Somalia: Somalia Repatriation Update 1 - 31 May 2017   
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Djibouti, Kenya, Somalia, Tunisia, Yemen


  • 3,769 Somali refugees returned to Somalia

  • 1,414 core relief items distributed to 1,139 households (3,864 returnees)

  • 549 newly enrolled students

  • 3,433 returnees provided with reinstallation grants

  • 26 shelters and 40 latrines constructed

  • 2,209 beneficiaries enrolled in community-based projects


  • Operational context: Repatriation continued in May with flights only because road convoys remained suspended for impassable roads as a result of the Gu seasonal rain (April-June).

  • Country of Origin Information: On 8 May, UNHCR shared the Country of Origin Information (COI) for the month of April with the help desk in Kenya. The COI included information on drought, AWD/Cholera, rain forecast and drought-related displacement, and included links to further information and primary sources.

  • Cross-border meeting: On 30 May, the cross-border meeting took place with counterparts to review the repatriation process from Kenya to Somalia. At the meeting, participants established the Thematic Working Group to address issues and found solutions to particular issues.


  • During the month of May, 3,769 Somali refugees returned to Somalia, namely, 3,158 from Kenya, 414 from Yemen and 197 from Djibouti. In 2017, a total of 29,087 Somali refugeesreturned, including 26,759 from Kenya, 2,068 from Yemen, 258 from Djibouti and two from Tunisia.

  • Cumulatively, 98,552 Somali refugees have returned to Somalia; 66,647 from Kenya since the beginning of the repatriation in December 2014, 31,543 since the beginning of the crisis in March 2015 in Yemen and between 2014 and 2017, 362 Somalis from other countries of asylum (326 from Djibouti, 33 from Eritrea, two from Tunisia and one from Pakistan).

          Some random and (very) stray observations   
So many reality shows on TV. MTV Splitsvilla is great if you love to check out fights on the street between two random people. MTV Roadies is great if you are an adult but your brain is still 8 years old. If you are into dance and you get kicks by watching people dance in outrageous costumes, then I suggest you don’t sleep for more than 3 hours a day because there are reality dance shows all the time. There is something called In Your Fest. Do check it out. It is extreme crap. Next thing, cookery shows on music channels. Presenting VJ Juhi’s culinary delights on Channel V’s Red Hot Chilli Peppers every Saturday at 11.30 a.m. By the time it boils, you check out this cool track – The latest bollywood movie song played for the ten thousandth time. Launchpad is the only saving grace right now, but I dread the day when Launchpad will have to hunt for bands. Good bands take years to develop, and a launchpad every year will mean bad bands and crap music that will be polished and decorated for television.

Elections, the biggest reality show, are hitting the house this month. Channel V is running a campaign called “Vote ya Vaat”. The idea is simple, you vote or else you will be in a very bad shape because this very cruel, evil government will be elected and you will be persecuted and left deformed and malfunctioning beyond any hope of repair. There was a time when the campaigns would go “VOTE FOR ME” and now they take the easy way out and just about everyone says “GO VOTE”. Politicians come on Channel V – self proclaimed youth icons – and ask you to vote. I suspect they cut the part where they say “For Me” and just show the first part where they say “Vote”. Times of India – that great epitome of freedom, justice and equality – have gotten into the act with some Lead India type campaign. I have made up my mind. I will vote. Hence, we will get a clean, honest and efficient government this time. Obviously. Don’t vote for change, and don’t vote for an upset, just go and vote.

My favourite sporting nation has always been Argentina, thanks to Maradona and Sabatini. Now, Argentina lost to Bolivia 1-6 on April fool’s Day. It was soccer (not tennis) but then besides the inauspicious day (any astrologer would agree), I feel it was the altitude that got to the Argentineans. Playing in La Paz is no joke, and although Bolivia is ranked 50 places below Argentina in the FIFA rankings, they are the number one team when you play in La Paz. Teach the Bolivians to hold a bat, and they will give the Indian team a run for their money in cricket atop La Paz.

Maneka Gandhi has been in the news lately, thanks to Varun Gandhi and Mayawati. I used to get moved by the tales of cruelty towards animals narrated by Maneka Gandhi on TV in the series called “Heads and Tails”. It was touching, but it did not change my life (or my non-veg diet) and I did not fall in love with animals. At home, we never had pets when I was small. Maybe that’s why I was and I still am, indifferent to the two pets we have right now – a dog and a cat. My sis is into pets big time and hence the pets exist. The cat is no problem. We have had a pet cat for quite some time now. When one cat would die, my sister would get another. Almost like recycling. Cats don’t bark. Dogs do. And the one pet dog we have, does bark loud and for no reason. That is one reason I am not very appreciative of the pet dog. For some reason, he starts howling and screaming in the middle of nothing. It’s not like he has seen a stranger or something unfamiliar. Maybe it’s his innate desire to get some attention in this world where everyone is so focussed on avoiding pink slips amidst the economic meltdown. But I don’t get it. Why does the dog make dumb, loud, crazy noises when everything else around is still? One more reason the cat scores is the fact that she does not come near you sniffing your feet in anticipation of an egg coming out of your toes any moment. The dog does. Now I love my pet dog as long as he stays away from me. I have this ‘you live and let me live’ policy. It can be also interpreted as a ‘you leave me alone and I leave you alone’ policy. The dog does not get it.

And yeah, the good old lady Madonna has been stopped from adopting another baby from Malawi. I don’t think she is doing the right thing by adopting a second baby from the same country. Just for kicks, she should be asked to adopt from some other country. There is Djibouti, Chad, Niger, Cameroon, Lesotho and many countries to choose from. Madonna is a funny one. If you are a young woman, Madonna will smooch you. If you are older, she probably wants you as a nanny. If you are a child, Madonna will adopt you. And if you are a guy, she might marry you. Okay, if you are a young guy, she might be looking at just a brief fling. But still wherever you go, Madonna may get you. She always is in the papers or somewhere near you. Omnipresent, I say.

Remember Jack and the beanstalk? If you ever make a movie on the story, remember to cast Dev Patel as the beanstalk. By the way, the beanstalk is dating the 4th sexiest woman in the world. Wow! Imagine the fate of Frieda Pinto’s classmates at St. Xavier’s. I’m sure some of them were thinking of Megan Fox and Angelina Jolie when the 4th sexiest woman in the world was sitting next to them in class. The most important lesson from it all – never ignore any girls in your vicinity, you never know when they might climb up on the sexy rating scale (whatever that is!)

It will be time to bid adieu to Goa soon. Just when I am getting into the groove, its Mumbai calling... bah!!!
          Flights from Bordeaux to Djibouti   
Find cheap flights and airlines tickets to flight from to
          President Infantino and delegation in Djibouti   
Continuing his African visit, FIFA President Gianni Infantino and the FIFA delegation arrived in Djibouti on Thursday, where the programme included a meeting with Prime Minister Abdoulkader Kamil Mohamed and a visit of the Djibouti FA Headquarters – another FIFA Goal project.
          Gharsalli: Djibouti have the desire   
A team with low expectations, we find out how the love of the beautiful game in the African country of Djibouti is acting as a source of encouragement to rise up the FIFA/Coca-Cola Ranking.
          Landmark progress in Djibouti as Licence Plus implemented   

The launch of the 'Licence Plus' the online system of registering players, has marked a new dawn of development in the growing football nation of Djibouti. 

          FIFA look to get cameras rolling in Djibouti   
Through FIFA's PERFORMANCE initiative, journalists in Djibouti have been given broadcast training to allow the country's top league to make it on to TV sets around the nation and beyond.
          Djibouti enjoys its first ever FIFA Grassroots course   

The Djibouti Football Federation has concluded a ten-day FIFA Grassroots coaching course, which was the first of its kind.

          Djibouti building from the bottom up   

After being elected to the position of President of the Djibouti Football Association in November, Souleiman Hassan Waberi visited the Home of FIFA to speak about his plans for the small African association.

          Somali refs follow coaches’ lead   

Five months on from a training course for Somalia’s coaches in Djibouti, FIFA welcomed their referees back for a course designed to hone their skills.

          Congo DR level with Egypt   

An easy 6-0 win over Djibouti on Friday left Congo DR level with Egypt at the top of Group 12 in the African Zone qualifiers for South Africa 2010.

          Egypt back on song   

Five days after scraping a 2-1 win over Congo DR, Egypt beat Djibouti 4-0 to signal their South Africa 2010 qualification intentions.

          Tight race in store   

Except for Malawi's romp against Djibouti, it was a day of close encounters in Africa as Round 2 of the South Africa 2010 qualifiers began.

          Malawi throw it all at Djibouti   
Malawi will be at full strength when they go up against Djibouti in their opening 2010 FIFA World Cup qualifier in Blantyre on Saturday.
Divisions Among Gulf Arab States Increases Instability in the Horn of Africa
Gulf Cooperation Council isolation of Qatar impacts Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia, Somaliland, Ethiopia and Sudan

By Abayomi Azikiwe
Editor, Pan-African News Wire
Thursday June 29, 2017

A dispute over territory involving the Horn of Africa states of Djibouti and Eritrea was reignited in the aftermath of the withdrawal of Qatari military forces stationed on the border of the countries on June 13.

Doha had served as a mediator in competing claims over Ras Doumeira Mountain and Island on the Red Sea coast near Bab al-Mandab Strait, a strategic shipping lane. Qatari troops were stationed in the area to prevent the potential of a resumption of armed clashes which erupted between Djibouti and Eritrea during June 10-13, 2008.

Qatari military forces serving as peacekeepers pulled out their personnel without any stated reasons. Speculation surrounding the Qatari moves suggests that the burgeoning split among the Gulf monarchies with Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain making demands on Doha amid the imposition of an economic embargo, prompted the withdrawal from Ras Doumeira.

Djibouti and the self-declared independent Somaliland are supporting the position of Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Bahrain against Qatar. Somalia, Sudan and Ethiopia which are also supporting the claims against Qatar have as well called for talks to resolve the differences within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).

Eritrea, which allows the UAE and Saudi Arabia to utilize its port at Assab for military purposes partly related to the ongoing war in Yemen, has taken a cautious line diplomatically on the confrontation despite being affected by the split in the GCC. Nevertheless, most media accounts indicate that Asmara is siding with Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Bahrain in their differences with Doha.

Seaport facilities and airports in Eritrea have been upgraded to accommodate the continuous bombardments of Yemen by Saudi and UAE warplanes aimed at defeating the Ansurallah movement which the GCC says is supported by the Islamic Republic of Iran. Yemen has been subjected to daily airstrikes and ground operations since March 2015 aimed at driving the Ansurallah (Houthis) from large swaths of territory inside the most impoverished nation in the Middle East.

Qatar has been accused by other GCC states of funding international terrorism, maintaining a Turkish military base on its territory and assisting the foreign policy aims of Tehran. Doha has categorically rejected the allegations and refuses to agree to the conditions called for by Riyadh, the UAE and Bahrain.

Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Bahrain with the support of Egypt on June 23 presented thirteen demands for Qatar to adhere to within ten days. These issues include the closing of Al Jazeera television network, the downgrading of relations with Iran, halting the funding of 59 targeted individuals and 12 entities labelled as terrorists such as the Muslim Brotherhood, Hezbollah and ISIS, and the removal of the Turkish military base in Doha.

Origins of the Present Territorial Dispute and its International Implications

The disagreements involving Eritrea and Djibouti over Ras Doumeira are directly a by-product of the demarcation of African colonized territories during the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries where the European imperialist states of Italy and France carved up the area. Later in 1935, Rome and Paris decided to apportion significant areas in Djibouti (then French Somaliland) to Eritrea then under Italian control.

After the defeat of Italian imperialism led at the time by Benito Mussolini during World War II, Eritrea became a British Protectorate and was eventually federated to Ethiopia in 1952. Later in 1962, Eritrea was incorporated into Ethiopia over the objection of the people in the former Italian controlled outpost.

Djibouti did not win its independence from France until 1977 which was relatively late in comparison to other previously colonized East African states. Eritrea proclaimed independence in 1991 after the three decades-long armed struggle and the collapse of the Ethiopian government of Mengistu Haile Mariam that same year. Two years later, in 1993, an internationally-supervised election in Eritrea garnered the state recognition by the-then Organization of African Unity (OAU) and the United Nations.

In April 1996, just five years after Eritrea had gained independence, the new government nearly went to war with Djibouti after Asmara was accused of shelling the disputed territory of Ras Doumeira. The crisis deepened by April 16, 2008 when Djibouti reported that Eritrean troops had established military fortifications digging trenches on the border near Ras Doumeira.

The Djibouti government sent a letter to the United Nations requesting intervention saying a revised map published by Asmara claimed Ras Doumeira as Eritrean land. Conversely, Eritrea claimed it had no territorial problems with Djibouti denying that troops had been deployed to the border areas.

Former Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi responding to the escalating tensions on May 15, 2008 asserted that the disagreement was a "threat to the peace and security of the whole Horn of Africa" noting Addis Ababa had no choice other than securing its trading route through Djibouti if war erupted. Ethiopia, a landlocked state, has been dependent upon Djibouti for access to the Red Sea since Eritrea declared independence in 1991.

On June 10 of the same year, the Djibouti government reported that 21 Eritrean troops in the area defected to their side of the border. Eritrea demanded the repatriation of the soldiers opening fire on the Djibouti forces.

Clashes continued for three days claiming the lives of an estimated 140 soldiers on both sides of the conflict. Djibouti called up retired military and police units to engage in the battle.

France, which has a large military base along with the United States at Camp Lemonnier, provided logistical and technical support to Djibouti. The fighting ended after three days. Later in 2010, Qatar agreed to station 450 troops in the Ras Doumeira border area to prevent further fighting. The UN said in 2009, that Eritrea had failed to withdraw its forces from the Ras Doumeira areas under dispute.

The withdrawal of Qatari soldiers has raised the specter of renewed clashes between the two nations. Djibouti’s UN Ambassador Mohammed Idriss Farah claims that Eritrea has moved into the areas previously held by Qatari troops.

Djibouti has filed a formal complaint with the African Union (AU) over the alleged activity of Eritrean troops. Farah stated that: "Eritrean troops occupied the Dumeira Mountain immediately after Qatar's peacekeepers left. Sometimes the Eritrean troops go to the top of the mountain and return on the other side. What makes this one different is that they moved in right after the peacekeepers left."

Eritrean envoy to the AU, Araya Desta, said of the current situation:“We don’t want to take any of Djibouti’s land. The last time we had some skirmishes. It was unnecessary.”

AU Must Take Decisive Action to Avoid Border War

The AU Peace and Security Council (PSC) issued a statement after the complaint filed by Djibouti over differences with Eritrea. The continental organization convenes its bi-annual summit in Ethiopia on July 3-4.

According to the PSC: “The Chairperson of the Commission, Moussa Faki Mahamat, is following the recent developments between the Republic of Djibouti and the State of Eritrea in the aftermath of Qatar’s decision to withdraw its peacekeeping troops at the Djibouti- Eritrea border. The Chairperson of the Commission appeals for calm, restraint and stresses that the AU is fully seized with the matter. He highlighted that the AU Commission, in close consultations with the authorities in Djibouti and Eritrea, is in the process of deploying a fact-finding mission to the Djibouti-Eritrea border. The Chairperson of the Commission stands ready to assist Djibouti and Eritrea to normalize their relations and promote good neighborliness within the framework of relevant AU instruments.” (

These developments in the Horn of Africa are a continuation of the conflicts emanating from unresolved European colonial-era border demarcations. Also the current split within the western-allied Gulf Arab governments and the dependence of these African states for economic revenue generated through usage of their territory and waterways, which has compelled AU member-states such as Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea and Egypt to side with the anti-Qatari forces does not bode well for continental security in the long term.

Moreover, the political and security interests of various states in the Middle East which routinely work in conjunction with U.S. foreign policy interests are inevitability the concern of the AU. Consequently, Africa has to pay close attention to events unfolding within the GCC countries and their allies and seek the resolution of these conflicts in a manner which curtails the potential for a destabilizing impact on continental states. 

          cours à domicile   
Salut tout le monde, je m'appelle Aicha je suis une licenciere en Biologie-biochimie à l'université de Djibouti. Depuis plusieurs années, j'enseigne des cours soutiens, à présent j&#...
          Djibouti Will Carry Out MICS4 in 2010   
Djibouti will be carrying out a MICS4 survey in 2010, four years after MICS3.

The total number of confirmed MICS4 surveys now stands at 20.

          Eritrea FM visits Astana in first ever government-level visit of Eritrea representative to Kazakhstan   
Kazakhstan Foreign Minister, H.E. Kairat Abdrakhmanov meeting with his Eritrean counterpart, H.E. Osman Saleh in Astana

By AKIpress

Eritrea's Minister of Foreign Affairs Osman Saleh Mohammed arrived in Astana in a first ever government-level visit of Eritrea representative to Kazakhstan.

FM Mohammed was received by his Kazakh counterpart Kairat Abdrakhmanov. Kazakhstan and Eritrea established diplomatic ties in December 2016.

The Eritrea's FM said he opes this visit will become the beginning of fruitful partnership between the two nations. He also handed over the letter from President of Eritrea Isaias Afwerki addressed to President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, in which the Eritrean side expressed interest in boosting ties with Kazakhstan.

The parties discussed a wide range of issues of development of bilateral political cooperation, as well as prospects for cooperation in the trade and economic fields.

During the talks, special attention was paid to the issues of cooperation between Kazakhstan and Eritrea within the framework of the United Nations, including in the framework of Kazakhstan's presidency in the UN Security Council's Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group.

The Monitoring Group on Somalia was first established by the Council on 16 December 2003 to focus on ongoing arms embargo violations. Subsequently, the Council extended and expanded the mandate of the Monitoring Group on several occasions. After the imposition of the sanctions regime on Eritrea on 23 December 2009, the name of the Monitoring Group was changed to Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea. The Group was preceded by a Panel of Experts, which was established by the Council on 22 July 2002 to generate information on violations of the arms embargo on Somalia with a view toward strengthening it.

Eritrea is a northeast African country on the Red Sea coast. It shares borders with Ethiopia, Sudan and Djibouti. The capital city, Asmara, is known for its Italian colonial buildings, like St. Joseph's Cathedral, as well as art deco structures. Italian, Egyptian and Turkish architecture in Massawa reflect the port city's colorful history. Notable buildings here include St. Mariam Cathedral and the Imperial Palace.


Senior delegation on working visit to Kazakhstan

By Shabait

Asmara, 29 June 2017- A senior Eritrean delegation comprising Foreign Minister Osman Saleh, Presidential Advisor Mr. Yemane Gebreab and Ambassador Petros Tsegai are on a working visit to Kazakhstan.

At the meeting the senior Eritrean delegation held with Mr. Kairat Abdrakhnanov, Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan, on 28 June in Astana the two sided reached an agreement to strengthen cooperation in political, diplomatic and economic sectors.

They also reached to understanding on the priority areas of cooperation in the sectors of trade, investment mining as well as agriculture and transportation.

The Eritrean delegation also visited the Astana International Expo 2017.

          Tước quốc tịch Phạm Minh Hoàng: Một quyết định đúng luật và cần thiết!   
Tại cuộc họp báo ngày 15-6 vừa qua, trước câu hỏi về việc tước bỏ quốc tịch Việt Nam của Phạm Minh Hoàng - người mang hai quốc tịch Pháp và Việt Nam, Người phát ngôn Bộ Ngoại giao Việt Nam khẳng định: "Phạm Minh Hoàng đã vi phạm pháp luật và xâm phạm an ninh quốc gia. Việc tước quốc tịch được thực hiện theo đúng pháp luật của Việt Nam".
Ngày 17-5-2017, căn cứ vào Ðiều 88, Ðiều 91 Hiến pháp nước CHXHCN Việt Nam, căn cứ Luật Quốc tịch Việt Nam năm 2008, xét đề nghị tại Tờ trình 191/TT-CP ngày 12-5-2017 của Chính phủ, Chủ tịch nước đã ký Quyết định số 832/QÐ-CTN về việc tước quốc tịch Việt Nam của Phạm Minh Hoàng, sinh ngày 8-8-1955, hiện cư trú tại TP Hồ Chí Minh. Sau khi được công bố, không chỉ Phạm Minh Hoàng coi đó là quyết định "vi phạm pháp luật", mà một số tổ chức như HRW (Theo dõi nhân quyền), RSF (Phóng viên không biên giới) đã lập tức lên tiếng vu cáo Nhà nước Việt Nam, đồng thời trang tiếng Việt của BBC, VOA, RFA, RFI,… vội vã tạo diễn đàn để một số tổ chức, cá nhân thù địch hoặc thiếu thiện chí với Việt Nam xuyên tạc sự thật, bênh vực Phạm Minh Hoàng với các lập luận kỳ quặc như Phạm Minh Hoàng là "cựu tù nhân lương tâm", "nhà hoạt động vì nhân quyền","người yêu nước"…!
Đối tượng Phạm Minh Hoàng

Năm 2000, sau khi được nhận quốc tịch Việt Nam, Phạm Minh Hoàng từ Pháp về nước, được nhận làm giảng viên hợp đồng ở Trường đại học Bách khoa TP Hồ Chí Minh. Vì Phạm Minh Hoàng đã nhiều lần có hành vi vi phạm pháp luật Việt Nam cho nên đã bị bắt tạm giam để điều tra, và ngày 29-11-2011 Tòa phúc thẩm TAND tối cao tại TP Hồ Chí Minh mở phiên tòa xét xử ông ta về tội "Hoạt động nhằm lật đổ chính quyền nhân dân" theo Ðiều 79 của Bộ luật Hình sự. Do Phạm Minh Hoàng đã thừa nhận hành vi phạm tội, tỏ ra ăn năn, mong muốn được cống hiến sau khi mãn hạn tù, cũng vì mối quan hệ Việt Nam và Pháp, cho nên Hội đồng xét xử quyết định giảm án từ 3 năm tù giam, 3 năm quản chế còn 17 tháng tù với Phạm Minh Hoàng.
Năm 2012, Phạm Minh Hoàng ra tù và ông ta cũng quên luôn lời hứa trước tòa, tiếp tục có hành vi sai trái. Ngày 20-3-2016, tại TP Hồ Chí Minh lực lượng công an đã tạm giữ Phạm Minh Hoàng vì bị tố cáo mở lớp học trái pháp luật, lợi dụng giảng dạy kỹ năng mềm để tuyên truyền chống Nhà nước. Khi khám xét, trong máy tính của Phạm Minh Hoàng chứa nhiều tài liệu chứng tỏ đối tượng này đang có các hoạt động chống chế độ. Ðể bênh vực Phạm Minh Hoàng, có ý kiến cho rằng ông ta "bị cáo buộc là đảng viên Việt tân", và đó là ý kiến chạy tội cho kẻ xấu. Trên in-tơ-nét, trong các tin, bài liên quan việc xét xử Phạm Minh Hoàng năm 2011 còn lưu giữ nội dung liên quan như: "Theo lời khai của Hoàng, thì: "Dự định của tôi là sẽ thành lập những tổ chức "Việt tân" trá hình để lôi kéo giới trẻ rồi trong số những người ấy, tôi sẽ chọn những người ưu tú nhất để gửi ra nước ngoài, tham dự những khóa đào tạo do "Việt tân" tổ chức. Sau đó quay trở về, làm hạt nhân kích động người dân biểu tình, bạo loạn để "Việt tân" nương theo, cướp chính quyền"". Còn theo bản tin trên RFA ngày 20-3-2016, sau khi Phạm Minh Hoàng bị bắt, "đảng Việt tân cũng chính thức xác nhận ông là thành viên của đảng này"; và tới ngày 17-6-2017 vừa qua, trong một văn bản công bố trên trang mạng của tổ chức khủng bố "Việt tân", Ðỗ Hoàng Ðiềm - kẻ cầm đầu tổ chức này, cũng đã chính thức khẳng định Phạm Minh Hoàng là "đảng viên Việt Tân"!
Trên thế giới, quy định có quốc tịch và mất quốc tịch là công việc nội bộ của mỗi quốc gia độc lập có chủ quyền, các quy định này ra đời trong hoàn cảnh lịch sử cụ thể, phù hợp với yêu cầu xây dựng, bảo vệ đất nước. Thí dụ, theo quy định tại Ðiều 48, Luật Quốc tịch hiện hành của Thụy Sĩ (ban hành năm 1952, sửa đổi lần cuối năm 2013) một công dân Thụy Sĩ có hai quốc tịch, có thể bị tước quốc tịch Thụy Sĩ nếu người này có hành vi gây phương hại tới lợi ích hay uy tín của Thụy Sĩ. Trong luận án tiến sĩ bảo vệ ở Trường đại học Tổng hợp Basel (Ba-sen), nhà sử học N. Schwalbach (N. Sơ-van-bách) cho biết từ năm 1940 tới năm 1952 đã có 86 người bị tước quốc tịch Thụy Sĩ vì xâm phạm an ninh quốc gia hoặc có hành vi gây phương hại đến uy tín của Thụy Sĩ. Phần lớn trong số này đã phản bội Tổ quốc, câu kết với Ðức quốc xã. Hơn 50 năm sau khi Luật Quốc tịch có hiệu lực, theo công bố chính thức thì năm 2016, lần đầu Quốc vụ khanh phụ trách di cư của Thụy Sĩ tiến hành thủ tục tước quốc tịch với người mà các phương tiện truyền thông Thụy Sĩ gọi là Christian I (Cơ-rít-xtan I) sinh ra và lớn lên tại Thụy Sĩ, sau đó thêm quốc tịch I-ta-li-a. Tháng 2-2015, ở tuổi 19, Christian I rời Thụy Sĩ sang Xy-ri và tham gia tổ chức khủng bố. Ở Vương quốc Anh, khả năng tước quốc tịch vì lý do an ninh đã có từ năm 2002, nhưng từ vụ đánh bom tàu điện ngầm ở Luân Ðôn tháng 7-2005, Chính phủ Anh đã nhiều lần thắt chặt quy định về quốc tịch. Năm 2006, vì an toàn của xã hội, Bộ trưởng Nội vụ Anh có thể tuyên bố một quốc tịch mất giá trị, và từ đó đến nay hàng chục người đã bị tước quốc tịch Anh vì lý do an ninh. Một trường hợp được nhắc đến nhiều là Mahdi (Mát-đi) có hai quốc tịch Xô-ma-li và Anh, được cho là đã tham gia lực lượng khủng bố ở Xô-ma-li. Năm 2013, Mahdi được dẫn độ từ Djibouti (Gi-bu-ti) đến Mỹ và bị kết án 9 năm tù. Trước khi ra tòa án Mỹ, anh ta đã bị tước quốc tịch Anh, và do đó Chính phủ Anh không còn phải can thiệp vì lợi ích của anh ta trong vụ án. Về việc quyết định tước quốc tịch, Ca-na-đa và Ô-xtrây-li-a hiện dựa vào cách giải quyết của Vương quốc Anh. Những năm gần đây, hai quốc gia đều đã thông qua các đạo luật có khả năng tước quốc tịch.
Quy định mất quốc tịch của CHLB Ðức cũng là một minh chứng cho thấy quy định mất quốc tịch ra đời trong hoàn cảnh lịch sử đặc biệt như thế nào. Một lý do để công dân Ðức mất quốc tịch là tham gia quân đội nước ngoài mà không được phép của nhà nước Ðức. Trước thực tế những năm qua, nhiều công dân Ðức lợi dụng việc mang thêm quốc tịch một quốc gia khác, đến các vùng chiến sự để tham gia các tổ chức khủng bố, khi trở về Ðức họ trở thành mối nguy hiểm cho xã hội, nhiều chính trị gia, nhà nghiên cứu đã chỉ ra yêu cầu cấp bách phải có một luật mới với thủ tục tước quốc tịch đơn giản hơn, nhanh hơn. Năm 2011, một người gốc Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ sinh ra ở Ðức, có tên là A. Selek (A.Se-lếch), trước khi nhập quốc tịch Ðức năm 2005, đã xin thôi quốc tịch gốc. Vì hỗ trợ khủng bố, năm 2010 anh ta bị tuyên án tù, năm 2011 bị tước quốc tịch Ðức. Ðơn kiện chống lại việc tước quốc tịch Ðức bị tòa án hành chính bác bỏ, và cuối cùng A. Selek rơi vào tình trạng không quốc tịch. Về trường hợp này, trang mạng của đài truyền hình N-TV đăng bài "Người hỗ trợ khủng bố thành người không quốc tịch - tước quốc tịch của Atilla Selek là đúng luật", trong đó phân tích khá rõ ràng về lý do đã đưa A. Selek tới tình trạng không quốc tịch. Sau nhiều vụ tiến công của các phần tử khủng bố, năm 2016, Chính phủ Pháp đã đưa ra một đề nghị thay đổi hiến pháp về việc này, nhưng đến nay vẫn chưa có một thỏa thuận giữa Quốc hội và Chính phủ. Một phán quyết mới đây của Tòa án châu Âu về quyền con người đã gây chú ý lớn. Cụ thể, ngày 9-3-2017, đơn kiện của một người gốc Xu-đăng bị tước quốc tịch Anh vì bị nghi ngờ khủng bố đã bị bác bỏ. Theo tòa án, biện pháp đó không tùy tiện và tương xứng vì nguy cơ khủng bố. Ngoài ra, nguyên đơn có quyền xin cấp hộ chiếu Xu-đăng để không thành người không quốc tịch.
Liên quan tới việc tước và không tước quốc tịch, cách đây không lâu, một đại diện của Bộ Nội vụ Vương quốc Anh có một phát biểu mà các phương tiện truyền thông trích dẫn nhiều lần, đó là nhận định: "Quốc tịch là một đặc quyền, chứ không phải một quyền". Ðáng tiếc là ông Phạm Minh Hoàng lại không nhận ra việc được nhập quốc tịch Việt Nam là thể hiện thái độ rất thiện chí, độ lượng của Nhà nước Việt Nam đối với ông ta, mà còn lợi dụng điều này để tiến hành các hoạt động làm phương hại cho Việt Nam. Phải chăng ông ta quên rằng Nhà nước Việt Nam là nhà nước pháp quyền, không thể làm ngơ hoặc dung túng cho những hành động, lời nói đi ngược lợi ích, danh dự của dân tộc?
Người gốc Việt từ nước ngoài trở về tham gia xây dựng, phát triển đất nước với động cơ trong sáng, lành mạnh luôn được Nhà nước Việt Nam khuyến khích, hoan nghênh, tạo điều kiện được cống hiến; nhưng lợi dụng việc này để làm hại đất nước thì không thể chấp nhận. Quyết định tước quốc tịch Việt Nam với Phạm Minh Hoàng là hợp lý, hợp tình, được dư luận rộng rãi ủng hộ. Hợp lý vì quyết định của Chủ tịch nước được cân nhắc kỹ lưỡng, dựa trên Ðiều 88 Hiến pháp nước CHXHCN Việt Nam về nhiệm vụ, quyền hạn Chủ tịch nước, mà một điểm trong khoản 4 ghi rõ Chủ tịch nước có quyền "quyết định cho nhập quốc tịch, thôi quốc tịch, trở lại quốc tịch hoặc tước quốc tịch Việt Nam", đồng thời dựa trên Ðiều 91 Hiến pháp nước CHXHCN Việt Nam về việc "Chủ tịch nước ban hành lệnh, quyết định để thực hiện nhiệm vụ, quyền hạn của mình". Ðặc biệt, quyết định dựa trên quy định cụ thể của luật pháp đã ban hành tại Ðiều 31 Luật Quốc tịch Việt Nam năm 2008 về "Căn cứ tước quốc tịch Việt Nam", trong đó ghi rõ: "1. Công dân Việt Nam cư trú ở nước ngoài có thể bị tước quốc tịch Việt Nam, nếu có hành vi gây phương hại nghiêm trọng đến nền độc lập dân tộc, đến sự nghiệp xây dựng và bảo vệ Tổ quốc Việt Nam hoặc đến uy tín của nước Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam; 2. Người đã nhập quốc tịch Việt Nam theo quy định tại Ðiều 19 của Luật này dù cư trú ở trong hoặc ngoài lãnh thổ Việt Nam cũng có thể bị tước quốc tịch Việt Nam, nếu có hành vi quy định tại khoản 1 Ðiều này". Và hợp tình vì dù ông ta từng chịu án tù với tội danh "Hoạt động nhằm lật đổ chính quyền nhân dân", dù ông ta là thành viên tổ chức khủng bố "Việt tân" nhưng Nhà nước Việt Nam vẫn rất khoan dung, độ lượng, cho phép ông ta được giữ quốc tịch Việt Nam. Song việc gì cũng có giới hạn và tước quốc tịch là rất cần thiết, nếu tiếp tục vi phạm pháp luật thì việc Phạm Minh Hoàng phải có mặt tại phiên tòa là một khả năng hoàn toàn có thể xảy ra.
THANH HẢI (Báo Nhân dân)

          Roxbury heist target handles cash for African immigrants   

The Roxbury money exchange business targeted in Tuesday’s gunpoint robbery of $420,000 in cash has outlets across the country and caters to African immigrants, according to its website and state records.

As the Herald reported yesterday, employees heading home from the Tremont Street branch of Dahabshil Inc. were held up on Cedar Street at 5:40 p.m. The stacks of bills they were carrying — stuffed into a silver suitcase — were stolen, police reported.

See the first story here...

Police reported they tracked down three suspects and recovered all the money less than five hours later.

A man answering the phone at Dahabshil Inc.’s headquarters in Dublin, Ohio, told the Herald last night it’s “not normal” for employees to drive around with that much money.

As for the heist, he added Boston police told him the case is “still under investigation.” The man, who declined to give his name, said the company has “taken the necessary steps” to alert employees to what happened.

“We’re like Western Union, we’re a money transmitter,” the man added. “We don’t have any more information about what happened.”

Dahabshil Inc. is listed as a foreign corporation that registered with the state in July 1998, according to the Secretary of State’s Office.

The company’s website says it “facilitates the transfer of money for immigrant communities and Non-Governmental Aid Agencies ... in alliance with Dahabshil PVT Somalia.”

The company offers services in cities in Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Djibouti, the website states.

The local office is located next to Roxbury Crossing. There was a sign on the door yesterday telling customers the business was closed because of technical issues. A man answering the phone number listed on the sign declined comment.

The three arrested in connection with Tuesday’s case are: Adnan Tahlil, 23, of Roxbury, charged with armed robbery, receiving stolen property, and drug possession. His bail was set at $75,000; Lee Harvey, 24, of Dorchester, charged with receiving stolen property and held on $50,000 bail; and Merih Tekleghiorghis, 25, of Brookline, charged with receiving stolen property. His bail was set at $5,000.

Joe Dwinell contributed to this report.


Antonio Planas


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          What Is behind Tension between Eritrea and Djibouti?   
(BBC News)―The African Union is sending a fact-finding mission to Eritrea and Djibouti as tension mounts over their disputed border at one of the world’s busiest shipping routes. The AU’s move has been backed by the UN Security Council, which on 19 June urged the two countries to resolve their differences peacefully. The tension has […]
          O Desdobramento do Mundo Contemporâneo   

Carlos Kandanda

Na abordagem de Conceitos Científicos, a Geografia Politica, na essência, é o Estudo da influência de factores económicos, geográficos e demográficos sobre a política global de um País, sobretudo no que concerne a política externa, a diplomacia e as relações internacionais, tanto a nível bilateral, quanto a nível multilateral. Ou seja, a potencialidade económica, tecnológica e infra-estruturas de um país ou de uma região geográfica, são factores essenciais na formulação de uma estratégia global de um Estado em relação aos outros Estados, com interesses variáveis relacionados com o mesmo espaço geográfico. Nesta ordem de ideia, toma-se em consideração um conjunto de dados demográficos, o nível de desenvolvimento, os costumes, as crenças, o sistema político, etc.

Pois, as características geográficas, vistos por vários ângulos, determinam a Geoestratégia (terreno, meteorologia, clima, demografia, economia, cultura, religião, etc.) de um País, quer na formulação da política global, quer na definição da estratégia militar. Os Países mais avançados, com grande potencial tecnológico e financeiro, possuem uma visão global mais acentuada da Geoestratégia mundial. Sendo, neste respeito, os seus interesses estratégicos não se limitar apenas a realização de riquezas, mas sobretudo, a afirmação da sua hegemonia politica e do seu monopólio financeiro, em busca de recursos naturais, sobretudo os minerais estratégicos. 

Acima disso, as potências mundiais, com taxa elevada de sobre-povoamento e de explosão demográfica, como a China, a visão Geoestratégica desses países assenta-se igualmente na «expansão demográfica». Fomentando novos povoamentos noutros países, de cariz agro-industrial e pecuária, nas áreas vitais, onde existir interesses económicos e militares. Neste caso específico, África representa um dos exemplos mais concretos, onde se encontra colonatos chineses espalhados por toda parte. Esta matéria será tratada oportunamente na profundidade, com dados fiáveis e substanciais.

Dizendo que, o que me leva a fazer esta reflexão extensa é para poder elucidar, na profundidade, os factores que envolvem a conjuntura internacional, nesta época contemporânea de viragem, sobretudo a nível das três potências mundiais, nomeadamente: os Estados Unidos da América, a Rússia e a China. Alias, este texto, de cunho científico, destina-se ao mundo dos académicos, dos estudiosos, dos analistas, dos pesquisadores, dos políticos e dos militares, que lidam com matérias complexas do mundo contemporâneo. Afirmando que, a estratégia das grandes potências mundiais, desta época conturbada, tem maior incidência sobre a Europa Ocidental, o Médio Oriente e o Continente Africano. Visto que, o surgimento do Donald Trump, como Presidente dos Estados Unidos da América, fizera surgir um novo cenário na conjuntura internacional, bastante opaco.  

Este novo contexto de relação bilateral entre as potências ocidentais e as potências asiáticas tivera início durante o consulado do Presidente Vladimir Putin, sem que tenha sido bem percebido pela Administração Obama. O novo quadro da Geoestratégia do Médio Oriente desenvolvia-se gradualmente sem que Presidente Barack Obama tivesse a noção exacta da estratégia russa.

Pois, a anexação da Crimeia e a invasão do Leste da Ucrânia estavam bem enquadradas numa vasta estratégia, que visava criar uma zona tampão na Europa do Leste. Mas, pela complexidade da situação, não teria sido sensato avançar frontalmente naquele flanco, sem encontrar uma resistência tenaz por parte da NATO. A estratégia de fazer barulho no Sul, para atacar no Norte era a via mais realista e menos arriscada.
Portanto, a visão do Presidente Vladimir Putin, neste contexto, foi a mais razoável. Pois, esta estratégia consistia em implantar-se na Síria; fomentar unidades radicais compactas islamitas; desestabilizar esta região; e agravar a instabilidade político-militar na Turquia, de tal sorte que esta desvinculasse da NATO e afastasse da União Europeia.

Tendo-se implantado militarmente na Síria, no Líbano, no Irão e na Turquia, dar-lhe-ia o pleno acesso ao Mar Mediterrâneo, com capacidade de ameaçar directamente o Flanco Sul da Europa. Ou melhor, desde Guerra Fria a Rússia tem estado a esperar por uma oportunidade a fim de conquistar um espaço privilegiado ao longo do Mar Mediterrâneo, dentro do alcance das fronteiras terrestres e marítimas da Europa Ocidental.

Importa dizer que, a instabilidade do Médio Oriente resultaria no êxodo migratório, em grande escala, com destino aos países ricos da Europa Ocidental, com o seguinte impacto: a) expansão demográfica árabe; b) alteração sócio-cultural da Europa; c) fonte de mão-de-obra e de expertise; d) expansão do islamismo. 
Sem dúvida, a Rússia ficou com a visão exacta da importância estratégica do Egipto nesta região. Basta olhar para o Canal de Suez, o Mar Vermelho, o Golfo de Éden e o Mar Arábico, que se situa no Oceano Indico, como ponto de entrada e de saída ao Mar Mediterrâneo. O Mar Vermelho, em si só, alberga, nas suas margens, num lado: Arábia Saudita e Iémen; noutro lado: Egipto, Sudão do Norte, Eritreia, Djibouti, Etiópia e Somália. A partir do Egipto torna-se viável o acesso à Líbia, um espaço estratégico de relevo no Mar Mediterrâneo, que permite desguarnecer a Europa Ocidental; controlar o Norte da África; e bloquear o Estreito de Gibraltar, que liga Espanha e Marrocos. 

Note-se que, o Médio Oriente é o maior produtor do Petróleo a nível mundial. Este «Oil Commodity», de importância estratégica mundial, é comercializado e escoado para diferentes partes do Mundo através das vias marítimas dos Oceanos Índico e Atlântico. África, neste contexto, situa-se no Coração do Planeta Terra, como «Eixo-Giratório» das Vias Marítimas, em todas direcções, a todos Continentes. Portanto, o Canal do Suez, o Golfo de Éden, o Estreito de Gibraltar e o Cabo de Boa Esperança (da África do Sul) são espaços marítimos de extrema importância, no contexto da Geoestratégia Mundial. Quem poder controlar essas quatro Vias Marítimas, em torno de África, é capaz de pôr em causa a livre circulação de pessoas e bens, o comércio mundial e a segurança da Europa. 

Feita esta leitura, do Médio Oriente, torna-se difícil perceber a Visão do Presidente Donald Trump que visa isolar o Mundo Árabe, isto é, o Médio Oriente e o Norte de África, sob pretexto de impedir a penetração do terrorismo islâmico nos Estados Unidos da América. Pois, esta política, isolacionista, não só radicaliza o sentimento árabe contra os EUA, mas sobretudo, afasta os EUA dos seus Aliados Árabes; afasta-se do maior mercado petrolífero; perde o controlo das Vias Marítimas; e deixa o Médio Oriente e o Norte da África sob alçada da Rússia. 

Alias, é óbvio o facto de que, a estratégia do Presidente Donald Trump implica, sem dúvida nenhuma, o desdobramento do teatro militar da Europa do Leste e do Médio Oriente para dentro do território americano. Em vez de conter o inimigo dentro do seu território, mantê-lo lá restrito, é-lhe dado o espaço vazio para progredir livremente até a Costa Pacifica dos Estados Unidos da América. Nestas circunstâncias, Moscovo sentirá aliviado com esta política de «proximidade»,ou seja, de «encolhimento geoestratégico», que tem sido defendida pelo Presidente Donald Trump. O «isolacionismo», na doutrina politica, preconiza o isolamento de um País do cenário internacional, mediante a recusa em formar ou manter alianças; e/ou, assinar acordos bilaterais ou multilaterais com outros Estados soberanos ou Organizações multilaterais. 

Nesta perspectiva, a NATO ficará menos eficaz no seu Flanco Sul do Mar Mediterrâneo, e será obrigada a desdobrar as suas Forças da Europa do Leste para a Frente Sul, ao longo do Mar Mediterrâneo. O que, de certo modo, irá aliviar a concentração de contingentes da NATO ao longo da Fronteira Oeste da Rússia, com o alcance fácil ao Moscovo. Esta evolução, de desdobramento militar, terá repercussões drásticas sobre a segurança dos Países da Europa do Leste (Estónia, Latia, Lituana, Belarus, Geórgia, Polónia, Ucrânia, Bulgária, Roménia, Hungria, Rep. Czech, Eslovénia, Bósnia e Albânia), que livraram-se da influência Soviética durante o desmoronamento do Império Soviético.

A redução significativa da presença americana na Europa, a nível da NATO, irá obrigar os Países da Europa Ocidental e da Europa do Leste tomar iniciativas de rapprochement ao Moscovo, criando uma nova constelação e um novo clima de relação e de cooperação bilateral entre as partes. O que, desde já, indicia o colapso da União Europeia e o divórcio anunciado entre os EUA e a Europa Ocidental. 

 O fenómeno Brexit, isto é, a saída do Reino Unido da União Europeia, que está estimulado pelo Nacionalismo Europeu, tem potencialidade enorme de desagregar totalmente a União Europeia. Alias, esta perspectiva, da desintegração da União Europeia, e da retirada dos EUA da NATO, fazia parte da estratégia do Vladimir Putin. Uns dos motivos que fez com que a Rússia interferisse nos mecanismos eleitorais americanos, à favor do Donald Trump. Há quem diga que o Referendo Britânico tivesse tido uma interferência informática russa, tendo resultado na Vitória dos Pro-Brexit, que viabiliza o divorcio entre o Reino Unido e a União Europeia. 

O Desmembramento da União Europeia, como instituição politica e económica, vai enfraquecer a capacidade militar da NATO em fazer face ao Poderio Militar Russa na Europa do Leste, na Região Mediterrâneo e na Região Báltica, dos Países Escandinavos. Além disso, a reestruturação da NATO, sem a União Europeia, será o grande desafio. Pois, não existe a confiança mútua entre os Europeus, e não tem um «país-líder», capaz de congregar os Estados-Membros da NATO, no sentido de encontrar consensos na reestruturação da Organização. 

Em termos do potencial económico, financeiro, tecnológico e know-how, a Alemanha estaria em condições de liderar a Europa. Alias, já tem estado a liderar a Europa através da poderosa Chanceler, Senhora Ângela Merkel. Só que, o passado histórico da Alemanha, dos seus passivos durante as duas Guerras Mundiais, faz com que haja reticências por parte de Berlim assumir a responsabilidade de liderar a Europa. Alias, o peso politico, tecnológico e económico-financeiro da Alemanha, dentro da União Europeia e no Mundo, tem sido o bicho-de-sete-cabeças ao Reino Unido, que constitui um dos motivos do BREXIT.

O Reino Unido, neste caso específico, repugna categoricamente a liderança da Alemanha. Por outro lado, nas condições actuais do Presidente Donald Trump, de contestações generalizadas, dentro e fora do país, bem como da sua Politica Externa, é difícil que tenha autoridade suficiente sobre as Potencias Europeias e sobre a NATO. A não ser que venha alterar significativamente a sua postura e as suas politicas. 

Todavia, o futuro da União Europeia tornar-se-á explicita depois das eleições gerais da França e da Alemanha, no decurso deste ano de 2017. Além disso, o início das Negociações do BREXIT, no final do mês de Março de 2017, irá ditar a postura dos restantes 27 Estado-Membros da União Europeia. Pois, sente-se que, o Reino Unido tem a estratégia que se baseia no princípio de dividir para melhor reinar. Esta política consistirá em oferecer pacotes de propostas diferenciados aos Estados-Membros da União Europeia, de acordo com interesses específicos de cada país ou de cada grupo de países. Isso permitirá não só alcançar acordos favoráveis para o Reino Unido, mas sobretudo, meter uma cunha no seu seio, de modo a dividi-los.  

O ponto assente, nesta viragem, é a estratégia subtil e oculta da China, que terá reflexos profundos sobre a nova Ordem Mundial. Enquanto os EUA da América e a Rússia estão metidos em disputas militares no Médio Oriente e na Europa do Leste, a China está avançar silenciosamente em África, na América Latina e na Ásia. Expandindo-se economicamente; dando créditos bancários; buscando acesso aos minerais estratégicos; construindo infra-estruturas; promovendo regimes corruptos e autocráticos; criando uma elite burguesa; fomentando colonatos nos países menos avançados; e projectando o seu «modelo politico»; que é de cariz totalitário e  do capitalismo dirigido. 

Ao passo que, internamente faz abertura aos investimentos das potências ocidentais; cria condições favoráveis de out-sourcing de capitais estrangeiros; busca novas tecnologias mais avançadas dos países industrializados; moderniza a economia; constrói infra-estruturas mais modernas; capitaliza na produção massiva; no investimento de grande massa de bens; no comércio externo em grande escala; na exploração intensiva da mão-de-obra barata; na maximização de lucros; e no combate acérrimo à corrupção. Tornando-se robusto o Exercito Vermelho, com capacidade tecnológica de ponta, com presença efectiva no Espaço, como potência nuclear. 

Interessa realçar o facto de que, contrariamente a Rússia, a China goza de relações de cooperação privilegiadas com os Países Ocidentais, em vários domínios da economia, tais como: No comércio, na indústria pesada, nos investimentos, na transferência de tecnologias, nas instituições financeiras, na pesquisa e na resolução de conflitos. Parece um paradoxo, mas na verdade, o Tesouro Federal dos EUA é assegurado, em parte, por capital financeiro chinês. Embora, de facto, existir zonas cinzentas de conflitos com os EUA, nomeadamente: Na questão de Taiwan, na guerra comercial e nas vias marítimas do Mar Sul da China. De qualquer modo, essas divergências, acima mencionadas, não ainda atingiram o nível de ruptura, como acontece com a Rússia, que se encontra sob Sanções Económicas dos Países Ocidentais, devido a anexação da Crimeia e a invasão do Leste da Ucrânia.

Esta abordagem analítica leva-nos a perceber que, esta problemática mundial tem o potencial de afectar fortemente a estabilidade e o equilíbrio a nível das Nações Unidas. À medida que vai-se agravando as rivalidades entre as três Super Potencias Mundiais, mais difícil tornará o diálogo e o consenso no seio do Conselho da Segurança das Nações Unidas, ficando sem poder decisório, que é determinante para a resolução dos conflitos mundiais. Repare que, as Nações Unidas funcionam na base das organizações continentais e regionais, que criam Anéis entrosados e interligados, com interesses específicos de cada organização multilateral, que convergem nas Nações Unidas, criando lobies entre si, em busca de consensos sobre matérias de interesse comum. 

Portanto, o colapso da União Europeia, como organização continental, dando o seu peso a nível mundial, poderá desfazer os consensos no seio do Bloco Ocidental, sob a liderança dos Estados Unidos da América. Isso, em si só, terá reflexos negativos sobre a viabilidade do Conselho de Segurança das Nações Unidos. Por outro lado, a China e a Rússia têm pontos-de-vistas aproximados no Conselho de Segurança das Nações Unidas, como membros permanentes deste Órgão, com simpatia de muitos Países Africanos e da América Latina. Esta aproximação estratégica entre a China e a Rússia não significa que haja harmonia e consenso absoluto entre si, como potencias asiáticas. 

Repare que, a China tem uma visão diferente sobre a Geoestratégia Mundial, com políticas opostas. A China aposta-se numa estratégia pacífica, assente na expansão económica, como instrumento politico. Ao contrário da Rússia, que usa a força militar como instrumento politico. Acima disso, as duas potências asiáticas disputam a liderança do Continente Asiático. No ponto de vista histórico, sociológico e antropológico nenhuma das duas potências, em referência, estaria disposta a ceder e a submeter-se à supremacia de outra. Em termos tecnológico, como suporte da capacidade militar, as ambas potências aproximam-se, num equilíbrio relativo e variável. No ponto de vista económico, a China supera a Rússia, e este último depende do primeiro. 

A implantação da China no Mundo é mais significativa, credível, estável, crescente e sustentável do que a Rússia, que se encontra ainda na fase de recuperação do desmoronamento do Império Soviético, que resultou da Guerra Fria. Alias, a China é a segunda economia do mundo a seguir os Estados Unidos da América, com a taxa de crescimento mais elevada. A disputa pelo Mundo situou-se a nível da China e dos EUA. Porém, os acontecimentos actuais no Médio Oriente e na Europa do Leste colocaram novamente a Rússia no centro da contenda entre o Leste e o Oeste, como major players.
Contudo, a experiencia da Guerra Fria revela que, enquanto a Rússia e os EUA digladiar-se, numa guerra de desgaste, a China vai continuar consolidar a sua economia e expandir-se gradualmente ao Mundo. A não ser que os seus interesses estratégicos venham a ser ameaçados sobremaneira, de tal forma que, seja forçada a entrar no conflito. Nessas circunstâncias, será difícil que ela se alie às potências ocidentais.

Em suma, o Mundo está a encaminhar para o desmantelamento da Ordem Mundial Contemporânea que se baseia nas instituições multilaterais, controladas pelas grandes potências capitalistas, sob controlo dos detentores de grandes capitais – os donos do Mundo. Na verdade, o multilateralismo, veiculado pelas Nações Unidas, tem os seus defeitos que são inerentes dos factores da globalização, bem conhecidos. Todavia, a sua vantagem consiste na protecção dos países fracos pelo Direito Internacional, que funciona a nível das organizações multilaterais, que vincula todos os Estados-Membros das Nações Unidas, em pé de igualdade.

Logo, o colapso destas instituições multilaterais, a ser substituídas pelo sistema bilateral, deixará países pequenos, fracos e menos avançados à merce das grandes potências. Será difícil, nessas circunstâncias, combater a ditadura, a corrupção e o terrorismo internacional. Um conjunto de princípios e valores democráticos e do Estado de Direito ficarão fortemente abalados e adiados, sem mecanismos institucionais eficazes para sua efectivação.

Queira, nesta lógica, referir-se aos valores e princípios fundamentais, como a liberdade; a igualdade; a justiça; a multirracialidade; a distribuição justa da riqueza; a solidariedade; o sufrágio universal; o multipartidarismo; a liberdade de imprensa; a liberdade de consciência; a boa governação; a prestação de contas; a fiscalização dos actos do governo; a separação de poderes; a convivência pacífica; a coexistência pacífica entre as Nações; a tolerância; a transparência; a reciprocidade; o dialogo; o consenso; e a autodeterminação.
Luanda, 15 de Fevereiro de 2017  

          Mass Casualty Exercise with titles   
The U.S. Military deployed and French forces partnered up to test their capabilities of handling a mass casualty. Staff Sergeant Sara Weeks takes us to the accident scene. REPORTER Service members from Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti participated in their first ever mass casualty exercise combined with U.S. joint military and French forces. In this exercise scenario combined U.S. and French military forces are involved in a traffic accident with multiple. casualties. SB The key component in this was the command and control components between the U.S. and the French operations center and command to begin dialogue and figure out how they were going to conduct this operation in order to get forty bodies from out here in Grand Bara seventy-five kilometers back to Djibouti to get them proper medical care. REPORTER First responders arrived to the scene of the accident by helicopter and quickly triaged and transported patients to receive medical treatment. Testing the medical unit’s capabilities which includes the medical evacuation procedures of both forces are also major components of the exercise. SB: Exercises like this supports the HOA mission because we are working with our partner nation being the French since we both have a significant foot print here in Djibouti. This is the first step of further outreaching effort that eventually will hopefully incorporate the Djiboutians and our other partner nations to include the Germans, the Spanish so we can have a plied combat multiplier as far as everyone being involved because if we had a mass casualty event along these lines that involved local Djiboutians we would need to use the Djiboutian resources as well. So this is the first step toward that. REPORTER Exercises such as this one help build coalition capacity to enhance medical readiness and ultimately save lives. For Combined Joint Task Force Horn of Africa Public Affairs, I’m Staff Sergeant Sara Weeks. Also available in high definition.
          Divisions Among Gulf Arab States Increases Instability in the Horn of Africa   
Gulf Cooperation Council isolation of Qatar impacts Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia, Somaliland, Ethiopia and Sudan A dispute over territory involving the Horn of Africa states of Djibouti and Eritrea was reignited in the aftermath of the withdrawal of Qatari military forces stationed on the border of the countries on June 13. Doha had served as a […]
          HR Recruitment and Development Officer at International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)   
Established in 1863, the ICRC operates worldwide, helping people affected by conflict and armed violence and promoting the laws that protect victims of war. An independent and neutral organization, its mandate stems essentially from the Geneva Conventions of 1949. We are based in Geneva, Switzerland, and employ some 14,500 people in more than 80 countries. The ICRC is funded mainly by voluntary donations from governments and from national Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. The HR Recruitment and Development Officer will provide a full range of HR Development and Operational support to the 350 staff and managers based in Kenya, Tanzania, and Djibouti. The overall responsibilities attached to this new position will include: Ensuring the HR capacity required, sizing and improving people capabilities, contribution and active participation in order to achieve delegation goals effectively. This will be done according to ICRC human resources vision and values; Contribute continuously to the HR needs analysis by identifying HR issues (in his area of expertise) on a day to day basis and ensuring information flow to the hierarchy; Deploy and implement HR policies, procedures, systems and tools in the field, and train managers and staff on the same. Non-exhaustive list of duties and responsibilities: 1. Recruitment and Sourcing Provides expertise to all people involved in recruitment process on how to lead it properly with the aim of recruiting professionals and people with potentials to be developed; Participates in discussions regarding the profile needed for each position including the writing of the job description and person specifications and the positioning of the job on the grading system; - Organizes, supervises and take an active role in recruitment processes with the assistance of the HR Officer and the HR Service Provider on sites. 2. Induction & On-Boarding 2. Induction & On-Boarding Ensures (together with the Coordinator and the Line Managers) that pre-established specific preparation or specific briefings for newly recruited/arrived staff on the basis of the profile sheet received or development plan are properly done in due time for Nairobi Delegation; Follow up the quality and impact of whole briefing and induction processes, collects data and suggest improvements to HR Manager and the HR Service Provider on sites if advisable. 3. Performance Management Provides support to Line managers on how to implement the Performance Management System (tool, method, setting up objectives, follow up of action plan and best practices) with the aim to evaluate and develop competencies of the staff they manage; Gives trainings to staff on the performance appraisal guidelines and best practices of performance management twice a year; In collaboration with the HR Responsible, support Managers in the Yearly Performance Appraisal (YPA) process.4. Internal HR Communication and Administration In close collaboration with the rest of the HR Team ensure provision, awareness and practical advice to all staff on the ICRC HR policies and procedures, and their adherence to them; Liaise with the Health Team to ensure the proper implementation of the Staff Health Strategy and the HR Responsible; Support the HR responsible on fulfilling certain Administration tasks; Participate to the implementation of the new HR information management's tool. 5. Training & Development Contributes to creation and implementation of a training policy adapted to the Delegation in order to respond to the needs identified among the staff, prioritizing those needed to ensure the operational objectives are set; Contributes to the identification of training options at local / regional / international, and provide expertise upon request to Line Managers with regards to the assessment of training needs within the teams they supervise; Recommends career paths and support plans for specific persons to HR Manager/Responsible and Line managers, ensuring a proper liaison with the operational needs and objectives set, the results of Performance Management, the training possibilities (local, international, regional, etc.) and the potentials identified; Registers and prepare lists of applications for training sessions and assures follow up for the various internal and external courses. Act as a Focal Point. 6. Support to Line Managers and HR Service Providers With the support of the HR Manager, work closely with Head of Departments and Heads of Structures in a consultancy role, assisting them to understand and implement policies and procedures and advising them on HR issues (talent management process, etc.), and ensure development and implementation of talent practices); Supports and empower Line Managers and HR Service Providers of the Regional Delegation in recruitment, development, induction, detection of talent, training, etc. REQUIREMENTS: Committed to travel outside and inside the country; University Degree in Human Resources Management; Minimum of 3 years working experience in a similar function or a busy HR office. Experience in change management and / or delivery of trainings for professional and / or people management is a strong added value; Fluent in written and spoken English; Very strong and effective communication skills, with proven ability to negotiate and influence change with cultural sensitivity; Very skilled at assessing applications and conducting interviews; Aptitude for projecting a positive image of the ICRC as a future employer and of the HR Department within the Regional Delegation; Capacity to convince a skeptical audience; Experience of a flexible approach to managing and prioritizing a high workload and multiple tasks in a fast paced environment with tight deadlines; Very good computer skills (Word, Excel, Databases). At ease with social Medias.
          VIDEO Boeing 737-200 Night Landing in DUBAI (2006)   
In 2006 JustPlanes filmed DAALLO AIRLINES on the Antonov 24, and Ilyushin 18. The program also includes a roundtrip on the Boeing 737-200 from Djibouti to Dubai and back. For the complete film visit
          Ohio students raise money for famine victims   
A group of Ohio college students from Somalia has raised more than $17,000 from door-to-door donations to help Somali victims of the East African famine. The students planned to present $17,460 to three charity groups Thursday night after breaking the Ramadan fast in Columbus. Ohio State student Rowda Olad says students felt they had to do something as they saw how many children are dying. Olad says the students, from Ohio State and Columbus State Community College, plan to continue fundraising. Money for famine victims also has been raised in other parts of the country, including Minnesota, with the largest population of Somalis in the U.S. Across the Horn of Africa, more than 12 million people need food aid, including residents of Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya and Djibouti.
          What You Won't Hear Debated:the Trillion Dollar Misunderstanding   

It’s estimated that, for defense and national security, the U.S. spends about one trillion dollars a year—which amounts to more than 80% of this year’s expected deficit.

Mitt Romney is promising to spend even more—an additional 2.1 trillion dollars over the next ten years. President Obama has called for some cuts, but is loath to challenge the premises that underlie those enormous expenses.

Why the caution? There are too many powerful interests at play--what President Dwight Eisenhower in 1961  portrayedas the Military-Industrial complex—interests sustained by that massive hemorrhage of American treasure. And those interests- corporations, labor unions, the pentagon, think tanks, politicians--use their massive clout to keep the torrent flowing.

To get a sense of that endless outflow, check out a site called Danger Zone Jobs. It’s aimed at those—mainly ex-military--looking for work in America’s sprawling “defense” establishment. To that end, the folks running DZJ, regularly troll hundreds of major “defense” corporations to produce a list of potential job opportunities.

Barack Obama may talk about ending the surge in Afghanistan, pulling out of Iraq, and so on. But the list of new military contracts being let tells a very different story.  210 major U.S. companies are currently offering jobs in “Afghanistan, Kuwait, and other high risk areas.”
On Tuesday, September 25th, 2012, for instance,

L-3 Services Inc., Alexandria, Va., was awarded an $84,420,000 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract. The award will provide for the modification of an existing contract to supply services in support of the Law Enforcement Professionals Program. Work will be performed in Afghanistan. 

Comment: But aren’t all U.S. troops supposed to be out of Afghanistan by the end of 2014?  And what about, the New York Times report that the U.S. has also quietly given up on one of its major goals in Afghanistan—“battering a Taliban into a peace deal “
Instead, after having spent 1.2 trillion dollars over the past 12 years, lost 2,000 men and 17,000 wounded, surged in and surged out,

“The once ambitious American plans for ending the war are now being replaced by the far more modest goal of setting the stage for the Afghans to work out a deal among themselves in the years after most Western forces depart, and to ensure Pakistan is on board with any eventual settlement.

Despite the bleak views of  U.S. military and civilians in Afghanistan, the list of new contracts for that country spews on.   

Friday, September 21, 2012

Eiden Systems Corp., Charlottesville, Va., was awarded an $8,494,620 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract. 
The award will provide for the necessary services in support of the U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command. Work will be performed in Charlottesville and Afghanistan.

Thursday, September 27, 2012
--ECC International L.L.C., Burlington, Calif., was awarded a $13,734,629 firm-fixed-price contract. The award will provide for the construction of three buildings for the Afghanistan National Army.

Thursday, September 27, 2012
-Serco Inc., Reston, Va., was awarded an $11,396,739 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract. The award will provide for the services in support of the Logistics Civil Augmentation Program. Work will be performed in Afghanistan, Kuwait and Iraq.

Then there’s Iraq:
-American Science and Engineering Inc., Billerica, Mass., was awarded a $20,799,851 firm-fixed-price contract. The award will provide for the contractor logistic support services to the Government of Iraq.

In fact, the U.S. may be winding down in Iraq, but they’ve sure been winding up in neighboring Kuwait. September 27th must have seemed like Christmas for defense contractors involved with that oil-rich.  

Thursday, September 27, 2012
--Exelis Systems Corp., Colorado Springs, Colo., was awarded a $434,442,522 cost-plus-award-fee contract. The award will provide for the operations and security support services in Kuwait. 

Thursday, September 27, 2012
--ManTech Telecommunications and Information Systems Corp. was awarded a $61,077,332 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract to procure contractor logistics sustainment support services for Route Clearance Vehicles, Special Operations Command and Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Family of Vehicles.

Thursday, September 27, 2012
--September Science Applications International Corp., McLean, Va., was awarded an $82,142,479 cost-plus-fixed-fee contract for the necessary logistics support across all configurations of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Family of Vehicles.

Thursday, September 27, 2012

--VSE Corp., Alexandria, Va., was awarded a $13,210,858 firm-fixed-price and level-of-effort contract. The award will provide for the maintenance and repair services in support of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Family of Vehicles in Kuwait.

Thursday, September 27, 2012

--Honeywell Technology Solutions Inc is being awarded a not-to-exceed $6,900,718 cost-plus-fixed-fee task order to provide contingency equipment support on various military vehicles. Work will be performed within Kuwait.

But, with more than 1,000 American bases spanning the globe, according to Nick Turse who follows the phenomenon, job opportunities are by no means limited to old standbys like Iraq, Kuwait and Afghanistan. Check out the action in Djibouti, in the Horn of Africa.

Wednesday, September 26, 2012
KBR’s wholly-owned subsidiary KBR Federal Services was awarded the U.S. Naval Facilities (NAVFAC) Engineering Command construction contract for the aircraft logistics apron, taxiway enhancement and parking pads upgrade at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti, 
Question: How many millions? Doesn’t say.

Thursday, September 27, 2012
Tetra Tech EC Inc., Lakewood, Colo., is being awarded a $59,030,099 firm-fixed-price construction contract for the design and construction of Bachelor Enlisted Quarters and containerized living units for expeditionary lodging at Camp Lemoniier, Djibouti, Africa.

Hold it! Airfields and bachelor enlisted quarters. Sounds like they’re settling in for a long stay. But you’re not really sure where Djibouti is? And you’ve never heard of Camp Lemoniier? You don’t know what CJTF-HOA stands for? [ Would Romney or Obama?]   

It’s the Combined Joint Task Force Horn of Africa (HOA). It was set up in 2002 to help rout out possible terrorists in the area—think Somalia, Yemen, the Sudan--and, obviously, it’s flourishing.

Sunday, September 16, 2012
Rome Research has been awarded $14.2m for IT Telecommunication Services in support of the Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) and other tenants at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti.
Question: Other tenants??

Sunday, September 16, 2012
Washington Consulting Group was awarded $7m to augment the staff at Ambouli International Airport in Djibouti, Africa and train personnel in order for them to become certified in accordance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS).

For those of you who thought the U.S. had plunged into a massive undertaking when it invaded Iraq and Afghanistan, just listen to the audacious goals of CJTF_HOA as proclaimed on their web site. 

“CJTF-HOA builds and strengthens partnerships to contribute to security and stability in East Africa. The task force’s efforts, as part of a comprehensive whole-of-government approach, are aimed at increasing our African partner nations’ capacity to maintain a stable environment, with an effective government that provides a degree of economic and social advancement to its citizens. An Africa that is stable, participates in free and fair markets, and contributes to global economic development is good for the United States as well as the rest of the world. Long Term stability is a vital interest of all nations.

The government may be cutting back on vital services in the U.S. but when you read their press releases, it’s clear that CJTF-HOA is spending America’s money on all kinds of stuff. Ever heard of VETCAP?  

Sep 22, 2012, Fifteen Tanzanian animal healthcare professionals, Soldiers from the U.S. Army 448 th Civil Affairs Battalion, and the Joint Civil Affairs Team in Tanzania assigned to Combined Joint Task Force- Horn of Africa came together to participate in a two week Veterinary Civic Action Program, or VETCAP, training session in Mkinga District, Tanzania Sept. 3-14.

Question: Whatever ever happened to the U.S. Agency for International Development?  And then there’s AFRICOM:

From September 19th to 21st, the folks from CJTF-HOA also took part in a conference attended by 20 military chaplains from the US Africa Comnand (AFRICOM) and nine East African countries, for the third annual AFRICOM-sponsored African Military Chaplain Conference in Djibouti City.
Question? Did everyone get a souvenir coffee mug and T-shirt.

Meanwhile in the Central African Republic…also on September 27, 2012
Evergreen Helicopter Inc was awarded a $10,122,153 firm-fixed-price contract. The award will provide for the transportation services for personnel and equipment. Work will be performed in Central African Republic.

Checking out what the U.S. might be up to in the Central Africa Republic, I found a fascinating New York Times article written last April that could have been penned by Kurt Vonnegut:
“One hundred of America’s elite Special Operations troops, aided by night vision scopes and satellite imagery, are helping African forces find a wig-wearing, gibberish-speaking fugitive rebel commander named Joseph Konywho has been hiding out in the jungle for years with a band of child soldiers and a harem of dozens of child brides.

“No one knows exactly where Mr. Kony is, but here in Obo, at a remote forward operating post in the Central African Republic, Green Berets pore over maps and interview villagers, hopeful for a clue…Picture towering trees that blot out the sun, endless miles of elephant grass, and swirling brown rivers that coil like intestines and are infested with crocodiles; one of them recently ate a Ugandan member of the force.

“This is not going to be an easy slog,” said Ken Wright, a Navy SEAL captain and the commander of the joint American detachment assisting in the Kony hunt.”

Indeed, American forces and their African allies are apparently still trying to run  Kony down.

Those troops are among some 5,000 American troops and DOD personnel [remember those job offers] currently defending U.S. interests across the African continent.

Question: Under Barack Obama?!

[For more on the U.S. in Afghanistan, please check out my latestblogs].

          Somalia: East Africa Price Bulletin, June 2017   
Staple Food Markets in East Africa: White maize is the main staple grain consumed in Tanzania, Kenya, and Ethiopia. In Uganda, white maize is grown mainly as a commercial crop for export in the region. Imported rice is a major staple for Djibouti and Somalia, which mainly consume belem—the imported red rice.
          Media distortions: Is the West's interest too good to divulge Ethiopia's track record of instability?   
Deadly stampede in Bishoftu, Ethiopia on October 2, 2016 after police fired tear gas at protesters during a religious festival (ZACHARIAS ABUBEKER/AFP/GETTY IMAGES)

Media distortions: Is the West’s interest too good to divulge Ethiopia’s track record of instability?

By Simon Hagos and Ruth Tesfamariam

The vain attempt by western powers and their soft power tools to portray Ethiopia as a stable and regional superpower to recon is slowly abrading. It is worth noting that, Ethiopia is a product of western powers strategy in which a meticulously crafted policy of “creating chaos and manage them” can benefit handsomely. Particularly, the US’s deep-rooted zeal to world domination and hegemonic supremacy resulted in a country that is more divided and socioeconomically obliterated. But this is not only limited to Ethiopia. To quench this hegemonic and imperial ambitions throughout the world, the US pioneered Machiavellian dogmas like democracy, globalization, human rights issues, freedom of speech, civil liberties and countless of shenanigans that comes with it. Audaciously, they called it a pledge which deceptively elucidated “the developing countries would benefit tremendously and prosper through the free exercise of economic and political activity.”

As Africans, we should find it necessary to ask, is this golden route towards economic progression and democratization merely a chimera? Because western powers are very effectual in using their soft power tools to augment their geo-political interest. East African politics is a prime example of how the west operate and employ their creating “chaos and manage them” strategy. It is absolutely spellbinding to observe their ability to portray a kleptocratic governments like TPLF in Ethiopia, Ismaïl Omar Guelleh of Djibouti, Yoweri Museveni of Uganda etc. as democratically elected governments even though they keep wangling votes. Ethiopia is an epitome of this strategy, because for the past 25 years they absolutely persuaded the world that Ethiopia, a country known for its brutal crackdown of protestors, imprisonment of journalists, attacking fundamental human rights, invading neighboring countries, and a country with calamitous natural disasters like famine as a shining star in a volatile region. Historically flimsy, the west’s interest is too good to expose this kleptocratic government, so they refrained from divulging Ethiopia’s track record of instability.

What is their interest in Ethiopia?

The conclusion of second world had two important outcomes. The resurgence of the US and USSR as world super powers and the subsequent beginning of cold war era. These two important historical events had its own geo-political implications in our region. Starting from 1950’s up until 1991, the US and USSR fought nail and tooth to solidify their presence in the Eastern part of Africa and the Red Sea region. Because, dominating these two important geo-political locations of the world means having the ability to project power and dominate the Middle East. A recipe for more complication, at the center of this political and diplomatic battle was, a little known Italian colony in the Horn part of Africa called, Eritrea. A country located at a vital geo-political location that, controlling it would allow these two giant powers with imperialistic ambitions to project power with full force. Thus, at different historical moments, both the US and USSR scrambled to attain this important geo-political location by supporting a weak and fragile country south to Eritrea. It was this ambition that prompted them look to this historically volatile and socio-politically frail country.

To fully comprehend how this frail country came to existence and the reason behind US administrations tolerance towards its pugnaciousness, one would need to go back through history and have clear understanding of the evolution of Ethiopia. There is hardly a room for debate, whether the so called “modern Ethiopia” existed 100 years ago. Because when the record tidied, history vociferously speaks the country we call Ethiopia today was non-existent 100 years ago. It should not even be taken as a vicious rhetoric when stated, it was after 1950’s that the west fabricated this over hyped narrative of “Great Ethiopia.” Thus, the perception of stable, strong and cohesive Ethiopia is a myth compounded by fallacious historical events. For example, Ethiopia granted the acquisition of Ogaden, a vast region within the state of Somalia after its war with the country. And after the fall of the Derg regime, the west fervidly backed TPLF to fully disintegrate Somalia through proxy wars and cultivating terrorist elements. This process allowed Ethiopia to create a frail and completely crumbled nation in its southern border.

The forceful efforts of the west to federate Eritrea with Ethiopia also fits the overall picture. Because, is imperative to understand the process of creating this insubstantial country. When Italy lost all its colonies to the allied forces, the British Administration in Eritrea coerced the people of Eritrea to accept federation with their friend and puppet country, Ethiopia. This was part of their bigger agenda designed to control Eritrea and its geo-political advantages. Because Ethiopia without Eritrea was not vital for their projection of power. Thus, in 1950’s even though, against the idea of federation, the people of Eritrea forced to accept federation. Extreme as it might sound, the United Nations sent an envoy to draft and ratify the Eritrean constitution, elect an Eritrean assembly and basically establish a puppet government before federating it with Ethiopia. The US Ambassador to the UN, John Foster Dulles, famously declared: “From the point of view of justice, the opinions of the Eritrean people must receive consideration. Nevertheless, the strategic interest of the United States in the Red Sea basin and the considerations of security and world peace make it necessary that the country has to be linked with our ally Ethiopia.”

Because of its calamity, instability, fragility, and historical tendencies to produce puppet governments, Ethiopia receives tremendous diplomatic, political and economic support. The Western media highly praised for its role in stabilizing the region, reducing poverty, achieving exemplary projects by collaborating with European powers and probably one of the few African countries heading to a road for democratization. But recent events in the country and throughout the region exposed this carefully crafted and erected inaccurate and misleading perception of the country that historically known to be disruptive, unstable, and topsy-turvy.

How is Ethiopia’s instability and frail socio-political structure affects their long-term interest in the country?

I.  Democracy and civil liberties:

In July 7, 2009, the Ethiopian regime enacted an Anti-Terrorism proclamation of 652/2009 of 2009. Since its enactment, the legislation has severing consequences to freedom of expression, access to information, association and peaceful assembly, as well as independent human rights monitoring. Thus far, the regime has arrested more than 200 journalists and civil right activists, which made the country one of the deadliest environment for journalists to operate. This proclamation made peaceful protest in Ethiopia as an act of terrorism, which resulted in a brutal suppression of demonstrations, and resulted a complete chaotic country. Currently, the government installed a state of emergency to hold on the grip of power and the international community and mainly those who claim to advocate for civil liberties, miserably failed to hold the regime accountable. Western media eschew from exposing the regime’s brutal crackdown of protesters, journalists and bloggers for more than 20 years, except some small media outlets and ineffectual civil liberty organizations like Freedom voicing their concern. Accoring to Freedom House the regime created the worst environment for a journalist to operate in the world. “Ethiopia’s media environment is one of the most restrictive in Sub-Saharan Africa. The government of Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn continues to use the country’s draconian antiterrorism law and other legal measures to silence critical journalists and bloggers. The government employs a variety of strategies to maintain a stranglehold on the flow of information; these includes outright censorship of newspapers and the internet; arbitrary detention and intimidation of journalists and bloggers; and heavy taxation on the publishing process.”

In 2016, Ethiopia ravaged by political crisis when the people took the streets by surprise and demanded the regime in Addis Ababa to vacate power. As protestors clashed with security forces, close to 1500 demonstrators murdered by special forces and 1000s more jailed. During the time when the political crisis was at its tipping point, western powers vehemently repudiated the political crisis and resisted to accept the calamity inside Ethiopia. Currently, Ethiopia is in a “state of emergency” and the government shut down internet to silence local journalists. During the opening remarks by UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein at a press conference during his mission to Ethiopia on May 4, 2017, the Higher commissioner deliberately detailed deceiving statements that did not reflect the reality on the ground. Even though Zeid Ra’ad clearly stated “this repression may lead to violence. When governments uphold the people's rights to freedom of information, expression, peaceful assembly and association – including their right to demonstrate peacefully in defense of critical views – they are building the foundations of a stronger, more confident society.”, the higher commissioner also fervently argued “Ethiopia's extensive contributions to peace and security across the African continent, and its notable acceptance of millions of refugees” should be the bigger picture that the international community needs to focus.

II.   Its economy and efforts to secure food security:

In economy, Ethiopia portrayed by western governments, NGO’s and the media as the giant power that could diversify its economy. Almost yearly, International Monetary Fund forecast Ethiopian economy to grow tremendously. But, bewildering least to say, its vulnerability comes out when WFO and WHO forecast possible famine and food shortages in the country. For example, in 2017 IMF forecasted the country’s economy would show robust growth of 7.5–8 percent. Public investment was expected to moderate, while private investment projected to increase. Even though IMF predicted an economic growth of 7.5-8 percent, severe drought had a devastating impact on agricultural production which resulted high inflation. More than 9 million of its people are at an emergency starvation crisis. Ethiopia is the only country in Sub-Saharan Africa that has acute food insecurity which currently worsened by resurging drought which is affecting the South-Eastern part of Ethiopia the most. Ethiopia is by far the only East African country that cannot secure households to a predictable safety net.

III.  Contributing to regional instability:

TPLF’s willingness to subjugate itself to western powers at the expense of others created an environment that contributed to conflicts, economic stagnation and falling states throughout the region. For example, Ethiopia’s decision to go to war with Eritrea in 1998 cost both countries an imaginable resource both in material and human resources. For example, ever since EEBC deliberated a decision that granted Eritrea the town of Badme, the US government encouraged the government in Addis Ababa to provoke and when possible invade Eritrea. According to recent leaked classified documents by WikiLeaks, US strategically worked with Ethiopia in creating a conflict with Eritrea and finalize its long shoot objective of securing its geo-political interest in Eritrea.

The US embassy in Addis Ababa continuous assessment of the willingness and possible ways where the Ethiopian population would want to go to war with Eritrea despite the negative consequences of renewed conflict between the neighboring countries:

(S/NF) Prime Minister Meles would have an extremely difficult time gaining popular support and preparing the Ethiopia public for war. Few want renewed conflict, and most view the past war as a conflict by Tigray and the Meles government, not of the Ethiopian people. While the conflict in Somalia is a strategic issue, renewed conflict with Eritrea is seen as a personal issue between two leaders trying to settle private scores. Despite the dominance of state-run media, mere rhetoric on the threat from Eritrea would have little effect in swaying the vast majority of the Ethiopian population. There would need to be some multiple series of actions by Eritrea to incite general support for renewed conflict: e.g., assassination of leaders in Addis Ababa, terrorist attacks against the general Ethiopian population, and a limited and specific military attack by Eritrea against Ethiopia along the border. No one action is sufficient to renew total conflict by Ethiopia against Eritrea, except to respond to “total” war by Eritrea.

The US’s role in isolating Eritrea and working with Prime minister Meles Zenawi in creating another failed in the northern part of Ethiopia:

(S/NF) But now, Meles sees that this approach must be modified to include more vocal criticism of Eritrea as a “rogue state” sponsoring terrorism and seeking to destabilize the region. The Foreign Ministry has pressed the international community to openly criticize Eritrea, and wants to introduce UN Security Council resolutions and African Union Peace and Security Council (PSC) communiques condemning Eritrea as a state sponsor of terrorism. Further, Meles has elevated Eritrean opposition groups in Ethiopia, designating GOE State Ministers, rather than office directors, to deal with them. Meles is also carefully working the Sanaa Forum and IGAD to increase pressure and isolation of Eritrea: Eritrea’s recent decision to suspend participation in IGAD followed an April 13 IGAD Ministerial communique endorsing Ethiopian actions in Somalia as “fully consistent” with the region’s goals. Meles has commented to us that he is in a “bind”. He does not want, nor can he afford, to go to war with Eritrea, because it will divert resources from the more important goal of stabilizing Somalia for now and perhaps Sudan down the road. For now, Ethiopia will not go to war with Isaias and will not take any extraordinary measures to neutralize him, but expects the international community to pressure Isaias on his destabilizing activities. We have assured Meles that we recognize Eritrea’s unhelpful activities, but that Meles should focus on our mutually shared efforts in Somalia: providing force protection for AU Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) troops, support for Somalia’s Transitional Federal Government (TFG), and security at the airport and seaport and for the upcoming national reconciliation conference.


Ethiopia’s instability, fragility and susceptibility to creating weak governments are too good of an interest for the International community and the US to divulging Ethiopia’s track record of instability. The regime in Ethiopia and its media cronies kept pontificating the core interest of the regime in Addis Ababa is, reducing poverty with an absolute dedication in formulating cordial collaboration spirit with its neighboring countries. But this redundant argument colludes with the reality that, this country has been hobbled towards a future to nowhere ever since its creation. Anyone who followed this region for the past twenty years would have rejoiced with an absolute impunity to see Ethiopia; a country that depends heavily on handouts, and consistent western subsidies to lead this region towards a new chapter. But the truth is, with its consistent susceptibility to irregular rainfall and famine, one would evade an utter revelry to wake up one day and see Ethiopia amassed close to 103 million population. After all, this is a country that see no ignominy in walking with its arm outstretched. Thus, focusing on economic progress by collaborating with its neighboring countries, and international community is a fabricated narrative.

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          Business Game Changers Radio with Sarah Westall: On the Brink of WWIII - Why the U.S. is in Syria and How it Dominates Militarily with Space Technology   
EpisodeWorld War III is building up in the Middle East as 20 countries participate in a military “exercise” dubbed “Northern Thunder”. The exercise includes 350,000 soldiers, 20 thousand tanks, 2450 warplanes, and 460 military helicopters supplied by Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Bahrain, Senegal, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Sudan, Kuwait, the Maldives, Morocco, Pakistan, Chad, Tunisia, Comoro Islands, Djibouti, Malaysia, Egypt, Mauritania, and Mauritius. While this is occurring, Turkey has been bom ...
          Country Safety Coordinator For Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, And Djibouti (National Contract)   
Employer: Danish Refugee CouncilLocation: Africa Closing date: 14 Jul 2017 The Danish Refugee...

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