Free Download        
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          Äáº¡i học Belarus đến thăm trường đại học Bình DÆ°Æ¡ng        
Nhằm thắt chặt mối quan hệ hợp tác tốt đẹp giữa Trường Đại học Bình DÆ°Æ¡ng và Trường Đại học Quốc gia Belarus đồng thời đẩy mạnh tiến độ thá»±c hiện các dá»± án hợp tác giữa hai trường, sáng ngày 5/12/2014, Đoàn Đại biểu Trường Äáº¡i học Belarus đến thăm trường đại học Bình DÆ°Æ¡ng

Dẫn đầu đòan đại biểu Trường Đại học quốc gia Belarus trong chuyến đi lần này có GS.TSKH. Tolstik Alexel - Phó Hiệu trưởng Trường Đại học quốc gia Belarus cùng GS. Stanhislav Rizevskyl – Trưởng phòng Nghiên cứu Khoa học các vấn đề ứng dụng Tin học và ông Vitalyl Kutavichuk – Trưởng ban họat động đổi mới khoa học, điều phối viên Trung tâm Công nghệ và đổi mới giáo dục Bel – Viet thuộc Đại học Quốc gia Belarus. Đặc biệt, trong chuyến thăm và làm việc lần này còn có GS.TSKH. Oleg Dormeshkin  - Phó Hiệu trưởng Trường Đại học Công nghệ Belarus
Đón tiếp và làm việc cùng Đoàn  nhận làm bằng đại học giá rẻ quốc gia Belarus, về phía trường Đại học Bình DÆ°Æ¡ng có GS.VS. Cao Văn Phường – Chủ tịch HĐQT – Hiệu trưởng nhà trường, Thầy Cao Việt HÆ°ng – Bí thÆ° Đảng ủy, PGS.TS. Nguyễn Hồng Đào – Phó Hiệu trưởng, TS.Cao Việt HÆ°Æ¡ng - Phó Hiệu trưởng, Trưởng Ban Tài chính, PGS.TS.Nguyễn Văn Út – Trưởng phòng Nghiên cứu khoa học, Phó Trưởng Ban Cải cách chÆ°Æ¡ng trình Đào tạo, PGS.TS.Nguyễn Bội Khuê – Phân hiệu phó Phân hiệu Khoa học Công nghệ - Trưởng Khoa Điện – Điện Tá»­, TS.Nguyễn Quang Tấn – Trưởng khoa Tin học, TS. Trịnh LÆ°Æ¡ng Quang – Giám đốc Trung tâm Việt Nga, ThS. VÅ© Việt Chí – Phó Trưởng phòng Nghiên cứu Khoa học và cô Karen Hamilton – Phó Trưởng phòng Hợp tác Quốc tế cùng tham dá»±.
Đại học Belarus đến thăm Trường Đại học Bình Dương

Phát biểu tại buổi gặp gỡ, GS.VS. Cao Văn Phường – Chủ tịch HĐQT – Hiệu trưởng Trường Đại học Bình Dương bày tỏ sự vui mừng khi được đón tiếp phái đòan của trường bạn. Đồng thời, GS.VS. Cao Văn Phường đánh giá cao mối quan hệ hợp tác lâu dài và bền chặt giữa hai trường. Trong thời gian qua, Trường Đại học Bình Dương và Trường nhận làm bằng đại học giá rẻ Quốc gia Belarus đã có những công trình hợp tác ý nghĩa. Hi vọng trong thời gian sắp tới, hai trường có thể đẩy mạnh các dự án hợp tác, tổ chức các đầu cầu truyền hình, từ tiếp xúc sơ bộ tiến đến trực tiếp làm việc, giao lưu sinh viên, chuyển giao công nghệ, giới thiệu, tổ chức đào tạo các ngành nghề chung, tạo dựng môi trường học tập lí tưởng cho sinh viên.

Tiếp sau buổi làm việc với Ban Giám hiệu Trường Đại học Bình DÆ°Æ¡ng, Đoàn đại biểu Trường Đại học Quốc gia Belarus đã có buổi hội thảo gặp gỡ và giao lÆ°u cùng các bạn sinh viên Trường Đại học Bình DÆ°Æ¡ng tại Hội trường Nhà hát sinh viên. Đại diện Trường Đại học quốc gia Belarus, GS.TSKH. Tolstik Alexel - Phó Hiệu trưởng Trường Đại học quốc gia Belarus đã giới thiệu về đất nước, con người và ngôi trường mang tên Belarus hiền hòa xinh đẹp. Trường Đại học Quốc gia Belarus là trường đại học hàng đầu của Cộng hòa Belarus, trụ sở chính tại Thủ đô Minsk, CH Belarus thuộc Liên Xô cÅ©. Trường được thành lập từ tháng 10 năm 1921, đến nay có hÆ¡n 30.000 sinh viên, học viên và nghiên cứu sinh đang học tập và nghiên cứu với 57 ngành và hÆ¡n 200 chuyên ngành giảng dạy. Sản phẩm công nghệ cao của Đại học Quốc gia Belarus đã giành được 21 huy chÆ°Æ¡ng và 11 bằng sáng chế tại các triển lãm quốc tế được tổ chức tại Liên bang Nga, Latvia, Balan, Belarus. Đại học Quốc gia Belarus hiện có quan hệ hợp tác với nhiều đại học ở châu Âu, châu MÄ©, châu Á cùng hàng trăm tổ chức  giáo dục và trung tâm nghiên cứu trên thế giới.

          Win tickets to the 2014 Birmingham International Tattoo        
Birmingham International Tattoo

Britain’s biggest indoor international tattoo, with over 1,000 performers, returns to The NIA in Birmingham later this year bringing together marching bands, exciting displays and culminating in the spectacular Grand Finale featuring all the performers in a spectacle of pomp and pageantry.

Leading this year’s international musical line-up are the Band of the Royal Regiment of Scotland and joining them are the Central Band of the Belarus Armed Forces, the Ceremonial Band of the Polish Army, the Royal Naval Volunteer Band, the Lacken Band of Austria, the National Youth Marching Band and the Centenary Massed Pipes and Drums. Performing with the bands will be dancers from the Belarussian National Folk Dance Academy and guest vocal soloists Tim Pitman, Rebecca Robinson and Vladimir Yaskevich.

Sharing the arena with the musicians during the three-hour family event will be a range of spectacular displays including Royal Air Force Cosford Queen’s Colour, the Tri-Services Field Gun Competition, the Royal British Legion Riders Motorcycle Display and the Parade of Massed Standards. This year’s special event will mark the anniversaries of the start of World War I and the 70th Anniversary of D-Day, so is sure to be a fantastic show.

The 2014 Birmingham International Tattoo comes to The NIA, Birmingham, on Saturday 29th November at 6pm and Sunday 30th November at 2pm.Tickets are obtainable now from the box office via: www.theticketfactory.com and Tel 0844 338 8000 and more information is available at www.birminghamtattoo.co.uk.

Competition closing date

Sunday, 9 November 2014 - 11:59pm

Competition prize

To stand the chance of winning 1 of 5 pairs of tickets to the Sunday performance (2pm, 30th November) of the 2014 Birmingham International Tattoo at The NIA, Birmingham; simply answer the question below:-

Winners

Shane Weir, Chloe Odgers, Dawn Canning, Alison Bruce and Samantha Clennell


          BREAKING: Rudy Giuliani’s Lobbying Firm Took $$ From Mexico, Turkey, Belarusian Fertilizer Co. & More #DrainTheSwamp        

Former New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani’s lobbying firm lobbied for the Mexican and Turkish governments, the Kurdish Regional Government in Iraq, Belarusian fertilizer companies, and more, all in the last year while President-elect Donald J. Trump was campaigning to Make America Great Again. Giuliani joined lobbying firm Greenberg Traurig in January of this year: […]

The post BREAKING: Rudy Giuliani’s Lobbying Firm Took $$ From Mexico, Turkey, Belarusian Fertilizer Co. & More #DrainTheSwamp appeared first on GotNews.


          Commentaires sur Occlusions veineuses rétiniennes par MichaelNex        
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          Belarus: Fraying Social Contract Puts Protestors on the Streets        
Prof Andrew Wilson, Professor of Ukrainian Studies I have just got back from a few days in Minsk, where events are moving fast. First was an unprecedented wave of demonstrations that began on 17 February. Belarus is used to a largely ritualistic cycle of impotent political protest from the ‘traditional opposition’ against longstanding dictator Aliaksandr […]
          Sanctions - State and Personal         
In a little retaliatory action, Russia is banning some US and EU products shipped into their country.
Russia’s Rospotrebnadzor consumer rights watchdog is checking American bourbon whiskey, in particular Kentucky Gentleman produced by Barton 1792 Distillery, on quality concerns, its press service reports on Monday.

It said Kentucky Gentleman bourbon had not gone through state registration as to its compliance with regulations of the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan, although its label bears the EAC mark for products turnover in the market of the Customs Union member-states.

Rospotrebnadzor also said phthalates had been found in that bourbon whiskey “which may cause functional and later organic changes in the central and peripheral nervous system, endocrine system, as well as oncologic diseases and male and female infertility”.
Russia focusing on products imported that contain poisons and pesticides and GMO's seems to be a good move and perhaps we should also take a look at how we spend our money. There are also other aspects to some products that are poisonous.

The Kentucky Gentleman brand and Barton Distillery are subsidiaries of The Sazerac Company, a jewish owned private company based out of Louisiana which is the largest distilling company in the United States.
Bill Goldring, Chairman of its Board of Directors, also leads the Goldring Family Foundation which contributes millions of dollars to various institutions including Birthright Israel which promotes zionism to the jewish youth of America.
The vision of Taglit-Birthright Israel is to strengthen Jewish identity, Jewish communities and solidarity with Israel by providing a 10-day trip to Israel for young Jewish people.
Poison products or poison ideology. We can boycott both even if it does effect American workers which is a shame.


Not stopping at whiskey...
Russia announced on Thursday that it was banning the import of a wide range of food and agricultural products from Europe and the United States, among others, responding to Western-imposed sanctions and raising the level of confrontation between the West and Moscow over the future of Ukraine.
Dmitri A. Medvedev, the prime minister, announced that Russia would ban all beef, pork, fruit, vegetables and dairy products from the European Union, the United States, Canada, Australia and Norway for one year.
Below is the list of banned products:
  • cattle meat, fresh, chilled or frozen;
  • pork, fresh, chilled or frozen;
  • poultry and its subproducts, fresh, chilled or frozen;
  • all salted, dried or smoked meats;
  • fish, shellfish, scallops and other aquatic invertebrates;
  • milk and dairy products;
  • vegetables;
  • fruits;
  • nuts;
  • sausage and similar meat products;

Here's a question. Why didn't Russia include Israel in its ban of these products? 



Companies Supporting the Israeli Occupation


A few Israel supporting companies to boycott. Easy...
 






          Poland Clashes With European Union Over Logging In Primeval Forest        
The lush, green canopy that is Bialowieza Forest spans 350,000 acres between Poland and Belarus. It's a UNESCO World Heritage Site that is home to a variety of endangered species like the European bison, which is slightly larger and leaner than its American cousin. It also has some of the last old-growth forest in Europe, untouched by human hands, and there is a great deal of international interest in preserving the forest's delicate ecology. Polish journalist, author and naturalist Adam Wajrak said he never tires of seeing the complex life cycle in this forest up close. "Look at there, here, you see?" he asked me, pointing to the top of a dead spruce trunk during a recent hike. "This is the little spruce growing on the body of dead spruce, this very often happens." He peeled back the top layer of another dead trunk. "If you look under the bark, there's a lot of beetles, a lot of spiders — everything, whatever you want, and this is how it works," he says. "This is why I compare the
          Logging Opens Dispute Between The EU And Poland        
Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit DAVID GREENE, HOST: Poland is at odds with much of the rest of the European Union. This is because its government cracks down on everything from press freedom to public demonstrations. The country has also turned away refugees from its borders. And Brussels has warned Warsaw's populist government might soon face sanctions over what critics say are attacks on Polish democracy. But it is the Polish government's treatment of trees, and not civil rights, that has landed Warsaw in the most trouble yet. These trees are in a forest that straddles the Polish-Belarusian border. And NPR's Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson is on the line. And, Soraya, you're actually in this forest, right? SORAYA SARHADDI NELSON, BYLINE: In a village which is deep inside the Bialowieza Forest, which is one of the last remaining old-growth forests here in Europe. It's home to a number of endangered species like the European bison which is taller but lighter than its American cousin. I
          Preparations for the Test Jam        

The Testjam is this weekend (April 18-19). Let's give as much details as possible:

Meetups

Location Meetup Page Hosts
New York City CocoaPods NYC Orta Therox, Ash Furrow at Artsy HQ
San Francisco CocoaPods SF Samuel Giddins, Kyle Fuller at Realm HQ
Minsk, Belarus CocoaHeadsBy Aliaksandr Andrashuk, Yana Poteeva at 9elements
London NSLondon Daniel Haight, Raimon Lapuente at Facebook
Durham, NC NSCoder Josh Johnson at American Underground
Seattle, WA Working together Kai Curtis at Substantial

Don't worry if you don't live in a big city, we'll all be online, follow through to find out the details.


          Ujerumani, Ubelgiji, Uswisi zatwaa tiketi        
Ujerumani, Ubelgiji, Uswisi zatwaa tiketi
Ozil ndani ya nyumba

TIMU za Ujeruamni, Ubeljigi na Uswisi, juzi usiku zilijitwalia tiketi ya Kombe la Dunia za mwakani nchini Brazil kutoka bara la Ulaya ambalo litatoa jumla ya timu 12.

Wakati maimba hiyo ikitangulia, bingwa mtetezi Hispania chini ya kocha wake Vicente Del Bosque, England na Russia, zinasubiri majaaliwa yao katika mechi za mwisho, Oktoba 15.
Ujerumani imejitwalia tiketi yake baada ya juzi kuifunga  Ireland 3-0 huku Ubelgiji ikiichapa Croatia 2-1 na Uswisi kuichakaza Albania 2-1.
Miamba hiyo imeungana na mingine kama Italia na Uholanzi iliyotangulia kupata tiketi ya Brazil.
Akizungumzia mafanikio ya Ubelgiji, kiungo Marouane Fellaini alisema wanapaswa kujivunia kiwango cha timu yao kwani pamoja na ugumu wa kampeni hiyo, wamefanikiwa.
Nazo England, Hispania na Russia zilishinda na kuongoza makundi yao, japo zinasubiri kupata matokeo mazuri katika mechi hizo za mwisho.
Kinara katika makundi tisa ya Ulaya, atajitwalia tiketi ya Brazil huku nane zitakazomaliza nafasi ya pili, zitachuana hatua ya mtoano kuwania nafasi nne kufikia 12 kwa Ulaya.
Mabao ya Ujerumani yalifungwa na Sami Khedira, Andre Schuerrle na Mesut Ozil, nyota wa Arsenal ya England aliyetokea Real Madrid ya Hispania.
Ujerumani imekata tiketi ya Kombe la Dunuia ikitokea kundi C, itacheza fainali hizo mara ya 18 tangu kuasisiwa kwake mwaka 1930.
Katika mechi nyingine, bao la dakika ya 86 likifungwa na Zlatan Ibrahimovic, liliipa Sweden ushindi wa 2-1 dhidi ya Austria, ikiwa nafasi ya pili huku Faroe Islands ikitoka sare ya 1-1 dhidi ya Kazakhstan.
Wachezaji wa Ubelgiji wakishangilia baada ya kufuzu Kombe la Dunia
Mbao mawili ya Romelu Lukaku, yaliipa Ubelgiji pointi tatu hivyo kuongoza kundi A, hivyo kuikwaa tiketi ya fainali za Kombe la Dunia mara ya kwanza tangu 2002 huku  Croatia ya pili.
Nayo Wales juzi ilishinda 1-0 dhidi ya Macedonia 1-0 katika mechi nyingine ya kundi hilo.
Aidha, mabao ya Xherdan Shaqiri na Michael Lang yaliipa ushindi Uswisi na kukamata usukani wa kundi E, hivyo kujitwalia tiketi ya Brazil huku Iceland iliyoichapa Cyprus 2-0, imebaki nafasi ya pili, mbele pointi moja dhidi ya  Slovenia iliyoichapa Norway 3-0.
Nayo England, juzi ilishinda 4-1 dhidi ya Montenegro 4-1 mjini London, hivyo kuongoza kwa tofauti ya pointi moja dhidi ya Ukraine, iliyoifunga Poland 1-0 katika kundi H.
England inahitaji ushindi katika mechi ya mwisho dhidi ya Poland hapo Oktoba 15, kutwaa tiketi huku Ukraine ikimaliza na San Marino, iliyofungwa 3-0  na Moldova.
England ilitangulia kupata bao dakika ya 49, likifungwa na Wayne Rooney kabla ya Branko Boskovic wa Montenegro kujifunga, likiwa la pili kwa England.
Hata hivyo, Dejan Damjanovic aliifungia Montenegro bao, lakini bao la Andros Townsend na Daniel Sturridge, yaliipa England ushindi wa mabao 4-1.
Raha ya ushindi
Katika kundi I, mabingwa wa Dunia Hispania waliwafunga Belarus 2-1 na kukamata usukani wa kundi mbele ya Ufaransa.
Mashuti ya Xavi Hernandez na Alvaro Negredo, ndio yalipeleka kilio kwa Belarus, hivyo sasa kuhityaji walau sare tu kutoka kwa Georgia kujitwalia tiketi ya Brazil.
Nayo Russia iliitandika Luxembourg 4-0, hivyo kukamata usukani wa kundi F, mbele ya Ureno iliyotoka sare ya 1-1 dhidi ya Israel huku Azerbaijan ikishinda 2-0 dhidi ya  Ireland Kaskazini.
Bosnia-Herzegovina iliichapa Liechtenstein 4-1, huku Ugiriki ikiifunga Slovakia 1-0, hivyo kukabana katika kundi G, wakiwa na pointi 22. Lithuania imeifunga Latvia 2-0.

Mtoano
Uturuki na Romania zimejiweka kwenye mazingira ya kucheza hatua ya mtoano wa timu nane kuania nafasi nne kutokana na kufungana kwa pointi katika kundi D, mbele ya Hungary iliyochapwa 8-1 na Uholanzi.
Hiyo ni baada ya Uturuki kushinda 2-0 dhidi ya Estonia 2 huku Romania ikishinda 4-0 dhidi ya Andorra.
Timu nne za kundi B, zimebaki kupigania kucheza hatua ya mtoano baada ya Italia kuvuna sare ya 2-2 dhidi ya  Denmark.
Denmark na Bulgaria, zilizofungwa 2-1 dhidi ya Armenia, zinafungana kwa pointi 13 kila moja huku Armenia na Czech iliyoshinda 3-1 dhidi ya Malta, zikiwa na pointi 12ts.

Zenye tiketi ya Brazil
Ukimwondoa mwenye Brazil mwenye tiketi ya moja kwa moja, nyingine ni Argentina, Australia, Ubelgiji, Costa Rica, Ujerumani, Iran, Italia, Japan, Uholanzi, Korea Kusini, Uswisi na Marekani.

          What if… Gorbachev had succeeded?        

On 7 October 1989 Mikhail Gorbachev visited Berlin for the celebration of the GDR 40th-anniversary, and said: “History punishes those who come too late” (Childs 2000): the statement criticised Honecker but was best suited as his own epitaph. 

But let’s try and imagine what might have happened if Gorbachev’s perestroika had actually succeeded.  Five years ago I wrote a paper developing this theme and presented it at a Conference in Warsaw. The paper illustrated how Gorbachev might have succeeded in achieving the radical reform of the Soviet political and economic system, the construction of market socialism, the re-structuring and acceleration (uskoreniye) of the Soviet economy, and the possible though unlikely continued existence of the USSR.

I should stress that this was not, or at least was not meant to be, an exercise in 20/20 hindsight. Alternative courses can be formulated without the possession of perfect foresight of the state of the world in 1985-1991.  Nor is a change in Gorbachev’s initial conditions required, of the kind “If only he had come to power in 1974, at the height of the fourfold rise in the oil price ...”. This exercise was meant as a genuine counterfactual alternative. Its purpose is that of damning Gorbachev’s disastrous economic strategy and showing that he and his economic policies, more than anybody else’s doings, are ultimately responsible for the collapse of  socialism in the Soviet Union, for the failure of an alternative design of market socialism, and for the immense human cost of post-socialist Transition.  A similar exercise, considering counter-factual alternatives to the actual course of Transition in Cental-Eastern Europe, is only outlined to suggest that Transition might have been handled at a lesser human cost. 

In order to succeed, Gorbachev would have had to act swiftly, instead of practically wasting his first two years in power (1985-87), and lay down sound economic foundations for perestroika: eliminate repressed inflation, preferably through a confiscatory currency conversion; break state monopoly of foreign trade, introduce rouble convertibility on current account, liberalise trade, foster competition. By 1991 he would have also legalised private ownership and enterprise, given state managers bonuses geared to market performance, implemented small privatisation, commercialised state enterprises, begun some privatisation of large enterprises and banks. On Christmas Day 1991, instead of resigning as President of the Union, he could have celebrated the victory of economic perestroika.

What next? There would have been still thorny choices and therefore possible mistakes to be made, before completing Transition and after. Gorbachev would have needed continued vigilance and sound economic advice, for instance to avoid too rapid dis-inflation at inordinately high real interest rates, as happened in 1994-95, and the consequent recession; to avoid an unsustainable combination of overvalued exchange rate, high interest rate to support it, and a public debt increasing as a result of high debt service, as happened in 1998 under the IMF’s watch; to avoid the unnecessary cost to the budget of switching the pension system from PAYG to a funded system.

As a result of the good economic foundations of economic perestroika, and the avoidance of these kinds of subsequent pitfalls, income losses from the Transition recession would have been lower, and growth would have accelerated earlier and faster than it actually was and did. The welfare of Russians would have improved significantly and continuously as a result. The same reasoning applies to all other Transition economies that to a greater or lesser extent followed stabilisation and Transition paths out of sequence or to excess. It is impossible to have unanimity about whether the measure taken were or were not mistakes, and how serious, let alone quantify the gains. But pretending that there were no serious unnecessary mistakes in the Transition is neither reasonable nor respectable. 

The improved economic performance would have generates political consensus, but not necessarily to the point of providing permanent democratic support for a political regime associated with significantly large state ownership and associated political values (of equality, solidarity, participation, etc.). In some Transition countries post-communist parties were returned to power in democratic elections (e.g. Poland, Hungary, Slovakia) after being defeated,  but only intermittently, not permanently; some party alternation in power is an integral part of democracy. But non-persistent, intermittent market socialism cannot deliver its expected economic and social advantages. When democratic support for an ecomic system is lacking or is not permanent, then its maintenance over time requires necessarily forms of political repression. There is a high political price to pay for an economically successful and persistent market socialism â€“ as confirmed by "market socialist" countries such as China, Vietnam, Belarus, Uzbekistan. 

Would an economically successful Gorbachev have been able to hold together the Soviet Union? There would be economic advantages to be shared out, from holding it together.  A continued Union would maintain and promote intra-Union trade volumes thanks to the single currency, and sustain inter-republic imbalances through transfers within the All-Union budget and inter-republic credits.  An early initiative and widespread economic success, including internal and external convertibility of the rouble, would have lessened centrifugal forces. If some political and administrative autonomy was granted to the 15 republics as well, the chances of retaining the Union would have improved. But the Soviets had seldom solved ethnic conflicts, mostly they had only suppressed them (just as they had done with inflation). Independence aspirations would have made it difficult for Russia to retain close ties even with republics that economically had most to gain from continued integration, like Ukraine. The probability of holding together the Union would have been greater than zero, but not significantly greater. 

Would a successful market-socialist Russia have been able to hold together CMEA/Comecon? Arguments similar to those for holding together the Soviet Union would apply, but would be much weaker. The international socialist division of labour had a bad name, in spite of Soviet subsidisation of its Comecon partners since 1974, by supplying oil and raw materials at below world prices. Memories and accusations of earlier Soviet exploitation through trade were still deeply ingrained. In January 1990 Comecon partners de facto destroyed it by trading freely rather than continue the old trade arrangements, even at the cost of paying higher prices for oil and materials. By September 1991 Comecon was officially dissolved. Comecon Soviet trade partners were already negotiating European Association Agreements and aid programmes with the European Community (now the European Union).

Gorbachev's hypothetical successful perestroika would not have led to Comecon survival.  At most, perhaps, a couple of years earlier he might have been able to extract economic assistance from the West in exchange for his acquiescence to the re-unification of Germany – for which he got nothing at all – and for the Finlandisation of Eastern Europe – a prospect overtaken by events in 1989.   

What difference would Gorbachev’s hypothetical successful perestroika have made in Russia? Only an alleviation of the pains of Transition in the 1990s; there would have been not very much difference in the 2000s, considering that in his second presidential term Putin had already reversed enterprise ownership trends, re-acquiring greater state control in many sectors and a majority stake in energy (Hanson, 2008). By comparison with the sensitivity of Russian performance to the price of oil, probably Gorbachev’s success would have been equivalent to a ten-year-long rise of $10 on the price of a barrel. (According to the Bank of Finland Research Department a $10 permanent increase raises Russia’s growth rate by 1%). The recent implosion of the US and global financial system had a far greater effect on Russia’s prospects.

What difference would Gorbachev's hypothetical successful perestroika have made to modern geopolitics? An earlier economically stronger Russia would have probably contained USA bids for the "American Century", thus sparing them the humiliation of their century ending so soon after it had barely begun.  Certainly Georgia would not have responded to encouragement by George W. Bush and Dick Cheney to attack Russia. But the Twin Towers had nothing to do with Russia, and it is impossible to tell whether the major armed conflicts that followed their attack – in Afghanistan and Iraq – would have been prevented by an economically stronger Russia. Most probably not.

Gorbachev’s and the whole Transition’s economic débacle clearly reduced the demand for socialism on a world scale, but his success would have made no difference for European social-democracy, as it would not have prevented the disintegration of the Italian left or the degeneration of British Labour into New Labour, nor favoured Zapatero’s victory in Spain. Probably both the European Union and NATO would have been smaller than they are now.

A Russian economy made stronger by an efficient Transition would have been less vulnerable to the contagion of global financial turmoil, both in the South East Asian crisis of 1997 (that was an important factor in the Russian crisis of 1998), and today. But a stronger Russia would have neither prevented such global financial crises, nor contributed much to their resolution. 

We should leave the future to futurologists. In 1989 Fukuyama’s conjecture  about The End of History was falsified before the ink had dried. All we know for sure, whether Gorbachev had or had not been successful in implementing economic perestroika, is that – as prophesised by a wall graffiti in London in 1991: "The future is not what it used to be".    

UPDATE
I have been asked where the paper referred to above was published and whether it is available on line. "A counter-factual alternative for Russia's post-socialist transition" was presented at an international conference on The Great Transformation, 1989-2029, TIGER at Kozminski University, Warsaw, 3-4 April 2009, published in Conference proceedings, as Grzegorz W. Kolodko and Jacek Tomkiewicz (Eds), 20 years of Transformation Achievements, Problems and Perspectives, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2011, https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/produ