New skills, old phones   

In Cambodia, MCC-supported training in cell phone repair helps provide an alternative to migrating for work.

In Mesang, a rural village of rice fields and mango trees in Cambodia’s Prey Veng province, the high school is the biggest building by far, with 500 students enrolled.

          ‘F*cking Cambodian N*gger!’: Man Harasses Woman And Her 9-Year-Old Daughter [Video]   
A California woman filmed, and posted to Facebook, a run-in she had with a man while riding her bike with her 9-year-old daughter, that ended with the man calling her a “f*cking Cambodian n*gger.” Paula Nuguid said […]
          Eating the Globe: Syria   

I was in San Francisco for work and celebrated a productive morning with an out-of-the-way lunch. This is Palmyra.

I got the Kibbi platter, which consists of:
Four shells of mashed cracked wheat stuffed with ground beef, sauteed onions, and pine nuts served with a side of hummus, cucumber salad, pita, garlic sauce, and hot sauce.

The kibbi was/were delicious. Not greasy or heavy at all. My only complaint was that it only came with four pieces.

Countries tried so far:
Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Morocco, Nigeria, Somalia, South Africa
Asia: Afghanistan, Armenia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, China, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, North Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Syria, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam, Yemen
Europe: Albania, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden
North America: Belize, Canada, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Trinidad & Tobago, USA
South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela
Oceania: Australia, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga
          Comment on Pets in Cambodia: How to import a dog or cat (or adopt one here) by Amy   
Thanks for your reply Phil and for the link you provided. I traveled from Ho Chi Minh City to Phnom Penh with my dog earlier this week by car and it was super easy and hassle free. I took an uber from HCMC to the Moc Bai border and walked across the border with my dog. In the Vietnam building, no one asked any questions about my dog, they just stamped my passport and I walked on. In the Cambodian building, I had my passport stamped and then on leaving the building a quarantine officer asked to look at the health certificate and vaccination records for my dog. I had this handy and there were no problems. We then walked out and met a pre-arranged driver to take us to Phnom Penh. All in all, crossing the border probably took me around ten minutes including the walking between the two buildings! Was very happy with how it all went.
          You no buy, I cry — Siem Reap, Cambodia   
Around the world in about 350 days
          Fred Branfman Risked His Life for Ordinary People   
Fred was one of the bravest and most decent journalists I ever encountered. He exposed the terrorism of the U.S. "carpet bombing" over Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia that was explicitly aimed at "drying up the sea" of millions of innocent village people that the U.S. government claimed were providing cover to the enemy during the...
          [wanabidii] News Digest: Live updates: India braces for GST rollout   
Friday, June 30, 2017
Today's Headlines

Live updates: India braces for GST rollout

Will buy AI only if profitable for us: IndiGo president
"Let me be very clear that if it is not profitable and does not add value to our employees, customers and shareholders, we will not embark on this journey," IndiGo president Aditya Ghosh wrote in a mail to staff on Air India acquisition bid.

Debt-hit RCom seeks to give up Rs 340 cr worth spectrum

More Business News»

'Half-a-degree of warming boosted extreme weather'
Comparing two 20-year periods -- 1960-79 and 1991-2010 -- between which average global temperatures jumped 0.5 C (0.9 F), scientists found that the hottest summer temperatures increased by more than 1 degree C across a quarter of Earth's land areas, while the coldest winter temperatures warmed by more then 2.5 degree C.

Ice-free areas of Antarctica to increase by 2100: Study
Ice-free areas may increase in Antarctica by 25 per cent due to climate change, leading to drastic changes in the continent's biodiversity, a study warns. They found the melting ice could create up to 17,000 square kilometre of new ice-free area across Antarctica.

Rare Siamese crocodile eggs found in Cambodia
Conservationists have found a nest with 19 eggs from one of the world's most endangered crocodiles. It is boosting hopes for species threatened by poachers and habitat loss. Researchers believe only 400 adults still exist in the wild, the baby crocodiles will be raised at a conservation centre

More Environment News»

Europe to meet US plea for more troops to Afghanistan
European allies pledged more troops to support Afghanistan's hard-pressed military on Thursday but left details on numbers vague until the United States clarifies its new strategy to break a stalemate with the Taliban.

Washington plans $1.42 bn arms sale to Taiwan
The State Department said the package included technical support for early warning radar, high speed anti-radiation missiles, torpedoes and missile components. The US is the sole arms supplier to Taiwan, which China deems its own and has never renounced the use of force to bring the self-ruled island under its control.

German parliament legalises same-sex marriage
Germany's parliament voted by a wide margin to legalise same-sex marriage. The parliament voted by 393 votes in favour of same-sex marriage to 226 against. Chancellor Angela Merkel freed members of her ruling conservative bloc to follow their personal conscience rather than the party line.

More World News»

Nasa rocket releases artificial colourful clouds
Nasa has finally launched a sounding rocket that created artificial colourful clouds that were visible from New York to North Carolina. The artificial clouds were launched to track particle motions in space. The rocket was delayed many times over the last 30 days.

In rural Kentucky, solar eclipse preparation keeps town busy

NASA's quieter supersonic jet closer to reality
The US space agency completed the preliminary design review (PDR) of its Quiet Supersonic Transport (QueSST) aircraft design. QueSST is the initial design stage of NASA's planned Low Boom Flight Demonstration (LBFD) experimental airplane, otherwise known as an X-plane.

More Science News»

GST sale: 12 hot deals on smartphones, TVs and more

Comparison: Honor 9 vs Honor 8
Comparison: Honor 9 vs Honor 8

Apple iPhone turns ten: 7 little-known facts about the smartphone
Apple fans, one of your most-loved devices has turned 10. It was 10 years ago that the original iPhone hit stores on June 29, 2007 in the US. Here are some not-so-known facts about one of the world's 'favourite' smartphone.

More Technology News»

Plus III admissions 2017: DHE Odisha declares first selection list
The Department of Higher Education (DHE) has declared the first selection list for +3 admissions on their official website today.

TS EAMCET seat allotment 2017 result declared

TN govt's new policy of reserving 85% quota for state board students challenged in High Court

More Education News»

Grains and spices market of APMC remains shut in protest against GST

Train coach wheel derails near Kalyan, Central railway service affected

Mumbai: Aunt arrested for two-year-old's murder
Two days after the body of a two-year-old boy was found in a gunny bag at Malad, the police arrested his aunt on Friday.

More Mumbai News»

Live blog: Heavy rains lash Delhi-NCR

Delhi, Haryana to work together to prevent flooding in Gurugram
Officials from Delhi and Haryana will undertake a joint inspection for assessing silting in the Najafgarh drain over the next two days. This will be done in order to carry out desilting, if required, as part of measures to be taken up to prevent flooding in Gurgaon, that created a havoc last year.

Video: Delhi wakes up to fresh morning showers
Fresh spells of rain lashed the national capital on Friday morning.

More Delhi News»

Video: Protest-hit Bengaluru Metro covers Hindi signboards

Video: Elderly man held for molesting minor

Sadarame's Kalla is Kannada theatre's superstar
B Jayashree brings alive her grandfather, Gubbi Veeranna’s, timeless character

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Video: Akbaruddin Owaisi attack case: Pahelwan acquitted, 4 others convicted
Six years after the murderous attack on MIM legislator, Akbaruddin Owaisi, a local court in Hyderabad convicted four men and sentenced them to 10 years of rigorous imprisonment.Prime accused .

'No mob lynching in my name,' decries Hyderabad

Stink rises in Osmania General Hospital, patients helpless
One of the oldest hospitals in India, the Osmania General Hospital (OGH) presents a dirty picture, replete with filthy wards and stinking toilets.

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Presidential elections: Ram Nath Kovind, Meira Kumar to campaign in Chennai on Saturday
NDA presidential candidate Ram Nath Kovind and opposition parties’ candidate Meira Kumar will be campaigning in Chennai on Saturday.

Medical seat scam: ED attaches four properties of Madhan
The Enforcement Directorate on Friday provisionally attached four immovable properties of B Madhan of Vendhar Movies, who is an accused in the medical seat scam.

Stalin says TN govt won't take any action, whether it is gutka scam or bribe to voters
The AIADMK government in Tamil Nadu is facing several accusations but it is not ready to take action against the erring officials and others, said DMK working president M K Stalin on Friday.

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PM Modi inaugurates two water projects for Gujarat farmers

Video: PM releases postal stamp, coin to mark Shrimad Rajchandra's birth anniversary

Cop's son killed in accidental discharge from service gun
According to the police report filed by Darji, when Bhavya was looking for his school notebooks in a drawer in the living room, he came across the service revolver which was loaded.

More Ahmedabad News»

Rains lashes Sangam city throwing normal life out of gear

Allahabad University makes online fee deposit mandatory

Roli, Tika to welcome students as primary schools reopen on July 1
In a novel gesture, teachers of Primary and Junior High schools of district would be welcoming both boys and girl students up to class VIIIth by applying `Roli’ or “Tika” on their foreheads as schools are all set to reopen after summer vacations on July 1.

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Asian Athletics Championships: Odisha hires two Mercedes Benz buses from Telangana
The state tourism department has hired two sophisticated Mercedes Benz buses from Telangana State Tourism Development Corporation for movement of delegates during the Asian Athletics Championships.

Shopaholics go on a shopping frenzy over pre-GST discounts

Asian Athletics Championships: Odisha's traditional handloom for flag bearers
Flag bearers at the 22nd Asian Athletics Championships will wear traditional handloom saris of Odisha during the opening ceremony of the function. All major varieties of traditional handloom saris will be provided them by Boyanika, official sources said.

More Bhubaneswar News»

          [wanabidii] News Digest: Here's how GST will affect your dating game   
Thursday, June 29, 2017
Today's Headlines

Here's how GST will affect your dating game
As India prepares for its midnight tryst with GST on Friday, your dating game may see a change come July, with pretty much everything you indulge in during your romantic rendezvous coming under the new tax regime.

GST will be India's 'economic freedom': Anil Ambani
Ambani said the world has seen nothing like this before and in less than 48 hours, India will emerge as the biggest free and democratic market in the history of humankind. He also said there are moments in the life of a nation when history is made not in small steps of incremental gain but in giant leaps of ambition.

Only the brave will take on Air India: Anand Mahindra
Media reports have speculated that Tata Group could buy a stake in Air India, which it owned before the carrier was nationalised nearly 70 years ago. Tata is yet to comment. Finance Minister Arun Jaitley is to head a committee to decide the quantum of Air India disinvestment

More Business News»

Ice-free areas of Antarctica to increase by 2100: Study
Ice-free areas may increase in Antarctica by 25 per cent due to climate change, leading to drastic changes in the continent's biodiversity, a study warns. They found the melting ice could create up to 17,000 square kilometre of new ice-free area across Antarctica.

Rare Siamese crocodile eggs found in Cambodia
Conservationists have found a nest with 19 eggs from one of the world's most endangered crocodiles. It is boosting hopes for species threatened by poachers and habitat loss. Researchers believe only 400 adults still exist in the wild, the baby crocodiles will be raised at a conservation centre

Iraqi zoo gives rare glimpse of white lion
An Iraqi zoo showed off a rare white lion cub to mark the animal's first birthday this week, as officials revealed that they hoped to welcome another of the rare big cats in the coming weeks.

More Environment News»

Iraq military says it has retaken iconic Mosul mosque

China 'highly alarmed' after reports of Australian spying

Donald Trump: Different strokes

More World News»

In rural Kentucky, solar eclipse preparation keeps town busy

NASA's quieter supersonic jet closer to reality
The US space agency completed the preliminary design review (PDR) of its Quiet Supersonic Transport (QueSST) aircraft design. QueSST is the initial design stage of NASA's planned Low Boom Flight Demonstration (LBFD) experimental airplane, otherwise known as an X-plane.

Yoga not as safe as thought: Study
Yoga may not be as safe as popularly believed, say scientists who have found that the ancient Indian meditative practice may causes muscle and bone pain and even exacerbate existing injuries.

More Science News»

Moto Z2 smartphone with 64GB internal storage, 4GB RAM spotted online
Lenovo-owned Motorola recently launched its Moto Z2 Play modular smartphone. It seems that the company is now gearing up for the launch of its flagship sibling – Moto Z2. The alleged handset has been spotted on GFXBench benchmarking website, hinting at some of its specifications.

Sony Xperia Z5, Xperia Z4 and Xperia Z3+ to get Android 7.1.1 update
Sony has started rolling out Android 7.1.1 Nougat update for some of its smartphones. The company has started rolling out Android N update for Xperia Z5, Xperia Z5 Compact and Xperia Z5 Premium, Xperia Z3+ and Xperia Z4 tablet.

It's been 10 years since the iPhone was launched, here's how it came about
Apple Inc's iPhone turns 10 this week, evoking memories of a rocky start for the device that ended up doing most to start the smartphone revolution and stirring interest in where it will go from here.

More Technology News»

Plus III admissions 2017: DHE Odisha declares first selection list
The Department of Higher Education (DHE) has declared the first selection list for +3 admissions on their official website today.

TS EAMCET seat allotment 2017 result declared

TN govt's new policy of reserving 85% quota for state board students challenged in High Court

More Education News»

60,000 officers trained, 6.5 million tax payers migrated to GST: Centre to Bombay HC

Without sentencing, verdict not complete; case against Dossa abates
The death of Mustafa Dossa before the pronouncement of sentence has resulted in abatement of his trial. His trial thus cannot be said to culminate into a judgment. Though the fact will remain that the court had found him guilty, however the further process of convicting and sentencing him having remained incomplete, no appeal can lie against an incomplete judgment, said retired high court judge Justice P D Kode.

Indrani Mukerjea's claim of being beaten up in Byculla jail true: Doctor
​Indrani Mukerjea has received some blunt injuries and other (injuries) as well, said a medical officer of JJ Hospital. "Her medical report will be submitted in court, as the medical check-up was ordered by the court," the officer said.

More Mumbai News»

Admission chaos in DU as cut-offs set to drop by 3% in second list

Mob attacks: MEA's different rules for different governments?

Protesters disrupt Delhi Assembly, allegedly beaten up by MLAs
The first day of Delhi Assembly's special session was abruptly suspended for close to an hour after two AAP volunteers dropped pamphlets into the House from the visitors' gallery and shouted slogans against PWD minister Satyendar Jain.

More Delhi News»

Government may table diluted anti-superstition bill

Sandalwood land short of quality saplings

UK architect: Kolar set to get biggest Hoysala-style temple in modern era

More Bangalore News»

2011 attack on Akbaruddin Owaisi: 4 convicted, Mohammed Pahelwan acquitted
The prime accused in the 2011 case of murderous attack on (AIMIM) MLA Akbaruddin Owaisi, Mohammed Bin Omar Yafai alias Mohammed Pahelwan, was sensationally acquitted on Thursday by Nampally court. However, 4 out of the 14 who faced trial were convicted by the court.

Telangana-Fiber to be turned into private firm
The Telangana government has decided to establish T-Fiber as a private limited company under the Companies Act 2013.

'Taakis' razed, turned into swanky commercial bldgs
Popularly known as taakis, single screen theatres of the Old City are fast becoming a rarity in the area south of Musi river. With several being either demolished, largely abandoned or turned into swanky commercial complexes, residents, who are film aficionados, have few options left in the Old City.

More Hyderabad News»

250 wigs distributed to patients in Cancer Institute in Chennai
When chairperson of Cancer Institute Dr V Shanta spoke at an event on Wednesday for distributing natural hair wigs to cancer patients, she tried to clear various misconceptions about the disease.

CM announces Rs 1,800cr power transmission upgradation for Chennai
Tamil Nadu chief minister Edappadi K Palaniswami on Thursday announced a slew of programmes for various departments, including Rs 1,800 crore worth transmission upgradation programme for Chennai city, with an installation of new substations and feeders.

DVAC is probing gutka scam, Tamil Nadu CM says
Tamil Nadu chief minister Edappadi K Palaniswami on Thursday informed the assembly that the Directorate of Vigilance and Anti-Corruption is conducting a probe based on a communique sent by the Chennai city police commissioner to the home secretary on the sale of banned gutka by anti-socials, in connivance with a minister and some police officials.

More Chennai News»

Narmada project will take Gujarat to new heights: Modi

Completion of Narmada dam will take Gujarat's development to great heights: Modi
Prime Minister Narendra Modi who arrived at Ahmedabad Airport for his two day visit to state addressed the huge gathering of BJP workers. Modi in his brief address said that the recent completion of the Narmada dam work will take Gujarat development to greater heights in the upcoming decade.

Gujarat Congress demanded roll back of high level of GST on life and health insurance premium

More Ahmedabad News»

Allahabad Development Authority to help city build on strengths
Authority Identifies Five-Pillar Approach

Cheoki to turn into satellite station
As the city prepares for Ardh Kumbh 2019, the facilities at Cheoki station of NCR would also be upgraded.An amount of Rs 50 crore has been earmarked for the purpose.

Household herb Chandrashoor fights diabetes

More Allahabad News»

Kangaroo mother care helps Odisha in sharp decline IMR

GST: Fishing nets, ropes to get costlier
Thousands of fishermen are now worried about their livelihood as they have to invest more in fishing net and rope when the Goods and Service Tax (GST) comes into being on July 1.

Panel recommends sale of Mahaprasad by administration
At present, the Mahaprasad is sold in Ananda Bazaar by a section of priests of Suar Nijog of the temple, leading to discrepancy in prices of the holy food.

More Bhubaneswar News»

          Angka Jitu Togel Sydney Hari Sabtu   

Angka Jitu Togel Sydney Hari Sabtu 01 Juli 2017 Angka Jitu Togel Sydney Hari Sabtu 01/07/2017 Kami Ahli Prediksi Togel Cambodia Atau Ahli Untuk Pencari Hasil Dari Bandar Besar Togel Cambodia. Ingin Memberikan Bocoran Togel Untuk Hari Ini Yaitu Hasil 2d 3d 4d yang akurat. Angka Jitu Togel Ini merupakan hasil racikan Ahli Prediksi Togel Cambodia, Ahli […]

The post Angka Jitu Togel Sydney Hari Sabtu appeared first on ANGKA TERJITU.

          Angka Jitu Togel Cambodia Hari Sabtu   

Angka Jitu Togel Cambodia Hari Sabtu 01 Juli 2017 Angka Jitu Togel Cambodia Hari Sabtu 01/07/2017 Kami Ahli Prediksi Togel Cambodia Atau Ahli Untuk Pencari Hasil Dari Bandar Besar cambodia Togel Cambodia. Ingin Memberikan Bocoran Togel Cambodia Untuk Hari Ini Yaitu Hasil 2d 3d 4d yang akurat. Angka Jitu Togel Ini merupakan hasil racikan Ahli Prediksi Togel […]

The post Angka Jitu Togel Cambodia Hari Sabtu appeared first on ANGKA TERJITU.

          Angka Jitu Togel Cambodia Hari Jumat   

Angka Jitu Togel Cambodia Hari Jumat 30 Juni 2017 Angka Jitu Togel Cambodia Hari Jumat 30/06/2017 Kami Ahli Prediksi Togel Atau Ahli Untuk Pencari Hasil Dari Bandar Besar Togel Hongkong. Ingin Memberikan Bocoran Togel Cambodia Untuk Hari Ini Yaitu Hasil 2d 3d 4d yang akurat. Angka Jitu Togel Cambodia Ini merupakan hasil racikan Ahli Prediksi Togel, […]

The post Angka Jitu Togel Cambodia Hari Jumat appeared first on ANGKA TERJITU.

          Sri Lanka: When the whole world isn't watching   
Joel Charny
Reuters AlertNet
28 Jan 09

One of the harsh realities of the humanitarian field is that some crises capture public attention, while others do not. The patterns are rather rigid. Crises in Europe and the Middle East, especially Palestine, make headlines. Large-scale natural disasters, even in obscure places, attract interest due to the inherent human fascination with immense forces beyond our control. But crises due to “complex” political conflicts outside the zones of proven public engagement are doomed to obscurity, unless it rises to such a level that “genocide” (read “another Holocaust”) can be invoked.

The contrast between Gaza and Sri Lanka prompts these observations. In Gaza, despite restrictions on international humanitarian and media access imposed by the Israelis, the whole world was watching, counting the civilian casualties minute-by-minute, while the global debate swirled on the legitimacy of Israeli and Hamas conduct in the light of international humanitarian law. The conflict and the suffering that it engendered were daily front page news. Now, with at least a temporary halt in hostilities, assessments of the damage in Gaza will proceed and donors will pledge millions of dollars for the rebuilding process.

While Gaza was the world’s focus, a conflict that raises similar issues and challenges was proceeding in the Vanni region in the north of Sri Lanka. There, the Sri Lankan military is trying to deal the final death blow to the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, the guerilla movement that has been fighting for an independent state for the country’s Tamil minority in the northern part of the island. As in Gaza, civilians are trapped. Approximately 250,000 people are caught in the conflict zone, people who have already been displaced numerous times and have suffered from the perpetual difficulty of sustaining humanitarian assistance as the 25-year civil war has dragged on.

As in Gaza, the conduct of both sides has been problematic from the perspective of international humanitarian law and human rights. The Tigers are preventing people, including the local staff of UN agencies and their families, from fleeing the conflict zone. The Sri Lankan army is using heavy weaponry to shell areas where civilians are present. An attempt by the Sri Lankan army to set up a safe zone outside its area of operations foundered in the past few days, with dozens of civilians killed amid mutual recriminations by the combatants. Fewer than 5,000 Tamil civilians have managed to escape the Vanni. They are being held in government-run fenced camps in districts bordering the conflict zone with their freedom of movement restricted, even though they are Sri Lankan citizens.

The Sri Lankan government insisted that international staff of humanitarian agencies leave the Vanni in September 2008, and the conflict has drastically reduced the scale of humanitarian operations. There are few independent witnesses of the consequences of the war and the needs of the civilian population. Those present are afraid to speak out for fear of retaliation by one of the parties. The lack of information makes it even more difficult for the world to focus on the conflict, exactly what the government and the Tigers want. They both prefer to act with impunity, while using the atrocities of the other side to score propaganda points within the narrow confines of the national press and the global Tamil solidarity network.

In short, 50% of the civilian population of the Vanni is displaced; humanitarian assistance is sporadic at best; 250,000 civilians are trapped in a conflict zone, and at least 100 have been killed since January 1st; international access is virtually nil. And while on January 26th the Secretary-General was finally moved to issue a statement pleading for respect for international humanitarian law, the world couldn’t be bothered. As of January 27th, not even Relief Web was listing Sri Lanka as an on-going crisis on its home page. The dying and wounded in Sri Lanka won’t have names or faces.

Bemoaning this neglect won’t change it. The blatant disparities in international attention are just part of “the cost of doing business” in the humanitarian field.

To Sri Lankans crying out for solidarity and assistance, there is little to say. The challenge of addressing their needs falls primarily to local organizations with the courage to defy the conflicting parties, while international organizations, with the exception of the International Committee of the Red Cross, are consigned to the sidelines.

Joel R. Charny is vice president for policy with Refugees International, a Washington-based humanitarian advocacy organisation. He has extensive experience in Asia for RI, Oxfam America and the U.N. Development Programme. He has managed and assessed emergency response and post-conflict recovery programmes in Cambodia, Sri Lanka and Indonesia.
          An overview of Cambodia and Vietnam on a shoestring tour by G Adventures   
Having recently completed a three-week tour through Cambodia and Vietnam with the company G Adventur
          More than 2,000 workers flee Thailand after labour crackdown   
More than 2,000 undocumented migrant workers from Myanmar and Cambodia fled from Thailand this week, officials said on Friday, after a decree aimed at managing foreign workers came into effect. Workers from Thailands poor ...
          Cambodia Morning News For June 30   

Japanese FDI on the rise in Cambodia The strong inflow of Japanese investment is expected to continue on the back of both large-scale commercial projects and the consumer habits of Japanese expatriates residing and working in Cambodia, according to investment officials. — The Phnom Penh Post  Cambodian SEZ First to Join UN Initiative for Better […]

The post Cambodia Morning News For June 30 appeared first on AEC News Today.


BOCORAN TOGEL CAMBODIA HARI SABTU 01 JULI 2017 BOCORAN TOGEL CAMBODIA HARI SABTU Adalah kumpulan Prediksi kamboja hari ini Dari Berbagai Sumber Yaitu Dari Master prediksi cambodia seperti: 8togel cambodia adalah prediksi dan syair cambodia Digabungkan Rumus jitu togel cambodia lainnya. Prediksi cambodia Sabtu Merupakan Gabungan Bocoran cambodia Sabtu dan prediksi cambodia. Sehingga Menghsilkan angka jitu cambodia dan rumus jitu […]


          Over 500 illegal migrants left in lurch   
More than 500 illegal migrant workers from Cambodia and Myanmar were found to have been abandoned by their employers or had left their jobs following the enactment of a decree imposing harsh punishment on the recruitment of undocumented alien labourers.
          Annotations to Morga's 1609   
To the Filipinos: In Noli Me Tangere ("The Social Cancer") I started to sketch the present state of our native land. But the effect which my effort produced made me realize that, before attempting to unroll before your eyes the other pictures which were to follow, it was necessary first to post you on the past. So only can you fairly judge the present and estimate how much progress has been made during the three centuries (of Spanish rule).

Like almost all of you, I was born and brought up in ignorance of our country's past and so, without knowledge or authority to speak of what I neither saw nor have studied, I deem it necessary to quote the testimony of an illustrious Spaniard who in the beginning of the new era controlled the destinies of the Philippines and had personal knowledge of our ancient nationality in its last days.

It is then the shade of our ancestor's civilization which the author will call before you. . . If the work serves to awaken in you a consciousness of our past, and to blot from your memory or to rectify what has been falsified or is calumny, then I shall not have labored in vain. With this preparation, slight though it may be, we can all pass to the study of the future.

José Rizal

Europe, 1889

Governor Morga was not only the first to write but also the first to publish a Philippine history. This statement has regard to the concise and concrete form in which our author has treated the matter. Father Chirino's work, printed in Rome in 1604, is rather a chronicle of the Missions than a history of the Philippines; still it contains a great deal of valuable material on usages and customs. The worthy Jesuit in fact admits that he abandoned writing a political history because Morga had already done so, so one must infer that he had seen the work in manuscript before leaving the Islands.

By the Christian religion, Dr. Morga appears to mean the Roman Catholic which by fire and sword he would preserve in its purity in the Philippines. Nevertheless in other lands, notably in Flanders, these means were ineffective to keep the church unchanged, or to maintain its supremacy, or even to hold its subjects.

Great kingdoms were indeed discovered and conquered in the remote and unknown parts of the world by Spanish ships but to the Spaniards who sailed in them we may add Portuguese, Italians, French, Greeks, and even Africans and Polynesians. The expeditions captained by Columbus and Magellan, one a Genoese Italian and the other a Portuguese, as well as those that came after them, although Spanish fleets, still were manned by many nationalities and in them were negroes, Moluccans, and even men from the Philippines and the Marianes Islands.

These centuries ago it was the custom to write as intolerantly as Morga does, but nowadays it would be called a bit presumptuous. No one has a monopoly of the true God nor is there any nation or religion that can claim, or at any rate prove, that to it has ben given the exclusive right to the Creator of all things or sole knowledge of His real being.

The conversions by the Spaniards were not as general as their historians claim. The missionaries only succeeded in converting a part of the people of the Philippines. Still there are Mohammedans, the Moros, in the southern islands, and Negritos, Igorots and other heathens yet occupy the greater part territorially of the archipelago. Then the islands which the Spaniards early held but soon lost are non-Christian -- Formosa, Borneo, and the Moluccas. And if thre are Christians in the Carolines, that is due to Protestants, whom neither the Roman Catholics of Morga's day nor many Catholics in our own day consider Christians.

It is not the fact that the Filipinos were unprotected before the coming of the Spaniards. Morga himself says, further on in telling of the pirate raids from the islands had arms and defended themselves. But after the natives were disarmed the pirates pillaged them with impunity, coming at times when they were unprotected by the government, which was the reason for many of the insurrections.

The civilization of the Pre-Spanish Filipinos in regard to the duties of life for that age was well advanced, as the Morga history shows in its eighth chapter.

The islands came under Spanish sovereignty and control through compacts, treaties of friendship and alliances for reciprocity. By virtue of the last arrangement, according to some historians, Magellan lost his life on Mactan and the soldiers of Legaspi fought under the banner of King Tupas of Cebu.

The term "conquest" is admissible but for a part of the islands and then only in its broadest sense. Cebu, Panay, Luzon, Mindoro, and some others cannot be said to have been conquered.

The discovery, conquest and conversion cost Spanish blood but still m ore Filipino blood. It will be seen later on in Morga that with the Spaniards and on behalf of Spain there were always more Filipinos fighting than Spaniards.

Morga shows that the ancient Filipinos had army and navy with artillery and other implements of warfare. Their prized krises and kampilans for their magnificent temper are worthy of admiration and some of them are richly damascened. Their coats of mail and helmets, of which there are specimens in various European museums, attest their great advancement in this industry.

Morga's expression that the Spaniards "brought war to the gates of the Filipinos" is in marked contrast with the word used by subsequent historians whenever recording Spain's possessing herself of a province, that she pacified it. Perhaps "to make peace" then meant the same as "to stir up war." (This is a veiled allusion to the old Latin saying of Romans, often quoted by Spaniard's that they make a desert, calling it making peace. -- Austin Craig)

Megellan's transferring from the service of his own king (i.e. the Portuguese) to employment under the King of Spain, according to historic documents, was because the Portuguese King had refused to grant him the raise in salary which he asked.

Now it is known that Magellan was mistaken when he represented to the King of Spain that the Molucca Islands were within the limits assigned by the Pope to the Spaniards. But through this error and the inaccuracy of the nautical instruments of that time, the Philippines did not fall into the hands of the Portuguese.

Cebu, which Morga calls "The City of the Most Holy Name of Jesus," was at first called "The village of San Miguel."

The image of the Holy Child of Cebu, which many religious writers believed was brought to Cebu by the angels, was in fact given by the worthy Italian chronicler of Magellan's expedition, the Chevalier Pigafetta, to the Cebuan queen.

The expedition of Villalobos, intermediate between Magallan's and Legaspi's gave the name "Philipina" to one of the southern islands, Tendaya, now perhaps Leyte, and this name later was extended to the whole archipelago.

Of the native Manila rulers at the coming of the Spaniards, Raja Soliman was called "Rahang mura", or young king, in distinction from the old king, "Rahang matanda". Historians have confused these personages.

The native fort at the mouth of the Pasig river, which Morga speaks of as equipped with brass lantkas and artillery of larger caliber, had its ramparts reinforced with thick hardwood posts such as the Tagalogs used for their houses and called "harigues", or "haligui".

Morga has evidently confused the pacific coming of Legaspi with the attack of Goiti and Salcedo, as to date. According to other historians it was in 1570 that Manila was burned, and with it a great plant for manufacturing artillery. Goiti did not take possession of the city but withdrew to Cavite and afterwards to to Panay, which makes one suspicious of his alleged victory. As to the day of the date, the Spaniards then, having come following the course of the sun, were some sixteen hours later than Europe. This condition continued until the end of the year 1844, when the 31st of December was by special arrangement among the authorities dropped from the calendar for that year. Accordingly Legaspi did not arrive in Manila on the 19th but on the 20th of May and consequently it was not on the festival of Santa Potenciana but on San Baudelio's day. The same mistake was made with reference to the other earlyl events still wrongly commemorated, like San Andres's day for the repulse of the Chinese corsair Li Ma-hong.

Though not mentioned by Morga, the Cebuans aided the Spaniards in their expedition against Manila, for which reason they were long exempted from tribute.

The southern islands, the Bisayas, were also called "The land of the Painted People (or Pintados, in Spanish)" because the natives had their bodies decorated with tracings made with fire, somewhat like tattooing.

The Spaniards retained the native name for the new capital of the archipelago, a little changed, however, for the Tagalogs had called their city "Maynila."

When Morga says that the lands were "entrusted (given as encomiendas) to those who had "pacified" them, he means "divided up among." The word "entrust," like "pacify," later came to have a sort of ironical signification. To entrust a province was then as if it wre said that it was turned over to sack, abandoned to the cruelty and covetousness of the encomendero, to judge from the way these gentry misbehaved.

Legaspi's grandson, Salcedo, called the Hernando Cortez of the Philippines, was the "conqueror's" intelligent right arm and the hero of the "conquest." His honesty and fine qualities, talent and personal bravery, all won the admiration of the Filipinos. Because of him they yielded to their enemies, making peace and friendship with the Spaniards. He it was who saved Manila from Li Ma-hong. He died at the early age of twenty-seven and is the only encomendero recorded to have left the great part of his possessions to the Indians of his encomienda. Vigan was his encomienda and the Illokanos there were his heirs.

The expedition which followed the Chinese corsair Li Ma-hong, after his unsuccessful attack upon Manila, to Pangasinan province, with the Spaniards of whom Morga tells, had in it 1,500 friendly Indians from Cebu, Bohol, Leyte and Panay, besides the many others serving as laborers and crews of the ships. Former Raja Lakandola, of Tondo, with his sons and his kinsmen went too, with 200 more Bisayans and they wre joined by other Filipinos in Pangasinan.

If discovery and occupation justify annexation, then Borneo ought to belong to Spain. In the Spanish expedition to replace on its throne a Sirela or Malacla, as he is variously called, who had been driven out by his brother, more than fifteen hundred Filipino bowmen from the provinces of Pangasinan, Kagayan and the Bisayas participated.

It is notable how strictly the early Spanish governors were held to account. Some stayed in Manila as prisoners, one, Governor Corcuera, passed five years with Fort Santiago as his prison.

In the fruitless expedition against the Portuguese in the island of Ternate, in the Molucca group, which was abandoned because of the prevalence of beriberi among the troops, there went 1,500 Filipino soldiers from the more warlike provinces, principally Kagayans and Pampangans.

The "pacification" of Kagayan was accomplished by taking advantage of the jealousies among its people, particularly the rivalry between two brothers who were chiefs. An early historian asserts that without this fortunate circumstance, for the Spaniards, it would have been impossible to subjugate them.

Captain Gabriel de Rivera, a Spanish commander who had gained fame in a raid on Borneo and the Malacca coast, was the first envoy from the Philippines to take up with the King of Spain the needs of the archipelago.

The early conspiracy of the Manila and Pampangan former chiefs was revealed to the Spaniards by a Filipina, the wife of a soldier, and many concerned lost their lives.

The artillery cast for the new stone fort in Manila, says Morga, was by the hand of an ancient Filipino. That is, he knew how to cast cannon even before the coming of the Spaniards, hence he was distinguished as "ancient." In this difficult art of ironworking, as in so many others, the modern or present-day Filipinos are not so far advanced as were their ancestors.

When the English freebooter Cavandish captured the Mexican galleon Santa Ana, with 122,000 gold pesos, a great quantity of rich textiles -- silks, satins and damask, musk perfume, and stores of provisions, he took 150 prisoners. All these because of their brave defense were put ashore with ample supplies, except two Japanese lads, three Filipinos, a Portuguese and a skilled Spanish pilot whom he kept as guides in his further voyaging.

From the earliest Spanish days ships were built in the islands, which might be considered evidence of native culture. Nowadays this industry is reduced to small craft, scows and coasters.

The Jesuit, Father Alonso Sanchez, who visited the papal court at Rome and the Spanish King at Madrid, had a mission much like that of deputies now, but of even greater importance since he came to be a sort of counselor or representative to the absolute monarch of that epoch. One wonders why the Philippines could have a representative then but may not have one now.

In the time of Governor Gomez Perez Dasmariñas, Manila was guarded against further damage sch as was suffered from Li Ma-hong by the construction of a massive stone wall around it. This was accomplished "without expense to the royal treasury." The same governor, in like manner, also fortified the point at the entrance to the river where had been the ancient native fort of wood, and he gave it the name Fort Santiago.

The early cathedral of wood which was burned which was burned through carelessness at the time of the funeral of Governor Dasmariñas' predecessor, Governor Ronquillo, was made, according to the Jesuit historian Chirino, with hardwood pillars around which two men could not reach, and in harmony with this massiveness was all the woodwork above and below. It may be surmised from this how hard workers were the Filipinos of that time.

A stone house for the bishop was built before starting on the governor-general's residence. This precedence is interesting for those who uphold the civil power.

Morga's mention of the scant output the scant output of large artillery from the Manila cannon works because of lack of master foundry workers shows that after the death of the Filipino Panday Pira there were not Spaniards skilled enough to take his place, nor were his sons as expert as he.

It is worthy of note that China, Japan and Cambodia at this time maintained relations with the Philippines. But in our day it has been more than a century since the natives of the latter two countries have come here. The causes which ended the relationship may be found in the interference by the religious orders with the institutions of those lands.

For Governor Dasmariñas' expedition to conquer Ternate, in the Moluccan group, two Jesuits there gave secret information. In his 200 ships, besides 900 Spaniards, there must have been Filipinos for one chronicler speaks of Indians, as the Spaniards called the natives of the Philippines, who lost their lives and others who were made captives when the Chinese rowers mutinied. It was the custom then always to have a thousand or more native bowmen and besides the crew were almost all Filipinos, for the most part Bisayans.

The historian Argensola, in telling of four special galleys for Dasmariñas' expedition, says that they were manned by an expedient which was generally considered rather harsh. It was ordered that there be bought enough of the Indians who were slaves of the former Indian chiefs, or principals, to form these crews, and the price, that which had been customary in pre-Spanish times, was to be advanced by the ecomenderos who later would be reimbursed from the royal treasury. In spite of this promised compensation, the measures still seem severe since those Filipinos were not correct in calling their dependents slaves. The masters treated these, and loved them, like sons rather, for they seated them at their own tables and gve them their own daughters in marriage.

Morga says that the 250 Chinese oarsmen who manned Governor Dasmariñas' swift galley were under pay and had the special favor of not being chained to their benches. According to him it was covetousness of the wealth aboard that led them to revolt and kill the governor. But the historian Gaspar de San Agustin states that the reason for the revolt was the governor's abusive language and his threatening the rowers. Both these authors' allegations may have contributed, but more important was the fact that there was no law to compel these Chinamen to row in the galleys. They had come to Manila to engage in commerce or to work in trades or to follow professions. Still the incident contradicts the reputation for enduring everything which they have had. The Filipinos have been much more long-suffering than the Chinese since, in spite of having been obliged to row on more than one occasion, they never mutinied.

It is difficult to excuse the missionaries' disregard of the laws of nations and the usages of honorable politics in their interference in Cambodia on the ground that it was to spread the Faith. Religion had a broad field awaiting them in the Philippines where more than nine-tenths of the natives were infidels. That even now there are to be found here so many tribes and settlements of non-Christians takes away much of the prestige of that religious zeal which in the easy life in towns of wealth, liberal and fond of display, grows lethargic. Truth is that the ancient activity was scarcely for the Faith alone, because the missionaries had to go to islands rich in spices and gold though there were at hand Mohammedans and Jews in Spain and Africa, Indians by the million in the Americas, and more millions of protestants, schismatics and heretics peopled, and still people, over six-sevenths of Europe. All of these doubtless would have accepted the Light and the true religion if the friars, under pretext of preaching to them, had not abused their hospitality and if behind the name Religion had not lurked the unnamed Domination.

In the attempt made by Rodriguez de Figueroa to conquer Mindanao according to his contract with the King of Spain, there was fighting along the Rio Grande with the people called the Buhahayenes. Their general, according to Argensola, was the celebrated Silonga, later distinguished for many deeds in raids on the Bisayas and adjacent islands. Chirino relates an anecdote of his coolness under fire once during a truce for a marriage among Mindanao "principalia." Young Spaniards out of bravado fired at his feet but he passed on as if unconscious of the bullets.

Argensola has preserved the name of the Filipino who killed Rodriguez de Figueroa. It was Ubal. Two days previously he had given a banquet, slaying for it a beef animal of his own, and then made the promise which he kept, to do away with the leader of the Spanish invaders. A Jesuit writer calls him a traitor though the justification for that term of reproach is not apparent. The Buhahayen people were in their own country, and had neither offended nor declared war upon the Spaniards. They had to defend their homes against a powerful invader, with superior forces, many of whom were, by reason of their armor, invulnerable so far as rude Indians were concerned. Yet these same Indians were defenseless against the balls from their muskets. By the Jesuit's line of reasoning, the heroic Spanish peasantry in their war for independence would have been a people even more treacherous. It was not Ubal's fault that he was not seen and, as it was wartime, it would have been the height of folly, in view of the immense disparity of arms, to have first called out to this preoccupied opponent, and then been killed himself.

The muskets used by the Buhayens were probably some that had belonged to Figueroa's soldiers who had died in battle. Though the Philippines had latakas and other artillery, muskets were unknown until the Spaniards came.

That the Spaniards used the word "discover" very carelessly may be seen from an admiral's turning in a report of his "discovery" of the Solomon islands though he noted that the islands had been discovered before.

Death has always been the first sign of European civilization on its introduction in the Pacific Ocean. God grant that it may not be the last, though to judge by statistics the civilized islands are losing their populations at a terrible rate. Magellan himself inaugurated his arrival in the Marianes islands by burning more than forty houses, many small craft and seven people because one of his ships had been stolen. Yet to the simple savages the act had nothing wrong in it but was done with the same naturalness that civilized people hunt, fish, and subjugate people that are weak or ill-armed.

The Spanish historians of the Philippines never overlook any opportunity, be it suspicion or accident, that may be twisted into something unfavorable to the Filipinos. They seem to forget that in almost every case the reason for the rupture has been some act of those who were pretending to civilize helpless peoples by force of arms and at the cost of their native land. What would these same writers have said if the crimes committed by the Spaniards, the Portuguese and the Dutch in their colonies had been committed by the islanders?

The Japanese were not in error when they suspected the Spanish and Portuguese religious propaganda to have political motives back of the missionary activities. Witness the Moluccas where Spanish missionaries served as spies; Cambodia, which it was sought to conquer under cloak of converting; and many other nations, among them the Filipinos, where the sacrament of baptism made of the inhabitants not only subjects of the King of Spain but also slaves of the encomenderos, and as well slaves of the churches and converts. What would Japan have been now had not its emperors uprooted Catholicism? A missionary record of 1625 sets forth that the King of Spain had arranged with certain members of Philippine religious orders that, under guise of preaching the faith and making Christians, they should win over the Japanese and oblige them to make themselves of the Spanish party, and finally it told of a plan whereby the King of Spain should become also King of Japan. In corroboration of this may be cited the claims that Japan fell within the Pope's demarcation lines for Spanish expansion and so there was complaint of missionaries other than Spanish there. Therefore it was not for religion that they were converting the infidels!

The raid by Datus Sali and Silonga of Mindanao, in 1599 with 50 sailing vessels and 3,000 warriors, against the capital of Panay, is the first act of piracy by the inhabitants of the South which is recorded in Philippine history. I say "by the inhabitants of the South" because earlier there had been other acts of piracy, the earliest being that of Magellan's expedition when it seized the shipping of friendly islands and even of those whom they did not know, extorting for them heavy ransoms. It will be remembered that these Moro piracies continued for more than two centuries, during which the indomitable sons of the South made captives and carried fire and sword not only in neighboring islands but into Manila Bay to Malate, to the very gates of the capital, and not once a year merely but at times repeating their raids five and six times in a single season. Yet the government was unable to repel them or to defend the people whom it had disarmed and left without protection. Estimating that the cost to the islands was but 800 victims a year, still the total would be more than 200,000 persons sold into slavery or killed, all sacrificed together with so many other things to the prestige of that empty title, Spanish sovereignty.

Still the Spaniards say that the Filipinos have contributed nothing to Mother Spain, and that it is the islands which owe everything. It may be so, but what about the enormous sum of gold which was taken from the islands in the early years of Spanish rule, of the tributes collected by the encomenderos, of the nine million dollars yearly collected to pay the military, expenses of the employees, diplomatic agents, corporations and the like, charged to the Philippines, with salaries paid out of the Philippine treasury not only for those who come to the Philippines but also for those who leave, to some who never have been and never will be in the islands, as well as to others who have nothing to do with them. Yet allof this is as nothing in comparison with so many captives gone, such a great number of soldiers killed in expeditions, islands depopulated, their inhabitants sold as slaves by the Spaniards themselves, the death of industry, the demoralization of the Filipinos, and so forth, and so forth. Enormous indeed would the benefits which that sacred civilization brought to the archipelago have to be in order to counterbalance so heavy a cost.

While Japan was preparing to invade the Philippines, these islands were sending expeditions to Tonquin and Cambodia, leaving the homeland helpless, even against the undisciplined hordes from the South, so obsessed were the Spaniards with the idea of making conquests.

In the alleged victory of Morga over the Dutch ships, the latter found upon the bodies of five Spaniards, who lost their lives in that combat, little silver boxes filled with prayers and invocations to the saints. Here would seem to be the origin of the anting-anting of the modern tulisanes, which are also of a religious character.

In Morga's time, the Philippines exported silk to Japan whence now comes the best quality of that merchandise.

Morga's views upon the failure of Governor Pedro de Acuña's ambitious expedition against the Moros unhappily still apply for the same conditions yet exist. For fear of uprisings and loss of Spain's sovereignty over the islands, the inhabitants were disarmed, leaving them exposed to the harassing of a powerful and dreaded enemy. Even now, though the use of steam vessels has put an end to piracy from outside, the same fatal system still is followed. The peaceful country folk are deprived of arms and thus made unable to defend themselves against the bandits, or tulisanes, which the government cannot restrain. It is an encouragement to banditry thus to make easy its getting booty.

Hernando de los Rios blames these Moluccan wars for the fact that at first the Philippines were a source of expense to Spain instead of profitable in spite of the tremendous sacrifices of the Filipinos, their practically gratuitous labor in building and equipping the galleons, and despite, too, the tribute, tariffs and other imposts and monopolies. These wars to gain the Moluccas, which soon were lost forever with the little that had been so laboriously obtained, were a heavy drain upon the Philippines. They depopulated the country and bankrupted the treasury, with not the slightest compensating benefit. True also is it that it was to gain the Moluccas that Spain kept the Philippines, the desire for the rich spice islands being one of the most powerful arguments when, because of their expense to him, the King thought of withdrawing and abandoning them.

Among the Filipinos who aided the government when the Manila Chinese revolted, Argensola says there were 4,000 Pampangans "armed after the way of their land, with bows and arrows, short lances, shields, and broad and long daggers." Some Spanish writers say that the Japanese volunteers and the Filipinos showed themselves cruel in slaughtering the Chinese refugees. This may very well have been so, considering the hatred and rancor then existing, but those in command set the example.

The loss of two Mexican galleons in 1603 called forth no comment from the religious chroniclers who were accustomed to see the avenging hand of God in the misfortunes and accidents of their enemies. Yet there were repeated shipwrecks of the vessels that carried from the Philippines wealth which encomenderos had extorted from the Filipinos, using force, or making their own laws, and when not using these open means, cheating by the weights and measures.

The Filipino chiefs who at their own expense went with the Spanish expedition against Ternate, in the Moluccas, in 1605, were Don Guillermo Palaot, Maestro de Campo, and Captains Francisco Palaot, Juan Lit, Luis Lont, and Agustin Lont. They had with them 400 Tagalogs and Pampangans. The leaders bore themselves bravely for Argensola writes that in the assault on Ternate, "No officer, Spaniard or Indian, went unscathed!"

The Cebuans drew a pattern on the skin before starting in to tatoo. The Bisayan usage then was the same procedure that the Japanese today follow.

Ancient traditions ascribe the origin of the Malay Filipinos to the island of Samatra. These traditions were almost completely lost as well as the mythology and the genealogies of which the early historians tell, thanks to the zeal of the missionaries in eradicating all national remembrances as heathen or idolatrous. The study of ethnology is restring this somewhat.

The chiefs used to wear upper garments, usually of Indian fine gauze according to Colin, of red color, a shade for which they had the same fondness that the Romans had. The barbarous tribes in Mindanao still have the same taste.

The "easy virtue" of the native women that historians note is not solely to the simplicity with which they obeyed their natural instincts but much more due to a religious belief of which Father Chirino tells. It was that in the journey after death to "Kalualhatiran," the abode of the spirit, there was a dangerous river to cross that had no bridge other than a very narrow strip of wood over which a woman could not pass unless she had a husband or lover to extend a hand to assist her. Furthermore, the religious annals of the early missions are filled with countless instances where native maidens chose death rather than sacrifice their chastity to the threats and violence of encomenderos and Spanish soldiers. As to the mercenary social evil, that is worldwide and there is no nation that can "throw the first stone" at the other. For the rest, today the Philippines has no reason to blush in comparing its womankind with the women of the most chaste nation in the world.

Morga's remark that the Filipinos like fish better when it is commencing to turn bad is another of those prejudices which Spaniards like all other nations, have. In matters of food, each is nauseated with what he is unaccustomed to or doesn't know is eatable. The English, for example, find their gorge rising when they see a Spaniard eating snails, while in turn the Spanish find roast beef English-style repugnant and can't understand the relish of other Europeans for beef steak a la Tartar which to them is simply raw meat. The Chinamen, who likes shark's meat, cannot bear Roquefort cheese, and these examples might be indefinitely extended. The Filipinos favorite fish dish is the bagong and whoever has tried to eat it knows that it is not considered improved when tainted. It neither is, nor ought to be, decayed.

Colin says the ancient Filipinos had had minstrels who had memorized songs telling their genealogies and of the deeds ascribed to their deities. These were chanted on voyages in cadence with the rowing, or at festivals, or funerals, or wherever there happened to be any considerable gatherings. It is regrettable that these chants have not been preserved as from them it would have been possible to learn much of the Filipinos' past and possibly of the history of neighboring islands.

The cannon foundry mentioned by Morga as in the walled city was probably on the site of the Tagalog one which was destroyed by fire on the first coming of the Spaniards. That established in 1584 was in Lamayan, that is, Santa Ana now, and was transferred to the old site in 1590. It continued to work until 1805. According to Gaspar San Augustin, the cannon which the pre-Spanish Filipinos cast were "as great as those of Malaga," Spain's foundry. The Filipino plant was burned with all that was in it save a dozen large cannons and some smaller pieces which the Spanish invaders took back with them to Panay. The rest of their artillery equipment had been thrown by the Manilans, then Moros, into the sea when they recognized their defeat.

Malate, better Maalat, was where the Tagalog aristocracy lived after they were dispossessed by the Spaniards of their old homes in what is now the walled city of Manila. Among the Malate residents were the families of Raja Matanda and Raja Soliman. The men had various positions in Manila and some were employed in government work nearby. "They were very courteous and well-mannered," says San Agustin. "The women were very expert in lace-making, so much so that they were not at all behind the women of Flanders."

Morga's statement that there was not a province or town of the Filipinos that resisted conversion or did not want it may have been true of the civilized natives. But the contrary was the fact among the mountain tribes. We have the testimony of several Dominican and Augustinian missionaries that it was impossible to go anywhere to make conversions without other Filipinos along and a guard of soldiers. "Otherwise, says Gaspan de San Agustin, there would have been no fruit of the Evangelic Doctrine gathered, for the infidels wanted to kill the Friars who came to preach to them." An example of this method of conversion given by the same writer was a trip to the mountains by two Friars who had a numerous escort of Pampangans. The escort's leader was Don Agustin Sonson who had a reputation for daring and carried fire and sword into the country, killing many, including the chief, Kabadi.

"The Spaniards," says Morga, "were accustomed to hold as slaves such natives as they bought and others that they took in the forays in the conquest or pacification of the islands." Consequently in this respect the "pacifiers" introduced no moral improvement. We even do not know if in their wars the Filipinos used to make slaves of each other, though that would not have been strange, for the chroniclers tell of captives returned to their own people. The practice of the Southern pirates, almost proves this, although in these piratical wars the Spaniards were the first aggressors and gave them their character.
          The Indolence of the Filipinos   
English translation by Charles Derbyshire. The article by José Rizal, originally written in Spanish, was published in La Solidaridad in five installments,from July 15 to September 15, 1890.

PART ONE: Doctor Sanciano, in his Progreso de Filipinas, has taken up this question, agitated, as he calls it, and relying upon facts and reports furnished by the very same Spanish authorities that ruled the Philippines has demonstrated that such indolence does not exist, and that all said about it does not deserve a reply or even passing choice.

Nevertheless as discussion of it has been continued, not only by government employees who make it responsible for their own shortcomings, not only by the friars who regard it as necessary in order that they may continue to represent themselves as indispensable, but also by serious and disinterested persons: and as evidence of greater or less weight may be adduced in opposition to that which Dr. Sanciano cites, it seems expedient to us to study this question thoroughly, without superciliousness or sensitiveness, without prejudice, without pessimism. As as we can only serve our country by telling the truth, however, bitter it be, just as flagrant and skillful negation cannot refute a real and positive fact, in spite of the brilliance of the arguments; as mere affirmation is not sufficient to create something possible, let us calmly examine the facts, using on our part all the impartiality of which a man is capable who is convinced that there is no redemption except upon solid bases of virtue.

The word indolence has been greatly misused in the sense of little love for work and lack of energy, while ridicule has concealed the misuse. This much-discussed question has met with the same fate as certain panaceas and specifics of the quacks who by ascribing to them impossible virtues have discredited them. In the Middle Ages, and even in some Catholic countries now, the devil is blamed for everything that superstitious folk cannot understand or the perversity of mankind is loath to confess. In the Philippines one's and another's faults, the shortcomings of one, the misdeeds of another, are attributed to indolence. And just as in the Middle Ages he who sought the explanation of phenomena outside of infernal influences was persecuted, so in the Philippines worse happens to him who seeks the origin of the trouble outside of accepted beliefs.

The consequence of this misuse is that there are some who are interested in stating it as a dogma and others in combating it as a ridiculous superstition, if not a punishable delusion. Yet it is not to be inferred from the misuse of a thing that it does not exist.

We think that there must be something behind all this outcry, for it is incredible that so many should err, among whom we have said there are a lot of serious and disinterested persons. Some act in bad faith, though levity, through levity, through want of sound judgment, through limitation in reasoning power, ignorance of the past, or other cause. Some repeat what they have heard, without examination or reflection; others speak through pessimism or are impelled by that human characteristic which paints as perfect everything that belongs to oneself and defective whatever belongs to another. But it cannot be denied that there are some who worship truth, or if not truth itself at least the semblance thereof which is truth in the mind of the crowd.

Examining well, then, all scenes and all the men that we have known from childhood; and the life of our country, we believe that indolence does exist there. The Filipinos, who can measure up with the most active peoples in the world, will doubtless not repudiate his admission, for it is true there one works and struggles against the climate, against nature and against men. But we must not take the exception for the general rule, and should rather seek the good of our country by stating what we believe to be true. We must confess that indolence does actually and positively exist there, only that, instead of holding it to be the cause of the backwardness and the trouble, we regard it as the effect of the trouble and the backwardness, by fostering the development of a lamentable predisposition.

Those who have as yet treated of indolence, with the exception of Dr. Sancianco, have been content to deny or affirm it. We know of no one who has studied its causes. Nevertheless, those who admit its existence and exaggerate it more or less have not therefore failed to advise remedies taken from here and there, from Java, from India, from other English or Dutch colonies, like the quack who saw a fever cured with a dozen sardines and afterwards always prescribed these fish at every rise in temperature that he discovered in his patient.

We shall proceed otherwise. Before proposing a remedy we shall examine the causes, and even though strictly speaking a predisposition is not a cause, let us, however, study at its true value this predisposition due to nature.

The predisposition exists? Why shouldn't it?

A hot climate requires of the individual quiet and rest, just as cold incites to labor and action. For this reason the Spaniard is more indolent than the Frenchman; the Frenchman more so than the German. The Europeans themselves who reproach the residents of the colonies so much (and I am not now speaking of the Spaniards but of the Germans and English themselves), how do they live in tropical countries? Surrounded by a numerous train of servants, never-going afoot but riding in a carriage, needing servants not only to take off their shoes for them but even to them! And yet they live and eat better, they work for themselves to get rich, with the hope of a future, free and respected, while the poor colonist, the indolent colonist, is badly nourished, has no hope, toils for others, and works under force and compulsion! Perhaps the reply to this will be that white men are not made to stand the severity of the climate. A mistake! A man can live in any climate, if he will only adapt himself to its requirements and conditions. What kills the European in hot countries is the abuse of liquors, the attempt to live according to the nature of his own country under another sky and another sun. We inhabitants of hot countries live will in northern Europe whenever we take the precautions of the people there do. Europeans can also stand the torrid zone, if only they would get rid of their prejudices.

The fact is that in tropical countries violent work is not a good thing as it is in cold countries, there it is death, destruction, annihilation. Nature knows this and like a just mother has therefore made the earth more fertile, more productive, as a compensation. An hour's work under that burning sun, in the midst of pernicious influences springing from nature in activity, is equal to a day's work in a temperate climate; it is, then, just that the earth yields a hundred fold! Moreover, do we not see the active European, who feels the fresh blood of spring boil in his veins, do we not see him abandon his labors, during the few days of his variable summer, close his office -- where the work is not violent and amounts for many to talking and gesticulating in the shade beside a lunch stand -- flee to watering places, sit in the cafes or stroll about. What wonder then that the inhabitant of tropical countries, worn out and with his blood thinned by the continuous and excessive heat is reduced to inaction? Who is the indolent one in the Manila offices? Is it the poor clerk who comes in at eight in the morning and leaves at one in the afternoon with only his parasol, who copies and writes and works for himself and for his chief, or is it the chief, who comes in a carriage at ten o'clock, leaves before twelve, reads his newspaper while smoking and with his feet cocked up on a chair or a table, or gossiping about all his friends? What is indolent, the native coadjutor, poorly paid and badly treated, who has to visit all the indigent sick living in the country, or the friar curate who gets fabulously rich, goes about in a carriage, eats and drinks well, and does not put himself to any trouble without collecting an excessive fee?

Without speaking further of the Europeans in what violent labor does the Chinaman engage in tropical countries, the industrious Chinaman, who flees from his own country driven by hunger and whose whole ambition is to amass a small fortune? With the exception of some porters, an occupation that the natives also follow, he nearly always engages in the trade, in commerce; so rarely does he take up agriculture that we do not know of a single case. The Chinaman who in other colonies cultivates the soil does so only for a certain number of years and then retires.

We find, then, the tendency to indolence very natural, and have to admit and bless it, for we cannot alter natural laws, and without it the race would have disappeared. l Man is not a brute, he is not a machine, his object is not merely to produce, in spite of the pretensions of some Christian whites who would make of the colored Christian a kind of motive power somewhat more intelligent and less costly than steam. Man's object is not to satisfy the passions of another man, his object is to seek happiness for himself and his kind by traveling along the road of progress and perfection.

The evil is not that indolence exists more or less latently but that it is fostered and magnified. Among men, as well as among nations, there exist no only, aptitudes but also tendencies good and evil. To foster the good ones and aid them, as well as correct the evil and repress them, would be the duty of society and government, if less noble thoughts did not occupy their attention. The evil is that the indolence in the Philippines is a magnified indolence, an indolence of the snowball type, if we may be permitted the expression, an evil that increases in direct proportion to the periods of time, and effect of misgovernment and of backwardness, as we have said, and not a cause thereof. Others will hold the contrary opinion, especially those who have a hand in the misgovernment, but we do not care; we have made an assertion and are going to prove it.

PART TWO: When in consequence of a long chronic illness the condition of the patient is examined, the question may arise whether the weakening of the fibers and the debility of the organs are the cause of the malady's continuing or the effect of the bad treatment that prolongs its action. The attending physician attributes the entire failure of his skill to the poor constitution of the patient, to the climate, to the surroundings, and so on. On the other hand, the patient attributes the aggravation of the evil to the system of treatment followed. Only the common crowd, the inquisitive populace, shakes its head and cannot reach a decision.

Something like this happens in the case of the Philippines. Instead of a physician, read government, that is friars, employees, etc. Instead of patient, Philippines; instead of malady, indolence.

And just as happens in similar cases when the patient gets worse, everybody loses his head, each one dodges the responsibility to place it upon somebody else, and instead of seeking the causes in order to combat the evil in them, devotes himself at best to attacking the symptoms; here a blood-letting, a tax; there a plaster, forced labor, further on a sedative, a trifling reform. Every new arrival proposes a new remedy; one, seasons of prayer, the relics of a saint, the viaticum, the friars; another shower-bath; still another, with pretensions to modern ideas, a transfusion of blood. "It's nothing, only the patient has eight million indolent red corpuscles; some few white corpuscles in the form of an agricultural colony will get us out of the trouble."

So, on all sides there are groans, gnawing of lips, clenching of fists, many hollow words, great ignorance, a deal of talk, a lot of fear. The patient is near his finish!

Yes, transfusion of blood, transfusion of blood! New life, new vitality! Yes, new white corpuscles that you are going to inject into its veins, the new white corpuscles that were a cancer in another organism will withstand all the depravity of the system, will have more stamina than all the degeneration, all the trouble in the principal organs. Be thankful if they do not become coagulations and produce gangrene, be thankful if they do not reproduce the cancer!

While the patient breathes, we must not lose hope, and however late we may be, a judicious examination is never superfluous; at least the cause of death may be known. We are not trying to put all the blame on the physician, and still less on the patient, for we have already spoken of a predisposition, in the absence of which the race would disappear, sacrificed to excessive labor in a tropical country.

Indolence in the Philippines is a chronic malady, but not a heredity one. The Filipinos have not always been what they are, witnesses whereto are all the historians of the first years after the discovery of the Islands.

Before the arrival of the Europeans, the Malayan Filipinos carried on an active trade, no only among themselves but also with all the neighboring countries. A Chinese manuscript of the 13th century, translated by Dr. Hirth (Globus, September, 1889), which we will take up at another time, speaks of China's relations with the islands, relations purely commercial, which mention is made of the activity and honesty of the traders of Luzon, who took the Chinese products and distributed them throughout all the islands, for the merchandise that the Chinaman did not remember to have given them. The products which they in exchange exported from the islands were crude wax, cotton, pearls, tortoise shell, betel-nuts, dry goods, etc.

The first thing noticed by Pigafetta who came with Magellan in 1521, on arriving at the first island of the Philippines, Samar, was the courtesy and kindness of the inhabitants and their commerce. "To honor our captain," he says, "they conducted him to their boats where they had their merchandise, which consisted of cloves, cinnamon, pepper, nutmegs, mace, gold and other things; and they made us understand by gestures that such articles were to be found in the islands to which we were going."

Further on he speaks of the vessels and utensils of solid gold that he found in Butuan where the people worked in mines. He describes the silk dresses, the daggers with long gold hilts and scabbards of carved wood, the gold sets of teeth, etc. Among cereals and fruits he mentions rice, millet, oranges, lemons, panicum, etc.

That the islands maintained relations with neighboring countries and even with distant ones is proven by the ships from Siam, laden with gold and slaves, that Magellan found in Cebu. These ships paid certain duties to the king of the island. In the same year, 1521, the survivors of Magellan's expedition met the son of the Rajah of Luzon, who, as captain-general of the Sultan of Borneo and admiral of his fleet, had conquered for him the great city of Lave (Sarawak ?). Might this captain, who was greatly feared by all his foes, have been the Rajah Matanda whom the Spaniards afterwards encountered in Tondo in 1570?

In 1539 the warriors of Luzon took part in the formidable contests of Sumatra, and under the orders of Angi Sity Timor, Rajah of Batta, conquered and overthrew the terrible Alzadin, Sultan of Atchin, renowned in the historical annals of the Far East. (Marseen, History of Sumatra, chapter 20)

At that time, that sea where float the islands like a set of emeralds on a paten of bright glass, that sea was everywhere traversed by junks, paraus, barangays, vintas, vessels swift as shuttles so large that they could maintain a hundred rowers on a side (Morga); that sea bore everywhere commerce, industry, agriculture, by the force of the oars moved to the sound of warlike songs of the genealogies and achievements of the Philippine divinities. (Colin, Chapter 15)

Wealth abounded in the islands. Pigafetta tells us of the abundance of foodstuffs in Pragua and of its inhabitants, who nearly all tilled their own fields. At this island the survivors of Magellan's expedition were well received and provisioned. A little later, these same survivors captured a vessel, plundered and sacked it and took prisoner in it the chief of the Island of Paragua with his son and brother.

In this same vessel they captured bronze lombards, and this is the first mention of artillery of the Filipino, for these lombards were useful to the chief of Paragua against the savages of the interior.

They let him ransom himself within seven days, demanding 400 measures (cavanes ?) of rice, 20 pigs, 20 goats, and 450 chickens. This is the first act of piracy recorded in Philippine history. The chief of Paragua paid everything, and moreover, voluntarily added coconuts, bananas, and sugar-cane jars filled with palm wine. When Caesar was taken prisoner by the corsairs and required to pay twenty-five talents ransom, he replied, "I'll give you fifty, but later I'll have you crucified!" The chief of Paragua was more generous: he forgot. His conduct, while it may reveal weakness, also demonstrates that the islands ere abundantly provisioned. This chief was named Tuan Mahamud; his brother, Guantil, and his son, Tuan Mahamud. (Martin Mendez, Purser of the ship Victoria: Archivo de Indias.)

A very extraordinary thing, and one that shows the facility with which the natives learned Spanish, is that fifty years before the arrival of the Spaniards in Luzon, in that very year 1521, when they first came to the islands, there were already natives of Luzon who understood Castilian. In the treaties of peace that the survivors of Magellan's expedition made with the chief of Paragua, when the servant-interpreter died they communicated with one another through a Moro who had been captured in the island of the King of Luzon and who understood some Spanish (Martin Mendez; op cit.) Where did this extemporaneous interpreter learn Castilian? In the Moluccas? In Malacca, with the Portuguese? Spaniards did not reach Luzon until 1571.

Legazpi's expedition met in Butuan various traders of Luzon with their boats laden with iron, cloths, porcelain, etc. (Gaspar de San Agustin) plenty of provisions, activity, trade, movement in all the southern islands.

They arrived at the Island of Cebu, "abounding in provisions, with mines and washings of gold, and peopled with natives, "as Morga says: "very populous, and at a port frequented by many ships that came from the islands and kingdoms near India," as Colin says: and even though they were peacefully received discord soon arose. The city was taken by force and burned. The first destroyed the food supplies and naturally famine broke out in that town of a hundred thousand people, as the historians say, and among the members of the expedition, but the neighboring islands quickly relieved the need, thanks to the abundance they enjoyed.

All the histories of those first years, in short, abound in long accounts about the industry and agriculture of the natives; mines, gold-washings, looms, farms, barter, naval construction, raising of poultry and stock, weaving of silk and cotton, distilleries, manufactures of arms, pearl fisheries, the civet industry, the horn and hide industry, etc., are things encountered at every step, and considering the time and the conditions in the islands, prove that there was life, there was activity, there was movement.

And if this, which is deduction, does not convince any minds imbued with unfair prejudices perhaps, of some avail may be the testimony of the oft-quoted Dr. Morga, who was Lieutenant-Governor of Manila for seven years and after rendering great service in the Archipelago was appointed criminal judge of the Audiencia of Mexico and Counselor of the Inquisition. His testimony, we say, is highly credible, not only because all his contemporaries have spoken of him in terms that border on veneration but also because his work, from which we take these citations, is written with great circumspection and care, as well with reference to the authorities in the Philippines as to the errors they committed. "The natives," says Morga, in Chapter Seven, speaking of the occupations of the Chinese, "are very far from exercising those trade and have forgotten much about farming, raising poultry, stock and cotton, and weaving cloth. As they used to do in their Paganism and for a long time after the country was conquered."

The whole Chapter 8 of his work deals with this moribund activity, this much forgotten industry, and yet in spite of that, how long is his eighth chapter!

And not only Morga, not also Chirinco, Colin, Argensola, Gaspar de San Agustin and others agree to this matter, but modern travelers, after two hundred and fifty years, examining the decadence and misery, assert the same thing. Dr. Hans Meyer, when he saw the tribes not subdued cultivating beautiful fields and working energetically, asked if they would not become indolent when they in turn should accept Christianity and a paternal government.

Accordingly, the Filipinos in spite of the climate, in spite of their few needs (they were less then than now), were not the indolent creatures of our time, and, as we shall see later on, their ethics and their mode of life were not what is not complacently attributed to them.

How then, and in what way, was that active and enterprising infidel native of ancient times converted into the lazy and indolent Christian, as our contemporary writers say?

We have already spoken of the more or less latent predisposition which exists in the Philippines toward indolence, and which must exist everywhere, in the whole world, in all men, because we all hate work more or less, as it may be more or less hard, more ore less unproductive. The dolce far niente of the Italian, the rascarse la barriga of the Spaniard, the supreme aspiration of the bourgeois to live on his income in peace and tranquility, attest this.

What causes operated to awake this terrible predisposition from its lethargy? How is it that the Filipino people, so fond of its customs as to border on routine, has given up its ancient habits of work, of trade, of navigation, etc., even to the extent of completely forgetting its past?

PART THREE: A fatal combination of circumstances, some independent of the will in spite of men's efforts, others in offspring of stupidity and ignorance, others the inevitable corollaries of false principles, and still others the result of more or less base passions, has induced the decline of labor, an evil which instead of being remedies by prudence, mature reflection and recognition of the mistakes made, through a deplorable policy, through regrettable blindness and obstinacy, has gone from bad to worse until it has reached the condition in which we now see it.

First came the wars, the internal disorders which the new change of affairs naturally brought with it. It was necessary to subject the people either by cajolery or force; there were fights, there was slaughter; those who had submitted peacefully seemed to repent of it; insurrections were suspected, and some occurred; naturally there were executions, and many capable laborers perished. Add to this condition of disorder the invasion of Li-Mahong; add continual wars into which the inhabitants of the Philippines were pledged to maintain the honor of Spain, to extend the sway of her flag in Borneo, in the Moluccas and in Indo-China; to repel the Dutch foe; costly wars, fruitless expeditions, in which each time thousands and thousands of native archers and rowers were recorded to have embarked, but whether they returned to their homes was never stated. Like the tribute that once upon a time Greece sent to the Minotaur of Crete, the Philippine youth embarked for the expedition, saying goodbye to their country forever; on their horizon were the stormy sea, the interminable wars, the rash expeditions. Wherefore, Gaspar de San Agustin says: "Although anciently there were in this town of Dumangas many people, in the course of time they have very greatly diminished because the natives are the best sailors and most skillful rowers on the whole coast, and so the governors in the port of Iloilo take most of the people from this town for the ships that they send abroad . . . When the Spaniards reached this island (Panay) it is said that there were on it more than fifty thousand families; but these diminished greatly . . . and at present they may amount to some fourteen thousand tributaries." From fifty thousand families to fourteen thousand tributaries in little over half a century!

We would never get through, had we to quote all the evidence of the authors regarding the frightful diminution of the inhabitants of the Philippines in the first years after the discovery. In the time of their first bishop, that is, ten years after Legazpi. Philip II said that they had been reduced to less than two-thirds.

Add to these fatal expeditions that wasted all the moral and material energies of the country, the frightful inroads of the terrible pirates from the south, instigated and encouraged by the government, first in order to get a complaint and afterwards disarm the islands subjected to it, inroads that reached the very shores of Manila, even Malate itself, and during which were sen to set out for captivity and slavery, in the baleful glow of burning villages, strings of wretches who had been unable to defend themselves, leaving behind them the ashes of their homes and the corpses of their parents and children. Morga, who recounts the first piratical invasion, says: "The boldness of these people of Mindanao did great damage to the Visayan Island, as much by what they did in them as by the fear and fright which the native acquired, because the latter were in the power of the Spaniards who held them subject and tributary and unarmed, in such manner that they did not protect them from their enemies or leave the means with which to defend themselves, AS THEY DID WHEN THERE WERE NO SPANIARDS IN THE COUNTRY." These piratical attacks continually reduce the number of the inhabitants of the Philippines, since the independent Malays were especially notorious for their atrocities and murders, sometimes because they believed that to preserve their independence it was necessary to weaken the Spaniard by reducing the number of his subjects, sometimes because a greater hatred and a deeper resentment inspired them against the Christian Filipino who, being of their own race, served the stranger in order to deprive them of their precious liberty. These expeditions lasted about three centuries, being repeated five and ten times a year, and each expedition cost the island over eight hundred prisoners.

"With the invasions of the pirates from Sulu and Mindanao," says Padre Gaspar de San Agustin, (the island of Bantayan, near Cebu) "has greatly reduced, because they easily captured the people there, since the latter had no place to fortify themselves and were far from help from Cebu. The hostile Sulus did great damage in this island in 1608, leaving it almost depopulated." (Page 380)

These rough attacks, coming from without, produced a counter effect in the interior, which, carried out medical comparisons was like a purge or diet in an individual who has just lost a great deal of blood. In order to make headway against so many calamities, to secure their sovereignty and take the offensive in these disastrous contests, to isolate the warlike Sulus from their neighbors in the south, to care for the needs of the empire of the Indies (for one of the reasons why the Philippines were kept, as contemporary documents prove, ws their strategic position between New Spain and the Indies), to wrest from the Dutch their growing colonies of the Molluccas and get red of some troublesome neighbors, to maintain, in short, the trade of China and New Spain, it was necessary to construct new and large ships which, as we have seen, costly as they were to the country for their equipment and the rowers they required, were not less so because of the manner in which they were constructed. Padre Fernando de lost Rios Coronel, who fought in these wards and later turned priest, speaking of these King's ships, said, "As they were so large, the timber needed was scarcely to be found in the forests (of the Philippines?), and thus it was necessary to seek it with great difficulty in the most remote of them, where, once found, in order to haul and convey it to the shipyard the towns of the surrounding country had to be depopulated of natives, who get it out with immense labor, damage, and cost to them. The natives furnished the masts for a galleon, according to the assertion of the Franciscans, and I heard the governor of the province where they were cut, which is Laguna de Bay, say that to haul them seven leagues over very broken mountains 6,000 natives were engaged three months, without furnishing them food, which the wretched native had to seek for himself!"

And Gaspar de San Agustin says: "In these times (1690), Bacolor has not the people that it had in the past because of the uprising in that province when Don Sabiniano Manrique de Lara was Governor of these islands and because of the continual labor of cutting timber for his Majesty's shipyards, which hinders them from cultivating the very fertile plain they have.

If this is not sufficient to explain the depopulation of the islands and the abandonment of industry, agriculture and commerce, then add "the natives who were executed, those who left their wives and children and fled in disgust to the mountains, those who were sold into slavery to pay the taxes levied upon them," as Fernando de los Rios Coronel says; add to all this what Philip II said in reprimanding Bishop Salazar about "natives sold to some encomenderos to others, those flogged to death, the women who are crushed to death by their heavy burdens, those who sleep in the fields and bear and nurse their children and die bitten by poisonous vermin, the many who are executed and left to die of hunger and those who eat poisonous herbs . . . and the mothers who kill their children in bearing them," and you will understand how in less than thirty years the population of the Philippines was reduced one-third. We are not saying this: it was said by Gaspar de San Agustin, the preeminently anti-Filipino Augustinian, and he confirms it throughout the rest of his work by speaking every moment of the state of neglect in which lay the farms and field once so flourishing and so well cultivated, the town thinned that had formerly been inhabited by many leading families!

How is it strange, then, that discouragement may have been infused into the spirit of the inhabitants of the Philippines, when in the midst of so many calamities they did not know whether they would see sprout the seed they were planting, whether their field was going to be their grave or their crop would go to feed their executioner? What is there strange in it, when we see the pious but impotent friars of that time trying to free their poor parishioners from the tyranny of the encomenderos by advising them to stop work in the mines, to abandon their commerce, to break up their looms, pointing out to them heaven for their whole hope, preparing them for death as their only consolation?

Man works for an object. Remove the object and you reduce him to inaction. The most active man in the world will fold his arms from the instant he understands that it is madness to bestir himself, that this work will be the cause of his trouble, that for him it will be the cause of vexations at home and of the pirate's greed abroad. It seems that these thoughts have never entered the minds of those who cry out against the indolence of the Filipinos.

Even were the Filipino not a man like the rest, even were we to suppose that zeal in him for work was as essential as the movement of a wheel caught in the gearing of others in motion; even were we to deny him foresight and the judgment that the past and present form, there would still be left us another reason to explain the attack of the evil. The abandonment of the fields by their cultivators, whom the wars and piratical attacks dragged from their homes was sufficient to reduce to nothing the hard labor of so many generations. In the Philippines abandon for a year the land most beautifully tended and you will see how you will have to begin all over again: the rain will wipe out the furrows, the floods will drown the seeds, pants and bushes will grow up everywhere, and on seeing so much useless labor the hand will drop the hoe, the laborer will desert his plow. Isn't there left the fine life of the pirate?

Thus is understood that sad discouragement which we find in the friar writers of the 17th century, speaking of once very fertile plains submerged, of provinces and towns depopulate, of leading families exterminated. These pages resemble a sad and monotonous scene in the night after a lively day. Of Cagayan, Padre Agustin speaks with mournful brevity: "A great deal of cotton, of which they made good cloth that the Chinese and Japanese every year bought and carried away." In the historian's time, the industry and the trade had come to an end.

It seems that there are causes more than sufficient to breed indolence in the midst of a beehive. Thus is explained why, after thirty-two years of the system, the circumspect and prudent Morga said that the natives have forgotten much about farming, raising poultry, stock and cotton and weaving cloth, as they used to do in their paganism and for a long time after the country had been conquered!"

Still they struggled a long time against indolence, yes: but their enemies were so numerous that at last they gave up!

PART FOUR: We recognize the causes that awoke the predisposition and provoked the evil: now let us see what foster and sustain it. In this connection government and governed have to bow our heads and say: "We deserve our fate."

We have already truly said that when a house becomes disturbed and disordered, we should not accuse the youngest child or the servants, but the head of it, especially if his authority is unlimited. He who does not act freely is not responsible for his actions; and the Filipino people, not being master of its liberty, is not responsible for either its misfortunes or its woes. We say this, it is true, but, as well as seen later on, we also have a large part in the continuation of such a disorder.

The following other causes contributed to foster the evil and aggravate it; the constantly lessening encouragement that labor has met with in the Philippines. Fearing to have the Filipinos deal frequently with other individuals of their own race, who were free and independent, as the Borneans, the Siamese, the Cambodians, and the Japanese, people who in their customs and feeling differ greatly from the Chinese, the government acted toward these others with great mistrust and great severity, as Morga testifies in the last pages of his work, until they finally ceased to come to the country. In fact, it seems that once an uprising planned by he Borneans was suspected: we say; suspected, for there was not even an attempt, although there were many executions. And as thse nations wee the very ones that consumed Philippine products, when all communication with them had been cut off, consumption of these products also ceased. The only two countries with which the Philippines continued to have relations were China and Mexico, or New Spain, and from this trade only China and a few private individuals in Manila got any benefit. In fact, the Celestial Empire sent her junks laden with merchandise, that merchandise which shut down the factories of Seville and ruined the Spanish industry, and returned laden in exchange with the silver that was every year sent from Mexico. Nothing from the Philippines at that time went to China, not even gold, for in those years the Chinese trades would accept no payment but silver coin. To Mexico went a little more: some cloth and dry goods which the encomenderos took by force or bought from the natives at a paltry; price, wax, amber, gold, civet, etc; but nothing more, and not even in great quantity, as is stated by Admiral Don Jeronimo de Benelos y Carrilo, when he begged the King that "the inhabitants of the Manilas be permitted (1) to load as many ships as they could with native products, such as wax, gold, perfumes, ivory, cotton cloths, which they would have to buy from the natives of the country. . . Thus friendship of these peoples would be gained, they would furnish New Spain with their merchandise and the money that is brought to Manila would not leave this place."

The coastwise trade, so active in other times, had to die out, thanks to the piratical attacks of the Malays of the south; and trade in the interior of the islands almost entirely disappeared, owing to restrictions, passports and other administrative requirements.

Of no little importance were the hindrance and obstacles that from the beginning were thrown in the farmer's way by the rules, who were influenced by childish fear and saw everywhere signs of conspiracies and uprisings. The natives were not allowed to go to their labors, that is, their farms, without permission of the governor, or of his agents and officers, and even of the priests as Morga says. Those who know the administrative slackness and confusion in a country where the officials work scarcely two hours a day; those who know the cost of going to and returning form the capital to the little tyrants will well understand how with this crude arrangement it is possible to have the most absurd agriculture. True it is that for sometime this absurdity which would be ludicrous had it not been so serious, had disappeared; but even if the words have gone out of use other facts and other provisions have replaced them. The Moro pirate has disappeared but there remains the outlaw who infests the fields and waylays the farmer to hold him for ransom. Now then, the government, which has a constant fear of the people, denies to the farmers even the use of a shotgun, or if it does allow it does so very grudgingly and withdraws it at pleasure; whence it results with the laborer, who, thanks to his means of defense, plants his crops and invests his meager fortune in the furrows that he has so laboriously opened, that when his crop matures it occurs to the government, which is impotent to suppress brigandage, to deprive him of his weapon; and then, without defense and without security, he is reduced to inaction and abandons his field, his work, and takes to gambling as the best means of securing a livelihood. The green cloth is under the protection of the government, it is safer! A mournful counselor is fear, for it not only causes weakness but also in casting aside the weapons, strengthens the very persecutor!

The sordid return the native gets from his work has the effect of discouraging him. We know from history that the encomenderos, after reducing many to slavery and forcing them to work for their benefit, made others give up their merchandise for a trife or nothing at all, or cheated them with the measures.

Speaking of Ipion, in Panay, Padre Gaspar de San Agustin says: "It was in ancient times very rich in gold . . . but provoked by he annoyances they suffered from some governors they have ceased to get it out, preferring to live in poverty than to suffer such hardships." (page 378) Further on, speaking of other towns, he says: "Boaded by ill treatment of the encomenderos who in administering justice have treated the natives as thier slaves and not as their children, and have only looked after their own interests at the expense of the wretched fortunes and lives of their charges. . . (Page 422) Further on, "In Leyte, they tried to kill an encomendero of the town of Dagami on account of the great hardships he made them suffer by exacting tribute of wax from them with a steelyard which he had made twice as long as others. . ."

This state of affairs lasted a long time and still lasts, in spite of the fact that the breed of encomenderos has become extinct. A term passes away but the evil and the passions engendered do not pass away so long as reforms are devoted solely to changing the names.

The wars with the Dutch, the inroads and piratical attacks of the people of Sulu land Mindanao disappeared; the people have been transformed; new towns have grown up while others have become impoverished; but the frauds subsisted as much as or worse than they did in those early years. We will not cite our own experiences for aside from the fact that we do not know which to select, critical persons may reproach us with partiality; neither will we cite those of other Filipinos who write in the newspapers, but we shall confine ourselves to translating the words of a modern French traveler who as in the Philippines for a long time.

"The good curate," he says with reference to the rosy picture a friar had given him of the Philippines, "had not told me about the governor, the foremost official of the district, who was too much taken up with the ideal of getting rich to have time to tyrannize over his docile subjects; the governor, charged with ruling the country and collecting the various taxes in the government's name, devoted himself almost wholly to trade; in his hands the high and noble functions he performs are nothing more than instruments of gain. He monopolizes all the business and instead of developing on his part the love of work, instead of stimulating the too natural indolence of the natives, he with abuse of his powers thinks only of destroying all competition that may trouble him or attempts to participate in his profits. It maters little to him that the country is impoverished, without cultivation, without commerce, without industry, just so the governor is quickly enriched."

Yet the traveler has been unfair in picking out the governor especially. Why only the governor?

We do not cite passages from other authors, because we have not their works at hand and do not wish to quote from memory.

The great difficulty that every enterprise encountered with the administration contributed not a little to kill off all commercial and industrial movement. All the Filipinos, as well as all those who have tried to engage in business in the Philippines, know how many documents, what comings, how many stamped papers, how much patience is needed to secure from the government a permit for an enterprise. One must count upon the good will of this one, on the influence of that one, on a good bribe to another in order that the application be not pigeon-holed, a present to the one further on so that it may pass it on to his chief; one must pray to God to give him good humor and time to see and examine it; to another, talent to recognize its expediency; to one further on sufficient stupidity not to scent behind the enterprise an insurrectionary purpose land that they may not all spend the time taking baths, hunting or playing cards with the reverend friars in their convents or country houses. And above all, great patience, great knowledge of how to get along, plenty of money, a great deal of politics, many salutations, great influence, plenty of presents and complete resignation! How is it strange that the Philippines remain poor in spite of the fertile soil, when history tells us that the countries now the most flourishing date their development from the day of their liberty and civil rights? The most commercial and most industrious countries have been the freest countries. France, England and the United States prove this. Hong Kong, which is not worth the most insignificant of the Philippines, has more commercial movement than all the islands together, because it is free and is well governed.

The trade with China, which was the whole occupation of the colonizers of the Philippines, was not only prejudicial to Spain but also the life of her colonies; in fact, when the officials and private persons in Manila found an easy method of getting rich they neglected everything. They paid no attention either to cultivating the soil or to fostering industry; and wherefore? China furnished the trade, and they had only to take advantage of it and pick up the gold that dropped out on its way from Mexico toward the interior of China, the gulf whence it never returned. The pernicious example of the dominators in surrounding themselves with servants and despising manual or corporal labor as a thing unbecoming the nobility and chivalrous pride of the heroes of so many centuries; those lordly airs, which the natives have translated into tila ka castila, and the desire of the dominated to be the equal of the dominators, if not essentially, at least in their manners; all this had naturally to produce aversion to activity and fear or hatred of work.

Moreover, "Why work?" asked the natives. The curate says that the rich man will not go to heaven. The rich man on earth is liable to all kinds of trouble, to be appointed a cabeza de barangay, to be deported if an uprising occurs, to be forced banker of the military chief of the town, who to reward him for favors received seizes his laborers and his stock in order to force him to beg money and thus easily pays up. Why be rich? So that all the officers of justice may have a lynx eye on your actions, so that at the least slip enemies may be raised up against you, you may be indicted, a whole complicated and labyrinthine story may be concocted against you, for which you can only get away, not by the tread of Ariadme but by Dane's shower of gold, and still give thanks that you are not kept in reserve for some needy occasion. The native, whom they pretend to regard as an imbecile, is not so much so that he does not understand that it is ridiculous to work himself to death to become worse off. A proverb of his says the pig is cooked in its own lard, and as among his bad qualities he has the good one of applying to himself all the criticisms and censures he refers to live miserable and indolent rather than play the part of the wretched beast of burden.

Add to this the introduction of gambling. We do not mean to say that before the coming of the Spaniards the natives did not gamble: the passion for gambling is innate in adventuresome and excitable races, and such is the Malay, Pigafetta tells us of cockfights and of bets in the Island of Paragua. Cock-fighting must also have existed in Luzon and in all the islands, for in the terminology of the game are two Tagalog words: sabong and tari (cockpit and gaff). But there is not the least doubt that the fostering of this game is due to the government, as well as the perfecting of it. Although Pigafetta tells us of it, he mentions it only in Paragua, and ot in Cebu nor in any other island of the south, where he stayed a long time. Morga does not speak of it, in spite of his having spent seven years in Manila, and yet he does describe the kinds of fowl, the jungle hens and cocks. Neither does Morga speak of gambling, when he talks about vices and other defects, more or lest concealed, more or less insignificant. Moreover excepting the two Tagalog words sabong and tari, the others are of Spanish origan as soltada (setting the cocks to fight, then the fight itself), pusta (apusta, bet), logro (winning), pago (payment), etc. We say the same about gamblilng; the word sugal (jugar, to gamble), like kumpistal (confesar, to confess to a priest), indicates that gambling was unknown in the Philippines before the Spaniards. The word laro (Tagalog: to play) is not the equivalent of the word sugal. The word play (baraja, playing card) proves that the introduction of playing cards was not due to the Chinese, who have a kind of playing cards also, because in that case they would have taken the Chinese name. l Is nto this enough? The word taya (tallar, to bet), paris-paris (Spanish, pares, pairs of cards), politana (napolitana a winning sequence of cards), sapote (to stack the cards), kapote (to slam), monte, and so on, all prove the foreign origin of this terrible plant, which only produces vice and which has found in the character of the native a fit soil, cultivated circumstances.

Along with gambling, which breeds dislike for steady and difficult toil by its promise of sudden wealth and its appeal to the emotions, with the lotteries, with the prodigality and hospitality of the Filipinos, went also, to swell the train of misfortunes, the religious functions, the great number of fiestas, the long masses for the women to spend their mornings and the novenaries to spend their afternoons, and the nights for the processions and rosaries. Remember, that lack of capital and absence of means paralyze all movement, and you will see how the native was perforce to be indolent for if any money might remain to him from the trials, imposts and exactions, he would have to give it to the curate for bulls, scapularies, candles, novenaries, etc. And if this does not suffice to form an indolent character, if the climate and nature are not enough in themselves to daze him and deprive him of all energy, recall then that the doctrine of his religion teach him to irrigate his fields in the dry season, not by means of canals but with amasses and prayers; to preserve his stock during an epidemic with holy water, exorcisms and benedictions that cost five dollars an animal, to drive away the locusts by a procession with the image of St. Augustine, etc. It is well, undoubtedly, to trust greatly in God; but it is better to do what one can not trouble the Creator every moment, even when these appeals redound to the benefit of His ministers. We have noticed that the countries which believe most in miracles are the laziest, just as spoiled children are the most ill-mannered. Whether they believe in miracles to palliate their laziness or they are lazy because they believe in miracles, we cannot say; but he fact is the Filipinos were much less lazy before the word miracle was introduced into their language.

The facility with which individual liberty is curtailed, that continual alarm of all from the knowledge that they are liable to a secret report, a governmental ukase, and to the accusation of rebel or suspect, an accusation which, to be effective, does not need proof or the production of the accuser. With the lack of confidence in the future, that uncertainty of reaping the reward of labor, as in a city stricken with plague, everybody yields to fate, shuts himself in his house or goes about amusing himself in an attempt to spend the few days that remain to him in the least disagreeable way possible.

The apathy of the government itself toward everything in commerce and agriculture contributes not a little to foster indolence. Three is no encouragement at all for the manufacturer or for the farmer, the government furnishes no aid either when a poor crop comers, when the locusts sweep over the fields, or when cyclone destroys in its passage the wealth of the soil; nor does it take any trouble to seek a market for the products of its colonies. Why should it do so when these same products are burdened with taxes and imposts and have no free entry into the ports of the mother country, nor is their consumption there encouraged? While we see all the walls of London covered with advertisements of the products of its colonies, while the English make heroic efforts to substitute Ceylon for Chinese tea, beginning with the sacrifice of their taste and their stomach, in Spain, with the exception of tobacco, nothing from the Philippines is known; neither its sugar, coffee, hemp, fine cloths, nor its Ilocano blankets. The name of Manila is known only from those cloths of China or Indo-China which at one time reached Spain by way of Manila, heavy silk shawls, fantastically but coarsely embroidered, which no one has thought of imitating in Manila since they are so easily made; but the government has other cares, and the Filipinos do not know that such objects are more highly esteemed in the Peninsula than their delicate piña embroideries and their vey fine jusi fabrics. Thus disappeared our trade in indigo, thanks to the trickery of the Chinese, which the government could not guard against, occupied as it was with other thoughts; thus die now the other industries, the fine manufacturers of the Visayas are gradually disappearing from trade and even from use; the people, continually getting poorer, cannot afford the costly cloths, and have to be contented with calico or the imitations of the Germans, who produce imitations even of the work of our silversmiths.

The fact that the best plantations, the best tracts of land in some provinces, those that from their easy access are more profitable than others, are in the hands of the religious corporations, whose desideratum is ignorance and condition of semi-starvation of the native, so that they may, continue to govern him and make themselves necessary to his wretched existence, is one of the reasons why many tows do not progress in spite of the efforts of their inhabitants. We will be met with the objection, as an argument on the other side, that the towns which belong to the friars are comparatively richer than those which do not belong to them. They surely are! just as their brethren in Europe, in founding their convents, knew how to select the best valleys, the best uplands for the cultivation of the vine or the production of beer, so also the Philippine monks have known how to selecte the best towns, the beautiful plains, the well-watered fields, to make of them rich plantations. For some time the friars have deceived many by making them believe that if these plantations were prospering, it was because they were under their care, and the indolence of the natives was thus emphasized; but they forget that in some provinces where they have not been able for some reason to get possession of the best tracts of land, their plantations, like Bauan and Liang, are inferior to Taal, Balayan, and Lipa, regions cultivated entirely by the natives without any monkish interference whatsoever.

Add to this lack of material inducement the absence of moral stimulus and you will see how he who is not indolent in that country must needs be a madman or at least a fool. What future awaits him who distinguishes himself, him who studies, who rise above the crowd? At the cost of study and sacrifice a young man becomes a great chemist, and after a long course of training, wherein neither the government nor anybody has given him the least help, he concludes his long stay in the University. A competitive examination is held to fill a certain position. The young man wins this through knowledge and perseverance, and after he has won it, it is abolished, because. . . we do not care to give the reason, but when a municipal laboratory is closed in order to abolish the position of director, who got his place by competitive examination, while other officers, such as the press censor, are preserved, it is because the belief exists that the light of progress may injure the people more than all the adulterated foods. In the same way, another young man won a a prize in a literary competition, and as long as his origin was unknown his work was discussed, the newspapers praised it and it was regarded as a masterpiece but the sealed envelopes were opened, the winner proved to be a native, while among the losers there are Peninsulars; then all the newspapers hasten to extol the losers! Not one word from the government, nor from anybody, to encourage the native who with so much affection has cultivated the language and letters of the mother country!

Finally passing over many other more or less insignificant reasons, the enumeration of which would be interminable, let us close this dreary list with the principal and most terrible of all: the education of the native.

From his birth until he sinks into his grave, the training of the native is brutalizing, depressive and anti-human (the word "inhuman" is not sufficiently explanatory; whether or not the Academy admits it, let it go). There is no doubt that the government, some priests like the Jesuits and some Dominicans like Padre Benavides, have done a great deal by founding colleges, schools of primary instruction, and the like. But this is not enough; their efforts is neutralized. They amount ot five or ten years (years of a hundred and fifty days at most) during which the youth comes in contact with books selected by those very priests who boldly proclaim that it is evil for the natives to know Castilian, that the native should not be separated from his carabao, that he should not value any further aspirations, and so on; five to ten years during which the majority of the students have grasped nothing more than that no one understands what the books say, nor even the professors themselves perhaps; and these five to ten years have no offset the daily preachment which lowers the dignity of man, which by degrees brutally deprives him of the sentiment of self-esteem, that eternal, stubborn, constant labor to bow the native's neck, to make him accept the yoke, to place him on a level with the beast -- a labor aided by some persons, with or without the ability to write, which if it does not produce in some individuals the desired effect in others it has the opposite effect, like that of breaking of a cord that is stretched too tightly. Thus while they attempt to make of the native a kind of animal, yet in exchange they demand of him divine actions. And we say divine actions, because he must be a god who does not become indolent in that climate, surrounded by the circumstances mentioned. Deprive a man, then, of his dignity, and you not only deprive him of his moral strength but you also make useless for those who wish to make use of him. Every creature has its stimulus, its mainspring; man's is his self-esteem. Take it away from him and he is a corpse, and he who seeks activity in a corpse will encounter only worms.

Thus is explained how the natives of the present time are no longer the same as those of the time of the discovery, neither morally nor physically.

The ancient writers, like Chirino, Morga, and Colin, take pleasure in describing them a well-featured, with good aptitudes for any thing they take up, keen and susceptible and of resolute will, very clean and neat in their persons and clothing, and of good mien and bearing (Morga). Others delight in minute accounts of their intelligence and pleasant manners, of their aptitude for music, the drama, dancing and singing, of the faculty with which they learned, not only Spanish but also Latin, which they acquired almost by themselves (Colin); others of their exquisite politeness in their dealings and in their social life, others, like the first Augustinians, whose accounts Gaspar de San Agustin copies, found them more gallant and better mannered than the inhabitants of the Moluccas. "All live off their husbandry," adds Morga, "their farms, fisheries and enterprises, for they travel from island to island by sea and from province to province by land."

In exchange, the writers of the present time, without being more gallant than Herman Cortez and Salcedo, nor more prudent than Legazpi, nor more manly than Morga, nor more prudent than Colin and Gaspar de San Agustin, our contemporary writers we say find that the native is a creature something more than a monkey but much less than a man, an anthropoid, dull-witted, stupid, timid, dirty, cringing, ill-clothed, indolent, lazy brainless, immoral, etc. etc.

To what is this retrogression due? Is it the delectable civilization, the religion of salvation of the friars, called of Jesus Christ by euphemism, that has produced this miracle that has atrophied his brain, paralyzed his heart and made of the man this sort of vicious animal that the writers depict?

Alas! The whole misfortune of the present Filipinos consists in that they have become only half-way brutes. The Filipino is convinced that to get happiness it is necessary for him to lay aside his dignity as a rational creature, to attend mass, to believe what is told him, to pay what is demanded of him, to pay and forever to pay; to work, suffer, and be silent, without aspiring any thing, without aspiring to know or even to understand Spanish, without separating himself from his carabao, as the priests shamelessly say, without protesting against any injustice, against any arbitrary action, against an assault, against an insult; that is, not to have heart, brain, or spirit; a creature with arms and a purse of gold. . . there's the ideal native! unfortunately, or because of the brutalization is not yet complete and because the nature of man is inherent in his being in spite of his condition, the native protests; he still has aspirations, he thinks and strives to rise, and there's the trouble!

PART FIVE: In the preceding chapter we set forth the causes that proceed from the government in fostering and maintaining the evil we are discussing. Now it falls to us to analyze those that emanate from the people. Peoples and governments are correlated and complementary: a stupid government would be an anomaly among righteous people, just as a corrupt people cannot exist under just rulers and wise laws. Like people, like government, we will say in paraphrase of a popular adage.

We can reduce all these causes to two classes: to defects of training and lack of national sentiment.

Of the influence of climate we spoke at the beginning, so we will now treat of the effects arising from it.

The very limited training in the home, the tyrannical and sterile education of the rare centers of learning that blind subordination of the youth to one of greater age, influence the mind so that a man may not aspire to excel those who preceded him but must merely be content to go along with a march behind them. Stagnation forcibly results from this, and as he who devotes himself merely to copying divests himself of other qualities suited to his own nature, he naturally becomes sterile; hence decadence. Indolence is a corollary derived from the lack of stimulus and of vitality.

That modesty infused into the convictions of everyone, or, to speak more clearly, that insinuated inferiority, a sort of daily and constant depreciation of the mind so that it may not be raised to the regions of life, deadens the energies, paralyzes all tendencies toward advancement, and of the least struggle a man gives up without fighting. If by one of those rare incidents, some wild spirit, that is some active one, excels, instead of his example stimulating, it only causes others to persist in their inaction. "There's one who will work for us; let's sleep on!" say his relatives and friends. True it is that the spirit of rivalry is sometimes awakened, only that then it awakens with bad humor in the guise of envy, and instead of being a lever for helping, it is an obstacle that produces discouragement.

Nurtured by the example of anchorites of a contemplative and lazy life, the natives spend theirs in giving their gold to the Church in the hope of miracles and other wonderful things. Their will is hypnotized: from childhood they learned to act mechanically, without knowledge of the object, thanks to the exercise imposed upon them from the most tender years of praying for whole hours in an unknown tongue, of venerating things that they do not understand, of accepting beliefs that are not explained to them, to having absurdities imposed upon them, while the protests of reason are repressed. Is it any wonder that with this vicious dressage of intelligence and will the native, of old logical and consistent -- as the analysis of his past and of his language demonstrates -- should now be a mass of dismal contradictions? That continual struggle between reason and duty, between his organism and his new ideals, that civil war which disturbs the peace of his conscience
          Southeast Asia to hold OLI and Intern Training in Cambodia   
Olivet Leadership Institute in Southeast Asia confirmed the venue for the next program in August. The New Hope Church in Phnom Penh is preparing to hold a regional leadership training session at the end of August. The host city is going to welcome around seventy participants from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia.
          Candied Asian Orchids   
To celebrate the incredible efforts of Passports With Purpose to raise a school in Cambodia, this week’s Wander Food Wednesday is dedicated to Sweet Asian Orchids. These delicate candied flowers are easy to make and almost always bring oh’s and ah’s when served! The recipe is modified from Epicurious. Ingredients: edible flowers (organic, pesticide-free) superfine […]
          A good way to use in-house blogs   

Blogs have not lived up to their promise in KM terms. Maybe we are just using them in the wrong way?

In our 2017 global KM survey, blogs got a bad rating. Although blogs are a reasonably popular technology choice (number 10 in popularity out of 19 technologies) they rank the worst for value delivery.

Why is this?

I think its partly because we tend to use blogs within organisations in the wrong way.  We use them in our companies in the same way that people use them on the web, which is the way I am using this blog now; we use them as personal vehicles for musing and for opinions, rather than ways to build, record and discuss knowledge.

See for the example the typical approach of the "Director's blog" - one of the more common uses for blogging and one of the least useful in KM terms, because

  • A director blogging is a bit like a director standing up behind the lectern and making a speech. It's heirarchical - it's "me preaching to all of you". 
  • They are generally one-way, with little or no comments. They are not collaborative, and its not an example you want to set as part of your KM program. 
  • Very rarely is does the blog contain knowledge (by which I mean concrete "how to" advice and details which will help the reader do their job better). 
  • If you are a director, you care about style and it becomes a publication, and not the start of an informal conversation that invites others to take part. 
  • It becomes "something extra to read" - just noise in the system 
So how can blogs add value? Firstly you want them t replace something else rather than adding one more communication channel, and then you want to make them about work.

The project blog can replace other channels of project reporting, can allow collaborative entries from the project leader and core team, can provide a central channel for a potentially dispersed team, and can host discussions on project topics through the comments feature. It automatically notifies the people who need to be notified, without the need for email. People interested in the project may subscribe, and the blog creates a narrative record. And then when you get  to the end of the project and it is time for collecting the lessons, you will find many of them already documented in the project blog. 

A great example is the Polymath project - an international collaborative project among mathematicians to solve a particularly tricky problem. The team used blogs to discuss interesting ideas and ways forward with the problem, and validated content was moved to a wiki as the team converged on a solution. It was interesting that it was not always the most experienced or most academic mathematicians that helped make progress - sometimes it was the amateurs and the school maths teachers that helped with breakthroughs. 

The Polymath project used two types of blog
  • Blogs hosted by mathematicians, where particular aspects of the problem were addressed in the blog comments
  • An administrative blog, which summarised progress, and hosted administrative discussion.
  • The wiki provided write-ups of the work done on the blogs. Comments on the blogs were the working process, the wiki was the summary of the outcome.
    There are also some administrative conventions and ground rules, such as the following
    • No working independantly on the problem without discussing progress on the blog
    • Any blog post is not allowed more than 100 comments. This convention forced the leaders to summarise, and then restart, progress
    • Comments were divided into numbered comments (comments which make a direct contribution to the solution of the problem, and which were numbered for reference by other comments), and other comments, mostly about the process or administration of discussion ("metacomments").

    That's how blogging became a working tool for the project - directly relevant to the work they were doing, a collaboration platform, and a record of the project over time.

    That's a far better use for a blog than capturing senior managers' musings.

              Artificial Insemination Doubles Value of Cambodian Cows, Increasing Farmers' Income   

    Rolling out the artificial insemination programme for cattle in Cambodia would open up market opportunities and increase farmers’ income, according to researchers and veterinary officials in the province where a pilot programme is under way with support from the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

              The Folly of the Next Afghan "Surge"   

    Tread Carefully: The Folly of the Next Afghan "Surge"

    Thursday, June 29, 2017 By Danny SjursenTomDispatch | News Analysis 
    A US Army soldier fires at Taliban fighters near the village of Allah Say, Afghanistan, on August 21, 2007. (Photo: The US Army)A US Army soldier fires at Taliban fighters near the village of Allah Say, Afghanistan, on August 21, 2007. (Photo: The US Army)
    We walked in a single file. Not because it was tactically sound. It wasn't -- at least according to standard infantry doctrine. Patrolling southern Afghanistan in column formation limited maneuverability, made it difficult to mass fire, and exposed us to enfilading machine-gun bursts. Still, in 2011, in the Pashmul District of Kandahar Province, single file was our best bet.
    The reason was simple enough: improvised bombs not just along roads but seemingly everywhere.  Hundreds of them, maybe thousands. Who knew?
    That's right, the local "Taliban" -- a term so nebulous it's basically lost all meaning -- had managed to drastically alter U.S. Army tactics with crude, homemade explosives stored in plastic jugs. And believe me, this was a huge problem. Cheap, ubiquitous, and easy to bury, those anti-personnel Improvised Explosive Devices, or IEDs, soon littered the "roads," footpaths, and farmland surrounding our isolated outpost. To a greater extent than a number of commanders willingly admitted, the enemy had managed to nullify our many technological advantages for a few pennies on the dollar (or maybe, since we're talking about the Pentagon, it was pennies on the millions of dollars).
    Truth be told, it was never really about our high-tech gear.  Instead, American units came to rely on superior training and discipline, as well as initiative and maneuverability, to best their opponents.  And yet those deadly IEDs often seemed to even the score, being both difficult to detect and brutally effective. So there we were, after too many bloody lessons, meandering along in carnival-like, Pied Piper-style columns. Bomb-sniffing dogs often led the way, followed by a couple of soldiers carrying mine detectors, followed by a few explosives experts. Only then came the first foot soldiers, rifles at the ready. Anything else was, if not suicide, then at least grotesquely ill-advised.
    And mind you, our improvised approach didn't always work either. To those of us out there, each patrol felt like an ad hoc round of Russian roulette.  In that way, those IEDs completely changed how we operated, slowing movement, discouraging extra patrols, and distancing us from what was then considered the ultimate "prize": the local villagers, or what was left of them anyway.  In a counterinsurgency (COIN) campaign, which is what the U.S. military was running in Afghanistan in those years, that was the definition of defeat.
    Strategic Problems in Microcosm
    My own unit faced a dilemma common to dozens -- maybe hundreds -- of other American units in Afghanistan. Every patrol was slow, cumbersome, and risky. The natural inclination, if you cared about your boys, was to do less. But effective COIN operations require securing territory and gaining the trust of the civilians living there. You simply can't do that from inside a well-protected American base. One obvious option was to live in the villages -- which we eventually did -- but that required dividing up the company into smaller groups and securing a second, third, maybe fourth location, which quickly became problematic, at least for my 82-man cavalry troop (when at full strength). And, of course, there were no less than fivevillages in my area of responsibility.
    I realize, writing this now, that there's no way I can make the situation sound quite as dicey as it actually was.  How, for instance, were we to "secure and empower" a village population that was, by then, all but nonexistent?  Years, even decades, of hard fighting, air strikes, and damaged crops had left many of those villages in that part of Kandahar Province little more than ghost towns, while cities elsewhere in the country teemed with uprooted and dissatisfied peasant refugees from the countryside.
    Sometimes, it felt as if we were fighting over nothing more than a few dozen deserted mud huts.  And like it or not, such absurdity exemplified America's war in Afghanistan.  It still does.  That was the view from the bottom.  Matters weren't -- and aren't -- measurably better at the top.  As easily as one reconnaissance troop could be derailed, so the entire enterprise, which rested on similarly shaky foundations, could be unsettled.
    At a moment when the generals to whom President Trump recently delegateddecision-making powers on U.S. troop strength in that country consider a new Afghan "surge," it might be worth looking backward and zooming out just a bit. Remember, the very idea of "winning" the Afghan War, which left my unit in that collection of mud huts, rested (and still rests) on a few rather grandiose assumptions. 
    The first of these surely is that the Afghans actually want (or ever wanted) us there; the second, that the country was and still is vital to our national security; and the third, that 10,000, 50,000, or even 100,000 foreign troops ever were or now could be capable of "pacifying" an insurgency, or rather a growing set of insurgencies, or securing 33 million souls, or facilitating a stable, representative government in a heterogeneous, mountainous, landlocked country with little history of democracy.
    The first of these points is at least debatable. As you might imagine, any kind of accurate polling is quite difficult, if not impossible, outside the few major population centers in that isolated country.  Though many Afghans, particularly urban ones, may favor a continued U.S. military presence, others clearly wonder what good a new influx of foreigners will do in their endlessly war-torn nation.  As one high-ranking Afghan official recently lamented, thinking undoubtedly of the first use in his land of the largest non-nuclear bomb on the planet, "Is the plan just to use our country as a testing ground for bombs?" And keep in mind that the striking rise in territory the Taliban now controls, the most since they were driven from power in 2001, suggests that the U.S. presence is hardly welcomed everywhere.
    The second assumption is far more difficult to argue or justify.  To say the least, classifying a war in far-away Afghanistan as "vital" relies on a rather pliable definition of the term.  If that passes muster -- if bolstering the Afghan military to the tune of (at least) tens of billions of dollars annually and thousands of new boots-on-the-ground in order to deny safe haven to "terrorists" is truly "vital" -- then logically the current U.S. presences in Iraq, Syria, Somalia, and Yemen are critical as well and should be similarly fortified.  And what about the growing terror groups in Egypt, Libya, Nigeria, Tunisia, and so on?  We're talking about a truly expensive proposition here -- in blood and treasure.  But is it true?  Rational analysis suggests it is not.  After all, on average about seven Americans were killed by Islamist terrorists on U.S. soil annually from 2005 to 2015.  That puts terrorism deaths right up there with shark attacks and lightning strikes.  The fear is real, the actual danger... less so.
    As for the third point, it's simply preposterous. One look at U.S. military attempts at "nation-building" or post-conflict stabilization and pacification in Iraq, Libya, or -- dare I say -- Syria should settle the issue. It's often said that the best predictor of future behavior is past behavior. Yet here we are, 14 years after the folly of invading Iraq and many of the same voices -- inside and outside the administration -- are clamoring for one more "surge" in Afghanistan (and, of course, will be clamoring for the predictable surges to follow across the Greater Middle East).
    The very idea that the U.S. military had the ability to usher in a secure Afghanistan is grounded in a number of preconditions that proved to be little more than fantasies.  First, there would have to be a capable, reasonably corruption-free local governing partner and military.  That's a nonstarter.  Afghanistan's corrupt, unpopular national unity government is little better than the regime of Ngo Dinh Diem in South Vietnam in the 1960s and that American war didn't turn out so well, did it?  Then there's the question of longevity.  When it comes to the U.S. military presence there, soon to head into its 16th year, how long is long enough?  Several mainstream voices, including former Afghan commander General David Petraeus, are now talking about at least a "generation" more to successfully pacify Afghanistan.  Is that really feasible given America's growing resource constraints and the ever expanding set of dangerous "ungoverned spaces" worldwide?
    And what could a new surge actually do?  The U.S. presence in Afghanistan is essentially a fragmented series of self-contained bases, each of which needs to be supplied and secured.  In a country of its size, with a limited transportation infrastructure, even the 4,000-5,000 extra troops the Pentagon is reportedly considering sending right now won't go very far. 
    Now, zoom out again.  Apply the same calculus to the U.S. position across the Greater Middle East and you face what we might start calling the Afghan paradox, or my own quandary safeguarding five villages with only 82 men writ large.  Do the math.  The U.S. military is already struggling to keep up with its commitments.  At what point is Washington simply spinning its proverbial wheels?  I'll tell you when -- yesterday.
    Now, think about those three questionable Afghan assumptions and one uncomfortable actuality leaps forth. The only guiding force left in the American strategic arsenal is inertia.
    What Surge 4.0 Won't Do -- I Promise ...
    Remember something: this won't be America's first Afghan "surge."  Or its second, or even its third.  No, this will be the U.S. military's fourth crack at it.  Who feels lucky?  First came President George W. Bush's "quiet" surge back in 2008.  Next, just one month into his first term, newly minted President Barack Obama sent 17,000 more troops to fight his so-called good war (unlike the bad one in Iraq) in southern Afghanistan.  After a testy strategic review, he then committed 30,000 additional soldiers to the "real" surge a year later.  That's what brought me (and the rest of B Troop, 4-4 Cavalry) to Pashmul district in 2011.  We left -- most of us -- more than five years ago, but of course about 8,800 American military personnel remain today and they are the basis for the surge to come.
    To be fair, Surge 4.0 might initially deliver certain modest gains (just as each of the other three did in their day).  Realistically, more trainers, air support, and logistics personnel could indeed stabilize some Afghan military units for some limited amount of time.  Sixteen years into the conflict, with 10% as many American troops on the ground as at the war's peak, and after a decade-plus of training, Afghan security forces are still being battered by the insurgents.  In the last years, they've been experiencing record casualties, along with the usual massive stream of desertions and the legions of "ghost soldiers" who can neither die nor desert because they don't exist, although their salaries do (in the pockets of their commanders or other lucky Afghans).  And that's earned them a "stalemate," which has left the Taliban and other insurgent groups in control of a significant part of the country.  And if all goes well (which isn't exactly a surefire thing), that's likely to be the best that Surge 4.0 can produce: a long, painful tie.
    Peel back the onion's layers just a bit more and the ostensible reasons for America's Afghan War vanish along with all the explanatory smoke and mirrors. After all, there are two things the upcoming "mini-surge" will emphatically not do:
    *It won't change a failing strategic formula.
    Imagine that formula this way: American trainers + Afghan soldiers + loads of cash + (unspecified) time = a stable Afghan government and lessening Taliban influence.
    It hasn't worked yet, of course, but -- so the surge-believers assure us -- that's because we need more: more troops, more money, more time.  Like so many loyal Reaganites, their answers are always supply-side ones and none of them ever seems to wonder whether, almost 16 years later, the formula itself might not be fatally flawed.
    According to news reports, no solution being considered by the current administration will even deal with the following interlocking set of problems: Afghanistan is a large, mountainous, landlocked, ethno-religiously heterogeneous, poor country led by a deeply corrupt government with a deeply corrupt military.  In a place long known as a "graveyard of empires," the United States military and the Afghan Security Forces continue to wage what one eminent historian has termed "fortified compound warfare."  Essentially, Washington and its local allies continue to grapple with relatively conventional threats from exceedingly mobile Taliban fighters across a porous border with Pakistan, a country that has offered not-so-furtive support and a safe haven for those adversaries.  And the Washington response to this has largely been to lock its soldiers inside those fortified compounds (and focus on protecting them against "insider attacks" by those Afghans it works with and trains).  It hasn't worked.  It can't.  It won't. 
    Consider an analogous example.  In Vietnam, the United States never solved the double conundrum of enemy safe havens and a futile search for legitimacy.  The Vietcong guerillas and North Vietnamese Army used nearby Cambodia, Laos, and North Vietnam to rest, refit, and replenish.  U.S. troops meanwhile lacked legitimacy because their corrupt South Vietnamese partners lacked it.
    Sound familiar?  We face the same two problems in Afghanistan: a Pakistani safe haven and a corrupt, unpopular central government in Kabul.  Nothing, and I mean nothing, in any future troop surge will effectively change that.
    *It won't pass the logical fallacy test.
    The minute you really think about it, the whole argument for a surge or mini-surge instantly slides down a philosophical slippery slope.
    If the war is really about denying terrorists safe havens in ungoverned or poorly governed territory, then why not surge more troops into Yemen, Somalia, Nigeria, Libya, Pakistan (where al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri and Osama bin Laden's son Hamza bin-Laden are believed to be safely ensconced), Iraq, Syria, Chechnya, Dagestan (where one of the Boston Marathon bombers was radicalized), or for that matter Paris or London.  Every one of those places has harbored and/or is harboring terrorists.  Maybe instead of surging yet again in Afghanistan or elsewhere, the real answer is to begin to realize that all the U.S. military in its present mode of operation can do to change that reality is make it worse.  After all, the last 15 years offer a vision of how it continually surges and in the process only creates yet more ungovernable lands and territories. 
    So much of the effort, now as in previous years, rests on an evident desire among military and political types in Washington to wage the war they know, the one their army is built for: battles for terrain, fights that can be tracked and measured on maps, the sort of stuff that staff officers (like me) can display on ever more-complicated PowerPoint slides.  Military men and traditional policymakers are far less comfortable with ideological warfare, the sort of contest where their instinctual proclivity to "do something" is often counterproductive.
    As U.S. Army Field Manual 3-24 -- General David Petraeus' highly touted counterinsurgency "bible" -- wisely opined: "Sometimes doing nothing is the best reaction."  It's high time to follow such advice (even if it's not the advice that Petraeus himself is offering anymore).
    A little foreign policy humility goes a long way toward not heading down that slippery slope.  Why, then, do Americans continue to deceive themselves?  Why do they continue to believe that even 100,000 boys from Indiana and Alabama could alter Afghan society in a way Washington would like?  Or any other foreign land for that matter?
    I suppose some generals and policymakers are just plain gamblers.  But before putting your money on the next Afghan surge, it might be worth flashing back to the limitations, struggles, and sacrifices of just one small unit in one tiny, contested district of southern Afghanistan in 2011...
    Lonely Pashmul
    So, on we walked -- single file, step by treacherous step -- for nearly a year.  Most days things worked out.  Until they didn't.  Unfortunately, some soldiers found bombs the hard way: three dead, dozens wounded, one triple amputee.  So it went and so we kept on going.  Always onward. Ever forward. For America? Afghanistan? Each other? No matter.  And so it seems other Americans will keep on going in 2017, 2018, 2019...
    Lift foot. Hold breath. Step. Exhale.
    Keep walking... to defeat... but together.
    [Note: The views expressed in this article are those of the author, expressed in an unofficial capacity, and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. government.]
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    Major Danny Sjursen is a US Army strategist and former history instructor at West Point. He served tours with reconnaissance units in Iraq and Afghanistan. He has written a memoir and critical analysis of the Iraq War, Ghostriders of Baghdad: Soldiers, Civilians, and the Myth of the Surge. He lives with his wife and four sons near Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 

              Better support for women   
    If you’ve worked in global health, you’ve seen it happening: the steady trickle of smart, talented women out of the field. The 34-year-old fellow whose young marriage comes under strain from long stints in Cambodia. The junior faculty member who … Read More
              Looking For A Cruise With A Difference?   
    Cruise ship companies are continuing to add ships to their fleets and they are also becoming far more imaginative with the cruise itineraries that they are providing. The Caribbean and Mediterranean are still the most popular cruising destinations, but there is now a large range of exiting cruises that are available around the World.

    This article attempts to give you some inspiration on where you should think about taking your next cruise holiday.

    South America can offer a huge range of diverse cruises ranging from a trip up the Amazon to the throbbing cities of Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires as well as offering natural wonders like the Galapagos Islands, Chilean Fjords and the Andes mountains.

    Many of these cruises start from US ports and otherssail from the major South American cities. The majority of cruises to the Antarctica start from Ushuaia in southern Argentina. Several cruise companies including Voyages of Discovery and Hurtigruten offer expedition-style Antarctica cruises.

    Dubai, as well as being a luxury holiday destination is starting to become an established cruise port. Costa Cruises is sailing seven cruise itineraries in 2009 calling at Abu Dhabi, Oman and Bahrain.

    Dubai and other gulf ports often feature on world or repositioning cruises which means you can pick up a cruise bargain by choosing one of these cruises.

    North Africa is well served by many cruise ships that also include the Mediterranean but what about the rest of Africa? Some world cruises sail down the west coast of Africa to Cape Town, as an alternative to cruising through the Suez Canal in Egypt.

    Cruising the west coast means that you can visit countries such as Senegal, Gambia and Namibia as well as the Cape Verde Islands and St Helena. In southern and eastern Africa some cruise lines offer departures from Cape Town and also the Kenyan holiday resort of Mombasa.

    Silversea Cruises offers several trips from these ports which call at destinations such as Zanzibar, Madagascar and Assumption Island. Hebridean International Cruises and Voyages of Discovery are also featuring cruises around this region.

    Cruises to Alaska are still as popular as ever. These cruisese start from Seattle or Vancouver and make their way up the Inside Passage taking in some of the worlds most spectacular scenery. NCL, Princess and Royal Caribbean are just some of the cruise lines offering Alaskan cruises, which can also be combined with a land tour.

    The Baltic is the second most popular cruise region in the European summer season. A Baltic cruise would visit the stunning cities of St Peterburg, Stockholm and Tallinn, whilst of course Norway offers the incredible Fjords, the midnight sun and The Northern Lights. Hurtigruten is famed for its coastal voyages around Norway.

    The Far East and in particular China has seen a big growth in cruise customers. Many cruises start from Hong Kong and cruise north to China and Japan. Other cruises head south where you will cruise to Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.

    Australia and New Zealand feature on most world cruises by cruise companies such as P&O, Holland America, Princess and Royal Caribbean.

    So, what are you waiting for? Cruising has never been more popular and with the ever increasing choice of both exotic and exploration cruises available there has never been a better time to book a cruise.

    David Brice was writing on behalf of the cruise experts White Rose Cruise

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              The Flute Player   

    After surviving its Killing Fields as a boy, a musician now champions Cambodia's traditional music.

    The post The Flute Player appeared first on Dancehall Usa.


    Here's one I made earlier - a green tiger created by me via computerised photo-manipulation (© Dr Karl Shuker)

    Quoting from a previous ShukerNature blog article of mine (click hereto read it):

    In various of my books, articles, and ShukerNature posts concerning cryptozoological and mythological big cats, I have documented lions of many different hues and shades, including black lions (click here, here, and here), white lions (click here), grey lions, red lions, golden lions, and even an alleged green lion (click here) – but never a blue lion. Blue tigers, yes (click here) – blue lions, no. Until now, that is.

    I then went on to reveal that I had recently discovered some African and Asian legends relating to blue lions that I had never known about before, and I devoted the rest of that blog article to them.

    But why am I reiterating all of this here? The reason is that I now find myself in a comparable situation with tigers. Over the years, I have documented tigers in virtually every conceivable shade and stripe version – blue tigers as already noted, plus black tigers (click here), white tigers (here), golden tigers (here), snow tigers (here), red tigers, brown tigers, double-striped tigers, and even stripeless tigers (all of which are also collectively documented in my books Mystery Cats of the Worldand Cats of Magic, Mythology, and Mystery) – except for one. I had never encountered a report or sighting of a green tiger – until now, that is.

    In an earlier ShukerNature article, I mentioned how correspondent James Nicholls from Perth, Australia, had sent me a fascinating email on 27 June 2017 concerning a hitherto-obscure published account from 1821 concerning giant oil-drinking spiders reputedly inhabiting two of Europe's very notable edifices of worship, an account that almost certainly inspired Bram Stoker to insert a short, comparable account in his classic Gothic novel Dracula(1897). Click here to read on ShukerNature my investigation of this fascinating subject. However, that wasn't the only remarkable piece of information contained in James's email to me.

    It also included a link to a thoroughly extraordinary account on the website Reddit, which had been posted on Christmas Day 2016 by someone with the username AnathemaMaranatha and seemingly of American nationality (judging from their style of grammar and spelling, and various other Reddit posts by them), and consisted of their supposed first-hand eyewitness description of a truly unique mystery cat. It reads as follows: (Or click here to view it in its original format on Reddit.)

    Okay. I saw a green tiger. I wasn't alone.

    We were out towards the Cambodian border in summer of 1969, an American light infantry company of about 100 or so guys. We were operating in flatlands, thick jungle, along a river. (Saigon River? Not sure.) Bright, sunny day.

    We were proceeding single file when point platoon came to a stop, there was some yelling (we were stealthy - yelling is bad) from the point, then point platoon radioed for the Command Post (CP - the company commander and his people) to come up to point.

    When we got there, we found the point team glaring at each other - some kind of tussle. Point and drag were standing in the machine gunner's line of fire glaring at him. The machine gunner had wanted to shoot. Point and drag stopped him. He didn't like that.

    The object of discussion was across a jungle opening maybe 15 meters away, just peeking at us over the elephant grass. It was a bigtiger - biggest I've ever seen, Frank Frazetta-style big, but without the lady.

    Here's the insane part. The tiger was white where a tiger is white and black where a tiger is black, but all the orange parts were a pale green. We all saw it, maybe twenty grunts and me. The machine gunner was arguing that we have to shoot it, because otherwise no one would believe it. He had a point.

    But the rest of us were just awestruck. I mean, it might as well have been an archangel, wings halo and all. I felt an impulse to kneel. I don't think I was alone.

    The tiger stood there checking us out for maybe 15 minutes, not worried, not angry, just a curious cat. Then he turned and disappeared.

    Don't believe me? That's okay. I don't believe it myself. I mean WTF was that? Hallucinogenic elephant grass? Some trick of the light? The tiger walked through some kind of green pollen just before we saw it? No freakin' idea.

    There it is, OP. I don't believe it, and I sawit. Or hallucinated it. Me and all my blues. Make of it what you will. I'm done.

    In fact, this person did make a few additional, minor comments in reply to various responses from other Reddit readers, of which the following one is well worth recording here:

    I apologize for not making clear that the tiger was scaring the shit out of all us. He did NOT look sick or malnourished. He looked like he could be right in the middle of all of us in no time flat. He thought so, too. Didn't seem the least bit scared of us.

    And I guess he wasn't hungry.

    Another of my computer-generated green tigers (© Dr Karl Shuker)

    Not surprisingly, faced with an account from someone claiming to have encountered a green tiger, my initial reaction was to assume that it was just a spoof, a joke, not to be taken seriously. But then I decided to investigate the credentials of the person who had posted it, especially as their account did sound as if it had been written by someone familiar with military action in Vietnam, and I was very intrigued to discover that they had written a number of other, much more mainstream and very detailed accounts on Reddit concerning their alleged time and military service there during the Vietnam War that all seemed entirely authentic (e.g. click here), and had been well-received by Vietnam veterans who would surely spot and soon expose any imposter. Consequently, it seems both reasonable and parsimonious to assume that this person's Vietnam-related testimony is indeed genuine.

    But a green tiger? Really? I noticed that the green tiger account had attracted an interesting response (by someone with the unfortunate username eggshitter):

    It was a bright sunny day right? Is there any chance that there was some murky green pool that reflected the light on to the tiger? Maybe he had just been rolling around in the grass?

    Other, later posters made similar comments. They reminded me of a suggestion that has been put forward in the past concerning the blue tigers of Fujian, China – namely, that perhaps their distinctive fur colouration was simply due to their having rolled in bluish-coloured mud. However, as I have pointed out when responding to this suggestion, if that were true the entire tiger would look blue, whereas eyewitnesses have specifically mentioned seeing their black stripes and pale underparts, which of course would have been obscured if they had rolled in mud. The same logic, therefore, can be applied to the green tiger had it merely been rolling around in grass, or even, perhaps, in an alga-choked jungle pool.

    Conversely, an optical illusion induced by reflected light is certainly possible. Yet bearing in mind the substantial length of time of the observation (15 minutes), and which was made by several different people simultaneously rather than just a single observer, this might initially seem somewhat improbable too.

    On 19 November 2012, however, after having blogged about an alleged green lion seen in Uganda, East Africa (click here), I had received a fascinating response from John Valentini Jr (a Cryptomundo website reader who had seen a link to my article posted there by fellow cryptozoologist Nick Redfern), and which is also directly relevant to this present green tiger conundrum. So here is the summary of John's response that I added as a comment below my green lion blog article:

    One day, while visiting a local zoo, John photographed a lioness, of totally normal colouration, but when he received his negatives and prints back from the developers (i.e. back in the days before digital photography), he was very surprised to discover that in them the lioness was green! She had been walking through an expanse of grass with her body held low when he had photographed her, and at the precise angle that John was photographing her the green light reflecting from the grass had made her look green. (Some grass, noted John, can be around 18-26% reflective.) Having to concentrate keeping his camera focused upon her through only a small viewfinder and thick glass, however, John hadn't noticed this optical effect himself - not until the negatives and prints had subsequently revealed it. Consequently, John speculates that perhaps, if viewed at precisely the correct angle, a similar effect could occur with a lion observed in the wild in decent light conditions but with plenty of green foliage around it, and that this may explain the Ugandan prospector's claimed sighting of a green lion.

    Needless to say, I am delighted that John documented his extraordinary photographic experience on Cryptomundo in response to the link to this ShukerNature article of mine, as it may indeed offer a very plausible, rational explanation for the alleged green lion of Uganda - but one so remarkable that I would never even have thought of it, had John not posted it - so many thanks, John, once again!

    Yes indeed, and it may also offer an equally plausible, rational explanation for the alleged green tiger of Vietnam – always assuming, of course, that the report is genuine. And there, at least for now, is where this most intriguing case rests, currently unproven but undeniably curious.

    Of course, despite having bewailed the fact that I had never previously encountered anything about green tigers, there is one undoubted exception…of sorts. And that exception, as cartoon and super-hero fans everywhere are no doubt only too ready and waiting to remind me, is of course a certain golden-striped green tiger named Cringer – the very large but also very cowardly feline companion of Prince Adam, aka He-Man, in the very popular Masters of the Universe cartoon TV series (1983-1985) produced by Filmation (and also in the later movie starring Dolph Lundgren). Of course, when He-Man points his sword towards Cringer and fires an energy beam at him, Cringer redeems himself by transforming (albeit reluctantly) into his even bigger and now totally fearless, ferocious alter-ego felid called Battle Cat.

    Two views of my original 1983 model of Cringer/Battle Cat (© Dr Karl Shuker)

    As far as I am aware, however, neither as Cringer nor as Battle Cat has this green-furred tigerine celebrity ever paid a visit to Vietnam…

    Finally: just in case anyone is confused by this ShukerNature article's main title, it is a play on the title of a traditional English folk song, 'Green Grow The Rushes, O', which was also often used with children as a counting song (and should not be confused, incidentally, with the similarly-titled song 'Green Grow The Rushes' by Robert Burns).

    I am extremely grateful to James Nicholls for very kindly bringing this apparent eyewitness report of a green tiger to my attention.

    My two books on mystery cats (© Dr Karl Shuker)

              កម្មវិធី​ទូរទស្សន៍​អាស៊ីសេរី​សម្រាប់​ថ្ងៃទី៣០ ខែ​មិថុនា ​ឆ្នាំ២០១៧   

    កម្មវិធី​ទូរទស្សន៍​អាស៊ីសេរី​សម្រាប់​ថ្ងៃទី៣០ ខែ​មិថុនា ​ឆ្នាំ២០១៧ ជាវប្រចាំ: គេហទំព័រ: ផ្ញើ​ព័ត៌មាន​មក​យើង: ជំនួយ​សម្រាប់​ការប្រើ ផតឃែស្ថ សោនខ្លៅ ហ្វេសប៊ុក ធ្វីទ័រ ប្រព័ន្ធ​ប្រតិបត្តិ​ការ​អេនឌ្រោយ ប្រព័ន្ធ​ប្រតិបត្តិការ​អាយ​អូស​អេស

    The post កម្មវិធី​ទូរទស្សន៍​អាស៊ីសេរី​សម្រាប់​ថ្ងៃទី៣០ ខែ​មិថុនា ​ឆ្នាំ២០១៧ appeared first on ខេមបូភេគ - ទំព័រព៌តមានកម្ពូជា​ - ពត៌មានសំបូរបែបសម្រាប់អ្នក.


    ​សាលាឧទ្ធរណ៍​ច្រាន​ចោល​បណ្ដឹង​​មេធាវី​បក្ស​ប្រឆាំង​ ជាវប្រចាំ: គេហទំព័រ: ផ្ញើ​ព័ត៌មាន​មក​យើង: ជំនួយ​សម្រាប់​ការប្រើ ផតឃែស្ថ សោនខ្លៅ ហ្វេសប៊ុក ធ្វីទ័រ ប្រព័ន្ធ​ប្រតិបត្តិ​ការ​អេនឌ្រោយ ប្រព័ន្ធ​ប្រតិបត្តិការ​អាយ​អូស​អេស

    The post ​សាលាឧទ្ធរណ៍​ច្រាន​ចោល​បណ្ដឹង​​មេធាវី​បក្ស​ប្រឆាំង​ appeared first on ខេមបូភេគ - ទំព័រព៌តមានកម្ពូជា​ - ពត៌មានសំបូរបែបសម្រាប់អ្នក.

              ​បក្ស​កាន់​អំណាច​ព្រមាន​មន្ត្រី​សិទ្ធិ​មនុស្ស​ដែល​ទើប​ត្រូវដោះ​លែង ​   

    ​បក្ស​កាន់​អំណាច​ព្រមាន​មន្ត្រី​សិទ្ធិ​មនុស្ស​ដែល​ទើប​ត្រូវដោះ​លែង ​ ជាវប្រចាំ: គេហទំព័រ: ផ្ញើ​ព័ត៌មាន​មក​យើង: ជំនួយ​សម្រាប់​ការប្រើ ផតឃែស្ថ សោនខ្លៅ ហ្វេសប៊ុក ធ្វីទ័រ ប្រព័ន្ធ​ប្រតិបត្តិ​ការ​អេនឌ្រោយ ប្រព័ន្ធ​ប្រតិបត្តិការ​អាយ​អូស​អេស

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    អាដ​ហុក​ធ្វើ​ពិធី​សូត្រ​មន្ត​លើក​រាសី​មន្ត្រី​៤រូប ជាវប្រចាំ: គេហទំព័រ: ផ្ញើ​ព័ត៌មាន​មក​យើង: ជំនួយ​សម្រាប់​ការប្រើ ផតឃែស្ថ សោនខ្លៅ ហ្វេសប៊ុក ធ្វីទ័រ ប្រព័ន្ធ​ប្រតិបត្តិ​ការ​អេនឌ្រោយ ប្រព័ន្ធ​ប្រតិបត្តិការ​អាយ​អូស​អេស

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    ​សហគមន៍​​ដីធ្លី​បន្ត​ធ្វើ​យុទ្ធនាការ​ថ្ងៃ​ចន្ទ​ពណ៌ខ្មៅ​ ជាវប្រចាំ: គេហទំព័រ: ផ្ញើ​ព័ត៌មាន​មក​យើង: ជំនួយ​សម្រាប់​ការប្រើ ផតឃែស្ថ សោនខ្លៅ ហ្វេសប៊ុក ធ្វីទ័រ ប្រព័ន្ធ​ប្រតិបត្តិ​ការ​អេនឌ្រោយ ប្រព័ន្ធ​ប្រតិបត្តិការ​អាយ​អូស​អេស

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              ដាណឺម៉ាក​ផ្ដល់​ជំនួយ​១លានដុល្លារ​ បណ្ដុះ​បណ្ដាល​កសិករ   

    ដាណឺម៉ាក​ផ្ដល់​ជំនួយ​១លានដុល្លារ​ បណ្ដុះ​បណ្ដាល​កសិករ ជាវប្រចាំ: គេហទំព័រ: ផ្ញើ​ព័ត៌មាន​មក​យើង: ជំនួយ​សម្រាប់​ការប្រើ ផតឃែស្ថ សោនខ្លៅ ហ្វេសប៊ុក ធ្វីទ័រ ប្រព័ន្ធ​ប្រតិបត្តិ​ការ​អេនឌ្រោយ ប្រព័ន្ធ​ប្រតិបត្តិការ​អាយ​អូស​អេស

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              Kampot Sunday roasts   

    The Sunday roast, an English staple, has found a home away from home here with the many expats in Kampot. Not one, not two, but three different restaurants fire up their ovens to bring that warm, comforting goodness every weekend. … Continue reading

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              Home Page   

    Welcome To The Kingdom Of Cambodia

    Your Dreams Can Become Reality In Cambodia

    Cambodian Guide Services

    Enjoy learning the history and viewing the many wonders of Cambodia with an experienced guide, fluent in English and Thai.
    Hi ! I am Mr. Sowanna Yun. I have been hosting guests to our country for over 10 years, and would enjoy sharing our cultural riches with you and your friends. Let me begin by providing some information about our country in the "Temple" and "Cambodia" webpage selections. Welcome your call or email with questions and I am happy to assist with trip planning.
    Enjoy my introduction to Cambodia and thrill its unique wonders that are an easy email, call and plane trip away. Your guide to Cambodia,
    Mr. Sowanna Yun.
    More Info.

    Special thanks to KI-MEDIA NEWS who posted my website on the information.
    Mr. Sowanna Yun, English and Thai speaking guide in Siem Reap - Angkor - Cambodia. Tel:+ 855-12768193, 012768193

    Address : H# 0241, Group 07, Chong Kao Sou village, Slar Kram Commune,Siem Reap town, Siem Reap Province.

              Transport & Guide Services   
    Cambodian Guide Services

    Hi. to all our friendly Readers, We are very pleased that you have taken the time to read about our private transport services. Please send me any inquiries you might have. We will be only to happy to reply and give you any information on Cambodia that you require. Come and immerse yourself in the experience that is Cambodia .

    1. Private Transport with A/C Car

    2. Private Transport with A/C Mini van ( 8,12 , 15 seat )

    3. Bus Services ( 25,35, and 45 seat )

    4. Official Tour Guide

    - Know when prices drop on the trips you want

    - Please find A Great Deal from Cambodian Guide Services.

    - Official Tour Guide - English & Thai Speaking

    1. Half Day Tour : US$ 15 per day per group

    2. Full Day Tour : US$ 30 per day per group

    3. Extra charge for Sunrise : US$ 5 per group

    Please Note: Taxi or moto drivers are not allowed to guide tourists in the Angkor Park. If you need a guide; these must be booked in advance as none are available within the Temples. The cost of a fully licensed guide as descriptions.
    We recommend that you use our quality services. No money required in advance. Cambodia is becoming a very popular tourist destination to avoid disappointment and delays. Book with our reliable and professional guides.

    If you need other languages, please send me a query.

    Different Languages

    1 - Chinese Speaking Guide

    2 - German Speaking Guide

    3 - French Speaking Guide

    4 - Russian Speaking Guide

    5 - Spainish Speaking Guide
    Private Transport Services

    - Airport, Ferry boat,Bus station pick up & Transfer Services

    1.- Car 4 Seats

    - US$ 7 per car

    2.- Van 8 ,12 and 15 Seats

    - US$ 10 per van

    If you stay in our country more days , free pick up and transfer

    - Classical Tour Angkor Areas.

    Half Day Tour by A/C car 4 seat : US$ 15 per car

    Full Day Tour by A/C car 4 seat : US$ 30 per car

    - A/C Minin Van : 8, 12 and 15 Seat : US$ 40 per group

    Our best transport and Guide services deals

    Pick up from and Transfer to any destination you require.

    - Pick Up From Siem Reap International Airport

    - Pick up from Cambodian - Thai border

    - Pick up from Cambodian - Vietnamese border

    - Pick up from Phnom Penh Airport and visit one or more days in Phnom Penh and come to Siem Reap - Angkor. etc

    Please contact us @ : . I will reply to you within 24 hours. Please give us one week notice or more than one week.

    We can offer you a special price.
    Transport + Guides
              Suggested Itineraries all our friendly readers,we are very pleased that you have taken the time to read about our Example Tour Programs. This itinerary is flexible and may be adjusted to suit your requirements.
    Sowanna`s email :

    The Archaeological Park is open from 4.30 am to 5.30 pm everyday. Visitors can purchase entrance tickets for :
    - One day pass : US$ 20 per person.
    - Two or Three day pass : US$ 40 per person.
    - One week pass : US$ 60 per person.
    Visitors must take a photo to stick on ticket.

    Tour Itineraries Planning

    Group of Rolous temples

    - Preah Ko temple

    - Bakong temple

    - Lolei temple

    - Prei Monti temple

    - Angkor Wat temple is the largest Hindu temple in the world

    In and Around Angkor Thom city

    1. Phnom Backheng temple
    2. Backsei temple
    3. Prasat Bei temple
    4. South Gate of former Angkor Thom
    5. Bayon temple is the center of former Angkor Thom
    6. Baphuon temple
    7. Phimeanakas temple and Former Royal Palace
    8. Preah Palilay temple
    9. Elephant & Leper King Terraces
    10. Group of Preah Pithu temples
    11. Group of Prasat Sour Prat temples
    12. East , East-north , West and North Gates of Angkor Thom city,

    Small Tour Planning

    1. Kravan temple
    2. Bat Chum temple
    3. Banteay Kdei temple
    4. Thomonun & Chao Saydevoda temple
    5. Sras Srang terrace and pool
    6. Takeo temple
    7. Taprohm temple

    Grand Tour

    1. Pre Rup temple
    2. East Mebon temple
    3. Tasom temple
    4. Neak Pean temple
    5. Preah Khan temple

    Remote AttractionTour

    1. Bantaey Samre temple
    2. Phnom Bok temple
    3. Chao Srei Vibol temple
    Another Remote Attraction site
    1. Banteay Srei temple
    2. Kbal Spean mountain resort
    3. Holy Kulen Mountain resort

    Please send me any inquiries, I will give you a special Tour Itinerary. I will reply to you within 24 hours. Please do not hesitate to contact us :

    Please give us one week notice or more than one week. Less than one week We will not accept any booking.

              Sightseeing & Activities   

    Sightseeing and Activities In and Around Siem Reap - Angkor.

    Local Markets
    1. Psa Leu Market
    2. Samakee Market
    3. Old Market
    4. Central Market
    5. Angkor Night Market
    What to buy
    - Temple Rubbings
    - Statues and Carvings
    - Silver betel Containers
    - Cambodian Silk
    - Gems and Jewelries
    - Artisan of Angkor
    Angkor Silk Farm ( The rebirth of Angkor Art )
    It is located along the road No. 6 in Puok District. Entrance and guided tours are free of charge. Open daily from 8.00am until 5.00pm.
    Angkor National Museum
    In Siem Reap - Angkor has just recently opened and features the Angkor National Museum itself + a cultural Mall and shops. The Museum `s 8 main galleries contain original artifacts restored by Angkor Conservation and a collection of 1.000 Buddha statues.
    Other galleries focus on ancient clothing styles, the four principal kings of Angkor, the extant written materials from the Angkor temples, history and religion of Pre-Angkor period. Innovative mixed-media displays tell the story of the Angkor civilization and multi-lingual tour guides and audio units are also available.
    This Museum is located on the road to Angkor Wat. Entrance Fee : US$12 for foreigners. Open 8.30am until 9.00pm.
    1. Mine Museum
    2. Cambodian Cultural Village
    3. War Museum
    4. Balloon Rides
    5. Elephant Rides
    6. Countryside Tours
    7. Helicopters
    8. Massage and Spa
    There are numerous establishments around town that offer just about every variety of massage. it is also available at some hotels,nightclubs and hairdressers.
    9. Night Club
    - Given the current size of Siem Reap it is surprising and a wide choice of nightclubs.
    Tonle Sap Lake
    Cambodia `s Great lake is the most prominent feature on the map of Cambodia, a huge dumbbells - shaped body of water stretching across the northwest section of the country. In the rainy season, the Tonle Sap Lake is one of the largest freshwater lake in Asia, swelling to an expansive 12,000km2.
    Sunset on the boat of Tonle Sap lake
    Chong Khneas Floating Village

    Among the non - temple related activities in Siem Reap is a visit to the floating village. About three - hour long boat ride to the floating village most recently cost US$ 15 per person if you are less then 10 people. Completed with driver and boat, the boat goes through the floating village and there is an opportunity for you to stop at the small Floating Schools to give notebooks , pen , pencil and other materials to school children.etc
    Freshwater snake at Tonle Sap Lake
    Snakes will be barbecued
    Kompong Pluk Floating Village
    Kampong Pluk is one of the three Floating Villages of the bank along the Tonle Sap lake. The stilted house built within the floodplain of the lake about 16 kms Southeast of Siem Reap town. It is a stilted house and it is a beautiful rather than Chong Kneas Floating Village. The houses are stilted to around 6 meters in heigh. You can go to visit this Kampong Pluk every year on September until January.
    Prek Toal Bird Sanctuary/Area
    Prek Toal is an area of the Tonle Sap lake who reserved as Biosphere. The Biosphere covers 31,282 hectares at the Northwest tip of Tonle Sap lake and it has many species of the large waterbirds such as : Black - headed Ibis, Painted Stork, Milky Stork, Spot - billed Pelican, Grey - headed fish Eagle and many more species. Prek Toal is the most accessible from Siem Reap and the most beautiful bird area. You can go to visit Bird Area in between November and January every year but the best time to visit there on December.

              Hotel Services   
    Cambodian Guide Services

    Siem Reap - Angkor has an ever-growing number of hotel and guesthouse rooms, and a variety that is wide enough satisfy all tastes and requirements. There are now several three star , four star and five star hotels in Siem Reap town, especially along the airport road and Angkor road and old market areas.Less expensive mid-range rooms with A/C, Cable TV and hot water are available in a variety of styles and looks and begins at around US$30 or US$60 but average US$60 - US$120. More expensive usually means newer, more stylish rooms and more hotel services. Budget guesthouse,usually Khmer family-run, cost US$15 - US$25 per night. Dozens of budget places are scattered across town.

    If you are interested in the hotels and Guesthouse, please send me a query .We are very pleased to reply to all of your Questions and Queries within 24 hours. All budgets can be caterd for. We look forward to seeing you soon. I will act as your agent in package holiday/Tours in Siem Reap - Angkor and Phnom Penh city. If you wish to , Please contact us with your requirements.

    Welcome To The Kingdom Of Cambodia

    Your Dreams Can Become Reality In Cambodia

    Cambodian Guide Services

    Finding a Trustworthy Guide in Cambodia

    My latest trip to Cambodia was an absolute pleasure, and many thanks goes to my Cambodian Guide, Mr. Sowanna Yun ( ). "Wanna" speaks Khmer, Thai and English. He is very knowledgeable about the history of Cambodia and Angkor Wat, as well as all of the ruins throughout the region. Wanna arranged every aspect of our recent trip, and it went off without a hitch. I found him to be honest and helpful, and he went out of his way to make our trip the best it could be. I now consider him a friend and can't wait until our next trip there in 2009. Wanna has already started planning that trip for us, and I can't wait to reunite with him for another great adventure.
    More Info.

    Sowanna is a very professional, very reliable guide, and a very good person too. He knows everything about Cambodia and Angkor temples. My trip was flawless. Strongly recommended!
    Igor Bakman

    More Info :

    Special thanks to Igorb Bakman came from Israel who pick up our services in Cambodia and posted many pictures of our country. May the God bless you and family to meet all happiness and longevity.

    Special Thanks to YUN WANNA, our guide for great services provided and making our trip unforgettable experience. Our greatest recommendation!!!

    More Info. :

    Hi Sowanna,Yes. I restarted my job. My wife made plenty of photos, as you know. Currently she is working on a huge entry in her internet blog describing our travel in detail. You can see this entry on, tag "cambodia". It is all in Russian, though, but you will see a lot of pictures there. She mentioned you couple of times in a very positive way, and mentioned that you "can't survive in Phnom Penh without a guide" (meaning you):))). She has not finished yet.Our trip on July 23rd was fine, bus was on time. We spent couple of hours in museum and then ate at a restaurant near Sisowath queue.I have very pleasant memories of Cambodia and will recommend you to my friends if somebody decides to go to your country. Maybe i'll come to your country again sometime. So, let's keep in touch.Good luck to you and your family,Dmitry and Nadia.

    Special thanks to Dmitry & Nadia who came from Russian and used our pick up services in Cambodia from 15 - 23 July 2009 in Phnom Penh city, Takeo province, Phnom Chiso & Tonle Bati temples and came to Siem Reap Angkor and Preah Vihear temple. May the Lord Buddha bless you and family to meet all happiness and longevity.
    Написав несколько писем, я узнал, что на сайте можно узнать все подробности о стране, о памятниках архитектуры, древних храмах, религии и истории, а также о стоимости гостинниц и дополнительных услугах. Так как моя поездка была ограничена во времени, было принято решение воспользоваться услугами этого гида и автомобилем с водителем. Кстати, Если вы едете компанией, например 4-8 человек, то тогда можно заказать микроавтобус с водителем, а если больше - не вопрос забронировать большой автобус на группу. При этом стоимость в расчёте на одного человека будет совсем смешной.

    More Info. :

    Special thanks to Pavel and Regina who used our pick up services in Cambodia and posted many pictures of Cambodia.


    Wanna - The Greatest Tour Guide in Cambodia
    Kelly recommended this tour guide to me 3 weeks before we left for Cambodia.
    After few correspondences with him via email, WANNA (aka Yun Wanna) officially became our tour guide for the temple visiting.
    I wonder if it is due to the female-dominant culture or the mindset of a traditional Cambodian, he was surprised when he found out it was a She (instead of a Guy) who sent him the emails during our first meet up in Le Tigre De Papie
    He guided us for 4 days, including the trip to Angkor City (3-days), Beng Mealea temple and Tonle Sap Lake. Besides telling good legends, he is good in taking photographs, he knows which angle or poses are the best to potray the magnificent view of the tourist spots.
    To be frank, I have never meet any impressive tour guide in my life. Wanna is the first who change my stereotype on a tour guide. I remember how he guided us along the journey, I respect his professionalism and passion into his guiding job, I remember how he cheered me up on the second day of the temple visiting, I remember how he called me 'philip, philip...' throughout the journey...WANNA, we appreaciate all your efforts.
    As a tour guide, you have done a great job. You are the best companion of our trip!! Some says:"When the going gets tough, the tough gets going", YES!! The challenges and the hardships that we encountered and passed through along the journey will defnitely become one of the utmost traveling in our life!!

    More Info. :

    Dear Mr. Wanna, Our trip to Cambodia was amazing. We learned so much about your country, both past and present, in just three short days. It felt like we were in another world, one so rich with history, both glorious and spiritual, yet a recent history so incredibly painful. Irene and I both felt a great deal of respect for you, Mr. Bunto and the Cambodian people for how you and your country are pulling themsleves out of a difficult time and making the best of the great things you have: your temples, your forests and lakes, your culture and most of all, the beauty of the people from deep within. I would like to thank you and Mr. Bunto for all of the incredible knowledge you shared with us, but also your personal stories, your opinions and your observations. Thank you for not only helping to give us a great tourist experience, but also a great human experience. Visiting Cambodia was the highlight of our two week Songkran holiday. Thank you for sharing your life, your history and your culture with us.
    Again, thank you for making our trip so rich. Maryan Cerina
    Special thanks to Maryan Cerina and Irene Brinkman came from Canada who used our pick up services in Cambodia ( 16 - 18 April 2009 ) and donated moneys to our Angkor Homestay Volunteer Teachers Organization ( Free English Education for children in rural areas) amount US$40 and 100 Canada moneys.
    May the God bless you and family to meet all happiness and longevity
    Dear Sowanna,
    It is now almost one year since I visited your wonderful country. You were my eyes and my ears and introduced me to everything Cambodia has to offer to the western tourist.
    You were a kind and extremely knowledgeable guide and I had a wonderful time in your country. I have shown my photographs to many friends here and all have been very impressed. Obviously the Anghor Wat sites impressed but, more than that, some of the shots we have of the real people of Cambodia, their life by the river, etc have had a big effect on my friends.
    I will be very happy to return to Cambodia in the next few years. It is a tourist destination without compare and I plan to return soon. Needless to say, when I do return, you will be my guide.
    Kindest regards,
    John Butterworth

    Special thanks to John Butterworth came from Portugal who used our pick up services in Cambodia. May the God bless you and family to have a happiness and longevity.

    Dear Sowanna, Here are some photos as promised. We have a very nice collection of photos from the trip and some good memories. We like to thank you very much for a great and safe trip through the Angkor Wat temple area. Clear explanation, flexible tour scheme, professional attitude, reliable up on appointments. You did a great job, both as a guide and private photographer. Kind regards, Marloes
    Special thanks to Marloes de Saegher and family came from Holland who used our pick up services in Cambodia on 21st - 23 May 2009. May the Lord Buddha bless you and family to meet all happiness and longevity.
    Dear Sowanna,
    “Thanks Sowanna for the good visit during these 3 days ! You respect all our wishes, with nice optimization of the visit.
    We sincerely appreciate your explanation on all history, with good sence of humor.
    We wish you all the best for you and your family
    Best regards
    Annick Deschamps
    Planning & Logistic Apparel & Accessories
    Salomon S.A. – SOFTGOODS Logistics
    74996 Annecy Cedex 9, France
    Tel. +33 4 50 65 44 88, fax +33 4 50 65 45 97.

    Special thanks to Annick Deschamps and friends came from France who used our pick up services in Cambodia - Angkor. May the God bless you and family to meet all happiness and longevity.
    I and my group (altogether 5 women) spent 5 days in Cambodia. We arranged our program in advance with Sowanna and he booked for us an excellent hotel as we agreed on it. Our trip was excellent and memorable thank to our guide to Sowanna. He’s a very talented, experienced guide so we could rely on him every time.
    He’s very flexible and accomplised all of our wishes. For example On the way to Beng Melea – to a distant but a very interesting and intact place – we realized in a village that a wedding ceremony was held and as we were interested Sowanna arranged for us to participate ont he ceremony and to take photos there. These was a magical moment for us.
    He knows well every monument and buildings he could show us the best places for taking photos. He could show us the most interesting places among the historical places and int he villages too.
    Our bus was always very clean and we got cool fresh water every day in the bus during the trip. He took us restaurants where we could ate safe and healthy food. It’s also very important.
    So, I could recommend to everybody to take their visit to Cambodia with Sowanna. If anybody need any information about him or about our travel, please feel free to write me: or
    Dear Sowanna, I hope you are satisfied with my testimony. I wish you all the best and good luck in your job and private life too.
    Best regards,
    Hi Sowanna,
    We had a great time in Cambodia and then went to Vietnam for several days. I am now back in the U.S. and have attached some of the group pictures per your request.
    Thank you for doing such a great job at sharing your beautiful country with us. The people we met were so friendly and I highly recommend that everyone experience the rich culture and learn from the history that Cambodia has to offer. We enjoyed your stories and will recommend your services to our friends.
    Best wishes,

    Special thanks to Ms. Parul and friends who used our pick up services in Cambodia on 11 - 16 May 2009. May the Lord Buddha bless all of you and family to meet all happiness and longevity.
    Dear sowanna
    Happy to see your email ...we all arrived here safely and was sharing our expereince with all my freinds here in singapore ..a good time.
    Same time..happy to see that you have a new group coming to visit cambodia next week and same time you will be taking them around...Keep up the good work...

    Myself will definitely recommend my friends/colleague to you as a "guide" for their future trip,...

    Byeee for now...kusum...

    Special thanks to Jitendra Bhilare and family who used our pick up services in Cambodia on 11 - 14 June 2009.
    Hi Sowanna,
    Nice to see your mail. Our trip was great. I really liked cambodia very much; more than temples I like people of cambodia..nice simple and innocent..We had great time with u and visiting took very well care of us.
    I will surely post u some pics this weekend I am currently very busy with work so couldnt get time to upload pictures....I would like to be part of helping people of cambodia in all the way I can so whenever you see some opportunity where in can be of any help please do let me know.Looking forward to see you again soon.

    Special thanks to Ruchirdhar Dwivedi and friends who used our pick up services on 28 - 31 May 2009 in Cambodia.
    Dear Mr. Wanna, Our trip to Cambodia was amazing. We learned so much about your country, both past and present, in just three short days. It felt like we were in another world, one so rich with history, both glorious and spiritual, yet a recent history so incredibly painful. Irene and I both felt a great deal of respect for you, Mr. Bunto and the Cambodian people for how you and your country are pulling themsleves out of a difficult time and making the best of the great things you have: your temples, your forests and lakes, your culture and most of all, the beauty of the people from deep within. I would like to thank you and Mr. Bunto for all of the incredible knowledge you shared with us, but also your personal stories, your opinions and your observations. Thank you for not only helping to give us a great tourist experience, but also a great human experience. Visiting Cambodia was the highlight of our two week Songkran holiday. Thank you for sharing your life, your history and your culture with us.
    Again, thank you for making our trip so rich. Maryan Cerina
    Special thanks to Maryan Cerina and Irene Brinkman came from Canada who used our pick up services in Cambodia ( 16 - 18 April 2009 ) and donated moneys to our Angkor Homestay Volunteer Teachers Organization ( Free English Education for children in rural areas) amount US$40 and 100 Canada moneys.
    May the God bless you and family to meet all happiness and longevity.
    Hello Sowanna,
    Natalie and Hayden are extremely thankful to their guide and driver for making their first trip to Cambodia one of the best holidays they have ever been on. The guide was able to be flexible with our requests and adapt his speed to our requirements. The driver was always there and ready with a lovely cold bottle of water. The guide and driver were always on time, efficient, friendly. It could not have been better and we love Cambodia . Cant wait to come back and we will certainly contact Sowanna again when we do.
    Kind regards,
    Special thanks to Natalie and Hayden ( ) came from Singapore who used our pick up services in Cambodia on 14 - 16 March 2009. May God bless you and family to meet all happiness and longevity.
    Hello Mr Wanna

    Thank you so much for your emails. The trip my sister and I had with you in Cambodia is one I will never forget. I have attached a nice photo for you.
    Do you remember that I bought a musical instrument from a vendor? It is made of wood and is played with a bow. Do you know the name of it? I just can't remember. Anyway, thank you again for a wonderful trip, and I hope we see you again sometime.

    Irene Brinkman
    Hi. Wanna,Just wanted to send you a quick email to let you know that I had agreat time on the visit two weeks ago. We really enjoyed your tour ofSiem Reap and the Angkor temples. In particular, it was great to hearyour perspective on Cambodia's history and its relations with yourneighboring countries. Cambodia has survived some incrediblechallenges, and it sounds like there are more to come.I'd love to stay in touch -- best of luck in the future.Jason Bhardwaj
    More Info.

              Introduction To Cambodia   

    Welcome To the Kingdom of Cambodia

    - Land areas : 181,035 square kilometer`s that border with the countries of Thailand, Lao and Vietnam.
    - Capital city : Phnom Penh
    - Population : Over 14 million in 2008
    - Official language : Khmer
    - Second language : English and French
    - Religion : Buddhism : 90 percent
    - Cambodian currency : Riel
    - Measurement : Metric system
    - Time : GMT + 7 hours
    - Electricity : High voltage 220v/50hz
    - Country code : 855
    Prepared by Mr. Sowanna Yun, English and Thai speaking guide in Siem Reap - Angkor - Cambodia. E-mail :

    Getting Into Cambodia

    As long as your passport has not expired, Cambodian visa can be obtained at Arrival in Siem Reap Airport, Phnom Penh Airport and border crossing checkpoint with Thailand, Vietnam and Loas. The price of a Cambodian Visa is US$ 20 can use 30 days in Cambodia.

    Direct flight to Siem Reap - Angkor
    Cambodia Angkor is a joint venture between Cambodia and Vietnam Airlines.More Info.

    Bus Services
    Bus travel is now the most popular means of overland transport between Phnom Penh and Siem Reap. The road (National Route #6) is paved and smooth and there are several regularly scheduled daily buses in both directions, taking only 5 or 6 hours to make the trip.
    This Mini Van is not my services
    A thousand chicken were transported to market

    River Ferry
    Daily ferries runs on the Tonle Sap river and lake between Phnom Penh and Siem Reap and Battambang province. The end of the trip is marked by a hill, Phnom Krom, near the ferry dockyard at Chong Khneas 12 km south of Siem Reap. During the dry season when the water is low, the ferry stops short of the dockyard and passengers transfer to smaller boats to traverse the final few hundred meters.

    International Overland Border Crossings
    One of the border crossings at Poi Pet : Thai - Cambodian border checkpoint.
    Cambodia shares overland border crossings with Thailand at Poipet, Koh Kong, O'smach, Pailin, Kam Reang and Unlung Veng checkpoint. Cambodia shares an overland border crossing with Vietnam at Bavet and Moc Bai checkpoint.Cambodia shares an overland border crossing with Lao country at Voeung Kam checkpoint.
    Banking and Money
    Riels are used as the Cambodian currency. The Riel notes start from 100 and go all the way to 100,000. The notes are as follows:
    100, 200, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000 and 100,000. The Exchange rate is 1 USD = 4,000Riel. US dollars are a widely used currency in Cambodia , but you will need some Cambodian Riels to make small purchases. 500 and 1000 Riels note are the most common and useful denominations. Hotels and most restaurants set prices in US dollars. Some places accept credit cards
    and traveler cheque. Master Card and American Express are coming into wider use. Most businesses charge a 2% to 4% fee to accept credit cards.
    Cambodian country calling country code is 855. International calls run less than $3 per minute. Local calls are 500 Riel/ minute and domestic long distances are $1 per minute. Some of the Internet places offer very inexpensive Internet phone service.
    Materials and Clothes
    Cambodia is a hot country so you do not need to bring winter clothing with you. Wear light, airy, clothing to protect yourself from the sun. The sun can be intense so bring a hat, and sunglasses. Carry an umbrella or raincoat with you during the wet season, wear practical shoes for climbing narrow steps and walking on uneven surfaces. Photographers should prepare for very bright light outdoor and heavily shadowed indoor photography, bring very low and high ASA films, a lens sun shield and a couple of extra batteries.

    Working Hour
    Cambodian offices and others start to open their offices at 7:30AM to 11:30AM. Resting at afternoon to start it again at 14:00PM to 17:00PM closed Saturday afternoon and Sunday. Cambodia standard time is seven hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time. It is in the same time zone as Vietnam , Laos and Thailand .

    The religion governed the concept and execution of all Khmer art and architecture is enhanced by an understanding of the religious beliefs of the Khmers.
    According to belief, when a person died his soul was reincarnated and his spirit became free. The former religious practices, which were adopted in Cambodia at a later date recognized a common belief in rebirth , the idea that one is born again and again in different forms. At the present time, 90% of the
    the Cambodian people are of the Buddhist religion. Hinduism for the most part has gone away.

    Food Facts
    In Cambodia , 90% of the population depends on their own agriculture. Their main source of food is rice, which they grow only once a year. This is only through the rainy season, which starts in May and ends in October. The Cambodian's only grow enough rice to feed 85% of their population with about 2 meals a day. The rice grown is 90% rice paddy and 10% glutinous rice.
    Cambodia has tropical weather, which makes the country very warm and humid. The maximum temperature ranges from 26.5oc to 27.5oc (April is the hottest month) and the minimum temperature ranges from 24oc to 26.5oc (December is the coolest month). These temperatures can vary in mountainous and plateau areas. Because Cambodia 's seasons are affected by monsoons they are not too hot or too cool. In Cambodia , the temperature changes less than 4c, through out the year so it is very suitable for tourists.
    Cambodia has two main seasons:
    Dry season: From November to April, affected by dry wind, which blows from Siberi (Northeast Monsoon).
    Rainy season: From May to October, affected by wind bringing rain, which blows from the sea to the continent (Southwest Monsoon). The two seasons might change a little from year to year and area to area.
    If you want to know more information from our country, Please come and pick up our services. You will not be disappointed in visiting Cambodia. More details with Sowanna Yun, an experienced guide over 10 years in history and culture E-mail :

              Cambodian History   

    Your Dreams Can Become Reality In Cambodia

    The Pre - Angkor Period

    The Kingdom Of Funan

    People Of Indo - China

    At the end of the ice age (c. 12,000BC) the Indo-Chinese region is firstly inhabited by Australoid peoples. The land bridges between Malaya, the Indonesian islands and Australia are submerged. Various population groups migrate through southeast Asia. The Mon-Khmer people gradually settle in the lands which later become the kingdoms of Funan and Chenla and they become the dominant tribes in the area.

    Geography Of Indo - China

    The Indo-Chinese region today comprises the countries of Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand. It is made up of large fertile plains which lies around two rivers, the Mekong and the Tonle Sap. The land is settled by various tribes who develop the independent kingdoms.
    c. 4000BC - AD100 Settlements are formed throughout the Indo-China region. The major cultural influences on the region are from China and India.

    The Kingdom Of Funan

    The area of present - day Cambodia was already inhabited in the 3rd millennium B.C but it was not documented historically until the beginning of the Christian era, where there rose up a kingdom that Chinese chronicles describe as Funan, from the Khmer word Phnom means Mountain. The foundation of Funan may be ascribed to a certain Kaundinya or Hun Tien who , inspired by a dream, presumably went from the India to Kambuja or Cambodia, where he married Soma or Liu Yeh, a local princess who was one of the Nagas, mythical beings that were part dragon ( Neang Neak ).

    The son of Soma and Kaundinya was supposedly the founder of the first Kaundinya dynasty of Funan Empire. In the 5th-century a second Kaundinya arrived from India to revive the Indianized customs that had gone by the wayside, and beginning with King Kaundinya Jayavarman ( c 478 - 514 ) the rulers of Funan became more defined in a historical sense. Vyadhapura, their capital, is considered by some scholars to have stood at the foot of Ba Phnom in Takeo province at present-day. In AD 514 Rudravarman ascended the throne and chose Angkor Borei as his capital, where he probably lived until after AD539. In the most distinguished artistic production in this period is sculpture,which was part of the so-called Phnom Da = Phnom Da Mountain at Takeo province in the present-day. c AD 540 - 600 , named after the sacred rise near Angkor Borei, south of Phnom Penh city at the present day. For the most part the sculpture works, in sandstone, consist of portraits of Vishnu and figures connected to him, since Vishnuism must have been the religion of the sovereigns however. One of the 8 arm Vishnu statues is a good preserved in Phnom Penh museum that took it from Phnom Da temple. Shivaism is documented by numerous Lingas or Lingams, and this period witnessed the first representations of Harihara , half Shiva god and half Vishnu god. However, the architecture and fillets that support the head and arms of the portraits betray the lack of confidence the sculptors had in the stability of their work. The first statues of Buddha make their appearance in this period.

    Chenla or Zhenla and The First Khmer Kingdoms

    The Khmers, who were probably vasals of Funan or Nokor Phnom, came from the upper course of the Menam River and had reached the Mekong River via the Mun River Valley. Their first independent principality developed in the 5th-century, north of Tonle Sap lake: the Chinese accounts call this kingdom Zhenla and also mention the kings Shrutavarman and Shreshthavarman, whose capital Shreshthapura must have been in southern Laos. A major influence on the future history Cambodia was wrought by the Khmer kingdom of Bhavapura, in the area of present-day Kampong Thom province: its most important sovereign, Ishanavarman I, completed the conquest of Funan in AD 612 - 628 and chose Sambo Prei Kuk as his capital, renaming it Ishanapura in the center of Cambodia at the present-day. After some turmoil, Jayavarman I regained control of the kingdom in 657, but upon his death after the year 700 the kingdom broke up into numerous principalities, among which there emerged that of Shambhupura capital on the the Mekong River whose ruler King Pushkaraksha proclaimed himself king of all Kambuja in 716. According to the Chinese chronicles,in the early 8th century there were two Chenlas, a land Zhenla or upper Chenla and a water Chenla or lower Chenla : the former was united and centered around the ancient territories of Chenla, while the latter consisted of several in the area that once constituted Funan. The son of king Pushkarakasha, Shambhuvarman, and his heir, Rajendravarman I, maintained control over most of lower Chenla up to the end of the 8th center, when the Malayans and Javanese gained dominion over many Khmer prrincipalities. Artistic styles are ascribed to this period, the first of which , the Sambor Prei Kuk ( 600 - 650 ) , was named after the capital of Bhavapura, north of Kampong Thom province and ( 160 km ) southeast of Angkor Wat temple at the present-day. The foundation for future Khmer architecture in Angkor.

    The Angkor Period

    The Center Of The Khmer Empire or Kambuja Empire

    AD802 - 1431
    After the many wars, Lower Chenla and Upper Chenla, King Jayavarman II united the Kambuja. The 9th century witnessed the rise of Angkor art and architectures. The history of the capital - Nagara in Sanskrit, from which the Khmer word Nokor, Thai word Nakorn, France and English words Angkor derived - began with the grandiose consecration ritual of King Jayavarman II ( 790 - 850 ) in 802 on the holy Kulen Mountain to celebrate the independence of Kambuja or Cambodia from Javanese army occupation. That year marked the inauguration of the cult of Devaraja, the `God King` who was the terrestrial ruler with universal power.


    Prepared by
    Sowanna Yun , English and Thai Speaking Guide in Cambodia

    A Short History Of The Khmer Ruling Kings In Angkor Empire

    Ruler Dates The Reign

    1. Jayavarman II c790 - 850 The founder of the Khmer Empire at mount Mahendra in the Kulen Mount. Later moved the capital to Hariharalaya.

    2. Jayavarman III c 850 - 877 Built the laterite pyramid of Prei Monti and Trapeang Phong temple.

    3. Indravarman I c 877 - 889 Succeeded probably by force. Built Bakong temple in sanstone, Preah Ko temple and Intratataka Baray = reservoir.

    4. Yasovarman I c 889 - 915 Son of Indravarman I moved the capital city from Hariharalaya to Angkor ( Yasodharapura ). Built Lolei temple at Hariharalaya, then at Angkor built Phnom Bakheng temple, Prasat Bei temple, Thma Bay Kaek, Phnom Krom, Phnom Bok temples and East Baray = East reservoir.

    5. Harshavarman I c 915 - 923 Succeeded to the throne very young: little known. Built Baksei Chamkrong temple and Kravan temple.

    6. Isanavarman II c 923 - 928 Very little known about this short reign. No building known.

    7. Jayavarman IV c 928 - 941 Revolted against his nephew Harshavarman II in 921: moved the capital to Koh Ker and built a hundred temples there.

    8. Harshavarman II c 941 - 944 Successor at Koh Ker

    9. Rajendravarman II c 944 - 968 Moved the city back to Angkor. Successful war against the Chams. Built East Mebon temple, Pre Rup temple, Bat Chum temple, Kutisvara temple and the beginning of Banteay Srei temple and added to others.

    10. Jayavarman V c 968 - 1001 Succeeded to the throne as child, a peaceful reign. Built Takeo temple and continue to build Banteay Srei temple with his counsellors and added to others.

    11. Udayadityavarman I c 1001 - 1002 A period of troubles and revolt.

    12. Jayaviravarman c 1002 - 1010 Competes with Suryavarman I for the throne during a 9 - year struggle, but defeated. Built North Khleang temple and added to others.

    13. Suryavarman I c 1002 - 1050 Tooke the throne by force, becoming undisputed ruler by 1010. Expanded the empire to the north and west. Built South Khleang, Phimeanakas temples, Royal palace in the Angkor Thom city, West Baray, Preah Vihear and Phnom Chiso temples and added to others.

    14. Udayadityavarman II c 1050 - 1066 More revolts, Expanded the empire further west. Continued to build the West Baray from his father, built the Baphuon and west Mebon temples and added to others.

    15. Harshavarman III c 1066 - 1080 Devastation from the previous reign`s troubles and a new war with Chams prevented new buildings.

    16. Jayavarman VI c 1081 - 1107 First King from the Mahidharapura dynasty, his authority probably recognised only in the north.

    17. Dharanindravarman I c 1107 - 1112 Younger brother of Jayavarman VI . Killed by Suryavarman II who disputed the throne.

    18. Suryavarman II c 1113 - 1150 Ambitious, war-like and a great builder. Expanded the empire , fought the Dai Viet, Chams, Mons, and built Angkor Wat temple, Banteay Samre temple, Beng Mealea temple, Thommanon and Chau Say Tevoda temple and added to others in Thailand.

    19. Yasovarman II c 1150 - 1165 Chosen to succeeded because the heir was fighting in Champa. Killed by a usurper. No new building but continued work at Chau Say Tevoda, Banteay Samre and Beng Mealea temples. Added tower to Bakong temple.

    20. Tribhuvanadityavarman c 1165 - 1177 Usurper, killed during the 1177, Chams invasion and burned the Yasodharapura - Angkor.

    21. Jayavarman VII c 1180 - 1220 Legitimate heir of Dharanindravarman II. Expelled the Cham army. The last great Khmer king, a fervent Buddhist and builder on the largest scale. Preah Khan Kampong Svay temple, Tonle Bati temple, Taprohm temple, Preah Khan temple, Neak Pean temple, Ta Som temple, Ta Nei temple, Prasat Chrung temples, Angkor Thom city, Elephant & Leper King Terraces, Krol Ko temple, Banteay Kdei temple, Banteay Thom temple, Banteay Prei temple, Preah Pithu group temple, Preah Palilay temple, Jayatataka Baray and added to others in Thailand nowadays.

    22. Indravarman II c 1220 - 1243 Begginnings of the decline of the empire. Champa abandoned, Sukhothai independent. Built Prasat Suor Prat, 12 temples. Thai had started to create the kingdom.

    23. Jayavarman VIII c 1243 - 1296 Empire continued to dimish; Lopburi having to submit to Kublai Khan. Shivaite resurgence. Built Mangalartha or Prasat Top temples along the way of victory gate of Angkor Thom and probably restored Preah Palilay temple. Mangalartha is probably the last temple in Angkor Empire.

    More information , Please come and pick up our services. You will not be disappointed in visiting Cambodia. More details with Sowanna Yun, an experienced guide over 10 years in history and culture E-mail :

    24. Srindravarman c 1296 - 1307 The reign and daily life described by Zhou Daguan, the visiting Chinese diplomat. Stopped to build the sandstone building, probably wooden building for holy places.

    25. Srindrajayavarman c 1307 - 1327 Little known about the reign, I will try to find more documents to explain you.

    26. Jayavarmandiparamesvara or Jayavarman Paramesvara c 1327 ? The last king mentioned in inscriptions.

    - In 1328 onward , no inscriptions to tell us as well.

    27. Paramathakemaraja c 1330 - 1353

    28. Hou-eul Na c 1353 - 1371 ? ; Wooden building for holy places.
    - No inscriptions tell us as well in 1371/2 - 1403

    29. Samtac Chao Phaya & Phing Ya c 1404 - 1405

    30. Nippean Bat c 1405 - 1409

    31. Lampong or Lampang Paramaja c 1409 - 1416

    32. Sorijovong or Lambang c 1416 - 1425

    33. Barom Racha c 1425 - 1429

    34. Thommo Soccorach or Dharmasoka c 1429 - 1431

    The Last King Of Angkor Empire ; Ponha Yat or Gam Yat in c 1432, he decided to move his court to Tuol Basan, in the province of Kampong Cham at the present day, on the eastern side of the Mekong river just above the forks. After remaining there only a year, he moved his capital again in c 1434, this time to Krong Chatomuka ( four faces ) at the junction of the Tonle Mekong river.
    Phnom Penh city by King Ponha Yat in c 1433/4

    I will post more information from 802 until 2009 when I am free.
    If you have any information that you feel should be included or not. I would like to hear from you with any suggestions or recommendations. ( Mr. Sowanna Yun : ).

    Mysteries, Legends And Anecdotes

    For hundreds of years, the lost city of Angkor was itself a legend. Cambodian peasants living on the edge of the thick jungle around the Tonle Sap lake reported findings which puzzled the French colonialists who arrived in Indo-China in the 1860s. The peasants said they had found "temples built by gods or by giants." Their stories were casually dismissed as folktales by the pragmatic Europeans. Yet some did believe that there really was a lost city of a Cambodian empire which had once been powerful and wealthy, but had crumbled many years before.Henri Mahout's discovery of the Angkor temples in 1860 opened up this `lost city' to the world.

    The legend became fact and a stream of explorers, historians and archaeologists came to Angkor to explain the meaning of these vast buildings. The earliest of these scholars could not believe that Angkor had been built by the Cambodian people, believing the temples to have been built by another race who had conquered and occupied Cambodia maybe 2,000 years before. Gradually, some of the mysteries were explained, the Sanskrit inscriptions deciphered and the history of Angkor slowly pieced together, mainly by French scholars in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
    Legends still remain. This once great city which had slept for so long still posed many questions.
    The beginning of French involvement in Cambodia is to be found in the eighteenth century under Cambodian King DUANG'S reign in 1840-1859. King Duang sought the French support in an attempt to protect Cambodia and to establish trading. The King saw French Expansion into Vietnam as an opportunity for the king to regain territory that Cambodia had lost to the Vietnam is 21 provinces in the south of Vietnam today, KAMPUCHEA KROM or Lower Cambodia . The French interest in Cambodia deepened with its involvement began to rule and colonial on Cambodia in 1863-1953. And transferred or ceded or cut Cambodian territory ( Kampuchea Krom or Khmer Krom = Lower Cambodia or Lower Khmer to Vietman on June 4, 1949 ) When they withdraw their troop from Asia without discussing with Cambodian King. This below is Lower Cambodian Map. More Info.:
    Under Update

              How To Speak Khmer   
    Welcome TO Khmer Language Study

    Cambodian Guide Services is pleased to bring you a Khmer Language Guide.
    Your Dreams Can Become Reality In Cambodia

    - Joom Reab Soou our friendly readers. I am very pleased that you have taken the time to learn some Khmer or Cambodian languages before you will come to visit our country. I think that it is very important for you who have intended to visit Cambodia - Angkor in the short future coming. Most of the our Khmer nation can not speak English in the whole country. I would like you to notice some sentences before you will arrive in Cambodia because I had experienced with my client at the end of 1992 AD during the United Nations sent his personnel ( 13,000 soldiers and over 7,000 civil servants and police officers ) to arrange an Election in Cambodia because of our country was just finished the war.
    One day, I brought a UN officer to visit Angkor Areas on Saturday and Sunday by my Motorcycle but I could not speak English. I had have only a Angkor Map. If he wanted to visit any temple that needed it. He had always pointed his finger to the temple picture on the map. But, when he finished the trip in one temple, He traveled with me on the Motorcycle and he told me : Toilet ! Toilet ! Toilet ! Toilet !. I thought that Toilet ! Toilet ! Toilet is the name of the temple so I pressed the speed of the Motorcycle and drove it fast and fast,sudenly. He held my arm to stop the Motorcycle and then He ran into the forest. When he came back from the forest. He laughed all the times. He was not angry to me. When he finished the trips with me in 2 day visiting. He talked with me a lots but I did not understand his speaking. I took my 2 fingers up ( v ) and then he gave me $200 but my idea is only $20 for Two day trips. I was very happy to receive $200 from him. His $200 to make me to be a guide in Cambodia and can speak 3 foreign languages. As English , Thai and Spanish is under study. Khmer language is our mother tongue.
    I would like to announce and find him if he can read my website . Please write me @ and I will bring your family - is free for Transport and Guide around Cambodia.
    If someone have known him as his home town , country and Email, or got hearing from his speaking at the end of 1992 and write him and He has written me. I will offer you as follows :
    Siem Reap - Angkor
    1- 4 Star hotel room in one Deluxe twin room for 2 nights.
    2 - Transport + English Speaking Guide for 3 day visiting. But food and other Entrance Fees will be paid by your own or you will travel with his family is free around Cambodia.
    Short Event of Cambodian History
    - In 1970 - 1975 : Civil War ( Pol Pot army and Lon Nol army ).
    - In 1975 - 1979 : Pol Pot regime ( ruling ) did not permit Cambodian people to learn their own alphabet. No school
    - In 1979 - 1991 : Vietnamese regime ( occupied ) did not permit Cambodian people to learn English. I think that maybe United States dropped a lot of bomb in Vietnam.

    Sowanna is an owner / operator of offered the food and bottle water to a Buddhist monk along the way to the holy Kulen mountain.



    English Language AND Khmer Language (Latin alphabet)

    - Good Morning - Ah Run Soou Sdei

    - Good Afternoon - Ti Via Soou Sdei

    - Good Evening - Say Yaon Soou Sdei

    - Good Night - Reat Trei Soou Sdei

    - Hello - Joom Reab Soou

    - Hi. - Soou Sdei

    - How do you do ? - Joom Reap Soou.
    Please notice : Joom Reab Soou is a polite word in Khmer language and you can take the 2 arms to respect. You can speak in all the time. Joom Reab Soou is for young people to older or high ranks. Soou Sdei is for equal age, you can speak in all the time.


    - I - K`nyom
    - You - Niak
    - We - Yeung
    - She - Nieng
    - He - Koutt
    - His - Roh Bos Kutt
    - Her - Roh Bos Nieng
    - Our - Roh Bos Yeung
    - Your - Roh Bos Niak
    - My - Roh Bos K`nyom
    - Yes - Batt is for men
    - Yes - Jah is for women

    - Can you speak English.? = Teuh Niak Ahj Ni Yia Orng K`lehs Bahn Teh.?
    - I can not speak Khmer. = K`nyom Meun Ahj Ni Yia Khmer Bahn Teh.
    - Please speak more slowly. = Som Meh Tah Ni Yia Yuet !!!
    - I do not understand = K`nyom Meun Yooul Teh.
    - I do not know = K`nyom Meun Dueng Teh or k`nyom Meun Sah Kul Teh.
    - Please write it down for me. = Som Sor Seh Owy K`nyom Bon Tehch
    - Thank you - Or-Kun
    - No = Teh
    - No thank you - Teh Or-Kun
    - How are you -Niak Sok Sah bay Jee Teh?
    - I am fine, thanks - K`nyom Sok Sah Bay Jee Teh Or-Kun
    - Excuse me,please - Som Tohs
    - Sorry - Som Tohs
    - Pardon - Som Tohs
    - You are welcome - Meun Ai Teh
    - Never mind - Meun Ai Teh
    - Goodbye - Lia Seun Haeay
    - I lost my way - K`nyom Vung Veng Plouv
    - Can you tell me the directions.? = Teuh Niak Ahj Prab K`nyom Tues Dahv Bahn Teh.?
    - See you later - Jooup K`nia Pehl Krowy
    - How old are you -Niak Ah Yu Pon Mahn?
    - I am .... year old - K`nyom Ah Yu ......
    - What is your name - Niak Chhmu Aiy
    - My name is ........ - K`nyom Chhmu ...
    I am very pleased to see you = K`nyom Reak Reay Nah Bahn Juop Niak.
    - Nice to see you = Reak Reay Nah Bahn Joup Niak.


    - Go straight = Touv Trohng
    - On the left = Nouv Khahng Cha Vehng
    - On the right = Nouv Khahng Cha Dahm
    - Go back = Troh Lohp Kruey


    - Waiter/Waitress - Niak Bom Raeo
    - I want to eat Khmer Food = K`nyom Jong Nhahm Ah-Hah Khmer
    - Give - Owy
    - Menu List - Bahnh Ji: Muk Ma Hoap
    - Water - Teuk
    - Ice - Teuk Kork
    - Rice - Bahy Sor
    - Cake - Nom
    - Cigarette - Bah Rei
    - Fried Rice - Bay Chhah
    - Beer - Srah Beer or Bi Yia
    - Beef - Sahch Ko
    - Pork - Sahch J`ruk
    - Chicken - Sahch Mornn
    - Fish - Trei
    - Fry - Jian or Chhah
    - Fried chicken - Sahch Mohnn Jian
    - Fried Rice with pork . - Bahy Chhah Jia Moouy Sahch J`ruk.
    - Fried vegetable with .... - Chhah Bon Leh Jia Moouy..
    - Barbecue - Ahng or Dutt
    - Barbecued beef - Sahch Ko Ahng
    - Fish Sauce - Teuk Trei
    - Salt - Om Bil
    - Sugar - S`kor
    - Soup - Som Lor Sup
    - Chili - Ma`tehs
    - Coconut - Dohng
    - Banana - Jehk
    - No Spicy - Kom Owy Hel
    - Not too spicy. Ok? - Kom Owy Hel Payk Ok?
    - Is it very spicy? - Via Hel Payk Teh Reu.?
    - I can not eat spicy food - K`nyom Meun Ahj Nhahm Ah Hah Hel Bahn Teh
    - Delicious - Ch`Nganh Nah
    - Bottle - Dorp
    - One - Moouy
    - Two - Pi
    - Three - Bai
    - Four - Buon
    - Five - Brahm
    - One bottle of water - Teuk Moouy Dorp
    - I need a table,please - K`nyom Trouv Kah Tok Moouy
    - What would you recommend? - Niak Owy Yoh Bol Bon Tech Bahn Teh?
    - I need a seafood - K`nyom Trouv Kah Ah Hah Sah Mot
    - It is better you order for me. - Niak Hao Owy K`nyom Via Pro Saeo Jieng.
    - Do you have ..... ? - Niak Mian ....... Teh ?
    - I would like ........ - K`nyom Jong Bahn ..........
    - I can eat Khmer food. - K`nyom Ahj Nhahm Ah Hah Khmer Bahn.
    - Could I have a glass of water,please.? - Meh Tah Som Teuk Moouy Keo Mohk.?
    - Just a cup of coffee,please. - Meh Tah Som Kah Feh Moouy Peing Mohk.
    - I do not order this. - K`nyom Meun Bahn Hao Ah Hah Ni Teh.
    - May we have some more.? - Som Theim Tiat Bahn Teh.?
    - Khmer food is marvelous! - Ma Hoap Khmer Peut Jia Os Jah Nah.
    - Restroom - Bon Tub Teuk
    - Toilet - Bong Kun
    - Plate - Jahn
    - Bowl - Jahn Koum
    - Spoon - Slahb Prea
    - Glass - Keo
    - One glass of water - Teuk Moouy Keo
    - Fork - Sorm
    - Chopstick - Jong Keus
    - Knife - Kahm Beut
    - Check bill, please - Som Kit Luy
    - Can we have the bill, please. - Som Meh Tah Kit Luy
    - Receipt - Bahn Kit Luy
    - Need - Trouv Kah
    - I need ..... - K`nyom Trouv Kah ....
    - I need to go ..... - K`nyom Trouv Kah Touv ....
    - How much it cost.? - Thalai or Thlai Pon Mahn?
    - Can you discount - Niak Jus Thlai Bahn Teh ?
    - Very Expensive - Thlai Nah


    - Bamboo shoots = Tum Paing
    Bean sprouts = Sorn Dehk Bon Dous
    - Cabbage = Sah Pai Kah Dowp
    = Chili = Mah Tehs
    - Cucumber = Troh Sork
    - Garlic = Khah Teum
    - Ginger = Kha Nhei
    - Pumpkin = La Peuv
    - Pepper = Mah Rehch
    - Mushroom = Pha Seht
    - Onion = Khah Teum Bah Rahng
    - Spring green = Khaht Nah
    - Corn = Phout
    - Tomato = Peing Pohs
    - Banana = Jehk
    - Cashew = Sah Vahy Chann Ti.
    - Coconut = Doung
    - Durian = Tu Rehn
    - Grapefruit = Krouch Thlohng
    - Guava = Troh Behk
    - Jackfruit = Kah Nul or Knul
    - Longan = P`Laeh Mean
    - Mangosteen = P`laeh Mah Khut
    - lychee = P`laeh Kulehn
    - Mango = P`laeh Sah Vay or Svay
    - Orange = P`laeh Krouch
    - Palm fruit = P`laeh Tha Noht
    - Papaya = P`laeh Lah Hung
    - Pineapple = P`laeh Mah Noes
    - Watermelon = P`laeh Euv Leok
    - Rambutan = Sahv Mahv


    - Wine = Srah
    Grape wine = SrahTum Paing Bahy Joou
    - Fruit juice = Teuk P`laeh Chheu Kroh Louk
    - coconut juice = Teuk Doung Kroh Louk
    - Lime juice = Teuk Krouch Chhmar
    - Orange juice = Teuk Krouch
    - Tea with ice = Taeh Teuk Kok
    I would like tea with ice = Som Taeh Teuk Kok


    The popular breakfast for Cambodian People such as :
    - Chinese noodle = Kuy Teav
    - Fried rice with chicken = Bahy Meon Jian
    - Grilled pork with rice = Bahy Sahck Jah Rouk Ahng
    - Fried noodle with pork = Mi Chah Sahck Jah Rouk
    - Fried noodle with beef = Mi Chah Sahch Ko
    - Khmer noodle with Khmer soup = Nom Bahnh Chork Sam Lor Khmer
    - Hot coffee with milk = Kah Feh Kah Dav Teuk Dohs Ko
    - Black coffee with ice = Kah Feh Kah Mahv Teuk Kork
    - Coffee with milk and ice = Kah Feh Teuk Dohs Ko Teuk Kork
    - Coffee with ice = Kah Feh Teuk Kork

    Will be added it more when I am free

    - US Dollars are a widely used currency in Cambodia,but you should get some Cambodian Banknote currency ( Riel ) to make a small purchase. please read it in Cambodia services.

    - Moouy dollar ( $1)
    - Pi dollar ( $2)
    - Bai dollar ( $3) etc.

    - Please notice the important phrases that you need. I am thinking that you are headache with my writings.

    - O - Sohn
    - 1 - Moouy
    - 2 - Pi
    - 3 - Bai
    - 4 - Booun
    - 5 - Prahm
    - 6 - Prahm Moouy
    - 7 - Prahm Pi
    - 8 - Prahm Bai
    - 9 - Prahm Booun
    - 10 - Dop
    - 11 = Dop Moouy, 12 = Dop Pi , 13 = Dop Bai , 14 = Dop Booun, 15 = Dop Prahm, 16 = Dop Prahm Moouy, 17 = Dop Prahm Pi, 18 = Dop Prahm Bai, 19 = Dop Prahm Booun.
    - 20 - Ma Pai
    - 21 = Ma Pai Moouy, 22 = Ma Pai Pi, 23 = Ma Pai Bai, 24 = Ma Pai Booun, 25 = Ma Pai Prahm, 26 = Ma Pai Prahm Moouy, 27 = Ma Pai Prahm Pi, 28 = Ma Pai Prahm Bai and 29 = Ma Pai Prahm Booun.
    - 30 - Sahm Seup
    - 31 - Sahm Seup Moouy etc.
    - 40 = Seh Seup. 50 = Hah Seup. 60 = Hohk Seup. 70 = Jeut Seup. 80 = Peht Seup. 90 = Kahv Seup.
    - 100 = Moouy Rohy
    - 101 = Moouy Rohy Moouy. 102 = Moouy Rohy Pi .etc.
    - 110 = Moouy Rohy Dop. 120 = Moouy Rohy Ma Pai. 130 = Moouy Rohy Sahm Seup. etc.
    - 200 = Pi Rohy. 300 = Bai Rohy . 400 = Booun Rohy. 500 = Prahm Rohy. 600 = Prahm Moouy Rohy . 700 = Prahm Pi Rohy. 800 = Prahm Bai Rohy . 900 = Prahm Booun Rohy.
    - 1.000 = Moouy Poan. 2.000 = Pi Poan. 3.000 = Bai Poan. 4.000 = Booun Poan. 5.000 = Prahm Poan. 6.000 = Prahm Moouy Poan. 7.000 = Prahm Pi Poan. 8.000 = Prahm Bai Poan. 9.000 = Prahm Booun Poan.
    - 10.000 = Moouy Meun. 20.000 = Pi Meun. 30.000 = Bai Meun. etc
    - 100.000 = Moouy Sehn. 200.000 = Pi Sehn etc.

    - Plus + = Lehk Bouk .
    - Add = Lehk Bouk
    - Subtract = Lehk Dork
    - Divide = Lehk Jehk
    - Multiply = Lehk Kun
    - Equal = Lehk Sah Meu


    - Time - Pehl
    - Day - Th`ngai or Thah Ngai
    - Night - Yup
    - Noon - Th`ngai Trohng or Thah Ngai Trohng
    - Midnight - Ah Triat
    - Morning - Preuk
    - Afternoon - Roh Sial
    - Evening - Lah Ngiach
    - Dark - Ngor Ngit or Proh Lup
    - Dawn - Proh Leum
    - O`clock - Mohng or Morng
    - Hour - Mohng or Morng
    - 1. PM - Morng 1 Tha Ngai or Morng Moouy Tha Ngai
    - 2.PM - Morng 2 Tha Ngai or Morng Pi Tha Ngai
    - 1. PM - Morng 1 Yup or Morng Moouy Yup
    - 2.PM - Morng 2 Yup or Morng Pi Yup
    - 3.PM - Morng Bai Tha Ngai ( 3 )
    - 3.PM - Morng Bai Yup ( 3 )
    - 4.PM - Morng Booun La Ngiach ( 4 )
    - 4. PM - Morng Booun Jit P`leuh ( 4 )
    - 5. AM - Morng Prahm Preuk ( 5 )
    - 5. PM - Morng Prahm La` Ngiach ( 5 )
    - 6.AM - Morng 6 Preuk or Morng Prahm Moouy Preuk
    - 6.PM - Morng 6 La Ngiach or Morng Prahm Moouy La Ngiach
    - 7 AM - Morng 7 Preuk or Morng Prahm Pi Preuk
    - 7. PM - Morng 7 La Ngiach or Morng Prahm Pi Lah Ngianch
    - 8. AM - Morng 8 Preuk
    - 8.PM - Morng 8 Yup
    - 9.AM - Morng 9 Preuk
    - 9. PM - Morng 9 Yup
    - 10. AM - Morng 10 Preuk
    - 10. PM - Morng 10 Yup
    - 11 . AM - Morng 11 Preuk or Morng Dop Moouy Preuk
    - 11 . PM - Morng 11 Yup or Morng Dop Moouy Yup
    - 12 . PM - Morng 12 Tha Ngai Trohng or Morng Dop Pi Tha Ngia Trohng
    - 12. PM - Morng 12 Yup or Morng Dop Pi Yup.
    - 12. PM - Morng Dop Pi Ah Triat


    - Minute = Nia Ti
    - 1 minute = Moouy Nia Ti
    - 2 minutes = Pi Nia Ti , etc
    - Half = Kon Lahs Morng
    - 1.30 PM = Morng Moouy Kon Lah Tha Ngia
    - 2.30 PM = Morng Pi Kon Lah Tha Ngai
    - 5.30 AM = Morng Prahm Kon Lah Preuk . Etc


    - Sunday = Tha Ngai Ah Tuet
    - Monday = Tha Ngai Jahn
    - Tuesday = Tha Ngai Orng Kia
    - Wednesday = Tha Ngai Put
    - Thursday = Tha Ngai Pro Hous
    - Friday = Tha Ngai Sok
    - Saturday = Tha Ngai Sahv


    - January = Keh Mahk Kah Rah
    - February = Keh Kom Piak
    - March = Keh Mi Nah
    - April = Keh Meh Sah
    - May = Keh Usk Sah Pia
    - June = Keh Mi Toh Nah
    - July = Keh Kah Kah Dah
    - August = Keh Seiy Hah
    - September = Keh Kanh Nhah
    - October = Keh Toh Lah
    - November = Keh Vi Jeh Kah
    - December = Keh Tha Nou


    - Today = Tha Ngai Nis
    - Yesterday = M`seul Menh
    - Tomorrow = Tha Ngai Sah Aehk
    - The day before yesterday = Tha Ngai Ma Seul Minh
    - The day after tomorrow = Tha Ngai Khahn Sah Aehk
    - This week = Ah Teut Nis or Sahp Pah Dah Nis
    - Last week = Ah Teut Mun or Sah Pah Dah Mun
    - Next week = Ah Teut Bon Tup or Sahp Pah Dah Bon Tup
    - This morning = Preuk Nis
    - This afternoon = Roh Sia Nis
    - This evening = Lah Ngiach Nis
    - Tonight = Yup Nis
    - Last night = Yup Menh or Yup Mun
    - Tomorrow morning = Preuk Sa Aehk or Sa Aehk Preuk
    - Tomorrow night = Yup Sa Aehk or Sa Aehk yup
    - Late = Yeut
    - You come late = Niak Mohk Yeut
    - Early = Mun Pehl Kom Noht
    - You come early = Niak Mohk Mun Pehl Kom Noht
    - Soon = Chhahp Chhahp
    - See you soon = Joup Niak Chhahp Chhahp
    - Everyday = Roel Tha Ngai
    - All day = Pehnh Moouy Tha Ngai
    - The next day = Tha Ngai Bon Toeup
    - This year = Ch`nahm Nis
    - Last year = Ch`nahm Mun
    - Next year = Ch`nahm Bon Toeup
    - One year ago = Moouy Ch`nahm Kon Lorng Teuv
    - Two years ago = Pi Ch`nahm Kon Lorng Teuv. etc
    - The beginning of the month = Deum Kheu
    - The end of the month = Jung Kheu
    - The middle of the month = Kon Dahl Kheu


    - Let us go to Cambodia = Toh Yeung Touv Lehng Kam Puchea
    - Let us pick up Sowanna Services = Toh Yeung Yohk Se Vah Kam Sowanna
    - Sowanna Services are the best one = Se Vah Kam Sowanna Keu Lah Lor Nahs.
    - Let us go = Toh Yeung Touv
    - Arrival = Dom Neuh Mohk Dohl
    - Departure = Jehn Dom Neuh
    - Entrance = Pleuv Johl
    - Exit = Pleuv Jenh
    - Information = Poe Ra Mian
    - No entry = Hahm Johl
    - No Smoking = Hahm Joouk Bah Rei
    - Left Luggage = Touk Iv Vahn
    - Reserved = Bom Rong Touk
    - Vacant seat = Kav Aih Tom Neh
    - Taxicab = Tahk Si
    - Ticket = Som Boht
    - Bus ticket = Som Boht Lahn Thom
    - Car ticket = Som Boht Lahn Touch
    - Train ticket = Som Boht Ro Tehs Pleung
    - Air ticket = Som Boht Yun Hohs
    - Motorcycle taxi = Moto Dop
    - I need to go to bus station = K`nyom Trouv Kah Touv Jom Nort Lahn Krong.
    - I need to go to Siem Reap Airport = K`nyom Trouv Kah Touv Pro Lian Yun Horhs Siem Reap.
    - I need to go to Phnom Penh airport = K`nyom Trouv Kah Touv Pro Lian Yun Hohs Phnom Penh.
    - I need to go to Soriya bus station = K`nyom Touv Kah Trouv Chom Noht Lahn Krong Soriya.
    - I need to go to Chong Kao Soou Bus station = K`nyom Trouv Kah Touv Chom Noht Lahn Krong Chong Kao Soou.
    - I need to go to ...... = K`nyom Trouv Kah Trouv ......
    - I want to go to ....... = K`nyom Jong Trouv .........
    - passenger = Niak Dom Neu
    - Driver = Niak Beuk Bor
    - Bus = Lahn Krong
    - Boat = Touk
    - Seat = Kav Aih
    - Station = Sa Thahn Ni
    - Dockyard / Quary = Kom Pong Peh
    - Lake = Beoung
    - River = Steung
    - Siem Reap river = Steung Siem Reap
    - River = Ton Leh
    - Mekong river = Ton Leh Mekong
    - Sea = Sah Mot
    - Sea port = Kom Pong Peh Sa Moht
    - What time does the bus leave.? = Teuh Mohng Pon Mahn Lahn Jenh.?
    - Where can I buy a ticket.? = Teuh Kon Lehng Nah K`nyom Ahch Tinh Som Buht Bahn.?
    - Which buses will it go to ...? = Lahn Nah Moouy Touv.?
    - What time does it arrive.? = Mohng Pon Mahn Via Mohk Dohl.?
    - Would you tell me when do we get to.? = Teuh Niak Prahp K`nyom Bahn Teh Pehl Nah Yeung Touv Dohl.?
    - Is it very far.? = Chhah Ngay Nahs Reu.?
    - Is it near.? = Jit Reu.?
    - I want to buy bus , boat and air ticket = K`nyom Jong Tinh Som Boht , Lahn Krong , Som Boht Touk Neung Som Boht Yun Hohs.
    - Sorry, I do not go = Som Tohs K`nyom Meun Touv Teh.
    - Do you know ...? = Teuh Niak S`Kul ...?
    - Do you know her.? = Teuh Niak S`kul Nieng Teh.?
    - Do you know this place.? = Teuh Niak S`kul Kon Lehng Nis Teh.?
    - When do we arrive in .. ? = Peh Nah Yeung Touv Dol ..?
    - What station is this.? = Nis Jia Sah Thahn Ni Aiy.?
    - Stop = Chhup
    - How long will we stop at ..? = Bon Mian Tiat Yeung Chhup Neuv Aeh ..?
    - Is this seat free.? = Kao Aiy Nis Tum Neh Teh.?
    - Could you help me with my luggage,please.? = Joouy Yohk Aiy Vahn Owy K`nyom Bahn Teh.?
    - I would like to reserve a seat. = K`nyom Trouv Kah Kohk Kon Lehng.
    - How long does it take to get ..? = Teuh Peh Nah Touv Dohl ... ?
    - Waiting room = Bon Tup Roong Jahm
    - Lost property = Baht Aiy Vahn
    - Return ticket = Som Boht Tro lop Vinh
    - Reserved seat = Kok Kao Aiy Tuk
    - Single ticket = Som Boht Touv
    - Ticket office = Kon Lehng Loouk Som Boht
    - Get in = Johl K`nohng
    - Get out = Jehng Krouv
    - Guardsman = Niak Yiam
    - How much a single / return ticket to ..,please? = Som Boht Touv Mohk Tha Lai Pon Mahn.?
    - Timetable = Kahl Vi Piak
    - I would like to rent .. = K`nyom Jong Juol ...
    - To rent = Juol
    - Bicycle = Kohng
    - Motorcycle = Moto
    - Car = Lahn Touch
    - How long will it take.? = Teuh Via Preuh Pehl Pon Mahn.?
    - Where can I park.? = Teuh K`nyom Ahj Jort Aeh Nah Bahn.?
    - Can I park here,please.? = Som Jort Ti Nis Bahn Teh.?
    - I would like some gasoline = K`nyom Trouv Kah Sahng. ( Moouy Lit or ..)
    - I would like some drinks = K`nyom Trouv Kah Peht Tro Jiak.
    - I will leave tomorrow = K`nyom Neung Jah Jehng Tha Ngai Ahs Aehk.


    - Airconditioner = Mah Sin Tro Jiak
    - Fan = Kohng Hahl
    - Airconditioned room = Bon Tup Mah Sin Tro Jiak
    - Hotel = Sohn Thah Kia
    - Manager = Niak Krup Krohng
    - Guesthouse = P`tahs Som Nahk
    - Room = Bon Tup
    - Single room = Bon Tup Kreh Moouy
    - Twin room = Bon Tup Kreh Pi
    - Triple room = Bon Tup Kreh Bai
    - Double room = Bon Tup Kreh Thom Moouy
    - Breakfast = Ah Hah Pehl Preuk
    - Coffee shop = Hahng Kah Feh
    - Bedroom = Bon Tup Dehk
    - Swimming pool = Ahng Hehl Teuk
    - I would like a single room with fan = K`nyom Trouv Kah Bon Tup Moouy Mian Kohng Hahl.
    - I would like a single room with airconditioning = K`nyom Trouv Kah Bon Tup Moouy Mian Mah Sin Tro Jiak.
    - I have a reservation = K`nyom Bahn Kohk Bon Tup Heuy.
    - What is your room rate per night.? = Teuh Thlai Bon Tup Moouy Yup Pon Mahn.?
    - I would like a room for 3 nights = K`nyom Trouv Kah Bon Tup Moouy Sam Rahp Bai Yup.
    - Do you have any vacancy room.? = Teuh Niak Mian Bon Tup Tum Neh Teh.?
    - I would like a double room with fan. K`nyom Trouv Kah Bon Tup Kreh Thom Moouy.
    - I would like a twin room = K`nyom Trouv Kah Bon Tup Kreh Pi.
    - I would like a triple room = K`nyom Trouv Kah Bon Tup Moouy Kreh Bai.
    - How long will you stay.? = Teuh Niak S`nahk Nouv Bon Mahn Yup Deh.?
    - I do not know yet. = K`nyom Meun Tohn Deung Teh.
    - Can I see your room,please.? = Teuh Owy K`nyom Meul Bon Tup Bahn Teh.?
    - Please call me at 5 o`clock morning = Som Meh Tah Tu Rah Sahp Mohk K`nyom Nouv Mohng Prahm Preuk.
    - To see Sunrise = Touv Meul Tha Ngai Raehs
    - To see Sunset = Touv Meul Tha Ngai Lehj
    - I will be back at 7 o`clock morning = K`nyom Neung Mohk Vinh Nouv Mohng Prahm Pi Preuk.
    - My room number .... = Bon Tup K`nyom Leh ....
    - Would you wake me up at ... o`clock,please. = Som Meh Tah Dah k`nyom Nouv Mohng ....
    - Could you get me a taxi.? = Som Meh Tah Joouy Hahv Taxi Owy K`nyom Porng.
    - I will leave tomorrow = K`nyom Neung Jahk Jehnh Tha Ngai Sah Aehk.


    - Riel is official currency of Cambodia.
    Hotels , Guesthouses and Restaurants accept both US dollar and Riel.
    Please note : Money = Luy or Prahk
    - Bank = Thia Nia Kia
    - Bank note = Thia Nia Kia Bahn
    - Change = Pah Doh or P`doh
    - Change the money = Pah Doh Luy
    - I want to change the money. = K`nyom Som P`doh Luy.
    - US dollar to Riel = Pi US dollar Touv Riel.
    - I need to change $10. = K`nyom Som Doh Dop Dollars
    - Cheque = Saehk
    - Counter = Niak Kit Luy
    - Count = Rohp
    - Count your money,please. = Som Rohp Luy Niak
    - please check your cash. = Som Pi Nit Luy Niak
    - Please give me a small cash = Som Meh Ta Owy K`nyom Kro Dahs Touch
    - It is not enough. = Via Meun Kroup Teh
    - Collection = Kah Pro Mohl
    - Your cash is torn = Luy Niak Roh Hehk
    - May I have another one.? = Som Meh Ta Owy Pa Sehng Tiat Bahn Teh.?
    - I have not taken it yet. = K`nyom Meun Touhn Yohk Teh.
    - I do not receive yet. = K`nyom Meun Touhn Tou Tuoh Teh.
    - Deposit = Pa Nheu Luy
    I would like to deposit = K`nyom Som Pa Nheu Luy
    - Exchange rate = Ah Trah P`dohl Luy
    - What is the exchange rate for US dollar.? = Teuh Aht Trah Pah Dol Luy Pon Mahn Deh Sam Rahp Dollar.
    - How much is one dollar to your currency.? = Teuh Moouy Dollar Sa Meu Pon Mahn Touv Luy Niak.?
    - Form = Baehp Boht
    - I would like you to bring me to change the moneys. K`nyom Som Niak Joun K`nyom Touv Doh Luy.
    - Where is the bank.? = Thia Nia Kia Nouv Aeh Nah.?
    - Can you bring to ..? = Teuh Niak Nohm K`nyom Touv Bahn Teuh.?
    - I have only US dollar. K`nyom Mian Teh Dollar.
    - How many US dollar to Riel.? = Luy Dollar Pon Mahn Deh Touv Riel.?
    - I need Cambodian Riel. = K`nyom Trouv Kah Prahk Riel


    - Post office = Prei Sa Ni
    - Letter = Sam Boht
    - Letter box = Pro Orp Sam Boht
    - Postcard = Kaht Pos Sa Kahl
    - Postman = Niak Rout Sam Boht
    - Package/Parcel = Kahnh Johp
    - Stamp = Sah Tehm
    - Telegram = Tu Rah Lehk
    - I would like 1 stamp = K`nyom Trouv Kah Sah Tehm Moouy.
    - I want to send this parcel to .. = K`nyom Som Pa Nheu Kahn Johp Ni Touv ...
    - How long does it take to ...? = Teuh Via Preu Pehl Pon Mahn Touv Dohl ...?



    - Call = Hahv
    - Can you call to Sowanna.? Teuh Niak Hahv Touv Sowanna Bahn Teh.?
    - His phone number is 012 768 193.
    - Do you know his number.? = Teuh Niak Sah Kul Lehk Koutt Teh.?
    - Do you know Sowanna number.? = Teuh Niak Sah Kul Lehk Sowanna Teh.?
    - Code = Lehk Koht
    - Dial = Juch Lehk
    - International call = Hahv Lehk Krahv Pro Tehs.
    - Local call = Hahv Lehk K`nong Pro Tehs.
    - Mobile phone = Tu Ra Sahp Dai
    - Telephone number = Lehk Tu Rah Sahp
    - Phone card = Kaht Tu Rah Sahp
    - Receiver = Niak Tou Tuol
    - Telephone = Tu Rah Sahp
    - Wrong number = Khohs Lehk.



    - Hospital = Mun Ti Peht
    - Clinic = Klin Nik
    - Health = Sok Kha Pheap
    - Pharmacy = Kohn Lehng Luk Tha Nahm Peit.
    - Chemist = Toup Luk Tha Nahm Peit.
    - Drug store. = Orv Sout Tha Thahn
    - I need to buy medicine = K`nyom Trouv Kah Tinh Tha Nahm Peht.
    - Can you bring me to chemist.? = Som Niak Joouy Nohm K`nyom Touv Kon Lehng Luk Tha Nahm Peit Bahn Teh.?
    - Where is the chemist.? = Teuh Kon Lehng Luk Tha Nahm Peit Nouv Aeh Nah.?
    - Doctor = Krouh Peit
    - Hello , Doctor = Jooum Reab Soou Krouh Peit.
    - Do you have this medicine.? = Teuh Niak Mean Tha Nahm Nis Teh.?
    - I need medicine .... = K`nyom Trouv Kah Tha Nahm ....
    - Accident = Krous Tha Nahk
    - Ambulance = Lahn Peht
    - Bandage = Bong Rum Roh Buos
    - Do you have a bandage.? = Teuh Niak Mian Bong Rum Roh Buos teh.?
    - Could you find it for me.? = Teuh Niak Joouy Rok Owy K`nyom Bahn Moouy Bahn Teh.?
    - Bite = Khahm
    - Help me , the dog bite me = Joouy K`nyom Porng Cha Kheh Khahm K`nyom.
    - Insect = Saht Ro Eit
    - Blood = Chhiam
    - Blood donor = Bo Richa Chhiam
    - Burn = Roh Liak
    - Cancer = Rouk Mo Hah Rik
    - Chest = Deum Troung
    - Cold = Pah Dah Sahy
    - Dizzy = Veul Muk
    - I do not go to visit today. K`nyom Meun Bahn Touv Deu Lehng Teh Tha Ngai Nis.
    - I am dizzy = K`nyom Veul Muk.
    - Fever = Krun Kah Dahv
    - Headache = Chheuh Kbal
    - I want to go back = K`nyom Trouv Kah Troh Lohp Touv Vinh.
    I am headache = K`nyom Chhueh Kbal
    - Heart = Behs Doung
    - Heart attack = Kiang Behs Doung
    - He has heart attack = Koutt Mian Jum Ngeuh Kaing Behs Doung.
    - Ill = Jum Ngeu
    - Itch = Rouk Roh Mohs
    - Scratch = Roh Mohs
    - Malaria = Rouk Krun Chahnh.
    - Massage = Tha Veu Sorh Sai.
    - I want to go to massage place. = K`nyom Trouv Kah Touv Kohn Lehng Tha Veu Sorh Sai.
    - Nurse = Kilian Nup Pah Tah Yikah
    - Operation = Kah Vias Kaht
    - Pregnant = Mian Pah Tei Puohs.
    - Sore throat = Chheu Bom Pung Korh.
    - Sprain = Krij
    - Sting = Tik
    - The bee sting me = Khah Mum Tik K`nyom.
    - Stomach = Poous
    - Stomach ache = Chheu Poous
    - Temperature = Sei Tohn Hahk Pheap
    - Toothache = Chheu Tha Mehng
    - Traditional doctor = Kru Peht Borahn
    - Traditional Medicine = Tha Nahm Borahn.
    - Vomit = Kah Uot
    - I want to vomit = K`nyom Jong Kah Uot.
    - I have a pain in ... = K`nyom Chheu Trorng Kon Lehng ....
    - I do not feel well. = K`nyom Meun Sruol Khah Luon.
    - I feel sick = K`nyom Mian Ah Rom Tha Chheu.
    - I feel dizzy = K`nyom Mian Ah Rom Tha Veul Muk
    - It hurts here. = Via Chheu Trong Nis.
    - It is a sharp pain. = Via Chhue Khah Laing Nahs.
    - It is very painful. = Via Chhue Nahs
    - It hurts all the time. = Via Chhue Kroup Pehl Taing Orhs.
    - It only hurts now and then. = Via Chhue Ma Dohng Ma Kahl.
    - I normally take a medicine ... = K`nyom Jia Tham Ma Dah Leip Tha Nahm ...
    - I have a toothache. = K`nyom Chhue Tha Minh.


    - Market. = Psah
    - Supermarket. = Psah Thom or Psah Tum Neup
    - Bookshop. = Bahn Nah Kia.
    - Buy. = Tinh
    - Sale = Kah loouk
    - Sell = Loouk
    - Could you sell it to me a cheap price.? = Teuh Niak Jahch Loouk Owy K`nyom Dom Thlai Tork Bahn Teh.?
    - I want to buy ... = K`nyom Trouv Kah Tinh.
    - Cheap. = Torhk
    - Price = Tha Lai
    - It is very cheap. = Via Torhk Nah.
    - Department store. = Psah Tum Neup
    - Gold = Meas
    - Fashion = Mout Dehl
    - Ladies`s wear = Sam Leak Bom Piak Sah-trei.
    - Menswear = Sam Leak Bom Piak Boh Rohs.
    - Receipt = Bahn Kit Luy
    - Shoe shop = Toub Loouk Sah Behk Chheung
    - Go shopping = Touv Tinh Iy Vahn
    - Special offer = Loouk Joun Pi Sehs
    - Spend = Jom Nahy
    Tailor = Cheang Kaht Sam Liak Bom Piak
    - I would like to buy .. = K`nyom Trouv Kah Tinh ..
    - Do you have ..? = Teuh Niak Mian ... ?
    - How much is this.? = Teuh Tha Lai Pon Mahn.?
    - Do you have any more of these. = Teuh Niak Mian Ro Bohs Nis Tiat Teh.?
    - I would like to change this,please. = K`nyom Som Douh Ah Nis Vinh.
    - Have you anything cheaper.? = Teuh Niak Mian Ro Bohs Thorhk Jiang Nis Teh.?
    - Have you anything larger.? = Teuh Niak Mian Ro Bos Thom Jiang Nis Teh.?
    - Have you anything smaller.? = Teuh Niak Mian Ro Bos Touch Jiang Nis Teh.?
    - Could you wrap it for me.? = Som Joouy Khah Chorhp Owy K`nyom Porhng.
    - Can I try it on.? = K`nyom Som Sahk Via Bahn Teh.?
    - Where do I pay.? = K`nyom Bong Luy Neuv Aeh Nah.?
    - Can I have a refund.? = Som Douh Vinh Bahn Teh.?
    - I am just looking. = K`nyom Kreun Teh Meul Teh.
    - I will come back later. = K`nyom Neung Troh Lohp Mohk Vinh.
    - Could you lower the price.? = Som Jous Tha Lai Bahn Teh.?



    - Hairdresser = Jiang Kaht Sohk ( Srei ).
    Barber = Jiang Kaht Sohk ( Pros ).
    - Beard = Puhk Johng Kah
    - I want to shave my beard.= K`nyom Trouv Kah Kow Puhk Mowt.
    - Brush = Jah Rahs or Joouk
    - Blow dry = Pah Lom Sam Nguot
    - Comb = Krahs Seht Sohk
    - Hair = Sohk
    - Haircut = Kaht Sohk
    - Long = Vehng
    Short = Kah Lei
    - Moustache = Puhk Moht
    - Shampoo = Sah Bouh Kok Sohk
    - Just a trim, please. = Tom Rem Bahn Heuy
    - Not too much off. = Meun Chah Reun Teh.
    - I would like a perm.= K`nyom Joul Chet Sohk Uht.
    - I would like a cut and blow dry. = Som Kaht Heuy Pah Lom Tiat.
    - Please give me a facial.= Som Joouy Tehng Muk Owy K`nyom Phohng.
    - Please give me a manicure.= Som Joouy Tha Veu Kro Chohk Owy K`nyom Phohng.
    - Wash = Leang
    - Wash off = Leang Jehnh.
    - Facial massage = Mahs Sah Muk
    - I would like a hair cut. = K`nyom Trouv Kah Kaht Sohk.
    Sowanna Yun
    English & Thai Speaking Guide
    in Siem Reap - Angkor
    Designed and Texts by Sowanna Yun.


              Cambodian Guide Services   
    Welcome To The Kingdom Of Cambodia
    Your Dreams Can Become Reality In Cambodia
    Cambodian Guide Services
    Enjoy learning the history and viewing the many wonders of Cambodia with an experienced guide, fluent in English and Thai.
    Hi ! I am Mr. Sowanna Yun. I have been hosting guests to our country for over 10 years, and would enjoy sharing our cultural riches with you and your friends. Let me begin by providing some information about our country in the "Temple" and "Cambodia" webpage selections. Welcome your call or email with questions and I am happy to assist with trip planning.
    Enjoy my introduction to Cambodia and thrill its unique wonders that are an easy email, call and plane trip away. Your guide to Cambodia,

              Message for the Fortnight of Prayer "Martyrs"   

    On July 3, Michele Coldiron, Director of the California Catholic Women's Forum, participated in the Fortnight of Prayer at Our Lady of Peace Parish and Shrine, Santa Clara, CA - in response to the request by the bishops of the United States Catholic Conference of Bishops (USCCB).
    During the Fortnight, Our Lady of Peace hosted an hour of prayer with a reflection either by a priest or a lay person together with the Rosary and a period of time for quiet prayer in front of the Blessed Sacrament.
    Herein is a transcript of her talk
    [Items in brackets are explanatory and not part of the talk.]

    Today is day 13 of the fortnight of prayer. The United States Bishops' Ad Hoc Committee on Religious Liberty asked us to pray "a great hymn of prayer for our country" during this fortnight of freedom. Let us begin on this closing night:
    Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the Father and our Brother, we come here this evening to praise Your Name, to ask Your blessing on this gathering and to implore Your Holy Spirit to come upon us and fill our minds with Your wisdom and our hearts with your love. 

    We ask that our prayers, simple as they may be, would join with the prayers of all those scattered across this great country and that the groanings of our prayers touch Your Sacred Heart, so that filled with compassionate love, You send forth Your Spirit and renew the face of this great country.

    We recall the words of Martin Luther King, Jr, as he wrote from the Birmingham jail, that he agreed with St. Augustine, "An unjust law is no law at all". . . or as St. Thomas Aquinas said, "an unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal or natural law." [This text is from the letter of the USCCB Ad Hoc Committee for Religious Liberty]

    As we ponder Your wisdom and pray for the leaders of this great country this evening, may we recall these words - an unjust law is one out of harmony with the moral law - may our hearts be opened to recognize the great truths of our faith, a faith that is not moved by the fickle winds of fashion, but that is rooted in eternity, truth that is, because You are Truth, You give Life, and You are the Way. We ask this in Jesus' name. Amen
    [From the Statement on Religious Liberty: "Our First, Most Cherished Liberty" by the Ad Hoc Committee for Religious Liberty of the USCCB]
    As our Bishops said, "We are Catholics. We are Americans. We are proud to be both, grateful for the gift of faith which is ours as Christian disciples, and grateful for the gift of liberty which is ours as American citizens.
    An unjust law is "no law at all." It cannot be obeyed, and therefore one does not seek relief from it, but rather its repeal. [The Christian church does not ask for special treatment, simply the rights of religious freedom for all citizens.]
    "The teaching of the Church is absolutely clear about religious liberty. From the Vatican II Document, Declaration on Religious Liberty Dignitatis Humanae:
    The human person has a right to religious freedom. . . . immune from coercion on the part of individuals or of social groups and of any human power, .  . . As Catholics in America, we are obliged to defend the right to religious liberty for ourselves and for others, putting God and God's natural law first. We are happily joined in this by our fellow Christians and believers of other faiths.
    Juxtapose this to Jean Jacques Rousseau, who greatly influenced the French Revolution, so different from our own revolution as its goal was to exalt the state and abolish religion. He said, "Man must be forced to be free" if his individual will goes against the common law created by the collective citizenry [The Social Contract, no. 8].
    MEDITATION ON MARTYRS:                         
    I would like to now take a moment to put some context into these statements by looking at the fortitude of martyrs for the faith since the Enlightenment - that seed bed for the idea that people can create heaven on earth without reference to God.
    History is rife with examples of persecution, men and women who stood firm in support of religious freedom and against unjust laws. In this fortnight alone, we celebrated saints who did just that, St John the Baptist, Sts Peter and Paul, the first martyrs of Rome, and Sts. Thomas More and John Fisher during the English Reformation.
    Our time is not different however, as there has been a concerted effort which continues to this day to create societies that are godless and egalitarian, and in which the state has the keys to power.
    Nobel laureate and Catholic convert Sigrid Undset wrote in the 1920's in her book, Stages on the Road, that Europeans have long accepted Christian principles, a testament to their forefathers who created Europe through their own efforts in partnership with a loving God.
    This is the great gift of Europe (p 175) – by the time of the Reformation the Catholic Church had succeeded in instilling into the common consciousness the doctrines of the Church as the hum of everyday life and most people knew no other way. The medieval church won out over pagan propensities of princes and people – in spite of diversity of language, in spite of different temperaments, in spite of the differing interests of the different kingdoms and principalities, everyone accepted Christianity as the status quo.  The mustard seed had become a mighty bush and from Europe missionaries went out to all the world to convert it to Christianity too."The danger", she said (p 174), "is that these dogmas have come to be thought of as "naturally arising" as civilization progressed on the road from primitive barbarism to higher civilization. When things are taken for granted too often they begin to erode.
    How we in our pride take what is good, and try to remove God from it so as to control it ourselves, and what tears we reap!
    The French Revolution:   In 1790 a law was passed requiring all priests and religious swear an oath of loyalty to the revolutionary regime, making them employees of the state and subject to state control. By 1793 those who still refused were to be condemned to death. The goal was the complete eradication of the Catholic Church in France.
    The southwest of France resisted, an area called the Vendée. The citizens refused to attend church manned by these priests. Many true priests lived in hiding in the countryside. The family of St Jean Vianney was one of the families who hid priests, by the way. In 1793, when 300,000 men were to be conscripted into the army, the same army that was hunting down priests, they revolted. Some 35,000 peasants picked up their tools and their guns and fought for their liberty. Like the American Revolutionaries, these poor men knew how to shoot, and led a guerrilla war against the occupiers. The government retaliated brutally, killing men, women and children, sometimes thousands at a time. In 1993 no less a person than Alexander Soltzenitsyn visited the Vendée to honor this mostly unknown revolt. [Here is a link to a recent film about the Vendée]
    The Cristeros of Mexico followed the same historical path as the Vendéeans. After a decree by the government of Mexico closely regulating spiritual life and mandating that all religious sign affidavits of allegiance to the federal government, the area of southwest Mexico resisted, and in the ensuing years from 1926 until the mid 1930's, thousands of people on both sides were killed as the federal agents hunted down the insurgents for Christ. "For Greater Glory", the recently released movie is superb and I urge you all to go see it.
    Bishop Jenky recounts the story of the Culture War in Germany:
    In the late 19th century, Bismarck waged his "Kulturkampf," a Culture War, against the Roman Catholic Church, closing down every Catholic school and hospital, convent and monastery in Imperial Germany. 
    There is a definite trend here, one that is similar to what is happening today in this great beacon of freedom, the United States of America. 
    Keep in mind what Jean Jacques Rousseau said, "Man must be forced to be free." 
    I continue. Things picked up steam in the 21st Century, our century, in which we were so blessed in this country by peace and prosperity, yet globally it is considered the most blood drenched century in the history of mankind.
     Edith Stein, the Jewish philosopher who became a Carmelite nun and was murdered at Auschwitz in 1942 is a saint. The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, researching her cause, showed that the Nazi regime had a distinctive animosity toward the Catholic faith, especially religious, most especially those who protested against the loss of religious freedom [I lost the original site so this one is proposed to verify the statement]. She was not alone. Several thousand priests and religious died, including Maximilien Kolbe, another saint.
     Cardinal Thuan Van Nguyen, whose cause for sainthood is in process at the present time, was named Archbishop of Saigon just seven days before the fall of South Vietnam to the Communist north in 1975 [Cardinal Francis Xavier Nguyen Van Thuan Foundation]. He was imprisoned for 13 years, nine of which were solitary confinement. [While in prison he wrote a little book called "Prayers of Hope", smuggled out on bits of tissue paper to feed his flock. After release he was placed under house arrest until 1991 when he was forced to leave his homeland.] 
    Cardinal Thuan was imprisoned because he dared to stand in witness to religious freedom, and the communist government would not allow that. [Although in the last year of his life he was allowed to visit the country of his birth, as recently as 2007 government officials would not allow visas to a delegation researching his sainthood].
    Chen Guangdong, the blind Chinese Christian recently allowed to leave Communist China, had been imprisoned for 4 years and then placed under house arrest for 1 1/2 more years for condemning population control by abortion as well as sex selection for boys. 
    These are the ones who got away or have achieved some sort of notoriety, but the death toll is unimaginable. Half the population of Cambodia killed as a repressive Communist regime was implemented. The Russians killed almost 127million, the Communist Chinese, 102 million. A report by a retired professor of political science from the U of Hawaii estimates from 110 million to 247 million people died in Communist regimes in the 20th Century, trying to bring heaven to earth. Yes truly, men who are forced to be free suffer the consequences. But thanks be to God, there is an alternative and our great country is an example, where man may humble himself and choose God's law, and actually be free.
    The American War of Independence, unlike the French Revolution which attacked tradition and order, or the various authoritarian or Communist regimes which did likewise over the past couple of centuries, built upon the truth of the Christian faith in order to create a society in which people could peacefully govern themselves as free men. Our Declaration of Independence states that "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights and that among these rights are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness". The Declaration refers to the "Laws of Nature and of Nature's God". Yes we live in a democracy, but it is important for democratic regimes be created in sync with the natural law. We must never forget who we are, and what truly makes us free.
    Pope Benedict XVI recently highlighted that point, stating that our faith is shaped a commitment to certain ethical principles deriving from nature and nature's God. . . . that consensus has significantly eroded in the face of powerful new cultural currents which are not only directly opposed to core moral teachings of the Judeo-Christian tradition, but increasingly hostile to Christianity as such [second paragraph].
    You have heard over the last few days how our constitutional rights are being challenged by the HHS mandate and other ways pointed out by the USCCB.
    This quick look  at other examples of persecution in recent centuries shows what a fragile gift we have in the freedoms guaranteed by our Constitution and how important it is that we never let up in our demand for religious liberty. Let us each, members of the laity, passionately pray and work to educate our fellow citizens as to the fragile nature of the gift we have been asked to care for: our Constitution and the liberties it protects, and may we never cease to be vigilant against those forces that want to deprive us of these unalienable rights.
    [I omitted this section from the oral talk due to time constraints]
    John Carroll, our first bishop, said that 
    Catholics' blood flowed as freely . . . to cement the fabric of independence as that of any of their fellow-citizens. They concurred with perhaps greater unanimity than any other body of men . . . promoting that government from whose influence America anticipates all the blessings of justice, peace, plenty, good order, and civil and religious liberty.
    As Jennifer Roback Morse recently said in a response to the Mandate from the Acton Institute, 
    When rights of the minority are not protected by the majority that's the end of America. It is serious."The American Catholic Church is the largest non-governmental provider of social services in the world. If the government can do this to the bishops of the Catholic Church, they can squash you like a bug. . . 
    Let us pray.
     Almighty God, Father of all nations,For freedom you have set us free in Christ Jesus (Gal 5:1).
    We praise and bless you for the gift of religious liberty, the foundation of human rights, justice, and the common good.Grant to our leaders the wisdom to protect and promote our liberties;
    By your grace may we have the courage to defend them, for ourselves and for all those who live in this blessed land.
    We ask this through the intercession of Mary Immaculate, our patroness, and in the name of your Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, with whom you live and reign, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.

              Von: Ky   
    Um mich klar zu outen: Ich gehöre zum 'fundamentalisten'-Lager der Bibel- und Katechismustreuen. (Wohl dem, dessen Fundament der Herr ist.) Priesterinnen usw. sehe ich deshalb nicht kommen. Aus dem genannten Grund, dass Jesus keine berufen hat. ... Von der "Teufel! Teufel!"-Schreierei will ich mich hier allerdings auch ausdrücklich distanzieren. Weil ich glaube, dass DER einen heiden Spaß an solchen gegenseitigen Verteufelungen und Disputen hat (weil sie vom eigentlichen ablenken: Anbetung, Lobpreis, Caritas, Zeugnis)... ... Mir ist in den letzten Jahren zunehmend aufgegangen, dass viele _wahrhaft gute_ Initiativen im 'rechten' wie im 'linken' Lager von der Gegenseite beschossen wurden, nur weil sie von 'denen da' kamen, von denen ja nie was gutes kommen kann. Da sieht man eine Sache, die objektiv falsch läuft. Und dann wird alles, was so ähnlich riecht in den selben Sack gesteckt und draufgeprügelt, sine differentia! "Frauen als Kardinäle? Das ist sicher _von allen Beteiligten_ nur ein Vorwandt, um einen Fuß in die Tür vom Frauenpriestertum zu bekomen! Auf sie, mit gebrüll!" ? Nein! Solche Generalverdächtigungen machen die Kirche dann wirklich zu einem schrecklichen Ort und ich verstehe, wenn man solche Haltungen als rückwärtsgewandt und verknöchert bezeichnet. - Weil sie es sind! Prüfet alles (fair and square!), das Gute behaltet. ... Ob die Forderung nach Frauen-Kardinälen gut ist? Weiß nicht. Das macht mal mit dem heiligen Geist aus. Aber es ist jedenfalls _nicht_ gegen das Lehramt der Kirche und wir sind nicht berufen, päpstlicher als der Papst zu sein. Und solange kein Ungehorsam im Spiel ist, kann man durchaus die guten Absichten solcher Initiativen würdigen! (Ausdrücklich möchte ich mich aber gegen diejenigen Stimmen hier in den Kommentaren verwehren, die diese Initiative genau als einen "strategischen Stepstone zum Ungehorsam" sehen.) ... Wir glauben ja nicht etwa, dass Frauen von ihren geistigen etc. Fähigkeiten her nicht in der Lage wären, den priesterlichen Dienst auszuüben, sondern weil sie nicht dazu berufen sind. Warum sollen sie dann nicht in der Kurie wirken können? Das Bild der machtbesessenen Gemeindereferentin, die in der Pfarrei alles an sich reißt: das Bild ist real aber nicht das einzig gültige! Es gibt auch sehr wohl sehr tugendhafte und geeignete Frauen für solche Dienste, also warum generell dagegen Sperrfeuer schießen? Vertrauen wir auf die Führung des Geistes oder nicht? ... Aber was mich nach dem Lesen der Kommentare noch interessiert: Wo bin ich denn nun eigentlich in der kath. Kirche dauernd benachteiligt und geschändet, ich arme Frau? Ich merke nichts davon! Hm! ... Worum geht es denn in der Kirche - wirklich und eigentlich? Seid heilig, wie euer Vater im Himmel heilig ist. Persönliche Heiligkeit! Das ist doch letztlich das _einzige_ das zählt! Und ich kann als Mutti am Herd, als kleine Missionarin in Cambodia oder als Schwester Oberin grad genauso heilig werden, wie als Papst -- und heiliger! ... Diskriminierung in der Kirche? Klar! Im Sinne von "einen Unterschied machen, wo ein Unterschied ist." Ein Mann kann auch nicht Mami werden, trotzdem fühlt er sich nicht benachteiligt, oder was? Er kann dafür Papa werden. Genauso kann ein Mann _nie_ die _geistige_ Berufung der Frau ausfüllen (lest euch dazu mal wirklich n bissl was an. Das sind unglaublich schöne Dinge, die uns vorbehalten sind...); wenn wir es nicht wollen, kann's kein anderer! Und das wäre echt übelst schade in den Augen Gottes :( Die Berufung der Frau ist _anders_ nicht _geringer_! Und mit der Heiligung meine Lebens tue ich _mehr_ für die "Rettung" der Kirche (Erlösung der Welt), als mit jeder schlauen Berechnung, wie wir "gut rüberkommen". ... Da ich Theologie studiere, habe ich mich natürlich damit auseinander gesetzt, was mal aus mir werden soll und habe das Priestertum meditiert. Unterm Strich bin ich _heil froh_, dass ich mir den Kopf darüber nicht zerbrechen muss, ob ich etwa dazu berufen sei! "Mit großer Macht kommt große Verantwortung." Alte Spiderman-Weisheit! :D Und unser Herr wird einmal Rechenschaft von uns verlangen! Klar, wer berufen ist, der kann trotz seiner Nichts-Würdigkeit (< Begriff, der uns vor der Würde des Priestertums wirklich _alle_ trifft) auf die Hilfe des Herrn bauen. Aber "Mein Jesus, Barmherzigkeit!" dem, der sich nimmt, was ihm Gott nicht geben wollte -- und damit _das_ verschmäht, _was_ er ihm geben wollte. Wer aber dann selbst die Barmherzigkeit nicht annehmen will, der geht also an den Ort der Gerechtigkeit. It's elementary, my dear Watson. =/ ... Gottes Segen! Ky
              Up to 70 Giant Freshwater Stingrays Found Dead in Mae Klong River   
    . . BANGKOK – Scientists are trying to understand why up to 70 giant freshwater stingrays, some as big as a car, have been found dead in Thailand over the past few weeks. The die-off has been taking place in the Mae Klong River. Thai officials have found the river to be slightly more acidic […]
               First All Asian AusKick Match in Thailand    

    Inaugural All-Thai AFL Auskick Match

     Thailand Tigers Australian Football Club announced at AFL website the following news concerning an all-Thai local Auskick Footy match played out in Bangkok. 

    Saturday 10th June saw the first ever match between all local Thai Auskickers as part of an AFL Tournament in Bangkok. The day comprised of under 9 and under 12 Auskick matches between the Bangkok Tigers and Pattaya Pirates, the 1st ever All Thai Auskick match between the Thai Blues and the Thai Reds and the AFL Asia match between the Thailand Tigers and Cambodian Eagles

    The Thailand Tigers AFL Club and Bangkok Auskick and Junior AFL have been working with disadvantaged Thai boys from the Klong Toey Slums in Bangkok with the assistance of the Duang Prateep Foundation and UNOH (Urban Neighbours of Hope Foundation - UNOH Thailand) by running clinics / Auskick sessions as well as providing Auskick backpacks, footballs, runners ...

    "Tuk-tuk lady" 🇰🇭 #cambodia#cambodge#phnompenh#tuktuk#traffic#scooter#road#love#friend#trip#travel#visarun#lovetotravel#traveltheworld
              Cambodian (Khmer) Interpreters - LanguageLine Solutions - Canada   
    Ability to explain cultural concepts to avoid miscommunication, and to act as a cultural broker. Job....
    From LanguageLine Solutions - Fri, 23 Jun 2017 09:21:33 GMT - View all Canada jobs
              Angkor Thom, Cambodia   
              JC International adds Kaohsiung service from July 2017   

    Cambodian carrier JC International Airlines starting next month is adjusting service to Taiwan, as the airline schedules Phnom Penh – Kaohsiung route launch. Operating twice a week, the airline’s A320 aircraft will operate this route from 10JUL17.

    QD716 PNH1505 – 1910KHH 320 14
    QD715 KHH2010 – 2300PNH 320 14

    The airline’s overall service to Taipei will be reduced from 7 to 5 weekly, including 4 weekly Phnom Penh – Taipei Taoyuan and 1 weekly Phnom Penh – Siem Reap – Taipei Taoyuan.

              Phnom Penh to Sihanoukville to Koh Rong — Sihanoukville, Cambodia   
    My Great Adventure
              Lawther, Moffett, & Jacobs: Research Handbook on Transitional Justice   
    Cheryl Lawther (Queen's Univ. Belfast - Criminology), Luke Moffett (Queen’s Univ. Belfast - Law), & Dov Jacobs (Leiden Univ. - Law) have published Research Handbook on Transitional Justice (Edward Elgar Publishing 2017). Contents include:
    • William Schabas, Foreword
    • Cheryl Lawther & Luke Moffett, Introduction
    • Joanna Quinn, The Development of Transitional Justice
    • Thomas Obel Hansen, The Time and Space of Transitional Justice
    • Catherine Turner, Transitional Justice and Critique
    • Padraig McAuliffe, Transitional Justice’s Impact on Rule of Law: Symbol or Substance?
    • Frédeéric Mégret & Raphael Vagliano, Transitional Justice and Human Rights
    • Catherine O’Rourke, Transitional Justice and Gender
    • Dustin Sharp, Transitional Justice and ‘Local’ Justice
    • Peter Dixon, Transitional Justice and Development : Arguments for and Against a Holistic Approach
    • Alison Davidian & Emily Kenney, The United Nations and Transitional Justice
    • Sara Dezalay, The Role of International NGOs in the Emergence of Transitional Justice
    • Hugo van der Merwe & Maya Schkolne, The Role of Local Civil Society in Transitional Justice
    • Laurel Fletcher & Harvey Weinstein, Transitional Justice and the ‘Plight’ of Victimhood
    • Andrea Breslin, Art and Transitional Justice: The 'Infinite Incompleteness' of Transition
    • Refik Hodzic & David Tolbert, Media and Transitional Justice: A Dream of Symbiosis in a Troubled Relationship
    • James Gallen, The International Criminal Court: In the Interests of Transitional Justice?
    • Aaron Fichtelberg, Transitional Justice and the End of Impunity: Hybrid tribunals
    • Cheryl Lawther, Transitional Justice and Truth Commissions
    • Tom Hadden, Transitional Justice and Amnesties
    • Luke Moffett, Transitional Justice and Reparations: Remedying the Past?
    • Catherine Harwood, Contributions of International Commissions of Inquiry to Transitional Justice
    • Cynthia Horne, Transitional Justice: Vetting and Lustration
    • Naomi Roht-Arriaza, Guatemala: Lessons for Transitional Justice
    • Rachel Killean, Pursuing Retributive and Reparative Justice within Cambodia
    • Brendan Ciarán Browne, Transitional Justice and the Case of Palestine
    • Lavinia Stan, Transitional Justice in Central and Eastern Europe

              Asean Wrap: Weekly Wrap Ep 95   
    Asean Now: Weekly Wrap highlights the latest news of the week in the region. In this week’s episode: AirAsia X flight aborted in Perth, Australia. Wrong way driver arrested. Former US President Barrack Obama goes on holiday. Civilians found beheaded in Mindanao, Siamese cats rescued in Singapore. Social media services given ultimatum in Thailand. Cambodia […]
              6/30/2017: NATIONAL: Hackers hit two CNRP FB pages   
    TWO CNRP Facebook pages were hacked yesterday and were allegedly being administered by “anonymous people”, according to a party press release. The brief press release included few details, other than saying two Facebook pages – one the Cambodia...
              6/30/2017: NATIONAL: Protests promised during Hun Sen visit to Australia   

    WITH Prime Minister Hun Sen expected to visit Sydney for an Asean leaders’ summit just months before next year’s national election, an outspoken Cambodian-Australian politician yesterday vowed that he would be greeted with protests upon arrival. Hong...
              6/30/2017: NATIONAL: Female representation in politics decreased in poll   
    DESPITE repeated vows by both of Cambodia’s major political parties to increase female representation, the number of female candidates elected in the Kingdom’s recently concluded commune elections actually decreased since they were last held in...
              6/30/2017: NATIONAL: Thailand deportations rise   

    REPATRIATIONS from Thailand spiked this week, with the Kingdom’s western neighbour deporting almost a thousand irregular migrant workers back to Cambodia in the last two days, while some others will face Thai courts. Chea Manith, director of the...
              6/30/2017: MARKETS BUSINESS: SEZ, UNDP sign pact to boost social impact   
    THE United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) signed a memorandum of understanding yesterday with Phnom Penh SEZ Plc to create a framework that aims to increase social impact investments within Cambodia’s economic hubs. According to the agreement,...
              6/30/2017: MARKETS BUSINESS: Malindo Air set for service to Kingdom   
    MALINDO Air, a Malaysian low-cost carrier, will launch daily flights from Kuala Lumpur to Phnom Penh beginning on August 1, the airline announced on its website yesterday. Eric Delobel, CEO of Cambodia Airports, which operates the Kingdom’s three...
              6/30/2017: SPORT: Seavmey ‘should train in SK ahead of Games’   

    SORN Seavmey’s long-time coach Choi Yong Sok has suggested to the National Olympic Committee of Cambodia to keep the taekwondo star training in South Korea before sending her to the SEA Games in Malaysia in mid-August. The Kingdom is hoping the 2014...
              6/30/2017: SPORT: Lions to target Sonny Bill in make or break second New Zealand Test   

    THE British and Irish Lions will have Sonny Bill Williams in their sights in the second Test against the All Blacks in Wellington on Saturday (at 2:35pm Cambodian time) as they battle to keep the series alive. With the Lions on the ropes after being...
              Therapedic Inks Deal With Premier Vietnam Producer   
    The global footprint of Top 10 bedding producer Therapedic International just got significantly larger as a result of a recently inked agreement with Hava’s Mattress Company Limited, one of the largest and best-known mattress makers in Vietnam. As a result, Hava’s will expand Therapedic’s worldwide clout by producing and distributing at least three of Therapedic’s lines throughout Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Continue Reading
              UbercitiesinUsa --- par TheBridgecambodia le 2017 06 29 - 17:35   
    Modification de UbercitiesinUsa --- par TheBridgecambodia le 2017 06 29 - 17:35
              ubercabosanlucas --- par TheBridgecambodia le 2017 06 29 - 17:35   
    Modification de ubercabosanlucas --- par TheBridgecambodia le 2017 06 29 - 17:35
              The Phenomenal Fortitude of Cambodia’s Emerging Capital   

    Phnom Penh, Cambodia Gray and gritty…these are the two words that rise to the surface when I reflect on our brief 4 days in Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh. Gray in the truest sense of the word and color, in that it’s place that is in transition – moving from a dark and clouded past […]

    The post The Phenomenal Fortitude of Cambodia’s Emerging Capital appeared first on Dave's Travel Corner.

              Austin Fluoride Hunger Strike   

    I've always been puzzled why such a forward thinking, liberal rainbow and unicorn loving city like Austin allows its water supply to be fluoridated.

    Click to Embiggen

    Although the topic is still debated, I am convinced, after speaking to a former National Intelligence officer for President H.W. Bush, who confirmed that fluoride was used as common procedure to make an enemy camp docile and slow prior to raiding it in Vietnam, Korea and Cambodia, that fluoride has no place in a public water supply.

    Call it mass medication, or industrial waste disposal, or believe the government, who are here to help you with your dental care.

    Whatever you want to believe, surely the citizens of Austin have the right to determine for themselves if they want to use fluoride?

    Hey Wendy Davis, this is about women's health too you know? How about you use your pink sneakers to help out on this issue?

    To the activists of the Austin Fluoride Hunger Strike, I say:

    Thank You for Your Courage.

              Rare Siamese crocodile eggs found in Cambodia   
    Conservationists have found a nest with 19 eggs from one of the world's most endangered crocodiles. It is boosting hopes for species threatened by poachers and habitat loss. Researchers believe only 400 adults still exist in the wild, the baby crocodiles will be raised at a conservation centre
              Comment on Easy A – Stanley Tucci, an “Actor’s actor” by pthxdvtdg   
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The clinical trial came and went and Taylor was still seeking prayers and a second chance at life. On Tuesday, Taylor s prayers were answers after the community came together to help his cause.Five months ago, Tommy Taylor s story filled the Midlands with hope. The Gilbert man was in dire need of help finding a way to have his hypertension device replaced. The clinical trial came and went and Taylor was still seeking prayers and a second chance at life. On Tuesday, Taylor s prayers were answers after the community came together to help his cause.Updated: Tuesday, August 11 2015 11:04 PM EDT2015-08-12 03:04:17 GMTMatt Bridges is not a fan of distracted driving. I mean, we all see it, you know. 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              Update on number of dengue fever cases   
         The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health today (June 30) reported the latest number of cases of dengue fever (DF), and again urged the public to maintain strict environmental hygiene, mosquito control and personal protective measures both locally and during travel.

         From June 23 to 29, the CHP recorded four confirmed cases. The patients had been to Thailand (two cases) and multiple countries (two cases, who had been to Myanmar and Thailand, and the Philippines and Cambodia) during the incubation period.

         As of yesterday (June 29), the 48 imported DF cases recorded so far in 2017 were mainly imported from Thailand (16), followed by Sri Lanka (seven), Indonesia and the Philippines (five each). No local cases have been recorded so far this year.

         Dengue remains endemic in some areas in Asia. In 2017, 16 790 cases were recorded in Thailand, 1 411 in Singapore and 81 in Japan (since January 2).

         In the rainy season, the public should take heed of the following advice on mosquito control:
    • Thoroughly check all gully traps, roof gutters, surface channels and drains to prevent blockage;
    • Scrub and clean drains and surface channels with an alkaline detergent compound at least once a week to remove any deposited mosquito eggs;
    • Properly dispose of refuse, such as soft drink cans, empty bottles and boxes, in covered litter containers;
    • Completely change water of flowers and plants at least once a week. The use of saucers should be avoided if possible;
    • Level irregular ground surfaces before the rainy season;
    • Avoid staying in shrubby areas; and
    • Take personal protective measures such as wearing light-coloured long-sleeved clothes and long trousers and apply insect repellent containing DEET to clothing or uncovered areas of the body when doing outdoor activities.
         To reduce the risk of infections spread by mosquitoes, apart from general measures, travellers returning from affected areas should apply insect repellent for 14 days (DF) or at least 21 days (Zika Virus Infection) upon arrival in Hong Kong. If feeling unwell, seek medical advice promptly and provide travel details to the doctor. DEET-containing insect repellents are effective and the public should take heed of the tips below:  
    • Read carefully the label instructions first;
    • Apply right before entering an area with risk of mosquito bites;
    • Apply on exposed skin and clothing;
    • Use DEET of up to 30 per cent for pregnant women and up to 10 per cent for children;
    • Apply sunscreen first, then insect repellent; and
    • Re-apply only when needed and follow the instructions.

         The public may refer to the CHP's tips for using insect repellents for details.
              Diamond Island   

    Diamond Island

    by Davy Chou





    Des ruines du cinéma cambodgien ...

    Davy Chou, dont c'est ici le premier long métrage de fiction en tant que réalisateur, porte en lui dans ses gènes la passion du cinéma, puisqu'il est le petit-fils de Van Chann (mort en 1969), un des principaux producteurs du Cambodge dans les années 1960-1970 (400 films produits au pays des khmers entre 1960 et 1976 dont la plupart des copies n'ont jamais été retrouvées suite au régime de Pol Pot), mémoire d'une époque dont la transmission ne se fait plus guère aujourd'hui qu'oralement et à laquelle le jeune cinéaste rend hommage dans un film documentaire récent, très remarqué par la critique internationale, Le Sommeil d'or (2011).  Bien que né en France (à Fontenay-aux-Roses) en 1983, Davy chou a toujours maintenu un lien fort avec son pays au point d'y créer un atelier de cinéma destiné aux étudiants et d'y poser à nouveau sa caméra en 2014 pour réaliser le court métrage intitulé Cambodia 2099 qui racontait déjà l'histoire de deux jeunes cambodgiens qui se retrouvaient à Diamond Island (complexe immobilier de luxe de Phnom Penh dont on retrouve quelques images intégrées à la fin du Sommeil d'or) afin d'échanger sur leurs rêves faits au cours de la nuit. C'est ce lieu éponyme qui va servir de catalyseur à la trame narrative du film imaginée par son auteur. 

    L'irrésistible ascension de Bora

    Il est en effet la manifestation visible érigée en symbole d'une modernisation subite, voire brutale, d'un pays en pleine croissance économique depuis la fin des années 1990 qui contraste avec l'extrême pauvreté d'une grande majorité de la population (31% de cette dernière se situant en dessous du seuil de pauvreté). C'est de cet écart essentiel à une appréhension pertinente des personnages du film que rend compte le scénario. Car Bora (Sobon Nuon), 18 ans tout juste, représente le trait d'union entre ces deux mondes que tout oppose: quittant son village en compagnie de son ami Dy (Mean Korn) pour rejoindre la cité de Phnom Penh afin d'y travailler sur le chantier d'un complexe immobilier luxueux en construction, il laisse derrière lui sa mère gravement malade à qui il adresse régulièrement une part de son salaire pour lui permettre de subvenir aux besoins du foyer. Cependant, le film omet de représenter cette vie rurale dont est issu Bora, pourtant si emblématique encore aujourd'hui du Cambodge où elle emploie plus de la moitié de sa population et qui eût du servir à souligner a posteriori le contraste créé entre le point de départ de son personnage et son ascension sociale, d'ailleurs fulgurante, tout en fournissant une clé de compréhension à son intelligence, tant le film s'inscrit de façon manifeste dans le cadre du récit initiatique (et par là même du mouvement dans le temps). Mais le réalisateur décide de suivre les évolutions à Phnom Penh de son personnage dont il est manifestement tombé amoureux, et on le comprend, tant son magnétisme aimante l'objectif de la caméra ("Il avait une lueur dans les yeux qui m'a appelé": Davy Chou à propos du casting de Sobon Nuon).

    Le monde féerique de Diamond Island

    C'est en effet Solei (Nov Cheanick), le grand frère de Bora, tout aussi subitement disparu et envolé du village natal après s'en être enfui que réapparu aux yeux du frangin à l'occasion d'une virée nocturne, qui va initier ce dernier au monde luxueux des lieux réservés aux classes privilégiées (boîtes de nuit, appartements résidentiels, ...). Car l'île de Diamond Island se transforme à la nuit tombée en un lieu de rendez-vous pour la jeunesse de Phnom Penh où se côtoient toutes les classes sociales. C'est de ce parallélisme entre un effacement relatif et provisoire des barrières sociales et une transfiguration de la réalité environnante par les lumières artificielles de la nuit que rend compte avec une certaine réussite le film. Et la caméra de flotter au gré des errances du groupe de jeunes garçons, les yeux brillant des feux multicolores qui se reflètent au fond de leur prunelle, plongés au sein d'un monde enchanté qui ne constitue en réalité qu'une parenthèse momentanée dans leur vie rythmée par les journées de dur labeur sur le chantier. Monde hors du temps, Diamond Island se mue cependant en une sorte de purgatoire où va s'abreuver Bora, oublieux de son âme "corruptible" d'enfant pauvre des provinces rurales éloignées de Phnom Penh, avant d'accéder au paradis de la modernité appelée de ses vœux par l’État cambodgien. 

    Un dieu en coulisses

    Ceux qui la construisent de leurs mains, et bien souvent au péril de leur vie, eux, bien sûr, resteront pour la plupart au bord de la route, si ce n'est au fond de la fosse. Et l'on peut regretter que cette face cachée de l'histoire ne soit évoquée qu'à distance, hors champ (l'accident de Dy), rejetée dans l'ombre, effleurée par l’œil de la caméra qui glisse pudiquement à sa surface, tandis qu'elle en constitue le revers inséparablement tragique. A tel point que les sacrifices consentis au dieu de la modernité ne semblent finalement représenter que peu de choses en regard du triomphe dont elle jouit. D'autant plus que la trajectoire de Bora et son ascension fulgurante perdent en vraisemblance, tant le personnage de Solei semble remplir peu ou prou le rôle de deus ex machina d'un drame qui sans lui peinerait à trouver une issue favorable au destin de son jeune frère. L'absence d'explication donnée sur son parcours et l'origine de ses moyens de subsistance, et ce malgré les questions insistantes du jeune garçon et les réponses vagues et tronquées qu'il lui adresse, si elle souligne le caractère mystérieux du personnage, gêne le processus d'adhésion à une intrigue dont la trame repose sur une réalité somme toute larvée. Qui est ce mystérieux bienfaiteur et pour quelle raison (dans quel intérêt) plus ou moins avouable se serait-il décidé à assurer l'avenir de Solei? Quel avenir? Autant de questions sans réponse tant pour le spectateur que pour le naïf Bora dont nous adoptons, contraints et forcés, le regard. 

    Entre Ciel et Terre

    A moins que ce dernier ne soit à l'image du mirage même de la modernité, un mirage lui-même, apparaissant, disparaissant, être aux contours vagues dénué de substance réelle, coquille vide d'un rêve américain qu'il finit par rejoindre comme on retourne à sa matrice première. L'opposition chromatique des couleurs saturées du jour rendant d'ailleurs magnifiquement compte de cette opposition entre le bleu et le rouge, entre l'ocre de la terre auquel font écho les éléments du cadre (décor, costumes) et l'intensité azurée du ciel et de la mer prolongée par les murs des bâtiments du chantier qui se dressent en un appel désespéré vers l'idéal. Soulignons à ce titre le travail de Thomas Favel, le chef opérateur du film qui suit Davy Chou depuis ses débuts. Évidemment, le scénario s'évertue à mettre en regard les trajectoires divergentes du jeune Bora d'une part, entraîné à fréquenter de plus en plus régulièrement le groupe de Solei, délaissant peu à peu ses camarades de chantier pour sillonner la ville à scooter en compagnie de sa nouvelle bande d'amis ultra-lookés _ s'évadant par anticipation de l'enfer crasseux des fondations en travaux de la ville pour rejoindre des sphères plus aériennes_ avec celle de ses compagnons d'infortune restés à quai (l'image quelque peu confondante de naïveté du groupe d'amis soudé par leur misère commune, réuni à l'occasion d'un karaoké de fortune). 

     ... aux bâtisseurs d'une nouvelle mémoire cinématographique

    Comme dans tout bon drame cornélien, Bora est donc confronté à un dilemme à l'issue duquel, quel que soit le choix qu'il sera amené à faire, il est conscient du caractère définitif des pertes qu'il engage. En ce sens, l'intrigue adopte une dynamique classique (sans aucun doute enseignée dans les écoles de cinéma aux scénaristes en herbe) qui ne souffre cependant aucune discussion tant elle s'adapte à la nature particulière de l'histoire racontée, même si l'épilogue souligne de façon par trop lapidaire et forcée le sens des conséquences qu'entraîne ce choix. Qui aime bien châtie bien. Diamond Island se révèle un film inspiré, visuellement très réussi, qui eût gagné en intensité en faisant preuve de plus d'âpreté ainsi qu'en développant plus encore l'arrière plan de l'intrigue ainsi que ses rôles secondaires, mais dont le charme mélancolique ne laisse pas insensible tout comme celui de Sobon Nuon qui livre ici pour son premier rôle au cinéma une performance d'acteur remarquable. 

              Mr Him Hout   

    Location: Doung Village, Boeng Raing Commune,, Cambodia
    Loan: £1722.77
    Amount still needed: £1662.77
    Activity type: Farming
    About: Similarly to lots of people in his neighbourhood, Mr. Him is a rice farmer. He has around two hectares of land on which he grows short term rice for sale. This rice crop enables him to harvest around two tons per hectare. Aside from his rice farming then he also has another plot of land, around eight... read more

              Comment on Using plausible deniability against a systematically lying adversary by Larry Galearis   
    One book I always recommend about how little the United States culture has changed in its fundamental relationships with the world is Bernard Cornwell’s “The Fort”. Paul Revere (yes, that Paul Revere) played a huge role in the greatest naval defeat in US history in 1779. This is history left out of the American citizen’s psyche and a nation’s PUBLICLY acknowledged history. The wars of empire since 1945 see an ugly continuum with a list of miscreant militarism. Here is a list of countries bombed since 1945: China 1945-46 Korea 1950-53 China 1950-53 Guatemala 1954 Indonesia 1958 Cuba 1959-60 Guatemala 1960 Belgian Congo 1964 Guatemala 1964 Dominican Republic 1965-66 Peru 1965 Laos 1964-73 Vietnam 1961-73 Cambodia 1969-70 Guatemala 1967-69 Lebanon 1982-84 Grenada 1983-84 Libya 1986 El Salvador 1981-92 Nicaragua 1981-90 Iran 1987-88 Libya 1989 Panama 1989-90 Iraq 1991 Kuwait 1991 Somalia 1992-94 Bosnia 1995 Iran 1998 Sudan 1998 Afghanistan 1998 Yugoslavia – Serbia 1999 Afghanistan 2001 Libya 2011. What most Americans do not understand is that most of these events were acts of aggression as war crimes under International Law, and also LOST wars. The very history behind these wars is based on lawlessness and incompetent leadership both at the military end and the Washington end. And we never know what level of goofiness is at work deciding on whether to go to war or not. I also want to give my thanks and appreciation to the Saker for his insights to our geopolitical realities. Best regards, Galearis
              Comment on Prasat Kravan – Vishnu Temple in Angkor, Cambodia by Asha   
    Such beautiful architecture ! This is definitely on my list of places to visit. Thanks for the lovely narration and beautiful pictures.
              Comment on WaterEquity Launches New $50M Social Impact Investment Fund by MICROCAPITAL BRIEF: Launches WaterCredit Investment Fund 3 to Facilitate Access to Sanitation, Clean Water in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, the Philippines - MicroCapital: On microfinance, mobile money, SMEs and other forms of impact Investing   
    […] WaterEquity Launches New $50M Social Impact Investment Fund […]
              Classic Cambodia Flag Charm   
    Classic Cambodia Flag Charm

    Classic Cambodia Flag Charm

              The Kampot music scene: Singing from the rooftops, playing in the bars   

    Kampot’s music scene is kicking off again, and we’ve got a guide to the very best of what Kampot has to offer, including regular live music nights, a new venue review, and insider tips for those who want to get … Continue reading

    The post The Kampot music scene: Singing from the rooftops, playing in the bars appeared first on Move to Cambodia.

              The best pizza in Battambang   

    Despite its small size and relatively quiet atmosphere, Battambang has a surprising amount of foreign food options. From Indian to American, French to Spanish, visitors and Khmer alike can get their fix of cuisines from around the world. Oddly enough, the … Continue reading

    The post The best pizza in Battambang appeared first on Move to Cambodia.

              The best coffee in Battambang   

    Battambang is a quiet town, a far cry from the noise and congestion of Siem Reap or Phnom Penh. But tucked away on these quiet streets are cafes serving up some of the best coffee in Cambodia. Here are the … Continue reading

    The post The best coffee in Battambang appeared first on Move to Cambodia.

              How to get from Battambang to Sihanoukville (and vice versa)   

    If you’re traveling from Battambang to Sihanoukville, get ready for a long journey. There are a few options available to you, but each of them is going to take a big chunk of time. Expect to take a full day … Continue reading

    The post How to get from Battambang to Sihanoukville (and vice versa) appeared first on Move to Cambodia.

              Cambodia Cold Ones   
    Ah, southeast Asia.  Where "beer" is synonymous with "whatever taste-free, industrially-produced malt beverage you happen to have in the freezer at the moment."  It's hot here, damned hot, and sometimes you just need a drink of cold water.  Or pop.  Or macro light lager.

    Unfortunately, you're going to have a tough time finding much else.  The big guys run the show, and there's not much demand for other types of beer.  Southeast Asians (Thais especially) don't enjoy extra-bitter beverages, and they have a sweet tooth; developing a light and refreshing but non-bitter and over-sweetened beer... well, seems a bit like chasing your tail.  No wonder this is where vodka-and-Red Bull originated.

    You can sometimes find overpriced Belgian beer at tourist restaurants, but do you really want an 11% quadrupel when it's 40 C and humidity is high?  Given the long, hot shipping and storage conditions for foreign beer, I wouldn't recommend trying other styles either.

    Cambodian Beer Sampling

    I thought I should at least have a quick look around before packing it in and writing off the whole region, beer-wise.  And to add an extra exotic twist, I'd do it in Phnom Penh, Cambodia!

    Ooo, Angkor beer, named for the ancient empire centered in Cambodia (builders of the famed Angkor Wat temples and ancient cities).  A suitably exotic brand name.  Left to right we have the standard light lager, followed by an Angkor Extra Stout and an ABC Extra Stout.  Both stouts are 8%.

    Cool - the Angkor light lager ($0.60 US) greets you with an old school pull-off tab.  The contents... well, pretty much the same as Singha, Tiger, Leo and Chang in Thailand, Beer Lao in Laos and Myanmar Beer in Myanmar.  (If you have a choice, Leo is the lesser of evils.)  Next.

    Oh my, that's not a good sign, Angkor Extra Stout.  A tacky-looking beer ring on the inside of the cap seal, which has bubbled and stretched itself apart from the cap.  It looks almost like the beer was boiled inside the bottle!  Maybe this one got stuck in the pasteurizer?  It did provide an impossible-to-miss lesson on how oxidized dark beers taste.  Like sherry and red wine, stale chocolate, old canned cherries, molasses, hints of black liquorice.  Bleah.

    However, the ABC Extra Stout... came through with flying colours!  Tasted cold, it was actually a pleasant little brew, more like a fortified milk stout than a foreign extra stout.  Slightly banana-y aroma, flavours of coffee, milk chocolate, subtle ripe banana, lots of residual sweetness and medium hop bitterness.  Not something I'm going to take to the beach with me, but perfectly passable nonetheless.

    Munich Fresh Beer Microbrewery

    Walking home from the waterfront one night, I spied a sign for the Munich Fresh Beer Microbrewery.  In previous times, my heart would have skipped a beat in joyful anticipation.  However, this year I had already experienced many places around the world that capitalize on tourist fads by providing the trappings of something desirable at a high price, while ludicrously under-delivering.  (I'm looking at you, Turkish "brewpub".)

    Despite the branding and messaging and faux-dirndl uniforms of the female wait staff and visible (though questionably operative) brewing equipment, this was really a very busy and popular family soup restaurant/private box karaoke venue.  Despite the signage, beer was secondary.

    (Substandard) live music in the main indoor room

    The beer list: "gold" and "stout".  Clearly not the correct German terms - what they meant was "light" and "dark".

    The Hoplog Global Golden Rule of Brewpub/Microbrewery/Unknown Small Beer Producer Drinking:
    If such a brewer offers only two beers, and they are named "light" and "dark" or  equivalent names, walk away and do not look back.
    Sigh.  I didn't obey my own rule.  So as expected, here is the "Gold" beer I ordered:

    Cloudy and yeasty and weirdly fruity and undrinkable - I was 100% certain this was the crap I would be served.  Yet my faith in humanity prevailed and I took a chance.  Sigh.

    Kingdom Breweries

    Not ready to give up yet, I did a spot of internet research, and it appeared there was an actual bottle-production craft brewery in Phnom Penh, just a few kilometres north of the downtown ferry jetty.  No one answered the phone, and no business hours were available (other than in online reviews), so I blindly piled into a tuk-tuk and was dropped off at their last known address, at the time I figured their office would open (1:00 pm).

    Success!  Kingdom (as in the "Kingdom Of Cambodia") has some decent-sized financial backers, and therefore has pretty nice digs and (until recently) a European-trained brewer.  There's even a view of the mighty Mekong River across the street from the tasting room.

    The brewery is in a former Nestle factory, and is therefore massive.  Plenty of room to expand, and the equipment is all shiny and new and decently large for such a small brewery.

    Cases of bottles behind the bottling machine

    The brewhouse has many tanks - hot liquor tank, cold liquor tank, mash tun, lauter tun, boil kettle, rice cooker (for the "Gold" which uses rice), etc.  Lots of pushbutton control, too.  Fancy!

    So how was the beer, served in a frozen mug (traditional in these parts)?  In a word... meh.  All the beer except the Gold (aka typical light lager) is 100% malt, and the brewery has gotten some good press - but apparently all of it from teetotaler journalists.  The Gold is passable, but is the same as every other beer in the region (possibly a bit sweeter).  The pilsner, which I was really looking forward to, was... the lowlight.  It tasted like a typically premature, unfinished "cloudy pilsner" sold by unskilled brewpubs in hot-climate countries, but run through a filter (for clarity) and a pasteurizer (for flavour stability).  It tasted fruity and yeasty, and not in a particularly good way.  Maybe local palettes like this better than I do, but I'm skeptical.

    But there's hope - their "dark" beer is an inoffensive beer along the lines of a mild or a mass-market English brown.  There's a bit of caramel malt in there, not too much bitterness, restrained sweetness, and most importantly no unbridled yeast problems.  Served cold, it's fine.  (Except that it costs twice as much as a light lager.)

    The tour cost a few dollars, but our guide was very nice and answered our questions as best she could.  (For instance, there is no refrigeration room for the conditioning tanks - or for the fermenters.  According to our guide they use CO2 jackets for cooling these tanks, and the CO2 is purchased from the Coca-Cola factory down the road.  This seems odd and expensive to me, and some of the beer tastes like it was fermented too warm, but what do I know?)

    FYI, there's apparently a "pub night" every second Friday or so at the brewery, which online reviews indicate is a lot of fun.


    Kudos to Kingdom for making a go of it in a difficult brewing environment.  However, I've lost any hope that there could be a decent microbrewery in southeast Asia, so I'm going to stop investigating and just enjoy the last few weeks of my travel.  Until I return to sweet Vancouver in late April - land of barley, hops and good brewers - I guess it's watery Leo beer for me.

    NB - Ever wonder why some breweries pasteurize their beer?  In this region, it's pretty much essential.  The above shop is across the street from Kingdom Breweries.  Those are boxes of beer stacked under the 2:00 pm Phnom Penh sun in the middle of hot season.  Imagine what your west coast IPA would taste like after that kind of treatment?  At least these beers don't have much flavour to begin with.

              Arrests and uncertainty overseas show why Australia must legalise compensated surrogacy   
    By Paula Gerber   Cambodia is the latest country in our region to ban commercial surrogacy. As happened when India, Thailand and Nepal introduced such bans, dozens of Australians are now extremely anxious because they have no idea what is going to happen to their babies who have recently been born or are on their way. […]
              Cambodia to target Russian tourists   
    PHNOM PENH Cambodia’s Ministry of Tourism has outlined key strategies to attract more Russian tourists.
              Shipping a fresh Kampot taste to the big city   
    Three close friends embarked on a joint culinary venture in Tuol Tom Poung last month, hoping to bring both the signature food and aesthetic of Cambodia’s fishermen to the city’s urban dwellers.
              TTM: Cambodia promotes its first travel mart   
    CHIANG MAI Cambodia will inaugurate a national travel show, Cambodia Travel Mart, this November to be hosted in Siem Reap.
              Thailand backtracks on labour law after migrant workers flee   
    BANGKOK: Thailand's military government said it will delay enforcing new labour regulations after thousands of migrant workers fled home to neighbouring countries this week fearing arrest and heavy fines under the new decree.

    The scramble is the latest chaos triggered by Thailand's efforts to regulate the millions of foreign workers who prop up its economy with jobs in factories, fishing boats and other low-paid work.

    The junta has trumpeted a flurry of campaigns aimed at registering migrant workers and cracking down on illegal smuggling routes, but the efforts are often ad-hoc and short-lived.

    As a result, much of the migrant work force remains undocumented and vulnerable to exploitation by traffickers and unscrupulous employers.

    On Friday the junta said it would suspend parts of a new foreign labour law, which came into effect on June 23, for 120 days after the regulations sparked a panic among migrant workers and their employers.

    "(During this window) there will be no arrests or crackdown on illegal workers except for those who violate human trafficking laws," Deputy Prime Minister Wissanu Krea-ngam told reporters.

    The reprieve comes after thousands of labourers fled home to neighbouring Myanmar and Cambodia fearing arrest and fines of up to US$3,000 (RM12,882) under the law which punishes migrant workers lacking valid work permits.

    Employers can also be fined up to 800,000 baht (US$24,000) for each undocumented worker they hire.

    In Samut Sakhon, a seafood industry hub known as "Little Burma" for its concentration of Myanmar migrant workers, around 500 labourers have been returning home daily during the past week, said Suthasinee Kaewleklai from the Migrant Worker Rights Network (MWRN).

    "These workers don't have any documents and have to return to Myanmar as they fear needing to pay a heavy fine," she told AFP.

    The advocacy group also warned that traffickers frequently profit from such mass movements of migrants, with smugglers and border agents exacting fees from undocumented workers looking for a safe passage home.

    A police chief in Myanmar's Karen state said around 6,000 migrant workers had returned home from Thailand since Thursday.

    Meanwhile on the Cambodian border, the number of migrants streaming home has been increasing daily since the new law came to into effect, said Thai immigration officer Benjapol Robsawad.

    Since Wednesday nearly 2,000 workers have crossed back to Cambodia through the Poipet checkpoint, he told AFP.

    In 2014 some 250,000 Cambodians fled Thailand after fears that the newly-installed junta government would arrest and deport undocumented workers. They slowly trickled back in the following weeks. — AFP
              Myanmar, Cambodia to launch joint tourism action plan   


    A general view shows Dhammayangyi Temple is seen next to others ancient pagodas in Bagan city, Myanmar. Photo: Rungroj Yongrit/EPA

    Tourism authorities in Myanmar and Cambodia will launch a joint action plan aimed at boosting tourism industry of the two countries, the Myanmar Ministry of Hotels and Tourism said on Thursday. 

    The plan was forwarded when a business delegation of the Cambodian Ministry of Tourism met with its Myanmar counterparts in Bagan during its current visit. 

    The two sides agreed to establish joint marketing efforts including joint events to promote new package tours such as a proposed "Angkor-Bagan, Two Ancient Capitals-One Destination" tour. 

    Aimed at strengthening existing friendly relations in all fields and simplifying the procedures for citizens traveling between the two countries. Myanmar and Cambodia had signed an agreement on mutual visa exemption for holders of ordinary passports in Nay Pyi Taw in December 2013. 

    In February 2011, Myanmar established air link with Cambodia with its Myanmar Airways International (MAI) flying between Yangon and Siem Reap, an ancient city of Cambodia. The flight service was extended to reach Phnom Penh in November 2011. 

    The airline's extension to the Cambodian capital has created a long-term cooperation between Cambodia and Myanmar on tourism, culture, trade and investment. 

    The direct air link between Myanmar and Cambodia also plays apart in the efforts in developing the tourism industry in the region.

    Courtesy Global Times, edited for style

              Free Travel from Bootsnall, New Zealand for Indie Travelers, 10 Reasons to Go to Australia, and 12 Ways to Combat the Solo Traveler Blues   
    October’s already half gone and with it goes your chance to win a scary-good trip from BootsnAll and WorldNomads. Read on to find out how to enter and win free travel to Egypt, Cambodia or Central Europe and get our best advice on making the most of a trip to New Zealand (no organized tours required), what to do in Australia, and how to beat the solo traveler blues on your next big trip. Win Free Travel From BootsnAll and World Nomads This Halloween Make this Halloween the best ever with free travel treats and a chance to win a free trip to Cambodia, Central Europe or Egypt. This year we’re partnering with World Nomads and Intrepid Travel (and some other great brands) to share free travel resources, and award one lucky winner with an awesome, expenses-paid escape. Read on for more details about the treats, the trips, and how you can win! “What exactly does the Grand Prize include, anyway? The stuff travel dreams are made of. Seriously, though, the winner of Trip or Treat will receive pretty much everything we think a traveler needs for a big trip: two reserved spots on Intrepid Travel’s Cambodia Real Food Adventure, Egypt Adventure, or Best of Central Europe Tour; round-trip economy airfare for two provided by BootsnAll; a standard travel insurance policy for two […]
              Family Travel in the Amazon, Making Shark Movies in Mexico, Solo Travel Tips for Women in Egypt, Trip or Treat for Free Travel from BootsnAll and World Nomads   
    Happy almost October! This week on BootsnAll we’ve been talking about fears and misconceptions about “riskier” destinations and travel activities and how to deal with them before, during and after a trip. Vickie Lillo shows us that family travel doesn’t have to mean giving your tourism dollars to an all-inclusive resort or a theme park–if you’re open-minded enough to take your teenager hiking in the Amazon rainforest, that is. How do you dismiss childhood nightmares about Jaws? If you’re Maurice D. Valentine, by cage-diving with great white sharks in Mexico (and getting it on film for posterity).  Been dying to get to Egypt but worried about going alone? Despite dire warnings from friends and family, fearless traveler and staff writer Jenn Miller is just back from a lovely solo trip there–with overland travel tips to share. Finally, if you’re ready to travel but your budget isn’t quite there yet, you should take five minutes and enter Trip or Treat to win a free trip to Cambodia, Central Europe or Egypt from World Nomads, BootsnAll, and Intrepid Travel. A Family Vacation in Guyana: Seeing the Amazon From an Amerindian Perspective What if your tourism dollars could help save the Amazon rainforests and wildlife and conserving traditional culture on an Amerindian reservation? Vickie Lillo shares practical information on how to do just that, […]

    Thai cuisine is the national cuisine of Thailand. Thai cuisine places emphasis on lightly prepared dishes with strong aromatic components. Thai cuisine is known for being spicy. Balance, detail and variety are important to Thai cooking. Thai food is known for its balance of the five fundamental taste senses in each dish or the overall meal: hot (spicy), sour, sweet, salty, and (optional) bitter.

    Although popularly considered a single cuisine, Thai food would be more accurately described as four regional cuisines corresponding to the four main regions of the country: Northern, Northeastern (or Isan), Central, and Southern, each cuisine sharing similar foods or foods derived from those of neighboring countries and regions: Burma, the Chinese province of Yunnan and Laos to the north, CambodiaLaos and to the east and Malaysia to the south of Thailand. In addition to these four regional cuisines, there is also the Thai Royal Cuisine which can trace its history back to the palace cuisine of the Ayutthaya kingdom (1351–1767 CE). Its refinement, cooking techniques and its use of ingredients were of great influence to the cuisine of the Central Thai plains.
    The culinary traditions and cuisines of Thailand's neighbors have influenced Thai cuisine over many centuries. Regional variations tend to correlate to neighboring states as well as climate and geography. Southern curries tend to contain coconut milk and fresh turmeric, while northeastern dishes often include lime juice. The cuisine of Northeastern (or Isan) Thailand is heavily influenced by Lao cuisine. Many popular dishes eaten in Thailand were originally Chinese dishes which were introduced to Thailand mainly by the Teochew people who make up the majority of the Thai Chinese. Such dishes include chok (rice porridge), kuai-tiao rat na (fried rice-noodles) and khao kha mu (stewed pork with rice). The Chinese also introduced the use of a wok for cooking, the technique of deep-frying and stir-frying dishes, and noodles and soy products.

    Central Thai shared dishes

    Tom Yum 

    Tom Yum is the most famous of Thai soups, being very popular in Thai restaurants in the US. It is a clear sour soup which is flavored with fresh lemon grass and kaffir lime leaf. The most well-known version uses shrimp (in Thai: goong, koon, kung), but you may also use firm white-flesh fish (see Tom Yum Taleh) or chicken (gy, gai or kai).

    Red curry

    Red curry (Thai: แกงเผ็ด; spicy curry) is a popular Thai dish consisting of curry paste to which coconut milk is added. The base is properly made with a mortar and pestle, and remains moist throughout the preparation process. 
    Red curry paste itself is the core flavouring for a number of other non-related dishes such Thot man pla (fish cakes) and sai ua (grilled Chiang Mai sausage).
    Red Curry with Roasted Duck is one of the most popular types of curries in Thai restaurants outside of Thailand. See our website for the Homemade Red Curry Paste recipe or if you are short of time, substitute ready-made canned curry paste with great results.
    Ho mok pla
    Ho mok pla, fish curry paté
    Ho mok pla - a paté of fish, spices, coconut milk and egg, steamed in a banana leaf cup and topped with thick coconut cream before serving.

    Thot man 
    Thot man pla krai with fried basil

    Thot man - deep fried fishcake made from knifefish (Thot man pla krai, Thaiทอดมันปลากราย) or shrimp (Thot man kung, Thaiทอดมันกุ้ง).
    Thot man pla is made by deep frying small patties of minced fish (most often plakrai) mixed with red curry paste, finely chopped yardlong beans (tua fak yao, Thai: ถั่วฝักยาว), and finely shredded kaffir lime leaves (bai makrut, Thai: ใบมะกรูด). The same recipe with minced prawns, instead of fish, will make you thot man kung (Thai: ทอดมันกุ้ง). The fried leaves seen in the photo are those of Thai holy basil (bai kraphao, Thai: ใบกะเพรา). Thot man pla is served with a sweet chilli dip sauce which normally contains diced cucumber and crushed peanuts. This dish can be eaten as a snack, a starter, or as one of the dishes in a Thai buffet style meal.
    Phak bung fai daeng: fried morning-glory
    Phak bung fai daeng - stir fried morning-glory with yellow bean paste. 

     (Phat) phak boong fai daeng (Thai: ผัดผักบุ้งไฟแดง): Literally it means "(fried) red fire morning-glory". The basic recipe is morning-glory (Ipomoea aquatica) stir-fried with garlic, chillies, Thai yellow bean sauce (taochiao), oyster sauce and fish sauce. For the correct taste, one needs to get the cooking flames in to the pan. This vegetable dish is extremely popular in Thailand.

    Pla sam rot
    Pla sam rot
    Pla sam rot
    Pla sam rot - literally "Three flavours fish": deep fried fish with a sweet, tangy and spicy tamarind sauce.
    Pla samrot (Thai: ปลาสามรส) or pla thot samrot: Deep fried three flavours fish. Here made with pla thapthim (Thai: ปลาทับทิม, Oreochromis niloticus, Nile Tilapia). The sticky, sweet, spicy and tangy sauce's main ingredients are tamarind, chillies and garlic. The dish is garnished with roughly chopped coriander (cilantro) leaves. The fish is approximately 25 cm (10 inches) in length.

    Phat khana mu krop
    Phat khana mu krop - khana (gailan) stir fried with crispy pork
    Phat phak kana mu krop: Thai style stir fried Chinese broccoli (pak kana, Thai: ผักคะน้า) with crispy pork (mu krop Thai: หมูกรอบ). The recipe also includes sliced large red chillies, sliced garlic, oyster sauce and soy sauce. Here it is served rat khao, meaning "together with rice".

    Bone Appetite
    Hew kaow

              Sudeste Asiático: Viajar a Camboya   
    Hola, nosotros viajamos a Camboya a primeros de noviembre una semana si alguien esta por esas fechas y quiere compartir alguna excursion ,me mande un privado o en el mismo foro ,he encontrado esta pagina que es muy interesante a tener en cuenta la seguridad saludos
              Cambodian (Khmer) Interpreters - LanguageLine Solutions - Canada   
    Ability to explain cultural concepts to avoid miscommunication, and to act as a cultural broker. Job....
    From LanguageLine Solutions - Fri, 23 Jun 2017 09:21:33 GMT - View all Canada jobs
              Cambodian (Khmer) Interpreters - LanguageLine Solutions - Canada   
    Job Title: Cambodian (Khmer) Interpreter Position Overview: The Khmer Telephone/Video Interpreter is responsible for handling calls on demand, and
    From LanguageLine Solutions - Fri, 23 Jun 2017 09:21:33 GMT - View all Canada jobs
              News Wrap: U.S. Airways, American Airlines merger cleared for takeoff by DOJ   

    We're sorry, the rights for this video have expired. | Listen to the Audio

    JUDY WOODRUFF: We will have more on extreme weather events in the context of climate change right after the news summary.

    U.S. Airways and American Airlines have cleared the last major hurdle to merging into a single carrier. The Justice Department approved the deal today. It calls for the two airlines to eliminate 56 flights a day out of Washington and New York. They will also transfer some gates at other major airports to low-cost carriers. The moves are meant to prevent the merger from stifling competition.

    Heart experts are calling for twice as many Americans to consider taking statin drugs that cut cholesterol. The American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology issued new guidelines today on heart attacks and strokes. Using a new formula, some 33 million Americans, one-third of all adults, meet the threshold to consider taking a statin.

    President Obama faced new pressure today over cancellations of millions of health insurance policies. Former President Bill Clinton told the website that Mr. Obama needs to keep his promise not to let that happen.

    FORMER PRESIDENT  BILL CLINTON: I personally believe, even if it takes a change in the law, that the president should honor the commitment the federal government made to those people and let them keep what they got.

    JUDY WOODRUFF: Mr. Obama has apologized for the problem, but has not said he’s willing to amend the law. As for the Clinton comments, White House spokesman Jay Carney had this response.

    JAY CARNEY, White House Press Secretary: I think it’s important to note that President Clinton in that interview also said — and I quote — “The big lesson is that we are better off with this law than without it.”

    The president, as you know, has pledged to ask his team, tasked his team to look at potential actions that could be taken to address this problem, because his focus is on making sure that people get quality and affordable health insurance.

    JUDY WOODRUFF: The number two Democrat in the U.S. House, Maryland Congressman Steny Hoyer, also joined the call today to let people keep their existing policies.

    Meanwhile, The New York Times reported that major insurance companies are asking to sign people up directly and bypass the troubled Web site.

    Hawaii is about to become the 16th state to legalize gay marriage. The state Senate moved today to give final approval to same-sex unions. The governor indicated he would sign the bill into law. A similar measure won approval last week in the Illinois legislature.

    The U.N. Human Rights Council added new members today, and human rights activists were not happy about the results. China, Russia, Saudi Arabia, and Cuba all won seats, despite protests that they routinely abuse human rights and restrict basic freedoms. The U.N. General Assembly voted on the new members.

    An international committee of architects has confirmed it: One World Trade Center in New York will be the tallest building in the U.S. when it’s completed next year. It’s being built at the site of the 9/11 attacks and will top out at 1,776 feet. But a dispute arose over the needle on top of the building and whether it’s to be counted toward that height. The announcement came today in Chicago.

    ANTONY WOOD, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat: In the end, we reached a consensus. It was close to unanimous. It wasn’t 100 percent unanimous, but it was close to unanimous. And so the debate — and this was a five-hour meeting. So the debate was — was pretty heated.

    JUDY WOODRUFF: Chicago’s Willis Tower, formerly known as the Sears Tower, had been the country’s tallest building at 1,451 feet.

    Violence erupted in two developing countries today as garment workers pressed for better pay and working conditions. In Cambodia, one woman was shot dead when riot police used tear gas and water cannon along with live ammunition. Demonstrators threw rocks and set some cars on fire. In Bangladesh, thousands of protesters battled police in two industrial towns, leaving dozens of people injured. More than 200 factories were closed.

    In China, leaders of the ruling Communist Party vowed to let markets play a decisive role in allocating resources. The policy statement was announced at the end of a four-day summit in Beijing. The gathering focused on reforms to drive economic growth for the next decade. The leaders stopped short of ordering dramatic reforms that would end the dominance of state-controlled industries.

    President Obama nominated a top Treasury Department official, Timothy Massad, to run the Commodity Futures Trading Commission today. The CFTC regulates the futures and options market, but it’s one of the smallest and most thinly funded U.S. agencies. The president urged Congress today to fully fund the commission.

    On Wall Street, the Dow Jones industrial average lost 32 points today to close at 15,750. The Nasdaq rose a fraction to close just short of 3,920.


    The post News Wrap: U.S. Airways, American Airlines merger cleared for takeoff by DOJ appeared first on PBS NewsHour.

              The Attack of the Phantom Clowns   

    The wave of creepy clown sightings across the country has now stumbled upon Long Beach. This week, a number of individuals took to social media to share a photo of a clown spotted in Cambodia Town.

    The post The Attack of the Phantom Clowns appeared first on disinformation.

              How to change lives with school vegetable gardens.   
      Photo credit:Trish Travel Food HOW VEGETABLE GARDENS IN CAMBODIA CHANGE LIVES Siem Reap in Cambodia is the tourist gateway to the temples at Angkor Wat. When I flew there from Vietnam in March I headed two hours further north to Samrong and visited something completely different – school vegetable gardens! I travelled with a … Continue reading How to change lives with school vegetable gardens.
              Long time no see... Back to blogging...   
    Thailand, Cambodia, Laos mix 2016. 

    All Photos on this blog, copyright Dj-ingen photography 2016!

              A late mix update. Sweden, Norway, Cambodia, Thailand 2014- 2015.    

    All Photos on this blog, copyright Dj-ingen photography 2011!

              The best of the last few months.    
    Cambodia, Thailand, Sweden

    All Photos on this blog, copyright Dj-ingen photography 2014!

              An update, no name just photos, Thailand/Cambodia 2014. Part 1.    

    All Photos on this blog, copyright Dj-ingen photography 2014!

              Cambodia ranked top for investment in Asia, research finds   
              Women in Cambodia: One Step Forward, Two Steps Backwards   
    by Alexandra Amling Reporting on a 2013 UN Study on male perpetration of violence against women (VAW) in the Asia-Pacific region, the Cambodian Daily stated that 1 in 5 men in Cambodia admitted to having raped a woman. A deeper study of the UN Reports shows that 20.4% of 1474 male interviewees reported having perpetrated […]
              Comment on Pattaya Beach goes ‘chair-free’ for 2 days by jaizan   
    They are complete idiots. People are quite happy to have a gay section, a Russian section & so on. If they keep mixing everything up and closing the beach 2 days a week for no good reason, it will just drive tourists off to places like Vietnam & Cambodia.
              honda motorcycle   
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              Ambitious Cambodian Dance Troupe Honors Artistic Traditions in New Ways   
    Prumsodun Ok stands in the middle of a street in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, July 19, 2016. (Courtesy of Lim Sokchanlina) Manilene Ek VOA Khmer 30 June 2017 WASHINGTON — Prumsodun Ok, a Cambodian-American born to refugee parents, knew he wanted to be an “apsara” dancer from the age of 4, when he was entranced by ...
              Understanding the Adventureland Veranda   
    Late last year the Skipper Canteen opened at Magic Kingdom's Adventureland, a move which this author enthusiastically endorsed. Yet not everyone was as complimentary as I - almost immediately unfavorable comparisons to the Adventurer's Club of Pleasure Island began to emerge. In fact, 2015 was something of a bumper crop year for restaurants being unfavorably compared to the Adventurer's Club, starting with the new Trader Sam's in the Spring, proceeding through Jock Lindsay's Hangar Bar in the Fall, and climaxing with Skipper Canteen in the Winter. This is in spite of the fact that none of these restaurants - to a one - ever announced or attempted any ties to that loudly missed Pleasure Island institution.

    Between Summer 1994 and Winter 2015, an entire generation has passed through Adventureland without stepping foot into the Adventureland Veranda. Pieces of the original layout have been truncated, altered, and removed over time - the shaded verandas which gave the food service location its name did not return, and the most extended seating porches out towards the Breezeway had long been swallowed up by Restrooms.

    And so it is entirely reasonable to expect new visitors to not be fully in the know about exactly what the Adventureland Veranda and the Skipper Canteen represents and, in looking for answers, perhaps did not look to the right places to begin with.

    Adventurer's Club belonged to some time long ago, where there could still theoretically be snooty butlers and French maids. The time period of both the Jungle Cruise and the Club are some ephemeral sense of "pre-World War II"; back then, when theoretically we could expect Indiana Jones,  Rick Blaine, or Groucho's Captain Spaulding persona to rub shoulders at the bar. A time that didn't really exist, but generations of passed on memories from Hollywood thrillers made us want to believe it could have.

    And of course, the Jungle Navigation Company - the fictional proprietors of the Jungle Cruise - were explicitly connected to the Adventurer's Club. Many guests seemingly expected the Canteen to reflect either the Club, which was connected to the Jungle Cruise mythologically, or the Jungle Cruise queue area, connected to the Jungle Cruise physically. Instead, they were served up, in Skipper Canteen, a remade version of something else entirely.

    And don't get me wrong; I applaud Magic Kingdom's decision to honor the original design of the Adventureland Veranda, one of the most richly evocative spaces ever created for a theme park. The trick is, it's been so long that most people aren't even sure what the Veranda was designed to evoke, so to show how retaining the interior makes both good historical and thematic sense, we need to grapple with what the Veranda is supposed to be at all.

    Adventureland: Tracing the Colonial Narrative

    As described in a previous post, Adventureland at Magic Kingdom does follow a specific progression and trace a unified concept, it's just one most observers will never attempt to unpack. We will have to, for the purposes of this essay.

    There are basically four sections to Adventureland, and each structure can be tied to one or another. The Theme of Adventureland is of the encounter between the Western world and far-off places and peoples. This Theme is Visualized through the device of exotic architecture. The Thematic Heart of the area is the Jungle Cruise, the ride the area was designed to complement, where we (modern Americans) may travel into uncharted regions and confront various dangers.

    The First Section is the Jungle. The Jungle represents the untamed wilderness which Adventureland encroaches on. Attractions that belong to the Jungle are the Jungle Cruise and the Swiss Family Treehouse, both representing the concept of "Survival Against the Odds". Both attractions are perched on the edge of the apparently boundless Jungle section. The Thematic Heart of the Jungle Section is the Cambodian Ruins, which represents the notion that all cultures will fail to conquer the wilds of the Jungle and establishes the dominance of this threat.

    The Second Section is the Colonial Area. The Colonists represent the intrusion of Western cultures into forgein lands. The Thematic Heart of the Colonial Section is the Adventureland Veranda. Notice how, when entering from the Hub, that the Colonial Section is directly juxtaposed with the Jungle across the way, an early indication of the main conflict of the area - and setting up the nearby Jungle Cruise.

    The Third Section is what I call the Native Section. The transition occurs at the Adventureland Breezeway where the bathrooms are located, where the architecture switches to rougher earthen walls and strong Moorish influences. This is the civilization which existed in Adventureland before the Colonists arrived, and it appropriately is positioned further in the area, allowing the Victorian touches of the Colonial section and Main Street U.S.A. to transition smoothly. The Thematic Heart of the Native Section is the Balinese Temple that the Enchanted Tiki Room occurs in.

    Let's dwell for a moment on the altered significance of the Tiki Room at Magic Kingdom. At Disneyland, the Tiki Room is designed to reflect a midcentury American tiki restaurant, the likes of which had proliferated across Southern California since the end of the war. That's why it's supposed to be a surprise when the stuffed birds inside come to life. At Magic Kingdom, the Tiki Room is inside a Balinese Temple, an actual house of the Gods. We are told in the pre-show area that the Birds inside can talk as an effect of the "Magical Sunshine Pavilion", i.e. they can speak because they have been blessed by the power of the Gods. Therefore, when the Tiki Gods end the showing of American pop culture by bringing in a storm, it's an actual reflection of their power. In other words, we're lucky they didn't get even angrier. The Colonists don't stand a chance. Or, as Uhoah said, "When you mess with Polynesia, the Tiki Gods will squeeze ya!"

    The Fourth Section is Caribbean Plaza, which comprises Pirates of the Caribbean. The Thematic Heart of the Plaza is the Castillo del Morro, the fortress the pirates attack and overrun in the ride. But the Pirates are intruders as much as the Colonizing Spaniards are, don't forget. Although Pirates of the Caribbean does not dramatize Adventureland's key theme - it's a morality play and thus best paired with The Haunted Mansion - the fact that Caribbean Plaza is executed in Spanish Colonial style, and bookends the Native section of Adventureland with yet another village built by conquerors, both means it feels perfectly at home in Adventureland and allows for a smooth transition into a representation of another area overrun by greedy white men: Latin America and the American Southwest.

    Here's a map of the main area with everything color coded to dramatize the clash of values in Adventureland.

    The Adventureland Veranda: What Is It?

    Okay, now that we know how the Veranda fits into the narrative conveyed by Adventureland's architecture, let's dig into what the darn thing actually is, and we can begin by taking a quick tour of what's represented architecturally here.

    Facing the Hub, we see immediately tile-lined roofs and elaborately shaped details.

    Yes, tile-lined roofs do evoke the Caribbean, and it's an easy leap to make given the elaborately tiled roofs just down the way in Caribbean Plaza, but let's not forget that tile roofs are also traditional in Asia, which helps visually tie the roofline in with this elaborately realized pagoda-esque tower:

    The elaborate scrollwork of the Veranda is unmistakably Victorian in design. We know this because only the Victorians did things like nail intricately scrolled wood on their houses, and they did it because it was brand spanking new and novel. The Scroll Saw that made the production of these pieces possible was not created until the Industrial Revolution, which meant you could now cheaply produce things which once would've required a skilled artisan. The Victorians loved that stuff, which is why we can instantly recognize the intricate but mass produced "gingerbread" of Main Street USA as Victorian.

    We also see elaborately designed railings...

    ..intricate woodwork...

    ...promenading balconies and painted steel or tin roofs. Corrugated steel, again, being a product of the Industrial Revolution, making it possible to date our structure definitively to late in the 19th century.

    So now the trick is to narrow down what sort of tropical architecture has all of these features. One easy place to search for inspiration is Hawaii, which had effectively been annexed by the United States for decades before it was made an official part of the union following World War II. It's easy to see the similarities to structures built in Hawaii to house workers and owners on sugar plantations:

    But it's easy and tempting to conflate the merely tropical with a direct source. The tin roof, peaked architecture, bright colors and charming porch recall the Veranda closely, but what of the Asian elements? The same historical location in Hawaii, the Plantation Village in Waipahu, has a temple built for Chinese laborers that looks like even more of a smoking gun:

    But let's keep looking before we jump to any conclusions. It gets into tricky territory if you want to claim that Hawaii was ever "colonized" - issues that a Disney blog and this unlearned author would be best to avoid. We are in the "Colonial Section", and if the more Asian the designs get the closer we seem to the Veranda, then we need to question which European powers maintain colonies in Asia. And when we ask that, the range narrows considerably: Britain and France.

    How about India? The entrance to the Veranda has this highly atmospheric punkah, redolent of tropical climes and the Indian subcontinent.

    Punkahs spread with the English out of British East India during their colonial era, spreading west to Europe.

    But there isn't much else you can point to in the Veranda that seems especially British or Indian in design. Punkah became especially popular in the American South among the richest landowners, and those who operated punkah is where we still derive our pejorative "coolie". Dixie Landings/Port Orleans Riverside's lobby has two very visible punkah:

    Keep in mind this connection, but next we have to look to French Indochina, and once we do that, things start to look familiar indeed.

    French Colonial architecture begins to more strongly resemble the almost hallucinatory refinement we see in Adventureland. The rambling balcony on this house would look at home dispensing Dole Whips.

    Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam, was the center of the French Indochina Empire and in an old section of town we can see native building materials and tile roofs juxtaposed directly with the kind of elaborate railings and open balconies found at Magic Kingdom:

    France was so proud of Hanoi that they actually staged a Expo there in 1902. Intended to ride the coat-tails of the era's love of World's Fairs, to Magic Kingdom fans the architecture is startlingly familiar:

    If the Adventureland Veranda's corrugated roofs and shutters strike Americans as redolent of Key West or the Caribbean, well, the reason is because the French stopped off there too. Notice the similarities to this 1911 plantation house in St Lucia:

    If we stop off at Caribbean islands which still evoke a Gallic influence, we come across architecture which would look right at home in Adventureland. Port-au-Prince, in Haiti, still has some astonishingly beautiful French Colonial vernacular architecture:

    In fact, if the whole thing seems redolent of the American South and Jazz, remember just who it was whom we bought the Louisiana Purchase from. I've heard more than one guest describe the Veranda as reminding them of New Orleans, and they're right, because don't forget that we in the States still have French Colonial architecture too:

    We call our concentrated area of French Colonial architecture the French Quarter, but in New Orleans you can also hear it called the "Vieux Carre", which was what the French called it - it means "The Old Square". That's exactly what the Vietnamese call their concentrated area of French Colonial architecture - "The Old Square". This is not a coincidence. In fact, once you lock in on French Colonial as the architectural style, the pieces fall into place: tall rooms designed to circulate air:

    Sliding or opening shutters:

    Airy verandas, just as in the Old South... wait, the clue was actually in the name all along! Turns out the name "Adventureland Veranda" doesn't just describe the actual Verandas which lined the east side of the structure facing the Hub, but were meant to evoke the function of the space as a great house, a location of manners and refinement, a cool escape from the oppressive heat beyond.

    The Adventureland Veranda represents a French Colonial Plantation Home of the Victorian era. Now, notice that in its original state, the Veranda was heavily dressed with bamboo, wind chimes, and other South Pacific textures and patterns:

    This not only makes the interior more strange and exotic, helping differentiate it from Main Street, but looks forward to the totally rustic look of the "Native Village" deeper in Adventureland, typified by the Tiki stylings of the Sunshine Pavilion and the Jungle Cruise.

    It's a testament to the design talents of WED Enterprises that generations of guests detected this without really being able to put their finger exactly on what it was they were seeing. French Colonial architecture is at once familiar and exotic, an appropriate overture to the area to come. It can look European, American, Caribbean, Indian and Asian all at once, and has been quietly confounding description for decades.

    The Design of the Adventureland Veranda

    Once I had gathered the above sets of influences, I was able to start drilling down my search for material on the design of the Adventureland Veranda, and thanks to a fortuitous series of "finds", I'm able to present a fairly clear picture for the first time. So, it's time to meet Disney Legend Dorothea Redmond.

    Mrs. Redmond has been mentioned here before, but it's fair to say that if the design of Magic Kingdom had an "MVP", I'd place Dorothea at the top of the list. This may seem silly, until I start listing the locations based directly on her designs: The Crystal Palace, King Stephan's Banquet Hall, Liberty Tree Tavern, Plaza Restaurant, Tony's Town Square, Columbia Harbour House... need I go on?

    Dorothea's first job out of art school was working under legendary designer William Cameron Menzies.... on Gone With The Wind, David O Selznick's colossal production. Much of the feel of Redmond's production art of Tara was transferred to the screen through elaborate special effects shots:

    Redmond kept working for Selznick, including later productions like Rebecca and Notorious, with Alfred Hitchcock. Her art must have caught Hitch's eye, because he brought her over to Universal, where she did design interiors and storyboards on Shadow of a Doubt:

    Perhaps it was her work on Gone With The Wind that suggested her, but Walt Disney brought her onboard at WED Enterprises, where she contributed to New Orleans Square:

    I've been able to gather up a number of Redmond's pieces relating to Magic Kingdom's Adventureland, which if I had to guess, based on what I have, she designed the common areas in totality.

    That's something like what the Sunshine Pavilion looked like in 1968 - it compares tolerably well to the layout seen in this 1968 Magic Kingdom site plan, provided by Mike Lee at Widen Your World:

    Sharp eyed viewers will notice that the basic shape of the Adventureland Veranda is pretty much in place by then. Which is why I'm comfortable saying that this blueprint matches an elevation recently put up for sale by Van Eaton Galleries:

    Don't worry, we'll get closer to pull it apart presently. I was, in fact, going to pass on this unremarked when I noticed that Redmond had left barely legible source citations at the bottom of her art, and this find was too remarkable to pass up on. Although there were undoubtably other sources, I'm pleased to present two books which are direct sources for Magic Kingdom's Adventureland: The West Indies by Life World library, 1967, and Shadows From India by Roderick Cameron, 1958.

    Shadows From India is hard to find today - it seems to have been published only in Europe - and strikes me as the more interesting source so we will begin there. Although in the final park their placement was flipped, on the Redmond piece what is identifiably Aloha Isle is present:

    The final design was much reduced and had no visible structural decay, but that is definitely the building where Dole Whips were dispensed for three decades. Redmond's notation here directs us to Shadows From India page 135, which turns out is a fairly unenlightening reference for the windows seen here.

    However, if we look carefully, we can find more obvious sources, like these long slatted shades between columns on a British Colonial townhouse on page 142:

    These seem to have been copied pretty much directly:

    Elsewhere in Shadows From India, it's possible to find echoes of Adventureland:

    This British Colonial houseboat seems especially close to the mark:

    Going back to Redmond's art, we can see that originally, the very first structure inside Adventureland to the right -- was going to be a Shooting Gallery! Notice the crossed pistols on the mural top the left of the shooting gallery counter:

    Her citations direct us this time to page 105 in The West Indies, where she has reproduced a building sitting behind The Queen's Park in Trinidad pretty much exactly:

    The park is still there, but all evidence suggests that this fascinating Victorian is long gone. The final version came out a bit differently while retaining the overhanging eaves:

    One real life building that strikes me as even closer to the final Veranda design is the Boissiere House in Port-au-Prince:

    The central section of the Veranda facade here, what Redmond has labeled "6" and "7", would seem to be total fantasy. The glass gazebo, once called the South Seas Terrace (now the entrance to the Skipper Canteen), only has a notation indicating how the corrugated steel roof should be applied:

    But if we follow the paper trail to The West Indies, on page 85 we come across a startling discovery:

    It turns out this memorable building is actually a pretty direct copy of a house in Port-au-Prince, which at least as of 1967 was still standing. I've searched online and it no longer seems to exist - much of Port-au-Prince's Victorian architecture was either torn down or finally destroyed by the 2010 earthquake. But here's one, rarely bestowed form of immortality!

    As for the interior? I have only vestiges - scans from a Food Service planning packet dated 1970 on file at the Orlando Public Library - but enough to show how faithfully realized Redmond's designs were:

    A Club By Any Other Name

    Let's go back to the Adventurer's Club for a moment here.

    Here's the thing, even allowing for the inexact nature of farce, is that Adventurer's Club was always supposed to be a Gentleman's Club, heavily British East Indian in style. Supposedly the idea germinated from a theme party held by Joe Rhode in the late 80s called "The Last Days of the Raj". In other words the Adventurer's Club was a place you came back to to tell your stories and show off your treasures. The Adventureland Veranda is a plantation, meaning it has the feeling not only of being away from everything, but of domesticity.

    Now the Jungle Cruise is unavoidably British Colonial in theme, even if it's staffed with wisecracking yanks in the fashion of Humphrey Bogart in The African Queen. Thus it makes sense that the Jungle Cruise and Adventurer's Club would be bedfellows. So how does the Jungle Cruise fit into the Veranda?

    I'd argue that there is a backdoor here through the colonialism theme. And since it would be egregious to keep the distinctive exterior of the Veranda structure but gut the interior to resemble something it is not, then either the whole thing must be torn down and rebuilt into an entirely new stretch of architecture or the Jungle Cruise theme must be adapted to the new space.

    The key is that the Skipper Canteen must then by definition not be a social space in the style of the private club represented by the Adventurer's Club, but a private space, and that is just what Imagineering has done. They've made the Canteen into a converted home, even turning one of the side rooms into a family dining room with a fireplace and cabinets of fine china.

    Instead of making the connection between the Jungle Cruise and the Adventuer's Club and being disappointed that the Canteen does not follow suit, I'd like to propose a more appropriate lens to view the new restaurant through, one that actually works with both the Jungle Cruise and the Veranda:

    The Explorer's Club, also known as Colonel Hathi's Pizza Outpost at Disneyland Paris, is another space which is at once exotic and evokes domesticity, with soaring ceilings and shaded verandas.

    I'd rather have it that way, too. The approach is simple and matches the tone of what's there in the park already.

    One of the distinctive things about Disneyland and The Magic Kingdom, I feel, is that in many areas the theming is actually dead simple. There's nothing inherently fabulously elaborate about the Columbia Harbour House or the French Market, but they're persuasively alive in the ways that some more modern Disney themed establishments feel more cluttered up with stuff than actually carefully themed.

    And that's why I applaud what Imagineering did with the Skipper Canteen. It isn't just about reopening a space and keeping it true to its original intentions, it's about knowing when to stop. It's a problem that pops up more and more these days, as Walt Disney World sees more and more visitors and more and more projects put through the sausage factory.

    It's reassuring that the designers of the Canteen saw the value in the intended design, and knew that sometimes that was enough. And that a brilliant, historically valid original Magic Kingdom interior was repurposed and reopened to the general public is even more cause to celebrate.


    Do you enjoy long, carefully written essays on the ideas behind theme parks, like this one? Hop on over to the Passport to Dreams Theme Park Theory Hub Page for even more!
              Silicon Valley Bro Calls Mother ‘F*cking Cambodian N*gger’ in Front of Her Little Daughter   

    A California woman on a bike ride with her 9-year-old daughter was called a “bitch” and a “f*cking Cambodian n*gger” by a white Silicon Valley bro. In a Facebook post published Thursday, Paula Nuguid wrote that she was trying to make a legal left into a parking lot in Sunnyvale when the driver, identified by […]

    The post Silicon Valley Bro Calls Mother ‘F*cking Cambodian N*gger’ in Front of Her Little Daughter appeared first on NextShark.

              ★民族音楽!!V.A./Ethnic Minority Music Of Northeast Cambodia   
    ★民族音楽!!V.A./Ethnic Minority Music O…
    現在価格:2,000 円,入札数:-,終了日時:2017/07/01 20:55
              First They Killed My Father: A Daughter of Cambodia Remembers   
    First They Killed My Father: A Daughter of Cambodia Remembers
    author: Loung Ung
    name: Jacob
    average rating: 4.29
    book published: 2000
    rating: 4
    read at:
    date added: 2017/04/29

              Cambodia's Curse: The Modern History of a Troubled Land   
    Cambodia's Curse: The Modern History of a Troubled Land
    author: Joel Brinkley
    name: Jacob
    average rating: 3.72
    book published: 2011
    rating: 4
    read at:
    date added: 2017/04/29

              When the War Was Over: Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge Revolution   
    When the War Was Over: Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge Revolution
    author: Elizabeth Becker
    name: Jacob
    average rating: 4.14
    book published: 1986
    rating: 4
    read at:
    date added: 2017/04/29

              Never Fall Down   
    Never Fall Down
    author: Patricia McCormick
    name: Jacob
    average rating: 4.17
    book published: 2012
    rating: 4
    read at: 2014/10/22
    date added: 2014/11/01
    I read this book in preparation for my trip to Cambodia. I really didn't know much about Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge before this, and I did learn a lot through the book. I enjoyed how McCormick wrote how Arn spoke, it might the book more engaging and real.

              Cambodian workers flee harsh new labour law   

    About 1,000 Cambodian workers without proper travel documents reported to Thai authorities at the Aranyaprathet border checkpoint in Sa Kaew Friday to be deported back to their motherland. Sa Kaew immigration police chief Pol Colonel Benjapol Rodsawad said the Cambodians had sneaked into the kingdom without being properly registered.

              Pub Street and Angkor night market of Cambodia's Siem Reap are captivating places for tourists   

    During my trip to Siem Reap in Cambodia in the last week of April, I spent some night hours at the famous Pub Street where one could have beer, taste a variety of food, listen to loud music and join the mob for dancing with the phosphorescent lights in the background. Those who are interested in shopping, the Angkor night market is located in the lanes of the Pub Street.

              Ambitious Cambodian Dance Troupe Honors Artistic Traditions in New Ways   

    Prumsodun Ok, a Cambodian-American born to refugee parents, knew he wanted to be an "apsara" dancer from the age of 4, when he was entranced by a performance captured on one of his family's home movies. No matter that the dance dated back to the seventh century, or that traditionally apsaras were beautiful, heaven-born females, destined to entertain gods and kings at the Angkor temples in the ancient Khmer Empire , modern-day Cambodia.

              UNDP, listed industrial zone sign deal on enhancing economic, social impact of SEZs in Cambodia   

    The United Nations Development Program and listed Phnom Penh SEZ on Thursday signed a Memorandum of Understanding on enhancing the economic and social impact of the SEZs in Cambodia. The deal was inked in Phnom Penh between UNDP-Cambodia Representative Claire Van de Vaeren and Phnom Penh SEZ's chairwoman Lim Chhiv Ho.

              Cambodian five freed on bail after a year in jail   

    Hun Sen is one of the world's longest serving leaders, running Cambodia for the last 32 years. He tolerates little dissent and in recent years critics and rights activists have found themselves increasingly pursued through the courts.

              Spruiking Sihanoukville's economic prospects   

    The government's hopes of turning Sihanoukville into a major industrial hub have experts touting the coastal town's strong economic potential, with commentators agreeing that the province has a range of diversified opportunities for growth. Ho Vandy, advisor to the Cambodia Chamber of Commerce, told Post Property this week that he expected Sihanoukville to rival Siem Reap within the next five to 10 years as the province continued its growth in tourist numbers, infrastructure development and foreign investment.

              Rare Siamese crocodile eggs found in Cambodia   

    This handout photo taken on May 8, 2017 released by the Wildlife Conservation Society on June 28, 2017 shows a conservationist examining 19 eggs of world's critically endangered Siamese Crocodile a long a river in Koh Kong province. AFP / IN HUL/ WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETY Phnom Penh: Conservationists in Cambodia have found a nest with 19 eggs from one of the world's most endangered crocodiles, boosting hopes for a rare species threatened by poachers and habitat loss.

              Opposition name smeared by ruling party   

    Deputy Prime Minister Bin Chhin, seen here speaking at an event last year, recently accused the opposition party of stealing the name 'Cambodia National Rescue Party'. The ruling party seems to have a new target in its campaign to criticise the opposition party, taking aim at the very name of the Cambodia National Rescue Party.

              CNRP claims local TV biased   

    Members of the press earlier this month cover Prime Minister Hun Sen's participation in the CPP's closing campaign rally, for which the ruling party paid hundreds of thousands of dollars for live coverage. The ruling party and the Cambodian Television Association have reacted to the opposition's accusations of bias in local televised media by claiming that the Cambodia National Rescue Party simply did not exercise its rights to buy advertising airtime.

              Cambodian workers flee harsh new labour law   
    About 1,000 Cambodian workers without proper travel documents reported to Thai authorities at the Aranyaprathet border checkpoint in Sa Kaew Friday to be deported back to their motherland.
              Cambodia / Cambodia Trip ( 2 ) ( カボジア旅行)   

    Pre Rup ( プレ・ループ)in Siem-Angkor,Kingdom of Cambodia./Constructed:Late 10th century C.E./King.Patron:RajendravamanII./Religion:Hindu./Style:Pre Rup./Architecturally and artistically superior temple-mountain of comparatively carved false complex design.Beautiful carved false doors on upper level,as well as an excellent view of surrounding country side.Richly,detailed,well-pre-served carvings,particularly on the lintels....../Visit Word Heritage Passport:US 62$( adding photo)/

























              Cambodia / Cambodia Trip ( 1 )(カンボジア旅行)   

    City Angkor Hotel in Siem Reap-Angkor,Kigdom of Cambodia./Place:Airport Road./Convenient Transportation:This Hotel is located to the south of Siem Reap Airport./Atomosphere:Common./Price:expensive./Service:Common./Level of the hotel:Low level./Evaluation:Common./Restaurant:Breakfast:buffet.Taste:Common./Walking :Near Hotel./Visit




























              Vietnam / Vetnam Trip ( 11) ( ベトナム旅行)   

    Halong Bay in Halong City,Vietnam./Shopping Center./Hanoi Airport./Siem Reep Airport in Cambodia./Restaurant:Dinner in Hotel./City Angkok Hotel./





































              [wanabidii] News Digest: Government notifies Goods and Services Tax identification number rules   
    Saturday, July 01, 2017
    Today's Headlines

    Government notifies Goods and Services Tax identification number rules
    The intent of notifying these rules is to start the process of issue of registration certificate, GSTIN, to taxpayers who have already been issued provisional ID for registration (PID) as well as to the new taxpayers, a Finance Ministry statement said here on Saturday.

    GST to impact micro, small and medium traders: Chidambaram

    Top leaders, industrialists, cine stars mark GST launch
    Industry doyen Ratan Tata, RBI governor Urjit Patel, MP-cum-cinestars Hema Malini and Shatrughan Sinha on Friday descended to witness the launch of landmark GST at the historic Central Hall of Parliament, which opened for a midnight ceremony for the first time in two decades.

    More Business News»

    'Half-a-degree of warming boosted extreme weather'
    Comparing two 20-year periods -- 1960-79 and 1991-2010 -- between which average global temperatures jumped 0.5 C (0.9 F), scientists found that the hottest summer temperatures increased by more than 1 degree C across a quarter of Earth's land areas, while the coldest winter temperatures warmed by more then 2.5 degree C.

    Ice-free areas of Antarctica to increase by 2100: Study
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    Today, of all days, do not thank me, or anyone you know or meet, for our service.
    Do not rob the graves of heroes to pay respects to those whom you do not owe.
    (And don't, by all that's holy, wish anyone a "Happy Memorial Day", unless you would be looked upon as a cretin, a ghoul, or a fool.)
    If you would be thankful today, your debt is owed at the local cemetery, especially a military one, wherein peacefully rest legions of men better than you or I, who gave up all their tomorrows to give you your today.
    No one can ever repay that debt, but at the least, you can keep up the payments, by honoring their service, by bearing the account they gave well in mind, and rendering unto them all the respect and civic glory such a sacrifice has earned.
    Don't hesitate to take the weekend off, and enjoy a ball game, a picnic, a cold beer, or a hot meal. Just, please, fondly and respectfully recall those in mud, cold, tropical heat, or desert sun, and living in dirt like animals, who already paid the bill for your leisure this weekend.
    Little else you could ever do would mean as much, and it's all common courtesy requires.


    If you are able,
    save them a place
    inside of you
    and save one backward glance
    when you are leaving
    for the places they can
    no longer go.
    Be not ashamed to say
    you loved them,
    though you may
    or may not have always.
    Take what they have left
    and what they have taught you
    with their dying
    and keep it with your own.
    And in that time
    when men decide and feel safe
    to call the war insane,
    take one moment to embrace
    those gentle heroes
    you left behind.

    Major Michael Davis O'Donnell
    1 January 1970
    Dak To, Vietnam
    KIA Cambodia 24 March 1970
              Comment on Tips for Best Sunrise Capture in Angkor Wat, Cambodia by Archana Singh   
    Great tips for capturing the perfect sunrise shot at Angkor Wat. I followed everything you mentioned above and even got to a secret place (which not many know about) to click my perfect shot but unfortunately weather gods were not on my side that day. It was dark and cloudy :(
              Comment on Tips for Best Sunrise Capture in Angkor Wat, Cambodia by Raghav   
    Some great tips. I believe this is one of the most photographed locations in South East Asia so besides capturing the right photo and at the same time, I think every photographer also wants to get something unique and these tips can surely work as a guide for them.
              พวงทอง ภวัครพันธ์ุ: ไว้อาลัยแด่ Michael Vickery   

    ผู้เชี่ยวชาญประวัติศาสตร์ไทย-เขมรที่เราคิดว่าเก่งที่สุดคนหนึ่ง เสียชีวิตแล้วเมื่อวานนี้ที่เมืองพระตะบอง กัมพูชา ด้วยวัย 86 ปี

    วิคเคอรี่เป็นชาวอเมริกัน เป็นมาร์กซิสต์ เป็นผู้เชี่ยวชาญประวัติศาสตร์โบราณของเอเชียตะวันออกเฉียงใต้ พูดได้อย่างน้อย 10 ภาษา งานประวัติศาสตร์โบราณของเขามักอาศัยความสามารถทางภาษาในการวิเคราห์หลักฐาน หรือใช้วิธีการทางนิรุกติศาสตร์ในการศึกษา ซึ่งปัจจุบันแทบจะหาคนทำงานในลักษณะนี้ไม่ได้แล้ว งานแต่ละชิ้นของเขามักเริ่มจากการวิพากษ์หลักฐานทางประวัติศาสตร์ ช่วงที่ฉันทำวิทยานิพนธ์ปริญญาเอกก็ได้เรียนรู้การวิพากษ์หลักฐานประวัติศาสตร์จากงานของวิคเคอรี่นี่เอง (เพราะตอน ป.ตรีไม่ได้เรียนประวัติศาสตร์ และระบบปริญญาเอกของออสเตรเลียในยุคนั้นไม่มีคอร์สเวิร์ค คนเรียนต้องเรียนรู้ทุกอย่างเองหมด)

    ความที่เป็นตัวของตัวเองมาก เขาจึงไม่สามารถหางานประจำในมหาวิทยาลัยดัง ๆ ได้ แต่คนที่สนใจประวัติศาสตร์กัมพูชาตั้งแต่ยุคโบราณจนถึงปัจจุบัน ถ้าไม่อ่านงานของวิคเคอรี่ ก็ถือว่าพลาดอย่างจัง เขาย้ายงานไปตามที่ต่าง ๆ ที่ ๆ สอนได้นานที่สุดน่าจะเป็นมหาวิทยาลัยในมาเลเซีย ช่วงปลายชีวิต เขากับคู่ชีวิตย้ายมาอยู่เชียงใหม่ เดินทางไปมาระหว่างเชียงใหม่กับพนมเปญ แต่เขาผูกพันกับกัมพูชามากกว่าไทย

    อาจารย์ที่ปรึกษาของฉันบอกว่าเขา eccentric เกินไป ตามใจตนเองเกินไปจนไม่มีใครอยากจ้างงาน ครั้งหนึ่งเขาเคยตกลงว่าจะทำวิจัยเรื่องนครวัดให้มหาวิทยาลัยแห่งหนึ่งในออสเตรเลียเป็นเวลา 3 ปี แต่พอหมดเวลา แทนที่จะมีงานวิจัยเรื่องนครวัด กลับมีหนังสือเรื่อง Cambodia, 1975-1982 ออกมาแทน ทำแบบนี้คนจ้างก็ไม่พอใจ แม้ว่าหนังสือจะสร้างความฮือฮาในวงวิชาการเรื่องเขมรแดงก็ตาม

    ฉันเจอเขาครั้งแรกในงานสัมมนาที่มหาวิทยาลัยแห่งชาติออสเตรเลีย ได้มีโอกาสเสนอประเด็นในวิทยานิพนธ์ของตนเอง วิคเคอรี่ฟังอย่างตั้งใจ เขาคอมเมนท์แบบกลาง ๆ ว่างานน่าสนใจและสำคัญ ยังไม่มีใครทำเรื่องนี้ จริง ๆ ฉันเสนองานด้วยใจเต้นตุ๋ม ๆ ต่อม ๆ เพราะได้อ่านงานเขามามาก จึงรู้ว่าเป็นคนทิ่วิพากษ์แบบถึงพริกถึงขิง แต่กลับพบว่าตัวจริงไม่ดุดันเกรี้ยวกราดเลย แสดงความเห็นตัวเองเป็นที่ชัดเจน แล้วก็จบ ยอมฟังความเห็นคนอื่น ไม่ใช่มุ่งเอาชนะ กดดันให้คนอื่นยอมรับว่า เขาถูกอยู่คนเดียว

    ตอนเขียนวิทยานิพนธ์เสร็จ บอกอาจารย์ที่ปรึกษาสองคนว่าอยากส่งให้วิคเคอรี่อ่าน (ระบบออสเตรเลียต้องส่งให้คนนอกมหาวิทยาลัยอ่าน และเขาต้องไม่เคยอ่านงานเรามาก่อน) แต่ที่ปรึกษาบอกว่าอย่าเลย He is so unpredictable. ก็เลยส่งให้ Craig Reynolds กับ David Chandler อ่านแทน โชคดีผ่านแบบไม่ต้องแก้สักตัว ขอโทษ..คุยซะเลย)

    ฉันเจอเขาหลังสุดสัก 10 ปีที่แล้วที่พนมเปญ เขารับงานเป็นล่ามให้กับทนายฝ่ายผู้นำเขมรแดง เป็นงานที่ทำให้คนในวงวิชาการต่างพากันเหลือกตา แต่เขาบอกว่านี่เป็นโอกาสที่จะทำให้เขาได้เข้าไปรับรู้ข้อมูลวงใน แถมเงินดีด้วย เจอกันครั้งสุดท้าย มีโอกาสได้ฟังเรื่องเล่าสนุก ๆ สมัยเขาผจญภัยอยู่ในไทยและกัมพูชาตั้งแต่ทศวรรษ 1960-1970

    วิทยานิพนธ์ของเขา Cambodia After Angkor: The Chronicular Evidence for the Fourteenth to Sixteenth Centuries, Yale University, Ph.D., December 1977. ศึกษาประวัติศาสตร์ความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างอาณาจักรอยุธยากับนครวัด โดยใช้ศิลาจารึกและพระราชพงศาวดารทั้งของไทยและเขมรเป็นหลักฐานสำคัญ งานชิ้นนี้เริ่มจากวิพากษ์พระราชพงศาวดารทั้งหมด เพื่อบอกว่าอันไหนใช้ได้ อันไหนใช้ไม่ได้ อันไหนลอกอันไหนมา การลอกกันทำให้เกิดการผลิตซ้ำข้อมูลที่ผิดเพี้ยนอย่างไร สำหรับวิคเคอรี่ พระราชพงศาวดารกรุงศรีอยุธยาของไทยนั้นใช้ศึกษาประวัติศาสตร์อยุธยาได้น้อยมาก เพราะส่วนใหญ่เขียนขึ้นในสมัยรัตนโกสินทร์ เต็มไปด้วยการเมือง และลอกต่อ ๆ กันมา อันที่น่าเชื่อถือที่สุดคือ พระราชพงศาวดารฯ ฉบับหลวงประเสริฐอักษรนิติ์ ที่เขียนขึ้นในสมัยพระนารายณ์ แต่ก็มีข้อมูลน้อยและสั้นที่สุด ส่วนพระราชพงศาวดารเขมรยิ่งแล้วใหญ่ เพราะเขียนขึ้นทีหลัง แล้วมาลอกบางส่วนจากของไทยไป

    วิทยานิพนธ์ของเขามีประเด็นสำคัญหลายประเด็น นอกจากความสัมพันธ์ฉันท์เครือญาติและวัฒนธรรมที่ใกล้เคียงระหว่างราชสำนักสยามกับนครวัดแล้ว คือการเสนอว่าสยามบุกไปตีนครวัดเพียงครั้งเดียว ไม่ใช่ 3-4 ครั้งตามที่พระราชพงศาวดารไทยที่เขียนในยุคกรุงเทพฯระบุไว้ การตีเพียงครั้งเดียวนี้จึงไม่ใช่สาเหตุที่นำไปสู่การล่มสลายของนครวัด ตามที่ประวัติศาสตร์ไทยมักกล่าวอ้าง (รวมทั้งงานของนักวิชาการฝรั่งที่ใช้พระราชพงศาวดารอย่างไม่วิพากษ์ ก็ระบุตามนี้ เช่นงานของ David Wyatt) แต่การย้ายเมืองหลวงจากนครวัดลงสู่ใต้ (ย้ายลงมาที่ละแวก และอุดงมีไชยตามลำดับ) น่าจะเป็นผลจากการเปลี่ยนแปลงทางเศรษฐกิจในภูมิภาคนี้ กล่าวคือ เมื่อราชสำนักจีนในศตวรรษ 14-15 เริ่มอนุญาตให้รัฐเล็กรัฐน้อยเข้าไปทำการค้าเรือสำเภากับจีนได้โดยตรง โดยก่อนหน้านี้มีเพียงไม่กี่รัฐที่จีนอนุญาตให้แต่งเรือสำเภาไปค้ากับตนได้ หนึ่งในนั้นคือ อาณาจักรศรีวิชัย (เชื่อว่าอยู่ในเกาะสุมาตราในปัจจุบัน)

    การเปลี่ยนนโยบายของจีนเป็นหนึ่งในสาเหตุของการล่มสลายของศรีวิชัย ที่เคยเป็นศูนย์กลางที่รวบรวมสินค้าจากภูมิภาคนี้ส่งไปขายจีน เมื่อรัฐเล็กสามารถค้าขายกับจีนได้โดยตรง เราจึงเริ่มเห็นปรากฏการณ์ที่ศูนย์กลางอำนาจรัฐที่อยู่ใกล้ทะเลผงาดขึ้นมามีอำนาจ เมืองหลวงของรัฐเปลี่ยนมาอยู่ใกล้กับทางออกสู่ทะเล โดยชนชั้นนำที่ร่ำรวยจากการค้าทางทะเลสถาปนาตนเองขึ้นเป็นกษัตริย์ และทำให้ศูนย์กลางอำนาจเดิมยอมสวามิภักดิ์ ปรากฏการณ์นี้เกิดขึ้นทั้งในสยาม (จากสุโขทัย ลงสู่อยุธยา และบางกอก) ในพม่า (จากอังวะลงสู่หงสาวดี) ในกรณีเวียดนาม งานประวัติศาสตร์ของ Li Tana ก็ชี้ว่าการขึ้นมาของราชวงศ์เหงียนทางตอนใต้ ก็มาจากการค้าสำเภากับจีน งาน A History of Cambodia ของ David Chandler และงาน Southeast Asia in the age of commerce ของ Anthony Reid ก็รับแนวการอธิบายนี้ของวิเคอรี่ไว้

    วิคเคอรี่เป็นหนึ่งในคนแรก ๆ ที่ชี้ว่าศิลาจารึกหลักที่ 1 หรือศิลาจารึกพ่อขุนรามคำแหง ไม่ใช่ของแท้ที่ทำในสมัยสุโขทัย โดยเขาค้นพบความผิดปกติของคำจำนวนมากที่ปรากฏในศิลาจารึก แต่สิ่งที่วิคเคอรี่ต่างจาก ศ. พิริยะคือ เขาไม่ฟันธงว่าใครเป็นทำ เขาบอกว่าบอกไม่ได้ หลักฐานบอกเพียงแค่ว่าเป็นของที่ทำขึ้นทีหลัง แต่ ศ.พิริยะฟันธงว่ารัชกาลที่ 4 เป็นคนสร้างขึ้นมาเองโดยดูจากทั้งกลุ่มคำในศิลาจารึก และเหตุการณ์ในประวัติศาสตร์ที่แวดล้อมอยู่

    “Cambodia 1975-1982” เป็นหนังสือที่อ่านสนุกมาก เป็นหนังสือที่ฉันชอบมากที่สุดเล่มหนึ่ง เป็นหนังสือวิชาการไม่กี่เล่มที่อ่านทั้งเล่ม และต้องกลับไปดูอีกหลายครั้ง เขาวิพากษ์ตั้งแต่สื่อมวลชนรายใหญ่ของฝรั่ง มหาอำนาจสหรัฐฯ จีน ไทย ยันบรรดานักวิชาการเขมรศึกษา รวมทั้งอดีตอาจารย์ที่ปรึกษาเราด้วย เขาไม่เห็นด้วยกับการเรียกระบอบเขมรแดงว่าเป็นระบบฆ่าล้างเผ่าพันธุ์ (Genocide) ไม่ใช่เพราะสนับสนุนเขมรแดง ไม่เลย เขาค่อนข้างเห็นใจเวียดนามและรัฐบาลสาธารณรัฐประชาชนกัมพูชา (People’s Republic of Kampuchea) ที่นำโดยเฮง สัมริน

    แต่เขาเห็นว่าการสังหารผู้คนจำนวนมากและหลากหลายกลุ่ม ไม่ว่าจะเป็นอดีตเจ้าหน้าที่รัฐ คนเมือง คนมีการศึกษา คนจีน จามมุสลิม พระสงฆ์ เป็นเหตุผลทางชนชั้น ไม่ใช่เหตุผลทางชาติพันธุ์ ถ้าจะมีการฆ่าที่เข้าข่ายการฆ่าล้างเผ่าพันธุ์ ก็มีกลุ่มเดียวเท่านั้น คือ การฆ่าชาวเวียดนาม และแขมร์กรอม (คนเขมรเชื้อสายเวียดนาม ส่วนใหญ่อยู่ใกล้ชายแดนเวียดนาม) เขาเสนอว่าควรฟ้องร้องเอาผิดผู้นำเขมรแดงด้วยข้อหาอาชญากรรมต่อมนุษยชาติ (Crimes against humanity) มากกว่าข้อหาการฆ่าล้างเผ่าพันธุ์

    งานเขียนชิ้นสำคัญของเขาอีกชิ้นหนึ่งคือ Society, Economics and Politics in Pre-Angkor Cambodia: The 7th-8th Centuries, Tokyo, The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko, 1998. ฉันถามเขาว่าทำไมให้ญี่ปุ่นพิมพ์ หาซื้อยาก การจัดจำหน่ายแย่ ตอนสั่งซื้อต้องทำเรื่องโอนเงินข้ามประเทศวุ่นวายมาก

    เขาบอกว่าไม่ได้คิดว่าจะมีใครตีพิมพ์ให้ด้วยซ้ำ แต่วันหนึ่งในที่สัมมนาอะไรสักอย่าง ระหว่างที่กำลังยืนฉี่อยู่ ศ.โยนิโอะ อิชิอิ เดินเข้ามายืนฉี่ข้าง ๆ แล้วถามว่าทำอะไรอยู่ เขาก็เล่าว่าเพิ่งเขียน manuscript เรื่องนี้เสร็จ ศ. อิชิอิ ก็เลยบอกว่าช่วยส่งมาให้ดูหน่อย ก็เลยได้ตีพิมพ์ สารภาพว่าฉันอ่านไปได้นิดเดียว ไม่มีเวลา ความสนใจเปลี่ยน แต่เห็น @Niti Pawakapan ตั้งใจอ่านมาก

    ถามวิคเคอรี่เมื่อ 10 ปีก่อนว่ากำลังทำอะไรอยู่ เขาบอกว่ากำลังศึกษาประวัติศาสตร์อาณาจักรจาม โดยอ่านศิลาจารึกภาษาจาม ถามต่อว่าแล้วเรียนภาษาจามโบราณที่ไหน เขาบอกว่าสอนตัวเอง เพราะไม่มีใครอ่านเป็น ฮาๆๆ สุดยอดจริง ๆ

    เสียดาย อยากให้คนแบบนี้อยู่ยงคงกระพัน จะได้มีงานดี ๆ ที่ไม่มีใครอยากทำออกมาอีก

    Rest in peace, Michael Vickery, a true scholar, one of a kind.

    ติดตามความเคลื่อนไหวของ ประชาไท ทางอีเมล คลิกอ่าน หรือเฟซบุ๊ค

              Pakistan is the 7th Largest Source of Foreign-Born Citizens of Rich OECD Nations   
    Nearly 100,000 Pakistanis migrated to and another 50,000 acquired citizenship of the rich industrialized nations of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 2015, according to International Migration Outlook 2017 released by the Organization.

    OECD Migration Report 2017: 

    Nearly 50,000 Pakistani immigrants became citizens of the rich industrialized countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 2015, according to International Migration Outlook 2017 recently published by the Organization.

    Source: International Migration Outlook 2017

    India topped the list with 130,000 Indians acquiring citizenship of OECD nations in 2015, followed by Mexico (112,000) ranked 2nd, the Philippines (94,000) ranked 3rd, Morocco (94,000) ranked 4th, China (78,000) ranked 5th, Albania (52,000) ranked 6th and Pakistan (50,000) ranked 7th.

    In addition, Pakistan was the 18th largest source of immigrants with 99,000 Pakistanis migrating to OECD nations in 2015. India is 5th on this list with 268,000 Indians migrating to OECD countries.

    Source: International Migration Outlook 2017

    Humanitarian migration of refugees, rather than migration for better economic prospects, dominated OECD inflows during 2015. War-torn Syria was the second largest source with 430,000 migrants in 2015, the report said.

    Pew Research Data: 

    India is the world's largest exporter of labor with 15.8 million Indians working in other countries. Bangladesh ranks 5th with 7.2 million Bangladeshis working overseas while Pakistan ranks 6th with 5.9 million Pakistanis working overseas, according to Pew Research report released ahead of International Migrants Day observance on Sunday, December 18, 2016.

    International Migration: 

    Countries of Origin of Migrants to the United States Source: Pew Research

    Pew Research reports that nearly 3.5 million Indians lived in the UAE, the world’s second-largest migration corridor in 2015. While most of the migration is from low and middle income countries to high-income countries, the top 20 list of migrants' origins also includes rich countries like the United States (ranked 20), United Kingdom (11), Germany (14), Italy (21) and South Korea (25).

    Top 25 Sources of Migrants:

    Here is the list of top 20 countries of origin for international migrants:

    1. India 15.9 million

    2. Mexico 12.3 million

    3. Russia 10.6 million

    4. China 9.5 million

    5. Bangladesh 7.2 million

    6. Pakistan 5.9 million

    7. Ukraine 5.83 million

    8.  Philippines 5.32 million

    9.  Syria 5.01 million

    10. Afghanistan 4.84 million

    11. United Kingdom 4.92 million

    12. Poland 4.45 million

    13. Kazakstan 4.08 million

    14. Germany 4.0 million

    15. Indonesia 3.88 million

    16. Palestine 3.55 million

    17. Romania 3.41 million

    18. Egypt 3.27 million

    19. Turkey 3.11 million

    20. United States 3.02 million

    21. Italy 2.9 million

    22. Burma (Myanmar) 2.88 million

    23. Colombia 2.64 million

    24. Vietnam 2.56 million

    25. South Korea 2.35 million

    Declining Labor Pool in Developed Economies: 

    The world population is aging with slowing labor force growth. It is particularly true of the more developed nations with aging populations and declining birth rates.  In an recent report titled "Asian Economic Integration Report", the Asian Development argued that migration within Asia can help deal with regional labor imbalances. It said as follows:

    "In Asia and the Pacific, many economies could expand their role as the source or host economy for migrant workers.

    Labor supply is still growing in developing economies—such as Cambodia, Indonesia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Myanmar, India, Pakistan, and the Philippines—and they could export labor across the region. In contrast, developed but aging economies such as Hong Kong, China; the Republic of Korea; Japan; and Singapore are unable to meet labor demand with their dwindling workforce.

    Hence, these economies would benefit from immigrant labor. Kang and Magoncia (2016) further discuss the potential for migration to reallocate labor from surplus to deficit economies and offer a glimpse of how the demographic shift will frame Asia’s future population structure, particularly the future working age population. Among the issues explored is the magnitude of labor force surpluses and deficits within different economies in Asia."

    Pakistan's Growing Labor Force:

    Pakistan has the world’s sixth largest population, sixth largest diaspora and the ninth largest labor force with growing human capital. With rapidly declining fertility and aging populations in the industrialized world, Pakistan's growing talent pool is likely to play a much bigger role to satisfy global demand for workers in the 21st century and contribute to the well-being of Pakistan as well as other parts of the world.

    With half the population below 20 years and 60 per cent below 30 years, Pakistan is well-positioned to reap what is often described as "demographic dividend", with its workforce growing at a faster rate than total population. This trend is estimated to accelerate over several decades. Contrary to the oft-repeated talk of doom and gloom, average Pakistanis are now taking education more seriously than ever. Youth literacy is about 70% and growing, and young people are spending more time in schools and colleges to graduate at higher rates than their Indian counterparts in 15+ age group, according to a report on educational achievement by Harvard University researchers Robert Barro and Jong-Wha Lee. Vocational training is also getting increased focus since 2006 under National Vocational Training Commission (NAVTEC) with help from Germany, Japan, South Korea and the Netherlands.

    Pakistan's work force is over 60 million strong, according to the Federal Bureau of Statistics. With increasing female participation, the country's labor pool is rising at a rate of 3.5% a year, according to International Labor Organization.

    With rising urban middle class, there is substantial and growing demand in Pakistan from students, parents and employers for private quality higher education along with a willingness and capacity to pay relatively high tuition and fees, according to the findings of Austrade, an Australian government agency promoting trade. Private institutions are seeking affiliations with universities abroad to ensure they offer information and training that is of international standards.

    Trans-national education (TNE) is a growing market in Pakistan and recent data shows evidence of over 40 such programs running successfully in affiliation with British universities at undergraduate and graduate level, according to The British Council. Overall, the UK takes about 65 per cent of the TNE market in Pakistan.

    It is extremely important for Pakistan's public policy makers and the nation's private sector to fully appreciate the expected demographic dividend as a great opportunity. The best way for them to demonstrate it is to push a pro-youth agenda of education, skills developmenthealth and fitness to take full advantage of this tremendous opportunity. Failure to do so would be a missed opportunity that could be extremely costly for Pakistan and the rest of the world.

    Growth Forecast 2014-2050. Source: EIU

    In the high fertility countries of Africa and Asia family sizes are continuing to decline. And in low fertility countries family sizes will continue to remain below replacement levels. Why? Because the same juggernaut forces are operating: increasing urbanization, smaller and costly housing, expanding higher education and career opportunities for women, high financial costs and time pressures for childrearing and changing attitudes and life styles.

    Source: BBC

    Countries With Declining Populations:

    115 countries, including China (1.55), Hong Kong (1.17),  Taiwan (1.11) and Singapore (0.8) are well below the replacement level of 2.1 TFR.  Their populations will sharply decline in later part of the 21st century.

     United States is currently at 2.01 TFR, slightly below the replacement rate.  "We don't take a stance one way or the other on whether it's good or bad," said Mark Mather, demographer with the Population Reference Bureau. Small year-to-year changes like those experienced by the United States don't make much difference, he noted. But a sharp or sustained drop over a decade or more "will certainly have long-term consequences for society," he told Utah-based Desert News National.

    Japan (1.4 TFR) and Russia (1.6 TFR) are experiencing among the sharpest population declines in the world. One manifestation in Japan is the data on diaper sales: Unicharm Corp., a major diaper maker, has seen sales of adult diapers outpace infant diapers since 2013, according to New York Times.

    Median Age Map: Africa in teens, Pakistan in 20s, China, South America and US in 30s, Europe, Canada and Japan in 40s.

    The Russian population grew from about 100 million in 1950 to almost149 million by the early 1990s. Since then, the Russian population has declined, and official reports put it at around 144 million, according to Yale Global Online.

    Reversing Trends:

    Countries, most recently China, are finding that it is far more difficult to raise low fertility than it is reduce high fertility. The countries in the European Union are offering a variety of incentives, including birth starter kits to assist new parents in Finland, cheap childcare centers and liberal parental leave in France and a year of paid maternity leave in Germany, according to Desert News. But the fertility rates in these countries remain below replacement levels.


    Overzealous Pakistani birth control advocates need to understand what countries with sub-replacement fertility rates are now seeing: Low birth rates lead to diminished economic growth. "Fewer kids mean fewer tax-paying workers to support public pension programs. An "older society", noted the late Nobel laureate economist Gary Becker, is "less dynamic, creative and entrepreneurial." Growing labor force n Pakistan can not only contribute to Pakistan's prosperity but also help alleviate the effects of aging populations and declining labor pools in more developed economies. I believe that Pakistan's growing population and young demographics should be seen as a blessing, not a curse.

    Related Links:

    Haq's Musings

    Pakistan's Expected Demographic Dividend

    Pakistan's Growing Human Capital

    Upwardly Mobile Pakistan

    Pakistan Most Urbanized in South Asia

    Hindu Population Growth Rate in Pakistan

    Do South Asian Slums Offer Hope?

              Over 500 illegal migrants left in lurch   

    More than 500 illegal migrant workers from Cambodia and Myanmar were found to have been abandoned by their employers or had left their jobs following the enactment of a decree imposing harsh punishment on the recruitment of undocumented alien labourers. A total of 143 undocumented Cambodian workers found in several provinces, including Ayutthaya, Saraburi and...

    The post Over 500 illegal migrants left in lurch appeared first on Thailand News.

              An ASEAN Perspective   

    2017 is the fiftieth year since the establishment of the Association of South East Asian Nations. Today, the ASEAN acronym and its politico-geographic grouping is familiar, and respected, world over. It is no secret that economic indicators are very good for the ASEAN. The emerging markets in the region make it an attractive business destination, and the role played by the ASEAN with its focus on security, and shared development, cannot be over estimated. The Connectivity Master Plan ASEAN 2025, to promote physical connections between institutions and people, is very exciting. As is the role played by the ASEAN Foundation to bring people together, to see how they can participate building the ASEAN Community.

    However, people from outside the region, who choose to work here, would need to keep an open mind and have the ability to learn to adapt to diverse cultures. The ASEAN market is not a monolith - it encourages innovation, experimenting with new ideas, ingenuity, disruption, and disruptive technologies that are beneficial, to deliver to different market segments. But one would have to step beyond the familiar, and work with languages and cultures that are very different from other parts of the world. Learning the local language is not strictly necessary, but proficiency in it would be a great asset, as you would be more comfortable moving around and working within the diverse market. It is not an easy task, as there isn't a pan-ASEAN language. Bahasa would work in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and Brunei. But not in the Philippines, Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos and Thailand. Cultural Intelligence, however will work – everywhere. And it holds the key to opening doors, establishing relationships, and enabling collaboration.

    A different kind of leadership is required to build bridges between cultures. I feel that Common Purpose, with their pedagogy of Cultural Intelligence and Crossing Boundaries, gives one the right knowledge and leadership skills to work with different people, across sectors, at all levels of organization, and with different sensitivities. Relationship building in the ASEAN relies on trust; mutual respect; on informal agreements across diverse stakeholders. Cultural Intelligence is a useful tool to operate successfully in ASEAN's cities.

    ASEAN cities are the epicentre of growth. They are transforming rapidly, and modernizing across the region. However, I also see a resurgence of appreciation of heritage. There is more emphasis on not losing the cultural, and historical place; a desire to move forward without destroying the past. And this is where I believe shared knowledge, another key learning from Common Purpose plays a vital role. We realize we are quite similar to one another and should combine efforts to work better. Shared knowledge, where we could know what others are doing; shared learning from each other; and shared information; could prevent us from having to reinvent the wheel to take the region further.

    The importance of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the ASEAN cannot be overstated. But going forward, it is key to sustain the momentum of the 50th year, with high levels of visibility. Countries that chair the ASEAN over the next few years, should move beyond ad hoc measures, to boost people-oriented and people-centred initiatives. More can be done for the free movement of workers and professionals. There are costs involved, and that partly accounts for slow progress on the ground. An integrated approach with the private sector and necessary funding, would make a huge difference in driving people beyond thinking ASEAN, to doing ASEAN.

    Build leadership skills to succeed in the ASEAN at the ASEAN Leaders Programme 2017. A Common Purpose leadership programme for ASEAN leaders.

              More than 2,000 workers flee Thailand after labour crackdown   
    BANGKOK: More than 2,000 undocumented migrant workers from Myanmar and Cambodia fled from Thailand this week, officials said on Friday, after a decree aimed at managing foreign workers came into effect. Workers from Thailand's poor neighbours, in particular Myanmar and Cambodia, make up the ...
              Cambodian five freed on bail after a year in jail   
    Five prominent Cambodian rights activists have been released on bail after more than a year in jail, a court official confirmed on Thursday, although they still face prosecution in a case that has drawn widespread criticism.
              Rare Siamese crocodile eggs found in Cambodia   
    PHNOM PENH: Conservationists in Cambodia have found a nest with 19 eggs from one of the world's most endangered crocodiles, boosting hopes for a rare species threatened by poachers and habitat loss. The clutch of fist-sized eggs was discovered this week by environmental officers and local ...
              Comment on Latest Reader Qs (6/28/2017) by Tor Libertarian   
    The Open Conspiracy: Blue Prints for a World Revolution. 1928. H. G. Wells. H. G. Wells, in his work commissioned by the Committee of 100 families which control the UK: Wells boldly declared this bold statement-of-intent. Not really so bold since nobody believed Wells except the Great Superior Ones, those who were what we would call "insiders" today. Here is an extract of what H. G. Wells proposed: "The Open Conspiracy will appear first, I believe as a conscious organisation of intelligent, and in some cases wealthy men, as a movement having distinct social and political aims, confessedly ignoring most of the existing apparatus of political-control, or using it only as an incidental implement in stages. A mere movement of a number of people in a certain direction, who will presently discover, with a sort of a surprise, the common-object toward which they are all moving. In all sorts of ways, they will be influencing and controlling the superficial government. Like George Orwell's 1984 , Wells' account is a mass-appeal for a One World Government. It summarised the intent and purpose of the The Committee of 300 families which control the US to bring to pass the following conditions: A One World Government and one-unit monetary-system under permanent non-elected hereditary oligarchists who self-select from among their numbers in the form of a feudal-system as it was in the Middle Ages. In this One World entity, population will be limited by restrictions on the number of children per family, diseases, wars, famines, until what remains are people who are useful to the ruling class. These chosen ones will live in areas which will be strictly and clearly defined, and comprise the total world population. There will be no middle-class, only rulers and servants. All laws will be uniform under a legal-system of world-courts practising the same unified code of laws, backed up by a One World Government police-force and a One World unified-military to enforce laws in all former countries. Firm national boundaries shall no longer exist. The system will be on the basis of a welfare state; those who are obedient and subservient to the One World Government will be rewarded with the means to live; those who are rebellious will simply be starved to death or be declared outlaws, thus a target for anyone who wishes to kill them. Privately-owned firearms or weapons of any kind will be prohibited. Only one religion will be allowed and that will be in the form of a One World Government Church, which has been in existence since 1920. All formerly competitive beliefs shall be uniformly adapted to serve the World State. Only these subservient congregations will be recognised as legitimate. Though old superficial labels will persist. There will be only One World Government curricula with no dissenting private or church schools. All Christian churches have already been subverted and the original conception of Christianity will be a thing of the past in the One World Government. We will induce a state where there is no individual freedom or any concept of liberty surviving, there shall be no such thing as republicanism, sovereignty or rights residing with the people. National-pride and racial-identity shall be stamped-out and in the transition-phase it shall be subject to the severest penalties to even mention one's racial origin. Each person shall be fully-indoctrinated that he or she is a creature of the One World Government with an identification-number permanently affixed to their person so as to be readily-accessible. Such identifying-number shall be in the master-file of the NATO computer complex in Brussels, Belgium, subject to instant-retrieval by any agency of the One World Government at any time. The master-files of the CIA, FBI, state and local police-agencies, IRS, FEMA, Social Security shall be vastly expanded and form the basis of personal records of all individuals in the United States. Marriage shall be discouraged and disempowered and there shall be no family-life as we know it. Children will be removed from their parents at an early-age and brought up by wardens as state-property. Using such protocols of the experiments carried out in East Germany under Erich Honnecker when children were taken-away from parents considered by the state to be disloyal-citizens. Women will be degraded through the continued process of "women's liberation" movements. Failure to comply with liberation dogma shall be punishable by severe reprisal. Abortion shall be commonplace after two children are born to a woman; records of compliance shall be contained in the personal-file of each woman in the One World Government's regional-computers. In China and high fertility regions, if a woman falls pregnant after she has previously given birth to two children, she shall be forcibly removed to an abortion-clinic for such an abortion and sterilisation will then be carried out. Pornography shall be promoted, including homosexual and lesbian pornography. The use of "recreational" drugs shall be promoted, with each person freely prescribed drugs at One World Government stores throughout the world. Mind-control-drugs will be expanded and usage become compulsory. Such mind-control-drugs shall be added to food and/or water supplies without the knowledge and/or consent of the people. Drugs will be handed out on street corners by contractors hired by One World Government employees. The slaveclass shall be able to spend their free-time in any mental stupor they wish. In this manner the non-elite masses will be reduced to the level and behaviour of controlled animals with no will of their own, to be easily regimented and controlled. The economic-system shall be based upon the ruling oligarchical class allowing just enough foods and services to be produced to keep the mass slave-labour-camps going. The illusion of wealth will be maintained by meaningless services, mass produced trinkets, and non-nutritive junk foods. All wealth shall be aggregated in the hands of the elite members of the The Committee of 300. Each individual shall be indoctrinated to understand that he or she is totally-dependent upon the state for survival. The world shall be ruled by Committee of 300 Executive Decrees which become instant law. Courts of punishment and not courts of justice shall exist. Industry is to be totally destroyed along with nuclear-powered energy-systems. Only the Committee of 300 members and their elitists shall have the right to any of the earth's resources. Agriculture shall be solely in the hands of the The Committee of 300 with food-production strictly controlled. As these measures begin to take effect, large populations in the cities shall be forcibly-removed to remote areas and those who refuse to go shall be exterminated in the manner of the One World Government experiment carried-out by Pol Pot in Cambodia. Euthanasia for the terminally-ill and the aged shall be compulsory. Essential-workers will be moved to other cities if the one they are in becomes overpopulated. Other non-essential workers will be chosen at random and sent to under-populated cities to fill "quotas". Countless "useless eaters" shall be eliminated by means of limited wars, organised epidemics of fatal rapid-acting diseases and starvation. Energy, food and water shall be kept at subsistence-levels for the non-elite, starting with the White-populations of Western Europe and North America and then spreading to other races. The population of Canada, Western Europe and the United States will be decimated more rapidly than on other continents, until the world's population reaches a manageable-level, selected because they are people who have been regimented for centuries and who are accustomed to obeying authority without question. From time to time there shall be artificially-contrived food and water shortages and medical-care to remind the masses that their very existence depends on the goodwill of the The Committee of 300. After the destruction of housing, auto, steel and heavy-goods-industries, there shall be limited housing, and industries of any kind allowed to remain shall be under the direction of NATO's Club of Rome as shall all scientific and space exploration development, limited to the elite under the control of the The Committee of 300. Space-weapons of all former nations shall be destroyed along with nuclear-weapons. All pharmaceutical-products, doctors, dentists and health-care workers will be registered in the central-computer databank and no medicine or medical-care will be prescribed without express permission of regional-controllers responsible for each city, town and village. The United States will be flooded by peoples of alien cultures who will eventually overwhelm White America; people with no concept of what the United States Constitution stands for and who will, in consequence, do nothing to defend it, and in whose minds the concept of liberty and justice is so weak as to matter little. FOOD and shelter shall be the main concern. No central bank except the Bank of International Settlement and the World Bank shall be allowed to operate. Private banks will be outlawed. Remuneration for work-performed shall be under a uniform predetermined scale throughout the One World Government. There shall be no wage disputes allowed, nor any diversion from the standard uniform scales of pay laid-down by the One World Government. Those who break the law will be severely punished. There shall be no cash or coinage in the hands of the non-elite. Only debt scrip for purchase of mass produced trinkets and junk food. All transactions shall be carried out by means of a debit-card which shall bear the identification-number of the holder. Any person who in any way infringes the rules and regulations of the Committee of 300 shall have the use of his or her card suspended for varying times according to the nature and severity of the infringement. Such persons will find, when they go to make purchases, that their card is blacklisted and they will not be able to obtain services of any kind. Attempts to trade "old" coins, that is to say silver coins of previous and now defunct nations, shall be treated as a capital-crime. All such coinage shall be required to be surrendered within a given time along with guns, rifles, explosives and automobiles. Only the elite and One World Government high-ranking functionaries will be allowed private transport, weapons, coinage and automobiles. If the offence is a serious-one, the card will be seized at the checking-point where it is presented. Thereafter that person shall not be able to obtain food, water, shelter and employment medical-services, and shall be officially-listed as an outlaw. Large bands of outlaws will thus be created and they will live in regions that best afford subsistence, subject to being hunted-down and shot on sight. Persons assisting outlaws in any way whatsoever, shall likewise be shot. Outlaws who fail to surrender to the police or military after a declared period of time, shall have a former family member selected at random to serve prison-terms in their stead. Rival factions and groups such as Arabs and Jews and African tribes shall have differences magnified and be allowed to wage wars-of-extermination against each other, under the eyes of NATO and U.N. observers. The same tactics will be used in Central and South America. These wars-of-attrition shall take place BEFORE the take-over of the One World Government and shall be engineered on every continent where large groups of people with ethnic and religious differences live, such as the Sikhs, Moslem Pakistanis and the Hindu Indians. Ethnic and religious differences shall be magnified and exacerbated and violent conflict as a means of "settling" their differences shall be encouraged and fostered. All information-services and print-media shall be under the control of the One World Government. Regular brainwashing-control-measures shall be passed-off as "entertainment" in the manner in which it was practised and became a fine-art in the United States. Youths removed from "disloyal parents", shall receive special-education designed to brutalise them. Youth of both sexes shall receive training to qualify as prison-guards for the One World labour-camp system. It is obvious from the foregoing that much work remains to be done before the dawning of the New World Order can occur. We the Committee of 300 have long-ago perfected plans to destabilise civilisation as we know it, this concludes merely the latest iteration of Committee of 300 plans to tame man, also known as "THE ENEMY". As was said at the height of the Red Terror when millions of Russians were being murdered: "Why should I concern myself with how many die? Even the Christian Bible says what is man that God should be mindful of him? For me men are nothing but a brain at one end and a shitfactory at the other."
              Street hairdressing, Phnom-Penh, Cambodia   

    Alex_Saurel posted a photo:

    Street hairdressing, Phnom-Penh, Cambodia

    I saw a lot of steet lady hairdraissing in Phnom Penh close to bars area.

    On my last days in Phnom Penh, I took a time to wander in bar streets with my camera. People are so welcoming in Cambodia that I felt I could ask for portraits at the nightlife places. As usual I was welcomed by smilling and pleasant people. It was at the end of the afternoon just 3 hours before my plane back to Paris.

              Team Leader/Senior Water Resources Management Specialist; Cambodia - Winrock International - Little Rock, AR   
    POSITION ANNOUNCEMENT USAID Sustainable Water Partnership (SWP) - Cambodia Pilot Project Effective with the release of this position announcement, Winrock
    From Winrock International - Sat, 03 Jun 2017 11:29:29 GMT - View all Little Rock, AR jobs
              Junior Water Resources Management Specialist, Cambodia - Winrock International - Little Rock, AR   
    POSITION ANNOUNCEMENT USAID Sustainable Water Partnership (SWP) - Cambodia Pilot Project Effective with the release of this position announcement, Winrock
    From Winrock International - Sat, 03 Jun 2017 11:29:16 GMT - View all Little Rock, AR jobs
              Reissues of Portland Bands Pedro and Wimeanacas Are Integral Parts of the City’s History   
    by Ned Lannamann

    Holica & Sovann Youen at their Southeast Portland auto repair shop.
    Holica & Sovann Youen at their Southeast Portland auto repair shop.

    When Wimeanacas recorded a cassette of 10 original songs in 1987, the Portland-based Cambodian band had few ideas for how to market it. A salesman friend of one of the band’s two lead vocalists, however, thought he might be up to the task of selling the 1,000 copies they’d made.

    But on October 3, 1987, that salesman friend—Na Neou—and his wife, Nong, drowned in a fishing accident at the mouth of the Columbia River. A good Samaritan, Mark Raz, also died trying to save them.

    Nearly three decades later, someone else is hoping to give that excellent recording the chance to reach the audience it always deserved. This new chapter began when Warren Hill, of Northeast Sandy record store Little Axe Records and the label of the same name, wandered into WAC Automotive on Southeast 82nd Avenue, looking for one of the band members. Hill had recently found a few sealed copies of Wimeanacas’ cassette at Thai Cam, a video and food store on Southeast Foster, and had fallen in love with what he heard. Based on scanty information, he tracked down the band’s keyboardist/songwriter Holica Saang Youen to the auto shop; he didn’t know at the time that he’d also find the band’s other lead singer, Sovann Youen, who happened to be Holica’s wife. Hill told the couple he’d like to re-release the recording on vinyl.

    “We’d been looking for that kind of guy for a long time,” says Holica.

    “A little bit late,” Sovann laughs—Wimeanacas had stopped performing all the way back in 1992, as the Youens focused on running their business and raising a family.

              11 of the Best Beaches in Cambodia   
    Have you discovered the gems on Cambodia’s coast? The best beaches in Cambodia rival those of neighboring countries like Thailand, and in many cases surpass them.
              Officials, Advocates Debate Approaches to Drug Fight   

    At the end of Cambodia’s six-month anti-drug campaign, tension between the government and organizations that advocate on behalf of drug users was on full display this week. While an NGO researcher yesterday said there was a wide gap between the nation’s drug control law, which guarantees an addict’s right to rehabilitation, and official enforcement of its provisions, anti-drug authorities said they were not to blame for arrests or the limited access to treatment services.

    The post Officials, Advocates Debate Approaches to Drug Fight appeared first on The Cambodia Daily.

              First Appeal of CNRP Insurrection Convictions Rejected   

    The Appeal Court on Friday rejected the first appeal against the convictions of 11 opposition figures who were found guilty of insurrection in 2015 over a political protest in Phnom Penh’s Freedom Park, a lawyer said.

    The post First Appeal of CNRP Insurrection Convictions Rejected appeared first on The Cambodia Daily.

              Protest Halts Demolition of Stung Treng Bridge–For Now   

    Some 150 protesters in Stung Treng province succeeded on Wednesday in stopping local authorities from demolishing a bridge spanning the Sre Pok river that would otherwise be flooded by the nearly completed Lower Sesan II hydropower dam, though the reprieve may be short lived.

    The post Protest Halts Demolition of Stung Treng Bridge–For Now appeared first on The Cambodia Daily.

              Hugs, Tears, Uncertainty After Adhoc 5’s Surprise Release   

    The Adhoc 5, a group of current and former rights workers who have spent more than a year in provisional detention on bribery charges widely seen as politically motivated, tasted freedom for the first time in 427 days after they were released on bail last night.

    The post Hugs, Tears, Uncertainty After Adhoc 5’s Surprise Release appeared first on The Cambodia Daily.

              Return To War   

    Twenty years ago next week, Second Prime Minister Hun Sen toppled First Prime Minister Prince Norodom Ranariddh after days of factional fighting in Phnom Penh

    The post Return To War appeared first on The Cambodia Daily.

              Jailed SRP Senator’s Wife Unanimously Approved as Replacement   

    The Senate on Thursday unanimously approved Kun Lum Ang to take her jailed husband’s Sam Rainsy Party (SRP) seat in the chamber and added a new seat to the body to mirror a change in the lower house.

    The post Jailed SRP Senator’s Wife Unanimously Approved as Replacement appeared first on The Cambodia Daily.

              White House Protesters Decry Deportations to Cambodia   

    More than 50 activists protesting the detention of two Cambodian men and the targeting of thousands of other Southeast Asians for deportation from the U.S. rallied outside the White House in Washington on Wednesday, a statement from the Southeast Asia Resource Action Center (Searac) said.

    The post White House Protesters Decry Deportations to Cambodia appeared first on The Cambodia Daily.

              Cambodian SEZ First to Join UN Initiative for Better Worksites   

    Cambodia’s largest Special Economic Zone (SEZ) on Thursday became the first entity of its kind in the world to sign onto a new U.N. investment initiative aimed at environmental and social improvements such as gender equality and waste reduction in the workplace, according to officials.

    The post Cambodian SEZ First to Join UN Initiative for Better Worksites appeared first on The Cambodia Daily.

              Three Women Provisionally Charged for Forcing Minors to Beg   

    Three women arrested for forcing eight children to beg along Phnom Penh’s streets were provisionally charged on Thursday, while the youngsters involved have been sent to the care of an NGO.

    The post Three Women Provisionally Charged for Forcing Minors to Beg appeared first on The Cambodia Daily.

              Case Against Chevron Proceeding, Rainsy Says   

    Former CNRP President Sam Rainsy said on Thursday that his legal action against Chevron in a U.S. court would continue, despite the oil giant claiming it did not have the security footage from the Phnom Penh Caltex station where political analyst Kem Ley was murdered in July.

    The post Case Against Chevron Proceeding, Rainsy Says appeared first on The Cambodia Daily.

              Suspect Pursued in Murder of Ministry Official   

    Police in Pursat province said they were searching for an identified suspect after the bloated, bloodied corpse of a Land Management Ministry official was discovered on Wednesday.

    The post Suspect Pursued in Murder of Ministry Official appeared first on The Cambodia Daily.

              Court Upholds Sok Hour, Rainsy Border Treaty Convictions   

    The Appeal Court on Thursday upheld a seven-year prison sentence against an opposition senator for presenting a doctored copy of a border treaty in a video posted to the Facebook page of former CNRP President Sam Rainsy—who also had a five-year sentence against him upheld for being an accomplice.

    The post Court Upholds Sok Hour, Rainsy Border Treaty Convictions appeared first on The Cambodia Daily.

              Ministry Kicks Off Situation Room Investigation   

    The Interior Ministry called members of the Situation Room “lawbreakers” Wednesday and said authorities were investigating them, refuting claims by the group of NGOs that they had done nothing illegal by temporarily gathering to monitor the June 4 commune elections.

    The post Ministry Kicks Off Situation Room Investigation appeared first on The Cambodia Daily.

              Protest Halts Demolition of Stung Treng Bridge—for Now   

    About 150 protesters in Stung Treng province succeeded on Wednesday in stopping local authorities from demolishing a bridge spanning the Sre Pok river that would otherwise be flooded by the nearly completed Lower Sesan II hydropower dam, though the reprieve may be short-lived.

    The post Protest Halts Demolition of Stung Treng Bridge—for Now appeared first on The Cambodia Daily.

              Adhoc 5 Released on Bail   

    The Adhoc 5, a group of current and former rights workers who have spent more than a year in pre-trial detention on bribery charges widely seen as politically motivated, have been approved for release this evening, a court official said.

    The post Adhoc 5 Released on Bail appeared first on The Cambodia Daily.

              Comment on Conversations From Cambodia by Mercy Sarte   
    Wow more business, tipid tips travel blog like this Sir Fitz.
              Comment on [UNCENSORED] Tokyo Hot n0749 – JAV Rino Mizusawa – Super Lewd Woman by child porn cambodia   
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              Mormons Around the World Country Newsroom Websites July 1, 2017   
    SALT LAKE CITY | Saturday, 01 July 2017 | features stories from its international Newsroom websites to share what members and leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints around the world are doing to better the communities in which they live.

              พวงทอง ภวัครพันธ์ุ: ไว้อาลัยแด่ Michael Vickery   

    ผู้เชี่ยวชาญประวัติศาสตร์ไทย-เขมรที่เราคิดว่าเก่งที่สุดคนหนึ่ง เสียชีวิตแล้วเมื่อวานนี้ที่เมืองพระตะบอง กัมพูชา ด้วยวัย 86 ปี

    วิคเคอรี่เป็นชาวอเมริกัน เป็นมาร์กซิสต์ เป็นผู้เชี่ยวชาญประวัติศาสตร์โบราณของเอเชียตะวันออกเฉียงใต้ พูดได้อย่างน้อย 10 ภาษา งานประวัติศาสตร์โบราณของเขามักอาศัยความสามารถทางภาษาในการวิเคราห์หลักฐาน หรือใช้วิธีการทางนิรุกติศาสตร์ในการศึกษา ซึ่งปัจจุบันแทบจะหาคนทำงานในลักษณะนี้ไม่ได้แล้ว งานแต่ละชิ้นของเขามักเริ่มจากการวิพากษ์หลักฐานทางประวัติศาสตร์ ช่วงที่ฉันทำวิทยานิพนธ์ปริญญาเอกก็ได้เรียนรู้การวิพากษ์หลักฐานประวัติศาสตร์จากงานของวิคเคอรี่นี่เอง (เพราะตอน ป.ตรีไม่ได้เรียนประวัติศาสตร์ และระบบปริญญาเอกของออสเตรเลียในยุคนั้นไม่มีคอร์สเวิร์ค คนเรียนต้องเรียนรู้ทุกอย่างเองหมด)

    ความที่เป็นตัวของตัวเองมาก เขาจึงไม่สามารถหางานประจำในมหาวิทยาลัยดัง ๆ ได้ แต่คนที่สนใจประวัติศาสตร์กัมพูชาตั้งแต่ยุคโบราณจนถึงปัจจุบัน ถ้าไม่อ่านงานของวิคเคอรี่ ก็ถือว่าพลาดอย่างจัง เขาย้ายงานไปตามที่ต่าง ๆ ที่ ๆ สอนได้นานที่สุดน่าจะเป็นมหาวิทยาลัยในมาเลเซีย ช่วงปลายชีวิต เขากับคู่ชีวิตย้ายมาอยู่เชียงใหม่ เดินทางไปมาระหว่างเชียงใหม่กับพนมเปญ แต่เขาผูกพันกับกัมพูชามากกว่าไทย

    อาจารย์ที่ปรึกษาของฉันบอกว่าเขา eccentric เกินไป ตามใจตนเองเกินไปจนไม่มีใครอยากจ้างงาน ครั้งหนึ่งเขาเคยตกลงว่าจะทำวิจัยเรื่องนครวัดให้มหาวิทยาลัยแห่งหนึ่งในออสเตรเลียเป็นเวลา 3 ปี แต่พอหมดเวลา แทนที่จะมีงานวิจัยเรื่องนครวัด กลับมีหนังสือเรื่อง Cambodia, 1975-1982 ออกมาแทน ทำแบบนี้คนจ้างก็ไม่พอใจ แม้ว่าหนังสือจะสร้างความฮือฮาในวงวิชาการเรื่องเขมรแดงก็ตาม

    ฉันเจอเขาครั้งแรกในงานสัมมนาที่มหาวิทยาลัยแห่งชาติออสเตรเลีย ได้มีโอกาสเสนอประเด็นในวิทยานิพนธ์ของตนเอง วิคเคอรี่ฟังอย่างตั้งใจ เขาคอมเมนท์แบบกลาง ๆ ว่างานน่าสนใจและสำคัญ ยังไม่มีใครทำเรื่องนี้ จริง ๆ ฉันเสนองานด้วยใจเต้นตุ๋ม ๆ ต่อม ๆ เพราะได้อ่านงานเขามามาก จึงรู้ว่าเป็นคนทิ่วิพากษ์แบบถึงพริกถึงขิง แต่กลับพบว่าตัวจริงไม่ดุดันเกรี้ยวกราดเลย แสดงความเห็นตัวเองเป็นที่ชัดเจน แล้วก็จบ ยอมฟังความเห็นคนอื่น ไม่ใช่มุ่งเอาชนะ กดดันให้คนอื่นยอมรับว่า เขาถูกอยู่คนเดียว

    ตอนเขียนวิทยานิพนธ์เสร็จ บอกอาจารย์ที่ปรึกษาสองคนว่าอยากส่งให้วิคเคอรี่อ่าน (ระบบออสเตรเลียต้องส่งให้คนนอกมหาวิทยาลัยอ่าน และเขาต้องไม่เคยอ่านงานเรามาก่อน) แต่ที่ปรึกษาบอกว่าอย่าเลย He is so unpredictable. ก็เลยส่งให้ Craig Reynolds กับ David Chandler อ่านแทน โชคดีผ่านแบบไม่ต้องแก้สักตัว ขอโทษ..คุยซะเลย)

    ฉันเจอเขาหลังสุดสัก 10 ปีที่แล้วที่พนมเปญ เขารับงานเป็นล่ามให้กับทนายฝ่ายผู้นำเขมรแดง เป็นงานที่ทำให้คนในวงวิชาการต่างพากันเหลือกตา แต่เขาบอกว่านี่เป็นโอกาสที่จะทำให้เขาได้เข้าไปรับรู้ข้อมูลวงใน แถมเงินดีด้วย เจอกันครั้งสุดท้าย มีโอกาสได้ฟังเรื่องเล่าสนุก ๆ สมัยเขาผจญภัยอยู่ในไทยและกัมพูชาตั้งแต่ทศวรรษ 1960-1970

    วิทยานิพนธ์ของเขา Cambodia After Angkor: The Chronicular Evidence for the Fourteenth to Sixteenth Centuries, Yale University, Ph.D., December 1977. ศึกษาประวัติศาสตร์ความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างอาณาจักรอยุธยากับนครวัด โดยใช้ศิลาจารึกและพระราชพงศาวดารทั้งของไทยและเขมรเป็นหลักฐานสำคัญ งานชิ้นนี้เริ่มจากวิพากษ์พระราชพงศาวดารทั้งหมด เพื่อบอกว่าอันไหนใช้ได้ อันไหนใช้ไม่ได้ อันไหนลอกอันไหนมา การลอกกันทำให้เกิดการผลิตซ้ำข้อมูลที่ผิดเพี้ยนอย่างไร สำหรับวิคเคอรี่ พระราชพงศาวดารกรุงศรีอยุธยาของไทยนั้นใช้ศึกษาประวัติศาสตร์อยุธยาได้น้อยมาก เพราะส่วนใหญ่เขียนขึ้นในสมัยรัตนโกสินทร์ เต็มไปด้วยการเมือง และลอกต่อ ๆ กันมา อันที่น่าเชื่อถือที่สุดคือ พระราชพงศาวดารฯ ฉบับหลวงประเสริฐอักษรนิติ์ ที่เขียนขึ้นในสมัยพระนารายณ์ แต่ก็มีข้อมูลน้อยและสั้นที่สุด ส่วนพระราชพงศาวดารเขมรยิ่งแล้วใหญ่ เพราะเขียนขึ้นทีหลัง แล้วมาลอกบางส่วนจากของไทยไป

    วิทยานิพนธ์ของเขามีประเด็นสำคัญหลายประเด็น นอกจากความสัมพันธ์ฉันท์เครือญาติและวัฒนธรรมที่ใกล้เคียงระหว่างราชสำนักสยามกับนครวัดแล้ว คือการเสนอว่าสยามบุกไปตีนครวัดเพียงครั้งเดียว ไม่ใช่ 3-4 ครั้งตามที่พระราชพงศาวดารไทยที่เขียนในยุคกรุงเทพฯระบุไว้ การตีเพียงครั้งเดียวนี้จึงไม่ใช่สาเหตุที่นำไปสู่การล่มสลายของนครวัด ตามที่ประวัติศาสตร์ไทยมักกล่าวอ้าง (รวมทั้งงานของนักวิชาการฝรั่งที่ใช้พระราชพงศาวดารอย่างไม่วิพากษ์ ก็ระบุตามนี้ เช่นงานของ David Wyatt) แต่การย้ายเมืองหลวงจากนครวัดลงสู่ใต้ (ย้ายลงมาที่ละแวก และอุดงมีไชยตามลำดับ) น่าจะเป็นผลจากการเปลี่ยนแปลงทางเศรษฐกิจในภูมิภาคนี้ กล่าวคือ เมื่อราชสำนักจีนในศตวรรษ 14-15 เริ่มอนุญาตให้รัฐเล็กรัฐน้อยเข้าไปทำการค้าเรือสำเภากับจีนได้โดยตรง โดยก่อนหน้านี้มีเพียงไม่กี่รัฐที่จีนอนุญาตให้แต่งเรือสำเภาไปค้ากับตนได้ หนึ่งในนั้นคือ อาณาจักรศรีวิชัย (เชื่อว่าอยู่ในเกาะสุมาตราในปัจจุบัน)

    การเปลี่ยนนโยบายของจีนเป็นหนึ่งในสาเหตุของการล่มสลายของศรีวิชัย ที่เคยเป็นศูนย์กลางที่รวบรวมสินค้าจากภูมิภาคนี้ส่งไปขายจีน เมื่อรัฐเล็กสามารถค้าขายกับจีนได้โดยตรง เราจึงเริ่มเห็นปรากฏการณ์ที่ศูนย์กลางอำนาจรัฐที่อยู่ใกล้ทะเลผงาดขึ้นมามีอำนาจ เมืองหลวงของรัฐเปลี่ยนมาอยู่ใกล้กับทางออกสู่ทะเล โดยชนชั้นนำที่ร่ำรวยจากการค้าทางทะเลสถาปนาตนเองขึ้นเป็นกษัตริย์ และทำให้ศูนย์กลางอำนาจเดิมยอมสวามิภักดิ์ ปรากฏการณ์นี้เกิดขึ้นทั้งในสยาม (จากสุโขทัย ลงสู่อยุธยา และบางกอก) ในพม่า (จากอังวะลงสู่หงสาวดี) ในกรณีเวียดนาม งานประวัติศาสตร์ของ Li Tana ก็ชี้ว่าการขึ้นมาของราชวงศ์เหงียนทางตอนใต้ ก็มาจากการค้าสำเภากับจีน งาน A History of Cambodia ของ David Chandler และงาน Southeast Asia in the age of commerce ของ Anthony Reid ก็รับแนวการอธิบายนี้ของวิเคอรี่ไว้

    วิคเคอรี่เป็นหนึ่งในคนแรก ๆ ที่ชี้ว่าศิลาจารึกหลักที่ 1 หรือศิลาจารึกพ่อขุนรามคำแหง ไม่ใช่ของแท้ที่ทำในสมัยสุโขทัย โดยเขาค้นพบความผิดปกติของคำจำนวนมากที่ปรากฏในศิลาจารึก แต่สิ่งที่วิคเคอรี่ต่างจาก ศ. พิริยะคือ เขาไม่ฟันธงว่าใครเป็นทำ เขาบอกว่าบอกไม่ได้ หลักฐานบอกเพียงแค่ว่าเป็นของที่ทำขึ้นทีหลัง แต่ ศ.พิริยะฟันธงว่ารัชกาลที่ 4 เป็นคนสร้างขึ้นมาเองโดยดูจากทั้งกลุ่มคำในศิลาจารึก และเหตุการณ์ในประวัติศาสตร์ที่แวดล้อมอยู่

    “Cambodia 1975-1982” เป็นหนังสือที่อ่านสนุกมาก เป็นหนังสือที่ฉันชอบมากที่สุดเล่มหนึ่ง เป็นหนังสือวิชาการไม่กี่เล่มที่อ่านทั้งเล่ม และต้องกลับไปดูอีกหลายครั้ง เขาวิพากษ์ตั้งแต่สื่อมวลชนรายใหญ่ของฝรั่ง มหาอำนาจสหรัฐฯ จีน ไทย ยันบรรดานักวิชาการเขมรศึกษา รวมทั้งอดีตอาจารย์ที่ปรึกษาเราด้วย เขาไม่เห็นด้วยกับการเรียกระบอบเขมรแดงว่าเป็นระบบฆ่าล้างเผ่าพันธุ์ (Genocide) ไม่ใช่เพราะสนับสนุนเขมรแดง ไม่เลย เขาค่อนข้างเห็นใจเวียดนามและรัฐบาลสาธารณรัฐประชาชนกัมพูชา (People’s Republic of Kampuchea) ที่นำโดยเฮง สัมริน

    แต่เขาเห็นว่าการสังหารผู้คนจำนวนมากและหลากหลายกลุ่ม ไม่ว่าจะเป็นอดีตเจ้าหน้าที่รัฐ คนเมือง คนมีการศึกษา คนจีน จามมุสลิม พระสงฆ์ เป็นเหตุผลทางชนชั้น ไม่ใช่เหตุผลทางชาติพันธุ์ ถ้าจะมีการฆ่าที่เข้าข่ายการฆ่าล้างเผ่าพันธุ์ ก็มีกลุ่มเดียวเท่านั้น คือ การฆ่าชาวเวียดนาม และแขมร์กรอม (คนเขมรเชื้อสายเวียดนาม ส่วนใหญ่อยู่ใกล้ชายแดนเวียดนาม) เขาเสนอว่าควรฟ้องร้องเอาผิดผู้นำเขมรแดงด้วยข้อหาอาชญากรรมต่อมนุษยชาติ (Crimes against humanity) มากกว่าข้อหาการฆ่าล้างเผ่าพันธุ์

    งานเขียนชิ้นสำคัญของเขาอีกชิ้นหนึ่งคือ Society, Economics and Politics in Pre-Angkor Cambodia: The 7th-8th Centuries, Tokyo, The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo Bunko, 1998. ฉันถามเขาว่าทำไมให้ญี่ปุ่นพิมพ์ หาซื้อยาก การจัดจำหน่ายแย่ ตอนสั่งซื้อต้องทำเรื่องโอนเงินข้ามประเทศวุ่นวายมาก

    เขาบอกว่าไม่ได้คิดว่าจะมีใครตีพิมพ์ให้ด้วยซ้ำ แต่วันหนึ่งในที่สัมมนาอะไรสักอย่าง ระหว่างที่กำลังยืนฉี่อยู่ ศ.โยนิโอะ อิชิอิ เดินเข้ามายืนฉี่ข้าง ๆ แล้วถามว่าทำอะไรอยู่ เขาก็เล่าว่าเพิ่งเขียน manuscript เรื่องนี้เสร็จ ศ. อิชิอิ ก็เลยบอกว่าช่วยส่งมาให้ดูหน่อย ก็เลยได้ตีพิมพ์ สารภาพว่าฉันอ่านไปได้นิดเดียว ไม่มีเวลา ความสนใจเปลี่ยน แต่เห็น @Niti Pawakapan ตั้งใจอ่านมาก

    ถามวิคเคอรี่เมื่อ 10 ปีก่อนว่ากำลังทำอะไรอยู่ เขาบอกว่ากำลังศึกษาประวัติศาสตร์อาณาจักรจาม โดยอ่านศิลาจารึกภาษาจาม ถามต่อว่าแล้วเรียนภาษาจามโบราณที่ไหน เขาบอกว่าสอนตัวเอง เพราะไม่มีใครอ่านเป็น ฮาๆๆ สุดยอดจริง ๆ

    เสียดาย อยากให้คนแบบนี้อยู่ยงคงกระพัน จะได้มีงานดี ๆ ที่ไม่มีใครอยากทำออกมาอีก

    Rest in peace, Michael Vickery, a true scholar, one of a kind.

    ติดตามความเคลื่อนไหวของ ประชาไท ทางอีเมล คลิกอ่าน หรือเฟซบุ๊ค

              In increasingly diverse Charlotte, God goes by many names    

    Two newsy items I came across recently got me wondering: In how many languages do people in Charlotte worship God these days?

    I counted at least 20 – not a surprise when you consider how diverse our faith community has become. And I bet some of you could add to my list. (And hopefully will – see below.)

    Those two newsy items:

    • At 7 p.m. on Thursday (Dec. 11),  thousands of Spanish-speaking Catholics are expected to converge on Bojangles Coliseum, 2700 E. Independence Blvd., for the annual celebration of the feast day of Our Lady of Guadalupe – or “Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe.”

    • A Polish-language Mass will be celebrated at 3 p.m. on Dec. 21 at St. Matthew Catholic Church, 8015 Ballantyne Commons Parkway.

    To be sure, most local houses of worship still send their prayers up to “God.”

    But, all over town, the Supreme Being is increasingly invoked by other names: “Dios” (in Spanish); “Gott” (German); “Elohim” and “Adonai” (Hebrew); “Allah” (Arabic); “Deus” (Latin); “Bóg” (Polish); “Theos” (Greek); “Dieu” (French); and many others.

    I consulted a few folks in town who chart Charlotte’s growing diversity – including historian Tom Hanchett of the Levine Museum of the New South – and came up with a list of the languages of worship in the Charlotte area:

    • The Catholic Diocese has parishes where some or all of the Masses are in Spanish, Vietnamese, Korean and Latin. A few parishes periodically host Masses in other languages, including Polish and Tagalog (from the Philippines).

    • Orthodox Christian churches have services that are partly or totally said in Greek, Russian, Serbian, Armenian and Arabic.

    • The Jewish synagogues include prayers in Hebrew.

    • Muslims attending masjids, or mosques, are led in prayer in Arabic.

    • Various Protestant denominations – Lutheran, Methodist, Presbyterian and Baptist – have immigrant congregations that worship in German, Khmer (the language of Cambodia), Korean, Spanish, Russian, Chinese and Tagalog.

    • Buddhist temples are the spiritual homes to immigrant communities that speak Chinese, Lao (from Laos), Vietnamese and Khmer.

    • The sacred language at the Hindu temples is Sanskrit.

    • Haitian churches have services in French.

    • Immigrant churches with congregations from African countries worship in such indigenous language groups as Akan (from Ghana) and Amharic (from Ethiopia).

    OK, that’s our list. What languages have we left out? Email them (and any related houses of worship) to:

    -- Tim Funk
              The best backpacker hostels in Sihanoukville   

    Before deciding which Sihanoukville hostel is right for you, it is important to understand the layout of town. There are three tourist hotspots: Victory Hill, Serendipity Beach, and Otres Beach. All areas have their own unique characteristics and are spaced … Continue reading

    The post The best backpacker hostels in Sihanoukville appeared first on Move to Cambodia.

              By: Jack5   
    GoVege (9.18): Vegetarians deny Adolf Hitler was a vegetarian, but a person who should know, his food taster (poison detector) should know. And the answer is he was. Would Hitler have been such an awful bastard if he had bacon and eggs or a steak, even just occasionally? The awful Pol Pot of Cambodia was a vegan , I understand. The two Washington DC "beltway snipers" were also vegetarians.
              New skills, old phones   
    Student wearing a headlamp working in electronics repair class

    In Cambodia, MCC-supported training in cell phone repair helps provide an alternative to migrating for work.

    In Mesang, a rural village of rice fields and mango trees in Cambodia’s Prey Veng province, the high school is the biggest building by far, with 500 students enrolled.

              Cambodian (Khmer) Interpreters - LanguageLine Solutions - Canada   
    Job Title: Cambodian (Khmer) Interpreter Position Overview: The Khmer Telephone/Video Interpreter is responsible for handling calls on demand, and
    From LanguageLine Solutions - Fri, 23 Jun 2017 09:21:33 GMT - View all Canada jobs
              Watch: Cambodia’s spider market where people relish taking a bite out of fried arachnids   
    Reeling from a severe food shortage, the country adopted spiders as diet staple in mid-70s
              Comment on Cambodia Morning News For June 30 by Asean Morning News For June 30   
    […] See here for more of today’s Cambodia Morning News  […]
              Mali: A double tale of unintended consequences   

    With hundreds of French troops in Mali, and hundreds more headed that way, the U.S. among other countries, has also pledged some limited support: intelligence, communication, logistics, unarmed drones. But Washington obviously would like to keep a low profile. Washington, in fact, had been militating against just such a move, fearing that another Western intervention in an Arab land would provide another ideal recruiting target for erstwhile jihadis across the Muslim world, not to mention to provoking a spate of terrorist attacks in Europe.

    In fact, though, it turns out that the U.S. has already played a major role in the crisis. It’s a devastating lesson of plans gone awry, another dreary footnote to the law of unintended consequences.

    According to an excellent New York Times account, for the past several years, the United States has spent more than half a billion dollars in West Africa to counter the threat of radical Islam, America’s “most ambitious counterterrorism program ever across these vast, turbulent stretches of the Sahara.”
    The aim of the program was that, rather than rely on the U.S. and its allies to combat Islamic terrorism in the region, the United States would train African troops to deal with the threat themselves.
    To that end, for five years U.S. Special Forces trained Malian troops in a host of vital combat and counterterrorism skills. The outcome was considered by the Pentagon to be exemplary
    But all that collapsed as the result of another unintended consequence-- of the French-led intervention in Libya. After the fall of Khadhaffi, droves of battle-hardened, well-armed Islamic fighters and Tuareg tribesmen, who had been fighting in Libya, swarmed into Northern Mali.
    Joined by other more radical Islamist forces, some linked to Al Qaeda, they had no trouble defeating the Malian army.
    Why? Because of the defection to the rebels of several key Malian officers, who had been trained by the Americans.  Turns out that those officers, who were supposed to battle the rebels, were ethnic Tuaregs, the same nomads who were part of the rebellion.
    According to the Times, The Tuareg commanders of three of the four Malian units in the north, at the height of the battle, decided to join the insurrection, taking weapons, valuable equipment and their American training with them. They were followed by about 1600 additional army defectors, demolishing the government’s hope of resisting the rebel attack.   
    In other words, it’s very likely that the French and their allies-to-come in Mali will be battling rebel troops trained by the U.S. Special Forces.
    Caught totally by surprise by the whole ghastly mess, the American officials involved with the training program were reportedly flabbergasted.
    There are obvious questions: How was it possible for the Special Forces and their Pentagon bosses and the CIA to have had such a total lack of understanding of the Malian officers they’d trained and the country they’d been operating in for over five years?

     But you could ask that same question about U.S. military actions in any number of countries over the past few decades, from Lebanon to Iraq to Afghanistan, where the most apt  comparison might be to releasing elephants into a porcelain shop.

    Which leads to a more fundamental question: how is the U.S. to avoid similar catastrophic mistakes down the road? The Pentagon has recently announced that some 3,000 troops, no longer needed in Afghanistan, have been reassigned to work with the local military in 35 countries across Africa--to deal with the threat of Al Qaeda-linked terrorism.

    Sounds just like what was going on in Mali.

    But does anyone really think the U.S. and its military will have a better understanding of the myriad forces, tribes, religions, governments, legal and illicit financial interests struggling for power and influence in those countries than it did in Mali?  

    Or in Iraq, Or Afghanistan or Iran or Somalia or Lebanon, or Vietnam or Cambodia.

    And has France now embarked down the same tragic path?

              Which type of violence is the state?   
    As Barack Obama said, a state is a legal monopoly on violence.

    Well said. But which type of violence? There are four major types of violence: resource predation, process predation, monkey dance and group monkey dance. So which one is the state?

    Let's look at the example of the American federal government.

    I think we can safely discard the monkey dance option. At least in theory, a good policeman or soldier is expected to deeply regret that violence is "necessary" as he is applying it. His violent triumphs are not his own, but the state's.

    So the people who call themselves "the state" must be something between resource predators (aiming at controling vitim's stuff and otherwise leave the victim free) and process predators (aiming at controlling the victim itself). Let's see where the major executive departments and agencies sit on the spectrum.

    Pure resource predators

    Department of the Treasury. That's an easy one to classify because they run the IRS. The video below shows that people operating the tax system think about it as a tool for efficient resource extraction from the population.

    IRS is the enabler of all the predations of the government.

    Department of Veterans Affairs. Takes money from one group of people and gives it to 
    another group of people so a clear resource predator.

    Department of Agriculture. As above.

    Social Security Agency. As above.

    Department of Housing and Urban Development. As above, except they take money from one group of people and give houses to another.

    Both resource and process predators

    Department of Homeland Security. Customs Service, which is a part of this department, is a resource predator like the IRS. Uniformed people telling others where they are allowed to live and how they must travel are process predators.

    Department of the Interior. Their function is to manage selected natural resources. Their involvement in managing lives of the Native people seems like process predation.

    Intended to be process predators but with a resource side-effect

    Agencies in this category have an official mandate to be process predators. However their actions result in cartels which makes them enablers of resource predation.

    Federal Reserve. Their objective is to coordinate productive efforts of the population using monopoly money.The wealth transfers they create as side effect makes them the champions of this category.

    Department of Commerce. They collects data on people's productive activities to intelligently coerce them to achieve Department's aims. This is so process.

    Department of Labor. As above

    Department of Health and Human Services. They coerce people into using methods of medical treatment the Department prefers (including limiting access to medicines), which is a process predator thing to do.

    Department of Transportation. They coerce people into using methods of transportation the Department prefers. Control of transport routes results in control of movement which is a form of process predation.

    Pure process predators

    Agencies in this category are not completely pure process predators, because they draw salaries from the federal budget and also they monopolise any useful services may render. They are also openly used as tools by resource predators (for example by enforcing tax laws). But the functions they perform are as close to process predation as it gets.

    Department of Justice. They will prosecute you if the instruction say so, regardless if it makes any sense or makes anyone any money.

    Department of Education. They do not run schools directly (its state level counterparts do). But the compulsory schooling they represent is a particularly ugly form of process predation because it applies to children.

    Department of State. The executioner of foreign policy. Uses all available means to make people who live in designated locations behave in the way which serves other people's objectives.

    Department of Defense. An extension of the Department of State so the same logic applies. It applies additional process predation during drafs when it enslaves people into the military. But even during "normal" times it applies a lot or process predation towards its own people. The video below shows what I mean.

    Department of Energy. They produce nuclear weaponry so they belong to the same category as Department of Defense.

    So overall, the American federal government is a half way house between a resource predator and a process predator.

    The largest difference between different states on the planet is location on the resource / process predation scale. The best ones are limited to efficient resouce predation and run reasonably free economies with low taxation. The worse ones, like Pol Pot's Cambodia or North Korea, are more into pure process predation regardless of the economics of it.
              Team Leader/Senior Water Resources Management Specialist; Cambodia - Winrock International - Little Rock, AR   
    POSITION ANNOUNCEMENT USAID Sustainable Water Partnership (SWP) - Cambodia Pilot Project Effective with the release of this position announcement, Winrock
    From Winrock International - Sat, 03 Jun 2017 11:29:29 GMT - View all Little Rock, AR jobs
              Junior Water Resources Management Specialist, Cambodia - Winrock International - Little Rock, AR   
    POSITION ANNOUNCEMENT USAID Sustainable Water Partnership (SWP) - Cambodia Pilot Project Effective with the release of this position announcement, Winrock
    From Winrock International - Sat, 03 Jun 2017 11:29:16 GMT - View all Little Rock, AR jobs
              Hamish and Andy – Gap Year Asia Shooting   

    For the Australian TV production Hamish and Andy, our team in Cambodia went out of their way to provide them with some fun thrilled but educational activities in a very tight schedule. The outcome were various episodes of their ‘Gap Year’ in Asia show, including Spider Eating and Landmine Wrangling. A few of the things [...]

    The post Hamish and Andy – Gap Year Asia Shooting appeared first on Khiri Travel.

              Northallerton Town 0 South Shields 1   
    Northern League, second division
    Attendance: 185

    A lot’s been happening in Shields. To the north of the Tyne FA Vase holders, North Shields, are drawing 350+ spectators a week, the first division’s highest average while on the other side of the estuary and a division lower South Shields are drawing crowds of 600+, surely unprecedented for a non-phoenix, step six club. Why? Well, in the south it’s down the support of local businessman, Gary Thompson, who owns a utility management company. He bought the club last summer and relocated it back to the South Shields after a period in exile in Peterlee. The Shields ground had been closed due to disputes with the then landlord.

    Thompson has since invested in the club by, for instance, substantially improving the  clubhouse and signing ex-Middlesbrough and Sunderland star Julio Arca. (He didn’t play today but still came along). Certainly, the club’s profile has changed hugely since I last saw them two years ago. Backed by a large town with a population of 80,000, The Mariners sailed away at the top of the table. Where and when will it all end? Who knows – the owner is targeting the National League and a new stadium – but, for the moment at least, all aboard to enjoy the ride.

    I’d been planning to jump on the bandwagon last December at the Vase tie against Morpeth Town but when the match was finally played at Consett after umpteen postponements I couldn’t make it. Subsequent opportunities past me by and so it was I finally got to see Shields in their last match of the season against my most local Northern League side and their first opponents back in August.

    Last week I watched Tadcaster Albion win the Northern Counties East League wrapped up in the five layers, a hat and gloves. “I should’ve worn pyjamas under my trousers,” said one spectator. “What?” replied his mate. “Do you fancy a nap at half-time?”. Thankfully today conditions were just as you’d expect them to be when contemplating fixtures in late April or early May. Spring is here.

    The talk on the terraces was about that team beginning with ‘L’. In truth whichever match fans chose following the thrilling weekend Premier League double-header it was going to be something of an anti-climax and so it proved. Furthermore, Shields, starting the match following seven straight wins, had secured promotion five games ago and Northallerton had lifted the Ernest Armstrong Memorial Trophy two days earlier. Accordingly, the attendance was lower than it would’ve been had the fixture been played on the original date in January.

    Having nothing to play for didn’t stop a vocal knot of about 20 Northallerton teenagers chanting for most of the match, a rare sound at step six. They call their side just “’Allerton” which is what you might have thought was the full name of the club judging from the sign on the grandstand when I visited previously in 2004 (see above). The ground remains unremarkable. “If you all hate Geordies hold a shoe,” jested the fans, footwear in hand. The Shields fans replied when their side scored the only goal with 12 minutes to go: “Get your shoes off for the lads”.

    As the sky turned orange at sunset the Shields manager urged his players on for the last time this season: “Come on. Just half an hour then you can have a rest.” At the end the Shields fans jokingly booed the ref as he approached the tunnel. He responded with a theatrical bow, smiling. The gesture was fitting. I’d caught up with Shields in time only for their curtain call. I shall have to take my seat earlier next season for the Shields first division derby perhaps. Now that will be a tasty encounter.

    Programme notes: A ‘thought for the day’ was a passage from the gospel of John and it’s always useful to be reminded when a game (or, at least, it’s original date) coincides with the Cambodian New Year.

              Innovations Against Poverty (IAP) Fund applications now open (Cambodia, Ethiopia, Uganda, Zambia)   
    About this Opportunity Innovations Against Poverty is a specialised fund with the specific mandate to identify and support innovative Inclusive Business models that deliver both commercial benefits for the private sector and developmental benefits for the low-income population while advancing the inclusion and economic empowerment of women and youth. The program is designed for companies which […]
              The Future of ASEAN    
    Ambassadors to the Netherlands of Lao People's Democratic Republic, 
    Indonesia and Thailand attended ICAD 2016 
    On 3 September 2016, I was one of the speakers at the International Conference on ASEAN Development (ICAD) at Leiden University. Goal of the 2016 edition of ICAD was, as stated by its organizers PPI Belanda (Indonesian Student Association in The Netherlands), “to build a bridge between the EU and ASEAN and to learn from the EU in the fields of Law, Politics, Economics, Culture and Technology for a deeper integration and development of ASEAN”.

    Although my speech focused on economic parallels between the EU and ASEAN, whereby economic integration in the fields of trade and investment and economic  disparity of its member states were highlighted, it struck me that my fellow speakers as well as the audience at the Conference were quite sceptical on the (future) achievements of ASEAN. They did not have much confidence in ASEAN gradually assuming a leading, both political and economic, role in the region and beyond. The Conference’s audience was made up of approximately 120 Indonesian students, pursuing Bachelor-, Master-, and PhD-degrees in The Netherlands and other EU countries, representing the around 1500 Indonesian higher education students in The Netherlands and over 5000 in Europe. 

    Recent surveys held in Indonesia and neighbouring countries show that the “awareness” of ASEAN is increasing. In addition to large multinational companies, now also SMEs and individual entrepreneurs are seriously eyeing cross-border opportunities . However, apparently, there is still quite a large number of young people in the region that are hesitant when it comes to truely believing in the concept of ASEAN. The Indonesian students who attended ICAD 2016 pointed out the economic disparity between ASEAN member states and the unwillingness, or incapability, of showing leadership and decisiveness.

    I am far most optimistic than some of these Indonesian students and strongly believe that ASEAN will in due course develop into a powerful union. But ASEAN will have to do it the Asian way, looking at the EU for some guidance, in particular from an institutional perspective. Jakarta could become a kind of Brussels, but nevertheless assume its own definition of a central role. Where the EU is struggling to keep its member states on board and is having a hard time enforcing agreements on them, politically as well as economically, ASEAN will work out its own way of dealing with geo-politcal and geo-economic issues. This may be regarded as being indecisive, but quick decisions and agreements without true support lack  credibility. The monetary crisis, the refugee crisis, the Brexit, are all examples how NOT to deal with political, economic and humanitarian issues.

    As I said earlier, from an institutional perspective and as far as intra-union trade is concerned, the EU is a good example. ASEAN can definately learn from the EU how to better “organize” its institutions and how to boost intra-ASEAN  trade and investment. But as far as aligning individual member states on common (?) political and economic (monetary) challenges, ASEAN should create its own framework, whereby initial disparity between member states may not necessarliy be an obstacle. However, its geo-political and geo-economic balancing act is even more delicate than Europe’s. ASEAN is embarking on a cautious and careful course whereby a non-confrontational approach will prove to be far more effective than going head-to-head on matters of national interest or on geo-political sensitivities. 

    Will this road be a mere “walk in the park”?  Definately not, ASEAN will stumble every now and then, face set-backs occasionally. It is a complex journey.  As in Europe, ultra-nationalism and populism are also on the rise in Southeast Asia. National governments will have to explain policies in a convincing way in order to avoid xenophobia coming along with migration. There is bilateral friction between member states. Philippine newspaper, The Inquier, as well as the Japan Times, this week expressed their concern on the political indecisiveness of ASEAN. Both articles referred to the ASEAN meeting in Vientiane, Laos, last week, where ASEAN failed to take a firm stance against China’s interference in the South China Sea. The articles questioned China’s commitment to ASEAN’s Code of Conduct in the South China Sea and the international ruling of the arbitral court of the UN Convention of the Law and the Sea (UNCLOS).  Concluding  the meeting in Vientiane, ASEAN failed to align all member states to issue a joint statement in which it would stand up to China in this maritime conflict.

    And how to deal with “different leadership styles”, to put it euphemistically in the case of Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines, for example ? Are the rulers in these member states a threat to the cohesion within ASEAN ? They could be, although their unpredictable, radical way of governing their countries may have a greater effect on their relationship with the "international community" in the West, than on their dealings with neighbouring states in Asia.

    These are all enormous challenges that ASEAN faces, I have to admit. But the outcome of the Laos meeting is no surprise to me as ASEAN will have to perform a balancing act between being friend or ally with China, and/or with the so-called “international community”. Earlier I mentioned the “Asian way”: addressing regional conflicts or interfering in eachother’s national affairs will not be done “bluntly”. A quick solution putting a superficial plaster on wounds, will not be the way ASEAN will resolve its problems. Complex problems will have to be tackled by means of bilateral talks between individual member states on various levels of government.

              Bangkok - Paris of Indochina   
    Pratunam, Bangkok
    Siam Paragon
    Recently, I was in Bangkok to run a cross-cultural training program for a large multinational. Having lived there from 1989 until 1999 and having been back there a number of times since, I am always eager to register any notable socio-economic changes in the city. 

    The euforia of the Nineties, whereby Thailand was one of the early emerging Asian Tigers may have been gone, but the country has since then weathered, with mixed success, the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 and the global economic crisis of 2008. In the meantime, Thailand is economically on par with its Southern neighbour Malaysia and not that far behind Southeast Asian success story, Singapore.

    Emerging from a developing nation into a transition economy is not that hard, but the last stretch, towards a truly developed country, is the toughest. Thailand’s neighbouring countries, Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia still have a long way to go and even Vietnam, which was in the economic spotlight in the Nineties too and is back on track again, is not another Thailand yet. In Vietnam, “Made in Thailand” is a status label and is considered poche. And what Paris is to Europeans, is Bangkok to Indochina and even entire Southeast Asia.

    he Indonesian Embassy on Petchburi Road in Bangkok’s Pratunam area booked a middle-class hotel for me across the street from the Embassy. My wife used to work at the Embassy and every time I am in town, former-colleagues book a room for me nearby. The hotel appeared to be fully booked, but what was more interesting, that I was one of the few Westerners in the hotel ! Primarily, Indonesian women groups and Vietnamese families were staying there. As the area of Pratunam is known for its wholesale clothing outlets, and is also close to the more upmarket department stores on Ratchdamri Road and Rama I Road, they flock to shopping paradise, Bangkok !

    These new middle-class visitors from the region add a new dimension to the city’s tourism landscape. Apart from an increasing number of Chinese tourists, there are more and more Indonesians and Vietnamese who can afford a short trip to the Paris of Indochina !

    This article appeared earlier in e-magazine Business Trends Asia

              AEC - 2015 & beyond   
    with DBAV Executive Director, Hyunju Park (middle) and DBAV Chairman, Remco Gaanderse
    with fellow-panelists in the dialogue with the audience

    ASEAN leaders adopted the ASEAN Economic Blueprint in 2007 to be the masterplan for the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by 31 December 2015 and eventually a full-fledged ASEAN Community by 2020.

    Recently, the Dutch Business Association Vietnam (DBAV) organized a luncheon talk, under the name 
    "ASEAN Economic Community - 2015 & beyond" in Ho Chi Minh City. 

    In my 45-minute talk, I outlined both the achievements thusfar and the challenges still ahead. Although the ASEAN-6 states (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) have managed to make significant progress on import tariff eliminations and the easing of foreign investment regulations, the other member states (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam) are lagging behind and need till at least 2018.

    Intra-ASEAN trade stands at around 25% and cross-border M&As at around 9%, with Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand as frontrunners. This relatively low figure (which, off course, excludes major investors (and non-ASEAN states) China and Japan), however, will rise, due to the fact that, in particular, the cross-border investments into Myanmar have risen dramatically in 2014 and will continue to do so in 2015. 

    Sceptics have pointed out that economic disparison between member states will prove to be a major hurdle in realising a true AEC. But even within the EU, there is still a large economic divide between the Nordic countries and Eastern Europe member states and the fact that a powerful economy like Germany plays a leading role in the Union (as Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand do in ASEAN), is not necessariy a bad thing. While ASEAN multinationals have been engaged in cross-border investments for quite some time, the AEC will, in particular, open doors for SMEs of, for example, tech-savy young Vietnamese and Indonesians to take on cross-border adventures.

    Is 31 December 2015 a deadline ? No, it is rather a milestone in the work in progress, which is called "ASEAN Community". 

    Read DBAV's comment

    This article appeared earlier in e-magazine Business Trends Asia 

              How To Train Your Dragon - 08 August 2011   
    GLOBAL CREATURES AND DREAMWORKS BRING HIGH-FLYING FIRE-BREATHING DRAGONS TO LIFE IN THE "HOW TO TRAIN YOUR DRAGON ARENA SPECTACULAR" WORLD TOUR COMES TO NEW ZEALAND - APRIL 2012 Global Creatures, the technical masterminds behind the phenomenon “Walking With Dinosaurs – The Arena Spectacular”, and DreamWorks Theatricals are bringing high-flying, fire-breathing dragons to life in an unparalleled live entertainment event for a worldwide audience. The How to Train Your Dragon Arena Spectacular is an epic arena adventure inspired by the Academy Award nominated DreamWorks Animation film, How to Train Your Dragon. The World tour of the How to Train Your Dragon Arena Spectacular comes to New Zealand in April 2012, followed by the North American tour in June. “In our film, audiences around the world were transported to the mythical world of Vikings and Dragons… and now, we are excited to immerse them in a one-of-a-kind live event in the How To Train Your Dragon Arena Spectacular,” said Jeffrey Katzenberg, Chief Executive Officer of DreamWorks Animation. “The innovative team at Global Creatures and the creative storytellers at DreamWorks Animation have done an inspired job in every imaginable way to present this story on an unprecedented scale that will take audiences to unforgettable new heights. Global Creatures CEO, Carmen Pavlovic, explained “Working with DreamWorks has brought us into a relationship with one of the world's leading entertainment companies. The collaboration fuses our own world-class technology with the vision and dedication of a company renowned for its cutting-edge creativity and storytelling skill. We are excited to expand the boundaries of public expectation by creating a show that combines dynamic creatures, world class performers and incredible staging to not only thrill and intrigue, but to engage audiences on an emotional level as well." The live production is inspired by the phenomenally successful 2010 DreamWorks Animation film How To Train Your Dragon, which grossed approximately US $500 million at the worldwide box office and was among the best-reviewed movies of 2010. In the How to Train Your Dragon Arena Spectacular, audiences across the globe will have the unique opportunity to experience the world of How to Train Your Dragon in a one-of-a-kind, live theatrical event that promises to break every rule of traditional arena entertainment. In this state-of-the-art production, fire-breathing dragons will soar overhead, immersing audiences in a magical and mythical world of Vikings and Dragons. The astonishing cast of characters features 24 Dragons, some with wingspans of up to 14 metres, Viking warriors and villagers as well as world-class circus and acrobatic performers. The arena spectacular will feature unrivalled production values, projections, flying, stunts, circus performers, fire and pyrotechnics. In one of the largest theatrical arena productions ever to go on tour, the How to Train Your Dragon Arena Spectacular will require a phenomenal 40 semi-trailers to transport the production whilst on the road around the world. The How to Train Your Dragon Arena Spectacular rolls fire-breathing action, epic adventure and laughs into a captivating and original story that is set in the mythical world of burly Vikings and wild dragons, and is based on the book by Cressida Cowell. It centres on Hiccup, a Viking teenager who doesn’t fit in with his tribe’s longstanding tradition of heroic dragon slayers. Hiccup’s world is turned upside down when he encounters a dragon that challenges him and his fellow Vikings to see the world from an entirely different point of view. The Dragons in the How To Train Your Dragon Arena Spectacular have been created by Sonny Tilders and his team at The Creature Technology Company (Melbourne, Australia), whose previous work brought to life the stunning, lifelike dinosaurs in Walking With Dinosaurs – The Arena Spectacular. Included in the cast of 24 Dragons are reincarnations of all of the favourites from the DreamWorks Animation film: Nadder, Gronckle, Nightmare, Toothless - the Night Fury and Red Death, which is the single largest animatronic creature ever made by The Creature Technology Company. Creature Designer Tilders said “The How To Train Your Dragon Arena Spectacular will incorporate everything we learned from "Walking With Dinosaurs – The Arena Spectacular" whilst taking the technology to a brand new level. Using state-of-the-art computer software, we are able to make these creatures perform in ways that we previously thought unimaginable. Utilising computer controlled flying systems we have created a show that inhabits the air above as well as the arena floor below.” The creative team features the World’s best and includes: highly acclaimed theatre director andwriter Nigel Jamieson, multiple award-winning Australian production designer Peter England, and leading theatre, film and opera designer Dan Potra amongst others. The stunning score features compositions from Icelandic singer-songwriter Jonsi from Sigur Ros and Oscar-nominated British film composer John Powell who created the original score for the Academy Award nominated feature film How to Train Your Dragon. The How to Train Your Dragon Arena Spectacular is proudly presented in New Zealand by NZ Entertainment & Events Corporation Limited. NZEEC is New Zealand’s leading live entertainment company who recently brought “Walking With Dinosaurs – The Arena Spectacular” to unprecedented acclaim at Vector Arena. Bruce Mactaggart – the man who conceived the concept of “Walking With Dinosaurs – The Arena Spectacular” – the first global arena spectacular, is the Executive Chairman of NZEEC. To be the first to know all the latest How to Train Your Dragon Arena Spectacular news and to register for tickets as soon as they become available, go to HOW TO TRAIN YOUR DRAGON – ARENA SPECTACULAR CAST OF CHARACTERS THE DRAGONS: NIGHT FURY The rarest and most intelligent of the dragon species, the Night Fury is distinguished by its dark colour and piercing eyes, as well as its smaller size, heavy chest and short neck. Possessing the largest wing-to-body ratio of all dragons, it can fly higher, faster and longer than any dragon. GRONCKLE The Gronkle is distinguished by its robust body and relatively tiny wings that can flap with tremendous velocity, endowing it with the ability to fly backwards or sideways. While attacking, the Gronkle smashes and crushes enemies with its extendable tail, or by using its head as a battering ram. NADDER Don’t be fooled, because the beautifully coloured Nadder is also extremely dangerous. It is flighty, aggressive, and has a quick and explosive temper, which is made all the worse by its preening vanity. NIGHTMARE The flagship of the dragon species, the Nightmare is the most visually terrifying and iconic of known dragon species. Its greatest weapon is a kerosene gel fire. THE VIKINGS: HICCUP It’s not easy being the brainy son of a brawny Viking Chief, but Hiccup is too smart to waste time feeling sorry for himself – he’s going to become a Viking warrior his own way. Unfortunately, in the crude world of Vikings, Hiccup’s sophisticated observations and wry sense of humour only serve to make him even more of an outsider. When Hiccup befriends his vicious enemy, an injured wild dragon, he begins an exhilarating and complicated double life. ASTRID Striking, energetic and tough, Astrid embodies the Viking way. Her competitive, determined persona makes her hard to impress, but Hiccup can’t help but be smitten. When Hiccup begins to show the strain of leading his secret double life, Astrid is the first to become suspicious. STOICK Stoick is the old-school chieftain of the brawny Viking tribe. A reluctant and confused parent at best, he doesn’t understand his clever son. Hoping to bring out the man in his boy, Stoick sends Hiccup into Dragon training, a dangerous test of battle strength. GOBBER Gruff, grump, and crass, Gobber is the seasoned warrior appointed to drill the new recruits. Gobber means well, but he’s full of bad advice, which he dispenses freely and comically. HOW TO TRAIN YOUR DRAGON – ARENA SPECTACULAR FUN FACTS Number of Dragons: 24 Dragons 10 Different Species Represented 5 Large Dragons Nadder – Height at shoulder 4m x 12m long & wingspan of 9m Gronckle – Height at shoulder 3m x 7.5m long & wingspan of 5m Nightmare - Height at shoulder 3.5m x 15.5m long & wingspan of 14m Night Fury (Toothless) – Height at shoulder 2.5m X 8.5m long & wingspan of 10m Red Death – Head and neck total length 12m+, head 5m wide and 6m long, tail is 20m long 7 Flying Dragons 3 x additional Night Furys (Toothless) – at various scales 2 x Gronckle – 3m long with 2m wing span 1 x Nightmare – 4m long x 6m wingspan 1 x Skrill - 4m long x 6m wingspan Suits and Puppets 2 Skrills – 2.5m tall x 4.3m long+ 4 Wrestling Dragons Suits - 2m long 2 Stinger suit puppets – 2m at hips tall x 4.5m long 1 Kite dragon – 2m wingspan Multiple nesting dragons (Zipplebacks) 1 Egg Biter Multiple shadow puppets 2 wrestling puppets Each large dragon contains: 132 metres of hydraulic hose 90 square metres of fabric 12.2 cubic metres of foam 200 litres of paint 7 kilowatts of power from 16 truck batteries 1 kilometre of cabling in each body 24 microprocessors control movement along with 15 hydraulic rams and 6 hydraulic motors each Each large dragon: Weighs 1.6 tons (standard family car) Takes 3 people to operate: 1 Driver and 2 Voodoo Puppeteers, one operates head and tail gross motion, one in charge of minor movements: mouth, blinking & roars Trucks: 40 x 53 foot semis trailers (truck is 22.3m long with cabin) for the World Tour The touring company is made up of: 80 touring cast and crew THE PRODUCERS DreamWorks Theatricals – Producer DreamWorks Theatricals, a division of DreamWorks Animation SKG, Inc., was established in 2007 to develop and produce live stage and arena show productions inspired by the Company’s franchise properties of How to Train Your Dragon, Kung Fu Panda, Madagascar and Shrek. Current productions – including "How to Train Your Dragon Arena Spectacular" and "Kung Fu Panda Arena Spectacular" – are one-of-a-kind, global tours and immersive entertainment experiences for the whole family. DreamWorks Theatricals productions are guided by much of the creative leadership team that develops the studio’s award-winning feature films. DreamWorks Animation creates high-quality entertainment, including CG animated feature films, television specials and series and live entertainment properties, meant for audiences around the world. The Company has theatrically released a total of 22 animated feature films and currently ranks #10 on the “100 Best Companies to Work For” by FORTUNE' Magazine. Global Creatures – Producer Global Creatures is an international entertainment group that develops new and exciting theatrical productions to take to audiences around the world. The animatronics arm, The Creature Technology Company, invents and deploys the latest in animatronic design. The hugely successful production "Walking with Dinosaurs - The Arena Spectacular", based on the award winning BBC TV series, represents a new entertainment genre all on its own. The production is a spectacle of unprecedented size and quality, which captivates young and old alike. The "Walking with Dinosaurs" tour was the number one tour worldwide in 2010. Global Creatures has announced "King Kong - Live on Stage", which will be produced in co-operation with the estate of "Kong" creator Merian C. Cooper. Global Creatures and Bazmark (the multi-media company founded and owned by Baz Luhrmann and Catherine Martin) have announced a partnership to produce a stage musical adaptation of the first movie of Baz Luhrmann's ground-breaking Red Curtain Trilogy, Strictly Ballroom. THE CREATIVE TEAM Nigel Jamieson – Director/Adaption for the Stage Nigel began his career in London, where he founded Trickster Theatre, whose work toured the world for eight years. He was an associate director at the Royal National Theatre, founded the London Festival of New Circus and the London International Workshop Festival, receiving a Greater London Arts Award for outstanding contribution to London’s Arts. Moving to Australia in the 90’s, he directed Tin Symphony for the Sydney 2000 Olympic Opening Ceremony and created eight segments for the worldwide 24 hour Millennium Broadcast. The following year he co-directed The Yeperenye Federation Festival, a historic gathering in central Australia involving some 2000 indigenous performers from 40 different language groups. In 2002 he directed the Closing Ceremony of Commonwealth Games in Manchester, then created a performance and land mine benefit at Ankor Wat in Cambodia with Jose Carreras, 400 Buddist monks and the Royal National Cambodian Dance Troupe. From 2003 to 2005 he was Artistic Director of the Opening and Closing Ceremonies of the Melbourne Commonwealth Games, doing the development phase of the event. More recently he directed the opening of the European City of Culture celebrations in Liverpool, creating an outdoor ‘Peoples Opening’ involving the people of Liverpool and iconic Liverpool artists, and the inaugural show for the new Liverpool Arena. In addition to such large scale projects, Nigel’s theatre work tours the world. It includes multi-award winning shows such as the Indonesian collaboration The Theft of Sita, All Of Me, and Wake Baby which have all toured extensively throughout Australia, Asia and the US, including major festivals and seasons in London, New York, Berlin, Vienna, Zurich, Shanghai and Singapore. Honour Bound, his 1997 production about Guantanamo Bay, was named Best Mainstage Production and Best New Australian Work at the 2006 Sydney Theatre Awards and has toured to festivals in Vienna, Amsterdam and the Barbican Centre London. Later that year, his production of the Opera Dead Man Walking at the State Theatre in Sydney received seven Helpmann nominations and three awards. More recent projects include Minutes of Separation for the IWC Switzerland, which featured Cate Blanchett, Joseph Fiennes and combined film, aerialists, live performance and animation; Gallipoli for the Sydney Theatre Company; and direction of The Sydney Festival First Night, which involved closing the CBD to traffic and transforming the city into an epic performance space, attended by over 350,000 people. His production of As The World Tipped, about the effects of climate change, premiered at Norwich& Norfolk Festival and is currently touring the UK. Nigel’s contributions to Australian cultural life have been recognised with the award of an Australian Federation Medal in 2002 and the 2007 Sydney Myer Individual Performing Arts Award. He won a 2011 Helpmann Awardas Best Director for his production of Opera Australia’s La Fanciulla del West Sonny Tilders – Creature Designer Sonny Tilders has spent the last 21 years designing and building animatronics creatures for film and theatrical industries. With formal training in graphic design, he graduated from Swinburne University, Melbourne in 1988. Sonny worked the following 10 years at Australia’s foremost models and effects company, Mothers Art Productions, based in Melbourne. He left his Senior Project Management role in 1998 to pursue his interests in the specialized field of “animatronics”, the world of high-tech puppet making for film, television and theatre. Sonny’s work can be seen in US feature films such as Peter Pan, Ghostrider, The Chronicles of Narnia and Star Wars -The Revenge of the Sith. His television credits include the US science fiction series Farscape as Lead Animatronics Engineer. Working with the resources of the Jim Henson’s Creature Shop was an opportunity to develop his animatronics skills further and fuelled his passion for this niche industry. Although focusing on film and television, Sonny has also built puppets for Australian theatrical touring productions of The Hobbit and The Lion the Witch and the Wardrobe. In late 2005 Sonny was approached to lead a workshop whose main focus was to design, engineer and build the animatronics dinosaurs for "Walking with Dinosaurs – The Arena Spectacular". The success of this venture lead to the formation of The Creature Technology Company (CTC) and the Global Creatures group. Sonny is Creative Director of CTC and sits on the Global Creatures board. Peter England – Production Designer Peter England received a Bachelor of Performing Arts in Design, National Institute of Dramatic Art, 1994, and a Bachelor of Landscape Architecture (Hons.), University of New South Wales, 1986. He has won multiple awards including: Helpmann Award for Best Set Design in 2001, 2002 and 2004, Green Room Award for Best Opera Design in 1998 and 2002, Green Room Award for best Dance Design, 2005. In 1997 he won a Mike Walsh Fellowship and he was a finalist in the Pentagon Memorial Design Competition (with Room 4.1.3) in 2002. Peter has designed over 50 event and theatrical productions including: For Bangarra Dance Theatre: Fire, Mathinna, Boomerang (Green Room Award 2005), Unaipon (Helpmann Award 2004), Bush, Walkabout, Skin and Fish. For Opera Australia: Sweeney Todd (Helpmann Award 2002, Green Room Award 2003), Simon Boccanegra, La Bohème and Madama Butterfly (Green Room Award 1998). For The Australian Ballet: Amalgamate, Aesthetic Arrest and The Rite of Spring. For the Shakespeare Theatre (Washington DC): Titus Andronicus, Richard III and Hamlet. For Sydney Theatre Company: Victory, The Virgin Mim, The School for Scandal and Betrayal, and Tot Mom. For the Atlanta 1996 Olympic Closing Ceremony: Sydney Handover. For the 2004 Adelaide Festival of Arts: Universal Playground. For the Sydney 2000 Olympic Opening Ceremony: Awakenings (Helpmann Award 2001). For the Victorian Opera: Orpheus and Eurydice. For Global Creatures: Walking With Dinosaurs The Arena Spectacular. And for the City of Sydney: Millennium NYE Celebrations on and around Sydney Harbour. Peter is currently designing sets for the Global Creatures stage production of King Kong, and Bloodland, a new Australian work for the Sydney Theatre Company. Dan Potra – Costume Designer and Projection Designer Dan works across theatre, opera, dance, film, television and events. Dan’s career highlights in the different mediums are: Opera productions; Idomeneo with Graeme Vicks at Coruna Festival in Spain, The Barber of Seville for Houston Grand Opera, A Streetcar Named Desire and Norma at St Gallen, Carmen, Batavia, Jenufa and The Love of the Nightingale at Opera Australia, Love in the Age of Therapy and Orlando at OzOpera, La Boheme at Berlin Staatsopera and Idomeneo with Pinchgut Opera. Theatre productions: The Bourgeois Gentleman, Fred, Volpone and The Miser for Sydney Theatre Company; Les Liaisons Dangereuses for Melbourne Theatre Company; Twelfth Night for Bell Shakespeare Company; The Lieutenant of Inishmore, Hamlet and King Ubu for Company B Belvoir; The Love of the Nightingale, The Importance of Being Earnest, Merrily We Roll Along and Moon Landing all for Derby Playhouse in England; Dead Man Walking for Andrew MacManus Presents; Seven for Leigh Warren Dancers; Bubble for Legs on the Wall; The Gathering, an arena show, for 2009 Edinburgh Festival and Cyrano de Bergerac for National Theatre of Greece. Event work includes the Opening Ceremony of the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games, the opening ceremony of the 2006 Melbourne Commonwealth Games and the 2008 opening and closing ceremonies of the Liverpool European Capital of Culture directed by Nigel Jamieson. This ceremony involved the creation of hand drawn one-off animations projected over huge spaces in Liverpool and 13 regional centres in the UK. Dan was nominated for an Australian Film Institute (AFI) Award for Best Production Design in 2004 for feature film Tom White directed by Alkinos Tsilimidos. Dan has been nominated for a total of five Helpmann Awards for his design work in opera and theatre in Australia and has won three including Best Scenic Design (2008), Best Opera (2002) and Best Costume (2000). Dan also designed the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2010 Delhi Commonwealth Games and worked with the creative team for the opening of the 2010 World Cup. Gavin Robins - Associate Director/Aerialist Devisor Gavin draws inspiration from a broad spectrum of theatre and performance experience. His work focuses on the biomechanics of the actor and the animation of the actor for both stage and screen. He has toured internationally as a physical performer with Legs on the Wall and has created large-scale visual and aerial performances in many theatre festivals throughout the world. He was instrumental in the training and choreography of the Tin Symphony in the Opening Ceremony of the 2000 Olympics. Currently Gavin is working as the aerial/circus director of the Global Creatures production of King Kong scheduled to open in Australia in 2013. As director, his credits include High Flyers for the Sydney Festival , The Opening of Ferrari World, At First Sight for the National Institute of Circus Arts and Wicked Bodies , La Boite Theatre Co . As Movement Director and Choreographer, he has worked for The Sydney Theatre Company , Opera Australia, The Queensland Theatre Company, Company B , and The Bell Shakespeare Company amongst others. For Television and Film, his credits as movement director include Farscape Series 2, the 2001, 2002 and 2004 ARIA Awards, The AFI Awards, and Australian Idol (Series 1, 2 and 3); Australian feature film Prime Mover and the TV series Spirited. Gavin is a teacher of movement and acting at a host of Australia’s leading performance training institutions. Jonsi – Composer Jón þor Birgisson is the lead singer with the Icelandic rock group Sigur Rós, a band he started back in 1994, naming them for his then-new kid sister, Sigurrós. Jónsi has released and toured the world in support of five studio albums with Sigur Rós, as well as a raft of side projects, including the Icelandic documentary film 'Heima', the Merce Cunningham dance collaboration 'Babatikidido' and the ambient work 'Riceboy Sleeps'. In 2010 he released and toured his first solo album 'Go'. Jónsi is now working on a sixth Sigur Rós studio album at home in Reykjavik. John Powell – Composer British-born composer John Powell’s list of film credits exemplifies his ability to transcend genre. Since moving to the United States 13 years ago, he has demonstrated his unique talent by scoring over 46 feature films, including Chicken Run, Shrek, Mr and Mrs Smith, United 93, X-Men: The Last Stand, P.S. I Love You, and Alfie with Dave Stewart and Mick Jagger. Powell’s ability to compose in a variety of genres stems from the wide array of styles present in his early musical studies. By the time he reached his late teens, he had already been exposed to soul, jazz, rock and world music as well as having a deep classical music background from the age of seven courtesy of his father, a musician in Sir Thomas Beecham’s Royal Philharmonic Orchestra in London. In 1986, he began studies in Composition at London’s Trinity College of Music. During his time there, his skill was recognized with both the John Halford and the Boosey and Hawkes Bursary Music College Prizes. While at Trinity, Powell studied composition, percussion, electronic music, and experimented within the new medium of performance art. He joined the group Media Arts, and with longtime collaborator Gavin Greenaway, composed music and sound for the group’s performances. Although the group disbanded, Powell and Greenaway continued to create many mixed-media installation pieces with artist Michael Petry in the following years. Powell’s first foray into professional composing came soon thereafter, when he landed a job writing music for commercials and television at London's Air-Edel Music. There, he met other composers including other Air-Edel alumni, Hans Zimmer and Patrick Doyle. Later, with Greenaway, the two co-founded London-based commercial music house Independently Thinking Music (ITM), where they collaborated on more than 100 scores for commercials and independent films. Powell shifted his focus away from commercials to longer form composition with the opera “An Englishman, Irishman and Frenchman,” also co-created with Greenaway and Petry. Arriving in the States in 1997, he immediately scored two DreamWorks TV projects: the second season of Steven Spielberg's High Incident and the pilot For the People. He also arranged songs composed by Stephen Schwartz for DreamWorks' animated feature Prince of Egypt (1998). But it was Powell's hair-raising score for John Woo’s Nicolas Cage/John Travolta blockbuster Face/Off that garnered critical acclaim and catapulted him into the realm of A-list composers. Error! Reference source not the recipient of the Ivor Novello Award from the British Academy of Composers and Songwriters for Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs. He was nominated for an Academy Award in 2011 for his score for How To Train Your Dragon. Peter Hylenski - Sound Designer Grammy, Tony and Olivier Award nominated. Selected Broadway designs include: Shrek the Musical (New York, London, US Tour), Rock of Ages (New York, London, Toronto, Australia, US Tour), The Scottsboro Boys, Lend Me A Tenor, Elf, Wonderland, Cry Baby, The Times They Are A-Changin’, The Wedding Singer, Sweet Charity, Martin Short: Fame Becomes Me, Little Women, Brooklyn. Other credits: Le Reve at Wynn Las Vegas, Ragtime (London), Walking with Dinosaurs, Mame, Opening Doors, Annie. He’s designed for Carnegie Hall, Radio City Music Hall, Madison Square Garden and The Kennedy Center. Architectural projects include the Plaza Hotel (New York City), Wynn (Las Vegas), Chicago Auditorium Theater and the American Museum of Natural History. Peter is also a producer and engineer for film, album and television projects. He’s engineered television commercials for Levi’s, General Mills, Kia and Mercedes Benz, to name a few. Peter co-produced the cast album of Shrek The Musical and was the re-record mixer on his fourth film for the American Museum of Natural History titled Journey to the Stars. He holds a BFA from Carnegie Mellon University. Phil Lethlean - Lighting Designer Philip is the principal designer for Melbourne-based 'Light Designs Australia'. His 20+ years of experience is founded in theatre and extends to designing lighting for all art forms and genres, and his works have consistently enjoyed Australian and International touring. Philip's work has encompassed lighting designs for everything from launches and conferences for such major corporate entities as BHP, Holden, BMW, Glaxo Wellcome and ACER, to high profile events like the 2006 Commonwealth Games Opening Ceremony in Melbourne and the Australian Pavilions at World Expo 2005 and 201
              This Year’s National Fishery Day Celebrated in Battambang Province   
    AKP Phnom Penh, July 01, 2017 – Cambodia marks this morning the 15th National Fishery Day in Battambang province under the presidency of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Interior Samdech Kralahom Sar Kheng. More than 5,500 people who are Senate, National Assembly and Government members, foreign ambassadors accredited to Cambodia, representatives of national and [...]
              Senior Minister Prak Sokhonn Attends a Reception to Mark the 150th Canada National Day   
    AKP Phnom Penh, July 01, 2017 – Cambodia’s Senior Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation H.E. Prak Sokhonn (pic. 1) addresses the participants while he was attending a reception to celebrate the 150th Canada National Day held at Hotel Le Royal, Phnom Penh on June 30. Photo: Ministry of Foreign Affairs
              Embassy of Pakistan Donates Office Equipment to Cambodian Foreign Ministry   
    AKP Phnom Penh, July 01, 2017 – Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the Kingdom of Cambodia donates necessary office equipment, including 10 sets of computer, 5 printers, 5 scanners and a photocopier, to the Cambodian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, in a ceremony held here on June 29. Photo: Khem [...]
              Mango Export to EU May Double Next Year   
    AKP Phnom Penh, June 30, 2017 – The export of Cambodia’s fresh mangoes to the EU markets would see a double increase next year, according to Mong Reththy Group. For the 2017-2018 period, about 500 tons of Cambodia’s mangoes were ordered for the EU market, said Okhna Mong Reththy, Founder and President of Mong Reththy Group. The [...]
              Phnom Penh SEZ Plc, UNDP Sign Cooperation MoU for Sustainable Development Goals   
    AKP Phnom Penh, June 30, 2017 – Phnom Penh Special Economic Zone (SEZ) Plc, a leading industrial zone developer and operator in Cambodia, and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have agreed to cooperate in social works toward the realisation of sustainable development goals.  A MoU on their cooperation was inked here yesterday between Mrs. Lim Chhiv Ho, [...]
              DPM Sar Kheng Presides over Recapitulative Meeting on Traffic Law Implementation   
    AKP Phnom Penh, June 30, 2017 – Deputy Prime Minister Samdech Kralahom Sar Kheng (Front, pic. 1), Minister of Interior and Chairman of National Road Safety Committee of Cambodia, presides over here this afternoon a meeting to review the implementation of Traffic Law in the first semester of this year. Photo: Khem Sovannara
              Cambodian Commerce Minister Holds Talks with Australian Ambassador   
    AKP Phnom Penh, June 30, 2017 – H.E. Pan Sarasak (2nd R, pic. 1) Cambodia’s Minister of Commerce, meets here on June 29 with H.E. Angela Corcoran (2nd L, pic. 1), Ambassador of Australia to Cambodia, in Phnom Penh on June 29. Photo: Khem Sovannara  
              H.E. Pan Sorasak Meets U.S. Ambassador   
    AKP Phnom Penh, June 30, 2017 – Cambodia’s Minister of Commerce H.E. Pan Sarasak (R, pic. 1) holds a discussion with H.E. William A. Heidt, U.S. Ambassador to Cambodia, at the ministry office in Phnom Penh on June 29. Photo: Khem Sovannara    
              Cambodian Commerce Minister Receives Senior ADB Official   
    AKP Phnom Penh, June 30, 2017 – Cambodia’s Minister of Commerce H.E. Pan Sarasak (4th R, pic. 1) holds talks with Mr. Kelly Bird (3rd L, pic. 1), Director for Public Management, Financial Sector and Trade Division at the Asian Development Bank (ADB)’s Southeast Asia Department, in Phnom Penh on June 29. Photo: Khem Sovannara  
              Two Cambodian Senior Higher Education Leaders Receives Commendations from Japan   
    AKP Phnom Penh, June 30, 2017 – Two Cambodian senior higher education leaders are awarded with the Japanese Foreign Minister’s Commendations for their activities, said a press release from Japanese Embassy in Cambodia issued yesterday. They are H.E. Dr. Chet Chealy, Rector of the Royal University of Phnom Penh (RUPP) and H.E. Dr. Hor Peng, [...]
              World Vision Launches a Social Media Campaign   
    AKP Phnom Penh, June 30, 2017 – “#ForChildrenForChangeForLife” is a social media campaign launched here today by World Vision as a part of an ongoing effort to address the public on important issues for the well-being of children in Cambodia. According to a World Vision’s press release AKP received this morning, this is a series [...]
              H.E. Khieu Kanharith Receives a Cam Post Executive Director   
    AKP Phnom Penh, June 30, 2017— Cambodia’s Minister of Information H.E. Khieu Kanharith (L, Pic. 1) greets Mr. Sreng Dara, Chief Executive Officer of CAM POST NEWS, prior to the courtesy meeting here this morning. Photo: Suos Savy
              Cambodian Finance Minister Receives AMRO Delegation   
    AKP Phnom Penh, June 30, 2017 – Cambodia’s Senior Minister H.E. Aun Porn Moniroth, Minister of Economy and Finance received here on Wednesday this week a delegation of ASEAN+3 Macroeconomic Research Office (AMRO) led by its Director Dr. Junhong Chang. According to the ministry’s news release, this is the 6th visit of AMRO to Cambodia [...]
              RESULT TOGEL CAMBODIA 01 JULI2017   

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              Cambodian (Khmer) Interpreters - LanguageLine Solutions - Canada   
    Ability to explain cultural concepts to avoid miscommunication, and to act as a cultural broker. Job....
    From LanguageLine Solutions - Fri, 23 Jun 2017 09:21:33 GMT - View all Canada jobs
              Try Garcinia Cambodia completely FREE!!   
    This is an amazing offer for the hottest new weight loss supplement, Garcinia Cambodia. This product has been proven to give miraculous results and it's completely FREE at no risk to you. Try it out and see how it works for you!
              Comment on Live Consciously. Be Authentic. Empower Others. by Donna   
    Hi Robin,I recently foudend an organization called Someone's Child. Our goal is to empower moms to use their unique gifting to combat human trafficking., We believe moms are the most under-utilized group and yet, they are the ones speaking into the next generation of abolitionists,AND, two of us (myself and one of my co-founders) are heading to Cambodia to visit Transitions Global in August!I would love to talk with you all. We are going to host a community-wide Kids Clothing Swap in early September, along with booths that bring awareness to our purchasing power as moms and slavery in the supply chain.It would be wonderful if you all could perhaps join us!?!?Look forward to future conversations with you. And come like us on Facebook!!Warmly,Carrie KubaFounder, Someone's ChildEngage. Act. End Human Trafficking.
              24 Minutes Teaser   

    Back Jauer is away teaching Cambodian childrenthe art of wallet making. New episodes starting next Monday. Explosive episodes.

              Cambodian (Khmer) Interpreters - LanguageLine Solutions - Canada   
    English, upholding correct rules of grammar, clarity and tone, from one. Job....
    From LanguageLine Solutions - Fri, 23 Jun 2017 09:21:33 GMT - View all Canada jobs
              2 Indian filmmakers win International CineFest '17 honour   

    [India], July 1 (ANI): In a rare feat, two of the Indian filmmakers have walked home with the Hollywood International CineFest 2017 awards.

    Rakesh Kumar's 'After Ever After' won the Best Feature (English) category, while BidyutKotoky's 'Rainbow Fields' won the Best Feature (Foreign) category.

    The festival, held at AMC Sunset 5, 8000 Sunset Blvd, Los Angeles from June 24-25, received over 400 submissions and films from the U.S., the U.K., France, China, South Korea, Cambodia and Hong Kong besides India.

    The official selection included World Premieres of 'Easy Money' and the North America Premieres of 'Before The Fall' (Cambodia's entry to 2017 Oscars) & Sam Heughan's 'Emulsion.'

    "While very different from each other, there are some striking similarities between 'After Ever After' and 'Rainbow Fields'," said Zack Zublena, Festival Director.

    "Both the films have a particular emotional appeal, both have a child as one of the leads and both used colors in a very cinematic way. We are very proud of these two film-makers whose art truly transcends geographical limits," Zublena added.

    To decide the winner, the festival looked to the audience and ballots were given out at each film's screening and five audience members per screening were asked to rate the film on a scale of one to ten.

    In Rakesh Kumar's debut feature, the protagonist, Nik Patel struggles to cope with the terminal illness of his nine-year-old daughter.

    Based on his personal experiences, the film is a story of human endurance against insurmountable odds.

    "All human beings are born fighters and true fighters pick up the sword even when defeat is nearly certain," quips Rakesh. (ANI)

              The Call Box: The King and I   
    It is about 1960 and I am a policeman working Metro, the division that seems to do a little of everything. This day, I have been assigned uniformed security for the King of Cambodia.
              Final IST Events!   
    Hey ISSAers! We’re now reaching the end of the semester and will be having our final events tomorrow, Tuesday May 6th. We’ll be having the anticipated Jane Bussmann show at 5:00 in HSCI 105, closely followed by our annual IST banquet at 6:30 at Sophy’s Fine Thai & Cambodian Cuisine. For more information on the…
              7 Days on the Mekong: How the Saddest River in Asia Made Me Smile   

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    The Mekong River, for those of a certain generation, flows with melancholy. The mental images it conjures are as clear today as when they were broadcast over Walter Cronkite’s shoulder on the Evening News 50 years ago.

    But I was curious about Vietnam and Cambodia. I had heard from other travelers that they were fascinating and welcoming destinations. So, I decided to take a cruise on the Mekong. The itinerary would take us from the Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam to Kampong Cham, Cambodia, some 328 serpentine miles north. As I suspected, the trip would prove to be an eye-opener.