Deadline for re-registration passes; churches face illegal status        
Oppressive new laws in Azerbaijan and Tajikistan required religious communities to re-register with the government by January 1, 2010 or face illegal status. As of December 16, only about 100 of Azerbaijan’s 534 religious communities had been able to do so. Fewer than half of Tajikistan’s religious communities re-registered, reports MNN. According to Joel Griffith […]
          Ali and Nino (2016)        

Ali and Nino (2016)Love story of a Muslim Azerbaijani boy and Christian Georgian girl in Baku from 1918 to 1920. Directed by: Asif KapadiaYear: 2016 | Duration: 100 minGenre: Drama, RomanceStarring: Adam Bakri, Connie Nielsen, Mandy Patinkin, María ValverdeCountry: UKLanguage: … Continue reading

The post Ali and Nino (2016) appeared first on Putlocker.


          Annotation: Donald Trump Jr.'s Emails About Russia Meeting        
Donald Trump Jr. tweeted images of emails regarding his 2016 meeting with a Russian lawyer on Tuesday. An intermediary said he could connect Trump Jr. with people who had information "that would incriminate Hillary [Clinton]... and would be very useful to your father." Trump Jr. agreed to the meeting, which former campaign chairman Paul Manafort and Trump son-in-law and adviser Jared Kushner also attended in June 2016. They met with Russian attorney Natalia Veselnitskaya , whom Trump Jr. said ultimately did not provide the promised material on Clinton. In the emails, Trump Jr. corresponds with publicist Rob Goldstone , who represents the son of an Azerbaijan-born billionaire who has also done business with the Trumps. Trump Jr. forwarded the thread to Kushner and Manafort Loading...
          Comment on Banners Design for Mobile Unlock Base by MichaelImmed        
Our team is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. To get the additional information and place the order just visit our website: http://www.salepassportsfake.cc www. salepassportsfake.cc >> Contact e-mails: General support: support@salepassportsfake.cc Technical support: admin@salepassportsfake.cc ----------------------------- Keywords: buy fake passport of Afghanistan buy fake passport of Albania buy fake passport of Algeria buy fake passport of Andorra buy fake passport of Angola buy fake passport of Antigua & Deps buy fake passport of Argentina buy fake passport of Armenia buy fake passport of Australia buy fake passport of Austria buy fake passport of Azerbaijan buy fake passport of Bahamas buy fake passport of Bahrain buy fake passport of Bangladesh buy fake passport of Barbados buy fake passport of Belarus buy fake passport of Belgium buy fake passport of Belize buy fake passport of Benin buy fake passport of Bhutan buy fake passport of Bolivia buy fake passport of Bosnia Herzegovina buy fake passport of Botswana buy fake 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fake passport of Nauru buy fake passport of Nepal buy fake passport of Netherlands buy fake passport of New Zealand buy fake passport of Nicaragua buy fake passport of Niger buy fake passport of Nigeria buy fake passport of Norway buy fake passport of Oman buy fake passport of Pakistan buy fake passport of Palau buy fake passport of Panama buy fake passport of Papua New Guinea buy fake passport of Paraguay buy fake passport of Peru buy fake passport of Philippines buy fake passport of Poland buy fake passport of Portugal buy fake passport of Qatar buy fake passport of Romania buy fake passport of Russian Federation buy fake passport of Rwanda buy fake passport of St Kitts & Nevis buy fake passport of St Lucia buy fake passport of Saint Vincent & the Grenadines buy fake passport of Samoa buy fake passport of San Marino buy fake passport of Sao Tome & Principe buy fake passport of Saudi Arabia buy fake passport of Senegal buy fake passport of Serbia buy fake passport of Seychelles buy fake passport of Sierra Leone buy fake passport of Singapore buy fake passport of Slovakia buy fake passport of Slovenia buy fake passport of Solomon Islands buy fake passport of Somalia buy fake passport of South Africa buy fake passport of Spain buy fake passport of Sri Lanka buy fake passport of Sudan buy fake passport of Suriname buy fake passport of Swaziland buy fake passport of Sweden buy fake passport of Switzerland buy fake passport of Syria buy fake passport of Taiwan buy fake passport of Tajikistan
           Programe de mobilitate oferite de Fundatia Cultural Europeana        
STEP beyond ofera granturi de mobilitate artistilor, operatorilor culturali, jurnalistilor, traducatorilor si cercetatorilor care calatoresc in Europa, inclusiv in Georgia, Armenia si Azerbaijan.
          World: FPMA Bulletin #7, 10 August 2017        
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burundi, Cambodia, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Peru, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia

Key messages

  • International prices of wheat rose further in July on quality concerns, particularly for higher protein wheat, although upward pressure was limited by prospects of ample global supplies. Export prices of maize remained generally unchanged, while a slowdown in demand capped gains in rice quotations.
  • In East Africa, prices of cereals in most countries declined signi cantly for the second consecutive month in July with the new harvests, but remained generally higher than a year earlier. However, in Ethiopia, prices of maize surged further and reached record levels, underpinned by uncertain prospects for the 2017 crops.
  • In the CIS, prices of staple potatoes declined sharply from the record or near-record highs of June in most countries of the subregion with the beginning of the new harvest. Prices, however, remained higher than in July last year after the sharp increases of the past months.

          CAS Rules on Sakotic's Appeal        

official logo

The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) recently decided the appeal of Vladimir Sakotic against the decision of the FIDE Ethics Commission (EC) in a disciplinary matter brought against Mr Sakotic.

The complainants in the case before the EC were the European Chess Union (ECU) and Montenegro Chess Federation (MCF). The complaints related to events surrounding the organisation of the 2013 European Youth Chess Championship in Budva, Montenegro (2013 EYCC).

In its decision of 9 November 2016, reached in Baku, Azerbaijan, the EC found Silvio Danailov, Vladimir Sakotic and Sava Stoisavljevic (all ECU executives in the period 2011-2014) guilty of violations of the FIDE Code of Ethics and imposed bans of 3 years (Sakotic), 18 months (Danailov) and 6 months (Stoisavljevic) respectively.

Mr Danailov and Ms Stoisavljevic did not appeal the decision of the EC. Mr Sakotic appealed to CAS asking it to annul the EC decision in its entirety and to allow Mr Sakotic to hold office, participate in meetings and represent any organisation within FIDE and its members.

In its Arbitral Award of 2 August 2017, the CAS confirmed that Mr Sakotic violated Article 2.2.2 of the FIDE Code of Ethics (as found by the EC) but reduced Mr Sakotic's period of suspension to 18 months (from the 3 years imposed by the EC). The period of suspension runs accordingly from 10 October 2016 until 9 April 2018.

During the suspension period Mr Sakotic may not hold any office or position within FIDE, participate in any meeting of FIDE as delegate or in another capacity, or represent any organisation in its relations with FIDE. The suspension applies also to FIDE member federations, continental associations and other affiliated organisations. However, as per the EC decision, the sanction does not preclude Mr Sakotic from performing activities as a chess arbiter, chess organiser or FIDE lecturer during the period of suspension.

The CAS award may be considered benevolent to Mr Sakotic as he did not explicitly request a reduction in the period of suspension, in the event that the CAS holds that he has indeed violated the Code of Ethics, and the issue of the appropriate length of the ban was not canvassed in the parties' written statements and argument before CAS.

The CAS appeals system allows for a re-hearing of the matter and an independent determination by the CAS Panel of the case without limiting itself to assessing the correctness of the procedure and decision of the disciplinary tribunal. This de novo character of the appeal proceedings allowed the parties to file written submissions, produce new exhibits not introduced in the matter before the EC and to call and examine witnesses even if they did not testify in a hearing before the EC. As a result, the CAS Panel did not have to rely, as did the EC, on adverse inferences which may be drawn against Mr Sakotic for his absence at the EC hearing and his decision not to answer fully all the allegations made and evidence produced by the complainants in the EC proceedings.

The CAS Panel noted that the allegations against Mr Sakotic had to be proved according to the standard of "comfortable satisfaction" (CAS Award: paragraphs 127-129).

The CAS Panel held that the 2013 EYCC was riddled with improprieties and suspicious activity, from a lack of transparency surrounding the transfer of the organising rights, to an inconsistent manner of invoicing for payments to various entities, and a diversion of a deposit fee in the sum of €7 500 payable to the ECU but channelled to an unrelated private entity, incorporated in Delaware, USA with a bank account in Slovenia, and bearing the name European Chess Union LLC (ECU LLC).

The CAS Panel found that Mr Sakotic violated Article 2.2.2 of the FIDE Code of Ethics (acted in a way that no longer inspires the necessary confidence, or has in other ways become unworthy of trust) on the grounds of a lack of transparency and a conflict of interest, and being complicit in the diversion of the ECU deposit fee. However, the CAS Panel did not reach the same conclusion as the EC as to the extent of Mr Sakotic's responsibility for other irregularities in connection with the 2013 EYCC.

More in particular, the CAS held that Mr Sakotic played a significant role in the lack of transparency surrounding the transfer of the organising rights in respect of the 2013 EYCC to a private entity controlled by an immediate family member of Mr Sakotic and, in this regard, he breached his fiduciary duty not to place himself in a position of a conflict of interest (CAS Award: paragraphs 138-148; 177, 179 and 188).

The CAS Panel further held that Mr Sakotic gave written instruction to MCF officials to pay the ECU deposit fee to the imposter corporation, ECU LLC (CAS Award: paragraphs 159-172, 177 and 188).

The Panel considered that each of the abovementioned behaviours is serious enough to manifest a loss of the "necessary confidence" or the status of being "unworthy of trust" in contravention of Article 2.2.2 of the Code of Ethics (CAS Award: paragraphs 177 – 179).

Regarding Mr Sakotic's alleged involvement in the ECU LLC and another Delaware corporation, Chess Plus LLC, albeit that the Panel found that Mr Sakotic's explanations were very vague, unsatisfactory and even suspicious, it held that the available evidence nevertheless fell short in order to be able to conclude that Mr Sakotic was responsible for or instrumental in the creation and operation of these corporations (CAS Award: paragraphs 150-155).

The CAS Panel noted the inconsistent and suspicious manner of invoicing for accommodation, organisation and ECU entry fees and the lack of a clear explanation from Mr Sakotic and his witnesses for such irregularities, but found nevertheless that there was insufficient evidence incriminating Mr Sakotic (CAS Award: paragraphs 156-158).

The CAS Panel further considered that the evidence was insufficient to prove that Mr Sakotic was the "mastermind" in a scheme to make secret profits at the expense of MCF and ECU (CAS Award: paragraphs 176).

In conclusion, the CAS Panel stressed that its decision must not be seen as exonerating Mr Sakotic, for example, of having created and operated the Delaware companies, siphoned-off funds, and/or benefitted directly or indirectly from the payments made to Chess Plus LLC. The Panel merely concluded that on the basis of the evidence made available in the arbitration, it is not comfortably satisfied that Mr Sakotic engaged in such actions. The award should thus in no way be viewed or treated as an exoneration of Mr Sakotic on any level, but it must be regarded for what it is – a finding against Mr Sakotic under Article 2.2.2 for having committed ethical violations, albeit fewer and of lesser magnitude than found by the EC (CAS Award: paragraph 191).

The findings of CAS relating to the use of ECU LLC as a vehicle for a diversion of funds, and Mr Sakotic's role therein, is highly relevant to a separate investigation currently being carried on by the EC, under case no. 5/2016, in the context of the use of ECU LLC for a diversion of funds in excess of €1 million by individuals in the name of the Bulgarian Chess Federation in the period 2011-2014.

A copy of the CAS Award can be found here.


          CSU Hosts Crossing Borders: Immigrant Narratives, March 18 & 19        

Staged reading produced by Lit Cleveland is part of 2017 Humanities Fest

Crossing BordersWhen Literary Cleveland put out a call for immigration stories by Northeast Ohio writers, the group was flooded with responses, highlighting both the tremendous contributions of immigrants to the region and the importance of this voice to our cultural heritage.

Now many of these powerful stories – written by immigrants from Syria, Iran, Colombia, Poland, China, Azerbaijan and elsewhere– will be heard in front of a live audience as part of a staged reading produced with Cleveland State University during the upcoming Cleveland Humanities Festival.

Crossing Borders: Immigrant Narratives will be performed Saturday, March 18th and Sunday, March 19th at 7 pm in the Cleveland State University Student Center Ballroom at 2121 Euclid Ave, Third Floor. The events are cosponsored by the Baker-Nord Center for the Humanities and Cleveland State University’s College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences.

The staged reading of short essays, fiction and poems is directed by Marc Moritz, who has assembled a cast of professional actors to perform the pieces. The stories in the show are provocative, moving, heart-wrenching and funny. The authors address the emotional journey of crossing borders, both literal and metaphorical, and what it means to be both an immigrant and an American.  

In “The Buttonhook Men,” Jill Sell writes about her Czech ancestors’ uncertain passage through Ellis Island, which could easily have been rejected. “Food and Family,” a piece by Hathaway Brown student Crystal Zhao, tells the story of a second-generation Chinese immigrant bonding with her mother over stories of childhood rebellion. The poem “Genesis” by Daniel Gray-Kontar addresses the journey of African-Americans from the south to northern cities like Cleveland during the Great Migration.

In the raw “Struggling to Survive,” Syrian immigrant Bayan Aljbawi writes about leaving her troubled homeland for the U.S., an experience she describes as “escaping from one suffering to another: new culture, new country and different language.”

“My husband, my baby and I were lucky,” she concludes. “The only question left is this: What about too many others who did not get a chance to do the same?”

And in “American Promise,” award-winning novelist and Case Western University professor Thrity Umrigar – who immigrated here from India over 30 years ago – confronts the current political climate and asks if the U.S. “will be a country that is as small and narrow as its fears” or “as large and glorious as its dreams, as splendid as the hopes of millions of its citizens, immigrant and native born…?”

The event is free and open to the public but registration is strongly encouraged. For more information, visit http://www.litcleveland.org/special-events.html.

###


          What Twitter looks like from Azerbaijan? #LoveTwitter        

5 years ago, in march 2011, when I started to use Twitter it was very interesting, but strange place. Though I’m from Azerbaijan, I was reading tweets in english, sometimes in turkish. When I started to see azerbaijani tweets, I was very surprised and made “WOWW!” every time I saw it… Now @orkhanrzayev has 4K+ […]

The post What Twitter looks like from Azerbaijan? #LoveTwitter appeared first on Orkhan Rza's blog.


          ã€AZ】Lider TV Live        

Info:Lider TV, is a privatly owned television channel in Azerbaijan. It offers varied programs inluding news and TV series.

The post 【AZ】Lider TV Live appeared on iTVer - Watch Live TV Center.


          ã€AZ】AZTV Live        

Info:AZTV is the official Azerbaijan State TV. It provides general programming including News, Sports, Film and Entertainment.

The post 【AZ】AZTV Live appeared on iTVer - Watch Live TV Center.


          ã€AZ】Ictimai TV Live        

Info:Ictimai TV is part of the Public Television and Radio Broadcasting Company ITV Azerbaijan. Ictimai TV attaches more importance to education and enlightenment with their informative, cultural, educative and entertaining programs.

The post 【AZ】Ictimai TV Live appeared on iTVer - Watch Live TV Center.


          ã€AZ】GunAz TV Live        

Info:Gunaz TV is a South Azerbaijani TV channel. It broadcasts issues of North and South Azerbaijan, politics and live discussions.

The post 【AZ】GunAz TV Live appeared on iTVer - Watch Live TV Center.


          ã€AZ】ATV Baku Live        

Info:ATV or Azad Azerbaijan TV is a privately held TV station based in Baku. ATV offers a variety of news and entertainment.

The post 【AZ】ATV Baku Live appeared on iTVer - Watch Live TV Center.


          Negara-negara Asal Sepakbola Deg-degan Menunggu Pengundian        

Pengundian babak kualifikasi Piala Dunia 2018 akan dilakukan Sabtu malam, sekitar pukul 23.00 WIB. Di bawah ini adalah daftar unggulan dan berbagai skenario buruk maupun baik yang bisa menimpa negara-negara asal sepakbola: Inggris, Wales, Skotlandia dan Irlandia Utara.

Berita Bola: Negara-negara Asal Sepakbola Deg-degan Menunggu Pengundian
Pot 1: Jerman, Belgia, Belanda, Portugal, Romania, Inggris, Wales, Spanyol, Kroasia
Pot 2: Slovakia, Austria, Italia, Swiss, Republik Ceko, Prancis, Islandia, Denmark, Bosnia-Herzegovina
Pot 3: Ukraina, Skotlandia, Polandia, Hungaria, Swedia, Albania, Irlandia Utara, Serbia, Yunani
Pot 4: Turki, Slovenia, Israel, Republik Irlandia, Norwegia, Bulgaria, Kepulauan Faroe, Montenegro, Estonia
Pot 5: Siprus, Latvia, Armenia, Finlandia, Belarusia, Makedonia, Azerbaijan, Lithuania, Moldova
Pot 6: Kazakhstan, Luksemburg, Liechtenstein, Georgia, Malta, San Marino, Andorra
Inggris dan Wales tidak mungkin bertemu dalam satu grup karena mereka sama-sama tim unggulan yang masuk dalam Pot 1.
Namun, mereka masih bisa ketemu dengan negara tertentu dari Pot 2 seperti Italia (saat ini peringkat 17 di dunia) atau Perancis (peringkat 22), sementara tandang ke negara-negara tertentu seperti Swedia, Polandia atau Ukraina bisa menjadi laga yang sulit.
Wales, Irlandia Utara dan Skotlandia bisa saja masuk ke dalam grup yang berisikan lima tim, bukan enam – yang dapat membantu peluang mereka lolos ke putaran final di Rusia.
Tim-tim Eropa akan dibagi ke dalam sembilan kelompok – tujuh grup dengan enam tim dan dua grup hanya beranggotakan lima tim.
Berikut adalah skenario terbaik dan terburuk dari empat negara asal sepakbola itu.
Inggris
Tiket impian:
Inggris, Islandia, Albania, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova, Andorra
Skenario terburuk:
Inggris, Italia, Swedia, Turki, Finlandia, Kazakhstan
Wales
Tiket impian:
Wales, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Albania, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova
Skenario terburuk:
Wales, Prancis, Ukraina, Turki, Siprus, Georgia
Skotlandia
Tiket impian:
Skotlandia, Wales, Islandia, Estonia, Lithuania
Skenario terburuk:
Skotlandia, Jerman, Italia, Turki, Makedonia, Kazakhstan
Irlandia Utara
Tiket impian:
Irlandia Utara, Rumania, Islandia, Kepulauan Faroe, Moldova
Skenario terburuk:
Irlandia Utara, Spanyol, Prancis, Republik Irlandia, Belarusia, Malta

          Translate your favorite with Google        
Sebelumnya telah diuraikan perihal Priority Inbox, dimana fitur ini bekerja pada Gmail dan saat ini Ambae.exe berkesempatan menggunakannya bersama others AMBAE. Lebih awal disampaikan bahwa Google mengeluarkan 2 (dua) fitur terbarunya. Yang akan diuraikan di bawah ini adalah Google Translate dengan fitur yang lebih hebat. Bagi sobat Googler, Google Translate bukanlah hal baru, tapi mungkin saja masih ada rekan-rekan yang ingin mengetahuinya dari awal terutama Ambae.exe yang masih awam.

Layanan ini diperkenalkan pada tahun 2007 dan mulai memasukkan Bahasa Indonesia ke dalam pilihan bahasa yang bisa diterjemahkan sejak 25 September 2008. Adapun sasaran utama dari Google Translate yakni untuk menerjemahkan bagian teks atau halaman web dalam satu bahasa ke bahasa lain.


Lalu mengapa diklaim memiliki fasilitas canggih dibanding penerjemah lainnya...? Tidak seperti layanan terjemahan lain seperti Babel Fish dan AOL yang menggunakan SYSTRAN, Google menggunakan perangkat lunak terjemahan sendiri. Itulah hebatnya mbah Google, si empunya tidak mau meminjam apapun dari pihak lain. Kalau perlu Sergey M. Brin dan Lawrence E. Page membeli produk pihak lain agar bisa menguasai dunia maya.

Lanjut fren, satu persatu kita bahas perihal Translate milik mbah Google. Dukungan Google Translate mencakup :
- Google Translate versi standar
- Google Search
- Google Toolbar
- Google Chrome
- Google Labs
- Google Mail (Gmail)
- Google Chat (chat via Gmail)
- Google Talk
- Google Groups
- Google Moderator
- Google Docs (Google Documents)
- Google Video (YouTube)
- Google Mobile
- Google Android
- Google Web Element
- Google AJAX API
- Google Toolkit

A. Google Translate versi standar

Steps A1
Kunjungi Google Translate, lalu ketik atau paste karakter, kata maupun kalimat yang ingin diterjemahkan. Tentukan bahasa terjemahan yang akan digunakan dan klik Translate. Tukar arah terjemahan dengan mengeklik tombol Swap languages.


Steps A2
Klik Listen untuk mendengarkan terjemahan versi suara Google. Klik Read phonetically untuk membedakan suara/lafadz dari yang diperdengarkan Google. Metode Read phonetically memanfaatkan sistem notasi fonetis (International Phonetic Alphabet), yakni kumpulan tanda yang dengannya semua bahasa manusia dapat ditulis dan dijelaskan. Seperti halnya membedakan lafadz fa dengan pa dan va atau sa dengan xa dan za atau ca dengan ka dan qa serta ei dengan ee dan ey dan bahasa planet lainnya.


B. Google Search

Steps B1
Silakan meluncur ke Google Homepage dan ketikkan keyword yang akan dicari. Hasil pencarian pun muncul sebanyak 10 URL/Website di halaman pertama Google yang paling terkait dengan keyword tersebut. Untuk menerjemahkan URL, klik link Translate this page atau Terjemahkan laman ini di sisi kanan salah satu URL hasil Searching. Translate dapat dimaksimalkan dengan mengatur metode pencarian pada menu Advanced Search atau Preferences.


Steps B2
Setelah mengeklik link Translate this page, Google segera menerjemahkannya. Tentukan bahasa terjemahan pada tampilan halaman berikutnya. Untuk menukar arah terjemahan, tidak disiapkan tombol Swap languages. Sehingga harus mengganti bahasa secara manual pada kedua drop down menu.


Steps B3
Temukan hal unik dari namamu, pada kolom pencarian ketik perintah Translate 'My Name is xxxxxxx' to yyyyyyy.
~ xxxxxxx : Nama
~ yyyyyyy : Bahasa


C. Google Toolbar

Steps C1
Google Toolbar bekerja pada browser Microsoft Internet Explorer dan Mozilla Firefox versi 2.0 atau yang lebih tinggi. Operation System (OS) yang direkomendasikan yakni Windows XP SP2, Windows Vista atau yang lebih tinggi. Untuk mengaktifkannya Download dan Install Google Toolbar, ikuti langkah selanjutnya hingga Finish. Bila Google memerintahkan untuk Restart, sobat Googler ikuti saja, jangan membantah perintah orang tua (mbah Google), mumpung GRATIS. Setelah terinstall, Google Toolbar akan terpasang di bagian atas halaman browser, tepatnya pada Toolbar Menu.



D. Google Chrome

Steps D1
Serupa tapi tidak sama, Google Chrome mirip dengan Google Toolbar. Perbedaannya, Google Toolbar merupakan Add-ons yang bekerja pada browser IE dan Mozilla Firefox. Sedangkan Google Chrome merupakan browser yang di dalamnya telah dibenamkan fitur Google Translate dengan tampilan Google Toolbar. Bekerja hanya pada Operation System (OS) Windows XP SP2, Windows Vista dan Windows 7. Daripada bingung, Download versi teranyar Google Chrome dan rasakan kehangatan Google Translate bersamanya. Untuk versi Beta, disini downloadnya.


E.
Google Labs dan Google Mail (Gmail)

Steps E1
Email yang masuk tidak selalu menggunakan bahasa Indonesia. Bahkan orang Indonesia pun terkadang memakai bahasa Alien dalam mengirimkan email atau di saat chatting. Install salah satu fitur Google Labs pada Menu Settings. Pilih Sub Menu Labs, aktifkan fitur Message translation lalu Simpan pengaturan.


Steps E2
Masih pada Menu Settings, pilih Sub Menu General dan tentukan bahasa terjemahan secara default lalu simpan kembali pengaturan terakhir.


Untuk menonaktifkan fitur ini, centang Disabled pada Menu Labs. Namun, bila ingin menonaktifkan Google Labs secara utuh tanpa memilah-milah fiturnya, kunjungi OFF.

F.
Google Chat (chat via Gmail)
dan Google Talk

Steps F1
Fitur ini memanfaatkan Google Bots dalam menerjemahkan setiap pesan Chat. Googler yang terbiasa dengan Google Wave, kiranya tidak mengalami kesulitan dalam mengaplikasikan Google Bots. Guna memudahkan sobat Googler, Ambae.exe menyuguhkan daftar Google Bots yang dapat ditambahkn pada Gmail Chat atau Google Talk.




Google Bots pada fitur ini dimaksudkan sebagai robot Google yang akan menelusuri data yang dicari para Googler. Selanjutnya para Robot ini menerjemahkannya ke dalam bahasa masing-masing Bots. Jangan lupa menambahkan @bot.talk.google.com. Format penulisan Bots yakni xxxxxxx@bot.talk.google.com.
~ xxxxxxx : Salah satu Bots
~ Contoh zh2en@bot.talk.google.com : Google Bots untuk bahasa Chinese ke English.

G.
Google Groups, Google Moderator
dan Google Docs (Google Documents)

Steps G1
Berdiskusi bersama rekan sesama Googler, mengedit dokumen, merespon, bertanya, menjawab, menyarankan atau memberi ide dan masukan kepada dan/atau dari Google. Dengan fitur Google Translate di dalamnya, serasa kuliah dengan fasilitas Dwi Bahasa. Sobat tidak perlu mengutak-atik Setting dan Preferences. Cukup mengunjungi Translate ala Google Groups, Google Moderator dan/atau Google Docs (Google Documents).

H. Google Video (YouTube)

Steps H1
Halaman pencarian YouTube, mirip dengan Google Homepage. Klik Translate untuk menerjemahkan Keterangan Video atau klik Show original untuk mengembalikan ke dalam bentuk aslinya.


Steps H2
Sobat Googler sering menikmati tayangan HBO atau HBO Asia, Cinemax, Star Movie, Star World dan sebagainya...??? Menonton Film kesayangan di channel termasyur tersebut benar-benar mengasyikkan. Tersedia dalam Bi-Lingual atau Dwi Language. Di samping itu tersedia pula Running Text di setiap Film, meski film itu telah berganti bahasa dari English ke Indonesia. Wajarlah HBO mengklaim dirinya It's not TV, it's HBO

Bagaimana dengan Google Video atau YouTube...??? Video yang disertai dengan keterangan Teks alias Caption dapat pula diterjemahkan ke dalam berbagai bahasa. Dengan catatan bahwa video tersebut memiliki Caption atau lazim dikenal dengan Running Text sebagai terjemahan teks dari apa yang diucapkan dalam video bersangkutan. Klik Icon (^) lalu pilih Icon (cc), keduanya berada di pojok kanan bawah Video. Lalu klik Translate Captions untuk mengatur bahasa terjemahan.


Steps H3
Tentukan bahasa terjemahan dengan mengeklik drop down menu. Selanjutnya klik tombol Translate. Maka sekejap, Caption Video diterjemahkan sesuai bahasa yang dipilih.


I. Google Mobile dan Google Android

Steps I1
Translate via Google Mobile melalui perangkat seluler sobat Googler dengan mengunjungi Google Mobile

Steps I2
Dengan Google Android, fitur Google Translate benar-benar dimaksimalkan. Tidak hanya berupa teks ke teks, Googler dapat menerjemahkan teks ke dalam bentuk suara. Demikian sebaliknya, suara diterjemahkan kembali ke dalam bentuk teks. Download Google Android untuk merasakannya.

J. Google Web Element,
Google AJAX API dan Google Toolkit

Steps J1
Ingin memiliki Tool Translater di Webpage sobat Googler...??? Benamkan Code Google Translate ke dalamnya.

Copy dan Paste Script Code berikut

Script di atas hanya contoh, pengaturan secara manual silakan kunjungi Google Web Element. Mengenai penempatan HTML tersebut, posisikan pada BODY section.

Sobat tidak menginginkan Google menerjemahkan halaman Webpagenya. Copy dan Paste Meta Tag berikut dan posisikan pada HEAD section :


Steps J2
Terjemahan Webpage maupun Web Element lebih dimungkinkan lagi dengan fitur Google AJAX API. Tentunya Googler akan lebih sering bermain dengan Javascript.

Steps J3
Yang ini lebih hebat lagi. Googler dapat mengupload dan mendownload data yang diterjemahkan dengan fitur Google Toolkit. Lebih lengkapnya, kunjungi Google Tranlator Toolkit karena pada halaman tersebut diuraikan dengan jelas melalui media Video Tutorial versi mbah Google.

Sobat Blogger dan rekan Googler yang ingin mengetahui lebih banyak tentang fitur ini, silakan mengunjungi mbah Google. Mengingat panjangnya artikel ini dan rumitnya pembahasannya. Sebagai newbie, mohon dikoreksi bila terdapat kesalahan di dalamnya.

Persembahan berikutnya berupa Daftar Bahasa yang didukung Google Translate hingga saat ini sebanyak 57 Bahasa, yakni :
* Afrikaans
* Albanian
* Armenian (Alpha)
* Azerbaijani (Alpha)
* Arabic
* Basque (Alpha)
* Belarusian
* Bulgarian
* Catalan
* Chinese (Simplified)
* Chinese (Traditional)
* Croatian
* Czech
* Danish
* Dutch
* English
* Estonian
* Filipino
* Finnish
* French
* Galician
* Georgian (Alpha)
* German
* Greek
* Haitian Creole (Alpha)
* Hebrew
* Hindi
* Hungarian
* Icelandic
* Indonesian
* Italian
* Irish
* Japanese
* Korean
* Latvian
* Lithuanian
* Macedonian
* Malay
* Maltese
* Norwegian
* Persian
* Polish
* Portuguese
* Romanian
* Russian
* Serbian
* Slovak
* Slovenian
* Spanish
* Swahili
* Swedish
* Thai
* Turkish
* Ukrainian
* Urdu (Alpha)
* Vietnamese
* Welsh
* Yiddish

          g        
#aztagram #baku #azeri #turkey #ankara #follow #g #f #fashionhappy #jasonstatham #jason #happybirthday #therock #dwaynejohnson #dwaynetherockjohnson #teambringit #fanpage #fanaccount #hollywood #moviestar #actor #actorslife #thebest #azerbaijan #instaazerbaijan #vscoazerbaijan #instabaku #azstagram #instaaz #aze
          â€œBlue Water Shipping Caspian”        
Azerbaijan-Danish Joint Venture “Blue Water Shipping Caspian” Ltd. was established in 1997. “Blue Water Shipping Caspian” Ltd. experienced specialists are able to find a solution to any complex task related to shipment transportation all over the world Depending on the requirements we offer our clients the wide scope of services including international transportation by road, […]
          â€œCaspian Freight Services”        
Shipping to that special event may be a daunting task, whether you want to send a pack of giveaway brochures, a marble sculpture, 50 javelins or a guitar and amp.  Caspian Freight Services in Azerbaijan are here to take your worries away.  With our wealth of experience in event shipping, we will ensure that your […]
          Ð¯ тебе кохаю        
Afrikaans - Ek is lief vir jou!
Albanian - Te dua!
Amharic - Afekrishalehou!
Arabic - Ohiboke (m to f), Nohiboka (f to m, or m to m)
Armenian - Yes kez si'rumem!
Azerbaijan - Mjan sjan sevirirjam
Basque - Maite zaitut!
Bengali - Ami tomake bahlobashi!
Bosnian - Volim te!
Bulgarian - Obicham te!
Catalan - T'estimo!
Creole - Mi aime jou!
Croatian - Volim te!
Czech - Miluji tev!
Danish - Jeg elsker dig!
Dutch - Ik hou van je!
English - I love you!
Esperanto - Mi amas vin!
Estonian - Mina armastan sind!
Farsi - Tora dost daram!
Filipino - Iniibig kita!
Finnish - (Ma) rakastan sua!
French - Je t'aime!
Frisian - Ik hald fan dei!
Galician - Querote!
German - Ich liebe dich!
Greek - S'ayapo!
Gujarati - Hoon tane pyar karoochhoon! tane chaahuN chhuN!
Hawaiian - Aloha wau ia 'oe!
Hebrew - Anee ohev otakh (m to f), Anee ohevet otkha (f to m), Anee ohev otkha (m to m), Anee ohevet otakh (f to f)
Hindi - Mai tumase pyar karata hun (m to f), Mai tumase pyar karati hun (f to m)
Hungarian - Szeretlek!
Icelandic - Eg elska thig!
Indonesian - Saya cinta padamu!
Irish - t'a gr'a agam dhuit!
Italian - Ti amo!
Japanese - Kimi o ai shiteru!
Korean - Dangsinul saranghee yo!
Latin - Te amo!
Latvian - Es tevi milu!
Lithuanian - As tave myliu!
Malaysian - Saya cintamu!
Mandarin - Wo ai ni!
Marshallese - Yokwe Yuk!
Norwegian - Jeg elsker deg!
Polish - Kocham ciebie!
Portuguese - Eu te amo!
Romanian - Te iubesc!
Russian - Ya tyebya lyublyu!
Sanskrit - twayi snihyaami
Serbian - Volim te!
Sesotho - Kiyahurata!
Slovak - Lubim ta!
Slovenian - Ljubim te!
Spanish - Te quiero!
Swahili - Nakupenda!
Swedish - Jag alskar dig!
Tagalog - Mahal kita!
Thai - Phom rug khun (Male speaker) Chan rug khun (Female speaker)
Turkish - Seni seviyorum!
Ukrainian - Ya tebe kokhayu!
Urdu - Main tumse muhabbat karta hoon!
Vietnamese - Anh yeu em (m to f), Em yeu an (f to m)
Welsh - Rwy'n dy garu di!
Yiddish - Kh'hob dikh lib!
Zulu - Ngiyakuthanda!




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          Comment on Afghan Hezbollah? Be careful what you wish for by Tony Badran        
It might be useful to pinpoint the intellectual sources of the inaccurate <a href="http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/mesh/2009/10/afghan-hezbollah-be-careful-what-you-wish-for/" rel="nofollow">analogy</a> between Hezbollah and the Taliban. While we cannot say for sure, the views attributed to "White House advisers" in the <i>Washington Post</i> report sound familiar. Similar views have been expressed by the White House counterterrorism adviser, John Brennan. In a 2008 <a href="http://ann.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/618/1/168" rel="nofollow">essay</a> entitled "The Conundrum of Iran: Strengthening Moderates without Acquiescing to Belligerence," Brennan wrote the following regarding Hezbollah: <blockquote>It is similarly foolhardy to believe that Hezbollah will not remain a potent political force within Lebanon for many years to come, as the organization has strong support within the Lebanese Shia community and well-established political and social welfare credentials throughout the country. Hezbollah's growing paramilitary strength and political and social resiliency were clearly demonstrated in 2006, when Israel showed a remarkable inability to inflict strategic damage on Hezbollah despite a major military campaign to do so. It would not be foolhardy, however, for the United States to tolerate, and even to encourage, greater assimilation of Hezbollah into Lebanon's political system, a process that is subject to Iranian influence. Hezbollah is already represented in the Lebanese parliament and its members have previously served in the Lebanese cabinet, reflections of Hezbollah's interest in shaping Lebanon's political future from within government institutions. This political involvement is a far cry from Hezbollah's genesis as solely a terrorist organization dedicated to murder, kidnapping, and violence. Not coincidentally, the evolution of Hezbollah into a fully vested player in the Lebanese political system has been accompanied by a marked reduction in terrorist attacks carried out by the organization. The best hope for maintaining this trend and for reducing the influence of violent extremists within the organization—as well as the influence of extremist Iranian officials who view Hezbollah primarily as a pawn of Tehran—is to increase Hezbollah's stake in Lebanon's struggling democratic processes. Because Israel views Hezbollah as a serious and lethal adversary, this will not be an easy sell. Washington will need to convince Israeli officials that they must abandon their aim of eliminating Hezbollah as a political force. This previously employed Israeli strategy did not work with the PLO and Fatah, and Israeli officials have adapted to the reality of engaging in political dialogue and negotiations with Palestinians formerly branded as "terrorists." A similar change must take place within the minds of Israeli government officials in regard to Hezbollah. One way to help effect this change would be if Iran were willing to press Hezbollah to cease its attacks against civilian targets and to declare so publicly. While insufficient to satisfy many Israelis who view Hezbollah as a serious military threat, it would be a positive first step.</blockquote> More recently, Brennan briefly made headlines for essentially reiterating this argument at a talk he gave at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in early August. Brennan's comments came in <a href="http://www.thenation.com/blogs/dreyfuss/460718/white_house_opening_to_hezbollah_hamas" rel="nofollow">response</a> to a question by <i>The Nation</i> correspondent, Robert Dreyfuss, whether the United States should start talking to organizations like Hamas, Hezbollah and the Taliban. Brennan focused most on Hezbollah and painted a remarkable picture of the group: <blockquote>Hezbollah started out as purely a terrorist organization back in the early '80s and has evolved significantly over time. And now it has members of parliament, in the cabinet; there are lawyers, doctors, others who are part of the Hezbollah organization. However, within Hezbollah, there's still a terrorist core. And hopefully those elements within the Shia community in Lebanon and within Hezbollah at large—they're going to continue to look at that extremist terrorist core as being something that is anathema to what, in fact, they're trying to accomplish in terms of their aspirations about being part of the political process in Lebanon. And so, quite frankly, I'm pleased to see that a lot of Hezbollah individuals are in fact renouncing that type of terrorism and violence and are trying to participate in the political process in a very legitimate fashion.</blockquote> Whether or not Brennan was the source for the <i>Washington Post</i> report, one can detect the similarity of the viewpoints that are evidently, as per the <i>WaPo</i> report, being raised by "some White House advisers." The main points of the argument are familiar to anyone who's kept up with the scholarly <a href="http://www.futureofmuslimworld.com/research/detail/hezbollahs-agenda-in-lebanon" rel="nofollow">literature</a> on Hezbollah, especially the proponents of the so-called "Lebanonization" theory, chief among whom is Augustus Richard Norton. This view holds that Hezbollah has "evolved" from a terrorist group into a mainstream political party. In order to sustain this argument, its proponents have often resorted to distancing Hezbollah from terrorist activity dating after its involvement in Lebanese politics, or, at the very least, minimizing it. This had been the norm in Hezbollah scholarship prior to the assassination of Imad Mughniyeh in February 2008. Brennan does the same in his 2008 article, claiming rather remarkably, that "the evolution" of Hezbollah into a political player was simultaneous with "a marked reduction in terrorist attacks carried out by the organization." Moreover, "increasing Hezbollah's stake" in the Lebanese political process has had no effect on Hezbollah's military operations, as evident form their involvement in Iraq, and Yemen, Egypt and Azerbaijan (as noted by Matt Levitt in his post). However, what's more problematic is the definition of "political participation." Hezbollah has made a mockery of Lebanon's constitution and parliamentary political traditions. Needless to say, the idea of a sectarian group with an arsenal that rivals that of an army, and with external foreign connections and networks, "participating in politics in a tightly balanced sectarian society" is itself an absurdity. Furthermore, those who make this argument miss the point of Hezbollah's political participation: it is precisely in order to protect its military autonomy. This was articulated by a Hezbollah spokesman in a 2007 interview with the International Crisis Group: "Paradoxically, some want us to get involved in the political process in order to neutralise us. In fact, we intend to get involved—but precisely in order to protect the strategic choice of resistance." Hezbollah has used its weapons in order to bend the political system to fit its agenda and has intimidated its political rivals by force of arms. As the author of the ICG <a href="http://www.nowlebanon.com/NewsArchiveDetails.aspx?ID=16115" rel="nofollow">report</a>, Patrick Haenni, put it: "Hezbollah realized that they had [to be internally involved to a greater extent], but the issue was still to secure their weapons.... Hezbollah has a real interest in making the state part of its global project." The flawed understanding of the nature of Hezbollah has led people like Brennan to posit the existence of various "wings" in Hezbollah: "extremists" vs. "moderates" and those who supposedly "renounce terrorism" vs. those who support it. While this illusory categorization has not been translated into U.S. policy, it has, alas, become British policy. Ironically, Hezbollah officials have publicly mocked this kind of artificial dichotomies. This fundamental misunderstanding of the group is captured in the wording of the <i>Washington Post</i> report, which described Hezbollah as "the armed Lebanese political movement." That has it backwards. To quote Ahmad Nizar Hamzeh, Hezbollah is "first and foremost a jihadi movement that engages in politics, and not a political party that conducts jihad." One must qualify that further by adding what Na'im Qassem wrote in his book, that the jurisprudent (<i>al-wali al-faqih</i>)—i.e., Iran's Supreme Guide, Ali Khamenei—"alone possesses the authority to decide war and peace," and matters of jihad. Therefore, in effect Hezbollah is a light infantry division of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps. That's not the kind of model the US wants to see in Afghanistan. <i><a href="http://www.defenddemocracy.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=23714" rel="nofollow">Tony Badran</a> is research fellow with the Center for Terrorism Research at the Foundation for Defense of Democracies.</i>
          Forbidden City of Oil Platforms: The Rise and Fall of Stalin's Atlantis        
In the 1950s, Soviet engineers built a massive city in the Caspian Sea off the coast of Azerbaijan. It was a network of oil platforms linked by hundreds of kilometers of roads and housing 5,000 workers, with a cinema, a park and apartment blocks. Gradually disintegrating but still closely guarded, this astonishing place inspired a fiery scene in a James Bond movie.
          Superficial Song Contest: Baku Opts for a Party over Politics        
Azerbaijan's pledges to respect human rights ahead of the Eurovision Song Contest turned out to be largely superficial, despite widespread international criticism. But organizers also failed to ensure that their democratic values were upheld, avoiding conflict for the sake of a good party.
          Intolerant Eurovision Host: Gays Face Rampant Homophobia in Azerbaijan        
The Eurovision Song Contest has a massive gay following. But homophobia is rife in this year's host country, Azerbaijan, where gays and lesbians have to keep a low profile and fear violent attacks. Even so, locals say that gay Eurovision fans traveling to Baku needn't fear for their safety -- because the regime doesn't want any trouble.
          Diplomatic Dissonance: Tehran Protests Eurovision 'Gay Parade' in Baku        
Preparations for the first semi-final of the 2012 Eurovision Song Contest on Tuesday were overshadowed by a diplomatic row between host country Azerbaijan and its neighbor Iran. The latter recalled its ambassador over accusations that Baku was planning an accompanying "gay parade."
          Azerbaijan's Eurovision Hopeful: Singer Sees Contest as Chance To 'Open Our Hearts to Europe'        
Azerbaijan's Eurovision hopeful believes the world's largest non-sports TV event is an opportunity to "open our hearts to Europe." But Sabina Babayeva seems baffled by the idea that some Europeans believe that they should neither visit nor support a country with an oppressive regime like that of the Aliyevs in Baku.
          'I Don't Believe EBU's Image Will Be Damaged': Eurovision Organizer Defends Azerbaijan Song Contest        
Ingrid Deltenre heads the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), which organizes the Eurovision Song Contest being held in Azerbaijan, a country widely criticized for human rights violations, at the end of May. In a SPEIGEL interview she defends the choice of the controversial location and warns that politicizing the contest could kill it.
          Eurovision Discord: Azerbaijan Accuses Germany of Smear Campaign        
German television stations and newspapers have been reporting extensively on human rights abuses in Azerbaijan ahead of the Eurovision Song Contest there. Now Baku has accused "certain circles" in Germany of orchestrating a media campaign of slander and deceit against the country.
          Azerbaijan and Eurovision: German Government Report Slams 'State Repression'        
On the eve of the Eurovision Song Contest, scrutiny of host Azerbaijan is increasing, particularly the country's human rights record. A confidential German Foreign Ministry report, which SPIEGEL has seen, criticizes "state repression" in the country.
          Anguish in Azerbaijan: Residents Forcibly Cleared to Make Way for Modernity        
Baku, set to host the Eurovision Song Contest in just over a month, is rapidly trying to become a modern city. To do so, it is forcibly removing residents from their homes to make way for slick new skyscrapers and other development projects. Those who try to stay bear the brunt of the government's wrath.
          Big Brother in Baku: Azerbaijan Flouts Free Press on Eve of Eurovision        
They are frequently harassed, sometimes beaten and even filmed while having sex: The risks to journalists in Azerbaijan are many. Ahead of the Eurovision Song Contest, the authoritarian government in Baku has shown no signs of relenting. The country's opposition says foreign journalists should beware.
          Protest Songs: Berlin Sees Eurovision as Forum for Civil Rights        
The Eurovision Song Contest in Azerbaijan this year should be used as a forum for promoting civil rights in that country, German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle said on Wednesday. The same should apply to Ukraine, which will co-host the European football championship and is under fire for jailing Yulia Tymoshenko, the former prime minister, he added.
          Azerbaijan's Eurovision: Activists Hope Contest Will Improve Human Rights         
While the Azerbaijani government hopes to burnish its image by hosting the Eurovision Song Contest in May, civil rights activists are struggling to draw more attention to the country's human rights violations. Standing uncomfortably in the middle are the organizers of this supposedly "apolitical" event.
          A Dictator's Dream: Azerbaijan Seeks to Burnish Image Ahead of Eurovision        
Azerbaijan will play host to this year's Eurovision Song Contest. In the run-up to Europe's largest television event, the authoritarian regime has launched a campaign to improve its image. German PR experts, lobbyists and politicians across the spectrum are playing a role in those efforts.
          'Boys and Their Toys': The US Befriends Azerbaijan's Corrupt Elite        
Azerbaijan is rife with corruption and comparisons to European feudalism in the Middle Ages are hardly a stretch. But with vast reserves of oil and natural gas at stake, the US is willing to risk the embarrassment that comes with courting the country.
          Putin's Offer Ignored: US to Keep Europe as Site for Missile Defense        
The move comes despite an unexpected proposal by President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia to use a radar base in Azerbaijan instead.
          Russian Help for US Missile Defense?: Putin's Radar Gambit        
Russian President Vladimir Putin has put Bush on the back foot over the US's planned European missile defense system with his offer of a radar station in Azerbaijan. But experts say the proposal is technically unfeasible.
          Surprise Offer in Missile Row: Putin Proposes Joint Radar Station in Azerbaijan        
President Vladimir Putin has proposed that Russia and the US jointly use an existing radar station in the former Soviet republic of Azerbaijan as a way to resolve their dispute over the planned US missile shield in Eastern Europe. George W. Bush called it an "interesting proposal." Is the ice breaking?
          An Iron Silk Road: The New Transcaucasian Railway        
Turkey, Georgia and Azerbaijan have signed an agreement to build a rail corridor that they hope will eventually link Europe with Asia. However, one country in the region -- Armenia -- is being left out.
          Azerbaijan: "He Wrote Many Poems For Me"        
Israfil, 56, is a civil servant. His wife, Elmira, 52, is a broadcast journalist. They married in 1976 and have three children. They live in Baku.
          Commentary: St. Louis is veritable visual arts cornucopia        
Congratulations to Sarah Hermes Griesbach and Amy Reidel, the co-founders and editors of "All the Art:” the visual art quarterly of St. Louis. The magazine highlights not only the tried and true arts institutions such as the St. Louis Art Museum and Laumeier Sculpture Park, but highlights the many and varied art galleries and smaller institutions in our metropolitan area that display high quality visual art. The duo says, "The magazine is a record of exhibitions and art events that invigorate the communities residing on both sides of Delmar and Highway 270 and on either side of the rivers." One such small gallery, "Duet" directed by Daniel McGrath pairs a St. Louis artist with another nationally and sometimes internationally known artist in each exhibition. The exhibition that I saw this summer featured American artist Caitlin Aasen and Azerbaijani artist Vusal Rahim(YAY Gallery). To mark the first time these two artists have been displayed together, this exhibition creates a dialogue
          Audio holdings in the British Library Endangered Archives Programme        
The British Library Endangered Archives Programme "[aims] to contribute to the preservation of archival material that is in danger of destruction, neglect or physical deterioration world-wide." A quick search of the word "audio" brings up these collections which will no doubt be of interest to world music scholars. Not all of these projects have been completed, so not all content is yet available online. EAP736: Preservation of the music and dance archive at the Music Museum of Nepal (NFMIM) EAP008: Folk Theatre Tales: Preserving images, sounds and voices of rural Tuscany EAP088: The Golha radio programmes (Flowers of Persian Song and Poetry) EAP115: Collection and digitisation of old music in pre-literate Micronesian society EAP124: Pages of Azerbaijan sound heritage EAP190: Digitising archival material pertaining to 'Young India' label gramophone records EAP298: Preserving endangered ethnographic audiovisual materials of expressive culture in Peru EAP468: To preserve Indian recordings on 'Odeon' label shellac discs EAP592: The music of Burma on record The EAP also offers grants to researchers http://eap.bl.uk/pages/grants.html
          Seismotectonic of NW Ä°ran ( Azerbaijan region ) Based on Destructive Earhtquakes And Activity Of Faults        
Seismotectonic of NW Ä°ran ( Azerbaijan region ) Based on Destructive Earhtquakes And Activity Of Faults


Tohid MALEKZADE[1]

Prof.Dr. Berakan.ECEVİTOĞLU[2]




Key words : Seismotectonic, Destructive Earhtquakes , NW Ä°ran, Azerbaijan region

Abstarct
Historical and istrumental earthquakes as well as geological evidences show that Azerbaijan region ( NW İRAN) is the most active seismic region in Asia. Befor, in history many destructive earthquakes occured in Tebriz, Salmas, Erdebil and other magor sities. İn resent years in 1930 in Salmas with M= 7.2 , 1976 in Chaldıran with M= 5.5 , 1990 and in Rudbar- Zenjan and Tarım with M= 7.0 ,1996 in Erdebil with M= 5.5, destructive earthquake occured. This evidences show that this region have so desructive position. The epicenters of local earthquakes are in agreement with the NW- SE trending major faults . İn this paper first of all we show major faults in Azerbaijan, hitorical earthquakes and major instrumental earthquakes in recent decad years in Azerbaijan. The distributions of earthquakes in east , west and center parts of Azerbaijan are cosistent with the related major faults ( section 2). Studying distributions of earthquakes in east , west and center parts of Azerbaijan show that there are seismic quiescence exists in centeral part around Tebriz which had many destructive earthquakes in past time ( section 3). According to historical earthquakes around Tebriz and exist gap energy around this region the occurrence of a major earthquake in Tebriz and senteral Azerbaijan in near time and in west and east of Azerbaijan in far time is expected.

1. Ä°ntrouduction

Azerbaijan region which is located in 36-50 East longitudes and 36-44 North latitudes is one of the seismic active regions in Asia . This region has experienced many destructive earthquakes in the past centuries. However there were not enough data to evaluate seismic activity in northwest Iran. The destructive Erdebil raethquake of March 1996 and Rudbar- Zenjan earthquake of June 1990 need to imstall a permanent seismological network in Azerbaijan region especially in centeral Azerbaijan (Gheitanchi et al , 2004). Therefore , in 1995 the Institue of Geophysics of Tehran university deployed a telemetric seismic network in the centeral part of Azerbaijan to monitor the seismic activity. But it isnot enough to monitor all of the Azrbaijan earthquakes.
Ä°n this paper first of all we present a detailed and reliable faults of northwest Iran and review the historical detructive earthquakes that have occurerd in the region . Then we try to find relation with between historical and instrumental earthquakes with major and minor faults in Azerbaijan region.



2. Major and Minor Fault in Azerbaijan Region
Azerbaijan region which is located between Caspian see in East and Anatoliyan in east and caucase region in north and Zagros montains in south have been compresed between Turan and Arabiyan plates and Caspian mikroplate. Compressing this plates cause faults and cracks in Azerbaijan. Many of this faults for example The North Tebriz Fault , Urmiya fault and Astara Faults are Azerbaijan's major faults . North Salmas fault, var fault and North Tebriz Fault are minor Azerbaijan fault. 1. table show main major and minor faults in Azerbaijan region ( Figure1).



Table 1. Main major and Ä°mportant Minor faults in Azerbaijan region

No
Fault
Name
Max Fault Lenght
( km)
Fault Lenght (km)
Average Magnitude
( expected)
Max Ä°ntensity
( expected)
1
N. Tebriz
180
100
7,4
9,7
2
Pesve
180
80
7,3
9,6
3
Salmas
40
38
6,9
9,1
4
Tesuj
57
53
7,1
9,3
5
N.Mişov
45
42
7,0
9,2
6
S.Mişov
23
23
6,7
8,8
7
N. Salmas
17
17
6,5
8,5
8
Sherefkane
50
44
7,0
9,2
9
Sofyan
53
48
7,1
9,3
10
Ushneviye
20
20
6,6
8,7
11
Urmiye
75
63
7,2
9,4
12
Moghan
130
100
7.4
9.7
13
Zenjan
120
100
7.4
9.7
14
Ä°pek
120
100
7.4
9.7
15
Herzevil
180
80
7,3
9,6

Majority of this faults have strike – slip systems. Using the geological information and air –photos has been made to provide adetail of fult which shown in table1.
3. Historical Earhquakes Depending on Faults in Azerbaijan region
Many people have studied Azerbaijan historical earthquakes. Ambraseys (1974 and 1982) and Berberiyan 1976 and Malekzade 1998 . Ä°n this Paper we try to list major earthquakes which occured in Azerbaijan during 2000 years ago.
200 y B.C : Maku
461 : Malazgirt : destructive earthquake
634: Tebriz :Destructive earthquake in Tebriz with M= 6.0
694 : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz
735 : Zengezor: Destructive earthquake in south Aras revier
746 : Tebriz: No detail
834 : Tebriz : No detail
849 : Tbriz : No detail
851 : Ä°revan :No detail
858 : Tebriz: Destructive earthquake in Tebriz with M= 6.0 , epicente coordinate 38.08 N ,46.26 E
858 : Aras Reiver : epicente coordinate 39'9 N ve 44'20 E
863 : Dovin :Destructive earthquake in Dovin with M= 5.2
868: Tebriz : No detail
869 : Aras reiver : epicente coordinate 39' 95 N and 44'20 E
893 ( 28 December) : Dovin : Destructive earthquake in Dovin
893 - 4 : Erdebil: Destructive earthquake in Erdebil with M= 6.0
906 : Zengezor : Destructive earthquake in Zengezor . range of feeling 180 km.
949 : Tebriz : No detail .
1020 : Tebriz: : No detail.
1041 : Tebriz : Destructive earthquake in Tebriz with 5000 kiled.
1042 (4 October) : Tebriz : Destructive earthquake in Tebriz with M=7.6. epicentere coordinant 38.1N and 46.3 E ( Ambersiyes, 1982) .
1135 ( 25 June) : Serdesht : Destructive earthquake in Sedesht with M=6.1 .
1135 ( 11 Jounery ) : Serdesht Destructive earthquake in Sedesht with M=6.4:. range of feeling 300 km and epicentere coordinant 36.1 N and 45.9 E . (Ambersiyes 1982 )
1139: Genje : Destructive earthquake in Genje .( Guliyov , 1359 )
1273 ( 18 Junery ) : Tebriz : Destructive earthquake in Tebriz with 250 killed. Feeling aftershok till 4 months.
1275 : Azerbaijan : Earthquake in Azerbaijan.
1304: Sarab , Karadagh : Destructive earthquake in Sarab with M=6.7
1305 : ( 16 April ) : Azerbaijan : Earthquake in Azerbaijan.
1308 : Zengezor : No detail ( Berberiyan, 1977)
1314: Tebriz : Earthquake in Tebriz.
1319: Maku :Destructive earthquake in Sarab with M=5.3 with 53 killed.
1320: Kars : Destructive earthquake in Sarab with M=5.9. range of feeling 100 km.
1345: Malazgirt :eartquake in Malazgirt.
1406 ( 29 Novamber ) : Zengezor : No detail. (Ambarseyes 1982) .
1436 : Azerbaijan : No detail.
1441 M : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz.
1459 M: Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz.
1550 : Tebriz : Earthquake in Tebriz with 36.8 N and 46 E episenter coordinate
1567 : Karadag : : Destructive earthquake in Karadag. With episenter 39 N and 47.2 E
1572 : Tebriz : No detail (Eprikian , 1930 ) and (Ajemian ,1937) .
1593 : Serab : Destructive earthquake in Sarab with M=6.1.
1621 ( 21 June ) : Miyana : earthquake in Miyana with intensity I= V ( Ambersyes , 1982 ).
1622 : Maku : earthquake in Maku ( Ambersyes , 1982 ).
1633 : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz.
1640 : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz.
1641 (5 Feburey) : Tebriz : Destructive earthquake in Tebriz with M=6.8. Feeling range 200 kmkilled people 10.000.
1648 ( 13 March ) : Van : Destructive earthquake in Van with M=6.5. Feeling range 300 kmkilled people 4.000.( Ambersyes , 1982 ).
1649 : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz ( Berberyan , 1976).
1650 : Tebriz :. earthquake in Tebriz.
1657 : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz.
1659 : Kara kilise : No detail
1664 : Tebriz : Destructive earthquake in Tebriz with M=6.5 . with episenter coordinante 38.1 N and 46.3 E.
1668 ( 7 Junery ) : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz with M= 6.5
1669 ( 4 Junery ) : Ä°revan : Destructive earthquake in Ä°revan with M=6.2. Feeling range 200 kmkilled people 1228. with episenter coordinante 40.40 N and 44.50 E.
1696 ( 16 June ) : Chaldıran, Maku : : Destructive earthquake in İrevan with M=6.2. Feeling range 200 km . killed people 2000. with episenter coordinante.39.1 N and 43.9 E
1715 ( 8 March ) : South of Van : : Destructive earthquake in South of Van with M=6.6. Feeling range 320 km. with no killed in Van but are killed people in south of Van
1716 ( 23 Junery ) : North of Aras Reiver : Destructive earthquake in North of Aras Reiver and South ofÄ°revan with M=6.6. with epicentere coordinate 40.2 N and 44.5 E ( Ambersyes ,1982 ).
1717 ( 12 March ) : Karadag- Tebriz : Destructive earthquake in Karadag- Tebriz M = 5.9.
1721 ( 26 April) : Tebriz – Bostanava : Destructive earthquake in Tebriz – Bostanava with M=7.0 . Feeling range 700 km . 60.000 killed.
1727 ( 18 October ) : Tebriz : Destructive earthquake in Tebriz. 17.000 killed.
1755 : Tebriz : No detail.
1774 : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz.
1780 : Tebriz : Destructive earthquake in Tebriz with M=7.7 , feeling range 300 km and 400 vilage damaged.
1783 ( 13 Junery ) : Earthquake in Agri. No detail
1786 ( 18 Novamber ) : Merend :Destructive earthquake in Merend with M=6.3 and 4.000 killed.
1787 : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz (Berberyan , 1976 )
1791 : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz (Berberyan , 1976 )
1803 : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz.
1808 ( 11 Junery ) : Tesuj : Destructive earthquake in Tesuj with M=6.0 and feeling range 120 km.
1808 ( Junery ) : Hoy : earthquake in Hoy.
1812 : Djulfa : earthquake in Djulfa.
1812 ( 14 June ) : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz.
1819 ( 29 Junery ) : Tebriz –Tesuj : earthquake in Tebriz –Tesuj region .
1820 ( Junery) : Tebriz :earthquake in Tebriz:.
1823 (Decamber) : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz.
1828 ( 14-16 Agut ) : Karabag : earthquake in karabag.
1829 ( 29 April ) : Hoy : erathquake in Hoy.
1831 : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz.
1832 ( 8 Decamber) : Astara : earthquake in Astara.
1837 ( 7 June ) : Salmas : Earthquake in Salmas.
1840 ( 22 Junery ) : Astara : Erathquake in Astrada.
1840 ( 2 Junery ) : Maku- Agrıdag :Destructive earthquake in Maku- Agrıdag with M=7.2 and feeling range 400 km .aftreshok until 8 months.
1843 : ( 18 April ) : Hoy : Destructive earthquake in Hoy with M=5.9 and feeling range 19 km. 1000 people dead.
1843 till 1857 : Tebriz :earthqakue in Tebriz .
1846 ( 22 Junery ) : Erdebil: Earthquake in Erdebil.
1857: Tesuj: earthquake in Tesuj. 3 people killed.
1859 : Shamahı: Earthquake in Shamahı . sity is destroyed
1862 ( 30 December ) : Erdebil - Hir : destrucive earthquake in Hir. 500 people killed.
1870 ( 26 Junery) : Tebriz : earthqakue in Tebriz:.
1872 : Azerbaijan :earthquake in Genje and Ä°revan.
1874 ( 28 June ) : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz –Miyana.
1879 ( 22 March ) : Miyana: destrucive earthquake in Miyana. 1000 people killed.
1880 ( 4 Junery) : Gerus : earthquake in Gerus .
1883 ( 3 June) : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz.
1894 ( 9 June ) : Tebriz : earthquake in Tebriz.
1895 ( 18 Decamber ) : Halhal : destructive earthquake in Halhal.
1896 ( 4 Junery ) : Halhal : destructive earthquake in Halhal.
1896 : ( 5 Junery) : Hoy : earthquake in Hoy.
1900 ( 24 Feburey ) : South of Hoy : earthquake in Hoy . Many house damaged.
1902 M ( 13 Feburay ) : Shamahı :earthquake with M= 6.0 in Shamahi.
1924 M ( 19 Feburay ) :Karadag :earthquake with M= 6.0 in Karadag.
1930 M ( 6 April ) : Salmas :earthquake with M= 5.5 in Salmas.
1930 M ( 7April ) : Salmas: earthquake with M= 7.2 in Salmas .
1931 ( 27 April) : Zengezor: earthquake with M= 6.2 in Zengezora.
1965 ( 10 Feburay ) : Bostanava- Tebriz : earthquake with M= 5.1 in Bostanava
1966 ( 20 March ) : Maku : earthquake with M= 6.0 in Maku
1968 M ( 29 April) : Maku : earthquake with M= 5.3 in Maku.
1970 M ( 14 March ) : Hoy : earthquake with M= 5.3 in Hoy
1970 M ( 4 Oktober ) : Pesve : earthquake with M= 5.5 in Pesve.
1976 M ( 24 Novamber ) : Chaldıran : earthquake with M= 5.5 in Chaldıran.
1990 M ( June) : Tarım : earthquake with M= 7.0 in Tarım, Zenjan, Resht ve Menjil . 40000 people killed.
1996 M ( 28 Feburey) : Edebil : earthquake with M= 5.5 in Erdebil- Sereyn .1000 people killed.

figure 1. Seismotectonic map of Azerbaijan (Gheitanchi et al 2004)



Table 2. Destructive Earthquakes in Azerbaijan region

No
Fault Name
Region
Earthquake Date
1


North Tebriz


Tebriz
634,694,746,834,849,858,868,949,1020,1041,1042,1273,
1314,1441,1459,1550,1572,1633,1640,1641,1649,1650,
1657,1664,1668,1717,1721,1727,1755,1774,1780,1781,1791,
1803,1812,1819,1820,1823,1831,1843,1870,1874,1883,1894

2
Agri
Maku
200B.C ,1319,1622,1659,1696,1783,1840,1966,1966,1968,1976
3
Zengezor
Zengezor
735,906,1308,1406,1931,1965
4
Zengezor
Ä°revan
851,858,869,1669,1716,1872
5
Agri
Dovin
863,893
6
Neor
Erdebil
893,894,1846,1862,1996
7
Pesve
Serdesht
1135,1970
8
Genje
Genje
1139,1872
9
N.Tebriz
Serab
1304,1567,1593,1717,1924
10
N.Tebriz
Miyana
1621,1879
11
Van
Van
1648,1715
12
Mishov
Merend
1780
13
Mishov
Tesuj
1808,1819,1857
14
Var
Hoy
1808,1829,1843,1896,1900,1970
15
Zengezor
Djulfa
1812
16
Karabag
Karabag
1824
17
Astara
Astara
1832,1840
18
Salmas, Derik
Salmas
1837,1930
19
Shamahi
Shamahi
1859,1902
20
Herzevil
Tarım
1990
21
Hahal
halhal
1895,1896

Discussion and Coclusion
Historical and instrumental earthquake studies have shown that Azerbaijan region specially capital city, Tebriz, have very active crust and dameged several times. West of Azerbaijan except Urmia city have very aktiv position. Salmas, Hoy, Ushnu and Serdesht have been dameged and destroyed perior 2000 years ago. For example salmas region desrtoyed in 1930 by earthquake with magnitude M=7.2 . center of Azerbaijan had evidenced destructive earthquakes that several of them damaged Tebriz and near regions comlatly. But within 200 yers ago we didnot have any destructive earthquake in Tebriz so thids region have high risk for damaging. East of Azerbaijan had destructive earthquakes in historical time .in 1990 in Tarum and Zenjan and in 1995 we had earthquake in Erdebil . this earthquakes show either in past or in present time this region has active position so we don't have expected any big earthquake in This region.
Acknowledgments
The authers would like to thank University of Ankara , geophysic branche where this paper was prepared in there.





References
Ambersayes, N.N. and Melvil,C.P., 1982, A History of Persian Earthquakes , Cambridge University Press, 219p.
Berberian. M. 1976, Salmas earthquake, Iran Gs Report No 39
Berberian. M. 1976 Contribution To The Seismotectonies of Iran (part IV) , Iran Gs Report No 40
Berberian. M. Tchalenco. J.S.1976 Field study and documentation of The 1930 Salmas earthquake, Iran Gs no 49 P 271- 342
Berberian. M. 1976 Macro seismic epicenters of destructive and damaging earthquakes in Iran (1900-1976). Iran Gs No 39
Gheitanchi ,M.r., Mirzaei.N., Bayramnajad.A., Pormohammad.B., Farazmand.A., 2004, Pattern of Seismicity in Northwest Iran, Revealed from Local Seismic Network, Geoscınenses, vol.11 no.49-50
Malekzade ,T., 1998, Azerbaycan earthquakes. MS Thesis. Tehran


[1] tohidmelikzade@yahoo.com tel: 0098 914 446 9810

[2] University of Anakara, Technical Enstitusu, Geophysic Branch
          ÃœÃ§leyelim #2        
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FK Neftchi 8 x 1 Sumqayit
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          Azerbaijani ax killer's pardon raises war fears        
Shortly before dawn, an Azerbaijani on an English course in Hungary crept into the room of a fellow student from arch-enemy Armenia. In a frenzy of ethnic hatred, Ramil Safarov hacked the sleeping Armenian to death with 26 ax blows — nearly decapitating h
          Comment on Azerbaijan by Hitch-Hikers Handbook        
Great! Thanks for the update, mate!
          Comment on Azerbaijan by Ralu Chi        
I am British, and I paid for visa only 20 USD. Presently I am in Baku for more than 4 days...it is easy to apply for visa online. Also for a Canadian the price is the same, no difficulty, applied online. Visa received in both situations within 6 days...
          "Refan Bulgaria" was take part in a business forum in Azerbaijan        
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          Carpe Diem #1234 Waves (Heydar Aliyev Center, Baku, Azarbaijan, by Zaha Hadid)        

Dear Haijin, visitors and travelers,

What an awesome month this is ... modern art ... in all its forms. We have seen sculptures of stone, glass, but also paintings with several themes e.g. geometric patterns. And today I love to share with you another kind of modern art .... this time I have chosen for a wonderful piece of modern architecture, Heydar Aliyev Center, Baku Azerbaijan (former USSR). It's a design of Zaha Hadid Architects and I think it is gorgeous.

Heydar Aliyev Center Baku Azerbaijan (exterior)

The design of the Heydar Aliyev Center establishes a continuous, fluid relationship between its surrounding plaza and the building’s interior. The plaza, as the ground surface; accessible to all as part of Baku’s urban fabric, rises to envelop an equally public interior space and define a sequence of event spaces dedicated to the collective celebration of contemporary and traditional Azeri culture. Elaborate formations such as undulations, bifurcations, folds, and inflections modify this plaza surface into an architectural landscape that performs a multitude of functions: welcoming, embracing, and directing visitors through different levels of the interior. With this gesture, the building blurs the conventional differentiation between architectural object and urban landscape, building envelope and urban plaza, figure and ground, interior and exterior.
Heydar Aliyev Center Baku Azerbaijan (interior)

Fluidity in architecture is not new to this region. In historical Islamic architecture, rows, grids, or sequences of columns flow to infinity like trees in a forest, establishing non-hierarchical space. Continuous calligraphic and ornamental patterns flow from carpets to walls, walls to ceilings, ceilings to domes, establishing seamless relationships and blurring distinctions between architectural elements and the ground they inhabit. Our intention was to relate to that historical understanding of architecture, not through the use of mimicry or a limiting adherence to the iconography of the past, but rather by developing a firmly contemporary interpretation, reflecting a more nuanced understanding. Responding to the topographic sheer drop that formerly split the site in two, the project introduces a precisely terraced landscape that establishes alternative connections and routes between public plaza, building, and underground parking. This solution avoids additional excavation and landfill, and successfully converts an initial disadvantage of the site into a key design feature.
A wonderful piece of modern art architecture ... more about this beautiful piece of architecture you can find here at: Zaha Hadid.

This episode is NOW OPEN for your submissions and will remain open until August 15th at noon (CET). I will try to publish our new episode, Tongue of Lucifer, later on. For now .... have fun!


          "Refan Bulgaria" was take part in a business forum in Azerbaijan        
none
          Tbilisi Dialogue Highlights Regional HIV Challenges        
30 Oct 2014

​Cooperation between government and civil society is crucial in securing rights for people living with HIV, a UNDP- and IDLO-sponsored meeting was told. Held in Tbilisi, Georgia with support from the European Union, the International Dialogue brought together government and civil society representatives from eleven former Soviet states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

Eastern Europe and Central Asia have continued to see a rise in HIV infections. An estimated 1.6 million people live with the virus. Between 2005 and 2012, the AIDS mortality rate climbed by more than a fifth. Levels of treatment are low: no more than a third of those in need of antiretroviral therapy are estimated to be receiving it. The rights of people with HIV are frequently breached in the region: violations range from denial of confidentiality to outright criminalization of the behavior of the populations most at risk.

“HIV is a matter of human rights,” Evgeniy Spevak of the Eurasian and Belarussian Union of People Living with HIV told the meeting. […] states have the obligation to undertake legal, financial and administrative measures to bring these rights as close as possible to the highest standards of health.”

Country: 

          International Women's Day (8 March)/Dia Internaçional da Mulher (8 de março)        

International Women's Day, 8 March 2010:

Equal rights, equal opportunities: Progress for all

From: http://www.internationalwomensday.com

International Women's Day has been observed since in the early 1900's, a time of great expansion and turbulence in the industrialized world that saw booming population growth and the rise of radical ideologies. 

1908
Great unrest and critical debate was occurring amongst women. Women's oppression and inequality was spurring women to become more vocal and active in campaigning for change. Then in 1908, 15,000 women marched through New York City demanding shorter hours, better pay and voting rights.

1909
In accordance with a declaration by the Socialist Party of America, the first National Woman's Day (NWD) was observed across the United States on 28 February. Women continued to celebrate NWD on the last Sunday of February until 1913.

1910
In 1910 a second International Conference of Working Women was held in Copenhagen. A woman named a Clara Zetkin (Leader of the 'Women's Office' for the Social Democratic Party in Germany) tabled the idea of an International Women's Day. She proposed that every year in every country there should be a celebration on the same day - a Women's Day - to press for their demands. The conference of over 100 women from 17 countries, representing unions, socialist parties, working women's clubs, and including the first three women elected to the Finnish parliament, greeted Zetkin's suggestion with unanimous approval and thus International Women's Day was the result.

1911
Following the decision agreed at Copenhagen in 1911, International Women's Day (IWD) was honoured the first time in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland on 19 March. More than one million women and men attended IWD rallies campaigning for women's rights to work, vote, be trained, to hold public office and end discrimination. However less than a week later on 25 March, the tragic 'Triangle Fire' in New York City took the lives of more than 140 working women, most of them Italian and Jewish immigrants. This disastrous event drew significant attention to working conditions and labour legislation in the United States that became a focus of subsequent International Women's Day events. 1911 also saw women's 'Bread and Roses' campaign.

 
1913-1914
On the eve of World War I campaigning for peace, Russian women observed their first International Women's Day on the last Sunday in February 1913. In 1913 following discussions, International Women's Day was transferred to 8 March and this day has remained the global date for International Wommen's Day ever since. In 1914 further women across Europe held rallies to campaign against the war and to express women's solidarity.

1917
On the last Sunday of February, Russian women began a strike for "bread and peace" in response to the death over 2 million Russian soldiers in war. Opposed by political leaders the women continued to strike until four days later the Czar was forced to abdicate and the provisional Government granted women the right to vote. The date the women's strike commenced was Sunday 23 February on the Julian calendar then in use in Russia. This day on the Gregorian calendar in use elsewhere was 8 March.

1918 - 1999
Since its birth in the socialist movement, International Women's Day has grown to become a global day of recognition and celebration across developed and developing countries alike. For decades, IWD has grown from strength to strength annually. For many years the United Nations has held an annual IWD conference to coordinate international efforts for women's rights and participation in social, political and economic processes. 1975 was designated as 'International Women's Year' by the United Nations. Women's organisations and governments around the world have also observed IWD annually on 8 March by holding large-scale events that honour women's advancement and while diligently reminding of the continued vigilance and action required to ensure that women's equality is gained and maintained in all aspects of life.

2000 and beyond
IWD is now an official holiday in China, Armenia, Russia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Moldova, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Vietnam. The tradition sees men honouring their mothers, wives, girlfriends, colleagues, etc with flowers and small gifts. In some countries IWD has the equivalent status of Mother's Day where children give small presents to their mothers and grandmothers.
The new millennium has witnessed a significant change and attitudinal shift in both women's and society's thoughts about women's equality and emancipation. Many from a younger generation feel that 'all the battles have been won for women' while many feminists from the 1970's know only too well the longevity and ingrained complexity of patriarchy. With more women in the boardroom, greater equality in legislative rights, and an increased critical mass of women's visibility as impressive role models in every aspect of life, one could think that women have gained true equality. The unfortunate fact is that women are still not paid equally to that of their male counterparts, women still are not present in equal numbers in business or politics, and globally women's education, health and the violence against them is worse than that of men.
However, great improvements have been made. We do have female astronauts and prime ministers, school girls are welcomed into university, women can work and have a family, women have real choices. And so the tone and nature of IWD has, for the past few years, moved from being a reminder about the negatives to a celebration of the positives.

GoogleAnnually on 8 March, thousands of events are held throughout the world to inspire women and celebrate achievements. A global web of rich and diverse local activity connects women from all around the world ranging from political rallies, business conferences, government activities and networking events through to local women's craft markets, theatric performances, fashion parades and more.
Many global corporations have also started to more actively support IWD by running their own internal events and through supporting external ones. For example, on 8 March search engine and media giant Google some years even changes its logo on its global search pages. Year on year IWD is certainly increasing in status. The United States even designates the whole month of March as 'Women's History Month'.
So make a difference, think globally and act locally !! Make everyday International Women's Day. Do your bit to ensure that the future for girls is bright, equal, safe and rewarding.

---

More about International Women's Day from the UN's Women Watch site: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/feature/iwd/:
In 1975, during International Women's Year, the United Nations began celebrating 8 March as International Women's Day. Two years later, in December 1977, the General Assembly adopted a resolution proclaiming a United Nations Day for Women's Rights and International Peace to be observed on any day of the year by Member States, in accordance with their historical and national traditions. For the United Nations, International Women's Day has been observed on 8 March since 1975. The Day is traditionally marked with a message from the Secretary-General.



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           Квалификация к ЕВРО-96: Ничья с Польшей, 0:10 в Осере, и сумки, отобранные АФФА у футболистов         
«Azerbaijan - Land of Football» вспоминает сегодня о первом отборочном цикле в истории сборной Азербайджана - квалификации к ЕВРО-96. Попав в очень сильную группу без Сан-Марино и Люксембурга, наша сборная заняла последнее место, взяв очко у Польши. Как это было? В каких условиях готовилась тогда к матчам сборная Азербайджана? Вспоминаем вместе с Владиславом Гадыровым, выступавшим тогда за тульский «Арсенал».
          Notizie da Certi Diritti        
Finalmente sono stati pubblicati in Gazzetta Ufficiale i tre decreti attuativi che completano l’iter della legge sulle Unioni Civili"; un piccolo passo verso il matrimonio egualitario è stato fatto, sorveglieremo come Certi Diritti l’applicazione della legge, riservandoci anche di proporre eventuali manovre correttive sui decreti.

Dopo la Russia e dopo l’insediamento di Trump alla Casa Bianca, le libertà sessuali sono sempre più minacciate dall’ascesa di populismi; Il 21 gennaio si è tenuto un incontro alla sede del Partito Radicale “La voce del silenzio: la difesa delle libertà sessuali nelle democrazie illiberali”; moderato da Yuri Guaiana e Leonardo Monaco, con Javid Nabiyev presidente di Nefes LGBT Azerbaijan Alliance, Sergey Shevtsov responsabile questioni LGBTQA per la NGO liberale Civil Forum della Bielorussia e Sandro Sarukhanishvili membro dell'International Officer di Young Republicans della Georgia.

Enzo Cucco ha lanciato sul sito di AllOut una petizione al Ministro dell'istruzione Valeria Fedeli “IO STO CON FA’AFAFINE” per difendere la libertà di espressione e la cultura in Italia, chiedendo di opporsi alle minacce, avanzate da Forza Nuova, di “distruggere violentemente” lo spettacolo teatrale "Fa’afafine – Mi chiamo Alex e sono un dinosauro” che racconta la storia di un bambino genderfluid.




Channel NewsAsia (Singapore) | Go Singapore!

SINGAPORE: A television that can recognise a user's face, voice and even respond to ... Christians in Singapore mark Good Friday ... TASHKENT: Singapore and Uzbekistan have reaffirmed the excellent state of bilateral relations as both countries commemorated the 15th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties.

500th Anniversary of Thailand-Portugal Diplomatic Relations.

500th Anniversary of Thailand-Portugal Diplomatic Relations. A joint issue will be issued by Thailand and Portugal on 20.07.2011 to mark five Centuries of the Opening of the Window to the World at Large.In the reign of King ...

Talks with Former Chinese Ambassador to Britain on 40 Years of ...

Talks with Former Chinese Ambassador to Britain on 40 Years of Diplomatic Ties ... Network Plans • 2012 Asian Business Aviation Conference • Beijing Marks ...

湯米郵政 ‧ Tommy Post ‧ Correios de Tommy: China FDC on "Peace ...

Each stamp also features an element from each country's national flag: a Star of David and a five-pointed star. 2012 marks the 20th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Israel and China. Posted by ...

UNHCR | Refworld | USCIRF Annual Report 2012 - The ...

March 2012 marks the 400th anniversary of the appearance of the Virgin de Caridad de Cobre (Our Lady of Charity), Cuba's patron saint. Pope Benedict XVI will travel to Cuba starting on March 26 to participate in the ... The United States and Cuba do not have full diplomatic relations, and U.S.-Cuba policy continues to be dominated by U.S. trade sanctions and the travel embargo on Cuba. The detention and March 2011 sentencing of USAID contractor Alan Gross to ...

Embassy of the Peoples Republic of China in the United States

Chinese, Azerbaijani presidents exchange messages to mark anniversary of diplomatic ties · Chinese president returns to Beijing after summits, Cambodia visit

Newsline: Croatian top envoy shoots for new ... - Diplomatic Briefing

Martinec said Croatia looks to open a chancery here this year or in 2013. This year marks the 20th anniversary of the establishment of the diplomatic relations between Korea and Croatia. Korea recognized Croatia on April 15, ...

History of Singapore - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the early 15th century, Singapore was a Thai vassal state ... The population reached the 10,000 mark in ... felt that the historical and economic ties between Singapore ...

Welcome to the Homepage of Embassy of the Republic of Uzbekistan ...

Uzbekistan, Belgium mark 15 years of diplomatic relations ... the ties. The commemoration of the 15th anniversary of relations ... of Uzbekistan and Singapore ...

Miss Blog Asia - Jang Nara with Aodai Vietnam

The gala night marks the 16th anniversary of diplomatic ties between the two ... her ASEAN tour commemorating the 15th anniversary ... Singapore (1) Taiwan (3) Thailand (3) Vietnam (4)

Channel NewsAsia - 1 - xinmsn News

Christians in Singapore mark Good Friday ... Singapore, Uzbekistan reaffirm excellent bilateral ties ... the excellent state of bilateral relations as both countries commemorated the 15th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties.

Chinas Hu welcomed in Malaysia ahead of APEC summit - Latest news ...

... of regional diplomacy ahead of the APEC summit in neighbouring Singapore. ... official trip marks the 35th anniversary of Malaysia-China diplomatic ties ... back to the 15th ...

leading uzbekistan

Mark of The 20th. Anniversary ... 20th Anniversary Malaysia-Uzbekistan Diplomatic Relations and as a memorabilia to all that .... Year 2012 marked the 20th anniversary of establishment ..... Management Development Institute of Singapore. (2007), Gubkin .... 15th, 2011, where discussions was focused on ways to enhance ...

One2Sell » Latest Singapore News

Singapore, Uzbekistan reaffirm excellent bilateral ties 6 April 2012, 5:19 pm ... commemorated the 15th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties.

Latest Singapore News - Singapore Property Home Listings ...

Singapore, Uzbekistan reaffirm excellent bilateral ties ... both countries commemorated the 15th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties. .... was recently awarded the Green Mark Platinum Award from the Building and Construction ...

Channel NewsAsia - Singapore News - channelnewsasia.com

11 hours ago ... Singapore, Uzbekistan reaffirm excellent bilateral ties ... countries commemorated the 15th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties.

Welcome to the Homepage of Embassy of the Republic of Uzbekistan ...

Uzbekistan marks 15th anniversary of Constitution: December 08 ... scale of trade and economic ties. Since Uzbekistan and France have established the diplomatic ...

News & Information

... the 20th Anniversary of the Establishment of China-Uzbekistan Diplomatic ... Messages to Mark the 40th Anniversary of Ambassadorial-level Diplomatic Ties ... for the 15th ...

International Cooperation - TV보다 더 큰 세상, iMBC.com

... Television) to mark the 10-year anniversary of diplomatic ties. On August 15th ... Uzbekistan - Truth ... Singapore - My Lovely ...

Diplomacy | TopNews

Singapore - The Singapore government has explained its decision not ... and regional issues with Kim, whose trip is timed to mark the 60th anniversary of diplomatic ties ...

Chinese, Israeli Leaders Congratulate on 20th Anniversary of ...

... Shimon Peres and Benjamin Netanyahu on the 20th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties between ... 2012 Asian Business Aviation Conference • Beijing Marks ...

TCA, ATAA and Members of Congress Mark 60th Anniversary of ...

Chair of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs praised TCA for its work in building cultural and economic ties. In her remarks, she stated that too many Americans are not aware of the importance of this relationship and ...

Important News

... the 20th Anniversary of the Establishment of China-Uzbekistan Diplomatic ... Messages to Mark the 40th Anniversary of Ambassadorial-level Diplomatic Ties ... for the 15th ...

2010 – Scripting A Landmark Year In Indian Diplomacy « India ...

The State visit of President Pratibha Devisingh Patil to China in May and of Premier Wen Jiabao to India in December, respectively, marked the 60th anniversary of establishment of diplomatic relations between India and China. 4. .... 15. Kabul, Afghanistan Kabul Conference. 16. New York, USA UNGA (21 September – 2 October). 17. Tokyo, Japan with PM (24 – 26 October). 18. Singapore Bilateral Consultation (26 – 28 October). 19. Wuhan (China) Trilateral Meeting ...

Pingapore | Pinging Singapore Top Stories | Saturday 07th April 2012

As Singapore and Uzbekistan marked the 15th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties, both sides agreed to promote closer people-to-people ...

湯米郵政 ‧ Tommy Post ‧ Correios de Tommy: Israel FDC on ...

2012 marks the 20th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Israel and China. The Israeli stamp features a white dove – t

          Singapore, Uzbekistan mark 15th anniversary of diplomatic ties        

Singapore, Uzbekistan mark 15th anniversary of diplomatic ties : Photo Gallery

Assistant Foreign Minister Li Hui Attends the Reception Hosted by ...
Assistant Foreign Minister Li Hui Attends the Reception Hosted by ...

Assistant Foreign Minister Li Hui Attends the Reception Hosted by ...

Assistant Foreign Minister Li Hui Attends the Reception Hosted by ...

Li said Uzbekistan became the

Channel NewsAsia - Singapore News - channelnewsasia.
Channel NewsAsia - Singapore News - channelnewsasia.

Channel NewsAsia - Singapore News - channelnewsasia.

Channel NewsAsia - Singapore News - channelnewsasia.

Singapore and Uzbekistan have

Defense-Technology News: DTN News: US And Vietnam Stage Joint ...
Defense-Technology News: DTN News: US And Vietnam Stage Joint ...

Defense-Technology News: DTN News: US And Vietnam Stage Joint ...

Defense-Technology News: DTN News: US And Vietnam Stage Joint ...

of the 15th anniversary of diplomatic ties between Washington and Hanoi.

People's Daily Online News Archive --- Date:
People's Daily Online News Archive --- Date:

People's Daily Online News Archive --- Date:

People's Daily Online News Archive --- Date:

Uzbekistan issues stamps for

The saddle saga: deported from Uzbekistan - I4U News
The saddle saga: deported from Uzbekistan - I4U News

The saddle saga: deported from Uzbekistan - I4U News

The saddle saga: deported from Uzbekistan - I4U News

Singapore, Uzbekistan mark

The saddle saga: deported from Uzbekistan - I4U News
The saddle saga: deported from Uzbekistan - I4U News

The saddle saga: deported from Uzbekistan - I4U News

The saddle saga: deported from Uzbekistan - I4U News

Singapore, Uzbekistan mark

Photo: 15th Anniversary of Rwandan Genocide
Photo: 15th Anniversary of Rwandan Genocide

Photo: 15th Anniversary of Rwandan Genocide

Photo: 15th Anniversary of Rwandan Genocide

Photo: 15th Anniversary of

15BEFC961D5381FCC985601F3186.jpg
15BEFC961D5381FCC985601F3186.jpg

15BEFC961D5381FCC985601F3186.jpg

15BEFC961D5381FCC985601F3186.jpg

Singapore, Uzbekistan reaffirm

Assistant Foreign Minister Li Hui Attends the Launch Ceremony of ...
Assistant Foreign Minister Li Hui Attends the Launch Ceremony of ...

Assistant Foreign Minister Li Hui Attends the Launch Ceremony of ...

Assistant Foreign Minister Li Hui Attends the Launch Ceremony of ...

of Diplomatic Ties Between

MY OLYMPIC PHILATELY: July 2011
MY OLYMPIC PHILATELY: July 2011

MY OLYMPIC PHILATELY: July 2011

MY OLYMPIC PHILATELY: July 2011

Uzbekistan : 2009 Asian Youth

2010 December « European Council on International Relations
2010 December « European Council on International Relations

2010 December « European Council on International Relations

2010 December « European Council on International Relations

Professor Anton Caragea presence on the 15th anniversary of neutrality

My Little Postcard Corner: April 2011
My Little Postcard Corner: April 2011

My Little Postcard Corner: April 2011

My Little Postcard Corner: April 2011

diplomatic relations with

Channel NewsAsia - Singapore News - channelnewsasia.
Channel NewsAsia - Singapore News - channelnewsasia.

Channel NewsAsia - Singapore News - channelnewsasia.

Channel NewsAsia - Singapore News - channelnewsasia.

Singapore Airlines on Friday

Pacific Sentinel: October 2011
Pacific Sentinel: October 2011

Pacific Sentinel: October 2011

Pacific Sentinel: October 2011

In Singapore, I will attend

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Malta - Press Releases
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Malta - Press Releases

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Malta - Press Releases

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Malta - Press Releases

It is my pleasure to be with you here today to mark the 15th anniversary of

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Malta - Press Releases
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Malta - Press Releases

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Malta - Press Releases

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Malta - Press Releases

Diplomatic relations established with the Republic of Congo

SINGAPORE, UZBEKISTAN MARK 15TH ANNIVERSARY OF DIPLOMATIC TIES
SINGAPORE, UZBEKISTAN MARK 15TH ANNIVERSARY OF DIPLOMATIC TIES

SINGAPORE, UZBEKISTAN MARK 15TH ANNIVERSARY OF DIPLOMATIC TIES

SINGAPORE, UZBEKISTAN MARK 15TH ANNIVERSARY OF DIPLOMATIC TIES

As Singapore and Uzbekistan marked the 15th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties, both sides agreed to promote closer people-to-people relations through cultural exchanges and tourism. Minister of State (Foreign Affairs) Masagos Zulkifli ...

Singapore, Uzbekistan mark 15th anniversary of diplomatic ties : Videos

Michael Lerner Sam Botta Atlas Shrugged April 15 Movie Release Oscars
Michael Lerner Sam Botta Atlas Shrugged April 15 Movie Release Oscars

Michael Lerner Sam Botta Atlas Shrugged April 15 Movie Release Oscars

ATLAS SHRUGGED Michael Lerner Ayn Rand Scott Brick Audible Amazon The Bachelor when there's genuinely romantic, genuinely sweet (and did we ... Rated: 1.7115717     Duration: 58 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Fri, 15 Apr 2011 10:18:37 PDT

Laos-China high speed railway รถไฟความเร็วสูงลาว-Presentation
Laos-China high speed railway รถไฟความเร็วสูงลาว-Presentation

Laos-China high speed railway รถไฟความเร็วสูงลาว-Presentation

construction of the railway would begin in April 2011 to mark the 50th anniversary of Laos-China diplomatic relations and be completed within four ... Rated: 4.8095236     Duration: 461 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Sat, 15 Jan 2011 10:33:04 PST

President Obama Meets with Japanese Prime Minister Hatoyama
President Obama Meets with Japanese Prime Minister Hatoyama

President Obama Meets with Japanese Prime Minister Hatoyama

. And the US-Japan alliance -- well, actually it so happens that next year marks the 50th anniversary of the revision of the US-Japan security ... Rated: 4.1523809     Duration: 1998 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Fri, 20 Nov 2009 11:59:41 PST

10/7/09: White House Press Briefing
10/7/09: White House Press Briefing

10/7/09: White House Press Briefing

travel from Japan to Singapore for the annual Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation -- APEC -- meeting from November 13th to 15th. APEC is an ... Rated: 4     Duration: 2616 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Wed, 07 Oct 2009 15:13:15 PDT

House Session 2011-09-14 (12:00:27-13:05:34)
House Session 2011-09-14 (12:00:27-13:05:34)

House Session 2011-09-14 (12:00:27-13:05:34)

BURMA, CHINA, IRAN, NORTH KOREA, SAUDI ARABIA, SUDAN AND UZBEK STAN AS COUNTRIES OF PARTICULAR -- UZBEKISTAN AS COUNTRIES OF PARTICULAR CONCERN ... Rated: 1     Duration: 3907 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Wed, 14 Sep 2011 18:16:28 PDT

National Capital Planning Commission Meeting - December 1, 2011
National Capital Planning Commission Meeting - December 1, 2011

National Capital Planning Commission Meeting - December 1, 2011

couched in terms of security. MR. ALDAG: But this has an effect on our diplomatic relations in the world. And you know, especially these ... Rated: -1     Duration: 13956 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Thu, 01 Dec 2011 17:57:55 PST

Healthy Body = Functional Body. Hollywood Look Side Effect: Healthy Function
Healthy Body = Functional Body. Hollywood Look Side Effect: Healthy Function

Healthy Body = Functional Body. Hollywood Look Side Effect: Healthy Function

2 people, with mains and starter, and a large glass of wine for the bargain price of £15 for 2 people..It was fantastic too.....:-)))Wednesday at ... Rated: 1.7704082     Duration: 167 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Thu, 22 Sep 2011 09:46:52 PDT

Reshaping the Debate on Climate Change - Mary Robinson
Reshaping the Debate on Climate Change - Mary Robinson

Reshaping the Debate on Climate Change - Mary Robinson

very keen that this Commission on Sustainability and that Conference to mark the 20th anniversary of Rio really takes seriously what we mean now ... Rated: 2.3913043     Duration: 5682 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Tue, 14 Dec 2010 12:38:40 PST

Tanya Roberts Outrageous Love & Friendship Sam Botta-Live Fearless-Chris Shining,Executive Producer
Tanya Roberts Outrageous Love & Friendship Sam Botta-Live Fearless-Chris Shining,Executive Producer

Tanya Roberts Outrageous Love & Friendship Sam Botta-Live Fearless-Chris Shining,Executive Producer

were divorced before she reached high school. Tanya dropped out of high school at age 15, got married and hitchhiked around the country until her ... Rated: 1.9666137     Duration: 54 seconds     Video type: YouTube     Hosted by: www.youtube.com on Fri, 10 Feb 2012 03:34:03 PST

train to belgium
train to belgium

train to belgium

Philippine National Museum ,Singapore,Singapore,Asian Civilisations Museum ,Lee Kong Chian Art Museum at the National University of Singapore ... Rated: 2.1414142     Duration: 73 seconds     Video type: Google     Hosted by: video.google.com on Thu, 16 Mar 2006 05:35:59 PST

Singapore, Uzbekistan mark 15th anniversary of diplomatic ties : Latest News, Information, Answers and Websites

Singapore, Uzbekistan reaffirm excellent bilateral ties

TASHKENT: Singapore and Uzbekistan have reaffirmed the excellent state of bilateral relations as both countries commemorated the 15th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties. Both sides will also promote closer ties between their ...

Investments: Is it time Singapore stock market listed, US$ 4 Billion ...

ODNI News Release: ODNI Marks Five-Year Anniversary With Ceremony - DNI Blair Celebrates Achievements, Reflects on Challenges April 21, 2010; DNI Blair Addresses the Office of the Director of National Intelligence Fifth Year .... FOREIGN RELATIONS. Join the Blue Ribbon Online Free Speech Campaign! ... April 12, 2012; Uzbekistan: Human Rights Problems with a Strategic U.S. Partner April 3, 2012; Why Are Police Still Torturing Drug Users in Indonesia?

          Focal and Dynamic Parameters of Strong Earthquakes on the Territory ofAzerbaijan for the Period 20052015        
Yetirmishli QJ and Sabina Eldar Kazimova
          Comment on Kissinger’s Dangerously Flawed Views on Iran by Ted Romano        
Great analysis for showing that Iran is defense-minded and its proxies are themselves targets of superpower-aided hostility. I wish to offer two observations to further demonstrate that Iran's revolutionaries choose their allies based on resistance to Western hegemony more than on religion. First, although Khomeinism had a moralist appeal, the brutally suppressed 1964 uprising he led against the Shah was occasioned by the monarch's granting of immunity from prosecution to US military personnel in Iran, numbering in the thousands. Secondly, the Islamic Republic's tense relations with majority Shi'a Azerbaijan contrasts sharply with its sustained military/intelligence/diplomatic cooperation with Azerbaijan's bitter foe, the Republic of Armenia, which defines itself with reference to its Christian majority. The explanation? Azerbaijan is closely allied with Israel and the US. (Iran's friendship with Iraqi Kurdistan, an ally of Israel and the US, is an exceptional strategic necessity for slowing the disintegration of Iraq and for blunting secessionist aspirations in Iranian Kurdistan).
          FIFA Best/Worst Ranking - August 2014        
Nations currently at their best or worst all-time ranking position in the August 2014 FIFA Rankings.

Best Ranking
1 - Germany
15 - Costa Rica
29 - Venezuela
50 - Sierra Leone
73 - Azerbaijan
105 - Lesotho
165 - Montserrat


Worst Ranking
122 - Canada
157 - Thailand
167 - Liechtenstein
197 - Cayman Islands
201 - British Virgin Islands
201 - Cambodia
203 - Eritrea
205 - Djibouti
206 - Cook Islands
207 - Anguilla
208 - Bhutan
208 - San Marino

          African Players with 10+ Goals in European Leagues - 2013/2014        
African players that scored 10 or more goals in top division European leagues in the 2013/2014 season.

Algeria
16 - El Arbi Hillel Soudani (Dinamo Zagreb: Croatia)

Angola
13 - Igor Vetokele (København: Denmark)

Cameroon
16 - Vincent Aboubakar (Lorient: France)
13 - Leandre Tawamba Kana (MFK Ružomberok: Slovakia)
11 - Mbilla Etame (Khazar Lankaran FK: Azerbaijan)
11 - Leonard Kweuke (Rizespor: Turkey)
10 - Maxim Choupo-Moting (Mainz: Germany)

Cape Verde Islands
11 - Garry Rodrigues (Levski Sofia: Bulgaria)
10 - Héldon (Sporting CP: Portugal)

Central African Republic
13 - Mouhamadou Habibou (KAA Gent: Belgium)

Comoros
15 - El Fardou Ben Nabouhane (Veria: Greece)

Congo
14 - Francis Litsingi (FK Teplice: Czech Republic)
10 - Prince Oniangué (Reims: France)

Côte d'Ivoire
20 - Yaya Touré (Manchester City: England)
18 - Seydou Doumbia (CSKA Moscow: Russia)
17 - Wilfried Bony (Swansea City: England)
16 - Salomon Kalou (Lille: France)
15 - Serge Deblé (FC Shirak: Armenia)
12 - Yannick Boli (Zorya Luhansk: Ukraine)
10 - Didier Drogba (Galatasaray: Turkey)

DR Congo
13 - Dieumerci Mbokani (Dynamo Kyiv: Ukraine)

Gabon
13 - Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang (Borussia Dortmund: Germany)

Gambia
11 - Demba Savage (HJK: Finland)

Ghana
10 - David Accam (Helsingborg: Sweden)

Madagascar
10 - Anicet Andrianantenaina (FK Botev Plovdiv: Bulgaria)

Mali
12 - Cheick Diabaté (Bordeaux: France)
11 - Mustapha Yatabaré (Guingamp: France)

Morocco
17 - Aatif Chahechouhe (Sivasspor: Turkey)
15 - Abderrazak Hamdallah (Aalesund: Norway)
13 - Omar Er Rafik (Differdange: Luxembourg)
12 - Youssef El-Arabi (Granada: Morocco)

Nigeria
15 - Stanley Ohawuchi (Sliema: Malta)
14 - Ikechukwu Uche (Villarreal: Spain)
14 - Kennedy Igboananike (AIK: Sweden)
13 - Marco Tagbajumi (Ermis FC: Cyprus)
12 - Emmanuel Emenike (Fenerbahçe: Turkey)
11 - Alfred Effiong (Qormi: Malta)
11 - Obinna Obiefule (Hibernians: Malta)
11 - Abiola Dauda (Crvena Zvezda: Serbia)
10 - Imoh Ezekiel (Standard Liege: Belgium)
10 - Sylvester Igboun (Midtjylland: Denmark)
10 - Adeshina Lawal (B36 Tórshavn: Faroe Islands)
10 - Shola Shodiya (Birkirkara: Malta)
10 - Leke James (Aalesund: Norway)

Senegal
15 - Moussa Sow (Fenerbahçe: Turkey)
13 - Sadio Mané (FC Red Bull Salzburg: Austria)
13 - Dame N'Doye (Lokomotiv Moscow: Russia)
12 - Baye Omar Niasse (Akhisar Belediyespor: Turkey)
10 - Ibrahim Sidibé (Debrecen: Hungary)
10 - Malek Mane (Sogndal: Norway)
10 - Lamine Diarra (Antalyaspor: Turkey)

Togo
11 - Emmanuel Adebayor (Tottenham Hotspur: England)

Tunisia
17 - Hamdi Harbaoui (KSC Lokeren: Belgium)


Stats from European 'Summer' leagues in Scandinavia and elsewhere are from the completed 2013 season.

          FIFA Best/Worst Ranking - July 2014        

Nations currently at their best or worst all-time ranking position in the July 2014 FIFA Rankings.


Best Ranking
1 - Germany
16 - Costa Rica
30 - Venezuela
73 - Azerbaijan
166 - Montserrat

Worst Ranking
70 - Republic of Ireland
118 - Canada
157 - Thailand
167 - Liechtenstein
200 - Cambodia
202 - Eritrea
205 - Djibouti
206 - Cook Islands
207 - Anguilla
208 - Bhutan
208 - San Marino

          EU Lawmaker Wants Independent Probe Into Case Of Azerbaijani Journalist        
A European Parliament member who is visiting Georgia has called for an independent investigation into the treatment of an Azerbijani journalist who says he was abducted in Tbilisi and taken to Azerbaijan against his will.
          CSU Hosts Crossing Borders: Immigrant Narratives, March 18 & 19        

Staged reading produced by Lit Cleveland is part of 2017 Humanities Fest

Crossing BordersWhen Literary Cleveland put out a call for immigration stories by Northeast Ohio writers, the group was flooded with responses, highlighting both the tremendous contributions of immigrants to the region and the importance of this voice to our cultural heritage.

Now many of these powerful stories – written by immigrants from Syria, Iran, Colombia, Poland, China, Azerbaijan and elsewhere– will be heard in front of a live audience as part of a staged reading produced with Cleveland State University during the upcoming Cleveland Humanities Festival.

Crossing Borders: Immigrant Narratives will be performed Saturday, March 18th and Sunday, March 19th at 7 pm in the Cleveland State University Student Center Ballroom at 2121 Euclid Ave, Third Floor. The events are cosponsored by the Baker-Nord Center for the Humanities and Cleveland State University’s College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences.

The staged reading of short essays, fiction and poems is directed by Marc Moritz, who has assembled a cast of professional actors to perform the pieces. The stories in the show are provocative, moving, heart-wrenching and funny. The authors address the emotional journey of crossing borders, both literal and metaphorical, and what it means to be both an immigrant and an American.  

In “The Buttonhook Men,” Jill Sell writes about her Czech ancestors’ uncertain passage through Ellis Island, which could easily have been rejected. “Food and Family,” a piece by Hathaway Brown student Crystal Zhao, tells the story of a second-generation Chinese immigrant bonding with her mother over stories of childhood rebellion. The poem “Genesis” by Daniel Gray-Kontar addresses the journey of African-Americans from the south to northern cities like Cleveland during the Great Migration.

In the raw “Struggling to Survive,” Syrian immigrant Bayan Aljbawi writes about leaving her troubled homeland for the U.S., an experience she describes as “escaping from one suffering to another: new culture, new country and different language.”

“My husband, my baby and I were lucky,” she concludes. “The only question left is this: What about too many others who did not get a chance to do the same?”

And in “American Promise,” award-winning novelist and Case Western University professor Thrity Umrigar – who immigrated here from India over 30 years ago – confronts the current political climate and asks if the U.S. “will be a country that is as small and narrow as its fears” or “as large and glorious as its dreams, as splendid as the hopes of millions of its citizens, immigrant and native born…?”

The event is free and open to the public but registration is strongly encouraged. For more information, visit http://www.litcleveland.org/special-events.html.

###


          Unseen Pakistan - Part 3        
Unseen Pakistan - Part 3

Unseen and most wonderful places in Pakistan, you'll never have seen many of these.



Mai Pir

Ancient City of 'Shehre-e-Roghan' near Lasbela, Pakistan.This cave city is larger than any other in world. There are thousands of cave houses in rocks extends to 2 - 3 km.

In Turkey and other European countries, these cave cities are million dollar tourists attraction. Locals say, this was constructed by Prince Saif-al-Maluk. Sad part, hardly only a Few Pakistanis know about this ancient wonder!
Photographed by: Shah Murad Aliani

Makran, Pakistan

The present day Makran derived its name from Maka, a satrap of Achaemenid Empire. Maka was an important early eastern satrapy of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire.
The narrow coastal plain rises very rapidly into several mountain ranges. Of the 1,000 km coastline, about 750 km is in Pakistan.




Mud Volcano

In Pakistan there are more than 80 active mud volcanoes, all of them in Baluchistan province; there are about 10 locations having clusters of mud volcanoes. In this region, the heights of mud volcanoes range between 800 to 1,550 feet (243.8 to 472.4 m). The most famous is Chandaragup. The biggest crater found at 25°33'13.63"N. 65°44'09.66"E is about 450 feet (137.16 m) in diameter. Most mud volcanoes in this region are situated in out-of-reach areas having very difficult terrain. Dormant mud volcanoes stand like columns of mud in many other areas.
These volcanoes keep the region save from any huge disaster. In Azerbaijan these mud volcanoes are million dollar tourist attraction but sadly we Pakistanis don't even have knowledge about these volcanoes!




Nanga Parbat

It is the ninth highest mountain on Earth and among the eight-thousanders with a summit elevation of 8,126 meters (26,660 ft). It is also an immense, dramatic peak that rises far above its surrounding terrain.




Old Ruins, Basharat, Pakistan

These mysterious old ruins [puraney mandir] are located near Pind Dadan Khan, Chakwal. The locals have many interesting stories to share.

And yes, you are advised to see this place in the day light only.
Photographed by: Farhan Nawaz




Passu Peaks, Hunza, Pakistan

Mysterious mountains stand like a wall between Hunza river and valley.
Photographed by: Ishtiaq Ahmed.




Rakaposhi, Pakistan

Rakaposhi is also known as Dumani [Mother of Mist]. It is situated in the Nagar valley.




Rakhiot Peak

It lies just south of the Indus River, in the Diamir District of the Northern Areas of Pakistan. Not far to the north is the western end of the Karakoram range.



Fort of Ranikot

Is this Great Wall of China?

No. It's Wall of Sindh in Ranikot [3 hrs drive from Karachi]. It's the part of one of the Largest Fort in World, Fort of Ranikot.

          Emil Hidayətli        
  

Həkim Dietoloq Piylənmənin müalicəsi üzrə mütəxəssis

Əmək stajı – 10 il

Təhsil:

1999–2005 Azərbaycan Tibb Universiteti Müalicə işi fakultesi

2015 Ə.Əliyev adına Azərbaycan Dövlət Həkimləri Təkmilləşdirmə İnstitutu (Terapiya ixtisası üzrə peşə hazırlıq kursunu)

2014 – (davam edir) Böyük Britaniya Müasir Xəstəliklər Kolleci Sentyabr, (CCH, UK) və London South Bank Universiteti (LSBU)“Piylənmənin müalicəsi və menecmenti” ixtisası üzrə diplomdan sonrakı təhsil

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İxtisaslaşdığı tibbi sahə:

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Qida gündəliyinin tərtibi və aparılması,

Ziyanlı vərdişlərin aydınlaşdırılması və sağlam vərdişlərlə əvəz olunması,

Pasiyentlərin fərdi kouçinq,

Koqnitiv davranış terapiyasının aparılmasıPasiyentlərin bədən çəkisinin peşəkar seqmentar analizi,

Xəstəxana daxili qidalanma planının təyini,

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          What it’s like to be President Trump’s White House photographer        
White House Chief Photographer Shealah Craighead photographs President Donald J. Trump during a tour of the Sistine Chapel, Wednesday, May 24, 2017, in Vatican City.

Chief Official White House Photographer Shealah Craighead photographs President Donald J. Trump during a tour of the Sistine Chapel, Wednesday, May 24, 2017, in Vatican City. Photo by Andrea Hanks

From the start of the presidency of Donald Trump, it’s been photos not snapped by the official White House photographer that have gotten the most attention. There were the press images that confirmed his inauguration crowd size was smaller than the first Obama inauguration, that showed the president’s tie held in place with Scotch tape, and that revealed a stone-faced Pope Francis in his meeting with Trump at the Vatican. As the weeks passed, media reports began to suggest that Trump was actually avoiding Shealah Craighead, his new photographer, as many pictures posted to social media by the White House were taken by other members of staff. And after day 50 of the presidency, when Craighead released her first real set of photos, photography websites declared her a rigid, boring photographer, unable or willing to take candid or unguarded photos of the president.

But critics really had little to assess, with Craighead and her staff releasing far fewer photos to the White House Flickr account or other social media than her predecessor, Pete Souza, who had photographed two administrations and been granted extraordinary access to Barack Obama. (Since leaving his position, Souza had kept posting photos of the former president, often in an attempt to show Obama in a better light than Trump). Craighead herself also gave almost no interviews — just one short talk with a Catholic television network. In recent months, however, the Flickr page has slowly begun to fill up. With more to go on, we spoke to Craighead, who has previously photographed a slew of Republican politicians, about her background, approach and the side of the president she’s gotten to see up close. In a second conversation, she also answered criticisms about her lack of access. This conversation has been edited and condensed slightly for length and clarity.

Shealah Craighead, President Donald Trump's Chief Official White House Photographer, is seen working during UK Prime Minister May's visit to the White House on January 27, 2017 in Washington, D.C. Photo by Olivier Douliery-Pool/Getty Images

Shealah Craighead, President Donald Trump’s Chief Official White House Photographer, is seen working during UK Prime Minister May’s visit to the White House on January 27, 2017 in Washington, D.C. Photo by Olivier Douliery-Pool/Getty Images

ELIZABETH FLOCK: Tell me a little bit about your background. How did you first get interested in photography?

SHEALAH CRAIGHEAD: My background started out in the family business, because my family owned a photo lab in Connecticut where I grew up. As I went through college and life I also realized I had always wanted to do something that involved traveling the world and living in hotels. And that involved photography.

After college I freelanced with the Boston Globe, AP, and Getty Images. That’s where I earned my chops. And then, through friends and colleagues, asking around if anyone knew of job openings in D.C. area, I ended up in D.C.

ELIZABETH FLOCK: And from there you began photographing politicians, almost all of them Republican. How did that happen?

SHEALAH CRAIGHEAD: In 2005, I was working under David Bohrer, Vice President Dick Cheney’s photographer. Four months into that, another photographer went on maternity leave and decided not to come back. So I put my resume in, and under Bush’s photographer Eric Draper, I became the photographer assigned to Mrs. [Laura] Bush. It was a huge change for me — I didn’t know what to expect. I grew exponentially as a photographer and person in that position.

“In the White House, you’re not just documenting history, you’re also putting other caps on,” like being an event photographer, a family photographer, an operations director, she said.

But in my early stages of photography I shot weddings, sports, events, news, portraits, spot news, the whole gamut. And all of that comes into play in a position like this. In the White House, you’re not just documenting history, you’re also putting other caps on. You’re an event photographer, an operations director — establishing where the team should be to get all the angles. You’re a documentary photographer, you’re a family photographer, you shoot portraits. If the president is athletic, or doing sports, you’re a sports photographer too.

After Mrs. Bush, I was asked to be Alaska governor and then vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin’s photographer, and then after that for Texas Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchison, who was running against Rick Perry for governor in 2010. Then I became Florida Sen. Marco Rubio’s photographer, through his Senate career and into his campaign for president. I don’t know that I specifically set out to make that my niche or genre, Republican clients, but being in the White House in a Republican administration offers that foundation as colleagues branch out and network.

In addition to that, I also did corporate work because I had colleagues that went into the private sector. I had Fortune 500 clients and clients that were private families in the top executive world. When people see that you can photograph presidents, and kings and queens around the world — that you can navigate an environment that is more high society — then your clients trust you. They know I won’t ever exploit their images. They know I keep a very tight hold on the archives of photos I take of them.

President-elect Donald Trump walks to take his seat for the inaugural swearing-in ceremony at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., Friday, Jan. 20, 2017. (Official White House Photo by Shealah Craighead)

President-elect Donald Trump walks to take his seat for the inaugural swearing-in ceremony at the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., Friday, Jan. 20, 2017. Official White House Photo by Shealah Craighead

ELIZABETH FLOCK: Has that trust been key to working with President Trump? Some have said your photos suggest you don’t have much access to the president. Do you think he trusts you?

SHEALAH CRAIGHEAD: For both of us, it’s getting to know your client, as much as they’re getting to know you as a photographer and a person. There’s a level of trust we have to establish with each other. That in time will unfold into a level of comfort and access. Then once that’s established the comfort level comes.

And with this particular situation, with the president and myself not having known him before, not having a relationship on the campaign, or a working relationship, it takes a lot longer to have someone comfortable in your personal space. I would say, for the first month or so he’d say, “Why are you here?” Or: “What are you doing?” Or, “You have more golf photos of me than [anything else].”

So then it becomes explaining and showing why you’re doing it. You’re earning the trust of your subject, so that they’re confident that you’re not going to send out a photo that’s not going to make them look bad. Sometimes I’m invited into a space, sometimes I move in quietly, and sometimes I’m disinvited.

“What you see on TV is exactly what you get off camera. I appreciate that. He likes photos, that’s no secret.”

But the president’s personality is gregarious. What you see on TV is exactly what you get off camera. I appreciate that. He likes photos, that’s no secret. I’m happy to engage in that. Both for him and the administration and the country, and his private archives later on down the road. You learn what they like or don’t like, preferences in terms of space or lighting.

ELIZABETH FLOCK: One media story said you carry a stool to photograph President Trump, because it makes him look better.

SHEALAH CRAIGHEAD: I’ve used a stool for years. I’m short, so when I was with Mrs. Bush, to get a better angle I brought in the stool that I carry, to be a little higher up. So that I’m not photographing from the ground up but sky down. I’ve brought that into the White House as well, because the president is six-foot, and I’m five-two. I carry that in order to be at least at eye level advantage. Plus the air up there is a lot nicer. (Laughs)

First lady Laura Bush (3rd R) hosts a coffee for first lady Mehriban Aliyeva (3rd L) of Azerbaijan, in the Yellow Oval Room of the White House December 7, 2006 in Washington, DC. (Photo by Shealah Craighead/White House via Getty Images)

ELIZABETH FLOCK: How is photographing President Trump different than photographing Mrs. Bush?

SHEALAH CRAIGHEAD: He’s a different person for many reasons. With Mrs. Bush it also took some time, but she would invite me to her private residence to take photos regularly of teas and lunches or residence with friends and colleagues, in her personal space. And sometimes I photographed and sometimes I didn’t. I remember once, there were eight of us on an airplane, and she was telling us about first date with the president. I was sitting there with a camera, but that was a moment I chose to not to photograph. I didn’t really want to photograph that.

Here with the president, my relationship is more professional, casual, comfortable. He’s comfortable with me, he certainly looks around, he makes sure I’m there, he looks for me when he’s ready to take a photo. We have candid conversations now and again, but in terms of telling me about his first date with Mrs. Trump, I’m sure that’s not a conversation we’re going to have anytime soon.

“I didn’t come in cameras and gun blazing, saying, ‘this is my job and I’m entitled to do this or that.’ I came in with the expectation that I’m going to need to gain the trust of a … person who I have not worked with before.

I think it’s slowly been worked into over time, my style is different, and I didn’t come in cameras and gun blazing, saying, “this is my job and I’m entitled to do this or that.” I came in with the expectation that I’m going to need to gain the trust of a client and person who I have not worked with before, who’s thinking, why am I following him around 16 hours a day with a camera? Once we got through that part, he was able to see my style and gain the trust that I’m very protective over the images that go out for both of our sakes. His failure is my failure, if he gets flak for that that’s on me. I err on the side of caution.

President Donald Trump receives a briefing, Thursday, April 6, 2017, on a military strike on Syria from his National Security team, including a video teleconference with Secretary of Defense, Gen. James Mattis, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Gen. Joseph F. Dunford, in a secured location at Mar-a-Largo in Palm Beach, Florida. (Official White House Photo by Shealah Craighead) Editor’s Note: Items in this image have been altered for security purposes.

ELIZABETH FLOCK: You’ve been criticized for not releasing as many photos as previous administration have.

SHEALAH CRAIGHEAD: There are a lot of photos taken in private moments that the president would just like to have for his archives, like any family photo. Or family events, you’re just taking photos for the family. Or someone he’s golfed with, it’s his private time, it’s his personal time. Sometimes I’ll ask him, “Hey, can I release this to our website?” And I’ll show him, if I’m hesitant. He’ll say, “Yeah, that’s fine,” or no for whatever reason. But nine times out of 10 now I don’t run it by him.

ELIZABETH FLOCK: Can you tell me a story about working with President Trump? What’s your relationship like now that you’ve built some trust?

SHEALAH CRAIGHEAD: I see him as a person, not as a president, first. One thing he likes is to bring people into the Oval Office. He’ll give the history and the tour, and then make sure it’s documented for them. So he’ll call me up to take photos while they’re in the Oval Office.

I remember on the day of the health care vote [to repeal Obamacare], it was May 4th, and it was my birthday. This was not on the schedule, but he’ll say: “Everyone come into the Oval, let’s take photos.” And that day I got swamped and engulfed by everyone trying to get in the door at the same time. And so he said: “Where’s Shea, let’s get Shea, make way for Shea, she’s getting trampled.” I thought: he’s trying to make sure I’m in there for the moment. It’s endearing. He’ll come out with some really endearing comments. And he compliments me on the job I’m doing.

ELIZABETH FLOCK: Does the president see the photos you take before you put them out there?

SHEALAH CRAIGHEAD: Often times I’ll show him photos. At the beginning, I did a lot more hands-on work with the photos. He likes to see them. He likes to see what I do.

Now we have four photographers in total including myself. It’s a really strong team that incorporates a fashion background, a military background and an administration background. The fashion background I thought would be good for the first family.

It’s more a family environment than in past administrations. There are more lighthearted moments, family dinners, and the president’s grand kids are running around with bare feet on state floor, which is phenomenal for hide-and-go-seek. (Laughs)

ELIZABETH FLOCK: What’s it been like to photograph him on foreign trips? How is the president different there than he is at home?

“One thing I really like about this administration is that they’re doing it their way. It’s not always a popular approach. But I see them genuinely try to work from their heart. That’s something that I’d like to show more of.”

SHEALAH CRAIGHEAD: When we were on the Saudi Arabia trip, I remember how incredibly busy it was. They packed in a lot of face-to-face time with foreign leaders. I think it’s best when you meet people in person, and I think that he finds that as well. He’d rather do a lot of negotiating and conversing in person. The days are long — it’s such a concentrated period of time — and you’re trying to fit everything in. But in terms of his presence there, I noticed as a close observer that his time with the king in Saudi Arabia was the most personable. They really connected not only as leaders but really as people.

It’s also great to see Mrs. Trump unfolding in her role. That trip was her first coming out. I’ve watched her sort of slowly come out at her own pace. One thing I really like about this administration is that they’re doing it their way. It’s not always a popular approach. But I see them genuinely try to work from their heart. That’s something that I’d like to show more of. That unfolding — as a strength.

President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump arrive to the Murabba Palace, escorted by King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia, Saturday evening, May 20, 2017, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, to attend a banquet in their honor. (Official White House Photo by Shealah Craighead)

ELIZABETH FLOCK: There has been so much negative news about the president, though, from his policies to his inability to get things done. Do you feel like it’s your job to try to counteract that perception through photos?

SHEALAH CRAIGHEAD: People are going to love or hate no matter what. I just try to grab the moments as light and as endearing or as serious or profound as the moment is. And it’s still going to be taken however anyone wants to take the image and run with it. At the end of the day it’s about him. His image is going to captured in the images I take. I want to show him in the best light as a person.

What I’ve also learned in this business, is, unless you’re in the room, do you really know what happened? It’s all sort of projected. I’m just a documentary photographer. I just try to show him and what happened in the most honest light.

ELIZABETH FLOCK: In that way, it seems like you’re very different from your predecessor, Pete Souza, who really tried to capture the intimate, private moments of being president, and who also maybe tried to get across a certain perception of the president. People have criticized you as only documenting Trump’s public face, in a rigid way —

SHEALAH CRAIGHEAD: I am a fan of Pete Souza’s photography. I think the job he did is amazing for our country. I think Pete and I approach this situation differently. I’m defining my role as a documentary photographer, as a historian… I guess the way I’m doing it is with neutrality. I feel like the moments are going to unfold no matter what I do, and if I see them I’m going to capture them. If I can see something happening, and think that’s a great moment for history.

WATCH: The Obama White House, from the man behind the lens

President Barack Obama reflects during a budget meeting in the Roosevelt Room 1/29/09. Official White House Photo by Pete Souza

President Barack Obama reflects during a budget meeting in the Roosevelt Room on January 29, 2009.
Official White House Photo by Pete Souza

Pete developed a different relationship with his subject than I will have with mine or Eric Draper did with Bush 43. In terms of private space, that definition can be so wide. Does that mean the president’s private office, or private time in the Oval Office, or his residence? Are there meetings more sensitive than others? And am I in those? Sometimes, sometimes not. I’m certainly not going to go in and take photos while he’s privately eating lunch. Nobody likes to be photographed while they’re eating.

President Donald Trump reviews his remarks backstage at the National Prayer Breakfast at the Washington Hilton in Washington, D.C., Thursday, February 2, 2017. (Official White House Photo by Shealah Craighead)

ELIZABETH FLOCK: In a previous interview you gave, you said never talked politics or religion with people you worked with, when you were photographing Sarah Palin —

“I’m very set on making sure my career is very neutral. If you’re able to separate yourself from your issue, then you can make an image that is strong and compelling and informative, strong and honest in the moment.”

SHEALAH CRAIGHEAD: That’s not my job, my job is to document, job is to keep it simple. I’m not hired to be a policy adviser. This goes back to journalism days. A professor in photojournalism said you should always be neutral, talking about when you let personal beliefs in you sway the eye. So I decided I would make a conscious effort to keep my personal beliefs separate. I’m very set on making sure my career is very neutral. If you’re able to separate yourself from your issue, then you can make an image that is strong and compelling and informative, strong and honest in the moment.

ELIZABETH FLOCK: How much sleep do you get? Do you get any days off, free time?

SHEALAH CRAIGHEAD: I’m on my fourth day off right now since January when I started. The hours start in the morning and go very late.

The weekend I had off after we got back from Paris I slept from 5:30 p.m. to 5:30 a.m. the next day, pretty much solid. That was supposed to be 30 minute nap. (Laughs) I do yoga, try to stay in shape. It’s a physically demanding job, because sometimes I’m carrying 10, 20 pounds in a backpack, and you’re on your feet 16 hours a day. I also ride a motorcycle, which is the most calming space for me, because you can’t do anything on it, you just have to focus and drive.

This is the toughest job I’ve ever been in. You’re not only making photos every day, you’re managing a team, from the ground up, like a startup. I think everything tends to take six months in this world, until you get comfortable. You get your foot in the door, there’s shock and awe, then it’s: “Oh crap, how do I sustain this?” Then finally you get to that stage of sustainability, and the air is a little bit sweeter, and the sleep is more than four hours a night.

Below, see more of Craighead’s photos and her stories behind them.


Credit: Shealah Craighead

Post the traditional inaugural tea and coffee reception, President-elect Donald Trump looks out of the Red Room window onto the South Portico of the White House grounds on Friday, Jan. 20, 2017, prior to departing the White House for the Presidential Inaugural ceremony. Official White House Photo by Shealah Craighead

This was my second day photographing President Trump. What was leading up to that was pure jumping in with both feet, going in a thousand miles an hour, figuring out where you’re supposed to be. I was sort of trying to observe him and Mrs. Trump at the same time, and find quiet moments in between. I knew inauguration was going to be pure chaos….At one point, I thought, “I don’t see him in the room, where did they go?” They were in the Blue Room having tea with the Obamas, and I stepped back because there’s only so many interaction photos you can take. Stepping back while taking photos gives you a better perspective. But all the sudden he was gone, and I found him in the Red Room.


Holding her youngest son Theodore, Ivanka Trump talks on the phone in the East Colonnade of the White House, Sunday, Jan. 29, 2017. (Official White House Photo by Shealah Craighead)

Holding her youngest son Theodore, Ivanka Trump talks on the phone in the East Colonnade of the White House, Sunday, Jan. 29, 2017. (Official White House Photo by Shealah Craighead)

This was also one of the first few weekends the president was in the White House. We were waiting for him to come to the movie theater to watch a family movie, and I went to scope out who was there, to get bearings on the space. And I saw Ivanka there with her son, and I just love the light in that room. I was observing a little before I took that to see how she moves. I was taken with the grace [she shows], and she’s slender and tall and in heels and carrying a baby and on the phone. I thought “who can do that, amazing.”


President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump join King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia, and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, Sunday, May 21, 2017, to participate in the inaugural opening of the Global Center for Combating Extremist Ideology. (Official White House Photo by Shealah Craighead)

To be honest, I don’t watch the news, and I’m not on social media anymore — let alone sort of follow what’s going on, [so I didn’t know the image of Trump with other foreign leaders gathered around a globe had gone viral]. I figured out that staying off social media was the best way to keep my head down and do my job. If people are going to make fun, you can take the sweetest photo and somebody is going to find a way to criticize you. I just remember it being incredibly crowded in that moment, getting elbowed.


President Donald J. Trump signs a series of Executive Orders and Presidential Memoranda around the approval of pipelines in the Oval Office, Tuesday, Jan. 24, 2017. (Official White House Photo by Shealah Craighead)

I try to show a signing that’s not the same photo you can do every time, which is a redundant image. But it’s not a redundant event. The signing is important every time, but the visual works the same — and it’s not the same. This was the executive order around the pipeline, and I think I moved around the room on my stool. I bring the stool everywhere, lose all pride. (Laughs)


President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump participate in the Easter Egg Roll on the South Lawn of the White House on Monday, April 17, 2017, in Washington, D.C. This was the first Easter Egg Roll of the Trump Administration. (Official White House Photo by Shealah Craighead)


That moment was spontaneous. Each time Mrs. Trump goes out in public, she becomes more comfortable. Being in that space, it was a nice moment of watching her and the child she was sitting next to.


President Donald Trump talks to members of the press in his office aboard Air Force One during a flight from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Joint Base Andrews in Maryland, January 26, 2017. (Official White House Photo by Shealah Craighead)

The president was eating and then the flight was landing. It was a very, very short flight. And the press wanted to photograph him in office on the first flight. The press was rushed in there, so I thought the moment was more about press documenting his first flight in office, than just a portrait of him on Air Force One.

It’s often easy to get caught up in the press pool — they have such a short amount of access and time. When they come into a space, it’s so easy to get swept up in the high energy. So it’s a challenge to pull yourself out and pause. You think: what does the moment look like from this side of the room. You step out of the scrum, which is sometimes not possible because you’re packed in so tightly. But what I love about working with the press pool it it’s seasoned vets, they challenge me, and sometimes I think: “How did I miss that?”

The post What it’s like to be President Trump’s White House photographer appeared first on PBS NewsHour.


          Operation Red October: malware che ha colpito l’intelligence internazionale        

Operation Red October: malware che ha colpito l'intelligence internazionale

[caption id="attachment_6858" align="alignleft" width="300"]Operation Red October: malware che ha colpito l'intelligence internazionale Operation Red October: malware che ha colpito l'intelligence internazionale[/caption]

È una scoperta destinata a suscitare l'attenzione dei sistemi di sicurezza internazionali. I ricercatori di Kaspersky Lab hanno scoperto un network di spionaggio su larga scala che ha colpito migliaia di organizzazioni diplomatiche, governative e scientifiche distribuite in 39 Paesi, tra cui la Russia, l'Iran e gli Stati Uniti. Sono i risultati della campagna di spionaggio “Operation Red October” (operazione ottobre rosso), attiva dal 2007, e che avrebbe già acquisito migliaia di terabyte di informazioni sensibili.

Sono stati utilizzati oltre mille distinti moduli mai visti prima per personalizzare l'attacco ai profili di ogni vittima. Colpiti computer individuali, componenti Cisco System e smartphone (dai prodotti Apple a Microsoft e Nokia). Lo scopo degli aggressori era mirato all'acquisizione di documenti sensibili detenuti, in larga parte, dall'intelligence geopolitica. Gli esperti di Kaspersky Lab nell'ottobre del 2012 hanno dato luogo all'inchiesta che ha scoperchiato la rete di spionaggio mondiale, probabilmente attiva fino ai primi giorni di gennaio 2013.

Al centro degli attacchi un malware denominato “Rocra”, che trova il suo punto di forza proprio nell'inedita struttura modulare. Una novità persino per gli esperti Kaspersky: “non abbiamo mai visto questi tipi di moduli così distribuiti, che hanno raggiunto un livello di personalizzazione tanto elevato nello sferrare un attacco informatico da rappresentare qualcosa di inedito”.

Tra i dati acquisiti figurano file ottenuti da sistemi crittografati come l'Acid Cryptofiler. Le credenziali trafugate erano usate per conoscere i dati di login in altre piattaforme. Al momento sappiamo molto poco riguardo alle persone e alle organizzazioni responsabili del progetto. La contraddittorietà dei dati disponibili rende difficile definire la nazionalità degli hacker. Sebbene una parte degli sviluppatori del malware è di origine russa, tanti exploit sfruttati erano stati elaborati, quanto meno in un primo momento, da hacker cinesi.

Il Paese più colpito è la Russia, seguita dal Kazakistan, Azerbaijan, Belgio, India, Afghanistan, Iran e Turkmenistan. In totale si tratta di 39 Paesi in diversi continenti. Sono stati usati oltre 60 nomi relativi al proxy servers, utili a oscurare la destinazione finale. Una infrastruttura pensata per proteggere l'identità degli hacker e per resistere a eventuali contrattacchi: “Si tratta di una infrastruttura ben articolata e gestita, che supporta multipli livelli di proxy con la finalità di proteggere la mothership (il livello più alto della struttura)”. A sorprendere in maniera particolare è l'affidabilità assicurata da un sistema tanto sofisticato in un periodo di cinque anni.

Una delle vie d'accesso del malware protagonista dell'Operation Red October è costituita dalla creazione di un'estensione Adobe Reader e Microsoft Word sulle macchine destinate ad essere compromesse. Ma se l'Operation Red October è stata portata avanti per cinque anni senza poter essere smantellata, viene spontaneo domandarsi se non vi siano altri progetti analoghi ancora in svolgimento e quali le conseguenze in termini di sicurezza internazionale.


          World Heritage Committee Inscribes 61 New Sites on World Heritage List        
Cairns - UNESCO's World Heritage Committee, meeting since November 27 in Cairns, Australia, has inscribed 61 new cultural and natural sites on the World Heritage. The List now has 690 sites of &quot;exceptional universal value&quot; in 122 countries. Sites in Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Nicaragua and Suriname are on the List for the first time. Ten of the new sites are properties inscribed for natural values, 50 are inscribed for cultural values, and one site exhibits mixed cultural and natural ...
          Cantiknya Anggrek bulan Indonesia pada Japan Grand Prix International Orchid Festival 2016         


 Anggrek bulan Indonesia tampil cantik di ajang Japan Grand Prix International Orchid Festival 2016 yang digelar di Tokyo Dome, Tokyo (12/02/2016). Bersama dengan Indonesia, negara lain seperti Angola, Jerman, Nikaragua, Yordania dan Azerbaijan juga menampilkan indahnya kreasi penataan bunga anggrek. Pada table display kali ini, isteri Duta Besar RI untuk Jepang, Dr. Dewi L. Ihza Mahendra memberikan dekorasi aksen Batik dan ornamen khas Indonesia guna menampilkan suasana tradisional Indonesia. Keindahan anggrek bulan berwarna putih yang dipadu dengan nuansa batik tradisional terlihat elegan dan menawan. Pemilihan dekorasi Batik juga sekaligus memperkenalkan budaya Indonesia di ajang festival anggrek internasional ini.

Princess Takamado dalam sambutan pembukaan festival anggrek ini menyampaikan bahwa anggrek adalah salah satu jalan menyatukan dunia serta pertukaran budaya. Pertukaran budaya dapat dilihat dari penampilan table display persembahan isteri dari para Duta Besar yang bertempat di Tokyo, Jepang. Secara khusus, Princess Takamado menyampaikan apresiasi yang tinggi kepada isteri para Duta Besar yang menyajikan penataan bunga anggrek yang apik sekaligus memperkenalkan sisi budaya dari setiap negara.

Japan Grand Prix International Orchid Festival 2016 merupakan salah satu festival anggrek berskala internasional terbesar di dunia yang pada tahun ini memasuki penyelenggaraan tahun ke-26, sejak pertama kali diadakan pada tahun 1990. Festival anggrek tahunan ini diselenggarakan atas kerja sama antara Yomiuri Shimbun dan NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) dari tanggal 12 – 19 Februari 2016 dengan menyertakan eksibitor dari 19 negara dan wilayah, lebih dari 3.000 jenis anggrek, dengan sebanyak lebih dari 100.000 tanaman.

Sumber : KBRI Tokyo

          Punct si de la capat        
Anul acesta nu am avut timp de ESC. N-am vazut finalele nationale, n-am urmarit turneele de promovare ale participantilor. Am reusit sa vad doar semifinalele si finala si ceva de la repetitiile pentru ele.

Una peste alta nu mi-a placut Eurovision Song Contest 2009. Cu exceptia spectacolului si a organizarii exceptionale a rusilor, concursul propriu zis mi s-a parut nu doar fad dar si putin fortat. Poate si pentru ca anul acesta s-a introdus in finala un nou sistem de vot, 50%-50% juriu-public. Piesele au fost mai cuminti, prezenta scenica la fel iar primele trei locuri dovedesc pe deplin ca s-a mers exact pe cele 4 criterii ale juriului.

1. Cantec
2. Text
3. Voce
4. Show

Poate o sa mi se spuna ca a fost un an mult mai bun din punct de vedere al calitatii cantecelor. Nu contest asta dar aici si acum voi fi subiectiva si tot subiectiv imi voi spune parerea.
Eu una m-am plictisit in semifinala, m-am plictisit in finala. E drept ca am asteptat cu nerabdare evolutia Elenei dar si a altor cativa care ravneau cu disperare la primele locuri, restul insa au fost foarte buni dar si foarte plictisitori.

Juriul a votat dupa criteriile de mai sus dar si dupa altele, binecunoscute de romani, care n-au dat nicio sansa Romaniei din start. Poate ca merita una mica.
Publicul, ca de obicei, a votat dupa criteriul bunei vecinatati si prietenii.

Cel mai bun exemplu este Hadise - Turcia, care a preferat sa dea din buric si sa cante, o data ea, de doua ori backing vocal-ul, decat sa vada si sa auda toata lumea ca nu le poate face pe amandoua in acelasi timp.
Ca sa ajunga pe locul patru, inaintea Patriciei Kaas, Jade si de ce nu Nelly Ciobanu si Elena Gheorghe, trebuie sa fi avut mult sprijin din dispaora atat din partea juriului cat si al publicului.






Sakis Rouvas s-a vrut atat de mult pe locul intai ca a iesit pe sapte. De fapt nu s-a vrut el cat orgoliosii sai compatrioti dar asta e alta poveste. Un esec pentru Grecia si pentru echipa ei, inca o experienta pentru Rouvas. Fanii (mai ales femeile) il iubesc in continuare :).





Nelly Ciobanu a fost cea mai placuta surpriza de la Eurovision Song Contest 2009.
Merita cu prisosinta un loc in primii 5.





Subiectiv si obiectiv despre Elena

A cantat foarte bine, a aratat foarte bine a avut un show slab.

Cantecul a fost dragut, versurile oribile. Ea a cantat superb, coregrafia a fost de toata jena.

Elena a uitat, se pare, ca va canta pentru 42 de tari si nu doar pentru cei din sala. Altfel nu inteleg incapatanarea cu care a evitat sa priveasca in camera pe timpul concursului.

Totusi, daca reprezenta alta tara eram in primii 10.

Concluzie: ori venim cu ceva inedit ori riscam sa nu mai trecem nici macar de semifinala.

Sincer?. Mi-e ciuda ca a iesit pe locul 19.




Sa revenim la primele 3 locuri.
AySel & Arash - Azerbaijan a fost ok, draguti, cantecel bun dar nu prea de locul 3.




Yohanna din Islanda cu o voce angelica, un chip asemenea, un cantec doar dragut si un show inexistent. Locul 2 pentru interpretare, frunuseste si privire candida direct in camera.




Alexander Rybak

Mi-a placut. Si piesa si mai ales interpretarea. Are talent cu carul, are farmec, stie sa cucereasca pubilcul cu un zambet. A meritat sa ia locul intai si a dovedit si pe parcurs ca a meritat. Este un artist complex, compune, canta la unul, doua instumente, are farmec.




Pentru Eurovision Song Contest 2010 unele tari au inceput deja sa se pregateasca, sa caute artisti, sa faca preselectii.

Noi insa ce vom face? Pe cine vom alege, pe cine vom trimite? Un interpret tanar cu voce buna dar cu mai putina experienta de scena sau un interpret consacrat, cu experienta din belsug?

Si cu ce fel de cantec?


Vom vedea ;)
          Vintage Film Clips of Azerbaijan Novruz Bayrami        

Click here to view the embedded video.

Novruz Bayrami Azerbaycan

Click here to view the embedded video.

NOVRUZ 1967

Novruz was unofficially celebrated in the Soviet period, for the reason that the government prohibited the celebrations. Despite all that each Azerbaijan family followed the hundred years old traditions and [...] Related posts:

  1. Azerbaijan’s Ayan Babakishiyeva, Novruz bayrami
  2. Azerbaijan – Nowruz Concerts
  3. United Nations General Assembly Recognizes 21 March as International Day of Nowruz

          Azerbaijan’s Ayan Babakishiyeva, Novruz bayrami        

Click here to view the embedded video.

Neynirem Sensiz

Click here to view the embedded video.

Ayan – Yagish

Genre:     Pop. Azeri & Mountain Jewish Folk Music Hometown:     Ganja Azerbaijan

http://www.facebook.com/pages/Ayan-Babakishiyeva/

Related posts:Vintage Film Clips of Azerbaijan Novruz Bayrami Houston – Novruz Bayram Celebration Azerbaijan – Nowruz Concerts

Related posts:
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  2. Houston – Novruz Bayram Celebration
  3. Azerbaijan – Nowruz Concerts

           - IRFS condemns "politically-motivated" verdict against "Azadliq" executive director Faig Amirli        
IRFS calls on Azerbaijan to immediately release Azadliq executive director Faig Amirli and to stop the harassment of the newspaper and its staff.
          Esteri di gio 04/05        
..1- Francia. Marine le Pen bocciata nel test repubblicano...al dibattito di ieri ha mostrato la faccia peggiore dell'estremismo di destra. ( Francesco Giorgini )..2-Gran Bretagna, prove generali per le politiche di giugno...Molte città oggi al voto per rinnovare i consigli comunali...3-Brasile: tornano gli squadroni della morte ? ..Nei primi due mesi del 2017 solo a Rio almeno 182 persone sono ..state uccise dalla polizia. Il caso davanti all'Onu. ..( Riccardo Noury Amnesty – Italia) ..4-Il petrolio ha inghiottito la libertà di stampa in Azerbaijan. Al Festival dei Diritti Umani La testimonianza della giornalista Azru Geibulla...5-Mediterraneo Downtown: a Prato tre giorni di dialoghi e cultura ( Fabio laurenzi Cospe) ..6-Edith Piaf, Yves Montand e gli altri: quei migranti che hanno fatto diventare grande la Francia. ( Marcello Lorrai)
          Esteri di lun 23/05        
1-Pericolo scampato. In Austria, per una manciata di voti, sconfitto il candidato dell'estrema destra Norbert Hofer. I suoi elettori vanno però ascoltati, anche nel resto d'Europa (Flavia Mosca Goretta).2-Albania. Terreni in svendita per la TAP. Agli albanesi il mega gasdotto dall'Azerbaijan al Salento non lascerà nulla, nemmeno una goccia di gas (Lorenzo Bagnoli).3-Il governo iracheno lancia la campagna per strappare Falluja allo Stato Islamico. Il premier al-Abadi spera di riconquistare popolarità, ma è sempre più in crisi (Stefano Nanni, Osservatorio Iraq e Un Ponte Per).4-Il settore agroalimentare a rischio monopolio. Bayer ha offerto 62 miliardi di dollari per comprare Monsanto (Simona Saccaro, Alfredo Somoza).5-Serie TV. Flesh and bones. Un disturbante dietro le quinte del mondo del balletto (Massimo Alberti)...6-NBA. Smentiti i pronostici, in difficoltà i super-favoriti di Golden State Warriors (Dario Falcini)
          Esteri di ven 01/04        
1- Riunire le milizie libiche in un unico esercito. Il sogno impossibile del premier designato Sarraj (Claudio Bertolotti, analista strategico-militare ITSTIME e ISPI).2-Erdogan. È guerra anche con gli ambientalisti. Viaggio ad Aliaga, dove il presidente turco fa affari con il suo nuovo alleato, l'Azerbaijan (Lorenzo Bagnoli).3- Cina: dipendenza dal carbone e crisi idrica. Il legame è sempre più forte. Il rapporto di Greenpeace (Gabriele Battaglia).4- Diario cubano: immaginare il futuro senza Fidel e Raul. Tra due anni scadrà il mandato dell'attuale presidente. La famiglia Castro non sarà più ai vertici dello stato (Marcello Lorrai).5- Enciclopedia della mondialità: McDonald's, franchising e affitti gonfiati. Il grande trucco della globalizzazione (Alfredo Somoza)
          Esteri di ven 22/01        
1-Quando il calo del prezzo del petrolio rischia di far saltare un paese...Il caso dell'Azerbaijan, dove la piazza prova a sfidare il padre padrone Aliyev (Simone Zoppellaro, Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso).2-In Brasile in aumento i bambini nati con microcefalia. La malformazione, molto probabilmente, legata allo Zika Virus. Emergenza anche nel resto dell'America Latina (Sara Milanese).3-“Solo la ricchezza può portare la pace”. La ricetta cinese per risolvere i conflitti in Medio Oriente. Il viaggio del presidente Xi Jinping in Arabia Saudita e Iran (Gabriele Battaglia, Pechino).4-Le autorità tunisine temono le proteste per la disoccupazione...Il coprifuoco notturno esteso a tutto il paese (Mohammed Challouf, Tunisi).5-Dal caos politico spagnolo potrebbe uscire un governo di sinistra. Possibile intesa tra socialisti e Podemos (Giulio Maria Piantadosi, Madrid).6-Cina. Oltre la crisi dei mercati e il rallentamento del pil. Lo Yuan promosso dal Fondo Monetario a valuta di riferimento mondiale (Alfredo Somoza)
          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
Tokelau Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent in the world with 50 Countries.Here is the list of 50 countries in  Asia and their capitals. 
Asia





S.no
Countries
Capitals
1.
Afghanistan
Kabul
2.
Armenia
Yerevan
3.
Azerbaijan
Baku
4.
Bahrain
Manama
5.
Bangladesh
Dhaka
6.
Bhutan
Thimphu
7.
Brunei
Bandar Seri Begawan
8.
Cambodia
Phnom Penh
9.
Cyprus
Nicosia
10.
East Timor
Dili
11.
Egypt
Cairo
12.
Georgia
Tbilisi
13.
India
New Delhi
14.
Indonesia
Jakarta
16.
Iran
Tehran
17.
Iraq
Baghdad
18.
Israel
Jerusalem
19.
Japan
Tokyo
20.
Jordan
Amman
21.

Kazakhstan
Astana
22.
Kuwait
Kuwait City
23.
Kyrgyzstan
Bishkek
24.
Laos
Vientiane
25.
Lebanon
Beirut
26.
Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur
27.
Maldives
Malé
28.
Mongolia
Ulaanbaatar
29.
Myanmar
Naypyidaw
30.
Nepal
Kathmandu
31.
North Korea
Pyongyang (P'yŏngyang)
32.
Oman
Muscat
33.
Pakistan
Islamabad
34.
The People's Republic of China
Beijing
35.
The Philippines
Manila
36.
Qatar
Doha
37.
The Republic of China
Taipei
38.
Russia
Moscow
39.
Saudi Arabia
Riyadh
40.
Singapore
Singapore
41.
South Korea
Seoul
42.
Syria
Damascus
43.
Tajikistan
Dushanbe
44.
Thailand
Bangkok
45.
Turkey
Ankara
46.
Turkmenistan
Ashgabat
47.
The United Arab Emirates
Abu Dhabi
48.
Uzbekistan
Tashkent
49.
Vietnam
Hanoi
50.
Yemen
Sanaá

          Esteri di mar 09/06        
1-Quando lo sport diventa politica. La dura scelta degli atleti armeni per i giochi europei di Baku. Armenia e Azerbaijan sono in guerra da oltre 20 anni per il Nagorno Karabakh (Jacob Balzani Loov).2-A Pechino torna di moda il marxismo...Si moltiplicano i corsi universitari. Ma ha ancora senso nella moderna società cinese?..(Gabriele Battaglia)3-In Francia il governo mette un tetto alle indennità in caso di licenziamento. Anche i socialisti si allineano con gli imprenditori (Francesco Giorgini).4-Il Trattato di Libero Scambio Europa-Stati Uniti al vaglio dei deputati europei (Alessandro Principe).5-“L'esperienza di Podemos si può realizzare anche a Dublino”. Intervista a Paul Murphy, il leader del movimento irlandese anti-austerità (Flavia Mosca Goretta).6-Land Grabbing. Le mire delle imprese straniere sul grano canadese. In prima fila l'Arabia Saudita (Marta Gatti).
          UEFA Country Coefficients of Caucasus countries (2008-2017)        

The post UEFA Country Coefficients of Caucasus countries (2008-2017) appeared first on Orkhan Rza's blog.


          Azerbaijan National Football Team makes history after 1-0 Norway win        

  Unbelievable, but Azerbaijan won it’s second 2018 World Cup Qualifying round match and got another 3 points. And it’s record!   Today (October 8) Azerbaijan faced Norway at Baku Olympic Stadium and won the match 1-0, with Maksim Medvedyev’s 11th minute goal. A month ago, during the opening group match, Azerbaijan won San Marino with only […]

The post Azerbaijan National Football Team makes history after 1-0 Norway win appeared first on Orkhan Rza's blog.


          Gabala FC scored 19, conceded 0 in 7 opening league games        

  Gabala FC Azerbaijan Premier League Record! Gabala FC, one of the two European League participants of Azerbaijan, played 7th league game today against Garabag FC, another European League participant, last 3 Azerbaijan Premier League winner. Gabala FC won the game 2-0. And now, Gabala FC already scored 19, conceded no goal in these 7 League […]

The post Gabala FC scored 19, conceded 0 in 7 opening league games appeared first on Orkhan Rza's blog.


          Dynaflex appointed authorized representative for TGI ILMADUR gauge & sight glasses in Middle East & Africa        
TGI's factory in Ilmenau

Ilmenau — 22 June 2012 — Dynaflex Corporation, the authorized importer, stockist & representative in India for ILMADUR gauge & sight glasses manufactured by Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH, has been allotted by TGI the additional territories of the Middle East & Africa to cater to requirements of their ILMADUR branded gauge & sight glasses in the region. With this appointment, Dynaflex Corporation will now export Ilmadur Gauge & Sight Glasses to Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kurdistan, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Northern Cyprus, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Comoros, Djibouti, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan & Sahrawi.

ILMADUR branded gauge & sight glasses are manufactured by Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH at it's Ilmenau plant. ILMADUR gauge and sight glasses are manufactured from borosilicate “I-420” material developed and patented by TGI particularly to produce high-quality sight glasses.

About TGI
Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH is a leading manufacturer of laboratory and household glassware, sight and gauge glasses, pressed technical glasses, glass tubes, capillaries & rods in Ilmenau, a town located in the district of Ilm-Kreis, Thuringia, Germany.

About Dynaflex Corporation
Dynaflex Corporation is a leading importer and one of the largest stockists in the world of technical & safety glasses from the leading manufacturers in Europe & the USA. Most of the products are again re-exported to South East Asia, Middle East, Africa, North & South Americas & Europe.

Contact
To learn more about this topic, please contact
Dynaflex Corporation, Media Relations
Tek Towers (DOXA)
No.11, Rajiv Gandhi Salai (OMR)
Thoraipakkam
Chennai 600097, INDIA
pr@dynaflex.asia


          Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan – the fastest growing tourism markets in the CIS        

International tourism have been booming in Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan that have enjoyed remarkable economic growth over the past 5 years. Benefiting from the oil developments, in 2009-2013 the economies of Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan grew by…

The post Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan – the fastest growing tourism markets in the CIS appeared first on Russia.hr.


          Azerbaijan U-18 – Albania U-18 maçını canlı izle        

Bu maç bitmiş ve yayından kaldırılmıştır. Güncel futbol yayınları için Futbol kategorimizi, güncel basketbol yayınları için Basketbol kategorimizi ziyaret edebilirsiniz.

Azerbaijan U-18 – Albania U-18 maçını canlı izle yazısı ilk önce Canlı Maç Ä°zle, Online Maç Ä°zle, Maç Yayınları üzerinde ortaya çıktı.


          Renewable energy news on 08 July 2013        

Renewable energy investors offered returns in Abundance
The Guardian
This latest project is run by Oakapple Renewable Energy, based in Leeds. The money will fund a portfolio of rooftop solar panel systems on new-build homes across the UK that are eligible for the government's feed-in tariff. Homeowners can use as much ...
See all stories on this topic »

Renewable Energy: Let's All Fail Like This
TheStreet.com
The International Energy Agency reported last week that renewable energy is on track to pass natural gas as an energy source by 2016. It's something I sometimes forget, living in the U.S. We're not the whole world. When I see estimates for "grid parity ...
See all stories on this topic »

Capstone to Buy Renewable Energy Developers to Boost Wind
Bloomberg
Renewable Energy shareholders will receive 0.26 Capstone common shares and 0.1 Canadian cent for each share owned, worth C$1.01 a share, Capstone said today in a statement. That's a 10.8 percent premium over the 20-day weighted average of ...
See all stories on this topic »

Renewable Energy Developers Inc. Announces Arrangement Agreement with ...
Wall Street Journal
TORONTO, July 4, 2013 /CNW/ - Capstone Infrastructure Corporation (TSX: CSE; CSE.PR.A; CSE.DB.A - "Capstone") and Renewable Energy Developers Inc. (formerly Sprott Power Corp.) (TSX: RDZ; RDZ.DB - "ReD") have entered into a definitive agreement ...
See all stories on this topic »

Agriculture, forestry, renewable energy interests urge John Boehner to keep ...
Politico
A broad coalition of commodity, wildlife, forest and renewable energy groups is asking Speaker John Boehner to keep the farm bill intact and not split off the nutrition title as now being considered by the Republican leadership. A letter to Boehner ...
See all stories on this topic »

AlsoEnergy Launching New Renewable Energy Solutions at Intersolar North ...
Wall Street Journal
BOULDER, Colo., July 8, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- AlsoEnergy (www.alsoenergy.com), a leader in renewable energy monitoring and portfolio management software, has added two new offerings: PowerOperations, an operations management workflow module, ...
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TransCanada Expands Renewable Energy Portfolio , Acquires Brockville 1 Solar ...
MarketWatch
The renewable energy produced from these projects will be sold to the Ontario Power Authority under a series of 20-year power purchase agreements. "We are pleased that we have now acquired the first of nine solar power facilities as we continue to ...
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Japan's growth in renewable energy dims as nuclear strives for comeback
Asahi Shimbun
The shining light that was once Japan's renewable energy industry is beginning to dim as reality sets in and it faces competition from a rejuvenated nuclear power industry. The green energy industry was buoyed by the nation's distrust and fear of ...
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Analyzing Renewable Energy in the United States
Wall Street Journal
There is no doubt that the United States is a torch bearer in the renewable energy industry. In fact, 11.14 percent of the electricity produced in the US in the first six months of 2010, came from renewable energy resources itself. The US was the ...
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Brookfield Renewable Energy Partners 2013 Second Quarter Conference Call ...
Wall Street Journal
HAMILTON, BERMUDA--(Marketwired - July 5, 2013) - You are invited to participate in Brookfield Renewable Energy Partners' (TSX:BEP.UN)(NYSE:BEP) Second Quarter Conference Call and Webcast on Thursday, August 8, 2013 at 9:00 a.m. (Eastern ...
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Renewable energy to be competitive with fossil fuels by 2020: report
Xinhua
GENEVA, July 3 (Xinhua) -- Advanced biofuels, biomethane and electric vehicles could out-compete conventional transport options like gasoline by 2020 if support policies are enhanced and expanded, said a report released by the International Renewable ...
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Renewable energy: KESC, Aman Foundation to set up bio-gas plant
The Express Tribune
The International Finance Corporation (IFC) has signed a joint development agreement with the Karachi Electric Supply Company (KESC), the Aman Foundation and their collaborative initiative, Karachi Organic Energy Limited (KOEL). The three will ...
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Renewable energy offers opportunities
Journal-Advocate
Leslie Martel Baer, board member for the Colorado Renewable Energy Society, talked about the potential for renewable energy in Colorado during the Energy and the Economy Summit hosted by Progressive 15 at the Country Steak Out in Fort Morgan last ...
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Greens want a fast track to clean energy
The Guardian
The Greens have called for Australia's renewable energy target to be increased to 90% by 2030 and for an extra $20 billion to be spent through the Clean Energy Finance Corporation, in a bid to ultimately run the country entirely on clean energy ...
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Renewable Energy Group Receives Overweight Rating from Piper Jaffray (REGI)
The Utah People's Post
Renewable Energy Group Inc. logo Piper Jaffray reiterated their overweight rating on shares of Renewable Energy Group (NASDAQ: REGI) in a research report sent to investors on Wednesday morning, Stock Ratings Network reports. The firm currently has a ...
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Frost & Sullivan: Renewable Energy Targets Help Sustain European Biopower ...
Wall Street Journal
LONDON, July 4, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Europe's aim to produce 20 percent of its total power from renewable sources by 2020 will sustain the region's biomass and biogas power market. Although biomass and biogas installed capacity will widen as a new ...
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Renewable energy hits landmark 1GW target
This is Cornwall
A surge in renewable energy solar parks in Cornwall has helped push the total electricity generating capacity in the South West past a landmark 1GW target. Green power production in the region grew by more than 50% over the past year, a new annual ...
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Titanium dioxide, a boon for renewable energy: Researchers
Zee News
Titanium dioxide, a boon for renewable energy: Researchers Melbourne: Australian scientists are currently studying the use of titanium dioxide, a chemical widely used as a whitening pigment, which could help store energy produced by renewable sources.
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'Renewable energy' to gain district plan stamp
Otago Daily Times
The new plan will be adopted after the local authority elections in October, but work already under way on the renewable energy section suggests an easier ride for those wanting to install photovoltaic panels or solar hot-water heating. According to an ...
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Renewable Energy Planning Decisions Increase 90%
4ni.co.uk
Minister Attwood said: "It is encouraging to note that there has been an increase of 90% in renewable energy application decisions. This is good news for developing our green economy, which is one of my key objectives. Renewable electricity and ...
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Saudi Arabia Starts Survey Assessing Renewable Energy Potential
Businessweek
Saudi Arabia started a program to assess its potential for generating renewable energy, part of an effort to lure $109 billion for building a solar industry that will free up more of its crude oil for export. King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable ...
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South West renewable energy output 'grows 50%'
BBC News
Renewable energy production in the South West has grown by 50% in the last year, a report has said. The region is generating more than one gigawatt (GW) a year, about 7% of the region's needs, according to energy experts Regen South West (RSW).
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Renewable Energy Group Lowered to Neutral at Zacks (REGI)
The Utah People's Post
Renewable Energy Group Inc. logo Zacks cut shares of Renewable Energy Group (NASDAQ: REGI) from an outperform rating to a neutral rating in a research note issued to investors on Tuesday, Analyst Ratings Network reports. The firm currently has $15.90 ...
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Fitch: Renewable energy projects carry the highest downgrade risk
Balkans.com Business News
Fitch Ratings says in a new report that renewable energy projects, particularly those located in Southern and Eastern Europe, carry the highest downgrade risk within Fitch's portfolio of EMEA energy project finance ratings due to the possibility of ...
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American renewable energy Is powering the American energy transformation
The Hill (blog)
But for some policymakers on Capitol Hill, there is a need for a much better understanding that renewable energy is a significant and rapidly growing catalyst driving the American energy transformation. Across the country, the renewable energy industry ...
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Greens' renewable energy plan outlined
Ballarat Courier
Stephanie Hodgins-May yesterday announced a long-term plan to have Ballarat and the surrounding region invest more heavily in renewable energy. She also slammed the federal opposition leader and Liberal members of parliament for denying the ...
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Saudi Arabia pushes forward in renewable energy
Al-Bawaba
The centers will assess all renewable sources, including solar, wind, waste-conversion, and geothermal energies and collect ground readings from different parts in a step to build a database that will help implementation of renewable energy projects ...
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3 Buys in This Year's Renewable Energy Rally
TheStreet.com
NEW YORK (TheStreet) -- Over the last two decades, the U.S. has seen major moves forward in the renewable energy space. Subsidies and government mandates have created a supportive environment for everything from biofuels to wind and solar energy ...
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Renewable Energy Group Downgraded by Zacks to "Neutral" (REGI)
Daily Political
Renewable Energy Group Inc. logo Renewable Energy Group (NASDAQ: REGI) was downgraded by Zacks from an “outperform” rating to a “neutral” rating in a report issued on Tuesday, AnalystRatings.Net reports. They currently have a $15.90 price objective ...
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Bringing Renewable Energy to Alaskan Villages
Mother Earth News
The Department of the Interior is proud of the work that has been done to exceed President Obama's goal of approving more than 10,000 megawatts of utility-scale renewable energy projects on our public lands over the past four years. The President has ...
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Marine renewable energy debated
This is Cornwall
THE ECONOMIC potential of the emerging marine renewable energy sector in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly and neighbouring Brittany was debated at an industry workshop at the Green Cornwall Show recently. Guest speakers painted an optimistic picture ...
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Gulf Cooperation Council's Renewable Energy Targets — Considerable Or Weak?
CleanTechnica
Much has been made of renewable energy growth targets recently made by key Middle Eastern countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Clearly, when oil-rich nations start pouring money into renewable energy, a global ...
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Azerbaijan determines investors for alternative energy projects
MENAFN.COM
Jul 05, 2013 (Menafn - Trend News Agency - McClatchy-Tribune Information Services via COMTEX) --The State Agency on Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources of Azerbaijan has made a decision on the sources of funding of projects through external ...
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Output of Renewable Energy in the South West Increases Nearly 50 Percent
Electric.co.uk
The UK has been slammed recently for its failure to stay on track with its renewable energy goals. That being said, not all areas of the UK are having a hard time producing renewable energy. Take the South West for example. This region just announced ...
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South West renewable energy capacity hits 1 Gigawatt
Click Green
Renewable energy capacity in South West England has grown by almost 50% in the last year. The region now generates 7.3% of its electricity from renewable sources - more than 1 GW annually - but this growth is not enough to meet the Government's target ...
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Kuwait: New renewable energy project in the works
Oxford Business Group
Despite holding substantial oil reserves, Kuwait is stepping up its efforts to develop alternative sources of energy. In mid-June the government announced it was inviting bids for the construction of Shagaya, a renewable energy park, as part of its ...
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Scale-up renewable energy worldwide, report says
eco-business.com
Challenges to upscale the implementation of renewable energy (RE) projects must be immediately addressed if the global goal of 100% renewable power by 2050 is to be achieved. Power harnessed from the sun, water, wind, thermal vents and biomass ...
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RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPERS, INC. Price Target Lowered to C$1.20 at ...
The Utah People's Post
RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPERS, INC. logo Equities research analysts at National Bank AG lowered their target price on shares of RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPERS, INC. (OTCMKTS: STWPF) from C$1.40 to C$1.20 in a research note issued to ...
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Concerns that gas could undermine renewable-energy development
Creamer Media's Engineering News
Increasing the role of gas may be one answer to a low-carbon economy, but it could also undermine support for renewable energy, Mac Consulting principal consultant Dave Collins has argued. He explains that, for the last decade, the gradual rise of ...
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Renewable energy store launches franchise opportunity
H&V News
Renewable energy store Green Square has announced the launch of a franchise operation, encouraging entrepreneurs to facilitate the UK-wide expansion of the brand, Startups.co.uk reported. Green Square supplies and installs renewable energy products ...
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Capstone Infrastructure acquires Renewable Energy Developers, power facilities
GlobalPost
TORONTO - Capstone Infrastructure Corp. (TSX:CSE) has signed a deal valued at $68.9 million, plus debt, to acquire Renewable Energy Developers Inc. The agreement, which has been approved by the board of directors at both companies, expands ...
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Alternative energy agency faces executive staff shortage
Azerbaijan Business Center
Baku, Fineko/abc.az. The State Agency for Alternative and Renewable Energy (ABEMDA) of Azerbaijan has not achieved success in the competitive collection of managerial personnel. ABEMDA deputy chairman Jamil Melikov says that only three applications ...
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UK falls badly behind on renewable energy targets
Click Green
“By 2020, 2.7 million people in the EU could be employed by the renewables sector. In 2012, there were 5.7 million jobs worldwide in renewable energy industries, and the potential for job creation continues to be a main driver for renewable energy ...
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Recurrent Energy Begins Construction on Ontario's Renewable Energy Projects ...
MarketWatch
SUGAR LAND, TX, Jul 02, 2013 (Marketwired via COMTEX) -- Researched by Industrial Info Resources (Sugar Land, Texas) -- Recurrent Energy (San Francisco, California), a subsidiary of Sharp Corporation (Osaka, Japan), is on target to construct nearly 53 ...
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Farmers embrace renewable energy, survey shows
H&V News
Yet, while the survey shows a shift towards farmers becoming energy producers as well as food producers, 76 per cent still don't believe the potential for renewable energy is being met. The survey participants identified a number of hurdles towards ...
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Amended Renewable Energy Plan Yields Rate Reductions
The National Law Review
DTE Energy has filed an amended renewal energy plan with the Michigan Public Service Commission that proposes $90 Million in rate reductions. These are reductions to the renewable energy surcharge imposed under state law requiring a 10 percent ...
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Philippines gets aggressive on renewable energy
Hydrogen Fuel News
As nations become more environmentally and economically conscious, renewable energy has begun to attract a great deal of interest. For some, renewable energy represents liberation from fossil-fuels, effectively mitigating the costs associated with ...
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New EU support for renewable energy policy in Nigeria
Newstime Africa
EU BRUSSELS, Kingdom of Belgium, July 4, 2013/African Press Organization (APO)/ – Today, the European Commission announced €27 million of financial support to help improve the renewable energy policy in Nigeria. Currently, a large part of the ...
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Azerbaijan defines lenders for alternative energy projects
AzerNews
Azerbaijan's State Agency for Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources has determined the sources of funding for projects through external borrowing. According to the Agency's Deputy Director Jamil Melikov, at present it is working jointly with the ...
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          Germany line up Spain, Brazil friendlies        

Berlin (AFP) – World champions Germany will host both Spain and Brazil in international friendlies next year ahead of the 2018 World Cup in Russia, the German FA (DFB) announced on Friday. Joachim Loew’s side will play 2010 world champions Spain in Dusseldorf on March 23, 2018 before facing record five-time World Cup winners Brazil four days later in Berlin. Germany have yet to qualify for next year’s tournament but are well positioned at the top of their group with four wins from four matches, leading Northern Ireland and Azerbaijan by five points. “These matches against Spain and Brazil will

The post Germany line up Spain, Brazil friendlies appeared first on World Soccer Talk.


          Ð¡Ð°Ð»Ñ„етки одноразовые Tento 15 шт.        
Салфетки одноразовые Tento 15 шт. Мягкие и плотные салфетки (носовички) без запаха. Страна производитель Словакия. G M T Detect languageAfrikaansAlbanianArabicArmenianAzerbaijaniBasqueBelarusianBengaliBosnianBulgarianCatalanCebuanoChichewaChinese (Simplified)Chinese (Traditional)CroatianCzechDanishDutchEnglishEsperantoEstonianFilipinoFinnishFrenchGalicianGeorgianGermanGreekGujaratiHaitian CreoleHausaHebrewHindiHmongHungarianIcelandicIgboIndonesianIrishItalianJapaneseJavaneseKannadaKazakhKhmerKoreanLaoLatinLatvianLithuanianMacedonianMalagasyMalayMalayalamMalteseMaoriMarathiMongolianMyanmar (Burmese)NepaliNorwegianPersianPolishPortuguesePunjabiRomanianRussianSerbianSesothoSinhalaSlovakSlovenianSomaliSpanishSundaneseSwahiliSwedishTajikTamilTeluguThaiTurkishUkrainianUrduUzbekVietnameseWelshYiddishYorubaZulu AfrikaansAlbanianArabicArmenianAzerbaijaniBasqueBelarusianBengaliBosnianBulgarianCatalanCebuanoChichewaChinese (Simplified)Chinese (Traditional)CroatianCzechDanishDutchEnglishEsperantoEstonianFilipinoFinnishFrenchGalicianGeorgianGermanGreekGujaratiHaitian CreoleHausaHebrewHindiHmongHungarianIcelandicIgboIndonesianIrishItalianJapaneseJavaneseKannadaKazakhKhmerKoreanLaoLatinLatvianLithuanianMacedonianMalagasyMalayMalayalamMalteseMaoriMarathiMongolianMyanmar (Burmese)NepaliNorwegianPersianPolishPortuguesePunjabiRomanianRussianSerbianSesothoSinhalaSlovakSlovenianSomaliSpanishSundaneseSwahiliSwedishTajikTamilTeluguThaiTurkishUkrainianUrduUzbekVietnameseWelshYiddishYorubaZulu Text-to-speech function is limited to 100 characters Options : History : Help : FeedbackClose
          Milan Emerges as Italy's Commercial Property Investment Hotspot        

Milan's commercial real estate sector attracted significant interest from foreign wealth funds throughout 2015, with investor interest in Italy's business capital expected to continue into 2016 and beyond.

A number of historic buildings have attracted foreign investments in Milan on the strength of low rates, international liquidity and structural reforms on the way in Italy .

In January, the State Oil Fund of the Republic of Azerbaijan (Sofaz) reached a deal to buy a historic property in the city centre which was the home of the Milan chamber of commerce until 2011, according to the local press.

The Palazzo Turati, recently used as a conference centre, is reported as being sold to Sofaz for €97m in the fund's first real-estate purchase in Italy.

Meanwhile Abu Dhabi Investment Authority reportedly agreed to buy a 1960s building in the northern Italian city, which Milan-based Corriere della Sera newspaper said will be demolished and replaced by a new tower.

At the end of December, Qatar Investment Authority completed a deal to acquire another historic building that housed a subsidiary of BNP Paribas, also in the Milan city centre.

Paolo Bellacosa, Managing Director at CBRE Capital Markets - a worldwide real estate services firm - in Italy, noted that since the end of 2012 the Qatar, Abu Dhabi and lastly the Azerbaijan sovereign funds have been the most active international investors in Milan, showing a long-term approach.

The Unites States and China have also played a key role; he pointed out, with last summer's purchase of the former Milan headquarters of Italian bank UniCredit, Palazzo Broggi in the heart of Milan, by Fosun, one of China's leading privately-owned groups.

" Actually this case will be about urban regeneration of a historic square of Milan which will also involve the national postal service former palace bought by the U.S. fund Blackstone as well as other properties, " he added highlighting the role of these renewal operations as a driver of economic growth in Italy.

Bellacosa estimated that the volume of commercial real estate investments increased to around €8bn at the end of 2015, more than 45% up on 2014, of which over €4bn was invested in the Milan metropolitan area.

Mr Bellacosa is of the opinion that there is much more space in Milan for urban development operations, from requalification of former railway yards to the post world exposition project.

Several important deals with strong interest not only in core investments but also in development projects are a sign of confidence in the Italian market in the middle and long term, noted Andrea Faini, Managing Director at World Capital Real Estate , a Milan-based group specialised in real estate consultancy and investment.

" Countries such as the United States, the United Arab Emirates and China after careful market research have invested their capitals in environments which can offer interesting prospects of future appreciation, " Faini said.

He added that Italy is seen as a " safe country " which in the past did not suffer collapses or bubbles as most of other European countries and with a solid real estate sector, where the ownership rate exceeds 70%.

Antonio Zagaroli, managing director at Knight Frank Commercial in Italy, explained that last year - transactions for commercial real estate in the country likely amounted to an estimated €7bn - foreign investors were involved in as much as over 70% of the deals.

The latest investments in Milan, he underlined, were only the tip of the iceberg of a market where all type of investors, from core to speculative, are present.

" The increasing stability of Italy makes investing here more and more attractive, especially since it is still possible to find opportunities not present in markets that have been more stable during the crisis, " Zagaroli said. " Yields are still interesting, even if we are seeing a great compression, another sign of interest from buyers, and prices still competitive in the European market, " he added.


Article by +https://plus.google.com/104516603036446499629?rel=author on behalf of Propertyshowrooms.com
          A Comprehensive Timeline Of The Russia Scandal, 1980 ~ 2017        
THE PATRIOT POST
The Russian plot to elect Donald Trump by interfering in the 2016 presidential election through sabotaging Hillary Clinton's campaign was an unprecedented assault from America's greatest foe on the bedrock of its democracy.  It is the most explosive scandal since Soviet spies stole atomic bomb secrets over 70 years ago, and may well be considered the crime of the century. 
Although the scandal did not explode into view until the latter stages of the 2016 campaign, its roots date back to 1980 when the first two members of Trump's inner circle who are linked to the scandal got together.  As early as 2007, Trump was making clear his affection for Russian leader Vladimir Putin.  By 2015, U.S. intelligence agencies had become aware of the first tentacles of the plot to interfere in the election, as well as an increasing number of contacts by Trump's inner circle with Russians who had ties to the Kremlin's intelligence services. 
A timeline of the scandal has slowly come into focus.  It remains a work in progress, but this is what is now known:
1980: Roger Stone, future Trump confidante and dirty trickster, founds a lobbying practice with future Trump presidential campaign manager Paul Manafort.  Trump is one of the firm's first clients. 
1984: Russian Ã©migré David Bogatin, a former Soviet Army pilot, pays $6 million for five luxury condos in Trump Tower on Fifth Avenue in New York City.  Bogatin is not wealthy and is a front for Russian mobsters investing in high-end U.S. real estate to launder money from their criminal enterprises.  Trump personally attends Bogatin's closing.
March 11, 1987: Bogatin pleads guilty in federal court to taking part in a massive gasoline bootlegging scheme with Russian mobsters.  The government seizes his five Trump Tower condos. 
July 1987: Trump and his wife Ivana visit Moscow and St. Petersburg as all-expense paid guests of Intourist.  They sightsee and inspect potential sites for a new Trump Tower in Moscow.   
December 9, 1987: Trump meets and talks with Mikhail Gorbachev at a White House state dinner hosted by President and Mrs. Reagan.  Trump and the Soviet leader are said to have discussed hotel projects. 
Early 1992: Russian mob boss and enforcer Vyachelsav Kirillovich Ivankov is sprung from a Siberian gulag after a judge is bribed and heads to New York where he partners with Felix Komarov, an art dealer and resident of Trump Plaza on Third Avenue, to build the New York branch of the Russian mafia from an extortion racket into a multibillion-dollar criminal enterprise. 
January 29, 1997: Ivankov is sentenced to nine years in prison for extortion in federal court in Brooklyn.
October 15, 1998: Ground is broken for 72-story Trump World Tower, then the tallest residential building in the city, on First Avenue in Manhattan.  A third of the units on the tower's priciest floors are bought by either individual buyers from the former Soviet Union or limited liability companies connected to Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan.  Kellyanne Conway, a future Trump campaign manager, also purchases a unit.
2000: Stone serves as chairman of Trump's presidential exploratory advisory committee.  Trump decides not to run. 
2002: Russian Ã©migré Felix H. Stater, a felon and future fixer for Trump, and his Bayrock Group begin working with Trump on a series of U.S. real estate development deals, one of which becomes the Trump SoHo luxury hotel-apartments, and on projects in Russia, Ukraine and Poland. 
2004: Ivankov is extradited to Russia to face murder charges. 
May 20, 2004: Eduard Nektalov, a diamond dealer from Uzbekistan who owned a condo on a top floor of Trump World Tower and was being investigated for money laundering, is shot dead on Sixth Avenue after rumors circulate that he is cooperating with federal authorities. 
2005: Manafort proposes to aluminum magnate Oleg Deripask, a friend of Putin's, that he undertake a consulting assignment to influence politics, business deals and news coverage in the U.S. and Europe to benefit Putin's government. 
February 2006: Two of Trump's children, Donald Jr. and Ivanka, travel to Moscow where they are shown around by Sater. 
2007: Trump states in a lawsuit-related deposition that Bayrock brought Russian investors to Trump Tower to discuss deals.  "It's ridiculous that I wouldn't be investing in Russia," he says.  "Russia is one of the hottest places in the world for investment."
October 15, 2007: Trump, speaking publicly of Putin for the first of many times, tells Larry King on CNN that Putin "is doing a great job . . . he's doing a great job in rebuilding the image of Russia and also rebuilding Russia period." 
November 2007: Manafort's consulting firm receives a $455,000 wire transfer from billionaire industrialist and Ukraine Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych's political party for a campaign to improve Putin-backed Yanukovych's image in the West. 
2008: An estimated one third of the six Trump-branded condo skyscrapers in Sunny Isles Beach, Florida, which is nicknamed "Little Moscow," are owned by Russian speakers.  
2008: Donald Jr. tells a real estate conference in New York, "Russians make up a pretty disproportionate cross-section of a lot of our assets. . . . We see a lot of money pouring in from Russia." 
July 2008: Trump sells a Florida residence to Russian potash magnate Dmitry Rybolov for $95 million, believed to be the biggest single-family home sale in U.S. history.  The oligarch never lives in the house, which is later demolished.
July 28, 2009: Ivankov is shot by a sniper in Moscow.  He dies of his wounds 73 days later.  Hundreds of gangsters representing criminal syndicates attend his funeral. 
October 14, 2009: Manafort's firm receives a $750,000 wire transfer from Yanukovych's political party for the image-enhancement campaign. 
January 2010: Sater becomes Trump's "senior adviser." 
February 2010: Yanukovych is elected Ukraine president. 
April 9, 2010: Trump SoHo opens.
August 3, 2010: Trump and the promoters of Trump SoHo are sued by buyers who accuse them of fraudulently touting outsized sales figures to encourage them to buy units. 
June 19, 2012: As President Obama meets with Putin, Trump tweets, "Putin has no respect for our president -- really bad body language." 
April 2013: Viktor Krapunov, a former Kazakh energy minister and mayor of Almaty who has had business dealings with Bayrock, creates three limited liability companies which buy three condo apartments in Trump SoHo. Prosecutors allege the companies are used by Krapunov for his money-laundering network. 
April 8, 2013: Three Russians whom the FBI later accuses of spying on the U.S. discuss recruiting businessman and future Trump campaign aide Carter Page, who has many Russian contacts, to spy for Moscow.
April 16, 2013: Federal agents raid several Trump Tower condos as part of a dragnet of 29 members of a global sports betting ring overseen by Russian mob boss Alimzhan Tokhtakhounov, who had been indicted for conspiring to fix the ice-skating competition at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City.  The entire 51st floor of Trump Tower was used by the ring. 
July 8, 2013: Trump terminates a BBC interview when asked about Sater's mob ties. 
October 13, 2013: On The Late Show, David Letterman asks Trump if he had any dealings with Russians.  Trump answers, "Well, I've done a lot of business with Russians." 
November 2013: Trump hosts the Miss Universe pageant, then part of the Trump Organization, in Moscow in return for a $20 million licensing fee from the Crocus Group.  It's president is Aras Agalarov, an Azerbaijani-Russian billionaire and close ally of Putin.  The Crocus vice president is Agaralov's pop singer son, Emin.  Among Trump's celebrity guests is Tokhtakhounov, who is a U.S. fugitive because of gambling ring charges. 
Late November 2013: Emin Agaralov releases a music video starring Trump reprising his Apprentice television role. 
December 2013: Putin sends Agaralov's daughter, Sheyla, to deliver a personal note and gift that Trump later describes as "a present, a beautiful present" to him at Trump Tower as a token of apology for their having been unable to meet when Trump was in Moscow for the beauty pageant.
2014: Plans by Trump and the Agalarovs to build a Trump Tower in Moscow collapse because of new Obama administration-imposed sanctions on Russia.  
February 22, 2014: Yanukovych flees Ukraine amidst a popular uprising.  A handwritten ledger left behind purports to show $12.7 million in undisclosed cash payments to Manafort's firm from the deposed president's political party.  
April 17, 2014: Trump tweets that Obama is a weakling compared to Putin. "America is at a great disadvantage.  Putin is ex-KGB.  Obama is a community organizer.  Unfair." 
March 2015: Clinton's use of a private email server while secretary of state is made public.  She states she has turned over work-related emails to the government but that 30,000 or so personal emails on the server were deleted.
March 6, 2015: The Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic City is fined $10 million -- the highest fine ever levied by the federal government against a casino -- after admitting to having willfully violated anti-money laundering regulations for years.  Ivankov is identified as one of the Russian mobsters who routinely laundered large sums of money there prior to his 2009 assassination. 
Summer of 2015: Future Trump campaign adviser Michael Flynn makes several trips to the Middle East as an adviser on a project to pursue a joint U.S.-Russia-Saudi business venture to develop nuclear facilities in Saudi Arabia. 
June 16, 2015: Trump announces that he is running for the Republican presidential nomination. 
September 2015: An FBI agent calls the Democratic National Committee (DNC) to warn that its computer network had been hacked by "the Dukes," a cyberespionage team linked to the Russian government.  A DNC tech-support contractor does not take the call seriously. 
September 2015: A secretive anti-Trump Republican hires Fusion GPS, a Washington, D.C. strategic intelligence firm, to compile an opposition research dossier on Trump as the Republican presidential primary campaign heats up.   
October 11, 2015: Speaking on Face the Nation, Trump brags about sharing air time with Putin on 60 Minutes although they were on separate continents. Despite overwhelming evidence to the contrary, Trump says there isn't enough proof to blame Russian separatists for shooting down a Malaysian Airlines flight over Ukraine the previous year.
November 5, 2015: Mikhail Lesin, a former top Putin media adviser, is found dead in his Washington hotel room.  A federal prosecutor concludes he died because of a series of drunken falls, while federal law enforcement sources tell BuzzFeed News he was murdered on the eve of a meeting with Justice Department officials.  
Late 2015: Britain's GCHQ, which is equivalent to the U.S.'s NSA, first becomes aware of suspicious interactions between individuals connected to Trump and Russian agents.  This intelligence is passed on to the U.S. as part of a routine exchange of information. 
December 10-12, 2015: Flynn is paid $45,000 by RT, Putin's state propaganda network, for a three-day Moscow trip in which he gives a speech criticizing Obama's Russia policy and sits at Putin's table at a banquet.
December 17, 2015: Putin praises Trump and Trump quickly returns the favor, saying "It's always a great honor to be so nicely complimented by a man so highly respected in his own country and beyond." 
Early 2016: Trump son-in-law Jared Kushner and his felon father, Charles, give up on a two-ear effort to obtain a half-billion dollar business bailout from Qatar to refinance a white elephant property on New York's Fifth Avenue.  
February 11, 2016: Flynn meets with investigators in a routine meeting to discuss his application to renew his security clearance. When asked about his Moscow trip, he reportedly says, "I didn't take any money from Russia, if that's what you're asking me."  
March 2016: The first wave of fake news stories targeting Clinton voters in swing states is detected.  The source is believed to be Eastern European hackers supervised by the Russian government.
March 19, 2016: John Podesta, chairman of Clinton's presidential campaign, is emailed a link asking that he change his password, which is believed to be the way that Russia-associated hackers later gained access to his email account. 
March 29, 2016: On the recommendation of Stone, Manafort is hired by the Trump campaign to line up convention delegates.
Spring of 2016: Page, a businessman with extensive Russian ties and previous contacts with Russian intelligence agents, is hired by the Trump campaign as a quick fix for its lack of foreign policy expertise. 
April 2016: Hackers believed to be linked to Russia's Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU) gain access to the DNC computer network.
April 2016: Kushner, accompanied by Flynn, meets with Russian ambassador Sergey Kislyak at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, D.C., the first of several meetings by Trump associates with Russian officials that are monitored by U.S. intelligence. 
April 2016: At about the same time as the Mayflower meeting, U.S. intelligence intercepts the first communications among Russians who discuss aggressively trying to influence the presidential election by sabotaging Clinton. 
Late April 2016: The DNC's IT department notices suspicious computer activity and hires private security firm CrowdStrike to investigate. 
Early May 2016: Manafort meets in New York with Konstantine Kilimnik, a Ukrainian businessman who served in the Russian army and may be working for Russian intelligence. 
May 2016: CrowdStrike determines that highly sophisticated Russian intelligence-affiliated adversaries named Cozy Bear and Fancy Bear are responsible for the DNC hack.     
May 2016: An unidentified Democratic client takes over the Fusion GPS contract.  Fusion hires Orbis Business Intelligence, a British intelligence firm co-founded by former MI6 officer Christopher Steele, to assist it in investigating Russia-Trump connections.  
June 2016: Russian-Macedonian hackers begin a fake news campaign to energize Bernie Sanders supporters against Clinton by planting stories that, among other things, she murdered former Bill Clinton aide Vince Foster.
Early June 2016: The CIA concludes in an internal report that Russia is actively engaged in interfering in the presidential election, including the goal of getting Trump elected.
June 2, 2016: Clinton gives her first major speech on national security in San Diego and repeatedly calls into question Trump's affection for Putin and his "bizarre fascination with dictators and strongmen who have no love for America." 
June 3, 2016: Publicist Rob Goldstone, representing Emin Agaralov, emails Donald Jr. that he had met with "his father Aras this morning and . . . [he] offered to provide the Trump campaign with some official documents and information that would incriminate Hillary . . . and would be very useful to your father."   Donald Jr. replies "if it's what you say I love it." 
June 7, 2016: Trump promises "big news" on Clinton's "crimes" in a forthcoming "major speech."  
June 9, 2016: As a result of the email exchange with Goldstone, Donald Jr. arranges a meeting of the campaign brain trust at Trump Tower with Goldstone and Natalia Veselnitskata, a Russian lawyer with intelligence agency ties, who through Goldstone has promised damaging material about Clinton. Also attending are Kushner, Manafort, Rinat Akhmetshin, a Russian-American lobbyist and former counterintelligence agent, and Ike Kaveladze, an official in the Agalarov's real estate company.  The source of the undisclosed dirt on Clinton is believed to be Yuri Y. Chaika, Russia's prosecutor general.
June 12, 2016: WikiLeakers founder Julian Assange states in an interview that his site has a "very big year ahead" and promises the imminent release of emails "related to Hillary Clinton."
June 13, 2016: Trump does not give the promised "major speech" because of a mass shooting at an Orlando nightclub.     
June 15, 2016: A hacker with the online persona Guccifer 2.0 claims credit for the DNC hack and begins posting DNC documents on the Guccifer 2.0 website. 
June 15, 2016: House Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy tells fellow Republican leaders that "There's two people I think Putin pays: Rohrabacher and Trump." Dana Rohrabacher is a California Republican.  House Speaker Paul Ryan immediately interjects and swears those present to secrecy. 
June 17, 2015: The Washington Post publishes a story headlined "Inside Trump's Financial Ties to Russia and His Unusual Flattery of Vladimir Putin." 
June 20, 2016: Manafort replaces Corey Lewandowksi as Trump's campaign manager. 
June 20, 2016: Steele delivers the first of a series of reports to Fusion GPS based on several confidential sources.  He identifies "Source A" as "a senior Russian Foreign Ministry figure," "Source B" as "a former top level intelligence officer still active in the Kremlin," and "Source E" as "an ethnic Russian" and "close associate of Republican US presidential candidate Donald Trump." 
June 22, 2016: Trump, speaking in New York, excoriates Clinton for her handling of the Benghazi attacks and warns that emails she deleted from her private server could make her vulnerable to "blackmail" from unspecified countries hostile to the U.S.  
Summer of 2016: U.S. intelligence agencies collect information revealing that senior Russian intelligence and political operatives are discussing how to influence Trump through Flynn and Manafort.
July 2016: Russia escalates a campaign of harassment of American diplomats and intelligence operatives in Russia.  
July 5, 2016: FBI Director James Comey rebukes Clinton for being "extremely careless," but recommends no criminal charges in connection with her handling of classified information as secretary of state, including emails on a private server, ostensibly lifting a cloud from her presidential campaign. 
July 6, 2016: Another batch of hacked DNC documents appears on the Guccifer 2.0 website.
July 10, 2016: DNC staffer Seth Rich is shot to death in what Washington, D.C. police describe as an attempted armed robbery.   
July 14, 2016: Another batch of hacked DNC documents appear on the Guccifer 2.0 website. 
Mid-July 2016: Working behind the scenes, the Trump campaign rewrites the Republican National Convention platform on Ukraine, removing a pledge to provide lethal weapons in its fight with Russia over Crimea and a call for maintaining or increasing sanctions against Russia.   
July 19, 2016: Trump is nominated for president at the convention after he, Flynn and other surrogates declare, in what becomes an oft-repeated campaign theme in the coming weeks, that Clinton should be "in jail" for her use of the private email server. 
July 19, 2016: Trump's debt load has almost doubled from $350 million to $630 million over the past year, reports Bloomberg News.
July 22, 2016: WikiLeaks, which is friendly with Putin, begins releasing 44,000 hacked DNC emails.
July 24, 2016: Donald Jr. tells CNN's Jake Tapper that the Clinton campaign's suggestion that Russia was trying to interfere in the election on behalf of his father is "disgusting" and "phony."  
July 25, 2016: Trump suggests that the Russians were behind the DNC hack because Putin "likes" him. 
July 27, 2016: Trump calls on Russia to hack 30,000 so-called "missing" Clinton emails. 
July 27, 2016: Manafort denies any relationship with the Russians and says it's "absurd" to suggest Russia was working on behalf of the Trump campaign.  
Late July 2016: The FBI opens an investigation to examine possible links between the Trump campaign and Russia, but its existence is kept secret even from high ranking members of Congress colloquially known as the Gang of Eight, who by law are to be briefed on important intelligence matters. 
Late July 2016: The FBI obtains and then renews a Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Court warrant allowing it to monitor Page, whom it believes is in touch with Russian agents and had been used in previous years by Moscow spies to obtain information.   
Early August 2016: The CIA concludes that unnamed Trump campaign advisers might be working with Russia to interfere in the election by sabotaging the Clinton campaign through a multi-pronged attack personally approved by Putin that includes email hacking, disinformation and false news stories. 
Early August 2016: The CIA informs the White House of Putin's campaign to interfere in the election.  For the next five months, the administration secretly debates dozens of options on how to retaliate, including whether to use CIA-gathered material that would be embarrassing to Putin. 
August 2016: CIA Director John Brennan convenes a secret task force with analysts and officers from the CIA, FBI and NSA to keep the White House and senior government officials informed. 
August 2016: Manafort meets again with Kilimnik. 
Early August: Steele begins sharing his memos to Fusion GPS with an FBI agent assigned to the bureau's Eurasian Joint Organized Crime Squad. 
August 4, 2016: Brennan calls Alexander Bortnikov, director of the FSB, the post-Soviet successor to the KGB, to warn him that election interference will not be tolerated. 
August 12, 2016: A batch of hacked Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) documents appear on the Guccifer 2.0 website. 
August 14, 2016: Stone engages in direct messaging with Guccifer 2.0. 
August 15, 2015: Guccifer 2.0 releases hacked DCCC documents on Florida primary elections. 
August 15, 2016: Secretary of Homeland Security Jeh Johnson arranges a conference call with dozens of state election officials to enlist their support to shore up voting systems in light of the Russian effort.  He gets no support. 
August 19, 2016: Manafort is forced out as Trump's campaign manager, ostensibly over concerns about his ties with Russian officials.  
August 21, 2016: Guccifer 2.0 releases hacked DCCC documents on Pennsylvania congressional primaries.
Late August 2016: Brennan is so concerned about Trump-Russia links that he initiates urgent, one-on-one briefings with the Gang of Eight. 
Late August 2016: Stone boasts that he has communicated with Assange, who he says has materials including "deleted" Clinton emails that would be embarrassing to her.      
August 25, 2016: Brennan tells Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, then the highest ranking Democrat, that the FBI and not the CIA would have to take the lead in what is a domestic intelligence matter. 
Late August 2016: Reid writes to Comey without mentioning the Brennan briefing. He expresses great concern over what he calls mounting evidence "of a direct connection between the Russian government and Donald Trump's presidential campaign." 
August 31, 2016: Guccifer 2.0 releases documents hacked from House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi's personal computer.     
September 2016: Intelligence shows that although Republican sites are also being hacked by Russians, only DNC emails are being publicized by WikiLeaks. 
September 2016: Aaron Nevins, a Republican political operative with ties to Stone, receives Democratic turnout analyses hacked by Guccifer 2.0 and publishes them online under a pseudonym. 
September 5, 2016: Obama, meeting with Putin at a conference of world leaders in Hangzhou, China, tells him that the U.S. knows about the election interference and "[he] better stop or else."  Putin responds by demanding proof and accuses the U.S. of meddling in Russia's internal affairs. 
September 8, 2016: Trump campaign adviser Jeff Sessions meets with Kislyak in his Senate office. 
September 15, 2016: Guccifer 2.0 releases hacked DCCC documents from New Hampshire, Illinois, North Carolina and Ohio. 
September 16, 2016: Stone declares on Boston Herald Radio that "I expect Julian Assange and the WikiLeaks people to drop a payload of new documents on Hillary on a weekly basis fairly soon."  He says he is in touch with Assange "through an intermediary."  
September 22, 2016: Two other Gang of Eight members -- Dianne Feinstein and Representative Adam B. Schiff, the ranking Senate and House Intelligence Committee Democrats -- release a statement stating that Russian intelligence agencies are "making a serious and concerted effort" to influence the election. 
September 23, 2016: Guccifer 2.0 releases hacked documents from DCCC chairman Ben Ray Lujan.
Late September 2016: Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, at the behind-the-scenes urging of the Obama administration, is asked to warn state election officials of possible attempts to penetrate their computer systems by Russian hackers.  McConnell resists, questioning the veracity of the intelligence.   
September 25, 2016: McConnell writes to state election officia
          Travel Review: Azerbaijan Calls         

Travel Review: Azerbaijan Calls The ‘Fire Country’ has an eclectic mix of historical attractions set alongside new-world wonders to satisfy the taste of any visitor If mud-spouting volcanoes and a mountain fire that’s been burning ceaselessly for the last 4,000 years are things you want to tick off your travel bucket list, Azerbaijan is the […]

The post Travel Review: Azerbaijan Calls  appeared first on Live Trading News.


          Commentaires sur Occlusions veineuses rétiniennes par MichaelNex        
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          Clouds, Concertos And A Trip To Fiji: New Classical Albums        
With all the chatter about the death of the compact disc, anxiety in the recording industry and the domination of downloads, the flood of CDs overflowing my mailbox never seems to recede. Need a new Bruckner 4th, an Adès anthology or piano music by Pärt? How about Azerbaijani concertos, Schubert sonatas or a new Midsummer Night's Dream ? Those were among the two dozen or so discs I unwrapped just last week. How to choose? For this visit to weekend All Things Considered , I went for something old (stunning albums of nearly 300-year-old music by Bach and Vivaldi), something new (Toshio Hosokawa's atmospheric adventures for the Japanese sho ) and something guaranteed to blow away the winter blahhs (Michael Torke's infectious Fiji ). Fear not. Classical CDs are here to stay for a while. These four (below) are just a few of the finest. Copyright 2013 NPR. To see more, visit Transcript GUY RAZ, HOST: Time now for music. And today, NPR classical producer Tom Huizenga is back with some new
          Ujerumani, Ubelgiji, Uswisi zatwaa tiketi        
Ujerumani, Ubelgiji, Uswisi zatwaa tiketi
Ozil ndani ya nyumba

TIMU za Ujeruamni, Ubeljigi na Uswisi, juzi usiku zilijitwalia tiketi ya Kombe la Dunia za mwakani nchini Brazil kutoka bara la Ulaya ambalo litatoa jumla ya timu 12.

Wakati maimba hiyo ikitangulia, bingwa mtetezi Hispania chini ya kocha wake Vicente Del Bosque, England na Russia, zinasubiri majaaliwa yao katika mechi za mwisho, Oktoba 15.
Ujerumani imejitwalia tiketi yake baada ya juzi kuifunga  Ireland 3-0 huku Ubelgiji ikiichapa Croatia 2-1 na Uswisi kuichakaza Albania 2-1.
Miamba hiyo imeungana na mingine kama Italia na Uholanzi iliyotangulia kupata tiketi ya Brazil.
Akizungumzia mafanikio ya Ubelgiji, kiungo Marouane Fellaini alisema wanapaswa kujivunia kiwango cha timu yao kwani pamoja na ugumu wa kampeni hiyo, wamefanikiwa.
Nazo England, Hispania na Russia zilishinda na kuongoza makundi yao, japo zinasubiri kupata matokeo mazuri katika mechi hizo za mwisho.
Kinara katika makundi tisa ya Ulaya, atajitwalia tiketi ya Brazil huku nane zitakazomaliza nafasi ya pili, zitachuana hatua ya mtoano kuwania nafasi nne kufikia 12 kwa Ulaya.
Mabao ya Ujerumani yalifungwa na Sami Khedira, Andre Schuerrle na Mesut Ozil, nyota wa Arsenal ya England aliyetokea Real Madrid ya Hispania.
Ujerumani imekata tiketi ya Kombe la Dunuia ikitokea kundi C, itacheza fainali hizo mara ya 18 tangu kuasisiwa kwake mwaka 1930.
Katika mechi nyingine, bao la dakika ya 86 likifungwa na Zlatan Ibrahimovic, liliipa Sweden ushindi wa 2-1 dhidi ya Austria, ikiwa nafasi ya pili huku Faroe Islands ikitoka sare ya 1-1 dhidi ya Kazakhstan.
Wachezaji wa Ubelgiji wakishangilia baada ya kufuzu Kombe la Dunia
Mbao mawili ya Romelu Lukaku, yaliipa Ubelgiji pointi tatu hivyo kuongoza kundi A, hivyo kuikwaa tiketi ya fainali za Kombe la Dunia mara ya kwanza tangu 2002 huku  Croatia ya pili.
Nayo Wales juzi ilishinda 1-0 dhidi ya Macedonia 1-0 katika mechi nyingine ya kundi hilo.
Aidha, mabao ya Xherdan Shaqiri na Michael Lang yaliipa ushindi Uswisi na kukamata usukani wa kundi E, hivyo kujitwalia tiketi ya Brazil huku Iceland iliyoichapa Cyprus 2-0, imebaki nafasi ya pili, mbele pointi moja dhidi ya  Slovenia iliyoichapa Norway 3-0.
Nayo England, juzi ilishinda 4-1 dhidi ya Montenegro 4-1 mjini London, hivyo kuongoza kwa tofauti ya pointi moja dhidi ya Ukraine, iliyoifunga Poland 1-0 katika kundi H.
England inahitaji ushindi katika mechi ya mwisho dhidi ya Poland hapo Oktoba 15, kutwaa tiketi huku Ukraine ikimaliza na San Marino, iliyofungwa 3-0  na Moldova.
England ilitangulia kupata bao dakika ya 49, likifungwa na Wayne Rooney kabla ya Branko Boskovic wa Montenegro kujifunga, likiwa la pili kwa England.
Hata hivyo, Dejan Damjanovic aliifungia Montenegro bao, lakini bao la Andros Townsend na Daniel Sturridge, yaliipa England ushindi wa mabao 4-1.
Raha ya ushindi
Katika kundi I, mabingwa wa Dunia Hispania waliwafunga Belarus 2-1 na kukamata usukani wa kundi mbele ya Ufaransa.
Mashuti ya Xavi Hernandez na Alvaro Negredo, ndio yalipeleka kilio kwa Belarus, hivyo sasa kuhityaji walau sare tu kutoka kwa Georgia kujitwalia tiketi ya Brazil.
Nayo Russia iliitandika Luxembourg 4-0, hivyo kukamata usukani wa kundi F, mbele ya Ureno iliyotoka sare ya 1-1 dhidi ya Israel huku Azerbaijan ikishinda 2-0 dhidi ya  Ireland Kaskazini.
Bosnia-Herzegovina iliichapa Liechtenstein 4-1, huku Ugiriki ikiifunga Slovakia 1-0, hivyo kukabana katika kundi G, wakiwa na pointi 22. Lithuania imeifunga Latvia 2-0.

Mtoano
Uturuki na Romania zimejiweka kwenye mazingira ya kucheza hatua ya mtoano wa timu nane kuania nafasi nne kutokana na kufungana kwa pointi katika kundi D, mbele ya Hungary iliyochapwa 8-1 na Uholanzi.
Hiyo ni baada ya Uturuki kushinda 2-0 dhidi ya Estonia 2 huku Romania ikishinda 4-0 dhidi ya Andorra.
Timu nne za kundi B, zimebaki kupigania kucheza hatua ya mtoano baada ya Italia kuvuna sare ya 2-2 dhidi ya  Denmark.
Denmark na Bulgaria, zilizofungwa 2-1 dhidi ya Armenia, zinafungana kwa pointi 13 kila moja huku Armenia na Czech iliyoshinda 3-1 dhidi ya Malta, zikiwa na pointi 12ts.

Zenye tiketi ya Brazil
Ukimwondoa mwenye Brazil mwenye tiketi ya moja kwa moja, nyingine ni Argentina, Australia, Ubelgiji, Costa Rica, Ujerumani, Iran, Italia, Japan, Uholanzi, Korea Kusini, Uswisi na Marekani.

          Sibel Edmonds Responds to Porter Goss        
Lukery, from the blog Wot is it Good 4 passed this along to me. If you haven't noticed, Lukery has been steadfastly reporting on uber-whistelblower Sibel Edmonds.

Recently, Ms. Edmonds wrote the following response to CIA Director Porter Goss' recent anti-democracy NY Times Op-Ed. Here it is:
Porter Goss’ Op-ed: ‘Ignoturn per Ignotius’!


By Sibel Edmonds (a.k.a. whistleblower)

Dear Mr. Goss, the timing of your recent op-ed in the New York Times interestingly coincides with the upcoming congressional hearing by the House Subcommittee on National Security, Emerging Threats & International Relations on National Security Whistleblowers. Your comments are predictably consistent with the pattern of “preemptive strikes” you and the administration have been keen on maintaining. I do not blame you for your opposition to legislation to protect courageous whistleblowers, which will enable the United States Congress to reclaim some of its authority and oversight that it has given up for the past five years. No sir, you have all the right and reason to be nervous. However, I must take issue with your attempt to mislead the American public - another habit of your heart - by presenting them with false information and misleading statements.

Sir, as you must very well know after your years in congress as a representative and as a member of the intelligence committee, there are no meaningful legal protections for whistleblowers. What is troubling is that while you are well aware of the fact that there are no meaningful or enforceable laws that provide protection to national security whistleblowers, you nevertheless state that such workers are covered by existing laws. That is simply false. You state that “the Intelligence Community Whistleblower Protection Act was enacted to ensure that current or former employees could petition Congress, after raising concerns within their respective agency, consistent with the need to protect classified information.” The Intelligence Community Whistleblower Protection Act, which appears to be the legal channel provided to national security employees, turns out on closer inspection to be toothless. Please refer to the recent independent report issued by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) on National Security Whistleblowers on December 30, 2005. The report concludes that there currently are no protections for national security whistleblowers - period. Let me provide you with a recent example illustrating the fallacy of your claim:

In December 2005, Mr. Russ Tice, former National Security Agency (NSA) intelligence analyst and action officer, sent letters to the chairs of the Senate and House Intelligence Committees, and requested meetings to brief them on probable unlawful and unconstitutional acts conducted while he was an intelligence officer with the NSA and DIA. In his letter Mr. Tice, as a law abiding and responsible intelligence officer, stated “Due to the highly sensitive nature of these programs and operations, I will require assurances from your committee that the staffers and/or congressional members to participate retain the proper security clearances, and also have the appropriate SAP cleared facilities available for these discussion.” On January 9, 2006, the NSA sent an official letter to Mr. Tice stating “neither the staff nor the members of the House or Senate Intelligence committees are cleared to receive the information.”

Now, Mr. Goss, please explain this to the American public: What happened to your so-called appropriate congressional channels and protections available to national security whistleblowers? Mr. Goss, what “protected disclosure to congress”? According to the NSA no one in the United States Congress is “cleared enough” to hear reports from national security whistleblowers. Please name one whistleblower to date who has been protected after disclosing information to the United States Congress; can you name even a single case? Or, is that information considered classified? How do we expect the United States Congress to conduct its oversight responsibility and maintain the necessary checks on the Executive Branch, when agencies such as yours declare the members of congress “not cleared enough” to receive reports regarding conduct by these agencies? Where do you suggest employees like Mr. Tice go to report waste, fraud, abuse, and/or illegal conduct by their agencies? Based on your administration’s self-declared claim of inherent power and authority of the executive branch overriding courts and the United States Congress, what other channels are left to pursue?

Okay, now let’s move to this notion you and the administration seem to be so very keen on: Classified & Sensitive Information. Let’s start by asking how we define “classified & sensitive information,” and who decides what is classified and sensitive? According to the statement by Thomas S. Benton, National Security Archive, on March 2, 2005, during the congressional hearing on “Emerging Threats: Overclassification & Pseudo-Classification,” the deputy undersecretary of defense for counterintelligence and security declared that 50% of the Pentagon's information was over-classified, and the head of the Information Security Oversight Office said it was even worse, "even beyond 50%." Don’t you find the percentage of falsely classified information appalling? Well, you should; it is your responsibility, because the executive branch, under the office of the United States President, is solely responsible for classification or pseudo-classification of information. Now, based on this knowledge, what should happen when you tell the public, when you tell the United States Congress and the media “Oh, you are not allowed to have this information; this information is highly sensitive and classified”? This is what should happen: we, the people, the Congress, and the media, should first ask you for the merits of the classification; have you prove to us that the information in question should in fact be classified; and you, the executive branch, have the obligation to truthfully respond.

On the issue of classification in your op-ed you go further and cite the cost of unauthorized disclosure to the American taxpayer, “unauthorized disclosures have cost America hundreds of millions of dollars.” Since you brought up the issue, let’s explore it fully and give the American people the real facts, shall we? The Office of Management and Budget report on classification costs to U.S. agencies (the CIA's are still classified; but of course!), gave us a benchmark number and some sense of comparative expense to the taxpayer - the reported dollar figure was over $6.5 billion in fiscal 2003. Now, since the percentage of falsely classified data has been determined to be in the range of 50%, the cost of our agencies’ pseudo classification to the American taxpayer amounts to over $3 billion. Mr. Goss, you do the math; do you really want to attempt to twist and misuse the cost of classification to try to strike a chord with the taxpayers? It is not going to stick; wouldn’t you agree?

Let’s try your security angle on the subject of classification, where you state “disclosure of classified intelligence inhibits our ability to carry out our mission and protect the nation.” The entire 9/11 Commission report includes only one finding that the attacks might have been prevented (Page 247 & 376). They quote the interrogation of the hijackers' paymaster, Ramzi Binalshibh, who commented that if the organizers, particularly Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, had known that the so-called 20th hijacker, Zacarias Moussaoui, had been arrested at his Minnesota flight school on immigration charges, then Bin Laden and KSM would have called off the 9/11 attacks, because news of that arrest would have alerted the FBI agent in Phoenix who warned of Islamic militants in flight schools in a July 2001 memo; a memo that vanished into the FBI's vaults in Washington. The Commission's wording is important here: only "publicity" could have derailed the attacks. Classification is indeed a very important mechanism, if it is applied diligently and wisely; however, as illustrated above, in certain circumstances, even with respect to national security information, classification can run counter to our national interests.
Mr. Steven Aftergood, the Director of the Project on Government Secrecy at the Federation of American Scientists, so very eloquently stated “the information blackout may serve the short-term interests of the present administration, which is allergic to criticism or even to probing questions. But it is a disservice to the country. Worst of all, the Bush administration's information policies are conditioning Americans to lower their expectations of government accountability and to doubt their own ability to challenge their political leaders. Information is the oxygen of democracy. Day by day, the Bush administration is cutting off the supply.”
Mr. Goss, since you proudly quoted from the Rob-Silberman Report released in March 2005, let me do the same and present you with another quote from the same report: “In just the past 20 years the CIA, FBI, NSA, DIA, NRO, and the Departments of Defense, State, and Energy have all been penetrated. Secrets stolen include nuclear weapons data, U.S. cryptographic codes and procedures, identification of U.S. intelligence sources and methods (human and technical), and war plans. Indeed, it would be difficult to exaggerate the damage that foreign intelligence penetrations have caused.” It appears that the only ones not privy to our so-called sensitive government and intelligence information are the American citizens, since our enemies and allies have been successfully penetrating all our intelligence agencies (including yours sir) and nuclear labs and facilities. Sir, with all due respect, you have not even succeeded in protecting your own agencies, offices and facilities against foreign penetration; you seem to be incapable of conducting appropriate background checks on your own employees; you failed to protect us against the 9/11 attacks; and you have failed in gathering intelligence and reporting it accurately on the Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iraq. With this kind of record how can you go on lecturing the Congress and the American people on your superiority and inherent authority to do whatever you wish, however you wish, and without having to provide any report or any answer to anybody, including the United States Congress?

Last year, the CIA, your agency, classified the entire findings of the Inspector General’s investigation into the failures of CIA managers prior to 9/11. Sir, I believe you made the case for this classification based on your intention to protect the wrongdoers within the CIA bureaucracy from being “stigmatized.” Is this what your op-ed intended to say? Did you mean to say that these national security whistleblowers may end up stigmatizing the wrongdoers and incompetents within the rank and file of the CIA by divulging information that you decided to classify to prevent exposure of embarrassing and criminal activity? Was that a Freudian slip, since nowadays the lines get blurry between classification for national security purposes and classification to protect the agency’s bureaucrats?
Mr. Goss, I cannot attribute this misleading op-ed to your ignorance, since you were a member of Congress until recently and are surely aware of the lack of meaningful protection for national security whistleblowers; so I won't. I will not attribute it to your stupidity, since obviously our Congress confirmed your position and I do not intend to insult their wisdom and intelligence. Thus, it must be your arrogance, nurtured and fed by your boss on your purported inherent and limitless authority and power, leading you to treat us, the American Public, as stupid.
Sincerely,

Sibel Edmonds
A Proud National Security Whistleblower

Sibel Edmonds is the founder and director of National Security Whistleblowers Coalition (NSWBC), a nonprofit organization dedicated to aiding national security whistleblowers. Ms. Edmonds worked as a language specialist for the FBI’s Washington Field Office. During her work with the bureau, she discovered and reported serious acts of security breaches, cover-ups, and intentional blocking of intelligence that had national security implications. After she reported these acts to FBI management, she was retaliated against by the FBI and ultimately fired in March 2002. Since that time, court proceedings on her issues have been blocked by the assertion of “State Secret Privilege” by Attorney General Ashcroft; the Congress of the United States has been gagged and prevented from any discussion of her case through retroactive re-classification by the Department of Justice. Ms. Edmonds is fluent in Turkish, Farsi and Azerbaijani; and has a MA in Public Policy and International Commerce from George Mason University, and a BA in Criminal Justice and Psychology from George Washington University. www.nswbc.org

          A Note about the Controversial Kurdistan Autonomy Plan        
A Note about the Controversial Kurdistan Autonomy Plan
Sam Ghandchi

Persian Version  Ù…تن فارسی
 
"Their demolished doors and walls are breaking on my head ..." Nima Yushij
 
My dear friend, Abdullah Mohtadi, following criticisms from Iran's countrywide political movement concerning the new agreement of Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran and Komala Party of Iranian Kurdistan, has said in a recent interview that his plan for Iran's Kurdistan is to create a Kurdish region from several provinces where the Kurds currently live in Iran and has described this region as part of the future federal system of Iran.  It is not important whether such a region is defined within ethnic federalism (1)  or provincial federalism  (2) or as an autonomous region in Iran with a centralized government. The result will be an autonomous region for the Kurds whether we call the Kurds an ethnic group or a nation.  The discussion is neither about federalism nor the definition of ethnic groups or nations.
 
Iran's countrywide movement in reaction to this accord of Kurdish parties has pushed aside any review of plans for federalism for Iran's future (3). The basis of the proposed joint communiqué of the two Kurdish parties is to have the Kurdish people live in the autonomous region rather than in provinces that would be home to people of various ethnic backgrounds willing to work for democracy and progress regardless of ethnicity, race or nationality. In other words, this is a retrogressive plan to return to the autonomous rule of the Ardalans of feudal Iran before the time of Nasereddin Shah of Qajar (4).
 
It is true that the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq today has such a status and may even become an independent republic. But this has been the result of the particular situation of US attack of Iraq and US support of the Kurdish parties that believed in autonomous Kurdistan during that war. Separation of Northern Azerbaijan from Iran also occurred following the war between Iran and Russia during the reign of Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar, and after the fall of Soviet Union, it became an independent republic.
 
One cannot view such historical events as a reason to justify plans for autonomous regions in Iran or in any other country. The result of such plans is to prevent people with diverse racial, ethnic and national backgrounds from growing together (5). Examples in many African, Asian and European countries can be seen where the outcome has been nothing but local retrogressive dictatorships, and this is the reason why Iran's pro-democracy movement condemns separatism (6).
 
About 65 years ago, the Mahabad Republic proposed this same program of autonomy for Kurdistan and a group of the most educated elite of Kurdistan participated in it; Abdollah Mohtadi's father was one of the cabinet ministers of Ghazi Mohammad's government. The Mahabad government, which came to power with the support of Stalin's USSR , was smashed by Iran's army following an agreement between Truman and Stalin, and the government was not supported by nationalist forces and even leftist groups of other parts of Iran. A similar event with a similar mistake happened at the same time in Azerbaijan, and the result was the confrontation of two parts of Iran's political and civil movement at that time.
 
During 1979 Revolution the same mistake was repeated and some of the opinion leaders of Kurdistan, such as the respected Abdolrahman Ghassemlou, again came forward with the slogan of "Democracy for Iran, Autonomy for Kurdistan." Although in the first anniversary of the revolution, Kurdistan Democratic Party and Komala Party were able to take over the power in Mahabad and Sanandaj but their negotiations with Iran's provisional government of Mehdi Bazargan, to continue as an autonomous government based on the 26 point proposal of the Kurdish delegation, did not succeed. With the fall of the semi-liberal government in Tehran the plans of attacking Kurdistan became more serious and at the end with the start of Iran-Iraq War, the civil and political movement of Kurdistan was practically wiped off even though it was supported by the movement from other parts of Iran.
 
Neither at the time of Ghazi Mohammad nor at the time of the 1979 Revolution nor at the present time has the choosing of the path of retrogressive autonomy by some of the political elite of Kurdistan been because of foreign powers, although depending on their interests at each historical turn, they may have supported such plans. This does not go back to the Mahabad Republic but goes back further to the time of Ismaiil Agha Simku, who at the time of Iran's Constitutional Movement fought against the Iranian constitutionalists and also worked for the British to secure their oil wells in Kirkuk of Iraq.
 
Kurdish leaders from the time of Ghazi Mohammad until the present time basically were neither dependent on foreign powers like Ismaiil Agha Simku nor were they anti-constitutionalist like him, but their mistake was to choose an erroneous and retrogressive program of autonomy for Kurdistan. Isn't it time to work together with the rest of the pro-democracy movement encompassing all of Iran for the prosperity and happiness of Iran in a society formed by a rainbow of ethnic and national backgrounds?

Sam Ghandchi, Editor/Publisher
IRANSCOPE
http://www.iranscope.com
Oct 18, 2012

Footnote:
 
 
 

          Ethnic Federalism a Reactionary Plan for Iran's Future- Second Version http://www.ghandchi.com/555-FederalismeGhomiEng.htm Persian Version متن فارسی        
Align LeftEthnic Federalism a Reactionary Plan for Iran's Future- Second Version
http://www.ghandchi.com/555-FederalismeGhomiEng.htm

Persian Version متن فارسی
http://www.ghandchi.com/555-FederalismeGhomi.htm

Again although I have repeatedly discussed these issues from a theoretical perspective (1) but I have to clearly state my political position although the political groups I am addressing here try character assassination and attack using pseudonames on the Internet without their leaders inside the remainders of Democratic Party of Iranian Kudistan (PDKI.org) and the remnants of Komala (komala.org) and the Congress of Nationalities for Federal Iran (iranfederal.org) who are at the helm of these destruction programs for Iran to take responsibility for such personal attacks. On one hand in their radio and TV front programs they pretend to be Iran lovers but on the other hand open criticism of their Iran-breaking platforms is met with character assassination under pseudonames so that they would not have to take direct responsibility for their destructive political positions towards Iran. Let me emphasize that my opposition to these groups and their programs to break up Iran in ethnic hatred has nothing to do with nationalism which I oppose as well (2).

The reality is that for decades the Islamist fundamentalist and Stalinist groups have lost any following in the more advanced parts of Iran among the political and human rights activists and nobody in the Iran's civil rights movement or in Iran's new political opposition has any relationship with such groups and noone in a democratic mindset would consider her/himself a sympathizer of such backward sects which still try to find following, just like the Islamic Republic, by boasting the number of martyrs they have had in the last 30 years ago and previous to that. But in some parts of Iran like Kurdistan there are still some civil rights activists who are afraid of these groups. When these groups try to use the civil rights movement of areas like Kurdistan as a front for themselves, and for their ethnic federalist platforms, these activists are intimidated to go along. One of the most recent examples of such efforts by these ethnic sects is the formation of a group called Iran Federal with a clear *ethnic* federalist mind set in facebook which I think should be boycotted because it tries to mislead people by using the word federalism when their platform is nothing more than ethnic division of Iran and their goal is *not* a non-ethnic administrative decentralization like American federalism.

Even Komala and PDKI today are divided into several pieces although they still go by their old names and are just like the Communist Party of Gus Hall in the United States when time and again in any presidential election, again Mr. Gus Hall is a candidate from the that Communist Party USA, for American presidency, a candidacy which is nothing more than a ridiculous game in the eyes of living political forces in the U.S., whether they are conservative or are at the opposite end of the political spectrum. Of course if Iran was a democracy and if these same groups showed up as humorous political realities in the open and were not using the atmosphere of secrecy in Iranian political life, to create the impression of an important force, there would be no need even to write about them as nobody in the US politics even talks about Gus Hall and his Communist Party. But in Iran too, in the 21st Century these sects that only resemble a ridiculous caricature of a historical Stalinist parties with backward programs have long lost any attractions in the regions they claim to have following, as the civil rights movement and modern political thinking is growing in those areas too but these groups try to use the hush hush of secrecy to draw a different picture of political reality of those regions.

Also those in other parts of Iran who do not know about these realities when they visit regions like Kurdistan are like someone who has left the urban areas for the countryside and in the first sight, the facade of strong non-religious organizations when seeing the office and facilities of these groups in the neighboring countries of Iran (in Iraq) impresses them as if these groups are more advanced than the political groups in other parts of Iran and imagine as if they are visiting a modern political party whereas for these sects, these days, only ethnicism has replaced their past Stalinist flag making them the twin of Khomeini's religionist politics, where they are both remnants of Iran's Medieval times, and surely they have nothing to do with Modernism.

Many activists who fled the Islamic Republic from Tehran and see the offices of some of these groups in neighboring country Iraq think that these sects are a powerful force in those regions. These sects by creating lobby groups in the U.S. and Europe and by receiving money from several countries in recent years and by forming relationships with neighboring countries are working just like the Ferghe Democrat of Azerbaijan and of Kurdistan lead by Pishevari and Ghazai Mohammad in the 1940's, when they created similar relations with the northern Azerbaijan Soviet Republic at the time of Stalin and were both destroyed in the aftermath of Stalin's pact with Iran's government in mid 1940's. Although the current remnants of those groups carrying the same name are nothing more thank a caricature of those groups of the 40's withno grassroots following in those regions but they work hard are to fool the honest political and civil rights activists of Iran and also endeavor to misrepresent themselves to some of the advisers of foreign governments who are not familiar with the realities of Iran's Kurdistan and this way they try to fool them to get money and weapons for themselves. Their political platform of these sects are like a Stalinist nightmare which weighs heavily on the body of Iranian political movement as they try to mislead Iran's prodemocracy movement towards ethnic hatred and civil war by advocating the breakup of Iran in an ethnic destruction. They are pushing platforms that, along with dark nightmares of Soviet influence, even among older activists of Iran, have long been discarded, and are looked at as part of a history which brought us nothing more than destruction, and finally an Islamic Republic which today is not much different from Stalin's Soviet Union. Today when our people say we want a secular republic it means we want a government which not only is not Islamic-oriented, but it is not ideology-oriented, and is not ethnicity-oriented. In other word we do not wabt to discard negation of secularism by a religious state, to accept negation of secularism by an ethnic state, which is another version of a nonsecular state, because it approves of ethnic apartheid, just as Soviet Union was another version of a nonsecular state by being ideology-oriented.

But if Khomeini's Islamists brought us the souvenir of a backward religious state in the 21st Century, these ethnicists want to bring back an ethnic state for our people, at the time of demise of Stalinism and Communism, and are dreaming of Iraq's Kurdistan (a wholly different situation in remnants of Ottoman Empire which I have extensively discussed in my book about Kurdistan that is used to mislead Iranian Kurds as a pretext for the so-called Theory of Greater Kurdistan). They are waiting for Iran's situation to change a little bit towards freedom, and instead of helping the prodemocracy movement of Iran, by misusing the efforts of Iran's prodemocracy activists to disintegrate Iran. They are so shameless that they talk as representative of Kurdish people about the post-June 12th demonstrations of Tehran and other parts of Iran and send message as if Kurdistan is a separate country and as if they are the representative of that country instead of participating in the current movement along with other prodemocracy activists as the people of Kemanshah did in the memorial ceremony of Kianoush Asa, in a movement which emphasizes secularism that negates both Islamism and Ethnicism.

Iran is a country which is neither coming out of a war nor is it just a collection of regions wishing to form a modern state to decide whether they want to choose a canton-style confederation model like Switzerland or follow the model of federalism of the former colonies of the America forming the United States. The reason that I have personally even suggested provincial federalism for Iran which resembles US federal system was not based on any ethnic division and was not because of any illusion as to think of country-making (so-called nation-building) but it was solely because the existing Iran has had a modern state, although not a democratic one, for over 100 years, and our provinces that are the result of the 100-year development may be able to use provincial federalism to help the **checks and balances** to further grow democracy in Iran, not to grow ethnic hatred. Basically provincial federalism means that all three branches of government are elected offices in every province and are not appointed offices from the center (3).

Otherwise to resolve issues of the ethnic rights, whether one adopts the provincial federal model or a central state, is related to citizen rights in Iran and has nothing to do with federalism, and thus ethnic state is not a solution to those issues. If we end up sliding in the slope of tribal government, I also like many other Iranian political activists, will drop federalism altogether from my suggested platform, because I do not want federalism to be used as an excuse to break up Iran and turn Iran into another Yugoslavia, which is only the wish of colonialists and reactionaries, and is not the desire of Iran's freedom loving people, and we in the Iran's political movement feel no proximity with such colonial backward schemes and condemn any such endeavors to break up Iran's territorial integrity.

Fundamentally our argument against ethnic federalism is not because of impracticality. The point is that an ethnic state in one province or two or a region or in the whole country is reactionary. Paying attention to the ethnic demands in the areas of language and culture has nothing to do with having an ethnic state (4). The same way that paying attention to the religious demands has nothing to do with accepting a religious government, and in fact, it is the reverse, and ethnic or religious states are themselves the cause of ethnic and religious discrimination.

Any personal insults, threats, etc. is not a response to my discussions. Modern government was formed in Iran for more than a century ago after the Constitutional Revolution and we are not at the beginning of state-making to define our borders, and such issues to become our preoccupation, as some of these sect leaders want to push us that way, is against the interests of Iranian people and no foreign government should help such efforts which are condemned by Iran's pro-democracy movement and is viewed not much different from the wron support of Khomeini by some Western countries in 1979 at the expense of Iran's secular opposition groups. Even if we predict a situation like Yugoslavia in Iran, what we have learned from the experience of Iran's 1979 Revolution is that we made a mistake when we assumed the supporters of a religious government to be progressive, and this time we will not view those who are dreaming of ethnic state for Iran, as progressive, and will clearly draw our line separating ourselves from them, from now.

What is from the distant past of Iran in the Iranian plateau namely countries such as former Soviet Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan if decide to join Iran, in a bigger region, such a union will neither be an ethnic federation nor a provincial federation but it will be a new thing like European Union and has nothing to do with these discussions, or with the ridiculous games of separatists, to justify the disintegration of Iran, when the result will not be the strengthening of democracy, and if not constant civil war, in the best case will be an ethnic state like the state of Ardalans in Kurdistan in Medieval Iran which more resembles the state of Farmanfarmaeian rule in Fars province at the end of Qajar Dynasty, where they both, just like the power of clergy, belong to the old world, and reviving them in any part of Iran, is regressive, and a return to the past, and not progress, the same way Khomeini brought back the rule of clergy 30 years ago, which was a return in history, and was not modernism and progress.

A particular mistake that some Kurdish political friends in Iran makeو is that the Iraqi Kurdistan regional government has become a source of going astray for them, and now they say Shi'ite and Sunni Kurds of Iran should unite or they call for linguistic unity among the Kurds to unite Kurdistan, East Azerbaijan, Ilam and Kermanshah provinces of Iran into one region, planning for a Kurdistan regional government in Iran, similar to Iraq. If Iraqi Kurdistan has now Kurdish new television programs, Soviet Azerbaijan had all these decades ago. The issue of Kurds and Azeri of Iran is not these things, why are these sect leaders trying to mislead people of Kurdistan with these words to separate them from the large pro-democracy movement of people of Iran. If the sect leaders again cause the blood of Iranian people to spill because of these nonsense of ethnic state, there is no difference between them and Khomeini who brought destruction for our people for 30 years, with a retrogressive platform of a non-secular state.

Ethnic makeup of different parts of Iran has been formed the way it is because of the wars with the Ottomans and Russia and in Iran's previous and later history (5). Iran not only now but in the past 100 years has not been in a country-making (nation-making) situation and even during the 1979 Revolution, the movement did not have such a goal in its outlook, which some remnants of Komala and PDKI and together in Congress of Nationalities for Federal Iran (iranfederal.org) are trying to push by the help of foreign powers, by combining some provinces they want to separate from Iran. Stop these breakup schemes for Iran. Those activists among them, who had some respect in the Iranian movement, were political activists in Aryamehr University in Tehran at the time of the Shah and were not some people trying to create ethnic state in Iran, and were considered as Iranian political activists, because they were prodemocracy activists for Iran, and not because of being after breaking up Iran for ethnicism. Not even anybody knew these friends were Kurdish in those days, let alone to be pro-ethnic separation, when working with them. Moreovere, today Iran's new political movement is not after a revolution and is for peaceful change and the armed operations of the likes of Jundullah and armed groups in Kurdistan only hurt the growth of this movement unless they want to achive their goals by starting a war with Iran which I will discuss below.

Those who are after military attack on Iran, and hope Iran to be attacked to make small countries out of Iran, will only get the wrath of Iranian people, and will be marked for betrayal, even by Kurds and Azeris of Iran, just like those who because of cooperation with Saddam Hussein, got the mark of treason by Iranian people, and have been isolated from the Iranian movement. The Congress of Nationalities for Federal Iran (iranfederal.org) and remnants of Komala and PDKI better take their shop somewhere else and instead of getting money from foreign countries, join the civil rights movement of Iran. Times of Comintern and the foreign states making decisions for Iran has long passed and this is why Iranian movement after so many years remembers Dr. Mossadegh with such reverence. Don't do something to get the label of treason and betrayal of Iran forever. If the mistake of Pishevari and Ghazi Mohammad in the era of dominance of Stalinism in the international progressive movement, was understandable, the actions of remnants of Komala, PDKI, and Congress of Nationalities for Federal Iran (iranfederal.org) are not only unjustifiable but will be the mark of shame on the forehead of their leaders.

Forces and individuals belonging to the prodemocracy movement of Iran that are not agents of foreign powers should separate their way from these groups and should clearly state that they are after democratization of Iran. Using the models of provincial federalism in existing country of Iran is not for breaking up Iran, but is to grow democracy in Iran, and that is all. Even if this model of provincial federalism becomes something for separatists to misuse, I personally am ready to remove federalism from my suggested political platform altogether, instead of allowing it to give rise to a civil war in Iran. The leaders of these ethnicists have heard all these several times but again they translate federalism to ethnic federalism. I do not want to have any part in such federalism and if that is what they are looking for, one should vote negative to any proposal for federalism in any founding parliament in any future state for Iran. I personally and specifically until these groups have not been dissolved, or until the majority of supporters of federalism have not distanced themselves from ethnic federalism, will not support the position of federal republic for Iran. Repeating again, the issue for Iran, is not country-making (nation-making), to allow the merging of the four provinces of Kurdistan to create a new Kurdistan, so that it can become part of the Greater Kurdistan schemes of PKK later (6). No we will resist any such schemes that are the start of Iran's breakup.

Such ethnicist views were followed by some people for Azerbaijan, and a generation was destroyed. This is a wrong road, let's not try it again. The problem is not whether it is practical or not, the problem is that it is a wrong way for any force in Iran's democratic movement, which wastes the movement's energy on ethnic hatred, rather than on the growth of democracy. PJAK party is a living example of this error in Turkey, and Iran does not even have the problems of Turkey, when the Iran's branch of PKK, the PJAK, or Komala or PDKI, or Congress of Nationalities for Federal Iran (iranfederal.org) are prescribing such paths of going astray for our people. Theseactions have nothing to do with the freedom movement of Iran and will only destroy the new secular and democratic movement of Iran.

Hoping for a Democratic and Secular Futurist Republic in Iran,

Sam Ghandchi, Publisher/Editor
IRANSCOPE
http://www.iranscope.com
August 14, 2009



Footnotes:

1. http://tinyurl.com/p3f3ab
2. http://tinyurl.com/q37ywu
3. http://tinyurl.com/p8bv9f
4. http://tinyurl.com/ppr75a
5. http://tinyurl.com/rceagk
6. http://tinyurl.com/qzqaor



-------------------------------------------------------
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          Full Azerbaijan IGF feature (from Episode 163)        
A long cut of Kate Russell's piece about freedom of expression online and Azerbaijan.
          Ø±Ø§Ù‡ حل مسأله ملي در ايران        

راه حل مسأله ملي در ايران
سام قندچي

بنظر من دولت آينده ايران بايستي يک جمهوری آينده نگرفدرال، دموکراتيک، و سکولار باشد (1).

آيا با دستيابي به چنين دولت مترقي، مسأله زنان، کردها، بهائي ها، مرتدان ديني، يا همجنس بازان حل ميشود؟ هر چند بستگي به خصوصيات دولت مترقي آينده پيشرفت در اين عرصه ها نيز به درجات مختلف تسهيل خواهد شد، ولي اساساً خير اين مسائل با تغيير دولت حل نخواهند شد.

چرا؟ چون حل اين مسائل هم به دولت و هم به جامعه مرتبط هستند.

اين حقيقت مهمي است که جنبش فمينيستي ايران 28 سال پيش در اولين تظاهرات بعد از انقلاب وقتي هم جمهوري اسلامي و هم اپوزيسيون که حقوق زنان را ناديده گرفتند، آموخت، و سالها اين جنبش تخطئه هم جمهوري اسلامي و هم اپوزيسيون که حتي لغت فمينيسم را بد ميدانستند، تحمل کرد، تا امروز هم جمهوري اسلامي و هم اپوزيسيون نه تنها به جنبش فمينيستي احترام ميگذارند، بلکه خواستهاي آن را خيلي جدي ميگيرند، و هم دولت کنوني و هم مناديان دولت فردا ياد گرفته اند که آنها هستند که بايد به خواستهاي جنبش فمينيستي گوش فرا دهند و نه آنکه جنبش فمينيستي آنان را راضي کند.

جنبش هاي ملي در ايران نيز وضعيت مشابهي دارند. اين جنبش ها درباره احساسات ملي هستند (2).

علت حرکت هاي مردم در نقاطي مانند کردستان بعد از تأسيس جمهوري اسلامي نه تجزيه طلبي بود و نه مهاجرت عده اي کمونيست از تهران به آن نقاط و برداشتن اسلحه، و اصلاً ويژگي اين جنبش ها مسلحانه بودن آنها نبود، هر چند مقاومت مردم در اين مناطق در مقابل سرکوب نظامي در خواست هاي اتنيک مردم در آن نقاط در سال 1359 شکل مسلحانه گرفت. جنبش مردم در آذربايجان نيز در اعتراض به توهين به آيت الله شريعتمداري در واقع بر سر حمله دولت جديد به ويژگي هاي اتنيک وضع مشابهي بود، و هنوز هم بعد از 28 سال اين مبارزات ادامه دارد و ويژيگي آنها هم نه تجزيه طلبي است و نه مسلحانه بودن (3) .

جالب است که حتي دولت جمهوري اسلامي نيز در سالهاي اول انقلاب هنگام سرکوب نظامي در کردستان مسأله تجزيه طلبي را از سوي اين جنبش مطرح نميکرد. بحث تجزيه طلبي به دوران 21 آذر سال 1324 بازميگردد و در زمانهاي مختلف بخاطر دخالت هاي خارجي در ايران مطرح شده است ولي ربطي به جنبش اتنيسيستي مردم ندارد و فقط کوششي در سوء استفاده از آن است (4).

فدرال بودن دولت نظير سکولار بودن دولت يا دموکراتيک بودن آن به جنبش زنان يا به جنبش هاي ملي کمک ميکند ولي اصلاً هيچکدام از اين خصوصيات دولت مسائل ملي در جامعه را حل نميکند، بويژه آنکه ديگر در عصر گلوباليسم مسأله ملي اساساً مسأله اتنيک است و نه آنکه مثل قرن هجدهم مسأله ساختن دولتهاي ملي باشد (5).

سؤال ميشود پس چرا بعد از سقوط شوروي در اروپاي شرقي مسأله ملي بصورت ايجاد دولتهاي ملي طرح شد. پاسخ اين است که در اروپاي شرقي مسأله ديکتاتوري رژيم شوروي و دولت هاي تابع آن به همراه اجحافات شديد ملي در ميان خود مردم در اين کشورها هم زمان براي سالهاي متمادي ادامه داشته است و جنبش مدني اتنيک نيز در اين جوامع رشدي نداشته است و به همين علت فروپاشي ديکتاتوري شوروي به چنين نتيجه اي در اين عصر گلوباليسم، با وجود آنکه اساساً دوران شکل گيري دولت هاي ملي سالهاست سپري شده است و مسأله ملي به مسأله اي اتنيک تبديل شده است، منجر شده است.

در ايران هردو اين شرايط وجود ندارد. نه اجحافات شديد ملي در ميان مردم ريشه چنداني دارد و نه آنکه جنبش مدني اتنيک غايب است. در واقع اگر ايران مانند کشورهاي اروپاي شرقي بود، بعد از سقوط رژيم تجربه در کردستان ميبايست فارس کشي در آن خطه ميبود و نه همکاري نيروهاي مترقي فارس و کرد و ترک در برابر سرکوب رژيم جمهوري اسلامي (6).
يکي از نتايج درک غلط تحولات ملي در اروپاي شرقي بعد از سقوط شوروي و دولت هاي بلوک شرق درميان دو دسته متضاد از ناسيوناليست هاي افراطي ايران اين بوده است که دسته اول به اين تصور برسند که گوئي بعد از آزادي ايران از جمهوري اسلامي مسأله ايران تجزيه طلبي است و دسته ديگري نيز در قطب مخالف فکر ميکنند که جدا شدن و استقلال بخش هائي از ايران راه حل خواهد بود (7).
متأسفانه دعواي اتنيک به غلط به بحث بر سر فدراليسم در ايران مبدل شده است وقتي که اصلاً درستي يا نادرستي فدراليسم براي ايران ربطي به مسأله اتنيک ندارد. دوران دولت ملي ساختن سپري شده است (8) .
فعاليت براي انتخابات استاني و شهري و شکل دادن سيستم فدرالي وظيفه و بحث گروه هاي سياسي است و خواهد بود و نبايد محدود به گروه هاي سياسي اي شود که خود را بيشتر با خواستهاي اتنيک نزديک ميبينند. در واقع گروه هاي سياسي بايستي خود را با پلاتفرم سياسي و عقيدتي تعريف کنند و نه با خواستهاي اتنيک. به هر حال همانطور که گروه هاي سياسي در رابطه با مسأله زنان نظرات خاص خود را خواهند داشت در رابطه با مسائل اتنيک هم خواهند داشت ولي جنبش اتنيسيتي نظير جنبش فمينيستي با گروه هاي سياسي تعريف نميشود.
جنبش اتنيسيستي ايران خواستهاي زباني و فرهنگي خود را هر چه روشن تر در جامعه طرح کرده و ميکند و منتظر گروه هاي سياسي مختلف و موافقت يا مخالفت آنها نيست. اين خواستها شامل اضافه کردن خط آذري، کردي، بلوچي، عربي به مدارکي که مردم استفاده ميکنند، ميباشد. در آمريکا امروز مثلاً در بسياري ادارت نه تنها خط اسپانيولي و چيني بلکه حتي خط فارسي هم براي بسياري از مطالب در ادارات اضافه شده است.
همچنين فراهم آوردن امکانات تحصيلي به زبان هاي مختلفي که در ايران تکلم ميشود بايستي در ايران گسترش يابد. تأمين بودجه براي تشکيلاتهاي فرهنگي و سياسي به همين زبانها و نه فقط در آذربايجان و کردستان و بلوچستان بلکه در همه ايران. اتفاقاً فراهم کردن اينگونه امکانات در اين عصر تکنولوژي هاي پيشرفته بسيار ساده است و نبايستي از پاسخ به اين درخواست هاي اتنيک سرباز زد.
امروز دوران 200 سال پيش تأسيس آمريکا نيست که جامعه مجبور بود يونيفورم کردن اتنيک را براي امکانپذير کردن پيشرفت در پيش بگيرد و نه تنها رشد تنوع اتنيکي امکانپذير است بلکه به نفع جامعه است و نبايستي به اين خواستهاي بحق مردم انگ تجزيه طلبي زد. به هر حال انگ ها به جنبش اتنيسيستي همانگونه که به جنبش فمينيستي زده شد، زده خواهد شد، ولي اين جنبش راه آينده در ايران است و چه امروز در ايران تحت سيطره جمهوري اسلامي و چه در رژيمي مترقي در آينده، اين جنبش سيماي آينده ايران را رقم خواهد زد.
جنبش اتنيسيستي ايران از هم اکنون در نقاطي مثل سنندج سالهاست که برنامه آدم برفي را اجرا کرده است و در آذربايجان سالگرد بابک خرمدين را جشن گرفته است و و در تهران انجمن هاي کرد ها و آدربايجاني ها سالهاست که فعالند و همه اين ها بيان کوششهاي مختلف جنبش اتنيسيستي چند دهه گذشته در ايران است.
با اميد موفقيت هاي بيشتر براي جنبش اتنيسيستي ايران
سام قندچي، ناشر و سردبير
ايرانسکوپ
http://www.iranscope.com/
18 دي 1386
January 8, 2008



پاورقي ها:

1. http://www.ghandchi.com/411-FuturistRepublic-plus.htm
2. http://www.ghandchi.com/342-KurdFed-plus.htm
3. http://www.ghandchi.com/444-azerbaijan-plus.htm
4. http://www.ghandchi.com/476-KurdishActivists-plus.htm
5. http://www.ghandchi.com/434-NationStates.htm
6. http://www.ghandchi.com/362-FederalismRights-plus.htm
7. http://www.ghandchi.com/478-GreaterKurdistanPanacea.htm
8. http://www.ghandchi.com/429-FederalismNotEthnic-plus.htm

کردها و شکل گيري دولت مرکزي در ايران
http://www.ghandchi.com/700-KurdsIran.htm

Kurds & Formation of Central Government in Iran
http://www.ghandchi.com/700-KurdsIranEng.htm


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          10 Embargo Senjata Terlama di Dunia        
Mike PortalEmbargo senjata terhadap suatu negara atau kelompok diberlakukan oleh negara-negara atau organisasi internasional. Negara atau organisasi internasional tersebut memandang embargo senjata sebagai jalan untuk menciptakan perdamaian dan keamanan. Berikut sepuluh embargo senjata terlama oleh Uni Eropa (UE) dan Perserikatan Bangsa-bangsa (PBB) yang hingga kini masih berlaku.


Embargo senjata PBB dan UE atas Pantai Gading (November 2004 - sekarang)

Embargo senjata atas Pantai Gading diberlakukan sejak tahun 2004 oleh PBB dan UE sebagai reaksi atas perang saudara yang terjadi di negara Afrika Barat ini.

Parade Angkatan Bersenjata Pantai Gading 2013.

Dewan Keamanan PBB mengembargo pasokan senjata dan peralatan terkait kepada Pantai Gading pada November 2004, sedangkan embargo senjata oleh UE mulai berlaku sejak bulan Desember 2004. Embargo senjata PBB atas Pantai Gading telah beberapa kali diperbarui dan diperpanjang, dan embargo terbaru berlaku hingga April 2015.


Embargo senjata UE atas Zimbabwe (Februari 2002 - sekarang)

UE memberlakukan embargo senjata atas Zimbabwe pada bulan Februari 2002 sebagai reaksi terhadap pelanggaran HAM berat di negara ini. Embargo meliputi penjualan, pasokan atau bantuan teknis terkait peralatan atau sistem militer.

Tentara Zimbabwe saat hari angkatan bersenjata. 

Pada Februari 2014 lalu embargo UE kembali diperpanjang sampai Februari 2015. Meskipun terkena sanksi perjalanan dan keuangan oleh PBB, namun PBB tidak memberlakukan embargo senjata atas Zimbabwe.


Embargo senjata UE atas Sudan (Maret 1994 - sekarang)

Embargo senjata di Sudan diberlakukan oleh UE pada bulan Maret 1994 sebagai reaksi terhadap perang saudara di negara itu. Embargo kemudian diubah dan diperkuat lagi dengan keputusan yang dibuat pada tahun 2004.

Pengawal Presiden Sudah Selatan

Pada bulan Juli 2004, PBB juga melarang pasokan senjata kepada seluruh organisasi non-pemerintah dan individu di wilayah Darfur di Sudan. Menyusul pembentukan Sudan Selatan, UE juga memperbarui embargo agar berlaku untuk kedua negara tersebut.


Embargo senjata UE atas Republik Demokratik Kongo (April 1993 - sekarang)

UE memberlakukan embargo senjata atas Republik Demokratik Kongo pada bulan April 1993. Embargo sudah beberapa kali diubah dan diperpanjang dan hingga kini masih berlaku.

Kelompok bersenjata non-pemerintah (seragam hijau) di Republik Demokratik Kongo. 

PBB juga memberlakukan embargo senjata terhadap kelompok bersenjata dan milisi Kongo dengan menghentikan pasokan atau transfer senjata dan peralatan terkait atau bantuan pelatihan untuk kelompok-kelompok milisi aktif di negera tersebut.


Embargo senjata PBB atas Liberia (November 1992 - sekarang)

Embargo senjata yang diberlakukan PBB dan UE atas Liberia telah berlangsung lebih dari dua dekade. PBB memberlakukan embargo senjata di Liberia pada tahun 1992 sebagai reaksi atas perang saudara di Liberia, sedangkan embargo senjata UE mulai berlaku sejak Mei 2001.

Seorang polisi militer Liberia berdiri di hari Angkatan Bersenjata Liberia, 2010.

Embargo senjata PBB kemudian dicabut pada tahun 2001 dengan diganti dengan embargo baru, yang kemudian diperbarui melalui resolusi. Meskipun sudah ada pembebasan (parsial) dalam peraturannya, namun embargo senjata PBB atas Liberia masih berlanjut.


Embargo senjata OSCE atas Armenia dan Azerbaijan (Februari 1992 - sekarang)

Organisasi untuk Keamanan dan Kerjasama di Eropa (OSCE) memberlakukan embargo senjata atas Armenia dan Azerbaijan pada awal tahun 1992 sebagai reaksi terhadap perjuangan bersenjata antara bangsa-bangsa di wilayah Nagorno-Karabakh (diakui internasional sebagai wilayah Azerbaijan).

Diakui internasional masuk ke wilayah Azerbaijan, namun Nagorno-Karabakh memiliki pemerintahan sendiri.
Diakui internasional masuk ke wilayah Azerbaijan, namun Nagorno-Karabakh memiliki pemerintahan sendiri.
Embargo senjata yang kini masih berlaku, memperketat pasokan senjata dan amunisi kepada angakatan bersenjata yang terlibat di wilayah tersebut. Baik PBB dan UE, memberlakukan embargo senjata atas Armenia dan Azerbaijan.


Embargo senjata PBB atas Somalia (Januari 1992 - sekarang)

Embargo senjata atas Somalia diberlakukan oleh PBB pada Januari 1992 sebagai respon terhadap perang dan krisis kemanusiaan di negara itu.

Tentara Somalia

Pada bulan Desember 2002, UE juga memberlakukan embargo senjata terhadap Somalia, tetapi kemudian diperingan, yaitu diperbolehkan mengeskpor senjata ke Pasukan Pemerintah Somalia untuk pelatihan militer dan misi kemanusiaan.


Embargo senjata UE atas Myanmar (1990 - sekarang)

Embargo senjata UE atas Myanmar (sebelumnya Burma) berlaku sejak tahun 1990, meliputi senjata dan amunisi, komponen serta peralatan pendukung untuk senjata dan non-senjata, transfer teknologi, perbaikan dan pemeliharaan persenjataan.

Tentara Myanmar

Kemudian pada tahun 2013 UE mencabut semua sanksi terhadap Myanmar, kecuali senjata sebagai tanggapan atas perkembangan politik di Myanmar. Resolusi terbaru yang berlaku sekarang adalah memperpanjang embargo senjata hingga April 2015.


Embargo senjata PBB dan UE atas Irak (Agustus 1990 - sekarang)

PBB dan UE memberlakukan embargo senjata atas Irak pada tahun 1990 setelah Irak menginvasi Kuwait pada bulan Agustus 1990. UE memberikan keringanan antara tahun 2003-2004, sementara PBB tetap memberlakukan sehingga embargo senjata atas Irak menjadi embargo terlama kedua di dunia saat ini.

Tentara Irak berdiri di luar sebuah kompleks militer Irak di Buhriz, Irak.

Setelah jatuhnya pemerintahan Irak yang dipimpin Saddam Hussein pada tahun 2003, PBB mencabut sanksi-sanksi perdagangan dan pembatasan atas peralatan terkait yang diperlukan pemerintah Irak yang baru dibentuk pada tahun 2006, namun selain itu embargo senjata masih tetap diberlakukan. UE sendiri memberikan kelonggaran terhadap Irak untuk mendapatkan senjata dan peralatan terkait yang diperlukan oleh pemerintahan baru Irak.


Embargo senjata UE atas China (Juni 1989 - sekarang)

Embargo senjata yang diberlakukan oleh Uni Eropa atas China merupakan hasil dari deklarasi yang dibuat oleh UE di Madrid pada 27 Juni 1989 sebagai protes atas tragedi Lapangan Tiananmen tahun 1989, sekaligus menjadi embargo senjata terlama di dunia saat ini.

Tentara China saat parade 12 Juli 2000

UE sendiri tidak memiliki ketentuan tentang kategori senjata seperti apa yang tidak boleh dikirim ke China. Akibatnya negara-negara anggota UE menafsirkan embargo sesuai dengan hukum nasional mereka, regulasi dan proses pengambilan keputusan, oleh karena itu beberapa negara anggota UE masih mengekspor beberapa alat pertahanan ke China.

Disamping sepuluh negara-negara di atas, hingga saat ini embargo senjata juga masih diberlakukan kepada beberapa negara; Iran dan Korea Utara (PBB dan UE - sejak 2006),  Eritrea (PBB dan UE -sejak 2010), Guinea (UE - sejak 2009), dan Hizbullah (PBB dan UE - sejak 2006). Indonesia sendiri pernah diembargo senjata oleh Pemerintah Amerika Serikat mulai tahun 1999 hingga 2005 terkait tuduhan pelanggaran HAM di Timor Timur.



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          Poldoore & Akshin Alizadeh on a 7 Inch        

Two Cold Busted heavyweights have joined forces, fusing their respective most popular songs onto one fiery seven-inch single. Sparks indeed fly as prolific Belgian artist Poldoore contributes his soulful “But I Do” while Akshin Alizadeh – Cold Busted’s man from Azerbaijan – delivers the funky paean “Woman”, both newly remastered for vinyl. Remastered for Vinyl…

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          Repress: Woman of the Ghetto (Akshin Alizadeh Mixes)        

Akshin Alizadeh, the man from Azerbaijan, is the lucky one tapped from the label’s roster to remix Marlena Shaw’s “Woman of the Ghetto.” The producer’s strong funk and nu-jazz influences, as well as his ability to combine funky grooves with punchy hip-hop beats, are on full display once again. Pink Fluorescent Vinyl (300 Copies) Hand…

The post Repress: Woman of the Ghetto (Akshin Alizadeh Mixes) appeared first on COLD BUSTED.


          Bandar Udara London Gatwick        
Bandar Udara London Gatwick (IATA: LGW, ICAO: EGKK) merupakan bandar udara terbesar ke-2 dan tersibuk ke-2 di London setelah Heathrow. Gatwick juga merupakan bandar udara tersibuk dengan landasan pacu tunggal, dan bandar udara tersibuk ke-22 (ke-7 berdasarkan jumlah penumpang internasional) di dunia berdasarkan jumlah penumpang per tahunnya. Terletak di Crawley, West Sussex (sebenarnya Charlwood, Surrey) 2.7 nm (5 km atau 3 mil) utara dari pusat kora, dan 24.7 nm (46 km atau 28 mil) selatan London, dan 40 km utara Brighton.London Gatwick memiliki CAA Public USE Aerodrome Licence (Nomor P528) yang mengizinkan penerbangan transport penumpang atau untuk instruksi
penerbangan.Dengan sekitar 200 destinasi, bandar udara ini telah menangani lebih dari 34 juta penumpang dengan 263,363 pergerakan pesawat pada 2006.Banyak penerbangan dari dan menuju Amerika Serikat menggunakan Gatwick karena banyaknya larangan pada penerbangan Trans-Atlantik dari Heathrow. Bandar udara ini merupakan hub kedua bagi British Airways dan Virgin Atlantic.

Maskapai Penerbangan dan Kota Tujuan
Terminal Utara
Pengguna utama Terminal Utara adalah British Airways dan operator Oneworld lainnya.
Adria Airways (Ljubljana)
Air Comet (Madrid)
Air France
Air France dioperasikan oleh Brit Air (Strasbourg)
Air Namibia (Windhoek)
Air Southwest (Newquay, Plymouth)
Arkia Israel Airlines (Tel Aviv)
American Airlines (Dallas/Fort Worth, Raleigh/Durham [diakhiri 29 Maret])
Astraeus (Accra, Alghero, Aqaba, Aswan, Banjul, Bastia, Bergen, Bodrum, Brescia, Calvi, Chambery, Corfu, Deer Lake, Dubrovnik, El Alamein, Fagernes, Freetown, Geneva, Hassi Messaoud, Heraklion, Kalamata, Kefallinia, Kuusamo, Las Palmos, Malabo, Malaga, Monrovia, Murcia, Murmansk, Mykonos, Olbia, Paphos, Preveza,Santorini, St. John's, Salzburg, Sharm El Sheikh, Split, Taba, Tenerife, Thira,Verona,Volus, Uralsk, Zadar, Zakinthos)
Atlas Blue (Marrakech)
British Airways (Aberdeen, Algiers [diakhiri 30 Maret], Amsterdam, Antalya [dimulaii 30 Maret], Antigua, Atlanta, Barcelona, Bari, Bermuda, Bologna, Bordeaux, Bridgetown, Cagliari, Catania, Dallas/Fort Worth [diakhiri 30 Maret], Dresden, Dublin, Dubrovnik, Edinburgh, Geneva, Genoa [dimulai 30 Maret], Glasgow-International, Grenada, Grenoble, Houston-Intercontinental [diakhiri 30 Maret], Izmir, Jersey, Kingston, Krakow, Luxembourg, Lyon-Satolas [seasonal], Madrid, Manchester, Marseille, Naples, Newquay, Nice, Orlando, Pisa, Poznan [begins 30 March], Port of Spain, Prague, Priština, Reykjavik-Keflavik, Rome-Fiumicino, Salzburg, Sarajevo, St Lucia, Split, Tampa, Tirana, Thessaloniki, Tobago, Toulouse, Turin, Varna, Venice, Verona, Warsaw [dimulai 30 Maret], Zürich)
British Airways operated by GB Airways (Agadir, Ajaccio, Alicante, Arrecife, Bastia, Corfu, Dalaman, Faro, Fez, Funchal, Gibraltar, Heraklion, Hurghada, Ibiza, Innsbruck, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Mahon, Malaga, Malta, Marrakech, Montpellier, Mykonos, Nantes, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Rhodes, Sharm el Sheikh, Tenerife South, Tunis)
Brussels Airlines (Brussels)
Clickair (Seville)
Continental Airlines (Cleveland [seasonal], Houston-Intercontinental, Newark)
Cyprus Turkish Airlines (Antalya, Dalaman)
Daallo Airlines (Djibouti)
Delta Air Lines (Atlanta, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, New York-JFK)
Emirates (Dubai)
First Choice Airways (Agadir, Alicante, Almeria, Antayla, Antigua, Arrecife, Aruba, Banjul, Barcelona, Bodrum, Bourgas, Cancún, Chania, Colombo, Corfu, Dalaman, Dubrovnik, Faro, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Geneva, Goa, Grenoble, Heraklion, Holguin, Ibiza, Innsbruck, Kalamata, Kefallinia, Kittala, Kos, Krakow, Liberia (CR), Larnaca, Las Palmas, Ljubljana, Mahon, Malaga, Male, Malta, Mitilini, Mombasa, Monastir, Naples, Orlando-Sanford, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Porlamar, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Porlamar, Puerto Plata, Reus, Rhodes, Salzburg, Sharm el Sheikh, St. Thomas, Skiathos, Taba, Tel Aviv, Tenerife, Thessaloniki, Toulouse, Turin, Varadero, Varna, Verona, Zadar, Zakynthos)
FlyLal (Vilnius)
GB Airways Charter (Aqaba, Aswan, Geneva, Kittilla, Kuusamo, Luxor, Lyon, Salzburg)
Israir (Tel Aviv)
Malév Hungarian Airlines (Budapest)
Nationwide Airlines (Johannesburg)
Oman Air (Muscat [dimulai 15 November])
TAROM (Cluj Napoca)
Virgin Nigeria (Lagos)

Terminal Selatan
Aer Lingus (Dublin)
African Safari Airways (Mombasa)
Afriqiyah Airways (Tripoli)
Air Zimbabwe (Harare)
Air Malta (Catania, Malta)
Air Transat (Calgary, Fredericton [begins 6 May], Halifax [dimulai 6 Mei], Montréal, Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver)
airBaltic (Riga, Vilnius)
Alexandair (Heraklion, Kos)
Aurigny Air (Guernsey)
Azerbaijan Airlines (Baku)
Belavia (Minsk)
BH Air (Bourgas, Plovdiv, Sofia, Varna)
BritishJET (Malta)
Bulgaria Air (Sofia, Varna)
Centralwings (Krakow, Warsaw, Wroclaw)
Croatia Airlines (Dubrovnik, Pula, Split)
Cubana de Aviación (Havana, Holguin)
easyJet (Alicante, Almeria, Amsterdam, Athens, Barcelona, Belfast-International, Berlin-Schönefeld, Bucharest-Băneasa, Budapest, Cologne/Bonn, Edinburgh, Faro, Gdansk, Geneva, Glasgow-International, Ibiza, Inverness, Innsbruck [begins 14 December], Krakow, La Rochelle, Lisbon, Madrid, Malaga, Marrakech, Marseille, Menorca, Milan-Linate, Milan-Malpensa, Nice, Olbia, Palermo, Palma de Mallorca, Pisa, Prague, Rome-Ciampino, Sofia, Split, Toulouse, Valencia, Venice)
Estonian Air (Tallinn)
Eurocypria Airlines (Larnaca, Paphos)
European Aviation Air Charter (Rimini)
Flybe (Belfast-City, Guernsey, Inverness, Isle of Man, Jersey)
Flyglobespan (Calgary [dimulai 13 Mei], Vancouver [dimulai 13 Mei]) [seasonal]
Free Bird Airlines (Antalya, Dalaman)
Ghana International Airlines (Accra)
Germanwings (Hamburg)
Iberia
operated by Air Nostrum (Mahon)
Jet2.com (Newcastle)
Karthago Airlines (Monastir)
KD Avia (Kaliningrad)
LTE International Airways (Las Palmas, Palma, Tenerife)
Meridiana (Cagliari, Florence, Olbia)
Monarch Airlines (scheduled) (Alicante, Arrecife, Faro, Granada, Ibiza, Lisbon, Malaga, Murcia, Tenerife)
Monarch Airlines (charter) (Alicante, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Banjul, Barbados, Barcelona, Bodrum, Calgary, Cancún, Chania, Colombo, Corfu, Faro, Fuerteventura, Geneva, Goa, Grenoble, Heraklion, Ibiza, Innsbruck, Kos, Lanzarote, Las Palmas, Luxor, Lyon, Mahon, Malaga, Male, Mombasa, Naples, Orlando-Sanford, Palma, Paphos, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Salzburg, Sharm el Sheikh, Skiathos, Sofio, Taba, Tenerife, Toulouse, Trivandrum, Turin, Venice, Verona, Zacinthos)
MyTravel Airways (Agadir, Almeria, Arrecife, Bodrum, Bourgas, Calgary, Cancun, Corfu, Dalaman, Edmonton, Fuerteventura, Gerona, Goa, Heraklion, Hurghada, Ibiza, Kefallinia, Kos, La Romana, Las Palmas, Mahon, Malaga, Male, Monastir, Montego Bay, Orlando-Sanford, Palma, Paphos, Puerto Plata, Reus, Rhodes, Salzburg, Tenerife, Toronto-Pearson, Turin, Vancouver, Zakinthos)
Northwest Airlines (Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul)
Norwegian Air Shuttle (Oslo, Stavanger)
Nouvelair Tunisia (Djerba, Monastir)
Oasis Hong Kong Airlines (Hong Kong)
Olympic Airlines (Athens, Thessaloniki)
Onur Air (Bodrum, Dalaman)
Pegasus Airlines (Dalaman)
Qatar Airways (Doha)
Rossiya (St. Petersburg)
Ryanair (Cork, Dublin, Shannon)
Scandinavian Airlines System (Aalesund, Bergen)
SATA International (Ponta Delgada)
Sterling Airlines (Aalborg, Billund, Copenhagen, Oslo, Stockholm-Arlanda)
Sudan Airways (Khartoum)
TAP Portugal (Funchal, Lisbon, Porto)
Thomsonfly (Agadir, Alghero, Alicante, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Barbados, Bodrum, Bourgas, Cancun, Catania, Chania, Corfu, Dalaman, Dubrovnik, Enontekio, Faro, Figari, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Geneva, Gerona, Goa, Heraklion, Hurghada, Ibiza, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kos, Las Palmas, Lamezia, Larnaca, Las Palmas, Luxor, Mahon, Malaga, Malta, Marsa Alam, Mombasa, Monastir, Montego Bay, Niš [seasonal], Orlando-Sanford, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Plovdiv, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Reus, Rovaniemi, Salzburg, Sharm el Sheikh, Sofia, Tenerife, Thessaloniki, Toulouse, Turin, Varadero, Varna, Verona, Zakynthos)
Thomas Cook Airlines (Agadir, Alicante, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Banjul, Barbados, Bodrum, Bourgas, Calgary, Cancun, Cayo Coco, Corfu, Cunagua, Dalaman, Faro, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Geneva, Halifax, Hassi Messaoud, Heraklion, Ibiza, Innsbruck, Izmir, Kalamata, Kefallinia, Kos, Larnaca, Las Palmas, Lyon, Mahon, Malaga, Malta, Monastir, Montréal, Munich, Orlando-Sanford, Ottawa, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Plovdiv, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Reus, Rhodes, Salzburg, Sharm el Sheikh, Skiathos, Sofia, Split, Tenerife, Thessaloniki, Thira, Toronto-Pearson, Toulouse, Turin, Vancouver, Varadero, Verona, Zakinthos)
Ukraine International Airlines (Kiev-Boryspil)
US Airways (Charlotte, Philadelphia)
Viking Airlines (Heraklion)
Virgin Atlantic (Antigua, Barbados [diakhiri 11 Desember/dimulai 17 Maret], Grenada, Havana, Kingston, Las Vegas, Montego Bay, Orlando, St Lucia, Tobago)
Wizz Air (Katowice [dimulai 31 Januari])
XL Airways (Alicante, Algarve, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Athens, Barbados, Bastia, Bodrum, Brescia, Cagliari, Catania, Chania, Corfu, Dalaman, Faro, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Goa, Grenada, Heraklion, Holguin, Hurghada, Kalamata, Kavala, Kefallina, Kos, Larnaca, Las Palmas, Lemnos, Mahon, Malaga, Malta, Marsa Alam, Mitilini, Mombasa, Murcia, Mykonos, Naples, Orlando-Sanford, Palma, Paphos, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Pula, Punta Cana, Rhodes, Samos, Santa Clara, Sharm el Sheikh, Skiathos, St. Kitts,St.lucia, Taba, Tenerife, Thessaloniki, Thira, Tobago, Volos, Zakinthos)
Zoom Airlines (Kanada) (Calgary, Edmonton, Halifax, Montréal, Ottawa, Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver, Winnipeg)
Zoom Airlines (UK) (Bermuda, New York-JFK)

Terminal Selatan
Terminal Selatan dibanguna selama konstruksi Bandar Udara London Gatwick pada tahun 1956-1958.
African Safari Airways (Mombasa)
Afriqiyah Airways (Tripoli)
Air Atlanta Europe (Faro, Hurghada, Paphos, Orlando-Sanford, Sharm el-Sheikh)
Air Zimbabwe (Harare)
Air Malta (Catania, Malta)
Air Transat (Calgary, Halifax, Montréal, Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver)
airBaltic (Riga, Vilnius)
Alexandair (Heralion, Kos)
Aurigny Air (Guernsey)
Azerbaijan Airlines (Baku)
Belavia (Minsk)
BH Air (Bourgas, Plovdiv, Sofia, Varna)
BritishJET (Malta)
Bulgaria Air (Sofia, Varna)
Centralwings (Krakow, Warsaw, Wroclaw)
Continental Airlines (Cleveland [seasonal], Houston-Intercontinental, Newark)[dipindahkan ke Terminal Utara pada Juni 2007]
Croatia Airlines (Dubrovnik, Pula, Split)
Cubana de Aviación (Havana, Holguin)
easyJet (Alicante, Almeria, Amsterdam, Athens, Barcelona, Belfast-International, Berlin-Schönefeld, Budapest, Cologne/Bonn, Edinburgh, Faro, Fez [begins September 2007], Geneva, Glasgow-International, Ibiza, Inverness, Krakow [begins September 2007], La Rochelle [begins July 14, 2007], Madrid, Malaga, Marrakech, Marseille, Milan-Linate, Milan-Malpensa, Nice, Olbia, Palermo [begins June 18, 2007], Palma de Mallorca, Pisa, Prague, Rome-Ciampino, Split, Toulouse, Valencia, Venice)
Estonian Air (Tallinn)
Eurocypria Airlines (Larnaca, Paphos)
European Aviation Air Charter (Rimini)
Flybe (Belfast-City, Bergerac, Guernsey, Inverness, Isle of Man, Jersey)
Flyglobespan (Calgary, Toronto-Hamilton, Vancouver)
FlyLal (Vilnius)
Free Bird Airlines (Antalya, Dalaman)
Futura (Tenerife)
Ghana International Airlines (Accra)
Germanwings (Hamburg)
Iberia
operated by Air Nostrum (Mahon)
Jet2.com (Newcastle)
Karthago Airlines (Monastir)
LTE International Airways (Las Palmas, Palma, Tenerife)
Meridiana (Cagliari, Florence, Olbia)
Monarch Airlines (Alicante, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Banjul, Barbados, Barcelona, Bodrum, Calgary, Cancún, Chania, Colombo, Corfu, Faro, Fuerteventura, Geneva, Goa, Grenoble, Heraklion, Ibiza, Innsbruck, Kos, Lanzarote, Las Palmas, Luxor, Lyon, Mahon, Malaga, Male, Mombasa, Naples, Orlando-Sanford, Palma, Paphos, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Salzburg, Sharm el Sheikh, Skiathos, Sofio, Taba, Tenerife, Toulouse, Trivandrum, Turin, Venice, Verona, Zakyinthos)
Monarch Airlines (Alicante, Faro, Granada, Lisbon, Malaga)
MyTravel Airways (Agadir, Almeria, Arrecife, Bodrum, Bourgas, Calgary, Cancun, Corfu, Dalaman, Fuerteventura, Gerona, Goa, Heraklion, Hurghada, Ibiza, Kefallinia, Kos, La Romana, Las Palmas, Mahon, Malaga, Male, Monastir, Montego Bay, Orlando-Sanford, Palma, Paphos, Puerto Plata, Reus, Rhodes, Salzburg, Tenerife, Toronto-Pearson, Turin, Vancouver, Zakynthos)
Northwest Airlines (Detroit, Minneapolis/St. Paul)
Nouvelair Tunisia (Djerba, Monastir)
Oasis Hong Kong Airlines (Hong Kong)
Olympic Airlines (Athens, Thessaloniki)
Onur Air (Bodrum, Dalaman)
Pegasus Airlines (Dalaman)
Qatar Airways (Doha)
Rossiya Airlines (St. Petersburg)
Ryanair (Cork, Dublin, Shannon)
Scandinavian Airlines System (Aalesund [dimulai pada 1 Juni 2007], Bergen)
SATA International (Ponta Delgada)
Sterling Airlines (Aalborg, Billund, Copenhagen, Stockholm-Arlanda)
Sudan Airways (Khartoum)
TAP Portugal (Funchal, Lisbon, Porto)
Thomsonfly (Agadir, Alghero, Alicante, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Barbados, Bodrum, Bourgas, Cancun, Catania, Chania, Corfu, Dalaman, Dubrovnik, Enontekio, Faro, Figari, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Geneva, Gerona, Goa, Heraklion, Hurghada, Ibiza, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kos, La Palma [begins November 2007], Lamezia, Larnaca, Las Palmas, Luxor, Mahon, Malaga, Malta, Marsa Alam, Mombasa, Monastir, Montego Bay, Niš [seasonal], Orlando-Sanford, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Plovdiv, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Reus, Rovaniemi, Salzburg, Sharm el Sheikh, Sofia, Tenerife, Thessaloniki, Toulouse, Turin, Varadero, Varna, Verona, Zakynthos)
Thomas Cook Airlines (Agadir, Alicante, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Banjul, Barbados, Bodrum, Bourgas, Calgary, Cancun, Cayo Coco, Corfu, Cunagua, Dalaman, Faro, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Geneva, Halifax, Hassi Messaoud, Heraklion, Ibiza, Innsbruck, Izmir, Kalamata, Kefallinia, Kos, Larnaca, Las Palmas, Lyon, Mahon, Malaga, Malta, Monastir, Montréal, Munich, Orlando-Sanford, Ottawa, Palma de Mallorca, Paphos, Plovdiv, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Reus, Rhodes, Salzburg, Sharm el Sheikh, Skiathos, Sofia, Split, Tenerife, Thessaloniki, Thira, Toronto-Pearson, Toulouse, Turin, Vancouver, Varadero, Verona, Zakynthos)
Titan Airways (Chambery)
Travel Service (Prague)
Ukraine International Airlines (Kiev-Boryspil)
US Airways (Charlotte, Philadelphia)
Viking Airlines (Heraklion)
Virgin Atlantic (Antigua, Barbados, Grenada, Havana, Las Vegas, Montego Bay, Orlando, Port Louis [dimulai pada November 2007], St Lucia, Tobago)
Zoom Airlines (Canada) (Calgary, Edmonton, Halifax, Montréal, Ottawa, Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver, Winnipeg)
Zoom Airlines (UK) (Bermuda [dimulai pada 8 Juni 2007], New York-JFK [dimulai pada 21 Juni, 2007])
XL Airways (Alicante, Algarve, Almeria, Antalya, Arrecife, Athens, Barbados, Bastia, Bodrum, Brescia, Cagliari, Catania, Chania, Corfu, Dalaman, Faro, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Goa, Grenada, Heraklion, Holguin, Hurghada, Kalamata, Kavala, Kefallina, Kos, Larnaca, Las Palmas, Lemnos, Mahon, Malaga, Malta, Marsa Alam, Mitilini, Mombasa, Murcia, Mykonos, Naples, Orlando-Sanford, Palma, Paphos, Preveza, Puerto Plata, Pula, Punta Cana, Rhodes, Samos, Santa Clara, Sharm el Sheikh, Skiathos, St. Kitts, Taba, Tenerife, Thessaloniki, Thira, Tobago, Volos, Zakynthos)

Referensi
United Kingdom AIP
Gwyne, Peter. (1990) A History of Crawley (2nd Edition) Philmore. ISBN 0-85033-718-6
King, John, with Tait, Geoff, (1980) Golden Gatwick, 50 Years of Aviation, British Airports Authority.

Pranala luar
Website Resmi Bandar Udara Gatwick
Gatwick Airport Consultative Committee
Website Gatwick Airport Planespotting
Peta dan Foto Udara
Gambar satelit dari WikiMapia atau Google Maps
Peta jalan dari Multimap atau GlobalGuide
Foto udara dari TerraServer
Sumber, http://id.wikipedia.org/


          Azerbaijan: Requirements and procedures for individuals born in the country in the late 1970s to obtain citizenship, if they departed the country in the early 1990s (2015-November 2016)        
Publisher: Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada - Document type: Query Responses
          Azerbaijan: Whether the Azerbaijan Popular Front Party (APFP) provides membership documents, including identification cards and letters; appearance of such documents (2015-January 2017)        
Publisher: Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada - Document type: Query Responses
          Azerbaïdjan : information indiquant si le Parti du front populaire de l'Azerbaïdjan (Azerbaijan Popular Front Party - APFP) fournit des documents d'adhésion, y compris des cartes et des lettres; aspect de ces documents (2015-janvier 2017)        
Publisher: Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada - Document type: Query Responses
          Azerbaïdjan : information sur le Parti de l'avenir de l'Azerbaïdjan (Future Azerbaijan Party - FAP), y compris ses dirigeants, ses activités, et les emplacements de ses bureaux; information sur la carte de membre, y compris sa description et le signataire autorisé désigné; information sur le traitement réservé aux membres par les autorités (2014-mars 2017)        
Publisher: Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada - Document type: Query Responses
          Azerbaijan: The Future Azerbaijan Party (FAP), including leadership, activities, and office locations; information on membership cards, including description and designated signing authority; treatment of members by authorities (2014-March 2017)        
Publisher: Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada - Document type: Query Responses
          Country Reports on Terrorism 2016 - Azerbaijan        
Publisher: United States Department of State - Document type: Annual Reports
          Three separatists reported killed under fire from Azerbaijan in Nagorno-Karabakh        
Publisher: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty - Document type: Country News
          Opposition activist sentenced to four years in prison in Azerbaijan        
Publisher: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty - Document type: Country News
          European parliament urges Azerbaijan to release detained journalist Muxtarli        
Publisher: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty - Document type: Country News
          Demonstrators in Tbilisi protest Azerbaijani journalist's alleged abduction        
Publisher: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty - Document type: Country News
          Azerbaijani journalist says was kidnapped in Georgia, forcefully returned to Azerbaijan        
Publisher: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty - Document type: Country News
          CPJ urges Azerbaijan to release jailed journalist Amiraslanov        
Publisher: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty - Document type: Country News
          Azerbaijani court orders block on RFE/RL website        
Publisher: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty - Document type: Country News
          Azerbaijani journalist gets 30 days detention in 'fabricated' case        
Publisher: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty - Document type: Country News
          Court rules Azerbaijan must pay damages to slain journalist's widow        
Publisher: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty - Document type: Country News
          Concluding observations on the combined seventh to ninth periodic reports of Azerbaijan        
Publisher: UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) - Document type: Concluding Observations
          Corruption prevention in respect of members of parliament, judges and prosecutors : Third Evaluation Round - Second Addendum to the Second Compliance Report on Azerbaijan        
Publisher: Council of Europe: Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO) - Document type: Country Reports
          Sweden arrests Russian suspected of bribery in Azerbaijan rail deal        
Publisher: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty - Document type: Country News
          Arvind Ganesan        

Arvind Ganesan is the director of Human Rights Watch’s Business and Human Rights Division. He leads the organization’s work to expose human rights abuses linked to business and other economic activity, hold institutions accountable, and develop standards to prevent future abuses. This work has included research and advocacy on awide range of issues includingthe extractive industries; public and private security providers; international financial institutions; freedom of expression and information through the internet; labor rights; supply chain monitoring and due diligence regimes; corruption; sanctions; and predatory practices against the poor. Ganesan’s work has covered countries such as Angola, Azerbaijan, Burma, China, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, India, Indonesia, the United States, and Nigeria. His recent research has focused on predatory lending practices and governance issues on Native American reservations in the United States. He has written numerous reports, op-eds, and other articles and is widely cited by the media.

Ganesan has also worked to develop industry standards to ensure companies and other institutions respect human rights. He is a founder of the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights for the oil, gas, and mining industries and is a founding member of the Global Network Initiative (GNI) for the internet and telecommunications industries, where he also serves on the board. Ganesan has helped to develop standards for international financial institutions such as the World Bank, and regularly engages governments in an effort to develop mandatory rules or strengthen existing standards such as the Kimberley Process. He serves on the board of EGJustice, a nongovernmental organization that promotes good governance in Equatorial Guinea, and is a member of the International Corporate Accountability Roundtable (ICAR)’s steering committee.

Before joining Human Rights Watch, Ganesan worked as a medical researcher. He attended the University of Oklahoma.


          Whither Kazakhstan?        
Essay Types
Essay
Fiona Hill

The Specter of a "Colored Revolution"

Kazakhstan's scheduled December 4, 2005 presidential election brings two major questions into focus for this Central Asian state. First, given the political upheavals at similar junctures in three other post-Soviet countries since 2003, will Kazakhstan avoid a so-called "colored revolution?"[1] And second, can Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev succeed over the long-term in combining regime stability with gradual top-down reform and modernization; or will his model of evolutionary change be either abruptly halted from below, or stagnate and even rot from the top?

The Kazakhstan government is particularly concerned about the answer to the first question, which has also generated a great deal of speculation within the country among opposition parties and key opposition leaders, who have formed a unified coalition movement ("For a Just Kazakhstan") to contest the presidential election. The opposition coalition held its founding meeting on March 20, 2005 in Almaty against the backdrop of the upheavals in Kyrgyzstan, in a move that was clearly inspired by the general perceived contours of the "colored revolutions." At the meeting, opposition speakers made frequent and explicit reference to the earlier events in Georgia and Ukraine, and to the drama that was then unfolding across the border in Kyrgyzstan.[2] Representatives of the youth group, Pora, that played a key organizational role in the "Orange Revolution" in Ukraine, and opposition activists from Kyrgyzstan were also present in the audience. The opposition clearly hoped to use the momentum of events elsewhere to rally the population around its presidential candidate and oust President Nazarbayev.

For its part, Nazarbayev's government has responded to the specter of a Kazakh "colored revolution" by trying to squeeze the groups that it sees as having played a decisive role in the other three countries: international NGOs (especially those funded by the United States), who are accused of directly supporting the opposition; the independent Kazakhstan media; and the opposition itself. A range of international NGOs in Almaty, including the Red Cross, were visited by tax inspectors, who poured through their books and hampered their activities, and a controversial bill to limit the operations of foreign NGOs in Kazakhstan was put before the parliament in spring and summer 2005.[3] In September 2005, President Nazarbayev issued a public warning to NGOs to refrain from "interfering" in the Kazakhstan elections and the government announced that it would even go so far as to monitor the activities of the United States Embassy in Kazakhstan.[4] There have also been several legal and physical attacks on leading members of opposition parties, including the opposition coalition's presidential candidate since March 2005; and press reports in Kazakhstan that the government has prepared contingency plans--including the use of force--for dealing with mass protests around the December 2005 election.[5]

Misplaced Fears

The Kazakh government's fears, however, seem misplaced. Kazakhstan is not Georgia, Ukraine, nor Kyrgyzstan. Many factors suggest that President Nazarbayev has a very good chance of both avoiding a "colored revolution" and of maintaining the momentum of reform. Although, of the three, Kazakhstan most resembles Ukraine, Kazakhstan is not at the kind of turning point that Ukraine was in winter 2004. At this juncture, the government of Leonid Kuchma was extremely unpopular and seen to have run its course, in spite of the growth in the Ukrainian economy and the positive trends in the state's political development. Kuchma's government had become mired in scandals domestically--including the 2000 murder of investigative journalist Georgy Gongadze, allegedly at the instigation of the President himself--and tarnished internationally after being implicated in the sale of radar installations to Saddam Hussein's government in Iraq in breach of UN sanctions. Most importantly, Kuchma was also at the end of his constitutionally-mandated term. He could not run for the presidency again.

In the case of all three "colored revolutions," Presidents Kuchma, Eduard Shevardnadze of Georgia, and Askar Akayev of Kyrgyzstan, had either reached or were approaching the end of their presidential terms at the critical juncture. In each case their personal popularity had plummeted. There was deep suspicion across the political spectrum (including among many of their supporters) that they intended to prolong their influence, if not their presidencies, through whatever measures they deemed necessary--including blatantly extra-legal measures that went beyond manipulating elections. In contrast, thanks to a referendum and a series of parliamentary votes over the last several years, Nazarbayev has the right to run for a third (now seven-year) term that will extend his presidency to 2012. Indeed, the Kazakhstan government has paid particularly careful attention to the issue of both the acknowledged and the perceived legitimacy of Nazarbayev's presidential term. Initially, the presidential election was slated for some time in 2006, and there was much confusion and disagreement about whether Nazarbayev's current term actually expires at the end of 2005 or 2006 because of all the past extensions and the varying dates of previous elections. Serious questions were raised about Nazarbayev's right to continue his presidency into 2006. The decision to hold the presidential election in December 2005 was thus taken, in part, to eliminate the uncertainty.

A Record of Success

Furthermore, Nazarbayev's popularity, like that of President Putin in Russia, is generally seen as high (around 70-80% in some recent polls conducted by the Kazakh government).[6] He also enjoys the reputation in the region of being the most accomplished of the transitional post-Soviet leaders. In the waning years of the USSR, Nazarbayev was touted as a potential Vice President or Prime Minister for Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev.[7] And, in August 2005, after Nazarbayev announced that he would run for president again, Gorbachev commended his former protégé for having "the most successful model of society in the post-Soviet space" and for his achievements in implementing socio-economic reforms.[8]

Gorbachev's praise was not given lightly. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Kazakhstan government under Nazarbayev's tutelage has done a lot of things right. On the economic front, Kazakhstan's performance over the last five years has been impressive. Nazarbayev is not in the situation of former Presidents Eduard Shevardnaze of Georgia, or Askar Akayev of Kyrgyzstan, as they faced election cycles in 2003 and 2005 at the helm of impoverished countries. Between 2000-2004, Kazakhstan recorded an average rate of GDP growth of 10.36% that far exceed neighboring Russia's 6.86% in the same period. Per capita incomes have grown from $1,229 in 2000 to $2,699 in 2004; and there has been significant progress in poverty reduction, with the proportion of the population living below the subsistence minimum now at around 16%, down from just over 30% of the population in 2000.[9] The World Economic Forum's 2005 "Growth Competitiveness Index Rankings" report ranks Kazakhstan as the most competitive of the post-Soviet states, in 61st place out of 117 countries ranked, with the next regional state, Azerbaijan, coming in at 69th, and Russia lagging behind in 75th place.

Admittedly, much of Kazakhstan's good fortune is due to the happy confluence of a rapid increase in world oil prices since 1999 and the steady development of the country's considerable energy resources since the early 1990s. Kazakhstan's energy resources are the largest in the Caspian Sea region, with its offshore Kashagan field alone ranking as the largest new oil field discovered outside the Middle East, and the fifth largest oil field in the world in terms of reserves. Kazakhstan's gas reserves also put it among the top 20 countries in the world, equivalent in size to Canada and Kuwait. Oil production--which stood at 1.22 million barrels per day in 2004--now accounts for about 50% of Kazakhstan's export revenues, and approximately 30% of state budget revenues, and Kazakhstan is poised to become a major world oil exporter with production levels of as much as 3.5 million barrels per day projected by the government for 2015.[10]

More Than Oil and Gas

But oil and gas are not the whole story. Privatization and other important structural reforms like the extensive overhaul of the banking sector have also been accomplished. The private sector now employs 60% of Kazakhstan's workforce and accounts for 85% of economic activity.[11] Kazakhstan has even forged ahead in implementing many of the tough social reforms that have thus far stymied Russian reformers--such as the creation of a national mortgage system to support the development of the private housing market, which Kazakhstan implemented in 1998; and the creation of private pension funds in 1997-1999. Kazakhstan also set up a National Oil Fund in 2001, which Russia did not introduce until 2004.[12] Kazakhstan is now in the process of introducing communal services reform, and unlike Russia, where the monetization of state benefits brought thousands of pensioners out onto the streets across the country in January 2005, Kazakhstan has experienced few social upheavals in response to its reform program. Kazakhstan's successes on these fronts, and the speed in which many of the reforms have been carried out, have earned it glowing and admiring reports in the Russian press.[13] And, during a visit to Astana in March 2004, several senior Kazakh officials made a point of letting me know (with considerable satisfaction) that I had just missed running into Russian presidential advisor, Economist Andrei Illiaronov, who had been on one of his frequent trips to the Kazakh capital to "see what to do and how to do it!"

Economic growth has also been enhanced by careful government attention to the development of Kazakhstan's human resources. Since the 1990s, President Nazarbayev has made it a national priority to nurture a new technocratic elite through education reforms, and a far-sighted, state-funded study-abroad program--the Bolashak ("The Future") program. This program, which was established in 1993, places the best and the brightest from all over Kazakhstan (not just those with family ties to the ruling elite as in many other countries) in degree programs at a range of U.S., European, Russian, and other international universities. Most importantly these young, Western-educated experts are then brought back into the Kazakhstan government, as well as assisted in finding jobs in the Kazakh private sector, or in international institutions and companies operating in Kazakhstan. Over the course of the Bolashak program, it has produced a number of young deputy ministers and ministers including Azamat Abdimomunov, the Deputy Minister for Education and Science, who studied both at Indiana University and Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. Other young technocratic ministers, like Kairat Kelimbetov, the Minister of Economy and Budget, and Marlen Iskakov the Minister for Taxation, also spent time studying abroad with the encouragement and support of the state; and ministries and government commissions in Astana are full of young experts with impressive international educational experience. Although Kazakhstan still suffers from a shortage of skilled personnel for key government and private positions, it now has a new and growing, educated elite of world-class caliber.[14]

In addition, Kazakhstan under Nazarbayev has not just sent its young people to study abroad, but has also launched a global quest for ideas on reform and modernization, as well as trying to learn from its own past mistakes. Kazakhstan's national strategic plan--Kazakhstan 2030--which was conceived in the late 1990s with the assistance of a team of experts from Harvard University, consciously draws on the experience of the "Asian Tigers" with their state-driven, centralized, and more authoritarian approach to reform. It charts an evolutionary path to becoming a middle-income country--with even greater ambitions. At the same time, specific nationally-prioritized projects on the development of critical transportation routes, infrastructure, and future settlement patterns in this huge and sparsely-populated state have sought to minimize the burdens of the centrally-planned Soviet past, as well as to learn the lessons of development from similarly large states with low population densities and rich natural resources, such as Australia and Canada.

A Balancing Act at Home and Abroad

Equally importantly, on the domestic front, the Kazakh government has managed to avoid a potential north/south split of the country along ethnic lines that was predicted by many regional analysts in the 1990s. As the USSR collapsed, Kazakhstan was left with a majority Slavic population (Russian and Ukrainian) in the northern and eastern steppe regions--the legacy of Khrushchev's "Virgin Lands" campaign of the 1950s to settle and cultivate new agricultural land.[15] In the early 1990s, ethnic Russians in these regions demonstrated in favor of dual citizenship with Russia, and of having Russian established as the second state language, with many leaving for Russia when these demands were not met by the Kazakh government. The situation was also heavily manipulated by nationalist politicians in Moscow, who raised the possibility of the predominantly Slavic regions separating from Kazakhstan and joining the Russian Federation.

President Nazarbayev took a number of steps to head-off this possibility, including moving the capital from its old location in Almaty, in the predominantly ethnic Kazakh south, to Astana in the north to "anchor" the country. In spite of refusing to adopt dual citizenship and enshrine Russian as a second state language, Nazarbayev designated Russian the "language of inter-ethnic communication," and has taken care to ensure that non-ethnic Kazakhs still occupy significant posts in the central and local governments and are not overtly discriminated against in hiring. In addition, the government has maintained the "Assembly of the Peoples of Kazakhstan," an old Soviet-style institution celebrating Kazakhstan's ethnic diversity; played host to numerous international conferences on religious tolerance and a range of multi-cultural issues; and funded the renovation and construction of new churches and synagogues as well as mosques. Combined with Kazakhstan's economic growth, these policies have had some evident success. Inter-ethnic relations in Kazakhstan today present a very different picture from the dire predictions of a decade ago. Although tensions remain--especially given the fact that most ethnic Russians in Kazakhstan still have a poor command of Kazakh, which is an increasingly important skill at the top levels of government and business--the emigration of ethnic Russians and other groups from Kazakhstan has declined sharply from the levels of the 1990s. Instead, the country has become a major recipient of migration, the second largest after Russia in the region. In fact, according to the official figures of the Kazakhstan Migration Agency, 65,000 people--including 15,000 ethnic Russians--who left Kazakhstan in the 1990s, returned in 2003-2004.[16]

This domestic balancing act has been mirrored externally in Eurasia. Kazakhstan has positioned itself proactively, by playing a weak hand strongly, promoting regional integration, and charting a course among the interests of the three main powers active in Central Asia: Russia, China, and the United States. This has involved including the major energy companies of all three states in high-profile oil and gas agreements; forging bilateral military-military ties with the United States and joining NATO's Partnership for Peace agreement, while extending Russia a fifty-year lease for the Baikonur space launch facilities, and pursuing an active membership in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) with Russia and China; and promoting the creation of a single economic space with Russia, while still developing trade relations with the U.S. and China. Kazakhstan has also set its sights more broadly internationally, including initiating the creation of a regional security organization for Asia, the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA), which held its first summit in Almaty in June 2002; applying to be the first Eurasian state to chair the OSCE in 2009; and courting international economic and political elites by hosting a number of major conferences, such as a Eurasian version of the World Economic Forum, and the Eurasian Media Forum.

Catching "the Russian Disease"?

Beneath the surface, however, Kazakhstan still faces a lot of challenges. These have tended to get far more attention and scrutiny in the West than the positive achievements of the last decade--as the title of Carnegie Endowment scholar Martha Olcott's 2002 book--Kazakhstan: Unfulfilled Promise--might suggest. In part this is the result of the rather gloomy prevailing view of the region that Kazakhstan finds itself in: bordering Russia, China's troubled western province of Xinjiang, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. In the international media, the tendency has been to project the problems of the adjacent countries onto Kazakhstan. In spite of the fact that Kazakhstan was never traditionally considered to be part of Central Asia in the Soviet period, in most Western discourse it has been lumped in with the rest of "the stans" and assigned the same patterns of mismanagement, state weakness or failure, dictatorship, and repression as its neighbors. But Kazakhstan is not just "another stan" and Nazarbayev is not just "another Central Asian dictator." In fact, Kazakhstan is emerging as one of the more advanced and substantial states in post-Soviet Eurasia--more akin, politically and economically, to Russia and Ukraine than to its other Central Asian neighbors--and it should be viewed as such.

Even in the nature of its economic and political problems, Kazakhstan mirrors Russia and Ukraine rather than its Central Asian neighbors. The flip side of the development of Kazakhstan's energy resources underscores this very clearly. As in the case of Russia, where oil and gas are now seen as the country's greatest strategic assets, in Kazakhstan energy resources are viewed as the key to modernization and Kazakhstan's establishment as a future regional power. Currently in Russia, however, soaring world oil prices have led to an unprecedented influx of energy export revenues into the state budget, increasing the role of the state in politics and the economy, and stifling the further development of political pluralism and private-sector innovation as the government begins to drive major investment decisions. The Russian energy industry is also being stripped of revenues that would otherwise be reinvested in its long-term development to diversify the rest of the economy--running the dual risks of a future downturn in the oil and gas sectors if production and energy prices fall, and a broader collapse of the economy if government subsidies for other industries then disappear. [17]

As a major oil producer with a similar post-Soviet economic profile, Kazakhstan runs the risk of catching this new "Russian disease," where heavy-handed centralization and over-bearing statism loom on the horizon. Indeed, just like in Russia, economic nationalism is on the rise in Kazakhstan. Western investors in the oil and gas sector are feeling the squeeze through the stealth repeal (with new taxes and fines rather than canceled contracts) of some of the favorable terms for investment by international energy companies in the 1990s; and the Kazakhstan government has announced that it wants more "strategic control" over the development of its energy resources.[18] In terms of state spending, in President Nazarbayev's addresses to Kazakhstan's people and parliament on both February 18, 2005 and September 1, 2005, he outlined an extensive array of government budgetary expenditures for increasing public sector wages and payments, new public housing programs, and developing small and medium businesses, as well as a whole series of new reforms.[19] One Kazakh official commented to me in a candid moment in March 2005 that he feared that, with the state's coffers bulging with money, the government was now trying to do too much, too fast, and without adequate preparation--risking the quality of reforms in the quantity of spending.

A Victim of its own Success?

Unfortunately, Kazakhstan also runs the risk of becoming, like Russia, a victim of its own success. The World Bank's March 2005 country economic memorandum on Kazakhstan--Getting Competitive, Staying Competitive: The Challenge of Managing Kazakhstan's Oil Boom--encapsulates the dilemma in its title. Kazakhstan's construction, banking, service, and retail sectors are booming. But, as the World Bank's report underscores, most consumer goods are imported, and the manufacturing and agricultural sectors are respectively stagnant and declining. The oil and gas sector accounts for nearly 80% of industrial output, with exports in all other industries holding flat since 1997, defying government efforts to diversify the economy. One of the most precarious sectors is housing construction, which shows every sign of overheating, fueled by the injection of large sums of oil money into the economy, and further encouraged by the massive building project of the new capital in Astana.

Beyond encouraging a construction boom, relocating the capital over 1,000 kilometers north to Astana has had some other downsides. It has moved the focal point of Kazakhstan's population into the geographic region of Western Siberia--a move equivalent to shifting the United States' capital from Washington, DC to Greenbay Wisconsin, or Russia's capital from Moscow to Irkutsk on Lake Baikal in Siberia. Astana is on average 10 degrees Celsius colder than Almaty, which is significant when one considers the additional costs involved in constructing new buildings of glass and steel to withstand the ravages of the elements and of keeping these buildings heated in the winter. Keeping buildings cool in the summer is also an issue. Although Astana holds the distinction of being the world's "coldest" capital city, the region around it experiences dramatic annual temperature swings from minus 30-35 degrees Celsius in the winter to plus 30-35 Celsius in the summer.[20] The plans for Astana envisage growing the city from an initial size of 250,000 (before it was designated as the capital) to 1.2 million over the next several years. Its current population stands officially at around 600,000, and many of the buildings designed for and under construction in the city would not look out of place in the Persian Gulf states like Dubai and Qatar--including a dramatic steel, glass and stone pyramid, designed by world-renowned British architect Sir Norman Foster, to house a new religious and cultural center.[21]

Like many of Russia's Siberian cities, Astana also suffers from problems of remoteness. Travel between Astana and Almaty and the relatively densely populated south of the country is difficult. Almaty remains the natural communications hub for Kazakhstan as well as a hub for the rest of Central Asia because of its location close to the borders with Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. It still attracts most international flights, although the government is trying to redirect them toward Astana to the great irritation of the southern elite and many in the international community in Almaty. Flights between Almaty and Astana, although increasing in frequency, are often over-booked, and the only alternative travel option is by rail--a journey that can take as long as 20 hours between the two cities. For now, the technocratic governing elite in Astana is cut-off from rest of country, with much of the country's international presence and civil society (and the main political opposition) still concentrated in Almaty. Astana was created to solve one set of problems, but like Russia--which moved its capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg, and then back again--Kazakhstan now has two capitals, Astana and Almaty, with very different profiles.

Central Asia's Migration Magnet

Kazakhstan shares other dilemmas with Russia, including an aging population and the kind of general demographic decline associated with the lower birth rates of developed industrial states. Like Russia, Kazakhstan has lower life expectancy and higher than normal adult mortality rates, which have been linked to the stresses attendant at the collapse of the USSR as well as poor dietary and healthcare practices.[22] In fact, the Slavic population in Kazakhstan's north, shows the same poor health profile and low life expectancy as the Russian population it borders in the Urals and western Siberian, while birthrates have been higher among the ethnic Kazakh in the south. Kazakhstan's government has set ambitious targets for population growth from 15 million in 2005 to 20 million in 2015, including introducing programs for the migration of 4.5 million "Oralmans," or ethnic Kazakhs, from neighboring countries of Central Asia, Turkey, Mongolia, and China. Although 374,000 "Oralmans" have "returned" to Kazakhstan in recent years, the bulk of Kazakhstan's population growth is currently the result of illegal migration into Kazakhstan from the rest of Central Asia as well as China.[23]

Economic migrants are attracted to Kazakhstan by the prospect of low-skilled jobs in the growing construction and service sectors. For example, the Kazakh government itself suggested (during interviews I conducted in Astana on this subject in March 2004) that Kazakhstan may presently have as many as a million illegal migrants, working either temporarily or permanently in the country. Officials from the Migration Agency and the Presidential Administration indicated that, according to their estimates, there are at least 500,000 people from Uzbekistan alone working illegally in Kazakhstan, with most working in the southern agricultural regions on the Kazakh-Uzbek border and in construction in Astana. As a further illustration, the local government in Almaty estimates that as many as 100,000 migrants from neighboring Kyrgyzstan come to work in the region every summer.[24] Shanty towns have sprung up on the outskirts of Astana, Almaty, and other cities, creating social pressures and a new underclass that the Kazakh government has not yet devised policies to deal with. The concentration of new wealth in cities like Astana and Almaty have also exacerbated existing economic disparities among Kazakhstan's far-flung regions, increasing domestic political tensions.

Ensuring New Leadership

In large part, as already noted, many of these issues are a mark of the success of Kazakhstan's post-Soviet transition. Modernization and rapid economic development of the kind that Kazakhstan is experiencing always bring new social problems, as well as demands for more change--especially political change. Although the Bolashak program has been very successful in bringing a new generation of people into positions of power, Nazarbayev's is still an aging regime held in place by what is essentially an old Soviet elite. Nursultan Nazarbayev may have been the most successful of the former Soviet leaders who inherited a new state, but he is still a Soviet holdover. And unlike in many other states, including Russia and Ukraine, there has been no post-Soviet transition of executive power in Kazakhstan. If Nazarbayev completes his third term in 2012, he will have been in power for almost a quarter of a century. All of which raises the question of how to create the mechanisms to bring in an entirely new president and leadership in the near future.

The Kazakh parliament, which is now generally seen as tightly controlled by the executive branch, has not yet emerged as a route to the upper echelons of power. Presidential preference (enlightened as it may be at times) is still seen in Kazakhstan as the way ahead. If Nazarbayev is re-elected in December 2005, the top job will be locked in for the next seven years. And, with decisionmaking authority centralized in the presidential administration, Kazakhstan has all the basic conditions for a ruinous round of infighting over the question of a successor--very similar to the waning days of Boris Yeltsin's regime in Russia, and to the drama unfolding again in Russia as President Putin approaches the end of his term in 2008.

A Growing But Fractious Opposition

Frustration with the Nazarbayev regime is already bubbling up to the surface of politics. There have been numerous splits in the ruling elite over the last several years, illustrated by the defection, ostracizing, and even imprisonment of political figures once close to Nazarbayev, including former Prime Minister Akezhan Kazhegeldin, and Galimzhan Zhakiyanov, the former Governor of Pavlodar, and a sometime protégé  of the Kazakh President. Both were accused of corruption after publicly parting ways with the President and entering the opposition, with Kazhegeldin ending up in exile abroad, and Zhakiyanov jailed for several years.[25] The Zhakiyanov case, although shrouded in a great deal of intrigue, is particularly striking, as Zhakiyanov was, in the late 1990s, viewed within the Kazakh government as a rising star, designated by the President for greater things. He moved rapidly in this period from the head of the Agency for Control Over Strategic Resources to the governorship of Pavlodar, a key province on the Russian border. His equally rapid demise suggests that some of the members of Nazarbayev's "anointed" young generation may have pushed for too much power, too fast and too early for the President's preferences.

The Kazakh opposition is now filled with people who have been in power, or close to the center of power, and have had the opportunity of participating in the running of the country, but who have felt stifled by Nazarbayev's heavy top-down control, or disillusioned with the lack of political and economic opportunity. These include figures like Oraz Zhandosov, the former Deputy Prime Minister, Finance Minister, and Chairman of the Central Bank of Kazakhstan, once seen as one of Nazarbayev's "young Turks," spearheading the country's reform program; and Zharmakhan Tuyakbay, a former Nazarbayev loyalist and ruling party member, the former Prosecutor General and Speaker of Parliament, who parted ways with Nazarbayev after accusing the government of manipulating the outcome of Kazakhstan's last round of parliamentary elections.

At the founding congress of the opposition movement "For a Just Kazakhstan" in March 2005, the opposition parties and leaders present selected Tuyakbay as their candidate to contest the presidential election. The opposition leaders at the meeting also paid tribute to Kazhegeldin--who was reported to be funding the new movement from exile--and to Zhakiyanov, who was portrayed as the symbol of the opposition, the outcast martyr, suffering for his convictions.[26] However, the fact that the opposition includes such formerly influential figures, all of whom entertain their own ambitions for the "top job," has also tended to lead to infighting. The various opposition movements have repeatedly split into competing factions and the coalition "For a Just Kazakhstan" is a precarious one.[27]

For Family and Friends

As in Russia and other post-Soviet states, the opposition to Nazarbayev may be fractious, but it is genuine, and it is also complicated by its links to the Nazarbayev "family" and political "clan."Â References to the Nazarbayev family (his actual immediate and extended family) are usually the issue that raise the most direct comparisons with the other Central Asian states--especially Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, where presidential family members have been active in politics and business. In Kyrgyzstan, the corruption and venality of President Askar Akayev's family, and his coterie's attempts to manipulate the 2004 parliamentary elections with a view to enabling Akayev to stay in power longer than the constitution permitted, were the main triggering events for the protest and eventual overthrow of the government.

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          Letters        
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Essay
Francis FukuyamaIan RaineyMike RoskinGary SchmittGeorge ModelskiJohn M. Owen IVEric ChenowethKenneth MinogueMax Singer

Fukuyama Responds

I HAD NOT intended to respond to Charles Krauthammer's "In Defense of Democratic Realism" (Fall 2004), since my aim was to stimulate a debate over the Bush Administration's foreign policy and not to spend time in an extended exegesis of Krauthammer's writings. I am compelled to respond, however, by one thing he wrote.

Krauthammer says I have a "novel way of Judaizing neoconservatism", and that my argument is a more "implicit and subtle" version of things said by Pat Buchanan and Mahathir Mohamad. Since he thinks the latter two are anti-Semites, he is clearly implying that I am one as well. If he really thinks this is so, he should say that openly.

What I said in my critique of his speech was, of course, quite different. I said that there was a very coherent set of strategic ideas that have come out of Israel's experience dealing with the Arabs and the world community, having to do with threat perception, pre-emption, the relative balance of carrots and sticks to be used in dealing with the Arabs, the United Nations, and the like. Anyone who has dealt with the Arab-Israeli conflict understands these ideas, and many people (myself included) believe that they were well suited to Israel's actual situation. You do not have to be Jewish to understand or adopt these ideas as your own, which is why people like Vice President Dick Cheney and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld share them. And it is not so hard to understand how one's experience of Arab-Israeli politics can come to color one's broader view of the world: The 1975 "Zionism is racism" resolution deeply discredited the UN, in the eyes of Jews and non-Jews alike, on issues having nothing to do with the Middle East. This is not about Judaism; it is about ideas. It would be quite disingenuous of Charles Krauthammer to assert that his view of how Israel needs to deal with the Arabs (that is, the testicular route to hearts and minds) has no impact on the way he thinks the United States should deal with them. And it is perfectly legitimate to ask whether this is the best way for the United States to proceed.

I understand perfectly well that Krauthammer has a narrower interpretation of American interests than William Kristol or Robert Kagan, and that he wants to use democracy promotion primarily as a tool to achieve realist ends. I would say that both of these positions are wrong: What we need is not democratic realism, but a realistic Wilsonianism that matches means to ends better than the Bush Administration has done. Krauthammer should consider that if democracy is merely a means and not an end of our policy, we would never support Israel as strongly as we do.

Now that the partisanship of the election is past, it is important for American policymakers to sit down quietly and reflect a bit on the past four years. A lot of mistakes and poor judgment calls were made; some were by individuals and others were failures of institutions. Charles Krauthammer joins the Bush Administration in doggedly defending everything that has been said and done in U.S. foreign policy over the past three years. Let's hope this doesn't remain the pattern as we move into the first year of the new administration.

Francis Fukuyama
Johns Hopkins University

Friends in Need?

I WOULD LIKE to offer a point of clarification regarding Nikolas K. Gvosdev's and Travis Tanner's "Wagging the Dog" (Fall 2004). The authors stated: "The United States has on many occasions demonstrated its resolve to Beijing through weapons sales, public statements and deployments of the Sixth Fleet." I suspect they actually meant the Seventh Fleet, which is responsible for the Taiwan Straits. The Sixth Fleet is based in Gaeta, Italy. Its area of responsibility is Europe, Africa and Israel.

Ian Rainey
Johns Hopkins University

HANS MORGENTHAU said it in 1948, and it bears repeating here: "Never allow a weak ally to make decisions for you." Those who do "lose their freedom of action by identifying their own national interest completely with those of the weak ally."

Mike Roskin
Chair, Political Science Dept.
Lycoming College

NIKOLAS GVOSDEV and Travis Tanner would have you believe that the tail is "Wagging the Dog"; that reckless leadership by allies in Taiwan and Georgia is putting at risk the larger national security interests of their key benefactor, the United States. However, the evidence they present for this conclusion is scant at best.

They over-dramatize the actions of tiny Taiwan with respect to its enormous neighbor. How irresponsible indeed of the Taiwanese to discuss defending themselves from some 600 PRC missiles pointed their way, and how worse it is to begin amending a constitution written nearly fifty years ago for a one-party dictatorship! These changes will not, as President Chen has promised, touch on any issue that might be construed as changing the status quo in cross-Strait relations. As for Beijing accepting the current situation-China spends enormous amounts on developing a military capability to coerce Taiwan; routinely practices invasion scenarios; publicly states that it reserves the right to settle the dispute militarily if Taiwan does not agree to talks leading to unification in the near future; and works assiduously at denying Taiwan any semblance of international legitimacy.

Nor should Beijing's cooperation with the United States on non-proliferation and the War on Terror be overstated. China's cooperation on these issues has been perfunctory: No serious pressure has been applied to North Korea, Chinese companies continue to assist states like Iran with their weapons program, and the only "terrorists" Beijing sees are those who are opposed to its dictatorial ways, such as the Uighur Muslims.

With regard to Georgia and Russia, it is Putin's increasingly open accretion of authoritarian power that is creating a new rift in U.S.-Russian relations. Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili may have taken steps with which the United States was not comfortable, but no ally should be expected to ignore its own pressing national interests-especially when they involve the neutralization of three large, Russian-supported, criminal pseudo-states within the country's borders. Gvosdev and Tanner cite the tension with Russia over Abkhazia but fail to mention that the Russian government played major role in the Abkhazia problem devolving into its current dangerous state. Ultimately, U.S. national security interests lie not with placating an increasingly anti-democratic and unreliable Russia, but rather with ensuring that a democratic Georgia succeeds in becoming a beacon of hope for the rest of the region. In turn, Russia should be working with the United States and Europe to stabilize Georgia and sustain its territorial integrity, especially after the tragedy in Beslan. Such cooperation will lead to the most realistic benefits in terms of advancing the fight against terror and preventing the deadly disintegration of states in the Caucasus along ethnic lines.

If managed with common sense and a long-term strategy in mind, the United States does not have to choose between having good relations with Russia and China and supporting allies like Taiwan and Georgia. In any case, China will cooperate with the United States when Beijing decides such cooperation is in its interest, even if it is not happy with the approach of the United States toward Taiwan at any given moment. The United States should certainly avoid unnecessary acrimony with Russia, but managing the partnership does not mean always having to yield to Russian demands, especially when they conflict with America's overriding security goal of creating a democratic, stable Eurasia.

America's conception of its own vital interest is shifting. The United States has now placed at the top of its foreign policy agenda the advance of democracy in the broader Middle East and neighboring regions as a bulwark against Islamist radicalism and extremism there. Democracy and realpolitik go hand in hand in the post-9/11 world. The new enemy is transnational and cannot be contained by exclusive reliance on large state actors, especially those that aggravate extremist tensions through repressive policies.

Gvosdev and Tanner end by citing Ronald Reagan, who stated, "I am hardline and will never appease [the Soviets]. But I do want to try to let them see there is a better world if they'll show by deed that they want to get along with the free world." This is indeed the right approach-in dealing with China and Russia.

Gary Schmitt
Executive Director
Project for the New American Century

GVOSDEV & TANNER RESPOND: We would like to thank Gary Schmitt for his thoughtful reply to our essay. For reasons of space, we cannot present a comprehensive response to his points. We would disagree, however, with his assertion that the United States "does not have to choose" between keeping good relations with Russia and China and supporting allies like Taiwan or Georgia. This, to us, seems like wishful thinking. Sometimes we have to choose. And as realists, we feel that our choices must be grounded in a clear assessment of America's foreign policy priorities.

In combatting the new threats of the 21st century-terrorism and WMD proliferation-the United States cannot do it alone, and it cannot do it via cosmetic coalitions where the United States bears almost all of the burden. We do not advocate "exclusive" reliance on large state actors, but their essential contributions cannot be minimized. Beijing, for example, encouraged Islamabad to cooperate with Washington in the run-up to the American offensive against the Taliban, cooperated with the Container Security Initiative (CSI) and allowed an fbi office in Beijing. Certainly, China or Russia can deliver more than they have. But the cooperation we are already receiving from both-including on Afghanistan and North Korea-is not inconsequential. And Schmitt doesn't explain how the United States can ignore vital Chinese or Russian concerns and yet expect a complete and full accommodation of American priorities.

The United States will never abandon its friends, but it should emphasize that it will never risk its relations with major powers by offering unconditional support for optional policies and maximalist agendas that complicate America's foreign policy efforts. The United States is not obligated to back any course of action simply because an ally chooses one preference over others. After all, the United States had little difficulty telling another island democracy facing both internal separatists and a hostile mainland neighbor not to move forward on steps we thought would needlessly inflame a volatile region. In 1998, Washington applied a great deal of pressure to dissuade the Cypriot government from installing the S-300 missile batteries, even though it had legitimate security concerns, on the grounds that this could escalate tensions throughout the eastern Mediterranean. To argue that Georgia should seek to reunify through peaceful means rather than a military campaign fraught with risks of further destabilizing an already explosive region, or that Taiwan should be satisfied with de facto rather than formal sovereignty does not qualify as appeasement of Moscow or Beijing, but as a level-headed approach to managing volatile situations.

Nor did we argue that it was unwise for Taiwan to be concerned about its security. But given that Taiwan's defense budget has declined annually over the past decade-which is certainly not the trend one expects to see from a territory under direct threat-one wonders whether Taipei genuinely feels that the PRC poses an imminent threat. This underscores Taipei's assumption of U.S. military intervention in the event of an unprovoked attack by the mainland. With regard to Abkhazia, we believe that Charles King's essay in this issue helps to illuminate what is a more complex situation than simply a Russian-backed plot to create a criminal pseudo-state on Georgian territory.

In a post-9/11 environment, we believe it is vital for the United States to have a consistent approach to foreign policy, one that is clear to friends and foes alike. Schmitt's logic is difficult to follow. Should democratic governments in Serbia and Cyprus, following his line on Georgia, feel they can take whatever means are necessary to reunify their countries? Or should ethnic separatists in Kosovo and Northern Cyprus take comfort, citing his position on Taiwan? Such conflicting signals give rise to charges about "double standards" in U.S. policy. They also give the appearance that U.S. foreign policy is based on special interests rather than national ones.

We don't harbor illusions about Russia or China (although both today are much more liberal and pluralist than they were twenty years ago). And we recognize the important contributions that smaller states can make in helping to spread zones of stability and prosperity around the world. But we remain committed to the principle that how other states aid American efforts to deal with the core threats that affect our survival should be the principal factor in shaping our foreign policy.

Working in Theory

AS A LIFE-LONG student of international relations with a penchant for theory, I feel challenged to comment on the theoretical portion of Clifford Kupchan's "Real Democratik" (Fall 2004)-in particular the prediction that "the contemporary international order", viewed as both "normatively good" and "empirically inevitable", will be marked for the next several decades by "unprecedented American unipolarity."

Like its cousins, bipolarity and multipolarity, unipolarity has been a key term of international relations. But the time has come to take another look at it. The conventional view equates polarity with raw power-a concentrated distribution of military and economic capacity. (I used this approach in my 1974 monograph, World Power Concentrations, one of the first, if not the first, attempts actually to measure unipolarity.) That is the metric (indexed by military expenses) basically used by Kupchan.

The main reason for taking another look at the "raw power" metric is the rising complexity of contemporary world politics. Most day-to-day international problems are increasingly processed in institutional and multilateral contexts, such as summit meetings, regional bodies, international financial institutions and the like. In this context, institutional power means decisional or voting power. Unipolarity here means control of a "one-party" system, and is measured by the ability to obtain favorable outcomes-and one of the relevant metrics is world public opinion.

I tend to agree with Kupchan that in today's international system, unipolarity probably prevails in terms of raw (military) power, but I do not think it obviously does so in relation to institutional power. In fact, some recent trends point toward the growth of a "bi- or multi-party" system in that area. Multipolarity is a fact in the world economy. Two or three decades ahead, unipolarity is still probable for forces of global reach (commanding sea, air and space) but not for all the aspects of military power.

If unipolarity claims to be the unique source of the public goods of world order, then its exercise labors under all the well-known burdens and criticisms of monopoly power: excessive costs combined with underperformance. Because it yields high profits but deteriorates into incompetence, a monopoly attracts competition and generates serious conflicts.

On such grounds, a monopoly is morally suspect, but there is an exception: when a monopoly naturally emerges from a process of innovation. In public life, the general interest in innovation is usually protected by patent law that grants the inventor a temporary privilege. Similarly, in world politics we might argue that world powers earn a temporary relief from the inevitable pressures and criticisms of monopoly in recognition of their inventive solutions of critical global problems. The early phases of the exercise of global leadership by the United States, Britain (twice), the Dutch republic and Portugal demonstrate that point. But does this hold for the current situation? Claims of benignity or benevolence are not enough.

All in all, Kupchan would be well advised not to use "inevitable" or "entrenched" unipolarity as the principal pillar of his analysis. As for the longevity of unipolarity, he might consider looking into the findings of the theory of long cycles.

George Modelski
Professor Emeritus
University of Washington

CLIFFORD KUPCHAN is to be congratulated for his thoughtful and timely call on his fellow Democrats to attend to the fact, and the desirability, of unipolarity-that is, that the United States has unprecedented international power and that it ought to seek to preserve that power. Indeed, as one of those rare academics who tend to vote Republican, I would like to see a corresponding Real Republikan approach that would recognize the common interest that the United States and its democratic allies have in preserving and extending the post-World War II international order. It would strive to keep the bargain on which that order is based, including the agreement to render U.S. actions predictable by binding America to some extent through international institutions. It would also insist that catastrophic terrorism is a grave threat to that order and the countries that subscribe to it.

Real Republikan would differ from Real Demokratik, however, by recognizing just how difficult unipolarity makes voluntary international cooperation. Unipolarity not only tempts America to act in ways and regions previously off limits, it also causes other countries to worry more about whatever the United States does. When America uses force in Afghanistan or Iraq, more people than ever around the world suspect that we are building a world empire. Most concerned countries have good reasons not to try to form a serious anti-U.S. alliance, but they use various low-cost tools, including diplomacy and passivity, to block perceived expansions in U.S. power. Iraq is where the costs of this resistance are felt most keenly today.

And of course Islamist terrorism is itself partly a product of unipolarity. Absent America's unchallenged military, economic and cultural presence in the Middle East, it is difficult to imagine 9/11. The Real in Real Republikan is an acknowledgment that in an anarchical international system the weak are bound to worry about the powerful. It thus implies that the recent surge in anti-Americanism is by no means entirely the fault of the Bush Administration.

In such a world, where even America's friends try to contain it and its enemies are capable of harming it grievously without defeating it militarily, America has less freedom of action than many understand-less, in fact, than it had during the Cold War. Its dilemma is to keep itself safe and prosperous while reassuring the world that it is not seeking global domination. America must find the correct tradeoff between, on the one hand, vigor in attacking terrorism and WMD proliferation, and on the other, rendering its own future actions predictable. Excessive unilateralism against terror will alienate countries otherwise inclined to help. But excessive self-binding will lead to excessive passivity against terrorism, for even many of its friends are bound to want America to under-invest in its own security.

The frontier along which the right amounts of vigor and self-binding are traded is hard to find. But Real Republikan would insist that the frontier exists, and that America's grand strategy after 9/11 must find it and stay on it.

John M. Owen, IV
Associate Professor
University of Virginia

That Magic Moment

FRANCIS FUKUYAMA'S critique of Charles Krauthammer's doctrine of a unipolar America ("The Neoconserv-ative Moment", Summer 2004), properly scolds Krauthammer for ignoring clearly unfortunate "facts on the ground." For Krauthammer does not just skip over inconvenient facts, he mistakes his judgement for fact-most importantly, the judgement that our transatlantic allies no longer count for much. But does the current "coalition of the willing" (wherein American forces take nearly all the burden) really equal a coherent NATO force willing to take action against radical Islamism? Might it not have been better to take Lord Robertson and nato up on their pledge after 9/11 to stand with the U.S. against terrorism? It was the imprudence of the current foreign policy, consonant with the democratic realism put forward by Krauthammer, that has placed America in the current position of temporal alliances having no common (or lasting) values, when a different diplomatic and ideological approach could have strengthened America's efforts.

The neoconservative argument that I knew during the Cold War was a moral one that reaffirmed the inherent rightness of upholding freedom against totalitarianism. Clearly, the neoconservative argument has gone way off course in trading sound policies of containment using democratic alliances for a doctrine of pre-emption that insisted on war in Iraq. But let this cold warrior state the case plainly: Pre-emption leads nations to unnecessary and therefore immoral wars and the harmful consequences such wars bring, including ruptured alliances and the consequent reduced influence of the United States in world affairs.

That there were no weapons of mass destruction found in Iraq, that there are now a thousand American fatalities (and untold numbers of Iraqis), that traditional alliances with nations possessing real military strength have been broken, that there is a breakdown in civil order in Iraq-nothing can dissuade the purveyors of pre-emption that Iraq was a wrong course to take. Thus, Krauthammer's attempts to put limits on democratic idealism begs the question: Where does such reasoning end when it begins with an unnecessary war?

There is no doubt America is the sole superpower. But there is also no doubt that America will not be able to prosecute the War on Terror alone or with ad hoc alliances. Even our current "coalition of the willing" is a bow to this reality that the superpower cannot be the sole policeman. But if America's new foreign policy has alienated such sturdy democratic allies as France and Germany (because, as Fukuyama points out, we have simply lost the capacity to listen), one cannot hope that the perpetuation of that foreign policy will create sturdy (and equally powerful) new ones. Instead, America's allies will have the color of dictatorships like Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan, and our antagonists that of a greater number of NATO members and democracies. This is neither prudent nor moral foreign policymaking.

Eric Chenoweth
Washington, DC

Nobody's Fault But Mine

NEIL MCINNES'S remarkable account of the rise and fall of "Australian genocide" ("Requiem for a Genocide", Summer 2004) is a case study in one of the more striking Western pathologies of recent times: that of the volunteer scapegoat. The common, in some ways rational, response when individuals or nations are reproached is to argue, "It's not my fault." In many cases, of course, this response is self-serving. The strange thing in these political cases is that the response of "it is our fault" often turns out to be no less irrational. Similarly, the rational response to being kidnapped or hijacked is resentment and an attempt to frustrate the crime. But the so-called "Stockholm syndrome" is a pathology in which the victims identify with their abductors. Some light is shed on these moral attitudes if we remember Orwell's view that many people (and especially intellectuals) find power hard to resist. They feel they must try to understand why Stalin, Hitler, Bin Laden and the like have the power and the passions they do. In the Australian case, most of the voluntary scapegoats belonged to the academic classes, and they went further. They not only embraced but virtually fabricated the case for national self-accusation. Many of them came to think that Australia must collectively and institutionally say "sorry" in order to sustain its place in the comity of morally acceptable states.

One can only speculate about the thoughts that went into this curious collective enthusiasm. These must include a Christian belief about repentance warranting forgiveness-the illusion that moral immaculacy is possible. Another line of thought was clearly an ill-informed induction from realism. Similar bad things have happened in other encounters between Europeans and indigenous peoples: Who are we in Australia to think that we are better than others? We may also guess that the vanity of liberal elites disposes them easily to think of themselves as honest, frank and sensitive, by contrast with the self-serving civic partialities of what politicians these days call "ordinary people." No doubt many other impulses are at work, but among the lessons we may derive from these strange attitudes is that rationally benevolent dispositions can sometimes lead to a ruthless indulgence in untruth.

Kenneth Minogue
London, UK

Fueling Debate

THE ARTICLE "The New Geopolitics of Oil" (Special Energy Supplement, Winter 2003/04) by Joe Barnes, Amy Jaffe and Edward L. Morse, unfortunately contains a good deal of old, in-the-box thinking, as well as a strange fascination with what they call "neoconservative" policy.

They use the old chestnut that Saudi Arabia has a quarter of global petroleum reserves. This would be a reasonable estimate for "conventional" oil. But conventional oil is an outdated category from the time that unconventional oil, principally Canadian tar sands and Venezuelan heavy oil, could not be produced at competitive costs. Including "unconventional" oil, the Western Hemisphere has more reserves than the Persian Gulf region. While Persian Gulf oil mostly costs much less than $15 per barrel to produce, there is not enough very low cost oil on the market to keep the price below the current cost of unconventional oil.

They stress that the key element of Saudi oil power is the ability to expand production by 1.9 million barrels per day (BPD). But they ignore the fact that the OECD countries also have the possibility of putting an additional 1.9 million BPD into the market from their strategic stockpiles. This can dramatically affect the great fear that the Persian Gulf oil producers might someday shut their spigots and leave the West without the oil on which we have become dependent. OECD storage is enough to enable the world to do without Persian Gulf oil for about half a year. Can the Persian Gulf countries do without the dollars they get from selling oil for six months?

A real "New Geopolitics of Oil" would recognize that dependency in the relationship between buyers and sellers of oil runs in both directions and is much more complex than the old notion of consumers being at the mercy of the Persian Gulf producers.

Also, it is a little hard to understand why Barnes et al. think it is only "neoconservative ideology" that leads to the conclusion that the billions of dollars of Saudi oil money being spent annually to promote the Wahhabi brand of Islamism is playing a "pernicious" role in the world. Do liberals think the madrassas are helping the world?

Although they make a number of sound recommendations and provide some useful information, they seem to need windmills to tilt at, such as the idea that the Bush Administration decision to remove Saddam Hussein was partly motivated by the idea that a grateful Iraq would force oil prices to low levels. Producing a somewhat more pluralistic and free government in Iraq, in order to start the process of making the Middle East less of a source of danger to the world, would amply justify the U.S. removal of Saddam, and there is not and never was any reason to think that a free Iraq would want to pursue very low oil prices.

Max Singer
Hudson Institute

Topics
Failed StatesGrand StrategyNuclear ProliferationWMDSecurity
Tags
neoconservatismMuslimYugoslaviaheads of stateSerbs
Issue:
Winter 2004-2005
Regions
Americas

          Two earthquakes have struck north-western Iran-87 people dead and 400 more injured        
  

Two strong earthquakes have struck north-western Iran, leaving at least 87 people dead and 400 more injured, according to state TV.

The quakes struck near the city of Tabriz and the town of Ahar, but most of the casualties are thought to be in outlying villages.

Reports say phone lines to many villages have been cut off, making rescue efforts harder.

The US Geological Service measured the quakes at magnitude 6.4 and 6.3.

"The quake has created huge panic among the people," one resident of Tabriz told the BBC. "Everyone has rushed to the streets and the sirens of ambulances are everywhere."

The towns of Haris and Varzaqab in East Azerbaijan province were among those that suffered casualties, Khalil Saei, local crisis committee chief, told state TV, according to the Associated Press.

Officials say at least four villages have been completely destroyed, with another 60 villages suffering damage ranging from 50% to 70%.

The two earthquakes came within minutes of each other, according to seismology experts at Tehran University.

Dozens of rescue workers have been sent to the region, but the onset of darkness has hampered relief efforts.

          @BBCSteveR plays eurovision hits on piano in Azerbaijan        
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          National Airlines (5M) : Azerbaijans national airline signs up for purchase of three Boeing planes - Azerbaijan Business Center        
National Airlines (5M) : Azerbaijans national airline signs up for purchase of three Boeing planes - Azerbaijan Business Center
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15600 San Pedro, Ste 204
San Antonio, Texas 78232 USA
Phone: 210-495-5577
Fax: 210-495-0075
_______________________________________
BLACKBRUSH OIL & GAS, INC.
CATARINA FIELD OFFICE
19682 Hwy 83
Catarina, TX 78836 USA
Phone: 830-999-3400
Fax: 830-999-3404
____________________________________
BLUE RIBBON DRILLING, LLC
PO Box 279
Dewey, Oklahoma 74029-0279 USA
399258 W 1330 Dr
Dewey, Oklahoma 74029 USA
Phone: 918-534-2322
Fax: 918-534-2322
E-Mail: johnrountree@bratcooperating.
com
___________________________________________________
BMR DRILLING, INC.
501 West County Rd 109
Venus, Texas 76084 USA
Phone: 972-366-9933
Fax: 972-366-1649
_____________________________________________
BOLDON DRILLING
Colwick Industrial Estate
Colwick
Nottingham NG4 2BB ENGLAND
Phone: 44/115-9-611300
Fax: 44/115-9-617338
E-Mail: drill@bdf.co.uk
____________________________________________
BRENT BAKER DRILLING INC.
8005 S I-35 Ste 203
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73149
USA
Phone: 405-632-2982
Fax: 405-631-5612
________________________________________
BRONCO DRILLING CO. LLC
6601 South 29th
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73179
USA
Phone: 405-745-6060
Fax: 405-745-8096
E-Mail: shale@broncodrill.com
Web: www.broncodrill.com
________________________________________
BULGARGEOMIN LTD.
PO Box 600
Sofia 1000
3 Ogneboretz Str
Sofia 1619 BULGARIA
Phone: 359/2-9571466
Fax: 359/2-9571238
E-Mail: bgm@applet-bg.com
Web: www.bulgargeomin.com
____________________________________________
BURGAZ DRILLING COMPANY
Open Joint Stock Co. “Gazprom”
Prospekt Vemadskogo 41/1
Moscow 119991 RUSSIA
Phone: 7/095-7820943
Fax: 7/095-7820974
E-Mail:
burgaz@burgazgazprom.ru
__________________________________________
HORIZONTAL DRILLING CENTER
Orenburg RUSSIA
Phone: 7/3532-733509
Fax: 7/3532-733549
______________________________________________
CACTUS DRILLING COMPANY, LLC
PO Box 270848
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73137-
0848 USA
621 North Morgan Road
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73127
USA
Phone: 405-577-5347
Fax: 405-577-9306
E-Mail: ront@kfoc.net
___________________________________________
CANTEX DRILLING INC.
3953 W 42nd St
Odessa, Texas 79764 USA
Phone: 432-385-1744
Fax: 432-385-1745
_______________________________
CAPSTAR DRILLING, LP
PO Box 13678
Odessa, Texas 79768 USA
8901 N. County Road West
Odessa, Texas 79764 USA
Phone: 432-366-0161
Toll Free: 800-442-5224
Fax: 432-366-2433
E-Mail:
mike.roghair@oilstates.com
___________________________________________
________________________________________
CAPSTAR DRILLING, INC.
1432 Prairie Lane
Wooster, OH 44691 USA
Phone: 330-264-2206
Fax: 330-263-2134
_________________________________________
CASPIAN DRILLING COMPANY
LTD.
Vishechnaya St, 3
North Wharf
Baku 370009 AZERBAIJAN
Phone: 994/12-974612
Fax: 994/12-974610
E-Mail: dave.walls@gsfdrill.com;
shaig.bakirov@gsfdrill.com
__________________________________________
CAZA DRILLING INC.
PO Box 17805
Denver, Colorado 80217 USA
1801 Broadway Ste 360
Denver, Colorado 80202 USA
Phone: 303-292-1206
Fax: 303-292-5843
E-Mail: cazamail@cazadrilling.com
_______________________________________
CAZA DRILLING INC.
PO Box 846
Williston, ND 58801 USA
Phone: 701-572-0131
Fax: 701-572-0447
____________________________________
CAZA DRILLING (CALIFORNIA)
INC.
7001 Charity Avenue
Bakersfield, CA 93308 USA
Phone: 661-589-0111
Toll Free: 800-443-5925
Fax: 661-589-0283
______________________________________
ENSIGN RESOURCE SERVICE
GROUP INC
400 5th Ave SW, Ste 900
Calgary, Alberta, AB T2P 0L6
CANADA
Phone: 403-262-1361
Fax: 403-265-7673
____________________________________
CDX-DART DRILLING &
TECHNOLOGY, LLC
5485 Beltline Road Ste 330
Dallas, Texas 75254 USA
Phone: 972-692-1400
Fax: 972-692-1401
E-Mail: steve.johnson@cdxdart.
com
Web: www.cdxgas.com
________________________________
CENTURY DRILLING LIMITED
BRISBANE (WACOL) OFFICE
49 Campbell St
Wacol, Queensland 4076
AUSTRALIA
Phone: 61/7-38793333
Fax: 61/7-38793322
E-Mail:
info@centurydrilling.com.au
Web:
www.downergroup.com.au
_________________________________
CENTURY DRILLING LIMITED
INDONESIAN OFFICE
Jl Gaharu 1, #15
Cilandek Barat, Jakarta
Selatan 12430 INDONESIA
Phone: 62/21-7591 0650
Fax: 62/21-766 1308
E-Mail: cendril@indosat.net.id
___________________________________
CENTURY DRILLING & ENERGY
SERVICES (NZ) LIMITED
166 Karetoto Rd
Wairakei NEW ZEALAND
Phone: 64/7-3748899
Fax: 64/7-3748508
E-Mail: cdes@centurydrilling.co.nz
_______________________________________
CHALLENGER LTD HEADQUARTERS
Gastelun 367 P O Box 92
Eschen 9492 LIECHTENSTEIN
E-Mail: chmain@challenger.com.eg
___________________________________________
CHALLENGER LTD
Challenger Bldg
1 El-Moshier Ahmed Ismail St
Heliopolis Cairo 11361 EGYPT
Phone: 20/2-2682810
Fax: 20/2-2676122
E-Mail: chmain@challenger.com.eg
__________________________________
CHEYENNE DRILLING, LP
3728 W Jones Ave
Garden City, Kansas 67846-9762 USA
Phone: 620-277-2062
Fax: 620-277-2094
E-Mail:
wvalentine@cheyennedrilling.com
Web: www.cheyennedrilling.com
________________________________
CHEYENNE DRILLING, LP
PO Box 1085
Woodward, OK 73802 USA
Phone: 580-256-7226
Fax: 580-256-5665
E-Mail:
balexander@cheyennedrilling.com
___________________________________
CHEYENNE DRILLING, LP
500 Main, Suite 1110
Ft. Worth, TX 76102 USA
Phone: 817-332-1212
Fax: 817-332-1213
E-Mail:
ajjacques@cheyennedrilling.com
________________________________________
CHINA OILFIELD SERVICES LTD
PO Box 232
Beijing 101149
College Street, Yanjiao
East Beijing 101149 P R CHINA
Phone: 86/10-8452 2134
Fax: 86/10-84522133
___________________________________
CHINA FRANCE BOHAI
GEOSERVICES COMPANY LTD
PO Box 548
Tanggu
Tianjin 300452 P R CHINA
Phone: 86/22-66916447
Fax: 86/22-25311647
_____________________________
COASTAL DRILLING COMPANY,
L.L.C.
311 Saratoga Blvd
Corpus Christi, Texas 78417-3506
USA
Phone: 361-852-6195
Fax: 361-852-6676
E-Mail:
chris@coastaldrilling.com
______________________________
Monagas 6201 VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/291 6430460
Fax: 58/291 6434205
E-Mail: comanpa@telcel.net.ve
Web: www.comanpa.com
_________________________________
CROSCO INTEGRATED DRILLING
& WELL SERVICES CO. LTD.
Naftni servisi, d.o.o.
Ulica Grada Vukovara 18
Zagreb HR - 10000 CROATIA
Phone: 385/1-3652 333
Fax: 385/1-3096 448
E-Mail: marketing@crosco.hr
_____________________________________
SEA HORSE SHIPPING INC.
PO Box 1405
Majuro MARSHALL ISLANDS
NORDIC SHIPPING LTD
PO Box 1405
Majuro MARSHALL ISLANDS
________________________________
CROSCO INTERNATIONAL
LIMITED
Canada Court, Upland Road
St. Peter Port
Islands of Guernsey UNITED
KINGDOM
Phone: 1/780-988-2283
_________________________________
CROSCO DRILLING & WELL
SERVICES (UK) LIMITED
10 Orange Street
London UNITED KINGDOM
MIDEAST INTEGRATED DRILLING
& WELL SERVICES COMPANY LLC
(MIDWESCO)
P O Box 2670
Postal Code 112
Ruwi OMAN
Phone: 968/245 91493
Fax: 968/245 94732
E-Mail: crosco@omantel.net.om
__________________________________
NOBLE CROSCO DRILLING LTD
PO Box 20585
Doha QATAR
Phone: 97/4-4352-004
Fax: 97/4-4352-263
E-Mail: FStricko@noblecorp.com
_________________________________________
CROSCO INTERNATIONAL
PODJETJE ZA NAFTNE SERVISE
D.O.O.
Rudarska ulica 1
Lendava 9220 SLOVENIA
Marijan Preglej, Director
CORTECROS
Nova ves 57
Republika Hrvatska
Zagreb 10000 CROATIA
Phone: 385-1-4667383
Fax: 385-1-4667382
E-Mail: info@cortecros.hr
______________________________
CROWN DBL, INC.
PO Box 51433
Lafayette, Louisiana 70505 USA
1026 O’Noal Drive
Breaux Bridge, Louisiana 70517
USA
Phone: 337-332-8563
Fax: 337-332-8598
E-Mail:
dblquest@worldnet.att.net
________________________________
CYCLONE DRILLING INC.
PO Box 908
Gillette, Wyoming 82717-0908 USA
Phone: 307-682-4161
Fax: 307-682-3158
E-Mail: cyclonedrilling.com
__________________________________

DALMA ENERGY, LLC
PO Box 46226
Abu Dhabi UNITED ARAB
EMIRATES
Phone: 971/2-671-5544
Fax: 971/2-671-5505
E-Mail:
dalmaen@emirates.net.ae
____________________________________
DALMA ENERGY & CO., LLC
P.O. Box 739, Mina Al Fahal
P.C. 116 OMAN
Phone: 968/24636-400, 24636
Fax: 968/24636-415
E-Mail:
dalmaenergy@dalmaenergy.com
____________________________________
DALMA ENERGY LLC
Almana Towers
PO Box No. 491
Doha QATAR
Phone: 974/462-1897
Fax: 974/462-2084
E-Mail: qatar@dalmaenergy.com
___________________________________
RAWABI DALMA CO. LTD
PO Box 79707
Al-Khobar 31952 SAUDI ARABIA
Phone: 966/3-8939557
Fax: 966/3-8939585
E-Mail:
rawabidalma@dalmaenergy.com
Al-Khobar 31952 SAUDI ARABIA
_______________________________
DALMA ENERGY LLC
301-302 Anand Complex
2-Anand Nagar Society
Near New India Mill, Jetalpur Rd
Baroda 390 005 INDIA
Phone: 91/265-2320246
Fax: 91/265-2320252
E-Mail:
baroda@dalmaenergy.com
_____________________________________
DELTA ENGINEERING COMPANY,
LTD
PO Box 16113
62—2005 IADC Membership Directory Contractor Listings
Sana’a YEMEN
Phone: 967/1-676601/2/3
Fax: 967/1-676412
E-Mail: deltagrpye@yahoo.com
_____________________________________
DEWANCHAND RAMSARAN
INDUSTRIES (P) LTD. (OIL & GAS
DIVISION)
7-8, Trade Worl, B-Wing, 1st Floor
“Kamala City”, Senapati Bapat
Marg.
Lower Parel (W)
Mumbai 400 013 INDIA
Phone: 91/22-494 0977
Fax: 91/22-498 5432
E-Mail: dnipl@vsn1.com
_____________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE DRILLING
INC.
PO Box 4558
Houston, Texas 77210-4558 USA
15415 Katy Fwy Ste 100
Houston, Texas 77094 USA
Phone: 281-492-5300
Fax: 281-492-5316
Web:
www.diamondoffshore.com
_________________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE DRILLING
INC.
111 Veterans Blvd Ste 1030
Metairie, LA 70005 USA
Phone: 504-834-9040
Fax: 504-834-0332
________________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE DRILLING
(U.K.) LTD.
Howe Moss Drive
Kirkhill Industrial Estate
Dyce
Aberdeen AB21 0GL SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-727500
Fax: 44/1224-772321
_________________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE DRILLING
INC.
6501 Freetown Rd
New Iberia, LA 70560 USA
Phone: 337-365-5180
Fax: 337-365-0557
________________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE GENERAL
COMPANY
Unit 2, 5 Turner Avenue
Bently, Perth WA 6102 AUSTRALIA
Phone: 61-8-6363-8900
Fax: 61-8-6363-8999
______________________________________
DIAMOND OFFSHORE
NETHERLANDS B.V.
Koninginnegracht 60
Den Haag 2514 AE THE
NETHERLANDS
Phone: 31/70-311-7890
Fax: 31/70-311-7899
_____________________________________
BRASDRIL SOCIEDADE DE
PERFURACOES, LTDA.
Rua Tenente Celio, 185
Novo Cavaleiros
Macae RJ CEP 27930-120 BRAZIL
Phone: 55/22-2791-8200
Fax: 55/22-2773-4115
____________________________________
MEXDRILL OFFSHORE S. DE R.L.
DE C.V.
Ave. Central por 1 Sur Manz J
Lote 1, Puerto Isla del Carmen
C.P. 24140, Ciudad del Carmen
Campeche MEXICO
Phone: 52/938-381-4121
Fax: 52/938-381-3772
________________________________________
DISCOVERY DRILLING CO., INC.
PO Box 763
Hays, Kansas 67601-0763 USA
3505 Fairway Dr
Hays, Kansas 67601 USA
Phone: 785-623-2920
Fax: 785-623-4156
E-Mail:
discoverydrilling@eaglecom.net
________________________________________
DLS ARGENTINA LIMITED
Sarmiento 663 - Piso 4
Buenos Aires C1041AAM
ARGENTINA
Phone: 54/11-5129-2900
Fax: 54/11-5129-2949
E-Mail: info@dlsargentina.
com.ar
Web: www.dls-argentina.com.ar
___________________________________
DOLPHIN DRILLING LTD.
Howe Moss Drive
Kirkhill Industrial Estate, Dyce
Aberdeen AB21 0GL SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-411411
Fax: 44/1224-723267
______________________________
DOLPHIN WELL SERVICE
Platformveien 5
P O Box 63
Tanager N-4098 NORWAY
Phone: 47/51-694300
Fax: 47/51-696156
________________________________
DOYON DRILLING INC
101 West Benson Blvd Ste 503
Anchorage, Alaska 99503 USA
Web: www.doyondrilling.com
_________________________________
DRILLFOR S.A.
Av. Amazonas 1047 y Naciones
Unidas
Edificio La Previsora Torre
A-Piso 6-Oficina 601
Quito ECUADOR
Phone: 593/2 227 0990
Fax: 593/2 227 0853
E-Mail: drillfor@drillfor.com
________________________________
DRILLFOR BASE CAMP
Km 6 Via a Lago Agrio
El Coca ECUADOR
Fax: 593/6 880 982
__________________________________
DRILLING COMPANY ALLIANCE
PO Box 20
Usinsk
Komi Republic 169710 RUSSIA
Phone: 7/82144-41196
Fax: 7/82144-41510
E-Mail: sserver99@online.ru
Web: www.alliancedc.com
_______________________________
DRILLING RISK MANAGEMENT,
INC.
116 E Anglin St
Uvalde, Texas 78801 USA
Phone: 830-278-4567
Fax: 830-278-5255
E-Mail: DRMI@hilconet.com
________________________________
DRILLTEC GUT GMBH
In don Teichen 2
Jona D-07751 GERMANY
Phone: 49/7243-76890
Fax: 49/7243-768941
E-Mail: info@drilltec.de
________________________________
DUKE DRILLING CO., INC.
100 S Main Ste 410
Wichita, Kansas 67202-3737 USA
Phone: 316-267-1331
Fax: 316-267-5180
E-Mail: ddcisrb@aol.com
______________________________
DUKE DRILLING CO., INC.
PO Box 823
Great Bend, KS 67530 USA
Phone: 620-793-8366
Fax: 620-793-8743
620 Hubbard
Great Bend, Kansas 67530 USA
_________________________________
E & D SERVICES INC.
2300 Hwy 11 North
Laurel, Mississippi 39440 USA
Phone: 601-649-9044
Fax: 601-649-3139
E-Mail: asumrall28@yahoo.com
____________________________________
E & H DRILLING COMPANY
PO Box 1058
Graham, Texas 76450 USA
Newcastle Hwy
Graham, Texas 76450 USA
Phone: 940-549-0370
Fax: 940-549-8191
E-Mail: rho@wf.net
____________________________________________
EAGLE DRILLING LLC
1108 Rambling Oaks Dr
Norman, Oklahoma 73072 USA
Phone: 405-364-1613
Fax: 405-447-9351
____________________________________
EAGLE ROCK DRILLING, L.L.C.
1113 Dayton Rd
Midland, Texas 79706 USA
Phone: 432-682-3030
Toll Free: (866) 867-3745
Fax: 432-682-1212
E-Mail:
dtally@eaglerockdrilling.com
_____________________________
EDDE DRILLING CO
P O Box 4966
Victoria, Texas 77903 USA
2607 E Rio Grande St
Victoria, Texas 77901 USA
Phone: 361-572-4884
Fax: 361-578-6376
E-Mail: troy@tuckerop.com
_____________________________
EGYPTIAN DRILLING CO.
PO Box 8071
Nasr City Housing
Cairo 11371 EGYPT
Km. 17.5 Cairo/Suez Road
64—2005 IADC Membership Directory Contractor Listings
Cairo EGYPT
Phone: 20/2-4176701
Fax: 20/2-4176731
E-Mail: management@egyptiandrilling.
com
________________________________________
EDC SYRIA BRANCH
Mazza Sharkia - Al Farabi St.
Yassin Al Safadi
Building No. 77, 1st Floor
Damascus SYRIA
Phone: 963/11-6110459
Fax: 963/11-6131085
Yehia A Aal, General Manager
_______________________________
DRILLING & PETROLEUM
SERVICES CO
PO Box 2589
Al Khobar 31932 SAUDI ARABIA
Phone: 966/3-8825089
Fax: 966/3-8825164
E-Mail: mashraf@dps.com.sa
________________________________
ELENBURG EXPLORATION
COMPANY INC.
PO Box 2440
Casper, Wyoming 82602 USA
1910 N Loop Ave
Casper, Wyoming 82601 USA
Phone: 307-235-8609
Fax: 307-577-7227
E-Mail: nich@drilloilandgas.com
____________________________________
ELENBURG EXPLORATION
COMPANY INC.
PO Box 3213
Billings, MT 59103 USA
Phone: 406-245-3511
Fax: 406-252-7682
______________________________________
ENAFOR COMPANY
BP 211
Hassi Messaoud 30500 ALGERIA
Phone: 213/29 737595
Fax: 213/29 738026
E-Mail: enafor@wissal.dz
Web: enafor.net
_____________________________
ENERGY DRILLING COMPANY
PO Box 905
Natchez, Mississippi 39121 USA
Phone: 601-446-5259
Fax: 601-446-8607
________________________________
ENSCO INTERNATIONAL
INCORPORATED
500 N. Akard Street, Ste 4300
Dallas, Texas 75201 USA
Phone: 214-397-3000
Toll Free: 800-423-8006
Fax: 214-397-3379
Web: www.enscous.com
____________________________________
ENSCO OFFSHORE COMPANY
620 Moulin Road
Broussard, LA 70518 USA
Phone: 337-837-8500
Toll Free: 800-322-8217
Fax: 337-837-8501
__________________________________
ENSCO OFFSHORE COMPANY
11200 Richmond Avenue, Suite
490
Houston, TX 77082 USA
Phone: 281-920-6440
Fax: 281-920-6441
____________________________________
ENSCO DRILLING (CARIBBEAN)
INC.
Edificio Ensco
Muelle Terminales Maracaibo
Las Morochas, Ciudad Ojeda
Edo. Zulia VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/265-631-2287
Fax: 58/265-631-1435
______________________________________
ENSCO INTERNATIONAL
OFFSHORE COMPANY
The Hamma Galleries Bldg, 3rd
Floor
One Lane Hill, East Broadway
Hamilton
Bermuda HM 19 WEST INDIES
Phone: 441-278-0800
Fax: 441-292-9188
______________________________
ENSCO CORONADO LIMITED
91-93 St. Vincent Street
1st Floor Algico Plaza
Port of Spain TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
Phone: 868-623-0525
Fax: 868-624-9137
________________________________
ENSCO DRILLING COMPANY
NIGERA LTD.
c/o Speciality Drilling Fluids
Plot 184c Trans Amadi Industrial
Layout
Port Harcourt NIGERIA
Phone: 234-8423-1322
Fax: 234-8423-5915
_________________________________
ENSCO HOUSE
Badentoy Avenue
Badentoy Industrial Estate
Aberdeen AB12 4YB SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-780400
Fax: 44/1224-780444
___________________________________
ENSCO NETHERLANDS LTD.
c/o DONG
Agern Alle 24-26, Building 5
Hoersholm DK 2970 DENMARK
Phone: 45/4517-0776
Fax: 45/4517-0836
_____________________________
ENSCO OCEANICS
INTERNATIONAL COMPANY
Al Moosa Tower 2, Ste 2601
Sheikh Zayed Rd
PO Box 72453
Dubai UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Phone: 971/4-403-7300
Fax: 971/4-403-7305
_________________________________
ENSCO ASIA PACIFIC PTE.
LIMITED
300 Beach Rd #10-01/03
The Concourse
Singapore 19955 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/6394-3100
Fax: 65/6394-3105
____________________________________
ENSCO AUSTRALIA PTY. LIMITED
Level 4, 66 King’s Park Road
West Perth, WA 6005 AUSTRALIA
Phone: 61/8-9211-3388
Fax: 61/8-9211-3390
_________________________________
ENSCO OFFSHORE
INTERNATIONAL COMPANY
Lot 4600, Simpang 4
Jalan Pandan Lima (Off Jalan
Maulana)
Kuala Belait KA 1931
Brunei Darussalam MALAYSIA
Phone: 673-333-0080
Fax: 673-333-2710
_______________________________
ENSCO GERUDI (M) SDN BHD
5th Floor, Bangunan Angakasa
Raya
Jalan Ampang
Kuala Lumpur 50450 MALAYSIA
Phone: 60/3-2148-4909
Fax: 60/3-2148-3909
_________________________________
ENSCO OFFSHORE
INTERNATIONAL COMPANY
3rd Floor, QFl (Qatar General
Insurance)
Bldg. Al Asmakh Street, PO Box
22895
Doha QATAR
Phone: 974/441-7075
Fax: 974/442-6780
___________________________________
ENSCO MARITIME LIMITED
Unit No. 601, 6th Floor
Centre Point, Andheri Kurla Rd
J. B. Nagar, Andheri East
Mumbai 400 059 INDIA
Phone: 91-22-564-95454
Fax: 91-22-564-90596
__________________________________
ENSCO HOLLAND B.V.
8th Floor, BRI Building
Jl. Jend. Sudirman No. 37
Balikpapan 76112
East Kalimantan INDONESIA
Phone: 62/542-736791
Fax: 62/542-736751
_______________________________
ENTREPRISE NATIONALE DES
TRAVAUX AUX PUITS
BP 206/207
Hassi Messaoud 30500 ALGERIA
Phone: 213/9738850
Fax: 213/9732097
__________________________________
ENVIROSAFE DRILLING LP
1614 C. Nantucket Drive
Houston, Texas 77057 USA
Phone: 713-818-3919
Fax: 713-784-0805
E-Mail: rsage@houston.rr.com
_________________________________
EVERTSON INTERNATIONAL
VENEZUELA
Ave. Marino, Via La Guarapera
Edi Evertson, El Tigrito,
Edo. Anzoategui
Phone: 58/283-2554744
Fax: 58/283-2554722
E-Mail: jims@evertson.com
Web: www.evertson.com
__________________________________
EXCELL SERVICES, INC
36629 Hwy 385
P O Box 305
Wray, Colorado 80758 USA
Phone: 970-332-3156
Fax: 970-332-5821
E-Mail:
eandrews@jwoperatiog.com
Web: www.jwoperating.com
_________________________________
EXPLORATION OIL & GAS JASLO
LTD. NAFTGAZ BRANCH IN
WOLOMIN
ul Lukasiewicza 11
Wolomin 05-200 POLAND
Phone: 48/22-7873704
Fax: 48/22-7762340
E-Mail: naftgaz@naftgaz.com.pl
____________________________________
FAITH DRILLING L.L.C.
PO Box 1378
Seminole, Texas 79360-1378 USA
902 S.W. Ave C
Seminole, Texas 79360 USA
Phone: 432-758-2552
Phone: 432-758-6352
Fax: 432-758-2552
_______________________________
FELDERHOFF BROTHERS
DRILLING
PO Box 1299
Gainesville, Texas 76240 USA
4337 E Hwy 82
Gainesville, Texas 76240 USA
Phone: 940-665-3592
Fax: 940-613-4065
E-Mail: Feld@bsicompanies.com
Web: www.bsicompanies.com
___________________________________
1ST DRILLING COMPANY OF
ZHONGYUAN PETROLEUM
EXPLORATION BUREAU
Mazhuangqiao Town
Qingfeng County
Henan Province 457331 P R CHINA
Phone: 86/393-4807196
Fax: 86/393-4800734
_______________________________
Bucharest ROMANIA
Phone: 40/21-224-0538
Fax: 40/21-224-0538
E-Mail: office@foradex.ro
Web: www.foradex.ro
____________________________
FORADEX SA
14, Rue 7051, Cite Essalem
El-Menzah IV
1082 Tunis TUNISIA
Phone: 216/71-230005
Fax: 216/71-230005
_________________________________
FORADEX SA
Lukind House 1st Fl
Cha Cha Cha Road
PO Box 31911
Lusaka ZAMBIA
Phone: 260/1-223723
Fax: 260/1-223723
_____________________________
FORADEX SA
PO Box 4105
Benghazi LIBYA
Phone: 218/61-2222809
Fax: 218/61-2222809
_____________________________
FORESIGHT LTD.
Foresight House
6 Elder Street
London E1 6BT UNITED KINGDOM
Phone: 44/207-3775755
Fax: 44/207-2472700
E-Mail: fk.)@fs-g.com
________________________________
Mumbai 400 055 INDIA
Phone: 91/22-6155132
Fax: 91/22-6155133
E-Mail: asm@bom5.vsnl.net.in
___________________________________
HALLWORTHY SHIPPING LTD.
PO Box 41164
Sharjah UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Phone: 971/6-5281914
Fax: 971/6-5281974
E-Mail:
foresight@emirates.net.ae
_____________________________
FOSERCO SA
2 Avram Iancu Street
TG. OCNA 5467 ROMANIA
Phone: 40/234-344035,344036
Fax: 40/234-344395
E-Mail: foserco@mic.ro
_________________________________
FRIGSTAD OFFSHORE PTE. LTD.
2 Mistri Rd
#11-00 HMC Bldg
Singapore 079624 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/6223-1277
Fax: 65/6223-3906
E-Mail: fo@frigstad.com.sg
Web: www.frigstad.com
______________________________________
FRONTIER DRILLING I, LP
PO Box 1116
Luling, Texas 78648 USA
Phone: 830-875-3774
Fax: 830-875-2484
E-Mail:
rthomas@frontierdrilling.com
_________________________________
FRONTIER DRILLING ASA
PO Box 6076
Postterminalen
Bergen 5892 NORWAY
Statsminister Michelsensveg 38
Paradis
Bergen 5231 NORWAY
Phone: 47/55-922820
Fax: 47/55-922830
E-Mail: post@frontier-drill.com
Web: www.frontier-drill.com
________________________________
FRONTIER DRILLING (ASIA) PTE.
LTD.
491 B River Valley Rd
#14-01 Valley Point
Singapore 248373 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/6887 0440
Fax: 65/6887 0444
E-Mail: singapore@frontierdrill.
com
_________________________________
FRONTIER DRILLING do BRAZIL
LTDA
Edificio Leberty Center - Sala 901
Avenida Nossa Senhora da Penha
#387
Praia da Canto
Vitoria ES 29055-131 BRAZIL
Phone: 55/27 3334 8600
Fax: 55/27 3334 8610
________________________________
GASCO DRILLING INC
PO Drawer 330
Cedar Bluff, Virginia 24624 USA
Phone: 540-964-2696
Fax: 540-963-0487
_____________________________
GASCO DRILLING INC
PO Box 527
Cedar Bluff, VA 24609 USA
Jerry E Ratliff, Sec
_________________________
GEM DRILLING CO.
PO Box 65
Stamford, Texas 79553 USA
500 Adams Rd
Stamford, Texas 79553 USA
Phone: 325-773-3654
Fax: 325-773-3655
__________________________
GEORGE N. MITCHELL DRILLING
COMPANY INC.
PO Box 550
Carmi, Illinois 62821 USA
1239 County Rd 1500N
Carmi, Illinois 62821 USA
Phone: 618-382-2343
Fax: 618-384-2435
E-Mail: nrgy@mitchelldrilling.
com
________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE CORPORATION
PO Box 4577
Houston, Texas 77210-4577 USA
15375 Memorial Drive
Houston, Texas 77079 USA
Phone: 281-925-6000
Toll Free: (800) 231-5754
Fax: 281-925-6010
E-Mail:
firstname.lastname@gsfdrill.co
m
Web: www.gsfdrill.com
______________________________
CASPIAN DRILLING COMPANY
LIMITED
Vishechnaya Street #3
North Wharf
Baku AZERBAIJAN
Phone: 994/12-497-4612
Fax: 994/12-497-4610
_________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CORP
B.P. 5893
c/o Saga Logistics Base
Douala CAMEROON
Phone: 237/343-8713
Fax: 237/343-4979
_____________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE DRILLING
COMPANY (CANADA) LTD.
36 Brookshire Court Ste 13
Bedford, NS B4A 4E9 CANADA
Phone: 902-832-9460
Fax: 902-832-9480
Kevin Knott
Victor Dias
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL (CANADA)
DRILLING COMPANY
Baine Johnston Centre, Ste 400
10 Fort William Place
St John’s
Newfoundland A1C 1K4 CANADA
Phone: 709-724-6600
Fax: 709-724-6610
_____________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE CORP
Kilometer No. 11
Kattameya-Ein Soukhna Desert Rd
PO Box 341
Cairo EGYPT
Phone: 202-757-5681
Fax: 202-757-5669
_____________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE DRILLING
OPERATIONS, INC.
Parque de las Avenidas de Africa
Carracolas
Malabo EQUATORIAL GUINEA
Phone: 240-0-96-968
Fax: 240-0-94-091
____________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CORP
Boite Postale 556
Port Gentil GABON
Phone: 241/552040
Fax: 241/560458
____________________________________
PT SANTA FE SUPRACO
INDONESIA
Jalan, Melawai 1X/2
PO Box 2351
Jakarta Selatan INDONESIA
Phone: 62/21-721-1700
Fax: 62/21-721-1714
_________________________________
PT SANTA FE-POMEROY
INDONESIA
Merak Petroleum Base
Jl. Pulorida, Merak
West Java INDONESIA
Phone: 62/254-571 408
Fax: 62/254-571 189
_______________________________
PT SANTA FE SUPRACO
INDONESIA
Gedung BRI, Lantai 5
Jin. Jend Sudiman No. 37
Balikpapan
Kalimantan 76112 INDONESIA
Phone: 62-542-426-396
Fax: 62-542-426-408
_____________________________
SAFEMAL DRILLING SDN. BHD.
9th Floor, Angkasa Raya Building
123 Jalan Ampang
Kuala Laumpur 50450 MALAYSIA
Contractor Listings 2005 IADC Membership Directory—69
Phone: 603-2050-2100
Fax: 603-2050-2122
_____________________________________
GLOBAL OFFSHORE DRILLING
LIMITED
Kilometer 14 Aba Expressway
PO Box 7086
Port Harcourt NIGERIA
Phone: 234/84-231356
Fax: 234/84-231353
_______________________________________
SANTA FE CONSTRUCTION CO.
139 Corporate Center
10th Floor, Unit 1001
139 Valero Street, Salcedo Village
Makati City Manila PHILIPPINES
Phone: 632/830-2210
Fax: 632/818-8237
_______________________________
SANTA FE DRILLING
OPERATIONS, INC.
PO Box 4396
Doha QATAR
Phone: 974/455-0797
Fax: 974/455-1298
____________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL SERVICES INC.
Letter Box 5096, Bldg 104, Sops
Ave.
Loyang Offshore Base
Loyang Crescent
Singapore 508988 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/6545 2679
Fax: 65/6545 6173
______________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL SERVICES INC.
Unit 3004, 30th Floor, Suntowers
Bldg B, 123 Vibhavadi-Rangsit Rd
Khwaeng Ladyao, Khet Chatuchak
Bangkok 10900 THAILAND
Phone: 662-617-6170
Fax: 662-617-6171
_________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE SOUTH
AMERICA LLC
Maple House
3 Sweet Briar Road
St. Clair, Trinidad WEST INDIES
Phone: 868/622-6432
Fax: 868/622-6563
_______________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE DRILLING UK
LIMITED
Lothing Depot
North Quay
Lowestoft
Suffolk NR32 2TF UNITED
KINGDOM
Phone: 44/1502-542-000
Fax: 44/1502-542-001
________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE DRILLING UK
LIMITED
Langlands House Huntley St
Aberdeen AB10 1SH SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-654400
Fax: 44/1224-654401
________________________________
RESOURCE RIG SUPPLY, INC.
15375 Memorial Drive
Houston, TX 77079 USA
Phone: 281-925-7300
Fax: 281-925-7399
__________________________________
APPLIED DRILLING TECHNOLOGY,
INC.
15375 Memorial Drive, Suite A200
Houston, TX 77079 USA
Phone: 281-925-7100
Fax: 281-925-7199
________________________________________
ACCESS EXPLORATION
CORPORATION
1177 West Loop South, Ste 1450
Houston, TX 77027 USA
Phone: 713-621-2777
Fax: 713-621-2779
_____________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE DRILLING
VENEZUELA, C.A.
Av. Nueva Esparta c/c/ Cerro Sur,
Centro
Bahia Pozvelos Torre b
Mezanina I, Oficina 20
Barcelona VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/281-262-4250
Fax: 58/281-267-9362
____________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE
INTERNATIONAL SERVICES INC
02 Hoang Dieu Street
Vung Tau City VIETNAM
Phone: 84/64-852164
Fax: 84/64-852162
_________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE ANGOLA
OFFICE
Malango Base
Cabinda ANGOLA
Phone: 925-842-1111
Fax: 832-463-6806 (V-sat)
_________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE ARGENTINA
OFFICE
25 de Mayo 555, Piso 20
C1002ABK Buenos Aires
ARGENTINA
Phone: 54-11-4310-2470
Fax: 54-11-4310-2471
_____________________________________
GLOBALSANTAFE BRAZIL OFFICE
Estrada de Capuabe, 73
Santa Rita - Vila Velha - ES
CEP 29118-461 BRAZIL
Phone: 55-27-3239-8734
Fax: 55-27-3239-8734
_____________________________________
GOLDEN STATE DRILLING INC
3500 Fruitvale Ave
Bakersfield, California 93308 USA
Phone: 661-589-0730
Fax: 661-589-0147
E-Mail: bstevens@gsdrilling.com
________________________________
GOOBER DRILLING CORPORATION
PO Box 1432
Stillwater, Oklahoma 74076 USA
4905 S Perkins Rd
Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074 USA
Phone: 405-743-2132
Fax: 405-743-0052
E-Mail:
mike.brown@gooberdrilling.com
_____________________________________

GREAT WALL DRILLING COMPANY
LIMITED
No. 6 Liupukang Street
Xicheng District
Beijing 100724 P R CHINA
Phone: 86/10-62095684
Fax: 86/10-62094976
____________________________________

GREEN GAS POWER LIMITED
16A Fore Street, Topsham
Exeter, Devon EX3 OHF UNITED
KINGDOM
Wolstanton Retail Park, Wolstanton
Newcastle-Under-Lyme
Staffordshire ST5 0EE UNITED
KINGDOM
Phone: 44/1-395-223972
Fax: 44/1-395-227447
E-Mail: jg@greengaspower.com
___________________________________
GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP
10370 Richmond Ave Ste 600
Houston, Texas 77042-4136 USA
Phone: 713-435-6100
Toll Free: (800) 553-7563
Fax: 713-435-6171
E-Mail:
trichards@greywolfdrilling.com
____________________________________
GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP ARK-LA-TEX DIVISION
333 Texas St Ste 925
Shreveport, LA 71101 USA
Phone: 318-213-1100
Toll Free: 800-959-3003
Fax: 318-213-1155
_____________________________________________
GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP ROCKY MOUNTAIN DISTRICT
2136 North Oil Dr
Casper, WY 82604 USA
Phone: 307-266-0700
Toll Free: (866) 522-0700
Fax: 307-266-0166
__________________________________________
GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP GULF COAST DIVISION
254 Stanford Rd
Eunice, LA 70535 USA
Phone: 337-457-0500
Toll Free: 888-457-4089
Fax: 337-457-0558
_____________________________________
GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP SOUTH TEXAS DIVISION
1907 E Main
Alice, TX 78332-4142 USA
Phone: 361-668-8364
Toll Free: 800-242-3280
Fax: 361-668-0823
_________________________________________

GREY WOLF DRILLING COMPANY
LP WEST TEXAS DISTRICT
6 Desta Drive, Suite 3350
Midland, TX 79705 USA
Phone: 915-684-6828
Toll Free: (888) 864-6828
Fax: 915-684-6841
____________________________________
GUICHARD OPERATING
COMPANY INC.
PO Box 2000
Crowley, Louisiana 70527-2000
USA
849 Oddfellows Rd
Crowley, Louisiana 70526 USA
Phone: 337-783-5141
Toll Free: 800-738-4645
Fax: 337-783-5155
E-Mail: GuichardCo@aol.com
____________________________________
GULF DRILLING INTERNATIONAL
LIMITED (Q.S.C.)
PO Box 9072
Doha QATAR
7th Floor
HBK Tower, Musherib St
Doha QATAR
Phone: 974/4378777
Fax: 974/4434788
E-Mail: gdi@gulfdrilling.net
___________________________________.
GWALTNEY DRILLING INC
PO Box 520
Washington, Indiana 47501 USA
107 SE 3rd St
Washington, Indiana 47501 USA
Phone: 812-254-5085
Fax: 812-254-4943
__________________________________________
GWALTNEY DRILLING INC
RR #2 Box 255
Washington, IN 47501-1216 USA
Phone: 812-254-9168
Neal Newton, Prod Supt
_________________________________
H-40 DRILLING INC.
11828 W Central Ste 100
Wichita, Kansas 67212-5178 USA
Phone: 316-773-3640
Fax: 316-773-3740
_______________________________
HALLWORTHY SHIPPING LTD S.A
Torre Universal Ave Federico Boyd
Piso No 12 (Penthouse)
Panama 0816-02033 REPUBLIC OF
PANAMA
PO Box 41164
C/O Sharjah Shipping Co.
Sharjah UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Phone: 971/6-5281914
Fax: 971/6-5281974
E-Mail: foresite@emirates.net.ae
HAMAD AL-HAMAD & PARTNERS
COMPANY
PO Box 47143
Fahaheel 64022
Phone: 965/3261369,3261378
Fax: 965/3261348
E-Mail:
hamadalhamad@hhpco.com.kw
Web:
www.hamadalhamad@hhpco.co
m.kw
___________________________________
HEART LAND DRILLING, INC.
PO Box 3714
Abilene, Texas 79604 USA
Phone: 325-676-4621
Fax: 325-670-0325
E-Mail: hlpc@abilene.com
________________________________
HEARTLAND OIL AND GAS
CORPORATION
1625 Broadway, Ste 1480
Denver, Colorado 80202 USA
Phone: 303-405-8450
Fax: 303-405-8451
E-Mail:
charlie@heartlandoilandgas.com
Web:
www.heartlandoilandgas.com
________________________________________
HEARTLAND OIL AND GAS
CORPORATION
200 Burrard St, Ste 1925
Vancouver, B.C. V6C 3L6 CANADA
Phone: 604-693-0177
Fax: 604-638-3525
E-Mail:
rcoglon@heartlandoilandgas.co
m
Web:
www.heartlandoilandgas.com
_____________________________________
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
1437 South Boulder Avenue
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74119 USA
Phone: 918-742-5531
Fax: 918-742-0237
______________________________________

INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
PO Box 95969
Oklahoma City, OK 73143 USA
Phone: 405-677-8882
Fax: 405-670-2667
_____________________________________
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
PO Box 6173
Pearl, MS 39288-6173 USA
Phone: 601-939-1589
Fax: 601-939-9122
____________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
PO Box 3909
Western Offshore District
Ventura, CA 93006 USA
Phone: 805-642-4656
Fax: 805-642-6024
_______________________________________
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
PO Box 1700
Alice, TX 78333 USA
Phone: 361-664-0114
Fax: 361-664-8534
_______________________________________

HELMERICH & PAYNE (COLOMBIA)
DRILLING
Cra 9A No 99-02
Office 410
Bogota COLOMBIA
Phone: 57/1-6182399
Fax: 57/1-6182345
__________________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE DE
VENEZUELA (ANACO)
Apartado 16 Carretera Negra KM
98
Final Ave dose Antonio Anzoategul
Anaco Edo Anzoategui
VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/282-4247754
Fax: 58/282-4247753
_______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE DE
VENEZUELA (MATURIN)
Av. Alirio Ugarte Pelayo
(Al lado de Plasticor)
Maturin, Edo. Monagas
VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/291-641-9535
Fax: 58/291-643-1130
_______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE DE
VENEZUELA (CD. OJEDA)
Carretera N, Entre Avenidas 42y 43
Ciudad Ojeda
Edo. Zulia VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/265-641-2537
Fax: 58/265-641-1552
______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE DEL
ECUADOR INC.
Luis Cordero y Andalucia
Edificio “Cyede” Quinto Piso
Quito ECUADOR
Phone: 593-2-2555-372
Fax: 593-2-2555-512 X 102
______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
16365 Park Ten Place, Ste 300
Houston, TX 77084 USA
Phone: 281-398-5457
Fax: 281-398-7960
_____________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE BOLIVIA
S.A.
Calle 9 Oeste No. 73
Barrio Las Palmas
Santa Cruz BOLIVIA
Phone: 591/3-3531-741
Fax: 591/3-3536-784
_________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
106 Park Place, Ste 100
Covington, LA 70433 USA
Phone: 985-871-4071
Fax: 985-871-4072
______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE (AFRICA)
DRILLING CO. EQUATORIAL
GUINEA
Avenida Parques de Africa
Caracolas
Malabo EQUATORIAL GUINEA
Phone: Houston 713-431-9212
Fax: Houston 713-431-9216
_____________________________________

HELMERICH & PAYNE
(ARGENTINA) DRILLING CO.
San Martin #201, Piso 4, Oficina 12
Bis
Codigo Postal 1003
Buenos Aires ARGENTINA
Phone: 54/11-4326-3481
Fax: 54/11-4322-2005
______________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
341 East E St Ste 180
Casper, WY 82601 USA
Phone: 307-237-0056
Fax: 307-237-6756
___________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
Smolensk Passage, Smolensk
Square
The House 3 6th Floor, Office No.
628
Moscow 121099 RUSSIA
Phone: 7/095-937-8272
Fax: 7/095-937-8200
____________________________________
HELMERICH & PAYNE
INTERNATIONAL DRILLING CO.
PO Box 133228
Tyler, TX 75713 USA
Phone: 903-533-1340
Fax: 903-535-9238
__________________________________
HERCULES OFFSHORE, LLC
2929 Briarpark Drive, Ste 435
Houston, Texas 77042 USA
Phone: 713-952-4176
Fax: 713-952-4342
____________________________________
HERCULES DRILLING COMPANY
2929 Briarpark Drive Ste 400
Houston, TX 77042 USA
Phone: 713-952-7977
Fax: 713-952-7990
________________________________
HERCULES LIFTBOAT COMPANY
5319 Port Road
New Iberia, LA 70560 USA
Phone: 337-560-8000
Fax: 337-374-3247
____________________________________
HTC INTERNATIONAL
PO Box No 1376
Corner of Hadda Cinema Complex
Sana’a YEMEN
Hadda Cinema Complex
Sana’a YEMEN
Phone: 967/1-269224
Fax: 967/1-269223
E-Mail: hashedi@y.net.ye
_______________________________
ICELAND DRILLING CO
Jardboranir hf
Skipholt 50 d
Reykjavik 105 ICELAND
Phone: 354/5113800
Fax: 354/5883801
E-Mail: sveinn@jardboranir.is
___________________________________
INLET DRILLING ALASKA INC
210 N Willow Street
Kenai, Alaska 99611 USA
Phone: 907-283-3567
Fax: 907-283-7065
E-Mail: inletdrl@ptialaska.net
__________________________________
IRAQ DRILLING COMPANY (IDC)
Ministry of Oil
Al-Nidal Street
Baghdad IRAQ
Phone: 1-914-360-3105
E-Mail: dr-alaboudi@web.de
__________________________
OIL EXPLORATION COMPANY
(OEC)
Ministry of Oil
Oil Exploration Company
PO Box 476
Baghdad IRAQ
Phone: 964/1-772-9802
Fax: 964/1-727-0388
E-Mail: oecman@uruklink.net
_________________________________
IROILRIGS INTERNATIONAL LTD
Suite 1301
1-7 Lyndhurst Terrace
Central
Hong Kong P R CHINA
Phone: 852-92380288
Fax: 852-25217979
E-Mail: robinson@iroilrigs.com
Web: www.iroilrigs.com
_______________________________
ITAG - TIEFBOHR GMBH &
COMPANY KG
Itagstrasse
Celle D-29221 GERMANY
Phone: 49/5141914-351
Fax: 49/5141-914-388
E-Mail: thor.noevig@itag-ce.de
Web: www.itag-celle.de
_________________________________
JAGSON INTERNATIONAL LTD.
2nd Floor
6 Pearey Lal Building
Janpath
New Delhi 110 001 INDIA
Phone: 91/11-3718059
Fax: 91/11-3324693
E-Mail: jil@nda.vsnl.net.in
_______________________________
JAPAN DRILLING CO. LTD.
Nishi Azabu Annex 5th-7th Floor
3-20-16 Nishi Azabu, Minato-ku
Tokyo 106-0031 JAPAN
Phone: 81/3-5411-9870
Fax: 81/3-5411-9200
E-Mail: info@jdc.co.jp
Web: www.jdc.co.jp
JAPAN DRILLING (MALAYSIA)
SDN. BHD.
Box No 535 Lot 6.01
6th Fl Wisma Central
Jalan Ampang 50450
Kuala Lumpur MALAYSIA
Phone: 60/3-21668071
Fax: 60/3-21668070
E-Mail: hirishi@jdc.co.jp
___________________________________
JAPAN DRILLING CO., LTD. H-5
OPERATIONS OFFICE
C/O Perforadora Central, S.A.
DE.C.V.
Calle 24 No. 52 Altos-2. Col.
Centro C.P. 24100
Ciudad del Carmen MEXICO
Phone: 52/938-382-5964
Fax: 52/938-382-0577
E-Mail: yoichi.onoe@jdc.co.jp
_________________________________
JAPAN DRILLING CO. LTD.
SAGADRIL, INC.
PO Box 17340
Jebel Ali, Room No. 604 of Lob-16
Building, in Jebel Ali Free Zone
Dubai UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Phone: 971/4-8814945
Fax: 971/4-8814965
E-Mail: toshio.harada@jdc.co.jp
______________________________________
JAPAN DRILLING CO. LTD.
SINGAPORE OFFICE
Loyang Offshore Supply Base
Box No 5056
Loyang Cresent
Singapore 508988 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/6543-1722
Fax: 65/6542-1765
E-Mail: freddy@jdcs.com.sg
_____________________________________
PT JAPAN DRILLING INDONESIA
19th Floor, Plaza Sentral JK
Jendral Sudirman Kav 47
Jakarta 12930 INDONESIA
Phone: 62/21-5746441
Fax: 62/21-5746386
_______________________________________
JET DRILLING PTE LTD
152 Beach Road
#09-01 Gateway East
Singapore 189721 SINGAPORE
Phone: 65/392-0201
_____________________________
NORTHERN OFFSHORE LTD.
PO Box 1751 Vika
Oslo 0122 NORWAY
Phone: 47/2201-7500
Fax: 47/2201-7510
E-Mail:
management@northern.no
____________________________________
JINDAL DRILLING & INDUSTRIES
LTD.
1207 Vikram Tower
16 Rajendra Place
New Delhi 110 008 INDIA
Phone: 91/11-2574-0419-0421
Fax: 91/11-2575-4604
E-Mail:
jindal@giasdl01.vsnl.net.in
Web: www.jindal.com
_________________________________
JINDAL DRILLING & INDUSTRIES
LTD.
3rd Fl Keshva Bldg
Bandra Kurla Complex
Bandra (East)
Mumbai 400 051 INDIA
Phone: 91/22-2659-2893-2894
Fax: 91/22-2654-2881
E-Mail:
neptune@bom5.vsnl.net.in
_____________________________________
JOHN ENERGY LIMITED
Registered Office:
220 G.I.D.C. Estate
Mehsana - Gujarat, 384 002 INDIA
Phone: 91/2762-254079
Fax: 91/2762-254822
E-Mail: john.adl@sancharnet.in
Web: www.johnenergy.com
_______________________________________
JOHN ENERGY LIMITED Corporate
Office
101, Shapath-III, Near GNFC Tower
S.G. Road
Bodakdov, Ahmedabad
Gujrat INDIA
Phone: 91/79-26850132
Fax: 91/79-26850133
E-Mail: john@johnenergy.com,
hinduad1@sancharnet.in
________________________________________
JOHN ENERGY LIMITED
Durga Bhavan, Subhash Nagar
Chandkheda
Ahmedabad INDIA
Phone: 91/79-55228235
Fax: 91/79-55228235
_________________________________
JOHN ENERGY LIMITED
5 Besant St, Santacruz West
Mumbai 400 054 INDIA
Phone: 91/22-26494581
Fax: 91/22-26052472
__________________________________
JOHN ENERGY LIMITED
196 Narnarayan Bunglows
Behind MIPCO, Bolav Road
Bharuch
Gujrat INDIA
Phone: 91/2642-246753
Fax: 91/2642-246753
__________________________________
JUSTISS OIL CO., INC.
PO Box 2990
Jena, Louisiana 71342 USA
1120 E Oak
Jena, Louisiana 71342 USA
Phone: 318-992-4111
Fax: 318-992-7201
E-Mail: justiss@justissoil.com
________________________________
JUSTISS DRILLING DE
VENEZUELA, S.A.
Base Ubicada en la Prolongacion
Avenida Miranda, Via Lechozal Km
3
Anaco
Estado Anzoategui VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/282-4253555
Fax: 58/282-4253151
E-Mail: justiss@telcel.net.ve
___________________________________
JW DRILLING INC
PO Box 160
Artesia, New Mexico 88211 USA
5104 W Richardson
Artesia, New Mexico 88210 USA
Phone: 505-748-8704
Fax: 505-748-8719
_________________________________
KAL DRILLING COMPANY
11500 S Meridian
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73173
USA
Phone: 405-691-1202
Fax: 405-691-2377
E-Mail:
kaldrlg@oecadvantage.net
_______________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC
No. 54 Zhongxing Road
Baijiantan District
Karamay, Xinjiang 834009 P R
CHINA
Phone: 86/990-6827312
Fax: 86/990-6920617
E-Mail: gizjgs-wyx@xjkdc.com
_______________________________
SINO-KAZAK GREAT WALL
DRILLING COMPANY, LTD.
56 Arkdanuwa St
Arkqubin City 463022
KAZAKHSTAN
Phone: 7/313-2967956
Fax: 7/313-2967953
____________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC NIGERIA
Phone: 234/8033580816
Fax: 234/53-321429
E-Mail:
songhykdc@yahoo.com.cn;
nrly70116@xjkdc.com
____________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC
23 Road 286
New Maadi
Cairo EGYPT
Phone: 20/2-5202256
Fax: 20/2-5202254
E-Mail: ajxmb@xjkdc.com;
mengqinggang@sina.com
___________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC VENEZUELA
Phone: 58/416-6823790
Fax: 58/282-4251824
E-Mail: wnrlxmb@xjkdc.com;
xqg6926256@126.com
_____________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC NIGERIA
Phone: 87/1-762662915
Fax: 87/1-762662916
E-Mail:
yongsheng8105@sina.com;
nrly7017@xjkdc.com
_____________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC IRAN
Phone: 87/1-763222177
Fax: 87/1-763222179
E-Mail:
xj16@inmarsat.francetelecom.fr
________________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC, OMAN
Phone: 968/6-93086
Fax: 968/6-93085
E-Mail: amxmb@xjkdc.com;
wanghu1974@yahoo.com
_____________________________________
KARAMAY DRILLING COMPANY,
CNPC, SYRIA
Phone: 963/11-6120070
Fax: 963/11-6120070
E-Mail: xlyxmb@xjkdc.com
_____________________________________
KCA DEUTAG DRILLING GROUP
Minto Dr
Altens Industrial Estate
Aberdeen AB12 3LW SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-299600
Fax: 44/1224-230400
E-Mail:
colleen.reid@uk.kcadeutag.com
Web: www.kcadeutag.com
____________________________________
KCA DEUTAG DRILLING UK
OFFICE
Minto Drive
Altens Industrial Estate
Aberdeen AB12 3LW SCOTLAND
Phone: 44/1224-299600
Fax: 44/1224-230401
E-Mail:
pam.vickers@uk.kcadeutag.com
Web: www.kcadeutag.com
___________________________________
KCA DEUTAG DRILLING GERMANY
OFFICE
PO Box 1253
Bad Bentheim D-48443 GERMANY
Phone: 49/5922-72000
Fax: 49/5922-72105
Web: www.kcadeutag.com
____________________________________
KCA DEUTAG DRILLING INC USA
OFFICE
10777 Westheimer Ste 1111
Houston, TX 77042 USA
Phone: 713-243-6230
Fax: 713-243-6231
Web: www.kcadeutag.com
______________________________________
KCA DEUTAG DRILLING DUBAI
OFFICE
Jebel Ali
PO Box 17240
Dubai UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Phone: 971/48816697
Fax: 971/48816940
Web: www.kcadeutag.com
_______________________________________-
KENAI DRILLING Corporate Office
PO Box 2248
Orcutt, California 93457-2248 USA
6430 Cat Canyon Rd
Santa Maria, California 93455 USA
Phone: 805-937-7871
Fax: 805-937-4768
Web: www.kenaidrilling.com
____________________________________
KENAI DRILLING Operations Office
2701 Patton Way
Bakersfield, CA 93308 USA
Phone: 661-587-0117
Fax: 661-587-0116
Web: www.kenaidrilling.com
____________________________________
KEY ENERGY SERVICES, INC.
Corporate Headquarters
6 Desta Dr Ste 4400
Midland, Texas 79705 USA
Phone: 432-620-0300
Toll Free: (877) 539-2940
Fax: 432-620-0307
____________________________________
KEY ENERGY SERVICES, INC.
Executive Offices
400 S River Rd
New Hope, PA 18938 USA
Phone: 215-862-7900
Toll Free: (800) 525-2147
Fax: 215-862-7901
___________________________________
KEY ENERGY SERVICES, INC. Drlg.
Opns. - Permian Basin Drlg.
6 Desta Dr Ste 4400
Midland, TX 79705 USA
Phone: 915-620-0300
Toll Free: (877) 539-2940
Fax: 915-570-0465
_____________________________________
KEY ENERGY SERVICES, INC. Drlg.
Opns. - Four Corners Drlg.
PO Box 900
Farmington, NM 87401 USA
Phone: 505-327-4961
Fax: 505-327-4962
5651 US Hwy 64
Farmington, New Me
          Radio Azadliq means Radio Liberty        
The word Azadliq (that is Azadlıq in cryllic) in the Azerbaijani language means Freedom or Liberty. There is a popular newspaper in Azerbaijan named Azadliq. In the city of Baku lies the biggest city-center square in the country, Azadliq square. [LINK] Prior to 1991, the square was named Lenin Square which leads to my third example: Radio Azadliq.
Radio Azadliq is just another name for Radio Free Europe (RFE) or Radio Liberty. The station broadcasts programs in many languages: Albanian, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bashkir, Bosnian, Belarusian, Chechen, Crimean Tatar, Dari, English, Georgian, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Pashto, Persian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Tajik, Tatar, Turkmen, Ukrainian, Uzbek... Notice that Spanish, French and Italian aren't on there. RFE has always targeted Western Europe.

The division between the Russian sphere of influence and the West has a special relevance in Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan first declared independence in 1918, breaking loose of the Russian empire in it's post WWI collapse. But Azerbaijan has oil. So after the rise of communism,under Lenin, Russia attacked, and an estimated 20,000 Azerbaijani soldiers died defending their 2-year old country. This soviet control remained status quo until 1991, when following Russia's economic collapse, Azerbaijan declared independence again. The Soviet response was more muted this time. They supported a military coup which installed a soviet-era former government. But Azerbaijan retained a somewhat independent-ish media until about 2007. More here.

In 2007 came the arrest of more than a dozen reporters critical of the regime. Newspapers were shut down, crushed by lawsuits. In 2008, the government of Azerbaijan  imposed a ban on all foreign media broadcasting in the country, including BBC, Evropa-Plus, Voice of America, and RFE, effective  January 1st, 2009. Radio Azadliq lost their 101.7 FM signal, more here. RFE continued on with a local office, but with content only available on shortwave, satellite or online.  More here and here.
Annually the regime created new restrictions on freedom of the press. They passed new laws banning photography without permission, anti-libel laws, bogus "hooliganism" rules. In 2011 at least 50 domestic and foreign journalists were harassed or attacked in 2011 in Azerbaijan. Then came the big 20014 crackdown.  The government has accused the station and its employees of espionage and of being a foreign-financed entity. The first charge is bogus, but the second charge is entirely true. Radio Free Europe has been financed by the American government since it was founded in 1953. The Baku office only opened in the 1990s.

The police raided the that same Baku office and seized computers, flash drives, documents and other materials, and then sealed the premises. A dozen employees of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty in Azerbaijan were arrested on December 27th and detained for up to 12 hours of questioning and/or torture. Officials even detained the station’s cleaning woman.

Afterward, Radio Azadliq stubbornly continued it's programming. The regime responded by blocking their website and and some social media platforms. In 2016 Radio Azadliq’s daily program Azadliq A-Live was been taken off air by Kanal-V, a satellite television channel is broadcast over the Turksat 1C 420 Satellite. No explanation was given. Now limited to Facebook and Youtube, Radio Azadliq still presses on. More here.
          10 kota mati di dunia        
apa kabarr???
wie geht's ? ups, lama tidak mengucapkan kalimat terakhir ituh. fufufuf... tadinya post kali ini aku mau ngebahas tentang Tugas akhirku, tapi...ada sesuatu yang menurutku lebih menarik.

baru saja aku ngebuka e-mail di salah satu forum milis yang aku ikutin. dari judulnya dah menarik "10 kota Mati...". kenapa menarik? well, aku mungkin kurang begitu tau yah tentang yang namanya urban design. well, one thing i know for sure, urban design tu selalu berusaha menciptakan sebuah tata kota yang nyaman ditinggali buat calon penggunanya. kalo dah ada yang bilang 'KOTA MATI', pasti para Urban designer langsung bergidik dan buru-buru berkata, " itu pasti bukan sayah yang ngerancang..." kekekeke. (sotoy bener ni anak! ~.~)

oke, so let's get started.

1. KOLMANSKOP ( Namibia ) : Dikubur dalam Pasir
Kolmanskop adalah sebuah kota mati di selatan Namibia , beberapa kilometer dari pelabuhan Luderitz. Di tahun 1908 Luderitz mengalami demam berlian, dan orang-orang kemudian menuju ke padang pasir Namib untuk mendapatkan kekayaan dengan mudah. Dalam dua tahun terciptalah sebuah kota yang megah lengkap dengan segala prasarananya seperti kasino, sekolah, rumah sakit, juga dengan bangunan tempat tinggal yang eksklusif yang berdiri di lahan yang dulunya tandus dan merupakan padang pasir.
Tetapi setelah perang dunia pertama, jual beli berlian menjadi terhenti, ini merupakan permulaan berakhirnya semuanya. Sepanjang tahun 1950 kota mulai ditinggalkan, pasir mulai meminta kembali apa yang menjadi miliknya. Papan metal yang kokoh roboh, kebun yang cantik dan jalanan yang rapi dikubur dibawah pasir, jendela dan pintu bergeretak pada setiap engselnya, kaca-kaca jendela terpecah membelalak seperti menunjukan kehancuran pada hamparan pasir yang menjulang.
Sebuah kota mati baru telah dilahirkan, sampai saat ini masih nampak sepasang banguna yang berdiri, juga terdapat bangunan seperti sebuah teater masih dalam kondisi yang sangat baik, dan sisanya, rumah-rumah tersebut hancur digerus pasir dan menjadi deretan rumah-rumah hantu yang menakutkan.

2. PRYPIAT ( Ukraine ): Rumah para pekerja Chernobyl
Prypiat adalah sebuah kota besar di daerah terasing di Ukraina Utara, merupakan daerah perumahan para pekerja kawasan nuklir Chernobyl . Kawasan ini mati sejak terjadinya bencana nuklir Chernobyl yang menelan hamper 50.000 jiwa. Setelah kejadian, lokasi ini praktis seperti sebuah museum, menjadi bagian dari sejarah Soviet. Bangunan apartement (empat merupakan bangunan yang belum sempat ditempati), kolam renang, rumah sakit, dan banyak bangunan yang lain hancur. Dan semua isi yang terdapat dalam bangunan tersebut dibiarkan ada di dalamnya, seperti arsip, TV, mainan anak-anak, meubel, barang berharga, pakaian dan lain-lain semua seperti kebanyakan milik keluarga-keluarga pada umumnya.

Penduduk hanya boleh mengambil dokumen penting, buku dan pakaian yang tidak terkontaminasi oleh nuklir. Namun sejak abad 21, tidak lagi ada barang berharga yang tertinggal, bahkan tempat duduk dikamar kecilpun dibawa oleh para penjarah, banyak dari bangunan yang isinya dirampok dari tahun ke tahun. Bangunan yang tidak lagi terawat, dengan atap yang bocor, dan bagian dalam bangunan yang tergenang air di musim hujan, semakin membuat kota tersebut benar-benar menjadi kota mati. Kita bisa melihat pohon yang tumbuh di atap rumah, pohon yang tumbuh di dalam rumah.

3. SAN ZHI ( Taiwan ): Tempat peristirahatan yang futuristik

Disebelah Utara Taiwan , terdapat sebuah kampong yang futuristic, pada awalnya dibangun sebagai sebuah tempat peristirahatan yang mewah bagi kaum kaya. Bagaimanapun, setelah terjadi banyak kecelakaan yang fatal pada masa pembangunannya akhirnya proyek tersebut dihentikan. Setelah mengalami kesulitan dana dan kesulitan para pekerja yang mau mengerjakan proyek tersebut akhirnya pembangunan resort tersebut benar-benar dihentikan ditengah jalan. Desas-desus kemudian bermunculan, banyak yang bilang kawasan kampung tersebut menjadi tempat tinggal para hantu, dari mereka yang sudah meninggal.

4. CRACO ( Italy ): Kota pertengahan yang mempesona
Craco terletak didaerah Basilicata dan provinsi Matera sekitar 25 mil dari teluk Taranto . Kota pertengahan ini mempunyai area yang khas dengan dipenuhi bukit yang berombak-ombak dan hamparan pertanian gandum serta tanaman pertanian lainnya. Ditahun 1060 ketika kepemilikan lahan Craco dimiliki oleh uskup Arnaldo pimpinan keuskupan Tricarico. Hubungan yang berjalan lama dengan gereja membawa pengaruh yang banyak kepada seluruh penduduk. Di tahun 1891 populasi penduduk Craco lebih dari 2000 orang, waktu itu mereka banyak dilanda permasalahan social dan kemiskinan yang banyak membuat mereka putus asa, antara tahun 1892 dan 1922 sekitar 1300 orang pindah ke Amerika Utara. Kondisi pertanian yang buruk ditambah dengan bencana alam gempa bumi, tanah longsor serta peperangan inilah yang menyebabkan mereka bermigrasi massal.
Antara tahun 1959 dan 1972 Craco kembali diguncang gempa dan tanah longsor. Di tahun 1963 sisa penduduk sekitar 1300 orang akhirnya dipindahkan ke suatu lembah dekat Craco Peschiera, dan sampai sekarang Craco yang asli masih tertinggal dalam keadaan hancur dan menyisakan kebusukan sisa-sisa peninggalan penduduknya.

5. ORADOUR-SUR- GLANE ( France ): the horror of WWII

Perkampungan kecil Oradour Sul Glane di Perancis menunjukan sebuah kondisi keadaan yang sangat mengerikan. Selama perang dunia ke II, 642 penduduk dibantai oleh tentara Jerman sebagai bentuk pembalasan atas terhadap perlakuan Perancis waktu itu. Jerman yang waktu itu sebenarnya berniat menyerang daerah di dekat Oradour Sul Glane tapi akhirnya mereka menyerang perkampungan kecil tersebut pada tanggal 10 Juni 1944. menurut kesaksian orang-orang yang selamat, penduduk laki-laki dimasukan kedalam sebuah gudang dan tentara jerman menembaki kaki mereka sehingga akhirnya mereka mati secara pelan-pelan. Wanita dan anak-anak yang dimasukan ke dalam gereja, akhirnya semua mati tertembak ketika mereka berusaha keluar dari dalam gereja. Kampung tersebut benar-benar dihancurkan tentara Jerman waktu itu. Dan sampai saat ini reruntuhan kampung tersebut masih berdiri dan menjadi saksi betapa kejamnya peristiwa yang terjadi saat itu.

6. GUNKANJIMA ( Japan ): the forbidden island
Pulau ini adalah salah satu dari 505 pulau tak berpenghuni di Nagasaki Daerah Administratsi Jepang, sekitar 15 kilometer dari Nagasaki . Pulau ini juga dikenal sebagai "Gunkan Jima" atau pulau kapal perang. Pada tahun 1890 ketika suatu perusahaan (Mitsubishi) membeli pulau tersebut dan memulai proyek untuk mendapatkan batubara dari dasar laut di sekitar pulau tersebut. Di tahun 1916 mereka membangun beton besar yang pertama di pulau tersebut, sebuah blok apartemen dibangun untuk para pekerja dan juga berfungsi untuk melindungi mereka dari angin topan.

Pada tahun 1959, populasi penduduk pulau tersebut membengkak, kepadatan penduduk waktu itu mencapai 835 orang per hektar untuk keseluruhan pulau (1.391 per hektar untuk daerah pusat pemukiman), sebuah populasi penduduk terpadat yang pernah terjadi di seluruh dunia.
Ketika minyak tanah menggantikan batubara tahun 1960, tambang batu bara mulai ditutup, tidak terkecuali di Gunkan Jima, di tahun 1974 Mitsubishi secara resmi mengumumkan penutupan tambang tersebut, dan akhirnya mengosongkan pulau tersebut. Pada tahun 2003 pulau ini dimbil sebagai setting film "Battle Royale"� dan mengilhami sebuah game popular "Killer"

7. KADYKCHAN ( Russia ): memories of the Soviet Union
Kadykchan merupakan salah satu kota kecil di Rusia yang hancur saat runtuhnya Uni Soviet. Penduduk terpaksa berjuang untuk mendapatkan akses untuk memperoleh air, pelayanan kesehatan dan juga sekolah. Mereka harus keluar dari kota itu dalam jangka waktu 2 minggu, untuk menempati kota lain dan menempati rumah baru. Kota dengan penduduk sekitar 12.000 orang yang rata-rata sebagai penambang timah ini dikosongkan. Mereka meninggalkan rumah mereka dengan segala perabotannya. Jadi anda dapat menemukan mainan, buku, pakaian dan berbagai barang didalam kota yang kosong.

8. KOWLOON WALLED CITY ( China ): A lawless city
Kota besar Kowloon yang terletak di luar Hongkong , China Dulunya diduduki oleh Jepang selama perang dunia II, yang kemudian diambil alih oleh penduduk liar setelah Jepang menyerah. Pemerintahan Inggris ingin China bertanggung jawab terhadap kota ini, karena kota tersebut menjadi kota yang tidak beraturan dan tidak taat pada hukum pemerintah. Populasi tidak terkendali, penduduk membangun koridor lybirint yang setinggi jalan yang penuh tersumbat oleh sampah, bangunan yang sangat tinggi sehingga membuat cahaya matahari tidak bisa menyinari. Seluruh kota disinari dengan neon.
Kota tersebut penuh dengan rumah pelacuran, kasino, rumah madat dan obat bius dan kokain, banyak terdapat makanan-makanan dari daging anjing dan juga terdapat pabrik-pabrik rahasia yang tidak terganggu oleh otoritas.Keadaan ini akhirnya berakhir ketika di tahun 1993, diambil keputusan oleh pemerintah Inggris dan otoritas China untuk menghentikan semua itu.

9. FAMAGUSTA ( Cyprus ): once a top tourist destination, now a ghost town
Varosha adalah sebuah daerah yang tidak diakui oleh republic Cyprus Utara. Sebelum tahun 1974 Turki menginvasi Cyprus , daerah ini merupakan daerah wisata modern di kota Famagusta . Pada tiga dekade terakhir, kota ini ditinggalkan dan menjadi kota mati. Di tahun 1970-an, kota ini menjadi kota tujuan wisata utama di Cyprus . Untuk memberikan pelayanan yang memuaskan kepada para wisatawan, kota ini membangun berbagai bangunan mewah dan hotel.
Ketika tentara Turki menguasai daerah tersebut, mereka menjaga dan memagari daerah tersebut, tidak boleh ada yang keluar masuk kota tersebut tanpa seijin dari tentara Turki dan tentara PBB. Rencana untuk kembali mengembalikan Varosha ke tangan kendali Yunani, namun rencana tersebut tidak pernah terwujud. Hampir selama 34 tahun kota tersebut dibiarkan dan tidak ada perbaikan. Perlahan bangunan-bangunan tersebut hancur, metal mulai berkarat, jedela pecah, dan akar-akar tumbuhan menembus dinding dan trotoar. Kura-kura bersarang di pantai yang ditinggalkan. Di tahun 2010 Pemerintahan Turki bermaksud untuk membuka kembali Varosha untuk para turis dan kota kembali bisa didiami dan akan menjadi salah satu kota yang paling berpengaruh di uatara pulau.

10. AGDAM ( Azerbaijan ): once a 150,000 city of people, now lost
Kota besar Agdam di Azerbaijan adalah salah satu kota besar yang populasi penduduknya mencapai 150.000 orang. Namun kemudian hilang setelah pada tahun 1993 sepanjang perang Nagorno Karabakh. Walaupun kota ini tidak secara langsung menjadi basis peperangan, namun kota ini tetap mendapatkan efek dari perang tersebut, dengan menjadi korban dari sikap para Armenians yang merusak kota tersebut. Bangunan-bangunan dirusak dan akhirnya ditinggalkan penghuninya, hanya menyisakan masjid-masjid yang masih utuh berdiri. Penduduk Agdam sendiri sudah berpindah ke area lain, seperti ke Iran .
          Georgia Catches the Eye of Property Investors        

It has been two decades since Georgia gained independence from the former Soviet Union during which time increasing numbers of tourists have been making inquisitive forays into the beautiful landscape of the country known as the Balcony of Europe.

Georgia is located in Eurasia, providing a link between Europe and Asia and a melting pot of cultural influences taken from its neighbours: Russia in the north, Turkey in the west, Armenia and Iran in the south and Azerbaijan in the East.

Georgia's capital is Tbilisi, a destination that is becoming increasingly popular with tourists and property investors alike. Green Valley International Real Estate Group , one of UAE's leading conglomerates specialised in real estate development, investment and holdings, has announced the launch of its €130m project in the up and coming capital of Georgia.

The Green Valley City project is spread over an 88,000m² expanse where 35 % is covered in lush greenery, said the company in a statement. The launch comes as part of the company's efforts to expand and mark its presence across the country's rapidly growing real estate segment.

The Green Valley City project is strategically located across Tbilisi's Green Belt area, one of Georgia's most prominent natural forest reserves. It will integrate modern architecture that is in compliance with the highest standards of environmental sustainability.

The project will be feature 10 buildings which will house 510 residential units ranging from studios, one- and two-bedroom apartments. It will also provide a private district, catering to luxury villas that are built in the form of elevated stairs to offer panoramic views to its residents, said the UAE developer.

Unveiling the project, Ali Saeed Al Salami, the general manager, Green Valley International Real Estate Group, said: " Georgia is one of the most attractive destinations for real-estate development and investments in Europe - complete with remarkable nature areas, a secure living environment, socio-economic stability, advanced infrastructure, outstanding investment facilities and attractive incentives such as tax exemption and permanent residency ".

" Another key driver is its strategic location, which is a relatively short distance from the Arab World. This has prompted us to develop Green Valley City - aimed towards addressing the growing demand of Arab and Khaliji investors for Arab projects underway in Europe, " he added.

" As with all of our projects, we are committed to developing Green Valley City in compliance with set international standards and guidelines. For this project, we will be providing special offerings and facilities to Arab and GCC citizens who would like to invest in it, which further reinforces our commitment to encourage Gulf investments in foreign markets, particularly in Europe where real-estate and construction industries continue to score high growth rates ".


Article by +https://plus.google.com/104516603036446499629?rel=author on behalf of Propertyshowrooms.com
          â€œProfbeton Azerbaijan”        
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Делибоз (азерб. Dəliboz dəli - безумный, boz - серый) — порода горно-верховых вьючных лошадей, выведенная на территории Казахского, Акстафинского, Товузского районов Азербайджана. Известна также во многих ранее опубликованных работах как «ÐºÐ°Ð·Ð°Ñ…ÑÐºÐ°Ñ» лошадь Азербайджана, азербайджанская лошадь, что по существу не верно, так как азербайджанская лошадь — это совокупность пород лошадей выведенных на территории Азербайджана, среди которых карабахская лошадь, делибоз, ширванская и др. Отличаются долголетием, выносливостью, высокой работоспособностью.

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[править] Происхождение

История возникновения породы точно не установлена. Выведенная как вьючная и верховая. Эта порода имеет самостоятельное и древнее происхождение, испытала влияние карабахской, азербайджанской и персидской пород. Арабские писатели периода VIII—IX веков обращают внимание на выдающиеся достоинства местных азербайджанских лошадей, на которых в то время был большой спрос в Иране, Ираке и Сирии. Последующая история Азербайджана характерна частыми войнами, а боевой конь в тот период был незаменимым в войсках, эта лошадь был одобрена и как военная лошадь. Выносливость лошади была увеличена добавлением крови арабской и терской пород. Эта порода известна непостоянным характером (отсюда и название) и ходой. Делибозы широко распространились по всему западному Азербайджану, а также в Армении и в Грузии. В 1943 году был организован Государственный племенной рассадник, который вел работу по улучшению качества конского поголовья республики. Начиная с середины тридцатых годов и особенно в пятидесятых карбахскую лошадь улучшали арабскими, а делибозских, начиная с шестидесятых годов — в значительной степени терскими жеребцами. В настоящее время племенное ядро делибозских лошадей, имеющих достоверное происхождение, представлено потомками терских жеребцов Целостата и Пигмалиона, поэтому встает проблема восстановления племенного ядра местной основы. В племзаводе «Ð”Ð°ÑˆÐ³Ð¾Ð·» Казахского района сосредоточено 140 наиболее типичных лошадей, из них 43 племенных матки делибозской породы, имеющих высокую кровность по терской породе, которых предополагается разводить при спаривании «Ð² себе», одновременно проводя разовое ограниченное использование одного — двух низкокровных жеребцов по тину возвратного скрещивания с тем, чтобы снизить кровность заводских пород и не потерять ценных качеств собранных помесей. В общей сложности на данный момент поголовье лошадей в Азербайджане составляет около 73 тыс. 22 % из общего количества приходится на долю карабахской породы, 15 % — на породу «Ð´ÐµÐ»Ð¸Ð±Ð¾Ð·».

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[править] Характеристика

Делибозские лошади отличаются от остального поголовья укороченной сухой головой с широким лбом и тонким носом, имеют плотную массивную шею, объемистое крутореберное массивное туловище с хорошей линией верха, длинной ровной спиной и поясницей. Ноги у делибозских лошадей сухие и стройные с большим обхватом пясти, чем у других лошадей. Свойственна некоторая саблистость ног, что в специфических горных условиях может считаться нормальным. Часть лошадей имеет незначительный размет передних ног. Копыто отличается большой крепостью и высокими стенками. Оброслость не сильная; грива, челка и хвост, как правило, покрыты сравнительно редкими и недлинными волосами; щетки короткие, в виде кисточки в 2— 3 ÑÐ¼ длиной. У некоторых лошадей отсутствуют каштаны на задних ногах. По росту делибоз превосходит все горные породы лошадей Закавказья и только немногим уступает кабардинской и локайской. Для делибозов считается характерной своеобразная форма языка, имеющего на конце глубокую вырезку, создающую впечатление раздвоенности. Помимо этой особенности, делибозы выделяются сухостью конституции, большей выраженностью верховых форм, чем лошади азербайджанской породы. Характерной особенностью делибозов отмечается как их неуравновешенный темперамент, так и широкое распространение аллюра иноходи. Обладают хорошим здоровьем, долговечностью и плодовитостью. Нрав нервный и очень энергичный, положительной чертой является высокая резвость, отрицательными непостоянный характер и нервозность.

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[править] Экстерьер

Голова пропорциональная, средняя по величине или легкая, легкие и четкие очертания подбородка. Верхняя часть головы широка и массивна; уши тонкие и короткие; шея средняя по длине, прямая, при этом широкая и мускулистая. Пристав головы недостаточно свободный («Ñ‚угой затылок»). Выход шеи высокий, благодаря чему лошади голову и шею держат высоко. Хорошо развитая грудная клетка, объемистая, широкая и длинная — типичная особенность породы. Холка у большинства лошадей средняя по высоте и короткая, спина крепкая, достаточно широкая, ровная. Поясница короткая, широкая и несколько выпуклая. Подвздох (расстояние от последнего ребра до маклока) короткий. Круп длинный, достаточно широкий, в большинстве случаев спущенный. Средние промеры (см): высота в холке 135—140 у кобыл, и 137—152 у жеребцов, косая длина туловища 139, обхват груди 172, обхват пясти 19. Живой вес 280—350 ÐºÐ³. Под вьюком 120—140 ÐºÐ³ проходят 60-70 ÐºÐ¼ в день. Максимальная грузоподъёмность 3000-3200 ÐºÐ³. Под вьюком в 115—130 ÐºÐ³ они в горных условиях легко проходят ежедневно по 45—55 ÐºÐ¼, а под всадником до 70. При испытаниях на ипподромах лучшая резвость на дистанции 1600 метров составила 1 мин 56 сек., а на 2400 метров 2 мин 55 сек.

[править] Масти

Вороная, рыжая, караковая, гнедая, серая, мышастая, буланая, редко соловая и рыжая.

[править] Содержание

Хорошо приспособлены к табунному содержанию. При табунных условиях воспитания они заканчивают свой рост к 4—5 годам. Зиму лошади проводят на пастбищах, расположенных на 500 Ð¼ выше уровня моря и характерных резко пересеченным рельефом и полупустынной растительностью с преобладанием полыней и солянок. Зимние пастбища бедны водопоями, расположены они на расстоянии до 20 ÐºÐ¼ от пастбищных участков. С удаленных пастбищ лошадей пригоняют к водопоям один раз в 2—3 дня. С наступлением весны табуны передвигаются на летние пастбища. По мере оттаивания в горах снега и отрастания травяного покрова табуны постепенно продвигают все выше в горы. Основные массивы летних пастбищ расположены на высоте 2000 Ð¼ и выше над уровнем моря. Летние пастбища имеют хорошие водопои и богатую злаково-разнотравную растительность


          Ð”онская лошадь[править] Материал из Википедии &...        

Донская лошадь

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Материал из Википедии — свободной энциклопедии

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Донская Ð»Ð¾ÑˆÐ°Ð´ÑŒ — верхово-упряжная порода лошадей, выведенная в XVIII—XIX веках на территории нынешней Ростовской области донскими казаками. Наряду с орловским рысаком одна из наиболее самобытных заводских пород России.

[править] История породы

Гнедой дончак на марке Азербайджана

Основу для донской породы составили лошади степного типа, которых на протяжении длительного времени улучшали жеребцами восточных, а затем чистокровной верховой и некоторых других заводских пород. Восточные (турецкие, персидские, карабахские, туркменские) производители попадали к казакам в качестве военных трофеев во время Турецких войн.

Первым, кто попытался разобраться в происхождении донской лошади, был А.Ф. Грушецкий (Генерал-майор, Член совета Главного управления Госуд. коннозаводства). В статье "Задонская лошадь", опубликованной в "Альбоме Всероссийской конской выставки в Москве в 1910" он писал: "Коренное кочующее население степи - остатки гунов, их одноплеменники киргизы и калмыки. Волга разделила пополам два родственных племени киргизов и калмыков, разделила их на магометан и буддистов, также разделила их породу рогатого скота, овец и лошадей, имеющих один коренной источник. Родоначальницей нашей восточной степной лошади является лошадь монгольская со славным ее историчÐ